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Sample records for supergiant stars

  1. UV chromospheric and circumstellar diagnostic features among F supergiant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stencel, R. E.; Worden, S. P.; Giampapa, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of F supergiant stars to evaluate the extension of chromospheric and circumstellar characteristics commonly observed in the slightly cooler G, K, and M supergiant is discussed. An ultraviolet survey was elected since UV features of Mg II and Fe II might persist in revealing outer atmosphere phenomena even among F supergiants. The encompassed spectral types F0 to G0, and luminosity classes Ib, Ia, and Ia-0. In addition, the usefulness of the emission line width-to-luminosity correlation for the G-M stars in both the Ca II and Mg II lines is examined.

  2. Magnetic main sequence stars as progenitors of blue supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petermann, I.; Castro, N.; Langer, N.

    2015-01-01

    Blue supergiants (BSGs) to the right the main sequence band in the HR diagram can not be reproduced by standard stellar evolution calculations. We investigate whether a reduced convective core mass due to strong internal magnetic fields during the main sequence might be able to recover this population of stars. We perform calculations with a reduced mass of the hydrogen burning convective core of stars in the mass range 3-30 M ⊙ in a parametric way, which indeed lead to BSGs. It is expected that these BSGs would still show large scale magnetic fields in the order of 10 G.

  3. Model atmospheres for cool supergiant stars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, D. R.; Johnson, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    The results of an exploratory grid of model atmospheres for cool giant stars are used to illustrate the effect of varying the chemical composition of the atmosphere. The effects of composition changes (depletion of C and O, enrichment of N, and increase in the ratio C/O), which might be expected from processing of the original material of a star through the CNO cycle of nuclear burning, are studied. The models also include the important CN opacity. They are illustrated by giving several representative T-P and T-tau diagrams, spectral energy curves, and column density tables of molecules.

  4. Quantitative spectroscopy of OB stars: from dwarfs to supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybilla, N.; Nieva, M. F.; Firnstein, M.; Butler, K.

    2013-02-01

    We discuss recent progress made in the spectral modelling of OB stars from the main sequence to evolved phases as BA-type supergiants. Non-LTE line-formation computations can now reproduce observed spectra over the entire optical and near-IR wavelength range with high confidence, facilitating stellar atmospheric parameters and elemental abundances to be determined at high accuracy and precision. An overview is given how the fundamental stellar parameters of single stars determined in our new approach compare to high-precision data derived from detached eclipsing massive binary stars. Finally, the observational constraints for a sample of Galactic objects are put in context with state-of-the-art evolution models for rotating massive stars.

  5. Outer atmospheres of giant and supergiant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A.

    1984-01-01

    The properties of the chromospheres, transition regions and coronas of cool evolved stars are reviewed based primarily on recent ultraviolet and X-ray studies. Determinations of mass loss rates using new observational techniques in the ultraviolet and radio spectral regions are discussed and observations indicating general atmospheric motions are considered. The techniques available for the quantitative modeling of these atmospheres are outlined and recent results discussed. Finally, the current rudimentary understanding of the evolution of these outer atmospheres and its causes are considered.

  6. Supergiant pulses from extragalactic neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, J. M.; Wasserman, Ira

    2016-03-01

    We consider radio bursts that originate from extragalactic neutron stars (NSs) by addressing three questions about source distances. What are the physical limitations on coherent radiation at GHz frequencies? Do they permit detection at cosmological distances? How many bursts per NS are needed to produce the inferred burst rate ˜103-104sky-1 d-1? The burst rate is comparable to the NS formation rate in a Hubble volume, requiring only one per NS if they are bright enough. Radiation physics suggests a closer population, requiring more bursts per NS and increasing the chances for repeats. Bursts comprise sub-ns, coherent shot pulses superposed incoherently to produce ms-duration ˜1 Jy amplitudes; each shot pulse can be much weaker than 1 Jy, placing less restrictive requirements on the emission process. None the less, single shot pulses are similar to the extreme, unresolved (<0.4 ns) MJy shot pulse seen from the Crab pulsar, consistent with coherent curvature radiation emitted near the light cylinder by an almost neutral clump with net charge ˜± 1021e and total energy ≳ 1023 erg. Bursts from Gpc distances require incoherent superposition of {˜ } 10^{12}d_Gpc^2 shot pulses or a total energy ≳ 10^{35} d_Gpc^2 erg. The energy reservoir near the light cylinder limits the detection distance to ≲ few × 100 Mpc for a fluence ˜1 Jy ms unless conditions are more extreme than for the Crab pulsar, such as in magnetars. We discuss contributions to dispersion measures from galaxy clusters and we propose tests for the overall picture presented.

  7. Spectroscopic Analysis of the Supergiant Star HD 54605

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, L.; Rosenzweig, P.; Guzmán, E.; Hearnshaw, J.

    2009-05-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to analyze a high resolution spectrum of the supergiant star HD 54605, obtained in the year 2003, with a CCD coupled with the spectrograph HERCULES, attached to the 1m reflector telescope of Mt. John Observatory of the University of Canterbury (New Zealand). This spectrum covers the region λλ ≈ 4505-7080Å, with R = 41000 and a dispersion of ≈ 2Å/mm. According to previous spectroscopic observations, of low dispersion, the radial velocity of this star showed that it does not vary in periods of time relatively short. Until the present, we have identified five hundred photospheric lines, from which, with no doubt, we will obtain a satisfactory result that will give an important contribution to the database of the values of the radial velocity of HD 54605. We observe that Hβ, shows a relatively wide and deep profile and is in complete absorption.

  8. Detection of a red supergiant progenitor star of a type II-plateau supernova.

    PubMed

    Smartt, Stephen J; Maund, Justyn R; Hendry, Margaret A; Tout, Christopher A; Gilmore, Gerard F; Mattila, Seppo; Benn, Chris R

    2004-01-23

    We present the discovery of a red supergiant star that exploded as supernova 2003gd in the nearby spiral galaxy M74. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Gemini Telescope imaged this galaxy 6 to 9 months before the supernova explosion, and subsequent HST images confirm the positional coincidence of the supernova with a single resolved star that is a red supergiant of 8(+4)(-2) solar masses. This confirms both stellar evolution models and supernova theories predicting that cool red supergiants are the immediate progenitor stars of type II-plateau supernovae.

  9. On The Explosion Geometry of Red Supergiant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Douglas C.; Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project (SNSPOL)

    2016-06-01

    From progenitor studies, type II-Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P) have been decisively and uniquely determined to arise from isolated red supergiant (RSG) stars, establishing the most homogeneous --- and well understood --- progenitor class of any type of core-collapse supernova. The physical process by which these stars explode, however, remains a mystery. A fundamental clue to the nature of the explosion mechanism is explosion geometry: In short, are supernovae round? Because young supernova atmospheres are electron-scattering dominated, their net linear polarization provides a direct probe of early-time supernova geometry, with higher degrees of polarization generally indicating greater departures from spherical symmetry. This presentation will describe the ongoing work being carried out on RSG explosion geometry by the SuperNova SpectroPOLarimetry project (SNSPOL), with a particular focus on SN 2013ej -- an SN II-P that exhibited remarkably high polarization just days after the explosion, and for which twelve epochs of spectropolarimetry trace an intriguing tale about its geometry deep into the nebular phase.We acknowledge support from NSF grants AST-1009571 and AST-1210311, under which part of this research was carried out.

  10. On the Explosion Geometry of Red Supergiant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Douglas Christopher; Dessart, Luc; Pignata, Giuliano; Hillier, D. John; Williams, George Grant; Smith, Paul S.; Khandrika, Harish; Bilinski, Christopher; Duong, Nhieu; Flatland, Kelsi; Gonzalez, Luis; Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Horst, Chuck; Huk, Leah; Milne, Peter; Rachubo, Alisa A.; Smith, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    From progenitor studies, type II-Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P) have been decisively and uniquely determined to arise from isolated red supergiant (RSG) stars with initial masses ranging from 8 to 16 solar masses (Smartt 2009), establishing the most homogeneous -- and well understood -- progenitor class of any type of core-collapse supernova. However, we must admit a fundamental truth: We do not know how these stars explode. A basic discriminant among proposed explosion models is explosion geometry, since some models predict severe distortions from spherical symmetry. A primary method to gain such geometric information is through spectropolarimetry of the expanding (but, unresolved) atmosphere, with higher degrees of linear polarization generally demanding larger departures from spherical symmetry. Initially, as a class, SNe II-P were found to be only weakly polarized at the early epochs observed, suggesting a nearly spherical explosion for RSG stars. However, late-time observations of SN 2004dj captured a dramatic spike in polarization at just the moment the "inner core" of the ejecta was first revealed in this SN II-P (i.e., at the "drop" off of the photometric plateau; Leonard et al. 2006). This raised the possibility that the explosion of RSGs might be driven by a strongly non-spherical mechanism, with the evidence for the asphericity cloaked at early times by the massive, opaque, quasi-spherical hydrogen envelope. In this presentation we shall describe the continuing work on the explosion geometry of RSGs being carried out by the SuperNova SpectroPOLarimetry project (SNSPOL), with a particular focus on SN 2013ej -- an SN II-P that exhibited remarkably high polarization just days after the explosion (Leonard et al. 2013), and for which twelve epochs of spectropolarimetry trace an intriguing tale about its geometry deep into the nebular phase. We acknowledge support from NSF grants AST-1009571 and AST-1210311, under which part of this research was carried out.

  11. THE THIRD SIGNATURE OF GRANULATION IN BRIGHT-GIANT AND SUPERGIANT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, David F.; Pugh, Teznie

    2012-04-15

    We investigated third-signature granulation plots for 18 bright giants and supergiants and one giant of spectral classes G0 to M3. These plots reveal the net granulation velocities, averaged over the stellar disk, as a function of depth. Supergiants show significant differences from the 'standard' shape seen for lower-luminosity stars. Most notable is a striking reversal of slope seen for three of the nine supergiants, i.e., stronger lines are more blueshifted than weaker lines, opposite the solar case. Changes in the third-signature plot of {alpha} Sco (M1.5 Iab) with time imply granulation cells that penetrate only the lower portion of the photosphere. For those stars showing the standard shape, we derive scaling factors relative to the Sun that serve as a first-order measure of the strength of the granulation relative to the Sun. For G-type stars, the third-signature scale of the bright giants and supergiants is approximately 1.5 times as strong as in dwarfs, but for K stars, there in no discernible difference between higher-luminosity stars and dwarfs. Classical macroturbulence, a measure of the velocity dispersion of the granulation, increases with the third-signature-plot scale factors, but at different rates for different luminosity classes.

  12. Do All Stars Form in Clusters?: Masses and Ages of Young Supergiants in Andromeda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Zareen; Debs, C.; Kirby, E. N.; Guhathakurta, P.

    2013-01-01

    Currently it is not understood whether seemingly isolated stars formed in situ or were ejected from star clusters as runaway stars. Previous studies determined the origins of isolated stars by measuring their velocities, but past research was limited to OB stars in the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds due to the difficulty of computing velocities of distant objects. This study proposed an innovative velocity test to statistically determine whether six seemingly isolated BA-type supergiants in Andromeda are runaways. We calculated the minimum relative transverse velocity needed for each supergiant to travel to its current location from the nearest open cluster. By comparing the minimum velocity with Andromeda’s known velocity dispersion, a statistical measure of the stars’ actual velocities, we determined whether the star had the necessary velocity to be a runaway. Minimum velocity was computed from the age of the star, which was calculated from its effective temperature and surface gravity. To compute effective temperature and surface gravity, we applied three new techniques based on Balmer absorption features. The results suggest that all six supergiants had the necessary velocities to be runaways. Although the proposed velocity test is a statistical assessment, it offers a valuable new tool for future investigation of isolated stars beyond the Milky Way and its satellites. This research was supported by the Science Internship Program (SIP) at UCSC, the National Science Foundation, NASA, and Palomar Observatory.

  13. The Convection of Close Red Supergiant Stars Observed With Near-Infrared Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montargès, M.; Kervella, P.; Perrin, G.; Chiavassa, A.; Aurière, M.

    2015-12-01

    Our team has obtained observations of the photosphere of the two closest red supergiant stars Betelgeuse (α Ori) and Antares (α Sco) using near infrared interferometry. We have been monitoring the photosphere of Betelgeuse with the VLTI/PIONIER instrument for three years. On Antares, we obtained an unprecedented sampling of the visibility function. These data allow us to probe the convective photosphere of massive evolved stars.

  14. Towards a Unified View of Inhomogeneous Stellar Winds in Isolated Supergiant Stars and Supergiant High Mass X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Núñez, Silvia; Kretschmar, Peter; Bozzo, Enrico; Oskinova, Lidia M.; Puls, Joachim; Sidoli, Lara; Sundqvist, Jon Olof; Blay, Pere; Falanga, Maurizio; Fürst, Felix; Gímenez-García, Angel; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Kühnel, Matthias; Sander, Andreas; Torrejón, José Miguel; Wilms, Jörn

    2017-03-01

    Massive stars, at least ˜10 times more massive than the Sun, have two key properties that make them the main drivers of evolution of star clusters, galaxies, and the Universe as a whole. On the one hand, the outer layers of massive stars are so hot that they produce most of the ionizing ultraviolet radiation of galaxies; in fact, the first massive stars helped to re-ionize the Universe after its Dark Ages. Another important property of massive stars are the strong stellar winds and outflows they produce. This mass loss, and finally the explosion of a massive star as a supernova or a gamma-ray burst, provide a significant input of mechanical and radiative energy into the interstellar space. These two properties together make massive stars one of the most important cosmic engines: they trigger the star formation and enrich the interstellar medium with heavy elements, that ultimately leads to formation of Earth-like rocky planets and the development of complex life. The study of massive star winds is thus a truly multidisciplinary field and has a wide impact on different areas of astronomy. In recent years observational and theoretical evidences have been growing that these winds are not smooth and homogeneous as previously assumed, but rather populated by dense "clumps". The presence of these structures dramatically affects the mass loss rates derived from the study of stellar winds. Clump properties in isolated stars are nowadays inferred mostly through indirect methods (i.e., spectroscopic observations of line profiles in various wavelength regimes, and their analysis based on tailored, inhomogeneous wind models). The limited characterization of the clump physical properties (mass, size) obtained so far have led to large uncertainties in the mass loss rates from massive stars. Such uncertainties limit our understanding of the role of massive star winds in galactic and cosmic evolution. Supergiant high mass X-ray binaries (SgXBs) are among the brightest X

  15. Near-infrared spectroscopy of candidate red supergiant stars in clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messineo, Maria; Zhu, Qingfeng; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Figer, Donald F.; Davies, Ben; Menten, Karl M.; Kudritzki, Rolf P.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie

    2014-11-01

    Context. Clear identifications of Galactic young stellar clusters farther than a few kpc from the Sun are rare, despite the large number of candidate clusters. Aims: We aim to improve the selection of candidate clusters rich in massive stars with a multiwavelength analysis of photometric Galactic data that range from optical to mid-infrared wavelengths. Methods: We present a photometric and spectroscopic analysis of five candidate stellar clusters, which were selected as overdensities with bright stars (Ks< 7 mag) in GLIMPSE and 2MASS images. Results: A total of 48 infrared spectra were obtained. The combination of photometry and spectroscopy yielded six new red supergiant stars with masses from 10 M⊙ to 15 M⊙. Two red supergiants are located at Galactic coordinates (l,b) = (16.°7, -0.°63) and at a distance of about ~3.9 kpc; four other red supergiants are members of a cluster at Galactic coordinates (l,b) = (49.°3, + 0.°72) and at a distance of ~7.0 kpc. Conclusions: Spectroscopic analysis of the brightest stars of detected overdensities and studies of interstellar extinction along their line of sights are fundamental to distinguish regions of low extinction from actual stellar clusters. The census of young star clusters containing red supergiants is incomplete; in the existing all-sky near-infrared surveys, they can be identified as overdensities of bright stars with infrared color-magnitude diagrams characterized by gaps. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO Programme 60.A-9700(E), and 089.D-0876), and on observations collected at the UKIRT telescope (programme ID H243NS).MM is currently employed by the MPIfR. Part of this work was performed at RIT (2009), at ESA (2010), and at the MPIfR.Tables 3, 4, and 6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Probing the structure and dynamics of B[e] supergiant stars' disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, M.

    2016-08-01

    B[e] supergiants are a group of evolved massive stars in a short-lived transition phase. During this phase, these objects eject large amounts of material, which accumulates in a circumstellar ring or disk-like structure, revolving around the star on Keplerian orbits. In most objects, the disks seem to be stable over many decades. This guarantees these disks as ideal chemical laboratories to study molecule formation and dust condensation. Combining high-resolution optical and infrared spectroscopic data allows to search for emission features that trace the disk structure, kinematics, and chemical composition at different distances from the star. Certain forbidden emission lines of singly ionized or neutral metals, such as [Caii] and [Oi], are ideal tracers for the innermost gaseous (atomic) regions. Farther out, molecules form. While first-overtone bands of carbon monoxide (CO) mark the hot, inner rim of the molecular disk, more molecules are expected to form and to fill the space between the CO emitting region and the dust condensation zone. Observing campaigns have been initiated to search for these molecules and their emission features, in order to construct a global picture of the properties of the disks around B[e] supergiants. This paper presents an overview of the status of our knowledge about the structure and kinematics of B[e] supergiant stars' disks, based on currently available information from different observational tracers.

  17. The galatic and LMC extreme line supergiants compared: IUE observations of the Henize-Carlson and Zoo star samples of massive supergiants. [Large Magellanic cloud (LMC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, S. N.; Sanduleak, N.; Brown, D. N.; Sonneborn, G.; Bopp, B. W.; Robinson, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    The Henize-Carlson sample of galactic massive supergiants, and a comparison between the Galactic and LMC samples are discussed. Several of the stars, notably He3-395 and S 127/LMC, have very similar shell characteristics. There appears to be little difference, other than luminosity, between the LMC and Galactic samples. One star, He3-1482, was detected with the Very Large Array at 6 cm. The UV data is combined with IRAS and optical information.

  18. RED SUPERGIANT STARS AS COSMIC ABUNDANCE PROBES. II. NLTE EFFECTS IN J-BAND SILICON LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bergemann, Maria; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Wuerl, Matthias; Plez, Bertrand; Davies, Ben; Gazak, Zach E-mail: Matthias.Wuerl@physik.uni-muenchen.de E-mail: zgazak@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: bdavies@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2013-02-20

    Medium-resolution J-band spectroscopy of individual red supergiant stars is a promising tool to investigate the chemical composition of the young stellar population in star-forming galaxies. As a continuation of recent work on iron and titanium, detailed non-LTE (NLTE) calculations are presented to investigate the influence of NLTE on the formation of silicon lines in the J-band spectra of red supergiants. Substantial effects are found resulting in significantly stronger absorption lines of neutral silicon in NLTE. As a consequence, silicon abundances determined in NLTE are significantly smaller than in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) with the NLTE abundance corrections varying smoothly between -0.4 dex and -0.1 dex for effective temperatures between 3400 K and 4400 K. The effects are largest at low metallicity. The physical reasons behind the NLTE effects and the consequences for extragalactic J-band abundance studies are discussed.

  19. Analytical solutions of stellar winds in B-A type supergiants stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Ignacio; Cure, Michel

    2013-06-01

    An analytical solution for the δ-slow hydrodynamic solution (Cure et al. 2011) in B-A type supergiants stars is developed. The methodology is based on the analytical solutions of a) Villata (1992), which is described in terms of the stellar and wind parameters and b) Muller & Vink (2008), which is described in terms of fitting parameters from a numerical solution (hydrodynamic). These methodologies only apply for fast solutions, for that reason the line acceleration term (gL) of Muller & Vink method is modified in order to obtain an analytical solution for the δ-slow solution. To find a relationship between the parameters from the fit and the stellar and wind parameters, a computational grid, based on the grid of stellar models from Ekstrom et al. (2012), is created for B-A type supergiants stars with δ-slow hydrodynamic solution. Finally, an analytical solution for B-A type supergiants stars is obtained based on the Lambert W function (Corless et al. 1996). Comparing with the numerical solutions, the terminal velocity has a median relative error below 4% and the mass loss rate has a median relative error below 5%. In addition, we calculated the wind-momentum luminosity relationship (WLR) with the models from the computational grid and compared with the observations, showing a very good agreement.

  20. Interacting supernovae from photoionization-confined shells around red supergiant stars.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Jonathan; Mohamed, Shazrene; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V; Kotak, Rubina; Langer, Norbert; Meyer, Dominique M-A; Moriya, Takashi J; Neilson, Hilding R

    2014-08-21

    Betelgeuse, a nearby red supergiant, is a fast-moving star with a powerful stellar wind that drives a bow shock into its surroundings. This picture has been challenged by the discovery of a dense and almost static shell that is three times closer to the star than the bow shock and has been decelerated by some external force. The two physically distinct structures cannot both be formed by the hydrodynamic interaction of the wind with the interstellar medium. Here we report that a model in which Betelgeuse's wind is photoionized by radiation from external sources can explain the static shell without requiring a new understanding of the bow shock. Pressure from the photoionized wind generates a standing shock in the neutral part of the wind and forms an almost static, photoionization-confined shell. Other red supergiants should have much more massive shells than Betelgeuse, because the photoionization-confined shell traps up to 35 per cent of all mass lost during the red supergiant phase, confining this gas close to the star until it explodes. After the supernova explosion, massive shells dramatically affect the supernova light curve, providing a natural explanation for the many supernovae that have signatures of circumstellar interaction.

  1. RED SUPERGIANT STARS AS COSMIC ABUNDANCE PROBES. III. NLTE EFFECTS IN J-BAND MAGNESIUM LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bergemann, Maria; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Gazak, Zach; Davies, Ben; Plez, Bertrand E-mail: kud@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: bdavies@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2015-05-10

    Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) calculations for Mg i in red supergiant stellar atmospheres are presented to investigate the importance of NLTE for the formation of Mg i lines in the NIR J-band. Recent work using medium resolution spectroscopy of atomic lines in the J-band of individual red supergiant stars has demonstrated this technique is a very promising tool for investigating the chemical composition of the young stellar population in star forming galaxies. As in previous work, where NLTE effects were studied for iron, titanium, and silicon, substantial effects are found resulting in significantly stronger Mg i absorption lines. For the quantitative spectral analysis the NLTE effects lead to magnesium abundances significantly smaller than in local thermodynamic equilibrium with the NLTE abundance corrections varying smoothly between −0.4 dex and −0.1 dex for effective temperatures between 3400 and 4400 K. We discuss the physical reasons of the NLTE effects and the consequences for extragalactic J-band abundance studies using individual red supergiants in the young massive galactic double cluster h and χ Persei.

  2. ALMA observations of the supergiant B[e] star Wd1-9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenech, D. M.; Clark, J. S.; Prinja, R. K.; Morford, J. C.; Dougherty, S.; Blomme, R.

    2017-01-01

    Mass-loss in massive stars plays a critical role in their evolution, although the precise mechanism(s) responsible - radiatively driven winds, impulsive ejection and/or binary interaction - remain uncertain. In this Letter, we present Atacama Large Millimetre/Submillimeter Array line and continuum observations of the supergiant B[e] star Wd1-9, a massive post-main-sequence object located within the starburst cluster Westerlund 1 (Wd1). We find it to be one of the brightest stellar point sources in the sky at millimetre wavelengths, with (serendipitously identified) emission in the H41α radio recombination line. We attribute these properties to a low velocity (˜100 km s-1 ) ionized wind, with an extreme mass-loss rate ≳6.4 × 10-5(d/5 kpc)1.5 M⊙yr- 1. External to this is an extended aspherical ejection nebula indicative of a prior phase of significant mass-loss. Taken together, the millimetre properties of Wd1-9 show a remarkable similarity to those of the highly luminous stellar source MWC349A. We conclude that these objects are interacting binaries evolving away from the main sequence and undergoing rapid case-A mass transfer. As such they - and by extension the wider class of supergiant B[e] stars - may provide a unique window into the physics of a process that shapes the life-cycle of ˜70 per cent of massive stars found in binary systems.

  3. Abundance analysis of the supergiant stars HD 80057 and HD 80404 based on their UVES Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanrıverdi, T.; Baştürk, Ö.

    2016-08-01

    This study presents elemental abundances of the early A-type supergiant HD 80057 and the late A-type supergiant HD 80404. High resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra published by the UVES Paranal Observatory Project (Bagnulo et al., 2003) were analyzed to compute their elemental abundances using ATLAS9 (Kurucz, 1993; 2005; Sbordone et al., 2004). In our analysis we assumed local thermodynamic equilibrium. The atmospheric parameters of HD 80057 used in this study are from Firnstein and Przybilla (2012), and that of HD 80404 are derived from spectral energy distribution, ionization equilibria of Cr I/II and Fe I/II, the fits to the wings of Balmer and Paschen lines as Teff = 7700 ± 150 K and log g = 1.60 ± 0.15 (in cgs). The microturbulent velocities of HD 80057 and HD 80404 have been determined as 4.3 ± 0.1 and 2.2 ± 0.0 km s^-1, respectively. The rotational velocities are 15 ± 1 and 7 ± 2 km s^-1 and their macroturbulence velocities are 24 ± 2 and 2 ± 1 km s^1. We have given the abundances of 25 ions of 19 elements for HD 80057 and 36 ions of 25 elements for HD 80404. The abundances are close to solar values, except for some elements (Na, Sc, Ti, V, Ba, and Sr). We have found the metallicities [M/H] for HD 80057 and HD 80404 as -0.16 ± 0.24 and -0.04 ± 0.16 dex, respectively. The evolutionary status of these stars are discussed and their nitrogen-to-carbon (N/C) and nitrogen-to-oxygen (N/O) ratios show that they are in their blue supergiant phase before the red supergiant region.

  4. Wolf-Rayet, Yellow and Red Supergiant in the single massive stars perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgy, Cyril; Hirschi, R.; Ekstrom, S.; Meynet, G.

    2013-06-01

    Rotation and mass loss are the key ingredients determining the fate of single massive stars. In recent years, a large effort has been made to compute whole grids of stellar models at different metallicities, including or not the effects of rotation, with the Geneva evolution code. In this talk, I will focus on the evolved stages of massive star evolution (red and yellow supergiants, Wolf-Rayet stars), in the framework of these new grids of models. I will highlight the effects of rotation and mass loss on the post-main sequence evolution of massive stars at solar and lower metallicity. In particular, I will discuss their impact on the maximum mass for a star to end its life as a RSG (leading to a type IIP supernova), on the possibility for a star to finish as a YSG, and on the initial mass ranges leading to various WR star subtypes. I will then compare the results predicted by our code with observed populations of evolved massive stars, bringing constraints on our computations, as well as some indications on the binary star fraction needed to reproduce them.

  5. SiO and H2O Maser Observations of Red Supergiants in Star Clusters Embedded in the Galactic Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, Shuji; Nakashima, Jun-Ichi; Zhang, Yong; Chong, Selina S. N.; Koike, Kazutaka; Kwok, Sun

    2010-04-01

    We present the results of radio observations of red supergiants in a star cluster, Stephenson (1990, AJ, 99, 1867)'s #2, and of candidates for red supergiants in three star clusters, Mercer et al. (2005, ApJ, 635, 560)'s #4, #8, and #13, in the SiO and H2O maser lines. The Stephenson's #2 cluster and nearby aggregation at the southwest contain more than 15 red supergiants. We detected one red supergiant at the center of Stephenson's #2 and three in a southwest aggregation in the SiO maser line; three out of these four were also detected in the H2O maser line. The average radial velocity of the four detected objects is 97 km s-1, giving a kinematic distance of 5.5 kpc, which locates this cluster near the base of the Scutum-Crux spiral arm. We also detected six SiO emitting objects associated with other star clusters. In addition, mapping observations in the CO J = 1-0 line toward these clusters revealed that an appreciable amount of molecular gas still remains around the Stephenson's #2 cluster in contrast to the prototypical red-supergiant cluster, Bica et al. (2003, A&A, 404, 223)'s #122. This indicates that the time scale of gas expulsion differs considerably in individual clusters.

  6. Physical conditions near red giant and supergiant stars - An interpretation of SiO VLBI maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcock, Charles; Ross, Randy R.

    1986-01-01

    Understanding the dynamical structure of circumstellar envelopes around cool giant and supergiant stars depends critically on the knowledge of what happens in the 'near zone' of the envelope, within a few stellar radii of the star. One probe with adequate angular resolution to study the near zone is VLBI observation of the SiO masers. It is shown that VLBI maps of VX Sgr establish that the particle density in the SiO masers is very high (about 10 to the 12th/cu cm), indicating that the masers form in dense cloudlets and not in a spherically expanding wind. The implications of these results for the mechanism of mass loss are discussed.

  7. RED SUPERGIANT STARS AS COSMIC ABUNDANCE PROBES: KMOS OBSERVATIONS IN NGC 6822

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, L. R.; Evans, C. J.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Davies, B.; Kudritzki, R-P.; Gazak, J. Z.; Bergemann, M.; Plez, B.

    2015-04-10

    We present near-IR spectroscopy of red supergiant (RSG) stars in NGC 6822, obtained with the new K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph Very Large Telescope, Chile. From comparisons with model spectra in the J-band we determine the metallicity of 11 RSGs, finding a mean value of [Z] = −0.52 ± 0.21, which agrees well with previous abundance studies of young stars and H ii regions. We also find an indication for a low-significance abundance gradient within the central 1 kpc. We compare our results with those derived from older stellar populations and investigate the difference using a simple chemical evolution model. By comparing the physical properties determined for RSGs in NGC 6822 with those derived using the same technique in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds, we show that there appears to be no significant temperature variation of RSGs with respect to metallicity, in contrast to recent evolutionary models.

  8. Physical conditions near red giant and supergiant stars - an interpretation of SiO VLBI maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcock, Charles; Ross, Randy R.

    1986-11-01

    Understanding the dynamical structure of circumstellar envelopes around cool giant and supergiant stars depends critically on the knowledge of what happens in the 'near zone' of the envelope, within a few stellar radii of the star. One probe with adequate angular resolution to study the near zone is VLBI observation of the SiO masers. It is shown that VLBI maps of VX Sgr establish that the particle density in the SiO masers is very high (about 10 to the 12th/cu cm), indicating that the masers form in dense cloudlets and not in a spherically expanding wind. The implications of these results for the mechanism of mass loss are discussed.

  9. Luminous and Variable Stars in M31 and M33. III. The Yellow and Red Supergiants and Post-red Supergiant Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Jones, Terry J.

    2016-07-01

    Recent supernova (SN) and transient surveys have revealed an increasing number of non-terminal stellar eruptions. Though the progenitor class of these eruptions includes the most luminous stars, little is known of the pre-SN mechanics of massive stars in their most evolved state, thus motivating a census of possible progenitors. From surveys of evolved and unstable luminous star populations in nearby galaxies, we select a sample of yellow and red supergiant (RSG) candidates in M31 and M33 for review of their spectral characteristics and spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Since the position of intermediate- and late-type supergiants on the color-magnitude diagram can be heavily contaminated by foreground dwarfs, we employ spectral classification and multi-band photometry from optical and near-infrared surveys to confirm membership. Based on spectroscopic evidence for mass loss and the presence of circumstellar (CS) dust in their SEDs, we find that 30%-40% of the yellow supergiants are likely in a post-RSG state. Comparison with evolutionary tracks shows that these mass-losing, post-RSGs have initial masses between 20 and 40 M ⊙. More than half of the observed RSGs in M31 and M33 are producing dusty CS ejecta. We also identify two new warm hypergiants in M31, J004621.05+421308.06 and J004051.59+403303.00, both of which are likely in a post-RSG state. Based on observations obtained with the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are: The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University, and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.

  10. Complexes of triggered star formation in supergiant shell of Holmberg II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, Oleg V.; Lozinskaya, Tatiana A.; Moiseev, Alexei V.; Shchekinov, Yuri A.

    2017-01-01

    We report a detailed analysis of all regions of current star formation in the walls of the supergiant H I shell (SGS) in the galaxy Holmberg II based on observations with a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer at the Russian 6-m telescope. We compare the structure and kinematics of ionized gas with that of atomic hydrogen and with the stellar population of the SGS. Our deep Hα images and archival images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope demonstrate that current star formation episodes are larger and more complicated than previously thought: they represent unified star-forming complexes with sizes of several hundred pc rather than `chains' of separate bright nebulae in the walls of the SGS. The fact that we are dealing with unified complexes is evidenced by identified faint shell-like structures of ionized and neutral gas which connect several distinct bright H II regions. Formation of such complexes is due to the feedback of stars with very inhomogeneous ambient gas in the walls of the SGS. The arguments supporting an idea about the triggering of star formation in SGS by the H I supershells collision are presented. We also found a faint ionized supershell inside the H I SGS expanding with a velocity of no greater than 10-15 km s-1. Five OB stars located inside the inner supershell are sufficient to account for its radiation, although a possibility of leakage of ionizing photons from bright H II regions is not ruled out as well.

  11. Radiative hydrodynamic simulations of red supergiant stars. III. Spectro-photocentric variability, photometric variability, and consequences on Gaia measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavassa, A.; Pasquato, E.; Jorissen, A.; Sacuto, S.; Babusiaux, C.; Freytag, B.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Cruzalèbes, P.; Rabbia, Y.; Spang, A.; Chesneau, O.

    2011-04-01

    Context. It has been shown that convection in red supergiant stars (RSG) gives rise to large granules that cause surface inhomogeneities and shock waves in the photosphere. The resulting motion of the photocentre (on time scales ranging from months to years) could possibly have adverse effects on the parallax determination with Gaia. Aims: We explore the impact of the granulation on the photocentric and photometric variability. We quantify these effects in order to better characterise the error that could possibly alter the parallax. Methods: We use 3D radiative-hydrodynamics (RHD) simulations of convection with CO5BOLD and the post-processing radiative transfer code Optim3D to compute intensity maps and spectra in the Gaia G band [325-1030 nm]. Results: We provide astrometric and photometric predictions from 3D simulations of RSGs that are used to evaluate the possible degradation of the astrometric parameters of evolved stars derived by Gaia. We show in particular from RHD simulations that a supergiant like Betelgeuse exhibits a photocentric noise characterised by a standard deviation of the order of 0.1 AU. The number of bright giant and supergiant stars whose Gaia parallaxes will be altered by the photocentric noise ranges from a few tens to several thousands, depending on the poorly known relation between the size of the convective cells and the atmospheric pressure scale height of supergiants, and to a lower extent, on the adopted prescription for galactic extinction. In the worst situation, the degradation of the astrometric fit caused by this photocentric noise will be noticeable up to about 5 kpc for the brightest supergiants. Moreover, parallaxes of Betelgeuse-like supergiants are affected by an error of the order of a few percents. We also show that the photocentric noise, as predicted by the 3D simulation, does account for a substantial part of the supplementary "cosmic noise" that affects Hipparcos measurements of Betelgeuse and Antares.

  12. Chemical abundances for A-and F-type supergiant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, R. E.; Rivera, H.

    2016-10-01

    We present the stellar parameters and elemental abundances of a set of A-F-type supergiant stars HD 45674, HD 180028, HD 194951 and HD 224893 using high resolution (R≈ 42,000) spectra taken from ELODIE library. We present the first results of the abundance analysis for HD 45674 and HD 224893. We reaffirm the abundances for HD 180028 and HD 194951 studied previously by Luck. Alpha-elements indicate that the objects belong to the thin disc population. Their abundances and their location on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram seem to indicate that HD 45675, HD 194951 and HD 224893 are in the post-first dredge-up (post-1DUP) phase, and that they are moving in the red-blue loop region. HD 180028, on the contary, shows typical abundances of Population I, but its evolutionary status cannot be satisfactorily defined.

  13. GIANO-TNG spectroscopy of red supergiants in the young star cluster RSGC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Origlia, L.; Oliva, E.; Sanna, N.; Mucciarelli, A.; Dalessandro, E.; Scuderi, S.; Baffa, C.; Biliotti, V.; Carbonaro, L.; Falcini, G.; Giani, E.; Iuzzolino, M.; Massi, F.; Sozzi, M.; Tozzi, A.; Ghedina, A.; Ghinassi, F.; Lodi, M.; Harutyunyan, A.; Pedani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The Scutum complex in the inner disk of the Galaxy has a number of young star clusters dominated by red supergiants that are heavily obscured by dust extinction and observable only at infrared wavelengths. These clusters are important tracers of the recent star formation and chemical enrichment history in the inner Galaxy. Methods: During the technical commissioning and as a first science verification of the GIANO spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, we secured high-resolution (R ≃ 50 000) near-infrared spectra of five red supergiants in the young Scutum cluster RSGC3. Results: Taking advantage of the full YJHK spectral coverage of GIANO in a single exposure, we were able to measure several tens of atomic and molecular lines that were suitable for determining chemical abundances. By means of spectral synthesis and line equivalent width measurements, we obtained abundances of Fe and iron-peak elements such as Ni, Cr, and Cu, alpha (O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti), other light elements (C, N, F, Na, Al, and Sc), and some s-process elements (Y, Sr). We found average half-solar iron abundances and solar-scaled [X/Fe] abundance patterns for most of the elements, consistent with a thin-disk chemistry. We found depletion of [C/Fe] and enhancement of [N/Fe], consistent with standard CN burning, and low 12C /13C abundance ratios (between 9 and 11), which require extra-mixing processes in the stellar interiors during the post-main sequence evolution. We also found local standard of rest VLSR = 106 km s-1 and heliocentric Vhel = 90 km s-1 radial velocities with a dispersion of 2.3 km s-1. Conclusions: The inferred radial velocities, abundances, and abundance patterns of RSGC3 are very similar to those previously measured in the other two young clusters of the Scutum complex, RSGC1 and RSGC2, suggesting a common kinematics and chemistry within the Scutum complex.

  14. GIANO-TNG spectroscopy of red supergiants in the young star cluster RSGC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Origlia, L.; Oliva, E.; Maiolino, R.; Mucciarelli, A.; Baffa, C.; Biliotti, V.; Bruno, P.; Falcini, G.; Gavriousev, V.; Ghinassi, F.; Giani, E.; Gonzalez, M.; Leone, F.; Lodi, M.; Massi, F.; Montegriffo, P.; Mochi, I.; Pedani, M.; Rossetti, E.; Scuderi, S.; Sozzi, M.; Tozzi, A.

    2013-12-01

    Aims: The inner disk of the Galaxy has a number of young star clusters dominated by red supergiants that are heavily obscured by dust extinction and observable only at infrared wavelengths. These clusters are important tracers of the recent star formation and chemical enrichment history in the inner Galaxy. Methods: During the technical commissioning and as a first science verification of the GIANO spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, we secured high-resolution (R ≃ 50 000) near-infrared spectra of three red supergiants in the young Scutum cluster RSGC2. Results: Taking advantage of the full YJHK spectral coverage of GIANO in a single exposure, we were able to identify several tens of atomic and molecular lines suitable for chemical abundance determinations. By means of spectral synthesis and line equivalent width measurements, we obtained abundances of Fe and other iron-peak elements such as V, Cr, Ni, of alpha (O, Mg, Si, Ca and Ti) and other light elements (C, N, Na, Al, K, Sc), and of some s-process elements (Y, Sr). We found iron abundances between half and one third solar and solar-scaled [X/Fe] abundance patterns of iron-peak, alpha and most of the light elements, consistent with a thin-disk chemistry. We found a depletion of [C/Fe] and enhancement of [N/Fe], consistent with CN burning, and low 12C/13C abundance ratios (between 9 and 11), requiring extra-mixing processes in the stellar interiors during the post-main-sequence evolution. Finally, we found a slight [Sr/Fe] enhancement and a slight [Y/Fe] depletion (by a factor of ≤2), with respect to solar. Table 3 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. The Physical Parameters of Red Supergiants: When Massive Stars Are as Cool as They Get

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Philip; Levesque, Emily; Olsen, Knut; Plez, Bertrand; Josselin, Eric; Maeder, Andre; Meynet, Georges

    2005-08-01

    Red supergiants (RSGs) are an important but poorly characterized stage in the evolution of massive stars. In the past, evolutionary models did not reproduce the ``observed" location of RSGs in the H-R diagram. However, our recent study using the new MARCS atmospheric models to fit spectrophotometry of Galactic RSGs has now led to good agreement between theory and observations (Levesque et al. 2005). With time generously granted by the TAC last year, we attempted to extend this study to the lower metallicity RSGs in the Magellanic Clouds, where the distribution of spectral types is quite different than that of the Milky Way (Elias et al. 1985; Massey & Olsen 2003). Unfortunately, our run was haunted by a ``grating ghost", rendering the observations in the near-UV and blue useless for our purposes, although good data were obtained in the red. We are now requesting time to complete these observations, using the last semester for which the RC Spectrograph is likely to be available. (The observations cannot be done with SOAR since the Goodman HTS lacks both a suitable grating and a blue-sensitive chip.) Reliable spectrophotometry in the blue is critical for deriving the effective temperatures, comparing the atomic lines Ca I(lambda) 4226 and Ca II H and K to the models, and in investigating the presence of peculiar reddening around these stars, presumably due to circumstellar dust.

  16. HD 179821 (V1427 Aql, IRAS 19114+0002) - a massive post-red supergiant star?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, T.; Lambert, David L.; Klochkova, Valentina G.; Panchuk, Vladimir E.

    2016-10-01

    We have derived elemental abundances of a remarkable star, HD 179821, with unusual composition (e.g. [Na/Fe] = 1.0 ± 0.2 dex) and extra-ordinary spectral characteristics. Its metallicity at [Fe/H] = 0.4 dex places it among the most metal-rich stars yet analysed. The abundance analysis of this luminous star is based on high-resolution and high-quality (S/N ≈ 120-420) optical echelle spectra from McDonald Observatory and Special Astronomy Observatory. The data includes five years of observations over 21 epochs. Standard 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis provides a fresh determination of the atmospheric parameters over all epochs: Teff = 7350 ± 200 K, log g= +0.6 ± 0.3, and a microturbulent velocity ξ = 6.6 ± 1.6 km s-1 and [Fe/H] = 0.4 ± 0.2, and a carbon abundance [C/Fe] = -0.19 ± 0.30. We find oxygen abundance [O/Fe] = -0.25 ± 0.28 and an enhancement of 0.9 dex in N. A supersonic macroturbulent velocity of 22.0 ± 2.0 km s-1 is determined from both strong and weak Fe I and Fe II lines. Elemental abundances are obtained for 22 elements. HD 179821 is not enriched in s-process products. Eu is overabundant relative to the anticipated [X/Fe] ≈ 0.0. Some peculiarities of its optical spectrum (e.g. variability in the spectral line shapes) is noticed. This includes the line profile variations for H α line. Based on its estimated luminosity, effective temperature and surface gravity, HD 179821 is a massive star evolving to become a red supergiant and finally a Type II supernova.

  17. Spitzer-IRS Spectroscopic Studies of Oxygen-Rich Asymptotic Giant Branch Star and Red Supergiant Star Dust Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Srinivasan, Sundar; Speck, Angela; Volk, Kevin; Kemper, Ciska; Reach, William T.; Lagadec, Eric; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; McDonald, Iain; Meixner, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the dust emission features seen in Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of Oxygen-rich (O-rich) asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars. The spectra come from the Spitzer Legacy program SAGE-Spectroscopy (PI: F. Kemper) and other archival Spitzer-IRS programs. The broad 10 and 20 micron emission features attributed to amorphous dust of silicate composition seen in the spectra show evidence for systematic differences in the centroid of both emission features between O-rich AGB and RSG populations. Radiative transfer modeling using the GRAMS grid of models of AGB and RSG stars suggests that the centroid differences are due to differences in dust properties. We present an update of our investigation of differences in dust composition, size, shape, etc that might be responsible for these spectral differences. We explore how these differences may arise from the different circumstellar environments around RSG and O-rich AGB stars. BAS acknowledges funding from NASA ADAP grant NNX13AD54G.

  18. Luminous and variable stars in M31 and M33. II. Luminous blue variables, candidate LBVs, Fe II emission line stars, and other supergiants

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Weis, Kerstin; Bomans, D. J.; Burggraf, Birgitta E-mail: kweis@astro.rub.de

    2014-07-20

    An increasing number of non-terminal eruptions are being found in the numerous surveys for optical transients. Very little is known about these giant eruptions, their progenitors and their evolutionary state. A greatly improved census of the likely progenitor class, including the most luminous evolved stars, the luminous blue variables (LBVs), and the warm and cool hypergiants is now needed for a complete picture of the final pre-supernova stages of very massive stars. We have begun a survey of the evolved and unstable luminous star populations in several nearby resolved galaxies. In this second paper on M31 and M33, we review the spectral characteristics, spectral energy distributions, circumstellar ejecta, and evidence for mass loss for 82 luminous and variable stars. We show that many of these stars have warm circumstellar dust including several of the Fe II emission line stars, but conclude that the confirmed LBVs in M31 and M33 do not. The confirmed LBVs have relatively low wind speeds even in their hot, quiescent or visual minimum state compared to the B-type supergiants and Of/WN stars which they spectroscopically resemble. The nature of the Fe II emission line stars and their relation to the LBV state remains uncertain, but some have properties in common with the warm hypergiants and the sgB[e] stars. Several individual stars are discussed in detail. We identify three possible candidate LBVs and three additional post-red supergiant candidates. We suggest that M33-013406.63 (UIT301,B416) is not an LBV/S Dor variable, but is a very luminous late O-type supergiant and one of the most luminous stars or pair of stars in M33.

  19. THE PERIOD-LUMINOSITY RELATION OF RED SUPERGIANT STARS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Ming; Jiang, B. W. E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn

    2012-07-20

    The characteristics of light variation of red supergiant (RSG) stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) are analyzed based on the nearly 8-10 year data collected by the ASAS and MACHO projects. The 126 identified RSGs are classified into five categories accordingly: 20 with poor photometry, 55 with no reliable period, 6 with semi-regular variation, 15 with a long secondary period (LSP) and distinguishable short period, and 30 with only an LSP. For the semi-regular variables and the LSP variables with distinguishable short period, the K{sub S} -band period-luminosity (P-L) relation is analyzed and compared with that of the Galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud, and M33. It is found that the RSGs in these galaxies obey a similar P-L relation except for those in the Galaxy. In addition, the P-L relations in the infrared bands, namely, the 2MASS JHK{sub S} , Spitzer/IRAC, and Spitzer/MIPS 24 {mu}m bands, are derived with high reliability. The best P-L relation occurs in the Spitzer/IRAC [3.6] and [4.5] bands. Based on the comparison with the theoretical calculation of the P-L relation, the mode of pulsation of RSGs in the SMC is suggested to be the first-overtone radial mode.

  20. Seeing Stars Like Never Before: A Multi-Year Interferometric Imaging Study of Red Supergiants in the H-Band.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Ryan P.; Baron, Fabien

    2017-01-01

    As some of the largest stars, red supergiants (RSG) are ideal candidates for interferometric imaging. 3D radiative hydrodynamic (RHD) models suggest that RSG have large convection cells with lifetimes on the order of 1000s of days. Many imaging projects have hinted at the existence of these features but, until recently, we have lacked the angular resolution to directly compare models to observations. In this presentation, we discuss early results from a multi-year survey of red supergiants using the Michigan InfraRed Combinber (MIRC) on the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA Array), which has a maximum baseline of 330 m. We will present H-band images of RSG spanning several years developed using a new machine learning based image reconstruction tool for interferometric data. We will also present fundamental parameters for the targets, and discuss the implications of these results on 1D model atmospheres and 3D RHD models of RSG.

  1. DISCOVERY OF A POSSIBLY SINGLE BLUE SUPERGIANT STAR IN THE INTRA-CLUSTER REGION OF VIRGO CLUSTER OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ohyama, Youichi; Hota, Ananda

    2013-04-20

    IC 3418 is a dwarf irregular galaxy falling into the Virgo cluster, and a 17 kpc long trail is seen behind the galaxy, which is considered to have formed due to ram pressure stripping. The trail contains compact knots and diffuse blobs of ultraviolet and blue optical emission and, thus, it is a clear site of recent star formation but in an unusual environment, surrounded by a million degree intra-cluster medium. We report on our optical spectroscopy of a compact source in the trail, SDSS J122952.66+112227.8, and show that the optical spectrum is dominated by emission from a massive blue supergiant star. If confirmed, our report would mark the farthest star with spectroscopic observation. We interpret that a massive O-type star formed in situ in the trail has evolved recently out of the main sequence into this blue supergiant phase, and now lacks any detectable spectral sign of its associated H II region. We argue that turbulence within the ram pressure striped gaseous trail may play a dominant role for the star formation within such trails.

  2. Visual, Near-IR, and TiO Spectrophotometry of Pulsating Giant and Supergiant M-Type Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasatonic, R. P.; Guinan, E. F.

    1997-05-01

    Pulsating M-type giant and supergiant stars radiate mainly in the near to intermediate IR (1000-2000 nm). Since most prior long-term photometric observations have been done visually or with UBVRI filters, an on-going program was established to monitor selected stars using both wide-band visual (550 nm) and Wing (719 nm, 754 nm, and 1040 nm) intermediate band filters. Outer atmopsheric titanium-oxide (TiO) strenghts are calculated and compared with generated visual light curves to study correlations of stellar pulsa- tions with molecular formation. IR color temperatures are computed and are used in combination with measured bolome- tric magnitudes to estimate radii changes throughout pulsa- tional cycles. These results should provide information relevant for studies of internal structures, atmopsheres, and evolution of red giant and supergiant stars. Some stars currently being observed include Mira, Aldebaran, Alpha Her, Betelgeuse, V CVn, R Leo, and CE Tau. Additionally, a calibration of the Wing 3-color spectro- photometry sytem is in progress to correlate TiO strengths with known spectral types and near-IR color temperatures for the benefit of the community. Observations measuring spectral sub-type changes via cyclic pulsational variations in TiO-indices and near-IR color temperature changes will be more accurate once the calibration is completed. This work was in part supported by NSF grant AST-9315365, which we gratefully acknowledge.

  3. Cold gas in hot star clusters: the wind from the red supergiant W26 in Westerlund 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Jonathan; Castro, Norberto; Fossati, Luca; Langer, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    The massive red supergiant W26 in Westerlund 1 is one of a growing number of red supergiants shown to have winds that are ionized from the outside in. The fate of this dense wind material is important for models of second generation star formation in massive star clusters. Mackey et al. (2014, Nature, 512, 282) showed that external photoionization can stall the wind of red supergiants and accumulate mass in a dense static shell. We use spherically symmetric radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of an externally photoionized wind to predict the brightness distribution of Hα and [N II] emission arising from photoionized winds both with and without a dense shell. We analyse spectra of the Hα and [N II] emission lines in the circumstellar environment around W26 and compare them with simulations to investigate whether W26 has a wind that is confined by external photoionization. Simulations of slow winds that are decelerated into a dense shell show strongly limb-brightened line emission, with line radial velocities that are independent of the wind speed. Faster winds (≳22 km s-1) do not form a dense shell, have less limb-brightening, and the line radial velocity is a good tracer of the wind speed. The brightness of the [N II] and Hα lines as a function of distance from W26 agrees reasonably well with observations when only the line flux is considered. The radial velocity of the simulated winds disagrees with observations, however: the brightest observed emission is blueshifted by ≈25 km s-1 relative to the radial velocity of the star, whereas a spherically symmetric wind has the brightest emission at zero radial velocity because of limb brightening. Our results show that the bright nebula surrounding W26 must be asymmetric, and we suggest that it is confined by external ram pressure from the extreme wind of the nearby supergiant W9. We obtain a lower limit on the nitrogen abundance within the nebula of 2.35 times solar. The line ratio strongly favours photoionization

  4. A Spectroscopic Study of Blue Supergiant Stars in the Sculptor Galaxy NGC 55: Chemical Evolution and Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudritzki, R. P.; Castro, N.; Urbaneja, M. A.; Ho, I.-T.; Bresolin, F.; Gieren, W.; Pietrzyński, G.; Przybilla, N.

    2016-10-01

    Low-resolution (4.5-5 Å) spectra of 58 blue supergiant stars distributed over the disk of the Magellanic spiral galaxy NGC 55 in the Sculptor group are analyzed by means of non-LTE techniques to determine stellar temperatures, gravities, and metallicities (from iron peak and α-elements). A metallicity gradient of -0.22 ± 0.06 dex/R 25 is detected. The central metallicity on a logarithmic scale relative to the Sun is [Z] = -0.37 ± 0.03. A chemical evolution model using the observed distribution of column densities of the stellar and interstellar medium gas mass reproduces the observed metallicity distribution well and reveals a recent history of strong galactic mass accretion and wind outflows with accretion and mass-loss rates of the order of the star formation rate. There is an indication of spatial inhomogeneity in metallicity. In addition, the relatively high central metallicity of the disk confirms that two extraplanar metal-poor H ii regions detected in previous work 1.13 to 2.22 kpc above the galactic plane are ionized by massive stars formed in situ outside the disk. For a subsample of supergiants, for which Hubble Space Telescope photometry is available, the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relationship is used to determine a distance modulus of 26.85 ± 0.10 mag.

  5. VLTI/AMBER Studies of the Atmospheric Structure and Fundamental Parameters of Red Giant and Supergiant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo-Torres, B.; Wittkowski, M.; Marcaide, J. M.; Abellan, F. J.; Chiavassa, A.; Fabregat, J.; Freytag, B.; Guirado, J. C.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Marti-Vidal, I.; Quirrenbach, A.; Scholz, M.; Wood, P. R.

    2015-08-01

    We present recent near-IR interferometric studies of red giant and supergiant stars, which are aimed at obtaining information on the structure of the atmospheric layers and constraining the fundamental parameters of these objects. The observed visibilities of six red supergiants (RSGs), and also of one of the five red giants observed, indicate large extensions of the molecular layers, as previously observed for Mira stars. These extensions are not predicted by hydrostatic PHOENIX model atmospheres, hydrodynamical (RHD) simulations of stellar convection, or self-excited pulsation models. All these models based on parameters of RSGs lead to atmospheric structures that are too compact compared to our observations. We discuss how alternative processes might explain the atmospheric extensions for these objects. As the continuum appears to be largely free of contamination by molecular layers, we can estimate reliable Rosseland angular radii for our stars. Together with distances and bolometric fluxes, we estimate the effective temperatures and luminosities of our targets, locate them in the HR diagram, and compare their positions to recent evolutionary tracks.

  6. Einstein Observatory magnitude-limited X-ray survey of late-type giant and supergiant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggio, A.; Vaiana, G. S.; Haisch, B. M.; Stern, R. A.; Bookbinder, J.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of an extensive X-ray survey of 380 giant and supergiant stars of spectral types from F to M, carried out with the Einstein Observatory. It was found that the observed F giants or subgiants (slightly evolved stars with a mass M less than about 2 solar masses) are X-ray emitters at the same level of main-sequence stars of similar spectral type. The G giants show a range of emissions more than 3 orders of magnitude wide; some single G giants exist with X-ray luminosities comparable to RS CVn systems, while some nearby large G giants have upper limits on the X-ray emission below typical solar values. The K giants have an observed X-ray emission level significantly lower than F and F giants. None of the 29 M giants were detected, except for one spectroscopic binary.

  7. The flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relationship of blue supergiant stars as a constraint for stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynet, Georges; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Georgy, Cyril

    2015-09-01

    Context. The flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relationship (FGLR) of blue supergiant stars (BSG) links their absolute magnitude to the spectroscopically determined flux-weighted gravity log g/T_text{eff ^4}. BSG are the brightest stars in the universe at visual light and the application of the FGLR has become a powerful tool for determining extragalactic distances. Aims: Observationally, the FGLR is a tight relationship with only small scatter. It is, therefore, ideal for using as a constraint for stellar evolution models. The goal of this work is to investigate whether stellar evolution can reproduce the observed FGLR and to develop an improved foundation for the FGLR as an extragalactic distance indicator. Methods: We used different grids of stellar models for initial masses between 9 and 40 M⊙ and for metallicities between Z = 0.002 and 0.014, with and without rotation, which were computed with various mass loss rates during the red supergiant phase. For each of these models, we discuss the details of post-main sequence evolution and construct theoretical FGLRs by means of population synthesis models that we then compare with the observed FGLR. Results: In general, the stellar evolution model FGLRs agree reasonably well with the observed one. There are, however, differences between the models, in particular with regard to the shape and width (scatter) in the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity plane. The best agreement is obtained with models that include the effects of rotation and assume that the large majority, if not all, of the observed BSG evolve toward the red supergiant phase and that only a few are evolving back from this stage. The effects of metallicity on the shape and scatter of the FGLR are small. Conclusions: The shape, scatter, and metallicity dependence of the observed FGLR are explained well by stellar evolution models. This provides a solid theoretical foundation for using this relationship as a robust extragalactic distance indicator.

  8. Near-Infrared Photometric Properties of Red Supergiant Stars in Neaby Galaxies: NGC 4214, NGC 4736 and M51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, DooSeok; Chun, Sang-Hyun; Choudhury, Samyaday; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2017-01-01

    Red supergiant stars (RSGs) are post-main sequence phase of massive stars which can be easily resolved in nearby galaxies due to their bright luminosity as compared to the low-mass stars. RSGs are cool, and hence have a dominant light output at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. To investigate the photometric properties of RSGs in a few nearby galaxies, we observed NGC 4214, NGC 4736 and M51 by using the WFCAM detector mounted on the UKIRT telescope at Hawaii, and obtained the NIR (JHK bands) imaging data. After carrying out the photometry, the age ranges of RSGs in each galaxy were estimated by over-plotting PARSEC isochrones to the (J-K, K) colour-magnitude diagram: log(tyr) = 6.9 - 7.3 for NGC 4214; log(tyr) = 7.0 - 8.0 for NGC 4736; and log(tyr) = 6.7 - 6.9 for M51. The effective temperatures and luminosities of RSGs were calculated using MARCS synthetic fluxes, and these results were used to compare the properties of RSGs in Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram of dominant H II regions within each galaxy, over-plotted with PARSEC evolutionary tracks. The RSGs in NGC 4214 and NGC 4736 are found to have a mass of 9 M⊙ - 30 M⊙, and the maximum luminosities found to be almost constant with log(L/L⊙) = 5.6 - 5.7. However, the location of the RSGs in the H-R diagram are not consistent with the evolutionary tracks for M51.(Key Words: stars: massive - supergiants - galaxies: photometry - galaxies: stellar content - infrared: stars)

  9. The Winds of B Supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fullerton, A. W.; Massa, D. L.; Prinja, R. K.; Owocki, S. P.; Cranmer, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the work conducted under the program "The Winds of B Supergiants," conducted by Raytheon STX Corporation. The report consists of a journal article "Wind variability in B supergiants III. Corotating spiral structures in the stellar wind of HD 64760." The first step in the project was the analysis of the 1996 time series of 2 B supergiants and an O star. These data were analyzed and reported on at the ESO workshop, "Cyclical Variability in Stellar Winds."

  10. Line-profile microvariability in OB-star spectra: the Supergiant λ Cep (O6If(n))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholtygin, A. F.; Sudnik, N. P.; Burlakova, T. E.; Valyavin, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    We observed the bright O6If(n) supergiant λ Cep in 1997 with the 6-m optical telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory and in 2007 with the 1.8-m telescope of the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (South Korea). A total of 90 spectra of the star were acquired, with good time resolution (10 minutes), signal-to-noise ratios 150-300, and spectral resolutions of 45 000-60 000. We detected line-profile variations of H, HeI, and HeII lines. It is suggested that the detected variations are due to non-radial photospheric pulsations and the star's rotation (rotational profile modulation).

  11. The vast population of Wolf-Rayet and red supergiant stars in M101. I. Motivation and first results

    SciTech Connect

    Shara, Michael M.; Bibby, Joanne L.; Zurek, David; Crowther, Paul A.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Drissen, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    Assembling a catalog of at least 10,000 Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars is an essential step in proving (or disproving) that these stars are the progenitors of Type Ib and Type Ic supernovae. To this end, we have used the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to carry out a deep, He II optical narrowband imaging survey of the ScI spiral galaxy M101. Almost the entire galaxy was imaged with the unprecedented depth and resolution that only the HST affords. Differenced with archival broadband images, the narrowband images allow us to detect much of the W-R star population of M101. We describe the extent of the survey and our images, as well as our data reduction procedures. A detailed broadband-narrowband imaging study of a field east of the center of M101, containing the giant star-forming region NGC 5462, demonstrates our completeness limits, how we find W-R candidates, their properties and spatial distribution, and how we rule out most contaminants. We use the broadband images to locate luminous red supergiant (RSG) candidates. The spatial distributions of the W-R and RSG stars near NGC 5462 are strikingly different. W-R stars dominate the complex core, while RSGs dominate the complex halo. Future papers in this series will describe and catalog more than a thousand W-R and RSG candidates that are detectable in our images, as well as spectra of many of those candidates.

  12. HST Studies of the Chromospheres, Wind, and Mass-Loss Rates of Cool Giant and Supergiant Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2000-01-01

    UV spectra of K-M giant and supergiant stars and of carbon stars have been acquired with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These spectra have been used to measure chromospheric flow and turbulent velocities, study the acceleration of their stellar winds, acquire constraints on their outer atmospheric structure, and enable estimates of their mass-loss rates. Results from our observations of the giant stars Gamma Dra (K5 III hybrid), Alpha Tau (K5 III), Gamma Cru (M3.4 III), Mu Gem (M3 IIIab), and 30 Her (MG III), the supergiants Alpha Ori (M2 Iab) and Lambda Vel (K5 Ib), and the carbon stars TX Psc (NO; C6,2) and TW Hor (NO; C7,2) will be summarized and compared. The high resolution and wavelength accuracy of these data have allowed the direct measurement of the acceleration of the stellar winds in the chromospheres of several of these stars (from initial velocities of 3-9 km/s to upper velocities of 15-25 km/s) and of the chromospheric macroturbulence (-25-35 km/s). The high signal-to-noise and large dynamic range of these spectra have allowed the detection and identification of numerous new emission features, including weak C IV emission indicative of hot transition-region plasma in the non-coronal giant Alpha Tau, many new fluorescent lines of Fe II, and the first detection of fluorescent molecular hydrogen emission and of Ca II recombination lines in the UV spectrum of a giant star. The UV spectrum of two carbon stars have been studied with unprecedented resolution and reveal extraordinarily complicated Mg II lines nearly smothered by circumstellar absorptions. Finally, comparison of synthetic UV emission line profiles computed with the Lamers et al. (1987) Sobolev with Exact Integration (SEI) code with observations of chromospheric emission lines overlain with wind absorption features provides estimates of the mass-loss rates for four of these stars.

  13. Comparative Studies of the Dust around Red Supergiant and Oxygen-Rich Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin; Srinivasan, Sundar; Speck, Angela K.; Volk, Kevin; Kemper, Ciska; Reach, William; Lagadec, Eric; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; McDonald, Iain; Meixner, Margaret; Sloan, Greg; Jones, Olivia

    2015-08-01

    We analyze the dust emission features seen in Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of red supergiant (RSG) and oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud and Small Magellanic Cloud galaxies and in various Milky Way globular clusters. The spectra come from the Spitzer Legacy program SAGE-Spectroscopy (PI: F. Kemper), the Spitzer program SMC-Spec (PI: G. Sloan), and other archival Spitzer-IRS programs. The broad 10 and 20 μm emission features attributed to amorphous dust of silicate composition seen in the spectra show evidence for systematic differences in the centroid of both emission features between O-rich AGB and RSG populations. Radiative transfer modeling using the GRAMS grid of models of AGB and RSG stars suggests that the centroid differences are due to differences in dust properties. We investigate differences in dust composition, size, shape, etc that might be responsible for these spectral differences. We explore how these differences may arise from the different circumstellar environments around RSG and O-rich AGB stars and assess effects of varying metallicity (LMC versus SMC versus Milky Way globular cluster) and other properties (mass-loss rate, luminosity, etc.) on the dust originating from these stars. BAS acknowledges funding from NASA ADAP grant NNX13AD54G.

  14. Comparative Studies of the Dust around Red Supergiant and Oxygen-Rich Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, B. A.; Srinivasan, S.; Speck, A.; Volk, K.; Kemper, F.; Reach, W.; Lagadec, E.; Bernard, J.-P.; McDonald, I.; Meixner, M.; Sloan, G. C.; Jones, O.

    We analyze the dust emission features seen in Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of red supergiant (RSG) and oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud and Small Magellanic Cloud galaxies and in various Milky Way globular clusters. The spectra come from the Spitzer Legacy program SAGE-Spectroscopy (PI: F. Kemper), the Spitzer program SMC-Spec (PI: G. Sloan), and other archival Spitzer-IRS programs. The broad 10 and 20 micron emission features attributed to amorphous dust of silicate composition seen in the spectra show evidence for systematic differences in the centroid of both emission features between O-rich AGB and RSG populations. Radiative transfer modeling using the GRAMS grid of models of AGB and RSG stars suggests that the centroid differences are due to differences in dust properties. We investigate differences in dust composition, size, shape, etc that might be responsible for these spectral differences. We explore how these differences may arise from the different circumstellar environments around RSG and O-rich AGB stars and assess effects of varying metallicity (LMC versus SMC versus Milky Way globular cluster) and other properties (mass-loss rate, luminosity, etc.) on the dust originating from these stars. BAS acknowledges funding from NASA ADAP grant NNX13AD54G.

  15. Evidence for the pulsational origin of the Long Secondary Periods: The red supergiant star V424 Lac (HD 216946)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Sergio

    2007-10-01

    The results of a long-term UBV photometric monitoring of the red supergiant (RSG) star V424 Lac are presented. V424 Lac shows multiperiodic brightness variations which can be attributed to pulsational oscillations. A much longer period ( P = 1601 d), that allows us to classify this star as a long secondary period variable star (LSPV) has been also detected. The B - V and U - B color variations related to the long secondary period (LSP) are similar to those related to the shorter periods, supporting the pulsational nature of LSP. The long period brightness variation of V424 Lac is accompanied by a near-UV (NUV) excess, which was spectroscopically detected in a previous study [Massey, P., Plez, B., Levesque, E.M., et al., 2005. ApJ 634, 1286] and which is now found to be variable from photometry. On the basis of the results found for V424 Lac, the NUV excess recently found in a number of RSGs may be due not solely to circumstellar dust but may also have a contribution from a still undetected LSP variability.

  16. RED SUPERGIANT STARS AS COSMIC ABUNDANCE PROBES: NLTE EFFECTS IN J-BAND IRON AND TITANIUM LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bergemann, Maria; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Lind, Karin; Plez, Bertrand; Davies, Ben; Gazak, Zach E-mail: klind@mpa-garching.mpg.de E-mail: zgazak@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: bdavies@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2012-06-01

    Detailed non-LTE (NLTE) calculations for red supergiant (RSG) stars are presented to investigate the influence of NLTE on the formation of atomic iron and titanium lines in the J band. With their enormous brightness at J band RSG stars are ideal probes of cosmic abundances. Recent LTE studies have found that metallicities accurate to 0.15 dex can be determined from medium-resolution spectroscopy of individual RSGs in galaxies as distant as 10 Mpc. The NLTE results obtained in this investigation support these findings. NLTE abundance corrections for iron are smaller than 0.05 dex for effective temperatures between 3400 K and 4200 K and 0.1 dex at 4400 K. For titanium the NLTE abundance corrections vary smoothly between -0.4 dex and +0.2 dex as a function of effective temperature. For both elements, the corrections also depend on stellar gravity and metallicity. The physical reasons behind the NLTE corrections and the consequences for extragalactic J-band abundance studies are discussed.

  17. Sharpest views of Betelgeuse reveal how supergiant stars lose mass-Unveiling the true face of a behemoth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-07-01

    Using different state-of-the-art techniques on ESO's Very Large Telescope, two independent teams of astronomers have obtained the sharpest ever views of the supergiant star Betelgeuse. They show that the star has a vast plume of gas almost as large as our Solar System and a gigantic bubble boiling on its surface. These discoveries provide important clues to help explain how these mammoths shed material at such a tremendous rate. Betelgeuse - the second brightest star in the constellation of Orion (the Hunter) - is a red supergiant, one of the biggest stars known, and almost 1000 times larger than our Sun [1]. It is also one of the most luminous stars known, emitting more light than 100000 Suns. Such extreme properties foretell the demise of a short-lived stellar king. With an age of only a few million years, Betelgeuse is already nearing the end of its life and is soon doomed to explode as a supernova. When it does, the supernova should be seen easily from Earth, even in broad daylight. Red supergiants still hold several unsolved mysteries. One of them is just how these behemoths shed such tremendous quantities of material - about the mass of the Sun - in only 10 000 years. Two teams of astronomers have used ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the most advanced technologies to take a closer look at the gigantic star. Their combined work suggests that an answer to the long-open mass-loss question may well be at hand. The first team used the adaptive optics instrument, NACO, combined with a so-called "lucky imaging" technique, to obtain the sharpest ever image of Betelgeuse, even with Earth's turbulent, image-distorting atmosphere in the way. With lucky imaging, only the very sharpest exposures are chosen and then combined to form an image much sharper than a single, longer exposure would be. The resulting NACO images almost reach the theoretical limit of sharpness attainable for an 8-metre telescope. The resolution is as fine as 37 milliarcseconds, which is roughly

  18. Abundances of r-PROCESS Elements in the Photosphere of Red Supergiant Star PMMR23 in Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'Eva, S. V.; Gopka, V. F.; Yushchenko, A. V.; Andryevsky, S. M.

    Detailed analysis of chemical abundances determined from high-resolution CCD-spectrogram of supergiant star PMMR23 (K5 I) in SMC is presented. The observation were obtained at 3.6 meter ESO La Silla telescope by Hill (1997). Spectral resolving power is near R=30.000. The wavelength coverage is 5050-7200 A. The abundances of iron and 15 r-, s-processes elements are found. The abundances of Cu, Zr, Mo, Ru, Pr, Sm, Gd, Dy, Er are found for the first time. The abundances of elements with atomic numbers less than 55 are deficient with respect to the Sun. The mean underabundance is near 0.7 dex. The abundances of barium and lanthanides are near solar values. The overabundances of these elements with respect to iron are in the range from 0.4 tp 0.9 dex. The abundances of heavy lanthanides are higher than the abundances of light lanthanides. The abundance pattern of PMMR23 can be fitted by scaled solar r-process distribution. The atmosphere of PMMR23 is enriched by r-process elements.

  19. RED SUPERGIANT STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. I. THE PERIOD-LUMINOSITY RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Ming; Jiang, B. W. E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn

    2011-01-20

    From previous samples of red supergiants (RSGs) by various groups, 191 objects are assembled to compose a large sample of RSG candidates in LMC. For 189 of them, the identity as an RSG is verified by their brightness and color indexes in several near- and mid-infrared bands related to the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) JHK{sub S} bands and the Spitzer/IRAC and Spitzer/MIPS bands. From the visual time-series photometric observations by the ASAS and MACHO projects which cover nearly 8-10 years, the period and amplitude of light variation are analyzed carefully using both the phase dispersion minimization and Period04 methods. According to the properties of light variation, these objects are classified into five categories: (1) 20 objects are saturated in photometry or located in crowded stellar field with poor photometric results, (2) 35 objects with too complex variation to have any certain period, (3) 23 objects with irregular variation, (4) 16 objects with semi-regular variation, and (5) 95 objects with long secondary period (LSP) among which 31 have distinguishable short period and 51 have a long period shorter than 3000 days that can be determined with reasonable accuracy. For the semi-regular variables and the LSP variables with distinguishable short periods, the period-luminosity (P-L) relation is analyzed in the visual, near-infrared, and mid-infrared bands. It is found that the P-L relation is tight in the infrared bands such as the 2MASS JHK{sub S} bands and the Spitzer/IRAC bands, in particular in the Spitzer/IRAC [3.6] and [4.5] bands; meanwhile, the P-L relation is relatively sparse in the V band which may be caused by inhomogeneous interstellar extinction. The results are compared with others' P-L relationships for RSGs and the P-L sequences of red giants in LMC.

  20. GALEX AND PAN-STARRS1 DISCOVERY OF SN IIP 2010aq: THE FIRST FEW DAYS AFTER SHOCK BREAKOUT IN A RED SUPERGIANT STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Gezari, S.; Huber, M. E.; Grav, T.; Rest, A.; Narayan, G.; Forster, K.; Neill, J. D.; Martin, D. C.; Valenti, S.; Smartt, S. J.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Mattila, S.; Kankare, E.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Dombeck, T.; Heasley, J. N.; Hodapp, K. W.

    2010-09-01

    We present the early UV and optical light curve of Type IIP supernova (SN) 2010aq at z = 0.0862, and compare it to analytical models for thermal emission following SN shock breakout in a red supergiant star. SN 2010aq was discovered in joint monitoring between the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Time Domain Survey (TDS) in the NUV and the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1 MDS) in the g, r, i, and z bands. The GALEX and Pan-STARRS1 observations detect the SN less than 1 day after the shock breakout, measure a diluted blackbody temperature of 31, 000 {+-} 6000 K 1 day later, and follow the rise in the UV/optical light curve over the next 2 days caused by the expansion and cooling of the SN ejecta. The high signal-to-noise ratio of the simultaneous UV and optical photometry allows us to fit for a progenitor star radius of 700 {+-} 200R {sub sun}, the size of a red supergiant star. An excess in UV emission two weeks after shock breakout compared with SNe well fitted by model atmosphere-code synthetic spectra with solar metallicity is best explained by suppressed line blanketing due to a lower metallicity progenitor star in SN 2010aq. Continued monitoring of PS1 MDS fields by the GALEX TDS will increase the sample of early UV detections of Type II SNe by an order of magnitude and probe the diversity of SN progenitor star properties.

  1. IUE and Einstein survey of late-type giant and supergiant stars and the dividing line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, Bernhard M.; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Maggio, A.; Vaiana, G. S.; Bennett, Jeffrey O.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on an IUE UV survey of 255 late-type G, K, and M stars, complementing the Maggio et al. (1990) Einstein X-ray survey of 380 late-type stars. The large data sample of X-ray and UV detections make it possible to examine the activity relationship between the X-ray and the UV emissions. The results confirm previous finding of a trend involving a steeply-dropping upper envelope of the transition region line fluxes, f(line)/f(V), as the dividing line is approached. This suggests that a sharp decrease in maximum activity accompanies the advancing spectral type, with the dividing line corresponding to this steep gradient region. The results confirm the rotation-activity connection for stars in this region of the H-R diagram.

  2. Luminosities and mass-loss rates of SMC and LMC AGB stars and red supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Sloan, G. C.; Soszyński, I.; Petersen, E. A.

    2009-11-01

    Context: Mass loss is one of the fundamental properties of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars, and through the enrichment of the interstellar medium, AGB stars are key players in the life cycle of dust and gas in the universe. However, a quantitative understanding of the mass-loss process is still largely lacking, particularly its dependence on metallicity. Aims: To investigate the relation between mass loss, luminosity and pulsation period for a large sample of evolved stars in the Small and Large Magellanic Cloud. Methods: Dust radiative transfer models are presented for 101 carbon stars and 86 oxygen-rich evolved stars in the Magellanic Clouds for which 5-35 μm Spitzer IRS spectra are available. The spectra are complemented with available optical and infrared photometry to construct the spectral energy distribution. A minimisation procedure is used to fit luminosity, mass-loss rate and dust temperature at the inner radius. Different effective temperatures and dust content are also considered. Periods from the literature and from new OGLE-III data are compiled and derived. Results: We derive (dust) mass-loss rates and luminosities for the entire sample. Based on luminosities, periods and amplitudes and colours, the O-rich stars are classified as foreground objects, AGB stars and Red Super Giants. For the O-rich stars silicates based on laboratory optical constants are compared to “astronomical silicates”. Overall, the grain type by Volk & Kwok (1988, ApJ, 331, 435) fits the data best. However, the fit based on laboratory optical constants for the grains can be improved by abandoning the small-particle limit. The influence of grain size, core-mantle grains and porosity are explored. A computationally convenient method that seems to describe the observed properties in the 10 μm window are a distribution of hollow spheres with a large vacuum fraction (typically 70%), and grain size of about 1 μm. Relations between mass-loss rates and luminosity and pulsation

  3. The Jet from MWC 137 Points at a Supergiant B[e] Star in a Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehner, A.; de Wit, W. J.; Groh, J. H.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Baade, D.; Rivinius, Th.; Selman, F.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Martayan, C.

    2017-02-01

    The Galactic B[e] star MWC 137 is a prime example of an object with an uncertain evolutionary classification. Previous work has suggested that is either a pre- or a post-main sequence object. Integral field spectrograph observations with the Very Large Telescope Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (VLT MUSE) of the host cluster SH 2-266 are used to provide a reliable evolutionary classification. The MUSE data also allowed the discovery of a large collimated outflow, geometrically centered on MWC 137. A color-magnitude diagram analysis of the cluster promotes strongly a post-main sequence stage for MWC 137, while the existence of a jet implies the presence of an accretion disk. A SWIFT X-ray source, which may be associated with MWC 137, hints at the possibility of a neutron star companion.

  4. DUST PRODUCTION FACTORIES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE: FORMATION OF CARBON GRAINS IN RED-SUPERGIANT WINDS OF VERY MASSIVE POPULATION III STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Nozawa, Takaya; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Maeda, Keiichi; Kozasa, Takashi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Langer, Norbert

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the formation of dust in a stellar wind during the red-supergiant (RSG) phase of a very massive Population III star with a zero-age main sequence mass of 500 M {sub ☉}. We show that, in a carbon-rich wind with a constant velocity, carbon grains can form with a lognormal-like size distribution, and that all of the carbon available for dust formation finally condenses into dust for wide ranges of the mass-loss rate ((0.1-3) × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) and wind velocity (1-100 km s{sup –1}). We also find that the acceleration of the wind, driven by newly formed dust, suppresses the grain growth but still allows more than half of the gas-phase carbon to finally be locked up in dust grains. These results indicate that, at most, 1.7 M {sub ☉} of carbon grains can form during the RSG phase of 500 M {sub ☉} Population III stars. Such a high dust yield could place very massive primordial stars as important sources of dust at the very early epoch of the universe if the initial mass function of Population III stars was top-heavy. We also briefly discuss a new formation scenario of carbon-rich ultra-metal-poor stars, considering feedback from very massive Population III stars.

  5. THE CONTRIBUTION OF THERMALLY-PULSING ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH AND RED SUPERGIANT STARS TO THE LUMINOSITIES OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS AT 1-24 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Melbourne, J.; Boyer, Martha L. E-mail: martha.l.boyer@nasa.gov

    2013-02-10

    We present the near-through mid-infrared flux contribution of thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) and massive red supergiant (RSG) stars to the luminosities of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively). Combined, the peak contribution from these cool evolved stars occurs at {approx}3-4 {mu}m, where they produce 32% of the SMC light, and 25% of the LMC flux. The TP-AGB star contribution also peaks at {approx}3-4 {mu}m and amounts to 21% in both galaxies. The contribution from RSG stars peaks at shorter wavelengths, 2.2 {mu}m, where they provide 11% of the SMC flux, and 7% for the LMC. Both TP-AGB and RSG stars are short lived, and thus potentially impose a large stochastic scatter on the near-IR derived mass-to-light (M/L) ratios of galaxies at rest-frame 1-4 {mu}m. To minimize their impact on stellar mass estimates, one can use the M/L ratio at shorter wavelengths (e.g., at 0.8-1 {mu}m). At longer wavelengths ({>=}8 {mu}m), emission from dust in the interstellar medium dominates the flux. In the LMC, which shows strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission at 8 {mu}m, TP-AGB and RSG contribute less than 4% of the 8 {mu}m flux. However, 19% of the SMC 8 {mu}m flux is from evolved stars, nearly half of which is produced by the rarest, dustiest, carbon-rich TP-AGB stars. Thus, star formation rates of galaxies, based on an 8 {mu}m flux (e.g., observed-frame 24 {mu}m at z = 2), may be biased modestly high, especially for galaxies with little PAH emission.

  6. Spitzer-IRS Spectroscopic Studies of the Properties of Dust from Oxygen-Rich Asymptotic Giant Branch and Red Supergiant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Speck, A.; Volk, K.; Kemper, C.; Reach, W. T.; Lagadec, E.; Bernard, J.; McDonald, I.; Meixner, M.; Srinivasan, S.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the dust emission features seen in Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of Oxygen-rich (O-rich) asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars. The spectra come from the Spitzer Legacy program SAGE-Spectroscopy (PI: F. Kemper) and other archival Spitzer-IRS programs. The broad 10 and 20 micron emission features attributed to amorphous dust of silicate composition seen in the spectra show evidence for systematic differences in the centroid of both emission features between O-rich AGB and RSG populations. Radiative transfer modeling using the GRAMS grid of models of AGB and RSG stars suggests that the centroid differences are due to differences in dust properties. We investigate differences in dust composition, size, shape, etc that might be responsible for these spectral differences. We explore how these differences may arise from the different circumstellar environments around RSG and O-rich AGB stars. BAS acknowledges funding from NASA ADAP grant NNX13AD54G.

  7. B supergiants in open clusters and associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmany, C. D.

    The final report on project NAG5-78, 'IUE Observations of B Supergiants in the Large Magellanic Cloud', a collaborative effort between Garmany (U. of Colorado), Sonneborn (Goddard Space Flight Center) and Fitzpatrick (Princeton Univ.) is presented. Over 90 B supergiants in the Large Magellanic Cloud with the IUE satellite, using the low dispersion mode were observed. These stars were chosen because they resemble the precursor star to SN 1987a, and a data base in the continuing effort to understand why the precursor star was a blue, not a red supergiant was needed. The observations were all reduced and made into an atlas, and efforts to understand the evolutionary history of stars of the H-R diagram are underway.

  8. APERTURE SYNTHESIS OBSERVATIONS OF CO, HCN, AND 89 GHz CONTINUUM EMISSION TOWARD NGC 604 IN M33: SEQUENTIAL STAR FORMATION INDUCED BY A SUPERGIANT H II REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Rie; Okumura, Sachiko K.; Kurono, Yasutaka; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Tosaki, Tomoka; Tamura, Yoichi; Kuno, Nario; Kawabe, Ryohei; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Hasegawa, Takashi

    2010-12-01

    We present the results from new Nobeyama Millimeter Array observations of CO(1-0), HCN(1-0), and 89 GHz continuum emission toward NGC 604, known as the supergiant H II region in the nearby galaxy M33. Our high spatial resolution images (4.''2 x 2.''6, corresponding to 17 pc x 11 pc physical size) of CO emission allowed us to uncover 10 individual molecular clouds that have masses of (0.8-7.4) x10{sup 5} M{sub sun} and sizes of 5-29 pc, comparable to those of typical Galactic giant molecular clouds. Moreover, we detected for the first time HCN emission in the two most massive clouds and 89 GHz continuum emission at the rims of the 'H{alpha} shells'. The HCN and 89 GHz continuum emission are offset from the CO peak and are distributed in the direction of the central cluster. Three out of ten CO clouds are well correlated with the H{alpha} shells both in spatial and velocity domains, implying an interaction between molecular gas and the expanding H II region. The CO clouds show varieties in star formation efficiencies (SFEs), which are estimated from the 89 GHz emission and combination of H{alpha} and Spitzer 24 {mu}m data. Furthermore, we found that the SFEs decrease with increasing projected distance measured from the heart of the central OB star cluster in NGC 604, suggesting radial changes in the evolutionary stages of the molecular clouds in the course of stellar cluster formation. Our results provide further support to the picture of sequential star formation in NGC 604 initially proposed by Tosaki et al. with the higher spatially resolved molecular clouds, in which an isotropic expansion of the H II region pushes gases outward, which accumulates to form dense molecular clouds, and then induces massive star formations.

  9. The identification of extreme asymptotic giant branch stars and red supergiants in M33 with 24 μm variability

    SciTech Connect

    Montiel, Edward J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Johnson, Christopher B.; Srinivasan, Sundar; Engelbracht, Charles W.

    2015-02-01

    We present the first detection of 24 μm variability in 24 sources in the Local Group galaxy M33. These results are based on 4 epochs of Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer observations, which are irregularly spaced over ∼750 days. We find that these sources are constrained exclusively to the Holmberg radius of the galaxy, which increases their chances of being members of M33. We have constructed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) ranging from the optical to the submillimeter to investigate the nature of these objects. We find that 23 of our objects are most likely heavily self-obscured, evolved stars, while the remaining source is the Giant H ii region, NGC 604. We believe that the observed variability is the intrinsic variability of the central star reprocessed through their circumstellar dust shells. Radiative transfer modeling was carried out to determine their likely chemical composition, luminosity, and dust production rate (DPR). As a sample, our modeling has determined an average luminosity of (3.8±0.9)×10{sup 4} L{sub ⊙} and a total DPR of (2.3±0.1)×10{sup −5} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Most of the sources, given the high DPRs and short wavelength obscuration, are likely extreme asymptotic giant branch (XAGB) stars. Five of the sources are found to have luminosities above the classical AGB limit (M{sub bol} <−7.1 mag, L > 54,000 L{sub ⊙}), which classifies them as probable red supergiants (RSGs). Almost all of the sources are classified as oxygen-rich. As also seen in the LMC, a significant fraction of the dust in M33 is produced by a handful of XAGB and RSG stars.

  10. Discovery and Characterization of Luminous Blue Variables, Wolf-Rayet Stars, and Massive Supergiants and Their Shells Using Spitzer, WISE, and Herschel Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringfellow, Guy

    The extensive WISE all-sky 12 and 22 micron survey data, the Herschel PACS and SPIRE imaging archive (including the GTO and OT Key Programs), as well as the Spitzer IRAC 8 and MIPS 24 micron imaging archival data (GO, GTO, and Legacy Surveys) are being mined for the discovery of new shell and ring-nebulae. Combined with 2MASS data, the progenitor stars are also being identified, and optical and near-IR spectroscopy obtained to confirm their spectral types. Origin of the nebulae arise from a variety of progenitors that include very massive stars, with the vast majority not having been previously identified. Representative classes for the progenitor stars are Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs), Wolf-Rayet (WR), B[e], OB, and Supergiant stars. The discovery potential for these rare massive evolved stars from the mid-IR imaging archives is greater than any other technique utilized over the past several decades, including extensive broadband infrared photometry-color determinations (Hadfield et al. 2007), and near-IR narrowband methods (Shara et al. 2009). The statistics being provided on this new, previously hidden population of evolved stars may very well enable evolutionary pathways to be better delineated, thereby identifying the physics operating in these extreme stars. The data being collected will more tightly define the evolutionary models that apply to these stars, and that enter into modeling and interpretation of extragalactic massive star formation regions (starbursts). Multi-wavelength color-color maps wil be constructed and used to analyze the dust distribution, the energetics of the nebulae and its interaction with the ISM, and identification of nearby star formation perhaps being triggered by the massive stars and the nebulae they produce. As demonstrated in a recent publication presenting the discovery and analysis of two new candidate LBVs found in the early WISE data release (Gvaramadze et al. 2012), much discovery potential yet resides within the

  11. Red supergiants as type II supernova progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Dorda, Ricardo; González-Fernández, Carlos; Marco, Amparo

    2015-08-01

    Recent searches for supernova IIp progenitors in external galaxies have led to the identification of red objects with magnitudes and colours indicative of red supergiants, in most cases implying quite low luminosities and hence masses well below 10Msol. Stellar models, on the other hand, do not predict explosions from objects below 9 Msol. What does our knowledge of local red supergiants tells us about the expected properties of such objects?We have carried out a comprehensive spectroscopic and photometric study of a sample of hundreds of red supergiants in the Milky Way and both Magellanic Clouds. We have explored correlations between different parameters and the position of stars in the HR diagrams of open clusters. At solar metallicty, there is strong evidence for a phase of very heavy mass loss at the end of the red supergiant phase, but the existence of such a phase is still not confirmed at SMC metallicities. Objects of ~ 7Msol, on the other hand, become very dusty in the SMC, and appear as very luminous Miras.Among Milky Way clusters, we find a surprising lack of objects readily identifiable as the expected 7 to 10 Msol red supergiants or AGB stars. We are carrying out an open cluster survey aimed at filling this region of the HR diagram with reliable data. Finally, we will discuss the implications of all this findings for the expected properties of supernova progenitors, as it looks unlikely that typical red supergiants may explode without undergoing further evolution.

  12. NuSTAR observations of the supergiant X-ray pulsar IGR J18027-2016: accretion from the stellar wind and possible cyclotron absorption line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutovinov, Alexander A.; Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Postnov, Konstantin A.; Krivonos, Roman A.; Molkov, Sergey V.; Tomsick, John A.

    2017-04-01

    We report on the first focused hard X-ray view of the absorbed supergiant system IGR J18027-2016 performed with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observatory. The pulsations are clearly detected with a period of Pspin = 139.866(1) s and a pulse fraction of about 50-60 per cent at energies from 3 to 80 keV. The source demonstrates an approximately constant X-ray luminosity on a time-scale of more than dozen years with an average spin-down rate of dot{P}≃ 6× 10^{-10} s s-1. This behaviour of the pulsar can be explained in terms of the wind accretion model in the settling regime. The detailed spectral analysis at energies above 10 keV was performed for the first time and revealed a possible cyclotron absorption feature at energy ∼23 keV. This energy corresponds to the magnetic field B ≃ 3 × 1012 G at the surface of the neutron star, which is typical for X-ray pulsars.

  13. Infrared Space Observatory Observations of Far-Infrared Rotational Emission Lines of Water Vapor Toward the Supergiant Star VY Canis Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Harwit, Martin; Melnick, Gary J.

    1999-01-01

    We report the detection of numerous far-infrared emission lines of water vapor toward the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris. A 29.5-45 micron grating scan of VY CMa, obtained using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory at a spectral resolving power lambda/delat.lambda of approximately 2000, reveals at least 41 spectral features due to water vapor that together radiate a total luminosity of approximately 25 solar luminosity . In addition to pure rotational transitions within the ground vibrational state, these features include rotational transitions within the (010) excited vibrational state. The spectrum also shows the (sup 2)product(sub 1/2) (J = 5/2) left arrow (sup 2)product(sub 3/2) (J = 3/2) OH feature near 34.6 micron in absorption. Additional SWS observations of VY CMa were carried out in the instrument's Fabry-Perot mode for three water transitions: the 7(sub 25)-6(sub 16) line at 29.8367 micron, the 4(sub 41)-3(sub 12) line at 31.7721 micron, and the 4(sub 32)-3(sub 03) line at 40.6909 micron. The higher spectral resolving power lambda/delta.lambda of approximately 30,000 thereby obtained permits the line profiles to be resolved spectrally for the first time and reveals the "P Cygni" profiles that are characteristic of emission from an outflowing envelope.

  14. Stellar Parameters and Winds of Red Supergiants in Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, K.

    The proposed target stars (zeta Aur, 31 Cyg) are eclipsing binary systems with K supergiant primaries and B-type main sequence companions. From these binaries, we will determine key information about fundamental stellar parameters and outer atmospheric structure that can not be obtained from observations of single red supergiants. The proposed observations are directed towards understanding the mass loss process driving the massive winds of red supergiants. In particular, the proposed FUSE observations will support the following analyses: -- detailed model atmosphere analyses of the B-stars' continua -- determining accurate radial velocities of the B-type secondaries -- analyses of the wind absorption features of the red supergiant primaries. From these FUSE observations, we will determine improved fundamental stellar parameters of red supergiants (effective temperatures, radii, masses and luminosities) and wind properties (velocity laws and mass loss rates).

  15. Luminous and Variable Stars in M31 and M33. IV. Luminous Blue Variables, Candidate LBVs, B[e] Supergiants, and the Warm Hypergiants: How to Tell Them Apart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Gordon, Michael S.; Martin, John C.; Weis, Kerstin; Hahn, David

    2017-02-01

    In this series of papers we have presented the results of a spectroscopic survey of luminous stars in the nearby spirals M31 and M33. Here, we present spectroscopy of 132 additional stars. Most have emission-line spectra, including luminous blue variables (LBVs) and candidate LBVs, Fe ii emission line stars, the B[e] supergiants, and the warm hypergiants. Many of these objects are spectroscopically similar and are often confused with each other. We examine their similarities and differences and propose the following guidelines that can be used to help distinguish these stars in future work. (1) The B[e] supergiants have emission lines of [O i] and [Fe ii] in their spectra. Most of the spectroscopically confirmed sgB[e] stars also have warm circumstellar dust in their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). (2) Confirmed LBVs do not have the [O i] emission lines in their spectra. Some LBVs have [Fe ii] emission lines, but not all. Their SEDs show free–free emission in the near-infrared but no evidence for warm dust. Their most important and defining characteristic is the S Dor-type variability. (3) The warm hypergiants spectroscopically resemble the LBVs in their dense wind state and the B[e] supergiants. However, they are very dusty. Some have [Fe ii] and [O i] emission in their spectra like the sgB[e] stars, but are distinguished by their A- and F-type absorption-line spectra. In contrast, the B[e] supergiant spectra have strong continua and few if any apparent absorption lines. Candidate LBVs should share the spectral characteristics of the confirmed LBVs with low outflow velocities and the lack of warm circumstellar dust. Based on observations with the Multiple Mirror Telescope, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona and on observations obtained with the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are The University of

  16. The Winds of B Supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Derck; West, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present the most suitable data sets available in the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) archive for the study of time-dependent stellar winds in early B supergiants. The UV line profile variability in 11 B0 to B3 stars is analyzed, compared and discussed, based on 16 separate data sets comprising over 600 homogeneously reduced high-resolution spectrograms. The targets include 'normal' stars with moderate rotation rates and examples of rapid rotators. A gallery of grey-scale images (dynamic spectra) is presented, which demonstrates the richness and range of wind variability and highlights different structures in the winds of these stars. This work emphasizes the suitability of B supergiants for wind studies, under-pinned by the fact that they exhibit unsaturated wind lines for a wide range of ionization. The wind activity of B supergiants is substantial and has highly varied characteristics. The variability evident in individual stars is classified and described in terms of discrete absorption components, spontaneous absorption, bowed structures, recurrence, and ionization variability and stratification. Similar structures can occur in stars of different fundamental parameters but also different structures may occur in the same star at a given epoch. We discuss the physical phenomena that may be associated with the spectral signatures, and highlight the challenges that these phenomena present to theoretical studies of time-dependent outflows in massive stars. In addition, SEI line-synthesis modelling of the UV wind lines is used to provide further information about the state of the winds in our program stars. Typically the range, implied by the line profile variability, in the product of mass-loss rate and ion fraction (M qi) is a factor of approximately 1.5, when integrated between 0.2 and 0.9 v infinity; it it can however be several times larger over localized velocity regions. At a given effective temperature the mean relative ion ratios can differ by a

  17. The Winds of B Supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, D.; Oliversen, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present the most suitable data sets available in the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) archive for the study of time-dependent stellar winds in early B supergiants. The UV line profile variability in 11 B0 to B3 stars is analyzed, compared and discussed, based on 16 separate data sets comprising over 600 homogeneously reduced high-resolution spectrograms. The targets include 'normal' stars with moderate rotation rates and examples of rapid rotators. A gallery of grey-scale images (dynamic spectra) is presented, which demonstrates the richness and range of wind variability and highlights different structures in the winds of these stars. This work emphasises the suitability of B supergiants for wind studies, under-pinned by the fact that they exhibit unsaturated wind lines for a wide range of ionization. The wind activity of B supergiants is substantial and has highly varied characteristics. The variability evident in individual stars is classified and described in terms of discrete absorption components, spontaneous absorption, bowed structures, recurrence, and ionization variability and stratification. Similar structures can occur in stars of different fundamental parameters, but also different structures may occur in the same star at a given epoch. We discuss the physical phenomena that may be associated with the spectral signatures, and highlight the challenges that these phenomena present to theoretical studies of time-dependent outflows in massive stars. In addition, SEI line-synthesis modelling of the UV wind lines is used to provide further information about the state of the winds in our program stars. Typically the range, implied by the line profile variability, in the product of mass-loss rate and ion fraction (M (dot) q(sub i)) is a factor of approximately 1.5, when integrated between 0.2 and 0.9 v infinity; it can however be several times larger over localized velocity regions. At a given effective temperature the mean relative ion ratios can

  18. New perspectives on red supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorda, R.; Negueruela, I.; González-Fernández, C.; Tabernero H. M.

    2017-03-01

    There is a high interest in cool supergiants (CSGs), because they play a key role in the understanding of the evolution and death of massive stars: most high-mass stars pass through this phase at some point of their evolution, and the physical conditions during it will determine their subsequent evolution. In addition, these stars are a powerful high-mass stellar formation tracers and also the main progenitors of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). Despite this, they are poorly characterized in some aspects: their extreme sizes and peculiar conditions defy the predictions of present-day atmospheric and evolutionary models. To bring perspective to this topic, we investigate the behaviour of CSGs as a population. For this, we studied the largest homogeneous multiepoch spectroscopic sample of CSGs (from the SMC and LMC) to date (>500). Our results give a new global view about the physical conditions of CSGs and their evolution

  19. GHRS Observations of Cool, Low-Gravity Stars. 5; The Outer Atmosphere and Wind of the Nearby K Supergiant Lambda Velorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Robinson, Richard D.; Harper, Graham M.; Bennett, Philip D.; Brown, Alexander; Mullan, Dermott J.

    1999-01-01

    UV spectra of lambda Velorum taken with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope are used to probe the structure of the outer atmospheric layers and wind and to estimate the mass-loss rate from this K5 lb-II supergiant. VLA radio observations at lambda = 3.6 cm are used to obtain an independent check on the wind velocity and mass-loss rate inferred from the UV observations, Parameters of the chromospheric structure are estimated from measurements of UV line widths, positions, and fluxes and from the UV continuum flux distribution. The ratios of optically thin C II] emission lines indicate a mean chromospheric electron density of log N(sub e) approximately equal 8.9 +/- 0.2 /cc. The profiles of these lines indicate a chromospheric turbulence (v(sub 0) approximately equal 25-36 km/s), which greatly exceeds that seen in either the photosphere or wind. The centroids of optically thin emission lines of Fe II and of the emission wings of self-reversed Fe II lines indicate that they are formed in plasma approximately at rest with respect to the photosphere of the star. This suggests that the acceleration of the wind occurs above the chromospheric regions in which these emission line photons are created. The UV continuum detected by the GHRS clearly traces the mean flux-formation temperature as it increases with height in the chromosphere from a well-defined temperature minimum of 3200 K up to about 4600 K. Emission seen in lines of C III] and Si III] provides evidence of material at higher than chromospheric temperatures in the outer atmosphere of this noncoronal star. The photon-scattering wind produces self-reversals in the strong chromospheric emission lines, which allow us to probe the velocity field of the wind. The velocities to which these self-absorptions extend increase with intrinsic line strength, and thus height in the wind, and therefore directly map the wind acceleration. The width and shape of these self

  20. Fossil dust shells around luminous supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.

    1975-01-01

    The observed frequency with which infrared excesses appear in F, G, and K supergiants of luminosity class Ia supports the idea that these excesses arise in a 'fossil' circumstellar dust shell that was formed during a prior M-super-giant phase of evolution. The required leftward evolution of the star on the H-R diagram would then imply that the Ledoux, rather than the Schwarzschild, criterion for convective mixing is the correct criterion to use in stellar evolution calculations.

  1. Supernova shock breakout from a red supergiant.

    PubMed

    Schawinski, Kevin; Justham, Stephen; Wolf, Christian; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Sullivan, Mark; Steenbrugge, Katrien C; Bell, Tony; Röser, Hermann-Josef; Walker, Emma S; Astier, Pierre; Balam, Dave; Balland, Christophe; Carlberg, Ray; Conley, Alex; Fouchez, Dominique; Guy, Julien; Hardin, Delphine; Hook, Isobel; Howell, D Andrew; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris; Regnault, Nicolas; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2008-07-11

    Massive stars undergo a violent death when the supply of nuclear fuel in their cores is exhausted, resulting in a catastrophic "core-collapse" supernova. Such events are usually only detected at least a few days after the star has exploded. Observations of the supernova SNLS-04D2dc with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer space telescope reveal a radiative precursor from the supernova shock before the shock reached the surface of the star and show the initial expansion of the star at the beginning of the explosion. Theoretical models of the ultraviolet light curve confirm that the progenitor was a red supergiant, as expected for this type of supernova. These observations provide a way to probe the physics of core-collapse supernovae and the internal structures of their progenitor stars.

  2. Absolute energy curves from late B-type supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underhill, A. B.

    1981-01-01

    Energy curves were determined for six late B and early A type supergiants using IUE data and other ultraviolet and ground based photometry. Effective temperatures and angular diameters are presented as well as estimates of the outflow velocity of the wind. All six stars show a strong Balmer continuum in emission; the Ia supergiants also show an infrared excess which reaches into the visible range. Evidence is found for the presence of a warm mantle as well as for wind from the Ia stars.

  3. Mass loss in red giants and supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanner, F.

    1975-01-01

    The circumstellar envelopes surrounding late-type giants and supergiants were studied using high resolution, photoelectric scans of strong optical resonance lines. A method for extracting the circumstellar from the stellar components of the lines allowed a quantitative determination of the physical conditions in the envelopes and the rates of mass loss at various positions in the red giant region of the HR diagram. The observed strengthening of the circumstellar spectrum with increasing luminosity and later spectral type is probably caused by an increase in the mass of the envelopes. The mass loss rate for individual stars is proportional to the visual luminosity; high rates for the supergiants suggest that mass loss is important in their evolution. The bulk of the mass return to the interstellar medium in the red giant region comes from the normal giants, at a rate comparable to that of planetary nebulae.

  4. Unveiling the evolutionary phase of B[e] supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratore, M. F.; Kraus, M.; Liermann, A.; Schnurr, O.; Cidale, L. S.; Arias, M. L.

    We obtained medium resolution K-band spectra for two B[e] supergiants and one yellow hypergiant (YHG) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and found that the spectra of all three stars show enhanced 13CO band emis- sion, in agreement with theoretical predictions for evolved massive stars. Our preliminary results for the two B[e]SGs seem to indicate that one is a pre-RSG star while the other is in a post-RSG phase.

  5. The Red Supergiant Content of M31*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Philip; Evans, Kate Anne

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the red supergiant (RSG) population of M31, obtaining the radial velocities of 255 stars. These data substantiate membership of our photometrically selected sample, demonstrating that Galactic foreground stars and extragalactic RSGs can be distinguished on the basis of B - V, V - R two-color diagrams. In addition, we use these spectra to measure effective temperatures and assign spectral types, deriving physical properties for 192 RSGs. Comparison with the solar metallicity Geneva evolutionary tracks indicates astonishingly good agreement. The most luminous RSGs in M31 are likely evolved from 25-30 M ⊙ stars, while the vast majority evolved from stars with initial masses of 20 M ⊙ or less. There is an interesting bifurcation in the distribution of RSGs with effective temperatures that increases with higher luminosities, with one sequence consisting of early K-type supergiants, and with the other consisting of M-type supergiants that become later (cooler) with increasing luminosities. This separation is only partially reflected in the evolutionary tracks, although that might be due to the mis-match in metallicities between the solar Geneva models and the higher-than-solar metallicity of M31. As the luminosities increase the median spectral type also increases; i.e., the higher mass RSGs spend more time at cooler temperatures than do those of lower luminosities, a result which is new to this study. Finally we discuss what would be needed observationally to successfully build a luminosity function that could be used to constrain the mass-loss rates of RSGs as our Geneva colleagues have suggested. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution. This paper uses data products produced by the OIR Telescope Data Center, supported by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  6. Models for circumstellar nebulae around red and blue supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chita, S. M.

    2011-10-01

    In this thesis, we model the circumstellar medium of stars with initial masses of 8, 12, 18 and 20 solar masses, over their entire life from the main sequence until their supernova explosion. During the post-main-sequence stages, stars can evolve through several blue and red supergiant stages depending on their initial mass, composition and rotation rate. The models considered in the second Chapter have long-lasting RSG stages starting after the MS. In this phase, they develop shells of RSG wind material at the location where the free streaming RSG wind is stalled by the thermal pressure of the hot MS bubble, close to the central star. The RSG shells develop violent Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Once these start to grow non-linear, the RSG shell becomes highly structured as clumps form, and shell material mixes with material in the hot bubble. Later, the stars evolve to the BSG stage, during which the RSG shells are completely destroyed. These models return to the RSG stage, and build new RSG shells, which are more massive than those formed earlier. RSG shells are essential for our understanding of bipolar emission nebulae around BSGs. In the third Chapter are shown the results of the wind-wind interaction model of single star with 12 solar masses. On a time scale of a few 10000 yr, a BSG hour-glas shaped nebula expands into the sphere defined by the RSG shell. The faster polar parts of the hour glass hit the inner edge of the RSG shell first. The collision creates a pair of hot and dense polar caps. As time passes, the collision zone moves to lower latitudes of the RSG shell and becomes more confined in latitude. At the same time, the interaction of the BSG wind with the equatorial disk defines a second, ring shaped collision zone in the equatorial plane. These structures are reminiscent of the observed nebulae around the blue supergiant Sher 25. In the Chapter 3 we present calculations that predict the properties of the circumstellar medium for rapidly rotating

  7. THE DUSTY CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS OF B[e] SUPERGIANTS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Kastner, Joel H.; Buchanan, Catherine; Sahai, Raghvendra; Sargent, Benjamin A. E-mail: clb@unimelb.edu.a

    2010-05-15

    To better ascertain the nature of the infrared excesses that are characteristic of B[e] supergiants, we obtained Spitzer IRS spectroscopy and IRAC/MIPS imaging for a sample of nine B[e] supergiant stars in the Magellanic Clouds. We find that all nine stars display mid- to far-IR spectral and spatial characteristics indicative of the presence of circumstellar dust disks. Several of the sample B[e] supergiants display crystalline silicate features in their IRS spectra, consistent with grain processing in long-lived (i.e., orbiting) disks. Although it is possible that these disks are primordial in origin, large shell structures (with size scales of tens of parsec) are associated with five of the nine B[e] supergiants, suggesting that mass loss has provided the circumstellar material now orbiting these stars. Hence-via analogy to the class of post-asymptotic giant branch stars with binary companions and dusty, circumbinary disks-we speculate that B[e] supergiant stars may be post-red supergiants in binary systems with orbiting, circumbinary disks that are derived from post-main-sequence mass loss.

  8. A Runaway Red Supergiant in M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Kate Anne; Massey, Philip

    2015-11-01

    A significant percentage of OB stars are runaways, so we can expect a similar percentage of their evolved descendants to also be runaways. However, recognizing such stars presents its own set of challenges, as these older, more evolved stars will have drifted farther from their birthplace, and thus their velocities might not be obviously peculiar. Several Galactic red supergiants (RSGs) have been described as likely runaways based on the existence of bow shocks, including Betelgeuse. Here we announce the discovery of a runaway RSG in M31 based on a 300 km s-1 discrepancy with M31's kinematics. The star is found about 21‧ (4.6 kpc) from the plane of the disk, but this separation is consistent with its velocity and likely age (˜10 Myr). The star, J004330.06+405258.4, is an M2 I, with MV = -5.7, {log}L/{L}⊙ = 4.76, an effective temperature of 3700 K, and an inferred mass of 12-15M⊙. The star may be a high-mass analog of the hypervelocity stars, given that its peculiar space velocity is probably 400-450 km s-1, comparable to the escape speed from M31's disk. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution. This paper uses data products produced by the OIR Telescope Data Center, supported by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  9. A Runaway Red Supergiant in M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Kate Anne; Massey, Philip

    2016-01-01

    A significant percentage of OB stars are runaways, so we should expect a similar percentage of their evolved descendants to also be runaways. However, recognizing such stars presents its own set of challenges, as these older, more evolved stars will have drifted further from their birthplace, and thus their velocities might not be obviously peculiar. Several Galactic red supergiants (RSGs) have been described as likely runaways, based upon the existence of bow shocks, including Betelgeuse. Here we announce the discovery of a runaway RSG in M31, based upon a 300 km s-1 discrepancy with M31's kinematics. The star is found about 21‧ (4.6 kpc) from the plane of the disk, but this separation is consistent with its velocity and likely age (˜10 Myr). The star, J004330.06+405258.4, is an M2 I, with MV=-5.7, log L/L⊙=4.76, an effective temperature of 3700 K, and an inferred mass of 12-15 M⊙. The star may be a high-mass analog of the hypervelocity stars, given that its peculiar space velocity is probably 400-450 km s-1, comparable to the escape speed from M31's disk. K. A. E.'s work was supported by the NSF's Research Experience for Undergraduates program through AST-1461200, and P. M.'s was partially supported by the NSF through AST-1008020 and through Lowell Observatory.

  10. Long term variability of B supergiant winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Derck L.

    1995-01-01

    The object of this observing proposal was to sample wind variability in B supergiants on a daily basis over a period of several days in order to determine the time scale with which density variability occurs in their winds. Three stars were selected for this project: 69 Cyg (B0 Ib), HD 164402 (B0 Ib), and HD 47240 (B1 Ib). Three grey scale representations of the Si IV lambda lambda 1400 doublet in each star are attached. In these figures, time (in days) increases upward, and the wavelength (in terms of velocity relative to the rest wavelength of the violet component of the doublet) is the abscissa. The spectra are normalized by a minimum absorption (maximum flux) template, so that all changes appear as absorptions. As a result of these observations, we can now state with some certainty that typical B supergiants develop significant wind inhomogeneities with recurrence times of a few days, and that some of these events show signs of strong temporal coherence.

  11. Magnetic braking of stellar cores in red giants and supergiants

    SciTech Connect

    Maeder, André; Meynet, Georges E-mail: georges.meynet@unige.ch

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic configurations, stable on the long term, appear to exist in various evolutionary phases, from main-sequence stars to white dwarfs and neutron stars. The large-scale ordered nature of these fields, often approximately dipolar, and their scaling according to the flux conservation scenario favor a fossil field model. We make some first estimates of the magnetic coupling between the stellar cores and the outer layers in red giants and supergiants. Analytical expressions of the truncation radius of the field coupling are established for a convective envelope and for a rotating radiative zone with horizontal turbulence. The timescales of the internal exchanges of angular momentum are considered. Numerical estimates are made on the basis of recent model grids. The direct magnetic coupling of the core to the extended convective envelope of red giants and supergiants appears unlikely. However, we find that the intermediate radiative zone is fully coupled to the core during the He-burning and later phases. This coupling is able to produce a strong spin down of the core of red giants and supergiants, also leading to relatively slowly rotating stellar remnants such as white dwarfs and pulsars. Some angular momentum is also transferred to the outer convective envelope of red giants and supergiants during the He-burning phase and later.

  12. Supergiants and the Galactic metallicity gradient. II - Spectroscopic abundances for 64 distant F- to M-type supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luck, R. Earle; Bond, Howard E.

    1989-11-01

    The metallicity gradient in the Galactic disk from in situ stars with visual magnitude ranging from 6 to 10 is analyzed. Atmospheric parameters and detailed chemical abundances for 64 Population I supergiants of spectral types F through M and luminosity classes Ia through II have been determined. The derived Fe/H ratios ranging from -0.5 to + 0.7 show a mean value of +0.13 with an estimated uncertainty of + or - 0.2. A subset of 25 supergiants fainter than 7th magnitude lying in the direction of the Galactic center shows a Fe/H mean of +0.18 + or - 0.04, while a similar sample of 15 faint supergiants lying in the direction of the Galactic anticenter shows a lower Fe/H mean of +0.07 + or - 0.06. For a sample of bright supergiants analyzed by Luck and Lambert (1985), the mean abundance pattern for all 64 stars showed the following: deficient C and O along with enhancement of N, indicating mixing of CNO-cycled material to the stellar surfaces; an apparent Sr enhancement attributed to departures from LTE; and an essentially solar pattern of other chemical elements.

  13. Clusters rich in red supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio

    In the past few years, several clusters containing large numbers of red supergiants have been discovered. These clusters are amongst the most massive young clusters known in the Milky Way, with stellar masses reaching a few 104 M ⊙. They have provided us, for the first time, with large homogeneous samples of red supergiants of a given age. These large populations make them, despite heavy extinction along their sightlines, powerful laboratories to understand the evolutionary status of red supergiants. While some of the clusters, such as the eponymous RSGC1, are so obscured that their members are only observable in the near-IR, some of them are easily accessible, allowing for an excellent characterisation of cluster and stellar properties. The information gleaned so far from these clusters gives strong support to the idea that late-M type supergiants represent a separate class, characterised by very heavy mass loss. It also shows that the spectral-type distribution of red supergiants in the Milky Way is very strongly peaked towards M1, while suggesting a correlation between spectral type and evolutionary stage.

  14. Spectroscopic and photometric observations of M supergiants in Carina.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, R. M.; Strecker, D. W.; Ney, E. P.

    1972-01-01

    Spectroscopic study of 30 Southern-Hemisphere M supergiants mostly in Carina in the blue and near-infrared, and photometrical study of these stars from 0.4 to 18 microns. The uncertainties in the determinations of interstellar extinction are discussed, and the spatial distribution of the M supergiants in the Carina arm is shown. The presence of the 11-micron excess attributed to silicate dust is a common feature. Stars of the same spectral type and luminosity class are remarkably homogeneous in their long-wave behavior. The silicate feature becomes more prominent in the more luminous stars and in stars of later spectral type. Four composite systems show little long-wave excess. The two VV Cephei objects have excesses probably produced by gas emission, and the other two have little or no excess - supporting the suggestion that the presence of the early star prohibits the formation of a dust envelope. Three stars - VY CMa, VX Sgr, and HD 9767 - appear to be extreme examples of stars with large excesses over the entire long-wave region. It is suggested that these objects are surrounded by large amounts of particulate material over a great range of distances from the stars.

  15. Spectral type, temperature, and evolutionary stage in cool supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorda, Ricardo; Negueruela, Ignacio; González-Fernández, Carlos; Tabernero, Hugo M.

    2016-07-01

    Context. In recent years, our understanding of red supergiants has been questioned by strong disagreements between stellar atmospheric parameters derived with different techniques. Temperature scales have been disputed, and the possibility that spectral types do not depend primarily on temperature has been raised. Aims: We explore the relations between different observed parameters, and we explore the ability to derive accurate intrinsic stellar parameters from these relations through the analysis of the largest spectroscopic sample of red supergiants to date. Methods: We obtained intermediate-resolution spectra of a sample of about 500 red supergiants in the Large and the Small Magellanic Cloud. From these spectra, we derive spectral types and measure a large set of photospheric atomic lines. We explore possible correlations between different observational parameters, also making use of near- and mid-infrared colours and literature on photometric variability. Results: Direct comparison between the behaviour of atomic lines (Fe i, Ti i, and Ca ii) in the observed spectra and a comprehensive set of synthetic atmospheric models provides compelling evidence that effective temperature is the prime underlying variable driving the spectral-type sequence between early G and M2 for supergiants. In spite of this, there is a clear correlation between spectral type and luminosity, with later spectral types tending to correspond to more luminous stars with heavier mass loss. This trend is much more marked in the LMC than in the SMC. The population of red supergiants in the SMC is characterised by a higher degree of spectral variability, early spectral types (centred on type K1) and low mass-loss rates (as measured by dust-sensitive mid-infrared colours). The population in the LMC displays less spectroscopic variability and later spectral types. The distribution of spectral types is not single-peaked. Instead, the brightest supergiants have a significantly different

  16. Characterisation of red supergiants in the Gaia spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorda, Ricardo; González-Fernández, Carlos; Negueruela, Ignacio

    2016-11-01

    Context. The infrared calcium triplet and its nearby spectral region have been used for spectral and luminosity classification of late-type stars, but the samples of cool supergiants (CSGs) used have been very limited (in size, metallicity range, and spectral types covered). The spectral range of the Gaia Radial Velocity Spectrograph (RVS) covers most of this region but does not reach the main TiO bands in this region, whose depths define the M sequence. Aims: We study the behaviour of spectral features around the calcium triplet and develop effective criteria to identify and classify CSGs, comparing their efficiency with other methods previously proposed. Methods: We measure the main spectral features in a large sample (almost 600) of red supergiants (RSGs) from three different galaxies, and we analyse their behaviour through a principal component analysis. Using the principal components, we develop an automatised method to differentiate CSGs from other bright late-type stars, and to classify them. Results: The proposed method identifies a high fraction (0.98 ± 0.04) of the supergiants in our test sample, which cover a wide metallicity range (supergiants from the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way) and with spectral types from G0 up to late-M. In addition, it is capable to separate most of the non-supergiants in the sample, identifying as supergiants only a very small fraction of them (0.02 ± 0.04). A comparison of this method with other previously proposed shows that it is more efficient and selects less interlopers. A way to automatically assign a spectral type to the supergiants is also developed. We apply this study to spectra at the resolution and spectral range of the Gaia RVS, with a similar success rate. Conclusions: The method developed identifies and classifies CSGs in large samples, with high efficiency and low contamination, even in conditions of wide metallicity and spectral-type ranges. As this method uses the infrared calcium triplet spectral

  17. The blue supergiant MN18 and its bipolar circumstellar nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Bestenlehner, J. M.; Bodensteiner, J.; Langer, N.; Greiner, J.; Grebel, E. K.; Berdnikov, L. N.; Beletsky, Y.

    2015-11-01

    We report the results of spectrophotometric observations of the massive star MN18 revealed via discovery of a bipolar nebula around it with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Using the optical spectrum obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope, we classify this star as B1 Ia. The evolved status of MN18 is supported by the detection of nitrogen overabundance in the nebula, which implies that it is composed of processed material ejected by the star. We analysed the spectrum of MN18 by using the code CMFGEN, obtaining a stellar effective temperature of ≈21 kK. The star is highly reddened, E(B - V) ≈ 2 mag. Adopting an absolute visual magnitude of MV = -6.8 ± 0.5 (typical of B1 supergiants), MN18 has a luminosity of log L/L⊙ ≈ 5.42 ± 0.30, a mass-loss rate of ≈(2.8-4.5) × 10- 7 M⊙ yr- 1, and resides at a distance of ≈5.6^{+1.5} _{-1.2} kpc. We discuss the origin of the nebula around MN18 and compare it with similar nebulae produced by other blue supergiants in the Galaxy (Sher 25, HD 168625, [SBW2007] 1) and the Large Magellanic Cloud (Sk-69°202). The nitrogen abundances in these nebulae imply that blue supergiants can produce them from the main-sequence stage up to the pre-supernova stage. We also present a K-band spectrum of the candidate luminous blue variable MN56 (encircled by a ring-like nebula) and report the discovery of an OB star at ≈17 arcsec from MN18. The possible membership of MN18 and the OB star of the star cluster Lynga 3 is discussed.

  18. Variability and mass loss in IA O-B-A supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schild, R. E.; Garrison, R. F.; Hiltner, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    Recently completed catalogs of MK spectral types and UBV photometry of 1227 OB stars in the southern Milky Way have been analyzed to investigate brightness and color variability among the Ia supergiants. It is found that brightness variability is common among the O9-B1 supergiants with typical amplitudes about 0.1 and time scales longer than a week and shorter than 1000 days. Among the A supergiants fluctuations in U-B color are found on similar time scales and with amplitude about 0.1. For many early Ia supergiants there is a poor correlation between Balmer jump and spectral type, as had been known previously. An attempt to correlate the Balmer jump deficiency with mass loss rate yielded uncertain results.

  19. The energy distributions of B supergiants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Edward L.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that line-blanketed, LTE, plane-parallel model atmosphere calculations provide excellent fits to the ultraviolet-through-visual energy distributions of B supergiants in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The models were computed using Kurucz's (1979) ATLAS atmosphere program, but with lower gravities than were contained in Kurucz's published model grid. The ultraviolet continua of low gravity stars are found to be sensitive to changes in temperature and gravity. Measurements of Teff and log g for ten LMC B supergiants from model atmosphere fits to the energy distributions yield estimates of their radii, luminosities, and masses. Model atmosphere fits suggest that the late B supergiants have significantly lower masses than the earlier B types of the same luminosity, contrary to stellar evolution theory which predicts that B supergiants are in a post-core hydrogen burning phase and should evolve very quickly and at essentially constant mass.

  20. Clump Accretion in Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Eve; Raymer, E.; Blondin, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transients (SFXTs) are a subclass of High-Mass X-Ray Binaries that consist of a neutron star and OB supergiant donor star. These systems display short, bright x-ray flares lasting a few minutes to a few hours with luminosities reaching 1036 erg/s, several orders of magnitude larger than the quiescent luminosities of 1032 erg/s. The clumpy wind hypothesis has been proposed as a possible mechanism for these transient flares; in this model, a portion of the stellar wind from the donor star forms into clumps and is accreted onto the neutron star, inducing flares. We use high-resolution 3D hydrodynamic simulations to test the clumpy wind hypothesis, tracking the mass and angular momentum accretion rates to infer properties of the resulting x-ray flare and secular evolution of the neutron star rotation. Our results are significantly different from the predictions of Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion (HLA) theory, which assume steady, laminar, axisymmetric flow. For example, an off-axis clump initiated with an impact parameter greater than the clump radius (for which HLA predicts no effect) produces a small spike in mass accretion and induces a long period of disk-like flow that dramatically reduces the accretion rate below the steady HLA value. The result is a brief, weak flare with a net decrease in total accreted mass compared with steady wind accretion accompanied by a substantial accretion of angular momentum.

  1. The Winds of B Supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, D.; Fullerton, A. W.; Prinja, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    This quarterly report is comprised of a paper, "Rotational Modulation of B Supergiant Winds" presented at the ESO workshop "Cyclical Variability in Stellar Winds." Presented is a 30-day IUE time series of the BO Ia HD 91969, a member of the Carina open cluster NGC 3293, which showed, among other things, that wind lines that probe more deeply into the wind vary more regularly.

  2. Wind Variability in Intermediate Luminosity B Supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Derck

    1996-01-01

    This study used the unique spectroscopic diagnostics of intermediate luminosity B supergiants to determine the ubiquity and nature of wind variability. Specifically, (1) A detailed analysis of HD 64760 demonstrated massive ejections into its wind, provided the first clear demonstration of a 'photospheric connection' and ionization shifts in a stellar wind; (2) The international 'IUE MEGA campaign' obtained unprecedented temporal coverage of wind variability in rapidly rotating stars and demonstrated regularly repeating wind features originating in the photosphere; (3) A detailed analysis of wind variability in the rapidly rotating B1 Ib, gamma Ara demonstrated a two component wind with distinctly different mean states at different epochs; (4) A follow-on campaign to the MEGA project to study slowly rotating stars was organized and deemed a key project by ESA/NASA, and will obtain 30 days of IUE observations in May-June 1996; and (5) A global survey of archival IUE time series identified recurring spectroscopic signatures, identified with different physical phenomena. Items 4 and 5 above are still in progress and will be completed this summer in collaboration with Raman Prinja at University College, London.

  3. Supernovae from yellow, blue supergiants: origin and consequences for stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynet, Georges; Georgy, Cyril; Saio, Hideyuki; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Groh, Jose

    2015-08-01

    A few core collapse supernovae progenitors have been found to be yellow or blue supergiants. We shall discuss possible scenarios involving single and close binary evolution allowing to explain this kind of core collapse supernova progenitors. According to stellar models for both single and close binaries, blue supergiants, at the end of their nuclear lifetimes and thus progenitors of core collapse supernovae, present very different characteristics for what concerns their surface compositions, rotational surface velocities and pulsational properties with respect to blue supergiants in their core helium burning phase. We discuss how the small observed scatter of the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity (FWGL) relation of blue supergiants constrains the evolution of massive stars after the Main-Sequence phase and the nature of the progenitors of supernovae in the mass range between 12 and 40 solar masses. The present day observed surface abundances of blue supergiants, of their pulsational properties, as well as the small scatter of the FWGL relation provide strong constraints on both internal mixing and mass loss in massive stars and therefore on the end point of their evolution.

  4. THE YELLOW AND RED SUPERGIANTS OF M33

    SciTech Connect

    Drout, Maria R.; Massey, Philip; Meynet, Georges E-mail: phil.massey@lowell.edu

    2012-05-10

    Yellow and red supergiants are evolved massive stars whose numbers and locations on the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram can provide a stringent test for models of massive star evolution. Previous studies have found large discrepancies between the relative number of yellow supergiants (YSGs) observed as a function of mass and those predicted by evolutionary models, while a disagreement between the predicted and observed locations of red supergiants (RSGs) on the H-R diagram was only recently resolved. Here, we extend these studies by examining the YSG and RSG populations of M33. Unfortunately, identifying these stars is difficult as this portion of the color-magnitude diagram is heavily contaminated by foreground dwarfs. We identify the RSGs through a combination of radial velocities and a two-color surface gravity discriminant, and after re-characterizing the rotation curve of M33 with our newly selected RSGs, we identify the YSGs through a combination of radial velocities and the strength of the O I {lambda}7774 triplet. We examine {approx}1300 spectra in total and identify 121 YSGs (a sample that is unbiased in luminosity above log (L/L{sub Sun }) {approx} 4.8) and 189 RSGs. After placing these objects on the H-R diagram, we find that the latest generation of Geneva evolutionary tracks shows excellent agreement with the observed locations of our RSGs and YSGs, the observed relative number of YSGs with mass, and the observed RSG upper mass limit. These models therefore represent a drastic improvement over previous generations.

  5. The Red Supergiant Content of the LMC and SMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Kate Anne; Massey, Philip

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated the red supergiant (RSG) population of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) through a radial velocity survey of 309 candidate RSGs in the LMC and 356 in the SMC, confirming the presence of 304 RSG in the LMC and 316 in the SMC. Using these spectra, we have measured effective temperatures and spectral types for each confirmed RSG. These data allow us to compare our sample of stars with the Geneva model evolutionary tracks. This work has been partially supported by the National Science Foundation AST-1612874.

  6. On the atmospheric structure and fundamental parameters of red supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittkowski, M.; Arroyo-Torres, B.; Marcaide, J. M.; Abellan, F. J.; Chiavassa, A.; Freytag, B.; Scholz, M.; Wood, P. R.; Hauschildt, P. H.

    2015-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectro-interferometric studies of red supergiant (RSG) stars using the VLTI/AMBER instrument, which are compared to previously obtained similar observations of AGB stars. Our observations indicate spatially extended atmospheric molecular layers of water vapor and CO, similar as previously observed for Mira stars. Data of VY~CMa indicate that the molecular layers are asymmetric, possibly clumpy. Thanks to the spectro-interferometric capabilities of the VLTI/AMBER instrument, we can isolate continuum bandpasses, estimate fundamental parameters of our sources, locate them in the HR diagram, and compare their positions to recent evolutionary tracks. For the example of VY CMa, this puts it close to evolutionary tracks of initial mass 25-32 M ⊙. Comparisons of our data to hydrostatic model atmospheres, 3d simulations of convection, and 1d dynamic model atmospheres based on self-excited pulsation models indicate that none of these models can presently explain the observed atmospheric extensions for RSGs. The mechanism that levitates the atmospheres of red supergiant is thus a currently unsolved problem.

  7. The ultraviolet variability of early-type supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underhill, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    Four early-type supergiants - HD 79186 (B5 Ia), HD 96919 (B9 Ia), HD 105056 (ON9.7 Iae), and HD 148379 (B2 Iae) - have been observed with the low-resolution spectrographs of IUE in the large aperture on 14 days. The behavior of the ultraviolet fluxes with time is studied. The light from all four stars seems to vary. Typically the dispersion about the mean magnitude at any wavelength corresponds to + or - 0.085, + or - 0.080, + or - 0.101, and + or - 0.106 mag, respectively. These amplitudes exceed the typical uncertainty in an IUE measurement of flux by about a factor of 3; they are somewhat larger than the variations known in the visible wavelength range. There are insufficient data to investigate periodicity in the observed light changes. The effective temperatures and angular diameters of the stars have been estimated using the present ultraviolet photometry, published UBV and uvby photometry, and the model-atmosphere fluxes reported by Kurucz in 1979. The program stars have dimensions typical for their spectral types. A brief discussion is given of possible causes of the variability of hot supergiants.

  8. The Red Supergiants of M33: Determining Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Madeleine; Massey, Philip

    2017-01-01

    We investigate a sample of red supergiants in the nearby unbarred spiral galaxy M33 with the goals of (1) determining the physical properties of these stars, (2) understanding the effects of metallicity on massive star evolution, and (3) comparing results to current models proposed by the Geneva group. M33 provides an ideal environment in which to conduct this examination because of a gradient of metallicity within its disk as well as its proximity to the Milky Way, which allows us to observe a complete sample of red supergiants. We employ MARCS atmosphere models and fit spectral features of our stars to determine effective temperatures and spectral types, then we use this information in combination with photometry to calculate bolometric luminosities. After placing these objects on the H-R diagram, we notice some discrepancies with what the Geneva solar-metallicity evolutionary tracks (Ekstrom et al. 2012) predict, namely that the tracks may not extend to cool enough temperatures and high enough luminosities and masses to comply with what we see observationally. We propose this may be the result of a mismatch between M33’s metallicity and the solar-metallicity Geneva models; we hope to make comparisons in the future as these new evolutionary tracks become available. This work was supported by the NSF through grant numbers AST-1461200 and AST-1612874.

  9. YELLOW AND RED SUPERGIANTS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Neugent, Kathryn F.; Massey, Philip; Skiff, Brian; Meynet, Georges E-mail: phil.massey@lowell.edu E-mail: georges.meynet@unige.ch

    2012-04-20

    Due to their transitionary nature, yellow supergiants (YSGs) provide a critical challenge for evolutionary modeling. Previous studies within M31 and the Small Magellanic Cloud show that the Geneva evolutionary models do a poor job at predicting the lifetimes of these short-lived stars. Here, we extend this study to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) while also investigating the galaxy's red supergiant (RSG) content. This task is complicated by contamination by Galactic foreground stars that color and magnitude criteria alone cannot weed out. Therefore, we use proper-motions and the LMC's large systemic radial velocity ({approx}278 km s{sup -1}) to separate out these foreground dwarfs. After observing nearly 2000 stars, we identified 317 probable YSGs, 6 possible YSGs, and 505 probable RSGs. Foreground contamination of our YSG sample was {approx}80%, while that of the RSG sample was only 3%. By placing the YSGs on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and comparing them against the evolutionary tracks, we find that new Geneva evolutionary models do an exemplary job at predicting both the locations and the lifetimes of these transitory objects.

  10. IUE observations of the Henize-Carlson sample of peculiar emission line supergiants: The galactic analogs of the Magellanic Zoo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, Steven N.; Brown, Douglas N.; Sanduleak, N.

    1986-01-01

    Some 15 stars from the Carlson-Henize survey of southern peculiar emission line stars were studied. From both the optical and UV spectra, they appear to be galactic counterparts of the most extreme early-type emission line supergiants of the Magellanic Clouds.

  11. Identification of Red Supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barandi, Brian Allan; Massey, Philip; Levesque, Emily M.

    2015-01-01

    The number and characteristics of red supergiants (RSGs) in the low metallicity environment of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC, SMC) provide tests of stellar evolutionary tracks for massive stars. One complication is identifying Magellanic members due to the contamination of foreground stars in the Milky Way. We used the colors and magnitudes from the 2MASS survey to identify RSG candidates in the LMC and SMC, and used the Anglo Australian Telescope coupled with the AAOmega spectrograph to take spectra of 325 LMC and 423 SMC RSG candidates. Using the Ca II triplet, we measured the radial velocity of each candidate by cross correlation and assigned membership. Methods along with physical properties of each star will be presented. We gratefully acknowledge support by the National Science Foundation through the REU program at Lowell Observatory and Northern Arizona University (AST-1004107) and through PM's grant AST-1008020.

  12. Spectroscopic Diagnostics for Circumstellar Disks of B[e] Supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, M.

    2017-02-01

    B[e] supergiants (B[e]SGs) are emission-line objects, presumably in a short-lived phase in the post-main sequence evolution of massive stars. Their intense infrared excess emission indicates large amounts of warm circumstellar dust. It has long been assumed that the stars possess an aspherical wind consisting of a classical line-driven wind in the polar direction and a dense, slow equatorial wind dubbed outflowing disk. The general properties obtained for these disks are in line with this scenario, although current theories have considerable difficulties reproducing the observed quantities. Therefore, more sophisticated observational constraints are needed. These follow from combined optical and infrared spectroscopic studies, which delivered the surprising result that the circumstellar material of B[e]SGs is concentrated in multiple rings revolving the stars on stable Keplerian orbits. Such a scenario requires new ideas for the formation mechanism where pulsations might play an important role.

  13. Open clusters rich in red supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio

    2015-08-01

    In the past few years, several clusters containing large numbers of red supergiants have been discovered. These clusters are amongst the most massive young clusters known in the Milky Way, with stellar masses reaching a few tens of thousands of solar masses. They have provided us, for the first time, with large homogeneous samples of red supergiants of a given age. These large populations make them, despite heavy extinction along their sightlines, powerful laboratories to understand the evolutionary status of red supergiants. While some of the clusters, such as the eponymous RSGC1, are so obscured that their members are only observable in the near-IR, at least van der Bergh-Hagen 222 is observable even in the U band, allowing for an excellent characterisation of cluster and stellar properties. The information gleaned so far from these clusters gives strong support to the idea that late-M type supergiants represent a separate class, characterised by very heavy mass loss. It also shows that the spectral-type distribution of red supergiants in the Milky Way is very strongly peaked towards M1, while providing strong hints about the possible evolutionary sequence of red supergiants. In addition, the clusters of red supergiants represent ideal tools to study metallicity in the inner regions of the Milky Way.

  14. Red Supergiants in the Inner Galaxy: Stellar Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messineo, Maria; Zhu, Qingfeng; Menten, Karl M.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Figer, Donald F.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Chen, C.-H. Rosie

    2017-02-01

    Red supergiants (RSGs) are luminous cool stars detectable in disks of distant spirals. About a thousand are known in the Galaxy. Here, we analyze a sample of late-type stars recently observed by Messineo et al. in the inner Galaxy (10^\\circ < l< 60^\\circ ). A total of 58 targets (25% of previously known RSGs) were reported as supergiants based on their large equivalent widths of the CO band-head at 2.293 μm (EWs > 45 Å, ≳M0I). In this work, luminosities are estimated with infrared measurements and distance moduli for 47 spectroscopically classified RSGs; they range from 3.2× {10}4 to 1.3× {10}5 {L}ȯ . Six other RSGs with smaller EW(CO)s are classified according to their luminosities. Using a prescription based on {K}{{s}}{--}[W4], moderate mass-loss rates from 10‑8 to {10}-6.5 {M}ȯ yr‑1 are inferred. In addition, we report on H and K spectra of 26 stars at R = 1500–2200. EWs of the CO at 2.293 and 1.620 μm, and of atomic lines, are consistent with those of nearby RSGs, within uncertainties. Mg i appears to be a useful diagnostic to confirm RSGs at R = 1500–2200. RSG #66 is a member of the cluster Alicante 7. Star #92 is projected onto the overdensity #495 of Camargo et al., but our analysis suggests they are unrelated. Remaining targets are isolated from other known RSGs within ≈3‧.

  15. An observational evaluation of magnetic confinement in the winds of BA supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shultz, M.; Wade, G. A.; Petit, V.; Grunhut, J.; Neiner, C.; Hanes, D.; MiMeS Collaboration

    2014-02-01

    Magnetic wind confinement has been proposed as one explanation for the complex wind structures of supergiant stars of spectral types B and A. Observational investigation of this hypothesis was undertaken using high-resolution (λ/Δλ ˜ 65 000) circular polarization (Stokes V) spectra of six late B- and early A-type supergiants (β Ori, B8Iae; 4 Lac, B9Iab; η Leo, A0Ib; HR1040, A0Ib; α Cyg, A2Iae; ν Cep, A2Iab), obtained with the instruments ESPaDOnS and Narval at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and the Bernard Lyot Telescope. Least-squares deconvolution (LSD) analysis of the Stokes V spectra of all stars yields no evidence of a magnetic field, with best longitudinal field 1σ error bars ranging from ˜0.5 to ˜4.5 G for most stars. Spectrum synthesis analysis of the LSD profiles using Bayesian inference yields an upper limit with 95.4 per cent credibility on the polar strength of the (undetected) surface dipole fields of individual stars ranging from 3 to 30 G. These results strongly suggest that magnetic wind confinement due to organized dipolar magnetic fields is not the origin of the wind variability of BA supergiant stars. Upper limits for magnetic spots may also be inconsistent with magnetic wind confinement in the limit of large spot size and filling factor, depending on the adopted wind parameters. Therefore, if magnetic spots are responsible for the wind variability of BA supergiant stars, they likely occupy a small fraction of the photosphere.

  16. X-ray Variability in the Hot Supergiant zgr Orionis.

    PubMed

    Berghöfer, T W; Schmitt, J H

    1994-09-16

    Hot massive stars represent only a small fraction of the stellar population of the galaxy, but their enormous luminosities make them visible over large distances. Therefore, they are ideal standard candles, used to determine distances of near galaxies. Their mass loss due to supersonic winds driven by radiation pressure contributes significantly to the interstellar medium and thus to the chemical evolution of galaxies. All hot stars are soft x-ray sources; in contrast to the sun with its highly variable x-ray flux, long time scale x-ray variability is not common among hot stars. An analysis is presented here of an unusual increase in x-ray flux observed with the roentgen observatory satellite during a period of 2 days for the hot supergiant zeta Orionis, the only episode of x-ray variability that has been found in a hot star. These observations provide the most direct evidence so far for the scenario of shock-heated gas in the winds of hot stars.

  17. B[e] Supergiants' Circumstellar Environment: Disks or Rings?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelias, G.; Kraus, M.; Aret, A.; Cidale, L.; Arias, M. L.; Borges Fernandes, M.

    2017-02-01

    B[e] supergiants are a phase in the evolution of some massive stars for which we have observational evidence but no predictions by any stellar evolution model. The mass-loss during this phase creates a complex circumstellar environment with atomic, molecular, and dust regions usually found in rings or disk-like structures. However, the detailed structure and the formation of the circumstellar environment are not well-understood, requiring further investigation. To address that we initiated an observing campaign to obtain a homogeneous set of high-resolution spectra in both the optical and NIR (using MPG-ESO/FEROS, GEMINI /Phoenix and VLT/CRIRES, respectively). We monitor a number of Galactic B[e] supergiants, for which we examined the [O I] and [Ca II] emission lines and the bandheads of the CO and SiO molecules to probe the structure and the kinematics of their formation regions. We find that the emission from each tracer forms either in a single or multiple equatorial rings.

  18. Intrinsically variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, Erika; Querci, Monique

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of intrinsically variable stars are examined, reviewing the results of observations obtained with the IUE satellite since its launch in 1978. Selected data on both medium-spectral-class pulsating stars (Delta Cep stars, W Vir stars, and related groups) and late-type variables (M, S, and C giants and supergiants) are presented in spectra, graphs, and tables and described in detail. Topics addressed include the calibration of the the period-luminosity relation, Cepheid distance determination, checking stellar evolution theory by the giant companions of Cepheids, Cepheid masses, the importance of the hydrogen convection zone in Cepheids, temperature and abundance estimates for Population II pulsating stars, mass loss in Population II Cepheids, SWP and LWP images of cold giants and supergiants, temporal variations in the UV lines of cold stars, C-rich cold stars, and cold stars with highly ionized emission lines.

  19. A hot companion to Mu Sagittarii - An opportunity to sound the atmosphere of a B8 Ia supergiant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polidan, R. S.; Plavec, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    It is argued that the bright supergiant star Mu Sagittarii is accompanied by a smaller and hotter star, of spectral type approximately B1.5 V. The single-line radial-velocity curve of the B8 star leads to a fairly large mass function, f(m) = 2.64 solar masses, implying that the companion should have at least 50 percent of the mass of the visible star. Older optical observations indicated the presence of a shallow eclipse at the time of the conjunction with the supergiant behind the companion. Since the Copernicus, IUE, and Voyager observations show that the companion is the hotter component, that eclipse must have been the secondary eclipse (if it was an eclipse at all). A deeper, primary eclipse has been predicted by Plavec in 1978. It was indeed observed as a marked decrease of the far-ultraviolet flux from the system both with the Copernicus and the IUE satellites. The presence of a hotter but smaller component in Mu Sagittarii offers a unique opportunity to study the outer atmospheric layers of a supergiant which is of a much earlier spectral type than the supergiants in the Zeta Aurigae systems.

  20. The Curious Case of the Alpha Persei Corona: A Dwarf in Supergiant's Clothing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    2011-09-01

    Alpha Persei (HD 20902: F5 Iab) is a luminous, nonvariable supergiant located at the blue edge of the Cepheid instability strip. It is one of the brightest coronal X-ray sources in the young open cluster bearing its name, yet warm supergiants as a class generally avoid conspicuous high-energy activity. The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope has recently uncovered additional oddities. The 1290-1430 Å far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectrum of α Per is dominated by photospheric continuum emission, with numerous superposed absorption features, mainly stellar. However, the normal proxies of coronal activity, such as the Si IV 1400 Å doublet (T ~ 8 × 104 K), are very weak, as are the chromospheric C II 1335 Å multiplet (T ~ 3 × 104 K) and O I 1305 Å triplet. In fact, the Si IV features of α Per are not only narrower than those of later, G-type supergiants of similar L X/L bol, but are also fainter (in L Si IV /L bol) by two orders of magnitude. Further, a reanalysis of the ROSAT pointing on α Per finds the X-ray centroid offset from the stellar position by 9'', at a moderate level of significance. The FUV and X-ray discrepancies raise the possibility that the coronal source might be unrelated to the supergiant, perhaps an accidentally close dwarf cluster member; heretofore unrecognized in the optical, lost in the glare of the bright star.

  1. Long-term spectropolarimetric monitoring of the cool supergiant betelgeuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedecarrax, I.; Petit, P.; Aurière, M.; Grunhut, J.; Wade, G.; Chiavassa, A.; Donati, J.-F.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Perrin, G.

    2013-05-01

    We report on a long-term monitoring of the cool supergiant Betelgeuse, using the NARVAL and ESPaDOnS high-resolution spectropolarimeters, respectively installed at Telescope Bernard Lyot (Pic du Midi Observatory, France) and at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii). The data set, constituted of circularly polarized (Stokes V) and intensity (Stokes I) spectra, was collected between 2010 and 2012. We investigate here the temporal evolution of magnetic field, convection and temperature at photospheric level, using simultaneous measurements of the longitudinal magnetic field component, the core emission of the Ca II infrared triplet, the line-depth ratio of selected photospheric lines and the radial velocity of the star.

  2. Searching for supergiant fast X-ray transients with Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, P.; Bozzo, E.; Esposito, P.; Sbarufatti, B.; Haberl, F.; Ponti, G.; D'Avanzo, P.; Ducci, L.; Segreto, A.; Jin, C.; Masetti, N.; Del Santo, M.; Campana, S.; Mangano, V.

    2016-09-01

    Supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs) are high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) hosting a neutron star and an OB supergiant companion. We examine the available Swift data, as well as other new or archival/serendipitous data, on three sources: IGR J17407-2808, 2XMM J185114.3-000004, and IGR J18175-2419, whose X-ray characteristics qualify them as candidate SFXT, to explore their properties and test whether they are consistent with an SFXT nature. Since IGR J17407-2808 and 2XMM J185114.3-000004 triggered the Burst Alert Telescope on board Swift, the Swift data enable us to provide their first arcsecond localisations, leading to an unequivocal identification of the source CXOU J174042.0-280724 as the soft X-ray counterpart of IGR J17407-2808, as well as their first broadband spectra, which can be fit with models generally describing accreting neutron stars in HMXBs. While still lacking optical spectroscopy to assess the spectral type of the companion, we propose 2XMM J185114.3-000004 as a very strong SFXT candidate. The nature of IGR J17407-2808 remains, instead, more uncertain. Its broadband properties cannot exclude the fact that the emission originates from either an HMXB (and in that case, an SFXT) or, more likely, a low-mass X-ray binary. Finally, based on the deep non-detection in our XRT monitoring campaign and a careful reanalysis of the original INTEGRAL data in which the discovery of the source was first reported, we show that IGR J18175-2419 is likely a spurious detection.

  3. A transient supergiant X-ray binary in IC 10: An extragalactic SFXT?

    SciTech Connect

    Laycock, Silas; Cappallo, Rigel; Oram, Kathleen; Balchunas, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    We report the discovery of a large amplitude (factor of ∼100) X-ray transient (IC 10 X-2, CXOU J002020.99+591758.6) in the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy IC 10 during our Chandra monitoring project. Based on the X-ray timing and spectral properties, and an optical counterpart observed with Gemini, the system is a high-mass X-ray binary consisting of a luminous blue supergiant and a neutron star. The highest measured luminosity of the source was 1.8 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}during an outburst in 2003. Observations before, during, and after a second outburst in 2010 constrain the outburst duration to be less than 3 months (with no lower limit). The X-ray spectrum is a hard power law (Γ = 0.3) with fitted column density (N{sub H} = 6.3 × 10{sup 21} atom cm{sup –2}), consistent with the established absorption to sources in IC 10. The optical spectrum shows hydrogen Balmer lines strongly in emission at the correct blueshift (-340 km s{sup –1}) for IC 10. The N III triplet emission feature is seen, accompanied by He II [4686] weakly in emission. Together these features classify the star as a luminous blue supergiant of the OBN subclass, characterized by enhanced nitrogen abundance. Emission lines of He I are seen, at similar strength to Hβ. A complex of Fe II permitted and forbidden emission lines are seen, as in B[e] stars. The system closely resembles galactic supergiant fast X-ray transients, in terms of its hard spectrum, variability amplitude, and blue supergiant primary.

  4. The Mass and Age Dependence of Dusty Red Supergiant Winds, and Their Impact on Supernova Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan

    The dusty winds of red supergiants (RSGs) have a tremendous impact on the evolution of stars of 8-40 M_sun. Wind strength determines whether a star can shed its H envelope or not, thus determining the type of resulting SN, and these dusty winds create the circumstellar medium (CSM) at the end of the stars life. However, RSG mass-loss rates are very uncertain, which hampers the predictive power of stellar evolution models. RSGs are expected to end their lives as Type II-P supernovae. Many RSGs are observed with initial masses well above 20 M_sun, but from Type II-P progenitors directly detected so far it seems that the stars that explode are of relatively low mass, with all progenitor mass estimates below 16-17 M_sun. This is known as the Red Supergiant Problem, prompting suggestions that the massive RSGs collapse to black holes with undetectably faint SNe. Alternatively, it has also been suggested that the more massive RSGs evolve to yield other types of SNe or that dusty CSM could cause the progenitor to faint, underestimating its mass. One expects that the most massive and most evolved RSGs would also have the highest extinction or would be the most likely to evolve to a H-free star -- this is qualitatively what is needed to explain the missing high-mass RSGs. To test this idea, we propose to use FORCAST to obtain mid-IR photometry for RSGs in three coeval star clusters with known ages(and different turnoff masses of 12, 18, and 35 M_sun). By modeling CSM dust emission, we will derive mass and age dependent mass-loss rates and CSM extinction, below and above the derived cutoff mass for Type II-P progenitors, thereby determining whether this effect is large enough to solve the Red Supergiant Problem.

  5. Clumpy Molecular Structures Revolving the B[e] Supergiant MWC 137

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, M.; Cidale, L. S.; Liimets, T.; Cappa, C. E.; Duronea, N.; Gunawan, D. S.; Oksala, M. E.; Santander-García, M.; Arias, M. L.; Nickeler, D. H.; Maravelias, G.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Curé, M.

    2017-02-01

    The peculiar emission-line star MWC 137 with its extended optical nebula was recently classified as a B[e] supergiant. To study the spatial distribution of its circumstellar molecular gas on small and large scales, we obtained near-infrared and radio observations using SINFONI and APEX, respectively. We find that the hot CO gas is arranged in a moving clumpy ring and shell structures close to the star, while a cold CO envelope is encircling the borders of the optical nebula from South to West.

  6. Light variations of the population II F-type supergiant HD 46703

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, H. E.; Carney, B. W.; Grauer, A. D.

    1984-01-01

    Photometric monitoring has revealed brightness variations of 0.1 m on a time scale of weeks for HD 46703, a metal-deficient F-type field analog of the stars lying above the horizontal branch in globular clusters. It is suggested that HD 46703 belongs to the '89 Her' class of luminous F-type variables. Since HD 46703 is unquestionably a halo object, it is almost certainly a low-mass star. It is suggested that it, and probably the other 89 Her variables, are masquerading as supergiants during their final evolution off the asymptotic giant branch.

  7. Evolutionary Connections Between RSGs and Other Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    Red supergiants are an important mass-loss phase near the end of a massive star's life, but there are many other evolved mass-losing stars that populate the HR Diagram, and not all massive stars will pass through a red supergiant phase. This talk will provide an overview of other types of massive stars and how they relate to red supergiants. Mass loss by red supergiant winds will be weighed against the mass loss of other massive stars in terms of their contribution to pre-supernova evolution, focussing on trends with initial mass and metallicity. Moreover, some other evolved massive stars have already been RSG or will be in the future, and circumstellar material is an important clue in this regard. Last, the diversity of different supernova explosions, their circumstellar material, and statistics of SN types provide important constraints on the role of RSGs in the latest phases of evolution and mass loss.

  8. RED SUPERGIANTS AS COSMIC ABUNDANCE PROBES: THE SCULPTOR GALAXY NGC 300

    SciTech Connect

    Gazak, J. Zachary; Kudritzki, Rolf; Bresolin, Fabio; Evans, Chris; Patrick, Lee; Davies, Ben; Bergemann, Maria; Plez, Bertrand; Bender, Ralf; Wegner, Michael; Bonanos, Alceste Z.; Williams, Stephen J.

    2015-06-01

    We present a quantitative spectroscopic study of 27 red supergiants (RSGs) in the Sculptor Galaxy NGC 300. J-band spectra were obtained using KMOS on the Very Large Telescope and studied with state of the art synthetic spectra including NLTE corrections for the strongest diagnostic lines. We report a central metallicity of [Z] = −0.03 ± 0.05 with a gradient of −0.083 ± 0.014 [dex/kpc], in agreement with previous studies of blue supergiants and H ii-region auroral line measurements. This result marks the first application of the J-band spectroscopic method to a population of individual RSG stars beyond the Local Group of galaxies and reveals the great potential of this technique.

  9. Physics of Mass Loss in Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puls, Joachim; Sundqvist, Jon O.; Markova, Nevena

    2015-01-01

    We review potential mass-loss mechanisms in the various evolutionary stages of massive stars, from the well-known line-driven winds of O-stars and BA-supergiants to the less-understood winds of Red Supergiants. We discuss optically thick winds from Wolf-Rayet stars and Very Massive Stars, and the hypothesis of porosity-moderated, continuum-driven mass loss from stars formally exceeding the Eddington limit, which might explain the giant outbursts from Luminous Blue Variables. We finish this review with a glance on the impact of rapid rotation, magnetic fields and small-scale inhomogeneities in line-driven winds.

  10. A homogeneous survey of red supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, Amparo; Dorda, Ricardo; González-Fernández, Carlos; Negueruela, Ignacio

    2015-08-01

    We have carried out a comprehensive homogeneous spectroscopic and photometric study of a sample of a few hundred red supergiants in the Milky Way, the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Small Magellanic Cloud. Our results show that global trends can be derived for many spectroscopic features independently of metallicity. The intensity of atomic Ti lines is directly correlated to spectral type, suggesting a real temperature change in the photospheric temperature. We find that the shape of the spectral energy distribution stops being directly related to surface temperature around mid-K spectral types, and becomes strongly correlated to mass loss. The distribution of spectral types is markedly different for the subset of red supergiants above a given luminosity cut, giving very strong hints of a separate evolutionary phase.

  11. The evolution of red supergiants to supernova in NGC 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasor, Emma R.; Davies, Ben

    2016-12-01

    The mass-loss rates of red supergiants (RSGs) govern their evolution towards supernova and dictate the appearance of the resulting explosion. To study how mass-loss rates change with evolution, we measure the mass-loss rates (dot{M}) and extinctions of 19 RSGs in the young massive cluster NGC 2100 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. By targeting stars in a coeval cluster, we can study the mass-loss rate evolution whilst keeping the variables of mass and metallicity fixed. Mass-loss rates were determined by fitting DUSTY models to mid-IR photometry from WISE and Spitzer/IRAC. We find that the dot{M} in RSGs increases as the star evolves, and is well described by dot{M} prescription of de Jager, used widely in stellar evolution calculations. We find that the extinction caused by the warm dust is negligible, meaning the warm circumstellar material of the inner wind cannot explain the higher levels of extinction found in the RSGs compared to other cluster stars. We discuss the implications of this work in terms of supernova progenitors and stellar evolution theory. We argue that there is little justification for substantially increasing the dot{M} during the RSG phase, as has been suggested recently in order to explain the absence of high-mass Type IIP supernova progenitors. We also argue that an increase in reddening towards the end of the RSG phase, as observed for the two most evolved cluster stars, may provide a solution to the RSG problem.

  12. THE DISCOVERY OF A MASSIVE CLUSTER OF RED SUPERGIANTS WITH GLIMPSE

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Clemens, Dan P.; Jameson, Katherine; Pinnick, April; Pavel, Michael

    2009-06-15

    We report the discovery of a previously unknown massive Galactic star cluster at l = 29.{sup 0}22, b = -0.{sup 0}20. Identified visually in mid-IR images from the Spitzer GLIMPSE survey, the cluster contains at least eight late-type supergiants, based on follow-up near-IR spectroscopy, and an additional 3-6 candidate supergiant members having IR photometry consistent with a similar distance and reddening. The cluster lies at a local minimum in the {sup 13}CO column density and 8 {mu}m emission. We interpret this feature as a hole carved by the energetic winds of the evolving massive stars. The {sup 13}CO hole seen in molecular maps at V {sub LSR} {approx} 95 km s{sup -1} corresponds to near/far kinematic distances of 6.1/8.7 {+-} 1 kpc. We calculate a mean spectrophotometric distance of 7.0{sup +3.7} {sub -2.4} kpc, broadly consistent with the kinematic distances inferred. This location places it near the northern end of the Galactic bar. For the mean extinction of A{sub V} = 12.6 {+-} 0.5 mag (A{sub K} = 1.5 {+-} 0.1 mag), the color-magnitude diagram of probable cluster members is well fit by isochrones in the age range 18-24 Myr. The estimated cluster mass is {approx}20,000 M {sub sun}. With the most massive original cluster stars likely deceased, no strong radio emission is detected in this vicinity. As such, this red supergiant (RSG) cluster is representative of adolescent massive Galactic clusters that lie hidden behind many magnitudes of dust obscuration. This cluster joins two similar RSG clusters as residents of the volatile region where the end of our Galaxy's bar joins the base of the Scutum-Crux spiral arm, suggesting a recent episode of widespread massive star formation there.

  13. The Discovery of a Massive Cluster of Red Supergiants with GLIMPSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Michael J.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Clemens, Dan P.; Jameson, Katherine; Pinnick, April; Pavel, Michael

    2009-06-01

    We report the discovery of a previously unknown massive Galactic star cluster at ell = 29fdg22, b = -0fdg20. Identified visually in mid-IR images from the Spitzer GLIMPSE survey, the cluster contains at least eight late-type supergiants, based on follow-up near-IR spectroscopy, and an additional 3-6 candidate supergiant members having IR photometry consistent with a similar distance and reddening. The cluster lies at a local minimum in the 13CO column density and 8 μm emission. We interpret this feature as a hole carved by the energetic winds of the evolving massive stars. The 13CO hole seen in molecular maps at V LSR ~ 95 km s-1 corresponds to near/far kinematic distances of 6.1/8.7 ± 1 kpc. We calculate a mean spectrophotometric distance of 7.0+3.7 -2.4 kpc, broadly consistent with the kinematic distances inferred. This location places it near the northern end of the Galactic bar. For the mean extinction of AV = 12.6 ± 0.5 mag (AK = 1.5 ± 0.1 mag), the color-magnitude diagram of probable cluster members is well fit by isochrones in the age range 18-24 Myr. The estimated cluster mass is ~20,000 M sun. With the most massive original cluster stars likely deceased, no strong radio emission is detected in this vicinity. As such, this red supergiant (RSG) cluster is representative of adolescent massive Galactic clusters that lie hidden behind many magnitudes of dust obscuration. This cluster joins two similar RSG clusters as residents of the volatile region where the end of our Galaxy's bar joins the base of the Scutum-Crux spiral arm, suggesting a recent episode of widespread massive star formation there.

  14. The early-type strong emission-line supergiants of the Magellanic Clouds - A spectroscopic zoology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, S. N.; Sanduleak, N.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a spectroscopic survey of 21 early-type extreme emission line supergiants of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds using IUE and optical spectra are presented. The combined observations are discussed and the literature on each star in the sample is summarized. The classification procedures and the methods by which effective temperatures, bolometric magnitudes, and reddenings were assigned are discussed. The derived reddening values are given along with some results concerning anomalous reddening among the sample stars. The derived mass, luminosity, and radius for each star are presented, and the ultraviolet emission lines are described. Mass-loss rates are derived and discussed, and the implications of these observations for the evolution of the most massive stars in the Local Group are addressed.

  15. The 13Carbon footprint of B[e] supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liermann, A.; Kraus, M.; Schnurr, O.; Fernandes, M. Borges

    2010-10-01

    We report on the first detection of 13C enhancement in two B[e] supergiants (B[e]SGs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Stellar evolution models predict the surface abundance in 13C to strongly increase during main-sequence and post-main-sequence evolution of massive stars. However, direct identification of chemically processed material on the surface of B[e]SGs is hampered by their dense, disc-forming winds, hiding the stars. Recent theoretical computations predict the detectability of enhanced 13C via the molecular emission in 13CO arising in the circumstellar discs of B[e]SGs. To test this potential method and to unambiguously identify a post-main-sequence B[e] SG by its 13CO emission, we have obtained high-quality K-band spectra of two known B[e] SGs in the Large Magellanic Cloud, using the Very Large Telescope's Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observation in the Near-Infrared (VLT/SINFONI). Both stars clearly show the 13CO band emission, whose strength implies a strong enhancement of 13C, in agreement with theoretical predictions. This first ever direct confirmation of the evolved nature of B[e]SGs thus paves the way to the first identification of a Galactic B[e]SG. Based on observations collected with the ESO VLT Paranal Observatory under programme 384.D-1078(A). E-mail: liermann@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de (AL); kraus@sunstel.asu.cas.cz (MK); oschnurr@aip.de (OS); borges@on.br (MBF)

  16. Postexplosion hydrodynamics of supernovae in red supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herant, Marc; Woosley, S. E.

    1994-01-01

    Shock propagation, mixing, and clumping are studied in the explosion of red supergiants as Type II supernovae using a two-dimensional smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) code. We show that extensive Rayleigh-Talor instabilities develop in the ejecta in the wake of the reverse shock wave. In all cases, the shell structure of the progenitor is obliterated to leave a clumpy, well-mixed supernova remnant. However, the occurrence of mass loss during the lifetime of the progenitor can significantly reduce the amount of mixing. These results are independent of the Type II supernova explosion mechanism.

  17. THE RED SUPERGIANT PROGENITOR OF SUPERNOVA 2012aw (PTF12bvh) IN MESSIER 95

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; and others

    2012-09-10

    We report on the direct detection and characterization of the probable red supergiant (RSG) progenitor of the intermediate-luminosity Type II-Plateau (II-P) supernova (SN) 2012aw in the nearby (10.0 Mpc) spiral galaxy Messier 95 (M95; NGC 3351). We have identified the star in both Hubble Space Telescope images of the host galaxy, obtained 17-18 yr prior to the explosion, and near-infrared ground-based images, obtained 6-12 yr prior to the SN. The luminous supergiant showed evidence for substantial circumstellar dust, manifested as excess line-of-sight extinction. The effective total-to-selective ratio of extinction to the star was R'{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 4.35, which is significantly different from that of diffuse interstellar dust (i.e., R{sub V} = 3.1), and the total extinction to the star was therefore, on average, A{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 3.1 mag. We find that the observed spectral energy distribution for the progenitor star is consistent with an effective temperature of 3600 K (spectral type M3), and that the star therefore had a bolometric magnitude of -8.29. Through comparison with recent theoretical massive-star evolutionary tracks we can infer that the RSG progenitor had an initial mass 15 {approx}< M{sub ini}(M{sub Sun }) < 20. Interpolating by eye between the available tracks, we surmise that the star had initial mass {approx}17-18 M{sub Sun }. The circumstellar dust around the progenitor must have been destroyed in the explosion, as the visual extinction to the SN is found to be low (A{sub V} = 0.24 mag with R{sub V} = 3.1).

  18. A dark energy camera search for missing supergiants in the LMC after the advanced LIGO gravitational-wave event GW150914

    DOE PAGES

    Annis, J.

    2016-05-27

    The collapse of a stellar core is expected to produce gravitational waves (GWs), neutrinos, and in most cases a luminous supernova. Sometimes, however, the optical event could be significantly less luminous than a supernova and a direct collapse to a black hole, where the star just disappears, is possible. The GW event GW150914 was detected by the LIGO Virgo Collaboration via a burst analysis that gave localization contours enclosing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Shortly thereafter, we used DECam to observe 102 deg2 of the localization area, including 38 deg2 on the LMC for a missing supergiant search. We constructmore » a complete catalog of LMC luminous red supergiants, the best candidates to undergo invisible core collapse, and collected catalogs of other candidates: less luminous red supergiants, yellow supergiants, blue supergiants, luminous blue variable stars, and Wolf–Rayet stars. Of the objects in the imaging region, all are recovered in the images. The timescale for stellar disappearance is set by the free-fall time, which is a function of the stellar radius. Our observations at 4 and 13 days after the event result in a search sensitive to objects of up to about 200 solar radii. We conclude that it is unlikely that GW150914 was caused by the core collapse of a relatively compact supergiant in the LMC, consistent with the LIGO Collaboration analyses of the gravitational waveform as best interpreted as a high mass binary black hole merger. Lastly, we discuss how to generalize this search for future very nearby core-collapse candidates.« less

  19. A dark energy camera search for missing supergiants in the LMC after the advanced LIGO gravitational-wave event GW150914

    SciTech Connect

    Annis, J.

    2016-05-27

    The collapse of a stellar core is expected to produce gravitational waves (GWs), neutrinos, and in most cases a luminous supernova. Sometimes, however, the optical event could be significantly less luminous than a supernova and a direct collapse to a black hole, where the star just disappears, is possible. The GW event GW150914 was detected by the LIGO Virgo Collaboration via a burst analysis that gave localization contours enclosing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Shortly thereafter, we used DECam to observe 102 deg2 of the localization area, including 38 deg2 on the LMC for a missing supergiant search. We construct a complete catalog of LMC luminous red supergiants, the best candidates to undergo invisible core collapse, and collected catalogs of other candidates: less luminous red supergiants, yellow supergiants, blue supergiants, luminous blue variable stars, and Wolf–Rayet stars. Of the objects in the imaging region, all are recovered in the images. The timescale for stellar disappearance is set by the free-fall time, which is a function of the stellar radius. Our observations at 4 and 13 days after the event result in a search sensitive to objects of up to about 200 solar radii. We conclude that it is unlikely that GW150914 was caused by the core collapse of a relatively compact supergiant in the LMC, consistent with the LIGO Collaboration analyses of the gravitational waveform as best interpreted as a high mass binary black hole merger. Lastly, we discuss how to generalize this search for future very nearby core-collapse candidates.

  20. A Dark Energy Camera Search for Missing Supergiants in the LMC after the Advanced LIGO Gravitational-wave Event GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annis, J.; Soares-Santos, M.; Berger, E.; Brout, D.; Chen, H.; Chornock, R.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doctor, Z.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Drout, M. R.; Farr, B.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Foley, R. J.; Frieman, J.; Gruendl, R. A.; Herner, K.; Holz, D.; Kessler, R.; Lin, H.; Marriner, J.; Neilsen, E.; Rest, A.; Sako, M.; Smith, M.; Smith, N.; Sobreira, F.; Walker, A. R.; Yanny, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cenko, S. B.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Fernandez, E.; Fischer, J.; Fong, W.; Fosalba, P.; Fox, D. B.; Fryer, C. L.; Garcia-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Karliner, I.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Martini, P.; Metzger, B. D.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Peoples, J.; Petravic, D.; Plazas, A. A.; Quataert, E.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, R. C.; Stebbins, A.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; DES Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    The collapse of a stellar core is expected to produce gravitational waves (GWs), neutrinos, and in most cases a luminous supernova. Sometimes, however, the optical event could be significantly less luminous than a supernova and a direct collapse to a black hole, where the star just disappears, is possible. The GW event GW150914 was detected by the LIGO Virgo Collaboration via a burst analysis that gave localization contours enclosing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Shortly thereafter, we used DECam to observe 102 deg2 of the localization area, including 38 deg2 on the LMC for a missing supergiant search. We construct a complete catalog of LMC luminous red supergiants, the best candidates to undergo invisible core collapse, and collected catalogs of other candidates: less luminous red supergiants, yellow supergiants, blue supergiants, luminous blue variable stars, and Wolf-Rayet stars. Of the objects in the imaging region, all are recovered in the images. The timescale for stellar disappearance is set by the free-fall time, which is a function of the stellar radius. Our observations at 4 and 13 days after the event result in a search sensitive to objects of up to about 200 solar radii. We conclude that it is unlikely that GW150914 was caused by the core collapse of a relatively compact supergiant in the LMC, consistent with the LIGO Collaboration analyses of the gravitational waveform as best interpreted as a high mass binary black hole merger. We discuss how to generalize this search for future very nearby core-collapse candidates.

  1. SUPERNOVA 2008bk AND ITS RED SUPERGIANT PROGENITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; and others

    2012-01-15

    We have obtained limited photometric and spectroscopic data for supernova (SN) 2008bk in NGC 7793, primarily at {approx}> 150 days after explosion. We find that it is a Type II-Plateau (II-P) SN that most closely resembles the low-luminosity SN 1999br in NGC 4900. Given the overall similarity between the observed light curves and colors of SNe 2008bk and 1999br, we infer that the total visual extinction to SN 2008bk (A{sub V} = 0.065 mag) must be almost entirely due to the Galactic foreground, similar to what has been assumed for SN 1999br. We confirm the identification of the putative red supergiant (RSG) progenitor star of the SN in high-quality g'r'i' images we had obtained in 2007 at the Gemini-South 8 m telescope. Little ambiguity exists in this progenitor identification, qualifying it as the best example to date, next to the identification of the star Sk -69 Degree-Sign 202 as the progenitor of SN 1987A. From a combination of photometry of the Gemini images with that of archival, pre-SN, Very Large Telescope JHK{sub s} images, we derive an accurate observed spectral energy distribution (SED) for the progenitor. We find from nebular strong-intensity emission-line indices for several H II regions near the SN that the metallicity in the environment is likely subsolar (Z Almost-Equal-To 0.6 Z{sub Sun }). The observed SED of the star agrees quite well with synthetic SEDs obtained from model RSG atmospheres with effective temperature T{sub eff} = 3600 {+-} 50 K. We find, therefore, that the star had a bolometric luminosity with respect to the Sun of log (L{sub bol}/L{sub Sun} ) = 4.57 {+-} 0.06 and radius R{sub *} = 496 {+-} 34 R{sub Sun} at {approx}6 months prior to explosion. Comparing the progenitor's properties with theoretical massive-star evolutionary models, we conclude that the RSG progenitor had an initial mass in the range of 8-8.5 M{sub Sun }. This mass is consistent with, albeit at the low end of, the inferred range of initial masses for SN II

  2. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SUPERGIANT SHELL IN IC 2574

    SciTech Connect

    Yukita, Mihoko; Swartz, Douglas A.

    2012-05-01

    The M81 group member dwarf galaxy IC 2574 hosts a supergiant shell of current and recent star formation activity surrounding a 1000 Multiplication-Sign 500 pc hole in the ambient H I gas distribution. Chandra X-ray Observatory imaging observations reveal a luminous, L{sub X} {approx} 6.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.3-8.0 keV band, point-like source within the hole but offset from its center and fainter diffuse emission extending throughout and beyond the hole. The star formation history at the location of the point source indicates a burst of star formation beginning {approx}25 Myr ago and currently weakening and there is a young nearby star cluster, at least 5 Myr old, bracketing the likely age of the X-ray source at between 5 and {approx}25 Myr. The source is thus likely a bright high-mass X-ray binary-either a neutron star or black hole accreting from an early B star undergoing thermal-timescale mass transfer through Roche lobe overflow. The properties of the residual diffuse X-ray emission are consistent with those expected from hot gas associated with the recent star formation activity in the region.

  3. Quantitative spectroscopy of Galactic BA-type supergiants. I. Atmospheric parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firnstein, M.; Przybilla, N.

    2012-07-01

    Context. BA-type supergiants show a high potential as versatile indicators for modern astronomy. This paper constitutes the first in a series that aims at a systematic spectroscopic study of Galactic BA-type supergiants. Various problems will be addressed, including in particular observational constraints on the evolution of massive stars and a determination of abundance gradients in the Milky Way. Aims: The focus here is on the determination of accurate and precise atmospheric parameters for a sample of Galactic BA-type supergiants as prerequisite for all further analysis. Some first applications include a recalibration of functional relationships between spectral-type, intrinsic colours, bolometric corrections and effective temperature, and an exploration of the reddening-free Johnson Q and Strömgren [c1] and β-indices as photometric indicators for effective temperatures and gravities of BA-type supergiants. Methods: An extensive grid of theoretical spectra is computed based on a hybrid non-LTE approach, covering the relevant parameter space in effective temperature, surface gravity, helium abundance, microturbulence and elemental abundances. The atmospheric parameters are derived spectroscopically by line-profile fits of our theoretical models to high-resolution and high-S/N spectra obtained at various observatories. Ionization equilibria of multiple metals and the Stark-broadened hydrogen and the neutral helium lines constitute our primary indicators for the parameter determination, supplemented by (spectro-)photometry from the UV to the near-IR. Results: We obtain accurate atmospheric parameters for 35 sample supergiants from a homogeneous analysis. Data on effective temperatures, surface gravities, helium abundances, microturbulence, macroturbulence and rotational velocities are presented. The interstellar reddening and the ratio of total-to-selective extinction towards the stars are determined. Our empirical spectral-type-Teff scale is steeper than

  4. Swift's Christmas Burst From Blue Supergiant Star Explosion

    NASA Video Gallery

    GRB 101225A, better known as the "Christmas burst," was an unusually long-lasting gamma-ray burst. Because its distance was not measured, astronomers came up with two radically different interpreta...

  5. Variability Survey of Massive Stars in OB-Associations: Preliminary Results on the Cygnus Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laur, J.; Tuvikene, T.; Eenmäe, T.; Kolka, I.; Leedjärv, L.

    We present V- and I-passband photometry of massive stars in the Cyg OB1 and Cyg OB2 associations, based on about 80 observing nights spanning 300 days in the 2011 season. The variability of 22 supergiants and 48 OB-stars with luminosity classes III--V is analyzed. We report two new variable OB stars and 15 variable supergiants of which four are new discoveries. The light variations of Schulte 12 are interpreted as microvariability. We also present light curves of the red supergiants BC Cyg and BI Cyg which exhibit brightness drop of more than 0.4 mag during the season.

  6. SPECTROSCOPIC AND PHOTOMETRIC VARIABILITY IN THE A0 SUPERGIANT HR 1040

    SciTech Connect

    Corliss, David J.; Morrison, Nancy D.; Adelman, Saul J.

    2015-12-15

    A time-series analysis of spectroscopic and photometric observables of the A0 Ia supergiant HR 1040 has been performed, including equivalent widths, radial velocities, and Strömgren photometric indices. The data, obtained from 1993 through 2007, include 152 spectroscopic observations from the Ritter Observatory 1 m telescope and 269 Strömgren photometric observations from the Four College Automated Photoelectric Telescope. Typical of late B- and early A-type supergiants, HR 1040 has a highly variable Hα profile. The star was found to have an intermittent active phase marked by correlation between the Hα absorption equivalent width and blue-edge radial velocity and by photospheric connections observed in correlations to equivalent width, second moment and radial velocity in Si ii λλ6347, 6371. High-velocity absorption (HVA) events were observed only during this active phase. HVA events in the wind were preceded by photospheric activity, including Si ii radial velocity oscillations 19–42 days prior to onset of an HVA event and correlated increases in Si ii W{sub λ} and second moment from 13 to 23 days before the start of the HVA event. While increases in various line equivalent widths in the wind prior to HVA events have been reported in the past in other stars, our finding of precursors in enhanced radial velocity variations in the wind and at the photosphere is a new result.

  7. Dense Molecular Clumps Associated with the LMC Supergiant Shell LMC 4 & LMC 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, K.; Minamidani, T.; Mizuno, N.; Onishi, T.; Kawamura, A.; Muller, E.; Dawson, J.; Fukui, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The 12CO(J=3-2/1-0) and 13CO(J=3-2/1-0) observations with ASTE and Mopra telescopes have been carried out toward the giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the N48/N49 regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), which are located at the boundary of two kpc-scale Supergiant Shell (SGS) LMC 4 & LMC 5. The star formation is relatively evolved in the N48 region, which is just located at the boundary of SGSs, than in the N49 region. The clumps in the N48 show higher n(H2) and Tkin than those in the N49, but their densities are not so high as the LMC cluster forming clumps. The collision of two SGSs actually enhances the star formation but further evolution seem to be necessary for subsequent cluster formation.

  8. Observational constraints on massive-star evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina

    1997-07-01

    Massive stars are important constitutents of galaxies and are increasingly used as probes of galaxy evolution out to high redshifts. Yet, a very basic problem remains in understanding the distribution of massive stars across the Hertzsprung- Russell Diagram. This is known as the problem of the blue-to- red supergiant ratios in galaxies of different metallicities, a very sensitive indicator of the evolutionary paths that massive stars in different chemical environments appear to follow. Observations suggest a trend that the numbers of red supergiants increase with decreasing metallicity, but stellar- evolution models predict the opposite. We discuss various limitations of ground-based observations which have so far restricted accurate star counts to a few, nearby galaxies. We then argue that the HST archive contains a perfect set of photometric data to determine number counts of red supergiants in galaxies out to 5 Mpc. We propose to analyze WFPC2 observations in F555W {V} and F814W {I} filters to derive color-magnitude diagrams and complete luminosity functions of the red supergiant populations in 6 galaxies spanning a factor of 60 in metallicity. This systematic approach will put the functional form of the blue-to-red supergiant ratio with metallicity on firm observational footing.

  9. Supergiant X-Ray Binaries Observed by Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodaghee, A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Rodriquez, J.; Chaty, S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Walter, R.; Romano, P.

    2011-01-01

    Suzaku observations are presented for the high-mass X-ray binaries IGR 116207-5129 and IGR 117391-3021. For IGR 116207-5129, we provide the first X-ray broadband (0.5-60 keV) spectrum from which we confirm a large intrinsic column density (N(sub H) = 1.6 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm), and we constrain the cutoff energy for the first time (E(sub cut) = 19 keV). A prolonged (> 30 ks) attenuation of the X-ray flux was observed which we tentatively attribute to an eclipse of the probable neutron star by its massive companion, in a binary system with an orbital period between 4 and 9 days, and inclination angles> 50 degrees. For IGRJ17391-3021, we witnessed a transition from quiescence to a low-activity phase punctuated by weak flares whose peak luminosities in the 0.5-10keV band are only a factor of 5 times that of the pre-flare emission. These micro flares are accompanied by an increase in NH which suggests the accretion of obscuring clumps of wind. We now recognize that these low-activity epochs constitute the most common emission phase for this system, and perhaps in other supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs) as well. We close with an overview of our upcoming program in which Suzaku will provide the first ever observation of an SFXT (IGRJ16479-4514) during a binary orbit enabling us to probe the accretion wind at every phase.

  10. Direct imaging with a hypertelescope of red supergiant stellar surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patru, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Mourard, D.; Tarmoul, N.

    2010-07-01

    High angular resolution images obtained with a hypertelescope can strongly constrain the radiative-hydrodynamics simulations of red supergiant (RSG) stars, in terms of intensity contrast, granulation size and temporal variations of the convective motions that are visible on their surface. The characterization of the convective pattern in RSGs is crucial to solve the mass-loss mechanism which contributes heavily to the chemical enrichment of the Galaxy. We show here how the astrophysical objectives and the array configuration are highly dependent to design a hypertelescope. For a given field of view and a given resolution, there is a trade-off between the array geometry and the number of required telescopes to optimize either the (u,v) coverage (to recover the intensity distribution) or the dynamic range (to recover the intensity contrast). To obtain direct snapshot images of Betelgeuse with a hypertelescope, a regular and uniform layout of telescopes is the best array configuration to recover the intensity contrast and the distribution of both large and small granulation cells, but it requires a huge number of telescopes (several hundreds or thousands). An annular configuration allows a reasonable number of telescopes (lower than one hundred) to recover the spatial structures but it provides a low-contrast image. Concerning the design of a pupil densifier to combine all the beams, the photometric fluctuations are not critical (Delta photometry < 50%) contrary to the residual piston requirements (OPD < λ/8) which requires the development of an efficient cophasing system to fully exploit the imaging capability of a hypertelecope.

  11. X-Ray Observation of the Shocked Red Supergiant Wind of Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Joon; Park, Sangwook; Hughes, John P.; Slane, Patrick O.

    2014-07-01

    Cas A is a Galactic supernova remnant whose supernova explosion is observed to be of Type IIb from spectroscopy of its light echo. Having its SN type known, observational constraints on the mass-loss history of Cas A's progenitor can provide crucial information on the final fate of massive stars. In this paper, we study X-ray characteristics of the shocked ambient gas in Cas A using the 1 Ms observation carried out with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory and try to constrain the mass-loss history of the progenitor star. We identify thermal emission from the shocked ambient gas along the outer boundary of the remnant. Comparison of measured radial variations of spectroscopic parameters of the shocked ambient gas to the self-similar solutions of Chevalier show that Cas A is expanding into a circumstellar wind rather than into a uniform medium. We estimate a wind density n H ~ 0.9 ± 0.3 cm-3 at the current outer radius of the remnant (~3 pc), which we interpret as a dense slow wind from a red supergiant (RSG) star. Our results suggest that the progenitor star of Cas A had an initial mass around 16 M ⊙, and its mass before the explosion was about 5 M ⊙, with uncertainties of several tens of percent. Furthermore, the results suggest that, among the mass lost from the progenitor star (~11 M ⊙), a significant amount (more than 6 M ⊙) could have been via its RSG wind.

  12. The Type IIb Supernova 2013df and its Cool Supergiant Progenitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDyk, Schuyler D.; Zeng, Weikang; Fox, Ori D.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Filippenko, Alexei; Foley, Ryan J.; Miller, Adam A.; Smith, Nathan; Kelly, Patrick L.; Lee, William H.; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained early-time photometry and spectroscopy of supernova (SN) 2013df in NGC 4414. The SN is clearly of Type II b, with notable similarities to SN 1993J. From its luminosity at secondary maximum light, it appears that less Ni-56 (is approximately less than 0.06M) was synthesized in the SN 2013df explosion than was the case for the SNe II b 1993J, 2008ax, and 2011dh. Based on a comparison of the light curves, the SN 2013df progenitor must have been more extended in radius prior to explosion than the progenitor of SN 1993J. The total extinction for SN 2013dfis estimated to be A(sub V) = 0.30 mag. The metallicity at the SN location is likely to be solar. We have conducted Hubble Space Telescope(HST) Target of Opportunity observations of the SN with the Wide Field Camera 3, and from a precise comparison of these new observations to archival HST observations of the host galaxy obtained 14 yr prior to explosion, we have identified the progenitor of SN 2013df to be a yellow supergiant, somewhat hotter than a red supergiant progenitor for a normal Type II-Plateau SN. From its observed spectral energy distribution, assuming that the light is dominated by one star, the progenitor had effective temperature T(sub eff) = 4250+/-100 K and a bolometric luminosity L(sub bol) =10(exp 4.94+/-0.06) Solar Luminosity. This leads to an effective radius Reff = 545+/-65 Solar Radius. The star likely had an initial mass in the range of 13-17Solar Mass; however, if it was a member of an interacting binary system, detailed modeling of the system is required to estimate this mass more accurately. The progenitor star of SN 2013df appears to have been relatively similar to the progenitor of SN 1993J.

  13. The type IIb supernova 2013df and its cool supergiant progenitor

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Foley, Ryan J.; Miller, Adam A.; Smith, Nathan; Lee, William H.; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2014-02-01

    We have obtained early-time photometry and spectroscopy of supernova (SN) 2013df in NGC 4414. The SN is clearly of Type IIb, with notable similarities to SN 1993J. From its luminosity at secondary maximum light, it appears that less {sup 56}Ni (≲ 0.06 M {sub ☉}) was synthesized in the SN 2013df explosion than was the case for the SNe IIb 1993J, 2008ax, and 2011dh. Based on a comparison of the light curves, the SN 2013df progenitor must have been more extended in radius prior to explosion than the progenitor of SN 1993J. The total extinction for SN 2013df is estimated to be A{sub V} = 0.30 mag. The metallicity at the SN location is likely to be solar. We have conducted Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Target of Opportunity observations of the SN with the Wide Field Camera 3, and from a precise comparison of these new observations to archival HST observations of the host galaxy obtained 14 yr prior to explosion, we have identified the progenitor of SN 2013df to be a yellow supergiant, somewhat hotter than a red supergiant progenitor for a normal Type II-Plateau SN. From its observed spectral energy distribution, assuming that the light is dominated by one star, the progenitor had effective temperature T {sub eff} = 4250 ± 100 K and a bolometric luminosity L {sub bol} = 10{sup 4.94±0.06} L {sub ☉}. This leads to an effective radius R {sub eff} = 545 ± 65 R {sub ☉}. The star likely had an initial mass in the range of 13-17 M {sub ☉}; however, if it was a member of an interacting binary system, detailed modeling of the system is required to estimate this mass more accurately. The progenitor star of SN 2013df appears to have been relatively similar to the progenitor of SN 1993J.

  14. A windswept cometary tail on the Galactic center supergiant IRS 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Morris, Mark

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution VLA observations provide evidence of optically thick radio emission from IRS 7, a cool red supergiant star, located at a projected distance of roughly 1 1t-yr from the Galactic center. IRS 7 shows a remarkable tail of ionized gas pointing directly away from the compact nonthermal radio source at the Galactic center, Sgr A(asterisk). Given previous evidence for a strong source of UV emission and for a strong circumnuclear wind emanating from the Galactic center, the free-free emission from IRS 7 and its associated tail are interpreted in terms of the ionization and removal of the circumstellar envelope of the red supergiant either by the ram pressure of the nuclear wind or by the pressure of radiation arising from the immediate vicinity of Sgr A(asterisk). The wind mechanism is preferred because: (1) the force it can potentially exert is much greater; and (2) Sgr A(asterisk) is clearly not a known source of luminous energy in the near-IR, whereas it remains a plausible source of a hot, high-velocity wind. Also considered is the potential effect of a nuclear wind upon the atmospheres of red giants in the inner parsec.

  15. SOFIA-EXES: Probing the Thermal Structure of M Supergiant Wind Acceleration Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Graham M.; O'Gorman, Eamon; Guinan, Edward F.; EXES Instrument Team, EXES Science Team

    2016-01-01

    There is no standard model for mass loss from cool evolved stars, particularly for non-pulsating giants and supergiants. For the early-M supergiants, radiation pressure, convective ejections, magnetic fields, and Alfven waves have all been put forward as potential mass loss mechanisms. A potential discriminator between these ideas is the thermal structure resulting from the heating-cooling balance in the acceleration zone - the most important region to study mass loss physics.We present mid-IR [Fe II] emission line profiles of Betelgeuse and Antares obtained with NASA-DLR SOFIA-EXES and NASA IRTF-TEXES that were obtained as part of a GO program (Harper: Cycle 2-0004) and EXES instrument commissioning observations. The intra-term transitions sample a range of excitation conditions, Texc=540K, 3,400K, and 11,700K, i.e., from the warm chromospheric plasma, that also emits in the cm-radio and ultraviolet, to the cold inner circumstellar envelope. The spectrally-resolved profiles, when combined with VLA cm-radio observations, provide new constraints on the temperature and flow velocity in the outflow accelerating region. The semi-empirical energy balance can be used to test theoretical predictions of wind heating.

  16. INTEGRAL Long-Term Monitoring of the Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transient XTE J1739-302

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blay, P.; Martinez-Nunez, S.; Negueruela, I.; Pottschmidt, K.; Smith, D. M.; Torrejon, J. M.; Reig, P.; Kretschmar, P.; Kreykenbohm, I.

    2008-01-01

    Context. In the past few years, a new class of High Mass X-Ray Binaries (HMXRB) has been claimed to exist, the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXT). These are X-ray binary systems with a compact companion orbiting a supergiant star which show very short and bright outbursts in a series of activity periods overimposed on longer quiescent periods. Only very recently the first attempts to model the behaviour of these sources have been published, some of them within the framework of accretion from clumpy stellar winds. Aims. Our goal is to analyze the properties of XTE J1739-302/IGR J17391-3021 within the context of the clumpy structure of the supergiant wind. Methods. We have used INTEGRAL and RXTE/PCA observations in order to obtain broad band (1 - 200 keV) spectra and light curves of XTE J1739-302 and investigate its X-ray spectrum and temporal variability. Results. We have found that XTE J1739-302 follows a much more complex behaviour than expected. Far from presenting a regular variability pattern, XTE J1739-302 shows periods of high, intermediate, and low flaring activity.

  17. Impact of mass-loss on the evolution and pre-supernova properties of red supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynet, G.; Chomienne, V.; Ekström, S.; Georgy, C.; Granada, A.; Groh, J.; Maeder, A.; Eggenberger, P.; Levesque, E.; Massey, P.

    2015-03-01

    Context. The post-main-sequence evolution of massive stars is very sensitive to many parameters of the stellar models. Key parameters are the mixing processes, the metallicity, the mass-loss rate, and the effect of a close companion. Aims: We study the change in the red supergiant (RSG) lifetimes, the tracks in the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram (HRD), the positions in this diagram of the pre-supernova progenitor and the structure of the stars at that time for various mass-loss rates during the RSG phase and for two different initial rotation velocities. Methods: Stellar models were computed with the Geneva code for initial masses between 9 and 25 M⊙ at solar metallicity (Z = 0.014) with 10 times and 25 times the standard mass-loss rates during the RSG phase, with and without rotation. Results: The surface abundances of RSGs are much more sensitive to rotation than to the mass-loss rates during that phase. A change of the RSG mass-loss rate has a strong impact on the RSG lifetimes and in turn on the luminosity function of RSGs. An observed RSG is associated with a model of higher initial mass when models with an enhanced RSG mass-loss rate are used to deduce that mass. At solar metallicity, models with an enhanced mass-loss rate produce significant changes in the populations of blue, yellow, and RSGs. When extended blue loops or blueward excursions are produced by enhanced mass-loss, the models predict that a majority of blue (yellow) supergiants are post-RSG objects. These post-RSG stars are predicted to show much lower surface rotational velocities than similar blue supergiants on their first crossing of the HR gap. Enhanced mass-loss rates during the RSG phase have little impact on the Wolf-Rayet populations. The position in the HRD of the end point of the evolution depends on the mass of the hydrogen envelope. More precisely, whenever at the pre-supernova stage the H-rich envelope contains more than about 5% of the initial mass, the star is a RSG, and whenever

  18. Red Supergiants in the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, E. M.

    2013-05-01

    Galaxies in the Local Group span a factor of 15 in metallicity, ranging from the super-solar M 31 to the Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM) galaxy, which is the lowest-metallicity (0.1 Z⊙) Local Group galaxy currently forming stars. Studies of massive star populations across this broad range of environments have revealed important metal-licity-dependent evolutionary trends, allowing us to test the accuracy of stellar evolutionary tracks at these metallicities for the first time. The RSG population is particularly valuable as a key mass-losing phase of moderately massive stars and a source of core-collapse supernova progenitors. By reviewing recent work on the RSG populations in the Local Group, we are able to quantify limits on these stars' effective temperatures and masses and probe the relationship between RSG mass loss behaviors and host environments. Extragalactic surveys of RSGs have also revealed several unusual RSGs that display signs of unusual spectral variability and dust production, traits that may potentially also correlate with the stars' host environments. I will present some of the latest work that has advanced our understanding of RSGs in the Local Group, and consider the many new questions posed by our ever-evolving picture of these stars.

  19. Blue Supergiant X-Ray Binaries in the Nearby Dwarf Galaxy IC 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laycock, Silas G. T.; Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Binder, Breanna; Prestwich, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    In young starburst galaxies, the X-ray population is expected to be dominated by the relics of the most massive and short-lived stars, black hole and neutron-star high-mass X-ray binaries (XRBs). In the closest such galaxy, IC 10, we have made a multi-wavelength census of these objects. Employing a novel statistical correlation technique, we have matched our list of 110 X-ray point sources, derived from a decade of Chandra observations, against published photometric data. We report an 8σ correlation between the celestial coordinates of the two catalogs, with 42 X-ray sources having an optical counterpart. Applying an optical color–magnitude selection to isolate blue supergiant (SG) stars in IC 10, we find 16 matches. Both cases show a statistically significant overabundance versus the expectation value for chance alignments. The blue objects also exhibit systematically higher {f}x/{f}v ratios than other stars in the same magnitude range. Blue SG-XRBs include a major class of progenitors of double-degenerate binaries, hence their numbers are an important factor in modeling the rate of gravitational-wave sources. We suggest that the anomalous features of the IC 10 stellar population are explained if the age of the IC 10 starburst is close to the time of the peak of interaction for massive binaries.

  20. Quantitative spectroscopic J-band study of red supergiants in Perseus OB-1

    SciTech Connect

    Gazak, J. Zachary; Kudritzki, Rolf; Davies, Ben; Bergemann, Maria; Plez, Bertrand

    2014-06-10

    We demonstrate how the metallicities of red supergiant (RSG) stars can be measured from quantitative spectroscopy down to resolutions of ≈3000 in the J-band. We have obtained high resolution spectra on a sample of the RSG population of h and χ Persei, a double cluster in the solar neighborhood. We show that careful application of the MARCS model atmospheres returns measurements of Z consistent with solar metallicity. Using two grids of synthetic spectra–one in pure LTE and one with non-LTE (NLTE) calculations for the most important diagnostic lines–we measure Z = +0.04 ± 0.10 (LTE) and Z = –0.04 ± 0.08 (NLTE) for the sample of eleven RSGs in the cluster. We degrade the spectral resolution of our observations and find that those values remain consistent down to resolutions of less than λ/δλ of 3000. Using measurements of effective temperatures we compare our results with stellar evolution theory and find good agreement. We construct a synthetic cluster spectrum and find that analyzing this composite spectrum with single-star RSG models returns an accurate metallicity. We conclude that the RSGs make ideal targets in the near infrared for measuring the metallicities of star forming galaxies out to 7-10 Mpc and up to 10 times farther by observing the integrated light of unresolved super star clusters.

  1. Narrow polarized components in the OH 1612-MHz maser emission from supergiant OH-IR sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, R. J.; Downs, G.; Emerson, R.; Grimm, M.; Gulkis, S.; Stevens, G.

    1987-01-01

    High-resolution (300 Hz) OH 1612-MHz spectra of the supergiant OH-IR sources VY CMa, VX Sgr, IRC 10420, and NML Cyg are presented. Linewidths as small as 550 Hz (0.1 km/s) are found for narrow components in the spectra. The present results are consistent with current models for maser line-narrowing and for the physical properties in the OH maser regions. A significant degree of circular polarization is noted in many of the narrow components. The circular polarization suggests the presence of magnetic fields of about 1 mG in the circumstellar envelopes which would be strong enough to influence the outflow from the stars, and which may explain asymmetries found in the circumstellar envelopes.

  2. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry from Gemini 11 of stars in Orion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, T. H.; Spear, G. G.; Kondo, Y.; Henize, K. G.

    1975-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectrophotometry in the wavelength region 2600-3600 A is reported for the bright early-type stars beta, eta, gamma, delta, iota, epsilon, sigma, zeta, and kappa Ori. The results are in good agreement with other observations, and, with the possible exception of the supergiants, are in good agreement with recent line-blanketed model atmospheres. There is evidence that the supergiants possess a small ultraviolet deficiency shortward of 3000 A relative to main-sequence stars of similar spectral type. The most extreme example of this phenomenon is the star kappa Ori.

  3. A photometric study of early-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, E. E.; Gomez, T.; Ortega, R.; Quintero, A.

    1983-01-01

    Observation data in the alpha(16), Lambda(9) photometric system are presented for 228 early-type O4-B8 stars of all luminosity classes. Also included are data for Be stars, B-type stars with a shell, and Beta Canis Majoris stars. The comparison with R-alpha and beta indices suggests that the alpha(16) photometry is of good quality. The photometry can be used in separating different kinds of stars; when combined with the 13-color photometry, it makes possible a finer classification. The alpha(16) index also provides an indication of stellar mass-loss rates, especially for supergiant stars. Preliminary He I (5876 A) measurements suggest that this line is well correlated with MK types. Be stars observed over several years also exhibit H-alpha line-strength variability. It is found that the Lambda(9) index separates supergiant stars later than B2.

  4. Evidence for extended chromospheres surrounding red giant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stencel, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Observational evidence and theoretical arguments are summarized which indicate that regions of partially ionized hydrogen extending several stellar radii are an important feature of red giant and supergiant stars. The implications of the existence of extended chromospheres are examined in terms of the nature of the other atmospheres of, and mass loss from cool stars.

  5. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey . XXIV. Stellar properties of the O-type giants and supergiants in 30 Doradus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Tramper, F.; Grin, N. J.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Langer, N.; Puls, J.; Markova, N.; Bestenlehner, J. M.; Castro, N.; Crowther, P. A.; Evans, C. J.; García, M.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; van Kempen, B.; Lennon, D. J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Najarro, F.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2017-04-01

    Context. The Tarantula region in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) contains the richest population of spatially resolved massive O-type stars known so far. This unmatched sample offers an opportunity to test models describing their main-sequence evolution and mass-loss properties. Aims: Using ground-based optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to determine stellar, photospheric and wind properties of 72 presumably single O-type giants, bright giants and supergiants and to confront them with predictions of stellar evolution and of line-driven mass-loss theories. Methods: We apply an automated method for quantitative spectroscopic analysis of O stars combining the non-LTE stellar atmosphere model fastwind with the genetic fitting algorithm pikaia to determine the following stellar properties: effective temperature, surface gravity, mass-loss rate, helium abundance, and projected rotational velocity. The latter has been constrained without taking into account the contribution from macro-turbulent motions to the line broadening. Results: We present empirical effective temperature versus spectral subtype calibrations at LMC-metallicity for giants and supergiants. The calibration for giants shows a +1kK offset compared to similar Galactic calibrations; a shift of the same magnitude has been reported for dwarfs. The supergiant calibrations, though only based on a handful of stars, do not seem to indicate such an offset. The presence of a strong upturn at spectral type O3 and earlier can also not be confirmed by our data. In the spectroscopic and classical Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams, our sample O stars are found to occupy the region predicted to be the core hydrogen-burning phase by state-of-the-art models. For stars initially more massive than approximately 60 M⊙, the giant phase already appears relatively early on in the evolution; the supergiant phase develops later. Bright giants, however, are not

  6. FUSE Observations of Luminous Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Young, P. R.; Ake, T. B.

    2000-12-01

    Luminous cool stars can address the evolution of magnetic activity and the dynamics of stellar winds and mass loss. The region of yellow supergiants in the HR diagram contains stars of intermediate mass both with coronas and those possessing a hot outer atmosphere in the presence of a strong wind (the ``hybrid'' stars). These hybrid objects hold particular significance for evolution studies because they represent the physically important connection between solar-like stars (with coronas and fast winds of low-mass loss rate) and the cool supergiant stars (Alpha Ori-like) with cool outer atmospheres and massive winds. The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) measured the chromospheric and transition region emissions of the bright G2 Ib supergiant Beta Draconis (HD 159181) on 9 May 2000. Two exposures through the large aperture totaled 7695 s and were obtained in all channels covering the region λ λ 912-1180. Emission from chromospheric and transition region ions (C III, O VI, Si III, S IV, S VI) is detected along with a number of low ion stages. Profiles of strong lines are asymmetric suggesting the presence of a wind. A short exposure (3260 s) of Alpha Aquarii (HD 209750), a hybrid supergiant also of spectral type G2 Ib was obtained June 29, 2000. Dynamics of the atmospheres can be inferred from line profiles. The atmospheric temperature distribution, densities, and scale sizes can be evaluated from line fluxes to characterize the differences between a coronal star and a hybrid supergiant. FUSE is a NASA Origins mission operated by The Johns Hopkins University. Funding for this research is provided through NASA Contract NAS-532985.

  7. The Massive Star Population in M101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammer, Skyler H.

    An increasing number of non-terminal giant eruptions are being observed by modern supernova and transient surveys. Very little is known about the origin of these giant eruptions and their progenitors which are presumably very-massive, evolved stars such as luminous blue variables, hypergiants, and supergiants. Motivated by the small number of progenitors positively associated with these giant eruptions, we have begun a survey of the luminous and evolved massive star populations in several nearby galaxies. We aim to identify the likely progenitors of the giant eruptions, study the spatial variations in the stellar populations, and examine the relationship between massive star populations and their environment. The work presented here is focused on stellar populations in the relatively nearby, giant, spiral galaxy M101 from sixteen archival BVI HST/ACS images. We create a catalog of stars in the direction to M101 with photometric errors < 10% for V < 24.5 and 50% completeness down to V ˜ 26.5 even in regions of high stellar crowding. Using color and magnitude criteria we have identified candidate luminous OB type stars and blue supergiants, yellow supergiants, and red supergiants for future observation. We examine their spatial distributions across the face of M101 and find that the ratio of blue to red supergiants decreases by two orders of magnitude over the radial extent. From our catalog, we derive the star formation history (SFH) for the stellar populations in five 2' wide annuli by fitting the color-magnitude diagrams. Binning the SFH into time frames corresponding to populations traced by Halpha, far ultraviolet (FUV), and near ultraviolet (NUV) emission, we show that the fraction of stellar populations young enough to contribute in Halpha is 15% " 35% in the inner regions, compared to less than 5% in the outer regions. This provides a sufficient explanation for the lack of Halpha emission at large radii. We also model the blue to red supergiant ratio in our

  8. An HST COS 'SNAPSHOT' spectrum of the K supergiant λ Vel (K4Ib-II)

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Harper, Graham M.; Kober, Gladys; Nielsen, Krister E.; Wahlgren, Glenn M.

    2014-10-10

    We present a far-ultraviolet spectrum of the K4 Ib-II supergiant λ Vel obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) as a part of the SNAPshot program 'SNAPing coronal iron' (GO 11687). The observation covers a wavelength region (1326-1467 Å) not previously recorded for λ Vel at a spectral resolving power of R ∼ 20,000 and displays strong emission and absorption features, superposed on a bright chromospheric continuum. Fluorescent excitation is responsible for much of the observed emission, mainly powered by strong H I Lyα and the O I (UV 2) triplet emission near λ1304. The molecular CO and H{sub 2} fluorescences are weaker than in the early-K giant α Boo while the Fe II and Cr II lines, also pumped by H I Lyα, are stronger in λ Vel. This pattern of relative line strengths between the two stars is explained by the lower iron-group element abundance in α Boo, which weakens that star's Fe II and Cr II emission without reducing the molecular fluorescences. The λ Vel spectrum shows fluorescent Fe II, Cr II, and H{sub 2} emission similar to that observed in the M supergiant α Ori, but more numerous well-defined narrow emissions from CO. The additional CO emissions are visible in the spectrum of λ Vel since that star does not have the cool, opaque circumstellar shells that surround α Ori and produce broad circumstellar CO (A-X) band absorptions that hide those emissions in the cooler star. The presence of Si IV emission in λ Vel indicates a ∼8 × 10{sup 4} K plasma that is mixed into the cooler chromosphere. Evidence of the stellar wind is seen in the C II λλ1334,1335 lines and in the blueshifted Fe II and Ni II wind absorption lines. Line modeling using Sobolev with Exact Integration for the C II lines indicates a larger terminal velocity (∼45 versus ∼30 km s{sup –1}) and turbulence (∼27 versus <21 km s{sup –1}) with a more quickly accelerating wind (β = 0.35 versus 0.7) at the time of this COS observation in

  9. The AG Carinae nebula: abundant evidence for a red supergiant progenitor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. J.; Stroud, M. P.; Esteban, C.; Vilchez, J. M.

    1997-09-01

    AG Carinae is a massive, evolved supergiant which is thought to be in transition from an O star to a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star and is currently identified as a luminous blue variable (LBV) with logL/solar=6.0. We present an abundance study of the ejecta nebula surrounding AG Car with the aim of elucidating the evolutionary history of the central star. Physical parameters and abundances are derived for five regions across the nebula from high spatial resolution spectroscopy obtained at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). We derive an average T_e of 6350+/-400K, an n_e of 820+/-170cm^-3, and find that nitrogen (N) is enhanced by a factor of 4.5+/-1.3 and that oxygen (O) is deficient by a factor of 15.1+/-7.2. The derived abundances are compared with those determined for ejecta-type nebulae around WR stars and those predicted by hydrodynamical calculations and stellar evolutionary models. We find that the AG Car nebula is composed of mildly processed material that has not reached the CNO-equilibrium abundances predicted for LBV nebulae. The similarity of the AG Car nebular N abundance to WR nebulae leads us to suggest that the nebulae were ejected at the same evolutionary point, and have undergone no further chemical modification. For AG Car, this point appears to have occurred before the LBV phase because of the observed low N enrichment. Comparison of the observed N abundance with evolutionary model predictions indicates that the AG Car nebula may represent the hydrogen-rich (H- rich) envelope of a red supergiant (RSG). The problem of an RSG progenitor for AG Car is discussed and it is found that the LBV model of Stothers & Chin, incorporating a brief unstable RSG phase, is capable of explaining the observations. We conclude that despite its high luminosity, AG Car has probably experienced a brief RSG phase where it ejected its outer layers to form the currently observed nebula.

  10. Stellar winds and the evolution of luminous stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.; Chin, C.-W.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of a stellar wind on the evolution of stars in the mass range 7-60 solar masses has been investigated for stellar models in which Carson's opacities have been employed. Several cases of mass loss have been considered. It is found that the assumption of heavy mass loss from both blue and red supergiants can account well for the relevant observations of OBN stars, WN stars, and very luminous supergiants of all spectral types. But no amount of mass loss can account adequately for the properties of the B supergiants of lowest luminosity. A critical comparison is made between the present results and some earlier results based on the adoption of Cox-Stewart opacities.

  11. A numerical investigation of wind accretion in persistent Supergiant X-ray Binaries I - Structure of the flow at the orbital scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mellah, I.; Casse, F.

    2017-01-01

    Classical Supergiant X-ray Binaries host a neutron star orbiting a supergiant OB star and display persistent X-ray luminosities of 1035 to 1037 erg· s-1. The stellar wind from the massive companion is believed to be the main source of matter accreted by the compact object. With this first paper, we introduce a ballistic model to evaluate the influence of the orbital effects on the structure of the accelerating winds which participate to the accretion process. Thanks to the parametrization we retained and the numerical pipeline we designed, we can investigate the supersonic flow and the subsequent observables as a function of a reduced set of characteristic numbers and scales. We show that the shape of the permanent flow is entirely determined by the mass ratio, the filling factor, the Eddington factor and the α-force multiplier which drives the stellar wind acceleration. Provided scales such as the orbital period are known, we can trace back the observables to evaluate the mass accretion rates, the accretion mechanism, the shearing of the inflow and the stellar parameters. We discuss the likelihood of wind-formed accretion discs around the accretors in each case and confront our model to three persistent Supergiant X-ray Binaries (Vela X-1, IGR J18027-2016, XTE J1855-026).

  12. The chromosphere of VV cephei and the distribution of circumstellar dust around red giants and supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Wendy Hagen

    1992-01-01

    The work on this project has followed two separate paths of inquiry. The first project was entitled 'the Chromosphere of VV Cephei.' The examination of the archival spectra revealed significant changes in the spectra. Therefore, we obtained additional observing time with IUE to monitor the system during the summer of 1991. Short-term changes continue to be seen in both the overall spectrum and individual line profiles. Work continues on this object. The second project was entitled 'the Distribution of Circumstellar Dust around Red Giants and Supergiants.' A number of cool evolved stars are surrounded by dust shells of sufficient angular size as to appear extended in the IRAS survey data. The aim of this project has been to convolve the predictions of the flux distribution from model dust shells with the IRAS beam profiles in order to reproduce the observed IRAS scans. At the time of the last status report, the cross-scan profiles of the IRAS detectors had just been added to the modeling procedure. For scans in which the star passed near the detector center, there was no significant variation in predicted scan profile for different detectors. Scans in which the detector did not pass over the bright central star had been anticipated to be particularly useful in determining the dust distribution; however, significant differences in the predicted scan profiles were seen for different detector profiles. For this reason, and due to the cross-talk effects discussed in the previous status report, further work on the scans not including a central star has been postponed in favor of further analysis of scans passing over the central star.

  13. X-ray observation of the shocked red supergiant wind of Cassiopeia A

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-Joon; Park, Sangwook; Hughes, John P.; Slane, Patrick O.

    2014-07-01

    Cas A is a Galactic supernova remnant whose supernova explosion is observed to be of Type IIb from spectroscopy of its light echo. Having its SN type known, observational constraints on the mass-loss history of Cas A's progenitor can provide crucial information on the final fate of massive stars. In this paper, we study X-ray characteristics of the shocked ambient gas in Cas A using the 1 Ms observation carried out with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory and try to constrain the mass-loss history of the progenitor star. We identify thermal emission from the shocked ambient gas along the outer boundary of the remnant. Comparison of measured radial variations of spectroscopic parameters of the shocked ambient gas to the self-similar solutions of Chevalier show that Cas A is expanding into a circumstellar wind rather than into a uniform medium. We estimate a wind density n {sub H} ∼ 0.9 ± 0.3 cm{sup –3} at the current outer radius of the remnant (∼3 pc), which we interpret as a dense slow wind from a red supergiant (RSG) star. Our results suggest that the progenitor star of Cas A had an initial mass around 16 M {sub ☉}, and its mass before the explosion was about 5 M {sub ☉}, with uncertainties of several tens of percent. Furthermore, the results suggest that, among the mass lost from the progenitor star (∼11 M {sub ☉}), a significant amount (more than 6 M {sub ☉}) could have been via its RSG wind.

  14. Dense Molecular Clumps Associated with the Large Magellanic Cloud Supergiant Shells LMC 4 and LMC 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Kosuke; Minamidani, Tetsuhiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Onishi, Toshikazu; Kawamura, Akiko; Muller, Erik; Dawson, Joanne; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Tosaki, Tomoka; Miura, Rie E.; Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Sakai, Takeshi; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Ezawa, Hajime; Fukui, Yasuo

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the effects of supergiant shells (SGSs) and their interaction on dense molecular clumps by observing the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) star-forming regions N48 and N49, which are located between two SGSs, LMC 4 and LMC 5. 12CO (J = 3-2, 1-0) and 13CO(J = 1-0) observations with the ASTE and Mopra telescopes have been carried out toward these regions. A clumpy distribution of dense molecular clumps is revealed with 7 pc spatial resolution. Large velocity gradient analysis shows that the molecular hydrogen densities (n(H2)) of the clumps are distributed from low to high density (103-105 cm-3) and their kinetic temperatures (T kin) are typically high (greater than 50 K). These clumps seem to be in the early stages of star formation, as also indicated from the distribution of Hα, young stellar object candidates, and IR emission. We found that the N48 region is located in the high column density H I envelope at the interface of the two SGSs and the star formation is relatively evolved, whereas the N49 region is associated with LMC 5 alone and the star formation is quiet. The clumps in the N48 region typically show high n(H2) and T kin, which are as dense and warm as the clumps in LMC massive cluster-forming areas (30 Dor, N159). These results suggest that the large-scale structure of the SGSs, especially the interaction of two SGSs, works efficiently on the formation of dense molecular clumps and stars.

  15. High spectral resolution spectroscopy of the SiO fundamental lines in red giants and red supergiants with VLT/VISIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnaka, K.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The mass-loss mechanism in red giants and red supergiants is not yet understood well. The SiO fundamental lines near 8 μm are potentially useful for probing the outer atmosphere, which is essential for clarifying the mass-loss mechanism. However, these lines have been little explored until now. Aims: We present high spectral resolution spectroscopic observations of the SiO fundamental lines near 8.1 μm in 16 bright red giants and red supergiants. Our sample consists of seven normal (i.e., non-Mira) K-M giants (from K1.5 to M6.5), three Mira stars, three optically bright red supergiants, two dusty red supergiants, and the enigmatic object GCIRS3 near the Galactic center. Methods: Our program stars were observed between 8.088 μm and 8.112 μm with a spectral resolution of 30 000 using VLT/VISIR. Results: We detected SiO fundamental lines in all of our program stars except for GCIRS3. The SiO lines in normal K and M giants as well as optically bright (i.e., not dusty) red supergiants do not show P-Cyg profiles or blueshifts, which means the absence of systematic outflows in the SiO line forming region. We detected P-Cyg profiles in the SiO lines in the dusty red supergiants VY CMa and VX Sgr, with the latter object being a new detection. These SiO lines originate in the outflowing gas with the thermal dust continuum emission seen as the background. The outflow velocities of the SiO line forming region in VY CMa and VX Sgr are estimated to be 27 km s-1 and 17 km s-1, respectively. We derived basic stellar parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, luminosity, and mass) for the normal K-M giants and optically bright red supergiants in our sample and compared the observed VISIR spectra with synthetic spectra predicted from MARCS photospheric models. Most of the SiO lines observed in the program stars warmer than ~3400 K are reasonably reproduced by the MARCS models, which allowed us to estimate the silicon abundance as well as the 28Si/29Si and 28Si

  16. Tests of two convection theories for red giant and red supergiant envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.; Chin, Chao-Wen

    1995-01-01

    Two theories of stellar envelope convection are considered here in the context of red giants and red supergiants of intermediate to high mass: Boehm-Vitense's standard mixing-length theory (MLT) and Canuto & Mazzitelli's new theory incorporating the full spectrum of turbulence (FST). Both theories assume incompressible convection. Two formulations of the convective mixing length are also evaluated: l proportional to the local pressure scale height (H(sub P)) and l proportional to the distance from the upper boundary of the convection zone (z). Applications to test both theories are made by calculating stellar evolutionary sequences into the red zone (z). Applications to test both theories are made by calculating stellar evolutionary sequences into the red phase of core helium burning. Since the theoretically predicted effective temperatures for cool stars are known to be sensitive to the assigned value of the mixing length, this quantity has been individually calibrated for each evolutionary sequence. The calibration is done in a composite Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the red giant and red supergiant members of well-observed Galactic open clusters. The MLT model requires the constant of proportionality for the convective mixing length to vary by a small but statistically significant amount with stellar mass, whereas the FST model succeeds in all cases with the mixing lenghth simply set equal to z. The structure of the deep stellar interior, however, remains very nearly unaffected by the choices of convection theory and mixing lenghth. Inside the convective envelope itself, a density inversion always occurs, but is somewhat smaller for the convectively more efficient MLT model. On physical grounds the FST model is preferable, and seems to alleviate the problem of finding the proper mixing length.

  17. Quantitative spectroscopy of blue supergiants in metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109

    SciTech Connect

    Hosek, Matthew W. Jr.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Bresolin, Fabio; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Przybilla, Norbert; Evans, Christopher J.; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Carraro, Giovanni E-mail: kud@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: Miguel.Urbaneja-Perez@uibk.ac.at E-mail: chris.evans@stfc.ac.uk E-mail: wgieren@astro-udec.cl

    2014-04-20

    We present a quantitative analysis of the low-resolution (∼4.5 Å) spectra of 12 late-B and early-A blue supergiants (BSGs) in the metal-poor dwarf galaxy NGC 3109. A modified method of analysis is presented which does not require use of the Balmer jump as an independent T {sub eff} indicator, as used in previous studies. We determine stellar effective temperatures, gravities, metallicities, reddening, and luminosities, and combine our sample with the early-B-type BSGs analyzed by Evans et al. to derive the distance to NGC 3109 using the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relation (FGLR). Using primarily Fe-group elements, we find an average metallicity of [ Z-bar ] = –0.67 ± 0.13, and no evidence of a metallicity gradient in the galaxy. Our metallicities are higher than those found by Evans et al. based on the oxygen abundances of early-B supergiants ([ Z-bar ] = –0.93 ± 0.07), suggesting a low α/Fe ratio for the galaxy. We adjust the position of NGC 3109 on the BSG-determined galaxy mass-metallicity relation accordingly and compare it to metallicity studies of H II regions in star-forming galaxies. We derive an FGLR distance modulus of 25.55 ± 0.09 (1.27 Mpc) that compares well with Cepheid and tip of the red giant branch distances. The FGLR itself is consistent with those found in other galaxies, demonstrating the reliability of this method as a measure of extragalactic distances.

  18. RED SUPERGIANTS AS COSMIC ABUNDANCE PROBES: THE FIRST DIRECT METALLICITY DETERMINATION OF NGC 4038 IN THE ANTENNAE

    SciTech Connect

    Lardo, C.; Davies, B.; Kudritzki, R-P.; Gazak, J. Z.; Evans, C. J.; Patrick, L. R.; Bergemann, M.; Plez, B.

    2015-10-20

    We present a direct determination of the stellar metallicity in the close pair galaxy NGC 4038 (D = 20 Mpc) based on the quantitative analysis of moderate-resolution KMOS/Very Large Telescope spectra of three super star clusters. The method adopted in our analysis has been developed and optimized to measure accurate metallicities from atomic lines in the J-band of single red supergiant (RSG) or RSG-dominated star clusters. Hence, our metallicity measurements are not affected by the biases and poorly understood systematics inherent to strong line H ii methods, which are routinely applied to massive data sets of galaxies. We find [Z] = +0.07 ± 0.03 and compare our measurements to H ii strong line calibrations. Our abundances and literature data suggest the presence of a flat metallicity gradient, which can be explained as redistribution of metal-rich gas following the strong interaction.

  19. Synchrotron radiation from the winds of O supergiants - Tb = 10 to the 7. 6th K at 60 stellar radii

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.B.; Titus, M.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Results are presented on VLBI measurements of the nonthermal radio components around two O supergiant stars: Cyg OB2 No. 9 and HD 167971. The measurements were used to characterize the brightness temperature of the emission and to measure the size of compact 5-10 mJy components in these stars, reported by Bieging et al. (1989). The sizes found for the 5-10 mJy components are consistent with the free-free wind radii, indicating that the compact companions are not the sources of nonthermal radiation. Results suggest that there is a small fractional population (10 to the -4th to 10 to the -7th) of ultrarelativistic electrons (Teff of about 10 to the 11th K) coexisting with the stellar wind, which emit optically thin synchrotron radiation. This is in agreement with the synchrotron model of White (1985). 21 refs.

  20. Insight into star death

    SciTech Connect

    Talcott, R.

    1988-02-01

    Nineteen neutrinos, formed in the center of a supernova, became a theorist's dream. They came straight from the heart of supernova 1987A and landed in two big underground tanks of water. Suddenly a new chapter in observational astronomy opened as these two neutrino telescopes gave astronomers their first look ever into the core of a supernova explosion. But the theorists' dream almost turned into a nightmare. Observations of the presupernova star showed conclusively that the star was a blue supergiant, but theorists have long believed only red supergiant stars could explode as supernovae. Do astronomers understand supernovae better now than when supernova 1987A exploded in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) one year ago Yes. The observations of neutrinos spectacularly confirmed a vital aspect of supernova theory. But the observed differences between 1987A and other supernovae have illuminated and advanced our perception of how supernovae form. By working together, observers and theorists are continuing to hone their ideas about how massive stars die and how the subsequent supernovae behave.

  1. Stellar winds of hot stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stee, Ph.; Chesneau, O.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we summarize the basic properties of radiative stellar winds from the theoretical and observational point of views. We illustrate two examples of a radiative code applied to stellar physics: the SIMECA code successfully used to constrain the physics of the circumstellar environment of the Be star α Arae constrained by VLTI-AMBER spectrally resolved measurements and the CMFGEN code applied to the BA supergiants Deneb and Rigel constrained by CHARA-VEGA measurements.

  2. Polarigenic Mechanisms in Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, H. E.; Aspin, C.

    The authors present spectropolarimetric observations of α Orionis and use these data to model the polarigenic mechanism operating in cool giants and supergiants. They also present high resolution CCD spectropolarimetry of VY Canis Majoris, a cool, massive object embedded in a complex nebulosity. Finally, the authors discuss the diagnostic power of measurements of this type and the similarities and differences between the wavelength dependence of the polarization of normal cool stars and that of VY CMa.

  3. Core collapse supernovae from blue supergiant progenitors : The evolutionary history of SN 1987A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Athira

    2015-08-01

    SN 1987A is historically one of the most remarkable supernova explosions to be seen from Earth. Due to the proximity of its location in the LMC, it remains the most well-studied object outside the solar system. It was also the only supernova whose progenitor was observed prior to its explosion.SN 1987A however, was a unique and enigmatic core collapse supernova. It was the first Type II supernova to have been observed to have exploded while its progenitor was a blue supergiant (BSG). Until then Type II supernovae were expected to originate from explosions of red supergiants (RSGs). A spectacular triple-ring nebula structure, rich in helium and nitrogen, was observed around the remnant, indicating a recent RSG phase before becoming a BSG. Even today it is not entirely understood what the evolutionary history may have been to cause a BSG to explode. The most commonly accepted hypothesis for its origin is the merger of a massive binary star system.An evolutionary scenario for such a binary system, was proposed by Podsiadlowski (1992) (P92). Through SPH simulations of the merger and the stellar evolution of the post-merger remnant, Ivanova & Podsiadlowski (2002) and (2003) (I&M) could successfully obtain the RSG to BSG transition of the progenitor.The aim of the present work is to produce the evolutionary history of the progenitor of SN 1987A and its explosion. We construct our models based on the results of P92 and I&M. Here, the secondary (less massive) star is accreted on the primary, while being simultaneously mixed in its envelope over a period of 100 years. The merged star is evolved until the onset of core collapse. For this work we use the 1-dimensional, implicit, hydrodynamical stellar evolution code, KEPLER. A large parameter space is explored, consisting of primary (16-20 Ms) and secondary masses (5-8 Ms), mixing boundaries, and accreting timescales. Those models whose end states match the observed properties of the progenitor of SN 1987A are exploded. The

  4. The quest for blue supergiants : The evolution of the progenitor of SN 1987A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Athira; Heger, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    SN 1987A is historically one of the most remarkable supernova explosions to be seen from Earth. Due to the proximity of its location in the LMC, it remains the most well-studied object outside the solar system. It was also the only supernova whose progenitor was observed prior to its explosion.SN 1987A however, was a unique and enigmatic core collapse supernova. It was the first Type II supernova to have been observed to have exploded while its progenitor was a blue supergiant (BSG). Until then Type II supernovae were expected to originate from explosions of red supergiants (RSGs). A spectacular triple-ring nebula structure, rich in helium and nitrogen, was observed around the remnant, indicating a recent RSG phase before becoming a BSG. Even today it is not entirely understood what the evolutionary history may have been to cause a BSG to explode. The most commonly accepted hypothesis for its origin is the merger of a massive binary star system.An evolutionary scenario for such a binary system, was proposed by Podsiadlowski (1992) (P92). Through SPH simulations of the merger and the stellar evolution of the post-merger remnant, Ivanova & Podsiadlowski (2002) and (2003) (I&M) could successfully obtain the RSG to BSG transition of the progenitor.The aim of the present work is to produce the evolutionary history of the progenitor of SN 1987A and its explosion. We construct our models based on the results of P92 and I&M. Here, the secondary (less massive) star is accreted on the primary, while being simultaneously mixed in its envelope over a period of 100 years. The merged star is evolved until the onset of core collapse. For this work we use the 1-dimensional, implicit, hydrodynamical stellar evolution code, KEPLER. A large parameter space is explored, consisting of primary (16-20 Ms) and secondary masses (5-8 Ms), mixing boundaries, and accreting timescales. Those models whose end states match the observed properties of the progenitor of SN 1987A are exploded. The

  5. The mass-loss rates of red supergiants at low metallicity: detection of rotational CO emission from two red supergiants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Mikako; Sargent, B.; Swinyard, Bruce; Yates, Jeremy; Royer, P.; Barlow, M. J.; Boyer, Martha; Decin, L.; Khouri, Theo; Meixner, Margaret; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Woods, Paul M.

    2016-11-01

    Using the PACS and SPIRE spectrometers on-board the Herschel Space Observatory, we obtained spectra of two red supergiants (RSGs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Multiple rotational CO emission lines (J = 6-5 to 15-14) and 15 H2O lines were detected from IRAS 05280-6910, and one CO line was detected from WOH G64. This is the first time that CO rotational lines have been detected from evolved stars in the LMC. Their CO line intensities are as strong as those of the Galactic RSG, VY CMa. Modelling the CO lines and the spectral energy distribution results in an estimated mass-loss rate for IRAS 05280-6910 of 3 × 10-4 M⊙ yr-1. The model assumes a gas-to-dust ratio and a CO-to-H2 abundance ratio is estimated from the Galactic values scaled by the LMC metallicity ([Fe/H] ˜ -0.3), i.e. that the CO-to-dust ratio is constant for Galactic and LMC metallicities within the uncertainties of the model. The key factor determining the CO line intensities and the mass-loss rate found to be the stellar luminosity.

  6. SPITZER SAGE-SMC INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF MASSIVE STARS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Lennon, D. J.; Massa, D. L. E-mail: lennon@stsci.ed

    2010-08-15

    We present a catalog of 5324 massive stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), with accurate spectral types compiled from the literature, and a photometric catalog for a subset of 3654 of these stars, with the goal of exploring their infrared properties. The photometric catalog consists of stars with infrared counterparts in the Spitzer SAGE-SMC survey database, for which we present uniform photometry from 0.3to24 {mu}m in the UBVIJHK{sub s} +IRAC+MIPS24 bands. We compare the color-magnitude diagrams and color-color diagrams to those of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), finding that the brightest infrared sources in the SMC are also the red supergiants, supergiant B[e] (sgB[e]) stars, luminous blue variables, and Wolf-Rayet stars, with the latter exhibiting less infrared excess, the red supergiants being less dusty and the sgB[e] stars being on average less luminous. Among the objects detected at 24 {mu}m in the SMC are a few very luminous hypergiants, four B-type stars with peculiar, flat spectral energy distributions, and all three known luminous blue variables. We detect a distinct Be star sequence, displaced to the red, and suggest a novel method of confirming Be star candidates photometrically. We find a higher fraction of Oe and Be stars among O and early-B stars in our SMC catalog, respectively, when compared to the LMC catalog, and that the SMC Be stars occur at higher luminosities. We estimate mass-loss rates for the red supergiants, confirming the correlation with luminosity even at the metallicity of the SMC. Finally, we confirm the new class of stars displaying composite A and F type spectra, the sgB[e] nature of 2dFS1804 and find the F0 supergiant 2dFS3528 to be a candidate luminous blue variable with cold dust.

  7. The Envelopes of B[e] Supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds as Seen by Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seriacopi, D. B.; Carciofi, A. C.; Magalhães, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    B[e] supergiants (sgB[e]) are rare, massive post-main sequence stars. Their evolutionary status with respect to other objects on the H-R diagram is still unknown. These stars are surrounded by a non-spherically symmetric circumstellar envelope, from which arises a net intrinsic polarization. Therefore, spectropolarimetry is a very useful tool in the study of these objects. Since emission, absorption, and scattering processes are imprinted in the polarized flux, this technique can provide useful information about the circumstellar structure. We present a study of the envelope structure of RMC 82, a sgB[e] in the Large Magellanic Cloud, based on spectropolarimetric data. Our observations were obtained with the 8.2 m VLT/UT1 telescope at the Paranal Observatory (ESO). We analyzed the Balmer line formation loci, and their corresponding physical conditions. The data was modeled by a bimodal wind model of the circumstellar envelope, consisting of a slow, dense equatorial wind and a fast polar wind. The calculations were done with the radiative transfer code HDUST. Our results suggest that this geometry is indeed consistent with the RMC 82 data. Our best fit parameters are an opening angle of the disk of 15° and a total mass loss rate of 1.0×10-5 M⊙ yr-1 sr-1.

  8. Identification of red supergiants in the Local Group with mid-IR photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britavskiy, Nikolay; Bonanos, Alceste; Mehner, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Star forming dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies serve as ideal laboratories for investigating the evolution and mass loss phenomenon of red supergiants (RSGs) within the context of different metallicities of host galaxies. Also, RSGs may be used for abundance determinations in dIrrs. The extremely low number of spectroscopically confirmed RSGs in external galaxies makes the identification of new RSGs statistically significant. We present a systematic survey of RSGs and luminous blue variables (LBVs) with the goal to complete the census of these objects in the Local Group. Using the fact that RSGs and LBVs are bright in mid-infrared colors due to dust, we propose and apply a technique that allows us to select dusty massive stars based on their [3.6] and [4.5] Spitzer photometry (Britavskiy et al. 2014). We present the results of our spectroscopic follow-up of luminous infrared sources in 7 nearby dIrrs (Phoenix, Pegasus, Sextans A, Sextans B, WLM, IC 10 and IC 1613) based on VLT/FORS2 and GTC/OSIRIS observations. In total we have observed ˜100 targets, among which we have so far identified 16 RSGs and 2 new emission line objects in these galaxies. Moreover, using the newly discovered RSGs, we have revised the mid-IR and optical photometric selection criteria for this type of objects, which can be applied to other galaxies of the Local Group and beyond.

  9. Similarities in the Structure of the Circumstellar Environments of B[e] Supergiants and Yellow Hypergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aret, A.; Kolka, I.; Kraus, M.; Maravelias, G.

    2017-02-01

    Yellow hypergiants (YHGs) and B[e] supergiants (B[e]SGs), though in different phases in their evolution, have many features in common. This is partly due to the fact that both types of objects undergo strong, often asymmetric mass loss, and the ejected material accumulates in shells, rings, or disk-like structures, giving rise to emission from warm molecules and dust. We performed an optical spectroscopic survey of northern Galactic emission-line stars aimed at identifying tracers for the structure and kinematics of circumstellar environments. We identified two sets of lines, [O I] and [Ca II], which originate from the disks of B[e]SGs. The same set of lines is observed in V1302 Aql and V509 Cas, which are both hot YHGs. While V1302 Aql is known to have a disk-like structure, the kinematical broadening of the lines in V509 Cas suggests a Keplerian disk or ring around this star like their hotter B[e]SG counterparts.

  10. SPECTRAL TYPES OF RED SUPERGIANTS IN NGC 6822 AND THE WOLF-LUNDMARK-MELOTTE GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Levesque, Emily M.; Massey, Philip

    2012-07-15

    We present moderate-resolution spectroscopic observations of red supergiants (RSGs) in the low-metallicity Local Group galaxies NGC 6822 (Z = 0.4 Z{sub Sun} ) and Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM; Z = 0.1 Z{sub Sun} ). By combining these observations with reduction techniques for multislit data reduction and flux calibration, we are able to analyze spectroscopic data of 16 RSGs in NGC 6822 and spectrophotometric data of 11 RSGs in WLM. Using these observations, we determine spectral types for these massive stars, comparing them to Milky Way and Magellanic Cloud RSGs and thus extending observational evidence of the abundance-dependent shift of RSG spectral types to lower metallicities. In addition, we have uncovered two RSGs with unusually late spectral types (J000158.14-152332.2 in WLM, with a spectral type of M3 I, and J194453.46-144552.6 in NGC 6822, with a spectral type of M4.5 I) and a third RSG (J194449.96-144333.5 in NGC 6822) whose spectral type has varied from an M2.5 in 1997 to a K5 in 2008. All three of these stars could potentially be members of a recently discovered class of extreme RSG variables.

  11. Broad Balmer Wings in BA Hyper/Supergiants Distorted by Diffuse Interstellar Bands: Five Examples in the 30 Doradus Region from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Sana, Hugues; Evans, Christopher J.; Taylor, William D.; Sabbi, Elena; Barbá, Rodolfo H.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Maíz Apellániz, Jesús; Sota, Alfredo; Dufton, Philip L.; McEvoy, Catherine M.; Clark, J. Simon; Markova, Nevena; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof

    2015-08-01

    Extremely broad emission wings at Hβ and Hα have been found in VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey data for five very luminous BA supergiants in or near 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The profiles of both lines are extremely asymmetrical, which we have found to be caused by very broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the longward wing of Hβ and the shortward wing of Hα. These DIBs are well known to interstellar but not to many stellar specialists, so that the asymmetries may be mistaken for intrinsic features. The broad emission wings are generally ascribed to electron scattering, although we note difficulties for that interpretation in some objects. Such profiles are known in some Galactic hyper/supergiants and are also seen in both active and quiescent Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs). No prior or current LBV activity is known in these 30 Dor stars, although a generic relationship to LBVs is not excluded; subject to further observational and theoretical investigation, it is possible that these very luminous supergiants are approaching the LBV stage for the first time. Their locations in the HRD and presumed evolutionary tracks are consistent with that possibility. The available evidence for spectroscopic variations of these objects is reviewed, while recent photometric monitoring does not reveal variability. A search for circumstellar nebulae has been conducted, with an indeterminate result for one of them.

  12. BROAD BALMER WINGS IN BA HYPER/SUPERGIANTS DISTORTED BY DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS: FIVE EXAMPLES IN THE 30 DORADUS REGION FROM THE VLT-FLAMES TARANTULA SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Sana, Hugues; Sabbi, Elena E-mail: hsana@stsci.edu; and others

    2015-08-10

    Extremely broad emission wings at Hβ and Hα have been found in VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey data for five very luminous BA supergiants in or near 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The profiles of both lines are extremely asymmetrical, which we have found to be caused by very broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the longward wing of Hβ and the shortward wing of Hα. These DIBs are well known to interstellar but not to many stellar specialists, so that the asymmetries may be mistaken for intrinsic features. The broad emission wings are generally ascribed to electron scattering, although we note difficulties for that interpretation in some objects. Such profiles are known in some Galactic hyper/supergiants and are also seen in both active and quiescent Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs). No prior or current LBV activity is known in these 30 Dor stars, although a generic relationship to LBVs is not excluded; subject to further observational and theoretical investigation, it is possible that these very luminous supergiants are approaching the LBV stage for the first time. Their locations in the HRD and presumed evolutionary tracks are consistent with that possibility. The available evidence for spectroscopic variations of these objects is reviewed, while recent photometric monitoring does not reveal variability. A search for circumstellar nebulae has been conducted, with an indeterminate result for one of them.

  13. The Advanced Stages of Stellar Evolution: Impact of Mass Loss, Rotation, and Link With B[e] Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgy, C.; Saio, H.; Ekström, S.; Meynet, G.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we discuss some consequences of rotation and mass loss on the evolved stages of massive star evolution. The physical reasons of the time evolution of the surface velocity are explained. We also show how the late-time evolution of massive stars are impacted in combination with the effects of mass loss. The most interesting result is that, in some cases, a massive star can have a blue-red-blue evolution, opening the possibility that blue supergiants are composed by two distinct populations of stars: one just leaving the main sequence and crossing the HRD for the first time, and the other one evolving back to the blue side of the HRD after a Red Supergiant phase. We discuss a few possible observational tests that can allow distinguishing these two populations and how supergiant B[e] stars fit in this context.

  14. Infrared spectroscopy of radio-luminous OH/IR stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Terry Jay; Hyland, A. R.; Fix, John D.; Cobb, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    Low-resolution 1.5-2.5-micron spectra for 21 radio-luminous OH/IR stars are presented. These spectra divide into two broad classes. Those with very strong water-vapor absorption closely resemble the spectra of classical Mira variables and are classified Type VM. Those with weaker water-vapor absorption, but still showing strong CO absorption, resemble the spectra of true core-burning supergiants and are classified Type SG. Comparison of the classification of 30 radio-luminous OH/IR stars with their Delta(V)s and luminosities suggests this classification is a good indicator of the intrinsic nature of the underlying star. There is some evidence, however, that some true supergiants (massive main-sequence progenitors) develop the pulsation properties and photospheric characteristics of the Mira-like OH/IR stars when they become optically obscured OH/IR stars.

  15. Spectroscopic studies of four southern-hemisphere G-K supergiants: HD 192876 (α1 Cap), HD 194215 (HR 7801), HD 206834 (c Cap), and HD 222574 (104 Aqr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenko, I. A.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Berdnikov, L. N.; Kravtsov, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    We have studied the high-resolution spectra taken with the 1.9-m telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory for four supergiants that are deemed to be nonvariable and to lie beyond the red edge of the Cepheid instability strip (CIS): HD 192876, HD 194215, HD 206834, and HD 222574. The atmospheric parameters, reddenings, luminosities, distances, radii, and chemical composition have been determined for these stars. Based on these results, we have ascertained thatHD194215 is not a mainsequence star but an ordinary supergiant. All objects exhibit a nearly solar metallicity. The abundances of carbon and oxygen in HD 194215 and HD 206834 are nearly solar, while they are underabundant in HD 192876 and HD 222574. The abundances of sodium, magnesium, and aluminum are different for all objects, while those of the remaining elements are nearly solar. For HD 206834, the measured radial velocity exceeds its previously known values by a factor of 3, while the asymmetric knifelike profiles of the Ha and Hß absorption lines suggest the existence of an extended envelope around the star. Similar profiles of hydrogen absorption lines and strong lines of some metals with low lower-level excitation potentials have also been revealed in the spectrum of HD 222574. The positions of the supergiants on the effective temperature-luminosity diagram in comparison with the evolutionary tracks of the stars have shown their masses to lie within the range 3.4-4.3 M ⊙. HD 194215 and HD 206834 have crossed the CIS for the first time, with the latter object being near the stage of transformation into a red supergiant. HD 192876 and HD 222574 have already passed the first dredge-up and probably move from right to left, crossing the CIS for the second time. The position of HD 222574 near the red CIS edge is probably attributable to its Cepheid-like brightness and radial velocity variations.

  16. HD 74194, a new binary supergiant fast X-ray transient?, possible optical counterpart of INTEGRAL hard X-ray source IGR J08408-4503

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba, Rodolfo; Gamen, Roberto; Morrell, Nidia

    2006-05-01

    HD 74194 is an O-type supergiant, classified as O8.5 Ib (f) (Walborn 1973, AJ 78, 1067), also suspected as single-lined binary (see Maiz Apellaniz et al. 2004, ApJS 151, 103). This star is being spectroscopically monitored as part of our program of study of massive binaries. We have obtained high-resolution spectra of HD 74194 with the Echelle spectrograph attached to the du Pont 2.5-m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in 2006 May 18.00, 20.96, 22.00, and 22.97.

  17. High spatial resolution monitoring of the activity of BA supergiant winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesneau, Olivier; Dessart, Luc; Kaufer, Andreas; Mourard, Denis; Stahl, Otmar; Prinja, Raman K.; Owocki, Stan P.

    2011-07-01

    There are currently two optical interferometry recombiners that can provide spectral resolutions better than 10000, AMBER/VLTI operating in the H-K bands, and VEGA/CHARA, recently commissioned, operating in the visible. These instruments are well suited to study the wind activity of the brightest AB supergiants in our vicinity, in lines such as Hα or Brγ. We present here the first observations of this kind, performed on Rigel (B8Ia) and Deneb (A2Ia). Rigel was monitored by AMBER in two campaigns, in 2006-2007 and 2009-2010, and observed in 2009 by VEGA; whereas Deneb was monitored in 2008-2009 by VEGA. The extension of the Hα and Brγ line forming regions were accurately measured and compared with CMFGEN models of both stars. Moreover, clear signs of activity were observed in the differential visibility and phases. These pioneer observations are still limited, but show the path for a better understanding of the spatial structure and temporal evolution of localized ejections using optical interferometry.

  18. THE ULTRA-LONG GAMMA-RAY BURST 111209A: THE COLLAPSE OF A BLUE SUPERGIANT?

    SciTech Connect

    Gendre, B.; Cutini, S.; D'Elia, V.; Stratta, G.; Atteia, J. L.; Klotz, A.; Basa, S.; Boeer, M.; Coward, D. M.; Howell, E. J; Piro, L.

    2013-03-20

    We present optical, X-ray and gamma-ray observations of GRB 111209A, observed at a redshift of z = 0.677. We show that this event was active in its prompt phase for about 25000 s, making it the longest burst ever observed. This rare event could have been detected up to z {approx} 1.4 in gamma-rays. Compared to other long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), GRB 111209A is a clear outlier in the energy-fluence and duration plane. The high-energy prompt emission shows no sign of a strong blackbody component, the signature of a tidal disruption event, or a supernova shock breakout. Given the extreme longevity of this event, and lack of any significant observed supernova signature, we propose that GRB 111209A resulted from the core-collapse of a low-metallicity blue supergiant star. This scenario is favored because of the necessity to supply enough mass to the central engine over a duration of thousands of seconds. Hence, we suggest that GRB 111209A could have more in common with population III stellar explosions, rather than those associated with normal long GRBs.

  19. Disentangling the System Geometry of the Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transient IGR J11215-5952 with Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, P.; Sidoli, L.; Cusumano, G.; Vercellone, S.; Mangano, V.; Krimm, H. A.

    2009-05-01

    IGR J11215-5952 is a hard X-ray transient source discovered in 2005 April with the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) and a member of the new class of high-mass X-ray binaries, the supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs). While INTEGRAL and Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observations have shown that the outbursts occur with a periodicity of ~330 days, Swift data have recently demonstrated that the true outburst period is ~165 days. IGR J11215-5952 is the first discovered SFXT displaying periodic outbursts, which are possibly related to the orbital period. The physical mechanism responsible for the X-ray outbursts in SFXTs is still debated. The main hypotheses proposed to date involve the structure of the companion wind or gated mechanisms related to the properties of the compact object. We test our proposed model which explains the outbursts from SFXTs as being due to the passage of the neutron star inside the equatorially enhanced wind from the supergiant companion. We performed a Guest Investigator observation with Swift that lasted 20 ks and several follow-up Target of Opportunity (ToO) observations, for a total of ~32 ks, during the expected "apastron" passage (defined assuming an orbital period of ~330 days), between 2008 June 16 and July 4. The characteristics of this "apastron" outburst are quite similar to those previously observed during the "periastron" outburst of 2007 February 9. The mean spectrum of the bright peaks can be fitted with an absorbed power-law model with a photon index of 1 and an absorbing column of ~1022 cm-2. This outburst reached luminosities of ~1036 erg s-1 (1-10 keV), comparable with those measured in 2007. The light curve can be modeled with the parameters obtained by Sidoli et al. for the 2007 February 9 outburst, although some differences can be observed in its shape. The properties of the rise to this new outburst and the comparison with the previous outbursts allow us to suggest that the true orbital

  20. The Reddening of Red Supergiants: When Smoke Gets in Your Eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Philip; Plez, Bertrand; Levesque, Emily M.; Olsen, K. A. G.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Josselin, Eric

    2005-12-01

    Deriving the physical properties of red supergiants (RSGs) depends on accurate corrections for reddening by dust. We use our recent modeling of the optical spectra of RSGs to address this topic. First, we find that previous broadband studies have underestimated the correction for extinction in the visible, and hence the luminosities (if derived from V); the shift in the effective wavelengths of the standard B and V bandpasses necessitates using an effective value of the ratio R'V=4.2 to correct broadband photometry of RSGs if RV=3.1 for early-type stars viewed through the same dust, where we have assumed the standard reddening law of Cardelli and coauthors. Use of the Fitzpatrick reddening law would lead to R'V=3.8, as well as slightly lower values of extinction derived from spectrophotometry, but results in slightly poorer fits. Second, we find that a significant fraction of RSGs in Galactic OB associations and clusters show up to several magnitudes of excess visual extinction compared to OB stars in the same regions; we argue that this is likely due to circumstellar dust around the RSGs. We also show that the RSG dust production rate (as indicated by the 12 μm excess) is well correlated with bolometric luminosity, contrary to what has been found by earlier studies. The stars with the highest amount of extra visual extinction also show significant near-UV (NUV) excesses compared to the stellar models reddened by the standard reddening law. This NUV excess is likely due to scattering of the star's light by the dust and/or a larger average grain size than that typical of grains found in the diffuse interstellar medium. Similar excesses have been attributed to circumstellar dust around R Coronae Borealis stars. Finally, we estimate that the RSGs contribute dust grains at the rate of 3×10-8Msolar yr-1 kpc-2 in the solar neighborhood, comparable to what we estimate for late-type WCs, 1×10-7Msolar yr-1 kpc-2. In the solar neighborhood this represents only a few

  1. Olivier Chesneau's Work on Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Olivier Chesneau challenged several fields of observational stellar astrophysics with bright ideas and an impressive amount of work to make them real in the span of his career, from his first paper on P Cygni in 2000, up to his last one on V838 Mon in 2014. He was using all the so-called high-angular resolution techniques since it helped his science to be made, namely study in details the inner structure of the environments around stars, be it small mass (AGBs), more massive (supergiant stars), or explosives (Novae). I will focus here on his work on massive stars.

  2. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE PATTERNS IN THE INNER GALAXY: THE SCUTUM RED SUPERGIANT CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Ben; Origlia, Livia; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Figer, Don F.; Rich, R. Michael; Najarro, Francisco; Negueruela, Ignacio; Clark, J. Simon

    2009-05-10

    The location of the Scutum Red Supergiant (RSG) clusters at the end of the Galactic Bar makes them an excellent probe of the Galaxy's secular evolution, while the clusters themselves are ideal testbeds in which to study the predictions of stellar evolutionary theory. To this end, we present a study of the RSG's surface abundances using a combination of high-resolution Keck/NIRSPEC H-band spectroscopy and spectral synthesis analysis. We provide abundance measurements for elements C, O, Si, Mg, Ti, and Fe. We find that the surface abundances of the stars studied are consistent with CNO burning and deep, rotationally enhanced mixing. The average {alpha}/Fe ratios of the clusters are solar, consistent with a thin-disk population. However, we find significantly subsolar Fe/H ratios for each cluster, a result which strongly contradicts a simple extrapolation of the Galactic metallicity gradient to lower Galactocentric distances. We suggest that a simple one-dimensional parameterization of the Galaxy's abundance patterns is insufficient at low Galactocentric distances, as large azimuthal variations may be present. Indeed, we show that the abundances of O, Si, and Mg are consistent with independent measurements of objects in similar locations in the Galaxy. In combining our results with other data in the literature, we present evidence for large-scale ({approx} kpc) azimuthal variations in abundances at Galactocentric distances of 3-5 kpc. While we cannot rule out that this observed behavior is due to systematic offsets between different measurement techniques, we do find evidence for similar behavior in a study of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 4736 which uses homogeneous methodology. We suggest that these azimuthal abundance variations could result from the intense but patchy star formation driven by the potential of the central bar.

  3. Discovery of the First B[e] Supergiants in M 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, M.; Cidale, L. S.; Arias, M. L.; Oksala, M. E.; Borges Fernandes, M.

    2014-01-01

    B[e] supergiants (B[e]SGs) are transitional objects in the post-main sequence evolution of massive stars. The small number of B[e]SGs known so far in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds indicates that this evolutionary phase is short. Nevertheless, the strong aspherical mass loss occurring during this phase, which leads to the formation of rings or disk-like structures, and the similarity to possible progenitors of SN1987 A emphasize the importance of B[e]SGs for the dynamics of the interstellar medium as well as stellar and galactic chemical evolution. The number of objects and their mass-loss behavior at different metallicities are essential ingredients for accurate predictions from stellar and galactic evolution calculations. However, B[e]SGs are not easily identified, as they share many characteristics with luminous blue variables (LBVs) in their quiescent (hot) phase. We present medium-resolution near-infrared K-band spectra for four stars in M 31, which have been assigned a hot LBV (candidate) status. Applying diagnostics that were recently developed to distinguish B[e]SGs from hot LBVs, we classify two of the objects as bonafide LBVs; one of them currently in outburst. In addition, we firmly classify the two stars 2MASS J00441709+4119273 and 2MASS J00452257+4150346 as the first B[e]SGs in M 31 based on strong CO band emission detected in their spectra, and infrared colors typical for this class of stars. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva

  4. Wind Variability of B Supergiants. No. 2; The Two-component Stellar Wind of gamma Arae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinja, R. K.; Massa, D.; Fullerton, A. W.; Howarth, I. D.; Pontefract, M.

    1996-01-01

    The stellar wind of the rapidly rotating early-B supergiant, gamma Ara, is studied using time series, high-resolution IUE spectroscopy secured over approx. 6 days in 1993 March. Results are presented based on an analysis of several line species, including N(N), C(IV), Si(IV), Si(III), C(II), and Al(III). The wind of this star is grossly structured, with evidence for latitude-dependent mass loss which reflects the role of rapid rotation. Independent, co-existing time variable features are identified at low-velocity (redward of approx. -750 km/s) and at higher-speeds extending to approx. -1500 km/s. The interface between these structures is 'defined' by the appearance of a discrete absorption component which is extremely sharp (in velocity space). The central velocity of this 'Super DAC' changes only gradually, over several days, between approx. -400 and -750 km/s in most of the ions. However, its location is shifted redward by almost 400 km/s in Al(III) and C(II), indicating that the physical structure giving rise to this feature has a substantial velocity and ionization jump. Constraints on the relative ionization properties of the wind structures are discussed, together with results based on SEI line-profile-fitting methods. The overall wind activity in gamma Ara exhibits a clear ion dependence, such that low-speed features are promoted in low-ionization species, including Al(III), C(II), and Si(III). We also highlight that - in contrast to most OB stars - there are substantial differences in the epoch-to-epoch time-averaged wind profiles of gamma Ara. We interpret the results in terms of a two-component wind model for gamma Ara, with an equatorially compressed low ionization region, and a high speed, higher-ionization polar outflow. This picture is discussed in the context of the predicted bi-stability mechanism for line-driven winds in rapidly rotating early-B type stars, and the formation of compressed wind regions in rapidly rotating hot stars. The apparent

  5. A spectroscopic and photometric survey of OB+ stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drilling, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    Image-tube spectra (with dispersions of 40-90 A/mm) and UBV photometry of OB+ stars have been obtained at Cerro Tololo and Kitt Peak. The survey is complete to galactic latitudes of + or - 30 deg for galactic longitudes of between 300 and 60 deg. Most of the stars are found to be O-type and B-type supergiants, and 378 new O-type and B-type detections have been identified.

  6. Measuring the stellar wind parameters in IGR J17544-2619 and Vela X-1 constrains the accretion physics in supergiant fast X-ray transient and classical supergiant X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez-García, A.; Shenar, T.; Torrejón, J. M.; Oskinova, L.; Martínez-Núñez, S.; Hamann, W.-R.; Rodes-Roca, J. J.; González-Galán, A.; Alonso-Santiago, J.; González-Fernández, C.; Bernabeu, G.; Sander, A.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Classical supergiant X-ray binaries (SGXBs) and supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs) are two types of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) that present similar donors but, at the same time, show very different behavior in the X-rays. The reason for this dichotomy of wind-fed HMXBs is still a matter of debate. Among the several explanations that have been proposed, some of them invoke specific stellar wind properties of the donor stars. Only dedicated empiric analysis of the donors' stellar wind can provide the required information to accomplish an adequate test of these theories. However, such analyses are scarce. Aims: To close this gap, we perform a comparative analysis of the optical companion in two important systems: IGR J17544-2619 (SFXT) and Vela X-1 (SGXB). We analyze the spectra of each star in detail and derive their stellar and wind properties. As a next step, we compare the wind parameters, giving us an excellent chance of recognizing key differences between donor winds in SFXTs and SGXBs. Methods: We use archival infrared, optical and ultraviolet observations, and analyze them with the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) Potsdam Wolf-Rayet model atmosphere code. We derive the physical properties of the stars and their stellar winds, accounting for the influence of X-rays on the stellar winds. Results: We find that the stellar parameters derived from the analysis generally agree well with the spectral types of the two donors: O9I (IGR J17544-2619) and B0.5Iae (Vela X-1). The distance to the sources have been revised and also agree well with the estimations already available in the literature. In IGR J17544-2619 we are able to narrow the uncertainty to d = 3.0 ± 0.2 kpc. From the stellar radius of the donor and its X-ray behavior, the eccentricity of IGR J17544-2619 is constrained to e< 0.25. The derived chemical abundances point to certain mixing during the lifetime of the donors. An important difference between the stellar winds of the

  7. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXV. Surface nitrogen abundances of O-type giants and supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grin, N. J.; Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; de Koter, A.; Sana, H.; Puls, J.; Brott, I.; Crowther, P. A.; Dufton, P. L.; Evans, C. J.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; van Loon, J. Th.; Markova, N.; de Mink, S. E.; Najarro, F.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Taylor, W. D.; Tramper, F.; Vink, J. S.; Walborn, N. R.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Theoretically, rotation-induced chemical mixing in massive stars has far reaching evolutionary consequences, affecting the sequence of morphological phases, lifetimes, nucleosynthesis, and supernova characteristics. Aims: Using a sample of 72 presumably single O-type giants to supergiants observed in the context of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to investigate rotational mixing in evolved core-hydrogen burning stars initially more massive than 15 M⊙ by analysing their surface nitrogen abundances. Methods: Using stellar and wind properties derived in a previous VFTS study we computed synthetic spectra for a set of up to 21 N ii-v lines in the optical spectral range, using the non-LTE atmosphere code FASTWIND. We constrained the nitrogen abundance by fitting the equivalent widths of relatively strong lines that are sensitive to changes in the abundance of this element. Given the quality of the data, we constrained the nitrogen abundance in 38 cases; for 34 stars only upper limits could be derived, which includes almost all stars rotating at νesini> 200 km s-1. Results: We analysed the nitrogen abundance as a function of projected rotation rate νesini and confronted it with predictions of rotational mixing. We found a group of N-enhanced slowly-spinning stars that is not in accordance with predictions of rotational mixing in single stars. Among O-type stars with (rotation-corrected) gravities less than log gc = 3.75 this group constitutes 30-40 percent of the population. We found a correlation between nitrogen and helium abundance which is consistent with expectations, suggesting that, whatever the mechanism that brings N to the surface, it displays CNO-processed material. For the rapidly-spinning O-type stars we can only provide upper limits on the nitrogen abundance, which are not in violation with theoretical expectations. Hence, the data cannot be used to test the physics of rotation induced mixing in the regime of high spin rates

  8. VLTI/AMBER spectro-interferometry of the late-type supergiants V766 Cen (=HR 5171 A), σ Oph, BM Sco, and HD 206859

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittkowski, M.; Arroyo-Torres, B.; Marcaide, J. M.; Abellan, F. J.; Chiavassa, A.; Guirado, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We add four warmer late-type supergiants to our previous spectro-interferometric studies of red giants and supergiants. Methods: We measure the near-continuum angular diameter, derive fundamental parameters, discuss the evolutionary stage, and study extended atmospheric atomic and molecular layers. Results: V766 Cen (=HR 5171 A) is found to be a high-luminosity (log L/L⊙ = 5.8 ± 0.4) source of effective temperature 4290 ± 760 K and radius 1490 ± 540 R⊙, located in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram close to both the Hayashi limit and Eddington limit; this source is consistent with a 40 M⊙ evolutionary track without rotation and current mass 27-36 M⊙. V766 Cen exhibits Na i in emission arising from a shell of radius 1.5 RPhot and a photocenter displacement of about 0.1 RPhot. It shows strong extended molecular (CO) layers and a dusty circumstellar background component. The other three sources are found to have lower luminosities of about log L/L⊙ = 3.4-3.5, corresponding to 5-9 M⊙ evolutionary tracks. They cover effective temperatures of 3900 K to 5300 K and radii of 60-120 R⊙. They do not show extended molecular layers as observed for higher luminosity RSGs of our sample. BM Sco shows an unusually strong contribution by an over-resolved circumstellar dust component. Conclusions: V766 Cen is a red supergiant located close to the Hayashi limit instead of a yellow hypergiant already evolving back toward warmer effective temperatures as discussed in the literature. Our observations of the Na i line and the extended molecular layers suggest an optically thick pseudo-photosphere at about 1.5 RPhot at the onset of the wind. The stars σ Oph, BM Sco, and HD 206859 are more likely high-mass red giants instead of RSGs as implied by their luminosity class Ib. This leaves us with an unsampled locus in the HR diagram corresponding to luminosities log L/L⊙ 3.8-4.8 or masses 10-13 M⊙, possibly corresponding to the mass region where stars explode as

  9. B Stars with and without emission lines, parts 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underhill, A. (Editor); Doazan, V. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The spectra for B stars for which emission lines occur not on the main sequence, but only among the supergiants, and those B stars for which the presence of emission in H ahlpa is considered to be a significant factor in delineating atmospheric structure are examined. The development of models that are compatible with all known facts about a star and with the laws of physics is also discussed.

  10. THE MASSIVE STAR POPULATION IN M101. I. THE IDENTIFICATION AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE VISUALLY LUMINOUS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Grammer, Skyler; Humphreys, Roberta M. E-mail: roberta@umn.edu

    2013-11-01

    An increasing number of non-terminal giant eruptions are being observed by modern supernova and transient surveys. But very little is known about the origin of these giant eruptions and their progenitors, many of which are presumably very massive, evolved stars. Motivated by the small number of progenitors positively associated with these giant eruptions, we have begun a survey of the evolved massive star populations in nearby galaxies. The nearby, nearly face-on, giant spiral M101 is an excellent laboratory for studying a large population of very massive stars. In this paper, we present BVI photometry obtained from archival HST/ACS Wide Field Camera images of M101. We have produced a catalog of luminous stars with photometric errors <10% for V < 24.5 and 50% completeness down to V ∼ 26.5 even in regions of high stellar crowding. Using color and luminosity criteria, we have identified candidate luminous OB-type stars and blue supergiants, yellow supergiants, and red supergiants for future observation. We examine their spatial distributions across the face of M101 and find that the ratio of blue to red supergiants decreases by two orders of magnitude over the radial extent of M101 corresponding to 0.5 dex in metallicity. We discuss the resolved stellar content in the giant star-forming complexes NGC 5458, 5453, 5461, 5451, 5462, and 5449 and discuss their color-magnitude diagrams in conjunction with the spatial distribution of the stars to determine their spatio-temporal formation histories.

  11. ON THE PERIODIC VARIABILITY OF THE LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIC FIELDS OF STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bychkov, V. D.; Bychkova, L. V.; Madej, J. E-mail: lbych@sao.ru

    2013-10-01

    There exist 218 stars with measured phase curves of their longitudinal (effective) magnetic field B{sub e} . In that group, 172 objects are classified as magnetic chemically peculiar stars. The remaining objects are stars of various spectral types, from the most massive hot Of?p supergiants to low-mass red dwarfs and stars with planets. In this paper, we discuss the behavior of the longitudinal magnetic field B{sub e} and present estimated parameters of the apparent magnetic variability for stars of each spectral type. This paper also aims to briefly review the properties of the observed magnetic behavior among various types of stars.

  12. A NEW DISTANCE TO M33 USING BLUE SUPERGIANTS AND THE FGLR METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    U, Vivian; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Jacobs, Bradley A.; Bresolin, Fabio; Przybilla, Norbert E-mail: urbaneja@ifa.hawaii.ed E-mail: bjacobs@ifa.hawaii.ed E-mail: przybilla@sternwarte.uni-erlangen.d

    2009-10-20

    The quantitative spectral analysis of medium resolution optical spectra of A and B supergiants obtained with DEIMOS and ESI at the Keck Telescopes is used to determine a distance modulus of 24.93 +- 0.11 mag (968 +- 50 kpc) for the Triangulum Galaxy M33. The analysis yields stellar effective temperatures, gravities, interstellar reddening, and extinction, the combination of which provides a distance estimate via the flux-weighted gravity-luminosity relationship (FGLR). This result is based on an FGLR calibration that is continually being polished. An average reddening of (E(B - V)) approx 0.08 mag is found, with a large variation ranging from 0.01 to 0.16 mag, however, demonstrating the importance of accurate individual reddening measurements for stellar distance indicators in galaxies with evident signatures of interstellar absorption. The large-distance modulus found is in good agreement with recent work on eclipsing binaries, planetary nebulae, long-period variables, RR Lyrae stars, and also with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of Cepheids, if reasonable reddening assumptions are made for the Cepheids. Since distances based on the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method found in the literature give conflicting results, we have used HST Advanced Camera for Surveys V- and I-band images of outer regions of M33 to determine a TRGB distance of 24.84 +- 0.10 mag, in basic agreement with the FGLR result. We have also determined stellar metallicities and discussed the metallicity gradient in the disk of M33. We find metallicity of Z {sub sun} at the center and 0.3 Z {sub sun} in the outskirts at a distance of one isophotal radius. The average logarithmic metallicity gradient is -0.07 +- 0.01 dex kpc{sup -1}. However, there is a large scatter around this average value, very similar to what has been found for the H II regions in M33.

  13. Discovery of a New Dusty B[E] Star in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisniewski, John P.; Bjorkman, Karen S.; Bjorkman, Jon E.; Clampin, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We present new optical spectroscopic and Spitzer IRAC photometric observations of a B-type star in the SMC cluster NGC 346, NGC 346:KWBBe 200. We detect numerous Fe II, [O I], [Fe II], as well as strong P-Cygni profile H I emission lines in its optical spectrum. The star's near-IR color and optical to IR SED clearly indicate the presence of an infrared excess, consistent with the presence of gas and warm, T -800 K, circumstellar dust. Based on a crude estimate of the star's luminosity and the observed spectroscopic line profile morphologies, we find that the star is likely to be a B-type supergiant. We suggest that NGC 346:KWBBe 200 is a newly discovered B[e] supergiant star, and represents the fifth such object to be identified in the SMC.

  14. Stars in the Tarantula Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the most active starburst region in the local universe lies a cluster of brilliant, massive stars, known to astronomers as Hodge 301. Hodge 301, seen in the lower right hand corner of this image, lives inside the Tarantula Nebula in our galactic neighbor, the Large Magellanic Cloud. This star cluster is not the brightest, or youngest, or most populous star cluster in the Tarantula Nebula, that honor goes to the spectacular R136. In fact, Hodge 301 is almost 10 times older than the young cluster R136. But age has its advantages; many of the stars in Hodge 301 are so old that they have exploded as supernovae. These exploded stars are blasting material out into the surrounding region at speeds of almost 200 miles per second. This high speed ejecta are plowing into the surrounding Tarantula Nebula, shocking and compressing the gas into a multitude of sheets and filaments, seen in the upper left portion of the picture. Hodge 301 contains three red supergiants - stars that are close to the end of their evolution and are about to go supernova, exploding and sending more shocks into the Tarantula. Also present near the center of the image are small, dense gas globules and dust columns where new stars are being formed today, as part of the overall ongoing star formation throughout the Tarantula region.

  15. MASSIVE STARS IN THE LOCAL GROUP: Implications for Stellar Evolution and Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Philip

    The galaxies of the Local Group serve as important laboratories for understanding the physics of massive stars. Here I discuss what is involved in identifying various kinds of massive stars in nearby galaxies: the hydrogen-burning O-type stars and their evolved He-burning evolutionary descendants, the luminous blue variables, red supergiants, and Wolf-Rayet stars. Primarily I review what our knowledge of the massive star population in nearby galaxies has taught us about stellar evolution and star formation. I show that the current generation of stellar evolutionary models do well at matching some of the observed features and provide a look at the sort of new observational data that will provide a benchmark against which new models can be evaluated.

  16. Life Cycle of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  17. The Contribution of Thermally-Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch and Red Supergiant Starts to the Luminosities of the Magellanic Clouds at 1-24 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melbourne, J.; Boyer, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    We present the near-through mid-infrared flux contribution of thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) and massive red supergiant (RSG) stars to the luminosities of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively). Combined, the peak contribution from these cool evolved stars occurs at approx 3 - 4 micron, where they produce 32% of the SMC light, and 25% of the LMC flux. The TP-AGB star contribution also peaks at approx 3 - 4 micron and amounts to 21% in both galaxies. The contribution from RSG stars peaks at shorter wavelengths, 2.2 micron, where they provide 11% of the SMC flux, and 7% for the LMC. Both TP-AGB and RSG stars are short lived, and thus potentially impose a large stochastic scatter on the near-IR derived mass-to-light (M/L) ratios of galaxies at rest-frame 1 - 4 micron. To minimize their impact on stellar mass estimates, one can use the M/L ratio at shorter wavelengths (e.g., at 0.8 - 1 micron). At longer wavelengths (much > 8 micron), emission from dust in the interstellar medium dominates the flux. In the LMC, which shows strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission at 8 micron, TP-AGB and RSG contribute less than 4% of the 8 micron flux. However, 19% of the SMC 8 micron flux is from evolved stars, nearly half of which is produced by the rarest, dustiest, carbon-rich TP-AGB stars. Thus, star formation rates of galaxies, based on an 8 micron flux (e.g., observed-frame 24 micron at z = 2), may be biased modestly high, especially for galaxies with little PAH emission.

  18. Pair instability supernovae of very massive population III stars

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan; Heger, Alexander; Almgren, Ann; Whalen, Daniel J.

    2014-09-01

    Numerical studies of primordial star formation suggest that the first stars in the universe may have been very massive. Stellar models indicate that non-rotating Population III stars with initial masses of 140-260 M {sub ☉} die as highly energetic pair-instability supernovae. We present new two-dimensional simulations of primordial pair-instability supernovae done with the CASTRO code. Our simulations begin at earlier times than previous multidimensional models, at the onset of core contraction, to capture any dynamical instabilities that may be seeded by core contraction and explosive burning. Such instabilities could enhance explosive yields by mixing hot ash with fuel, thereby accelerating nuclear burning, and affect the spectra of the supernova by dredging up heavy elements from greater depths in the star at early times. Our grid of models includes both blue supergiants and red supergiants over the range in progenitor mass expected for these events. We find that fluid instabilities driven by oxygen and helium burning arise at the upper and lower boundaries of the oxygen shell ∼20-100 s after core bounce. Instabilities driven by burning freeze out after the SN shock exits the helium core. As the shock later propagates through the hydrogen envelope, a strong reverse shock forms that drives the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. In red supergiant progenitors, the amplitudes of these instabilities are sufficient to mix the supernova ejecta.

  19. Pair Instability Supernovae of Very Massive Population III Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Heger, Alexander; Woosley, Stan; Almgren, Ann; Whalen, Daniel J.

    2014-09-01

    Numerical studies of primordial star formation suggest that the first stars in the universe may have been very massive. Stellar models indicate that non-rotating Population III stars with initial masses of 140-260 M ⊙ die as highly energetic pair-instability supernovae. We present new two-dimensional simulations of primordial pair-instability supernovae done with the CASTRO code. Our simulations begin at earlier times than previous multidimensional models, at the onset of core contraction, to capture any dynamical instabilities that may be seeded by core contraction and explosive burning. Such instabilities could enhance explosive yields by mixing hot ash with fuel, thereby accelerating nuclear burning, and affect the spectra of the supernova by dredging up heavy elements from greater depths in the star at early times. Our grid of models includes both blue supergiants and red supergiants over the range in progenitor mass expected for these events. We find that fluid instabilities driven by oxygen and helium burning arise at the upper and lower boundaries of the oxygen shell ~20-100 s after core bounce. Instabilities driven by burning freeze out after the SN shock exits the helium core. As the shock later propagates through the hydrogen envelope, a strong reverse shock forms that drives the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. In red supergiant progenitors, the amplitudes of these instabilities are sufficient to mix the supernova ejecta.

  20. Two Cases of Super-Giant Coronary Aneurysms after Kawasaki Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joowon; Kwon, Bo Sang; Bae, Eun Jung; Noh, Chung Il

    2014-01-01

    Acute giant coronary aneurysm after Kawasaki disease (KD) is a catastrophic complication that can be fatal and very difficult to manage. However, no fixed consensus has been reached for the management of super-giant coronary aneurysms in the acute setting. Here, we report the successful management of young children with super-giant coronary aneurysms after KD. Based on our experience, hemodynamic stabilization to prevent further coronary dilation or rupture and strict anticoagulation to avoid thrombus formation are mandatory in the management of this condition. PMID:24497892

  1. The structure, energy balance, and winds of cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Solar magnetic field phenomena which occur in cool stars are summarized. Factors which can produce magnetic fields in stars are listed. Information on cool star atmospheres, provided by high dispersion spectra, is discussed. These spectra show that in Beta Dra (G2 Ib) the transition lines are red shifted (an antiwind), perhaps indicating downflows in closed magnetic flux tubes, as seen in the solar flux tubes above sunspots. The G and K giants and supergiants are classed as active, quiet, or hybrid, depending on whether their atmospheres are dominated by closed magnetic flux tubes, open field geometries, or a predominantly open geometry with a few closed flux tubes embedded.

  2. Stability boundaries for massive stars in the sHR diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saio, Hideyuki; Georgy, Cyril; Meynet, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Stability boundaries of radial pulsations in massive stars are compared with positions of variable and non-variable blue-supergiants in the spectroscopic HR (sHR) diagram (Langer & Kudritzki 2014), whose vertical axis is 4 log T eff - log g(= log L/M). Observational data indicate that variables tend to have higher L/M than non-variables in agreement with the theoretical prediction. However, many variable blue-supergiants are found to have values of L/M below the theoretical stability boundary; i.e., surface gravities seem to be too high by around 0.2-0.3 dex.

  3. The emission-line regions in the nucleus of NGC 1313 probed with GMOS-IFU: a supergiant/hypergiant candidate and a kinematically cold nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.

    2017-04-01

    NGC 1313 is a bulgeless nearby galaxy, classified as SB(s)d. Its proximity allows high spatial resolution observations. We performed the first detailed analysis of the emission-line properties in the nuclear region of NGC 1313, using an optical data cube obtained with the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph. We detected four main emitting areas, three of them (regions 1, 2 and 3) having spectra typical of H II regions. Region 1 is located very close to the stellar nucleus and shows broad spectral features characteristic of Wolf-Rayet stars. Our analysis revealed the presence of one or two WC4-5 stars in this region, which is compatible with results obtained by previous studies. Region 4 shows spectral features (as a strong Hα emission line, with a broad component) typical of a massive emission-line star, such as a luminous blue variable, a B[e] supergiant or a B hypergiant. The radial velocity map of the ionized gas shows a pattern consistent with rotation. A significant drop in the values of the gas velocity dispersion was detected very close to region 1, which suggests that the young stars there were formed from this cold gas, possibly keeping low values of velocity dispersion. Therefore, although detailed measurements of the stellar kinematics were not possible (due to the weak stellar absorption spectrum of this galaxy), we predict that NGC 1313 may also show a drop in the values of the stellar velocity dispersion in its nuclear region.

  4. HUBBLE SNAPSHOT CAPTURES LIFE CYCLE OF STARS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper right of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right and lower left of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). The 'proplyds' in NGC 3603 are 5 to 10 times larger in size and correspondingly also more massive. This single view nicely illustrates the entire stellar life cycle of stars, starting with the Bok globules and giant gaseous pillars, followed by circumstellar disks, and progressing to evolved massive stars in the young starburst cluster. The blue supergiant with its ring and bipolar outflow marks the end of the life cycle. The color difference between the supergiant's bipolar outflow and the diffuse

  5. X-ray, UV and optical analysis of supergiants: ɛ Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puebla, Raul E.; Hillier, D. John; Zsargó, Janos; Cohen, David H.; Leutenegger, Maurice A.

    2016-03-01

    We present a multi-wavelength (X-ray to optical) analysis, based on non-local thermodynamic equilibrium photospheric+wind models, of the B0 Ia-supergiant: ɛ Ori. The aim is to test the consistency of physical parameters, such as the mass-loss rate and CNO abundances, derived from different spectral bands. The derived mass-loss rate is {dot {M}} / {√{f_{∞}}} {˜} 1.6 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1 where f∞ is the volume filling factor. However, the S IV λλ1062,1073 profiles are too strong in the models; to fit the observed profiles it is necessary to use f∞ <0.01. This value is a factor of 5 to 10 lower than inferred from other diagnostics, and implies {dot{M}} ≲ 1 × 10^{-7} M⊙ yr-1. The discrepancy could be related to porosity-vorosity effects or a problem with the ionization of sulphur in the wind. To fit the UV profiles of N V and O VI it was necessary to include emission from an interclump medium with a density contrast (ρcl/ρICM) of ˜100. X-ray emission in H/He like and Fe L lines was modelled using four plasma components located within the wind. We derive plasma temperatures from 1 × 106 to 7 × 106 K, with lower temperatures starting in the outer regions (R0 ˜ 3-6 R*), and a hot component starting closer to the star (R0 ≲ 2.9 R*). From X-ray line profiles we infer {dot{M}} < 4.9 × 10-7 M⊙ yr-1. The X-ray spectrum (≥0.1 kev) yields an X-ray luminosity LX ˜ 2.0 × 10-7Lbol, consistent with the superion line profiles. X-ray abundances are in agreement with those derived from the UV and optical analysis: ɛ Ori is slightly enhanced in nitrogen and depleted in carbon and oxygen, evidence for CNO processed material.

  6. Atmospheric accelerations and the stability of dynamic supergiant atmospheres.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwenhuijzen, H.; de Jager, C.

    1995-10-01

    The goal of this paper is to study instability regions in the HR diagram, through a calculation of the atmospheric accelerations for spherically symmetric stars, in dynamic equilibrium, without using detailed atmospheric models. The input data are five primary data, viz.: the stellar luminosity L, the effective temperature T_eff_, the mass M, the rate of mass loss ˙(M), and the microturbulent velocity component ζmu_, while we assume the temperature for a reference atmospheric layer, an assumption that appears not to be critical. An iterative solution of the momentum equation, simultaneous with some other equations, yields values for the various accelerations acting on a stellar atmosphere and their algebraic sum g_eff_', the predicted effective acceleration. In the first part of the paper we compare this latter quantity with the g_eff_-value derived observationally from spectral studies of nine program stars and we find overall fair agreement. This supports the method as well as the values of the five input data. In part 2 we determine g'_eff_ in same way for the whole upper part of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram by using statistical primary data on the mass (based on evolutionary calculations), on mass-loss and on microturbulence (shock-strengths). We find as a fairly general rule that, as stars move along their evolutionary track, and for time scales longer than the dynamic time scale of the atmosphere, the atmosphere continuously adapts to the new (L,T_eff_)-values and essentially remains stable. Current practice of determining the stability limit of stellar atmospheres by extrapolating hydrostatic models to the Eddington limit is not justified by this study. There is one exception: we find a small area around T_eff_=8300K and log(L/Lsun_)=5.7, where no solution is possible for evolved stars on their blueward evolutionary track; the stars in this area have in any case effective accelerations <1mm/s^2^: the "Yellow Evolutionary Void". In the third part we

  7. Inhomogeneous molecular ring around the B[e] supergiant LHA 120-S 73

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, M.; Cidale, L. S.; Arias, M. L.; Maravelias, G.; Nickeler, D. H.; Torres, A. F.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Aret, A.; Curé, M.; Vallverdú, R.; Barbá, R. H.

    2016-10-01

    Context. B[e] supergiants are evolved massive stars, enshrouded in a dense wind and surrounded by a molecular and dusty disk. The mechanisms that drive phases of enhanced mass loss and mass ejections, responsible for the shaping of the circumstellar material of these objects, are still unclear. Aims: We aim to improve our knowledge on the structure and dynamics of the circumstellar disk of the Large Magellanic Cloud B[e] supergiant LHA 120-S 73. Methods: High-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopic data were obtained over a period of 16 and 7 yr, respectively. The spectra cover the diagnostic emission lines from [Ca ii] and [O i], as well as the CO bands. These features trace the disk at different distances from the star. We analyzed the kinematics of the individual emission regions by modeling their emission profiles. A low-resolution mid-infrared spectrum was obtained as well, which provides information on the composition of the dusty disk. Results: All diagnostic emission features display double-peaked line profiles, which we interpret as due to Keplerian rotation. We find that the profile of each forbidden line contains contributions from two spatially clearly distinct rings. In total, we find that LHA 120-S 73 is surrounded by at least four individual rings of material with alternating densities (or by a disk with strongly non-monotonic radial density distribution). Moreover, we find that the molecular ring must have gaps or at least strong density inhomogeneities, or in other words, a clumpy structure. The optical spectra additionally display a broad emission feature at 6160-6180 Å, which we interpret as molecular emission from TiO. The mid-infrared spectrum displays features of oxygen- and carbon-rich grain species, which indicates a long-lived, stable dusty disk. We cannot confirm the previously reported high value for the stellar rotation velocity. He i λ 5876 is the only clearly detectable pure atmospheric absorption line in our data. Its

  8. Photometry of the Variable Bright Red Supergiant Betelgeuse from the Ground and from Space with the BRITE Nano-satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minor, Robert; Guinan, Edward F.

    2016-01-01

    Robert B. Minor, Edward Guinan, Richard Wasatonic Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) is a large, luminous semi-regular red supergiant of spectral class M1.5-2Iab. It is the 8th brightest star in the night sky. Betelgeuse is 30,000 times more luminous than the Sun and 700 times larger. It has an estimated age of ~8 +/- 2 Myr. Betelgeuse explode in a Type II supernova (anytime within the next million years). When it explodes, it will shine with about the intensity of a full moon and may be visible during the day. However, it is too far away to cause any major damage to Earth. Photometry of this pre-supernova star has been ongoing at Villanova for nearly 45 years. These observations are being used to define the complex brightness variations of this star. Semi-regular periodic light variations have been found with periods of 385 days up to many years. These light variations are used to study its unstable atmosphere and resulting complex pulsations. Over the last 15 years, it has been observed by Wasatonic who has accumulated a large photometric database. The ground-based observations are limited to precisions of 1.5%, and due to poor weather, limit observations to about 1-2 times per week. However, with the recent successful launch of the BRITE Nano-satellites (http://www.brite-constellation.at) during 2013-14, it is possible to secure high precision photometry of bright stars, including Betelgeuse, continuously for up to 3 months. Villanova has participated in the BRITE guest investigators program and has been awarded observing time and data rights many bright stars, including Betelgeuse. BRITE blue and red observations of Betelgeuse were carried out during the Nov-Feb 2013-14 season and the 2014-15. These datasets were given to Villanova and have been combined with coexistent photometry from Wasatonic. Although BRITE's red data is saturated, the blue data is useable. The BRITE datasets were combined with our ground-based V, red, and near-IR photometry. Problems were

  9. Evolutionary helium and CNO anomalies in the atmospheres and winds of massive hot stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walborn, Nolan R.

    1987-01-01

    The ubiquitous evidence for processed materials in the atmospheres, winds, and circumstellar ejecta of massive stars is reviewed. A broad array of normal and peculiar evolutionary stages is considered, up to and including Type II supernova progenitors. The quantitative analysis of these spectra is difficult, and until recently for the most part only qualitative or approximate results have been available. However, several important current programs promise reliable abundance calculations. A significant emerging result is that the morphologically normal majority of both hot and cold supergiants may already display an admixture of CNO-cycle products in their atmospheres. It may become possible in this way to identify blue supergiants returning from the red supergiant region, as appears to have been the case for the SN 1987A progenitor.

  10. The Star Formation History of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebel, E. K.; Brandner, W.

    1997-05-01

    We present a movie of the star formation history of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) based on its stellar content. We use the present-day spatial distribution of blue and red supergiants, Cepheids, clusters and associations, and RR Lyrae stars to study the age structure and to identify areas of pronounced star formation as a function of time and position. Age estimates for different stellar populations are based on theoretical isochrones, evolutionary models, and recent calibrations of SWB types of clusters. De-reddening of the individual stars and clusters results in a large-scale extinction map for the LMC. We discuss our results in terms of internal/external trigger mechanisms of star formation and different star formation modes.

  11. ON THE NATURE OF RAPIDLY ROTATING SINGLE EVOLVED STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Da Silva, R. Rodrigues; Canto Martins, B. L.; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of the nature of the rapidly rotating, apparently single giant based on rotational and radial velocity measurements carried out by the CORAVEL spectrometers. From the analyzed sample, composed of 2010 spectroscopic, apparently single, evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II, and Ib with spectral types G and K, we classified 30 stars that presented unusual, moderate to rapid rotation. This work reports, for the first time, the presence of these abnormal rotators among subgiant, bright giant, and Ib supergiant stars. To date, this class of stars was reported only among giant stars of luminosity class III. Most of these abnormal rotators present an IRAS infrared excess, which, in principle, can be related to dust around these stars.

  12. Clustered star formation and the origin of stellar masses.

    PubMed

    Pudritz, Ralph E

    2002-01-04

    Star clusters are ubiquitous in galaxies of all types and at all stages of their evolution. We also observe them to be forming in a wide variety of environments, ranging from nearby giant molecular clouds to the supergiant molecular clouds found in starburst and merging galaxies. The typical star in our galaxy and probably in others formed as a member of a star cluster, so star formation is an intrinsically clustered and not an isolated phenomenon. The greatest challenge regarding clustered star formation is to understand why stars have a mass spectrum that appears to be universal. This review examines the observations and models that have been proposed to explain these fundamental issues in stellar formation.

  13. SPITZER SAGE INFRARED PHOTOMETRY OF MASSIVE STARS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Massa, D. L.; Sewilo, M. E-mail: massa@stsci.edu

    2009-10-15

    We present a catalog of 1750 massive stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), with accurate spectral types compiled from the literature, and a photometric catalog for a subset of 1268 of these stars, with the goal of exploring their infrared properties. The photometric catalog consists of stars with infrared counterparts in the Spitzer SAGE survey database, for which we present uniform photometry from 0.3 to 24 {mu}m in the UBVIJHK{sub s} +IRAC+MIPS24 bands. The resulting infrared color-magnitude diagrams illustrate that the supergiant B[e], red supergiant, and luminous blue variable (LBV) stars are among the brightest infrared point sources in the LMC, due to their intrinsic brightness, and at longer wavelengths, due to dust. We detect infrared excesses due to free-free emission among {approx}900 OB stars, which correlate with luminosity class. We confirm the presence of dust around 10 supergiant B[e] stars, finding the shape of their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to be very similar, in contrast to the variety of SED shapes among the spectrally variable LBVs. The similar luminosities of B[e] supergiants (log L/L {sub sun} {>=} 4) and the rare, dusty progenitors of the new class of optical transients (e.g., SN 2008S and NGC 300 OT), plus the fact that dust is present in both types of objects, suggests a common origin for them. We find the infrared colors for Wolf-Rayet stars to be independent of spectral type and their SEDs to be flatter than what models predict. The results of this study provide the first comprehensive roadmap for interpreting luminous, massive, resolved stellar populations in nearby galaxies at infrared wavelengths.

  14. From the atmosphere to the circumstellar environment in cool evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittkowski, M.; Paladini, C.

    2014-09-01

    We discuss and illustrate contributions that optical interferometry has made on our current understanding of cool evolved stars. We include red giant branch (RGB) stars, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, and red supergiants (RSGs). Studies using optical interferometry from visual to mid-infrared wavelengths have greatly increased our knowledge of their atmospheres, extended molecular shells, dust formation, and winds. These processes and the morphology of the circumstellar environment are important for the further evolution of these stars toward planetary nebulae (PNe) and core-collapse supernovae (SNe), and for the return of material to the interstellar medium.

  15. A search for coronal soft X-ray emission from cool stars with HEAO 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, T. R.; Garmire, G.; Cordova, F.; Linsky, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A search of the HEAO 1 A-2 experiment all-sky survey for coronal soft X-ray emission from a sample of active chromosphere G-M stars including six dwarfs, eight giants, four supergiants, and 10 dMe flare stars is summarized. Point sources were detected near the positions of several of the stars considered. However, of these, only the flare stars BY Draconis (dM0e) and AD Leonis (dM3.5e) appear to be likely candidates for the detected X-rays.

  16. Observation of winds in cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Sufficient observational material - ultraviolet spectroscopic measures, quantitative optical spectroscopy, and X-ray photometry exists to enable discernment of the presence and character of mass loss in cool stars and to establish meaningful constraints on theoretical models. Two determinants of atmospheric wind structure - temperature and gravity - may suffice in a most superficial way to define the wind and atmospheric structure in a star; however more extensive observations demonstrate the importance of magnetic surface activity and its particular geometrical configuration. Successive observations of an active binary system and a supergiant star reveal that magnetic activity and perhaps mass loss occur on restricted regions of a stellar surface and that long lived structures are present in a wind.

  17. New Luminous ON Spectra from the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Barbá, Rodolfo H.; Sota, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    Two new ON supergiant spectra (bringing the total known to seven) and one new ONn giant (total of this class now eight) are presented; they have been discovered by the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey. These rare objects represent extremes in the mixing of CNO-cycled material to the surfaces of evolved, late-O stars, by uncertain mechanisms in the first category but likely by rotation in the second. The two supergiants are at the hot edge of the class, which is a selection effect from the behavior of defining N iii and C iii absorption blends, related to the tendency toward emission (Of effect) in the former. An additional N/C criterion first proposed by Bisiacchi et al. is discussed as a means to alleviate that effect, and it is relevant to the two new objects. The entire ON supergiant class is discussed; they display a fascinating diversity of detail undoubtedly related to the complexities of their extended atmospheres and winds that are sensitive to small differences in physical parameters, as well as to binary effects in some cases. Serendipitously, we have found significant variability in the spectrum of a little-known hypergiant with normal N, C spectra selected as a comparison for the anomalous objects. In contrast to the supergiants, the ONn spectra are virtual (nitrogen)-carbon copies of one another except for the degrees of line broadening, which emphasizes their probable unique origin and hence amenability to definitive astrophysical interpretation.

  18. NEW LUMINOUS ON SPECTRA FROM THE GALACTIC O-STAR SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Barbá, Rodolfo H.; Sota, Alfredo E-mail: nmorrell@lco.cl E-mail: sota@iaa.es

    2016-04-15

    Two new ON supergiant spectra (bringing the total known to seven) and one new ONn giant (total of this class now eight) are presented; they have been discovered by the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey. These rare objects represent extremes in the mixing of CNO-cycled material to the surfaces of evolved, late-O stars, by uncertain mechanisms in the first category but likely by rotation in the second. The two supergiants are at the hot edge of the class, which is a selection effect from the behavior of defining N iii and C iii absorption blends, related to the tendency toward emission (Of effect) in the former. An additional N/C criterion first proposed by Bisiacchi et al. is discussed as a means to alleviate that effect, and it is relevant to the two new objects. The entire ON supergiant class is discussed; they display a fascinating diversity of detail undoubtedly related to the complexities of their extended atmospheres and winds that are sensitive to small differences in physical parameters, as well as to binary effects in some cases. Serendipitously, we have found significant variability in the spectrum of a little-known hypergiant with normal N, C spectra selected as a comparison for the anomalous objects. In contrast to the supergiants, the ONn spectra are virtual (nitrogen)-carbon copies of one another except for the degrees of line broadening, which emphasizes their probable unique origin and hence amenability to definitive astrophysical interpretation.

  19. Star Caught Smoking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-08-01

    VLTI Snapshots Dusty Puff Around Variable Star Using ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer, astronomers from France and Brazil have detected a huge cloud of dust around a star. This observation is further evidence for the theory that such stellar puffs are the cause of the repeated extreme dimming of the star. ESO PR Photo 34a/07 ESO PR Photo 34a/07 Dust Cloud in a R CrB Star (Artist's Impression) R Coronae Borealis stars are supergiants exhibiting erratic variability. Named after the first star that showed such behaviour [1], they are more than 50 times larger than our Sun. R Coronae Borealis stars can see their apparent brightness unpredictably decline to a thousandth of their nominal value within a few weeks, with the return to normal light levels being much slower. It has been accepted for decades that such fading could be due to obscuration of the stellar surface by newly formed dusty clouds. This 'Dust Puff Theory' suggests that mass is lost from the R Coronae Borealis (or R CrB for short) star and then moves away until the temperature is low enough for carbon dust to form. If the newly formed dust cloud is located along our line-of-sight, it eclipses the star. As the dust is blown away by the star's strong light, the 'curtain' vanishes and the star reappears. RY Sagittarii is the brightest member in the southern hemisphere of this family of weird stars. Located about 6,000 light-years away towards the constellation of Sagittarius (The Archer), its peculiar nature was discovered in 1895 by famous Dutch astronomer Jacobus Cornelius Kapteyn. In 2004, near-infrared adaptive optics observations made with NACO on ESO's Very Large Telescope allowed astronomers Patrick de Laverny and Djamel Mékarnia to clearly detect the presence of clouds around RY Sagittarii. This was the first direct confirmation of the standard scenario explaining the light variations of R CrB stars by the presence of heterogeneities in their envelope surrounding the star. ESO PR Photo 32e

  20. Spectropolarimetry of Giant stars: Probing the influence of magnetic field on evolved stars Spectropolarimetry of Giant stars: Probing the influence of magnetic field on evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Jefferson; Castro, Matthieu; Petit, Pascal; do Nascimento, José-Dias, Jr.

    2015-08-01

    It is know that lithium is element easily destroyed in stellar interior, the existence of lithium rich stars means a great challenge in stellar evolution. In this context our observations ravels the serendipitous discovery of an unusually high lithium abundance star. This is a K0III HD 150050, which has strong deepening on lithium line (6707.8 Å) this means lithium abundance of 2.81 0.2 dex, therefore this star belong a rare group called super Li-Rich stars. A possible source of the non-standard episodes required to produce Li-rich stars were identified in magneto-thermohaline mixing accounted by models of extra-mixing induced by magnetic buoyancy. However to better understand this is necessary more observational data. In last three decades several studies has showed that late type red giant stars presents a remarkable modifications in these outer atmosphere layers when they become late type star in HR diagram. These changes are founded through X-ray, Ultraviolet, and Chromospheric activity analyses, and then we can establish the called “Dividing lines”. We made spectropalarimetric observations with ESPaDOnS@CFHT to achieve two main objectives: analyze the influence of magnetic field in the Li-rich giant stars, and understand how works the magnetic field in late type giants and supergiants across the “dividing line”.

  1. The structure, energy balance, and winds of cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The phenomena associated with magnetic fields in the Sun are summarized and it is shown that similar phenomena occur in cool stars. High dispersion spectra are providing unique information concerning densities, atmospheric extension, and emission line widths. A recent unanticipated discovery is that the transition lines are redshifted (an antiwind) in beta Dra (G2 Ib) and perhaps other stars. This is interpreted as indicating downflows in closed magnetic flux tubes as are seen in the solar flux tubes above sunspots. The G and K giants and supergiants are classified as active stars, quiet stars, or hybrid stars depending on whether their atmospheres are dominated by closed magnetic flux tubes, open field geometries, or a predominately open geometry with a few closed flux tubes embedded.

  2. SUPERGIANT SHELLS AND MOLECULAR CLOUD FORMATION IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J. R.; Dickey, John M.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Wong, T.; Hughes, A.; Fukui, Y.; Kawamura, A.

    2013-01-20

    We investigate the influence of large-scale stellar feedback on the formation of molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Examining the relationship between H I and {sup 12}CO(J = 1-0) in supergiant shells (SGSs), we find that the molecular fraction in the total volume occupied by SGSs is not enhanced with respect to the rest of the LMC disk. However, the majority of objects ({approx}70% by mass) are more molecular than their local surroundings, implying that the presence of a supergiant shell does on average have a positive effect on the molecular gas fraction. Averaged over the full SGS sample, our results suggest that {approx}12%-25% of the molecular mass in supergiant shell systems was formed as a direct result of the stellar feedback that created the shells. This corresponds to {approx}4%-11% of the total molecular mass of the galaxy. These figures are an approximate lower limit to the total contribution of stellar feedback to molecular cloud formation in the LMC, and constitute one of the first quantitative measurements of feedback-triggered molecular cloud formation in a galactic system.

  3. Infrared observations of circumstellar ammonia in OH/IR supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaren, R. A.; Betz, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    Ammonia has been detected in the circumstellar envelopes of VY Canis Majoris, VX Sagittarii, and IRC +10420 by means of several absorption lines in the nu-2 vibration-rotation band near 950 kaysers. The line profiles are well resolved (0.2 km/sec resolution) and show the gas being accelerated to terminal expansion velocities near 30 km/sec. The observations reveal a method for determining the position of the central star on VLBI maps of OH maser emission to an accuracy of approximately 0.2 arcsec. A firm lower limit of 2 x 10 to the 15th/sq cm is obtained for the NH3 column density in VY Canis Majoris.

  4. Low-amplitude rotational modulation rather than pulsations in the CoRoT B-type supergiant HD 46769

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Catala, C.; Neiner, C.; Briquet, M.; Castro, N.; Schmid, V. S.; Scardia, M.; Rainer, M.; Poretti, E.; Pápics, P. I.; Degroote, P.; Bloemen, S.; Østensen, R. H.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Baudin, F.; Michel, E.; Samadi, R.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: We aim to detect and interpret photometric and spectroscopic variability of the bright CoRoT B-type supergiant target HD 46769 (V = 5.79). We also attempt to detect a magnetic field in the target. Methods: We analyse a 23-day oversampled CoRoT light curve after detrending and spectroscopic follow-up data using standard Fourier analysis and phase dispersion minimization methods. We determine the fundamental parameters of the star, as well as its abundances from the most prominent spectral lines. We perform a Monte Carlo analysis of spectropolarimetric data to obtain an upper limit of the polar magnetic field, assuming a dipole field. Results: In the CoRoT data, we detect a dominant period of 4.84 d with an amplitude of 87 ppm and some of its (sub-)multiples. Given the shape of the phase-folded light curve and the absence of binary motion, we interpret the dominant variability in terms of rotational modulation, with a rotation period of 9.69 d. Subtraction of the rotational modulation signal does not reveal any sign of pulsations. Our results are consistent with the absence of variability in the Hipparcos light curve. The spectroscopy leads to a projected rotational velocity of 72 ± 2 km s-1 and does not reveal periodic variability or the need to invoke macroturbulent line broadening. No signature of a magnetic field is detected in our data. A field stronger than ~500 G at the poles can be excluded, unless the possible non-detected field were more complex than dipolar. Conclusions: The absence of pulsations and macroturbulence of this evolved B-type supergiant is placed into the context of instability computations and of observed variability of evolved B-type stars. Based on CoRoT space-based photometric data; the CoRoT space mission was developed and operated by the French space agency CNES, with the participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. Based on observations collected at La Silla Observatory, ESO

  5. DISTANCE AND PROPER MOTION MEASUREMENT OF THE RED SUPERGIANT, PZ CAS, IN VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY H{sub 2}O MASER ASTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Kusuno, K.; Asaki, Y.; Imai, H.; Oyama, T. E-mail: asaki@vsop.isas.jaxa.jp E-mail: t.oyama@nao.ac.jp

    2013-09-10

    We present the very long baseline interferometry H{sub 2}O maser monitoring observations of the red supergiant, PZ Cas, at 12 epochs from 2006 April to 2008 May. We fitted maser motions to a simple model composed of a common annual parallax and linear motions of the individual masers. The maser motions with the parallax subtracted were well modeled by a combination of a common stellar proper motion and a radial expansion motion of the circumstellar envelope. We obtained an annual parallax of 0.356 {+-} 0.026 mas and a stellar proper motion of {mu}{sub {alpha}}{sup *} cos {delta} = -3.7 {+-} 0.2 and {mu}{sup *}{sub {delta}}=-2.0{+-}0.3 mas yr{sup -1} eastward and northward, respectively. The annual parallax corresponds to a trigonometric parallax of 2.81{sup +0.22}{sub -0.19} kpc. By rescaling the luminosity of PZ Cas in any previous studies using our trigonometric parallax, we estimated the location of PZ Cas on a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and found that it approaches a theoretically evolutionary track around an initial mass of {approx}25 M{sub Sun }. The sky position and the distance to PZ Cas are consistent with the OB association, Cas OB5, which is located in a molecular gas super shell. The proper motion of PZ Cas is close to that of the OB stars and other red supergiants in Cas OB5 measured by the Hipparcos satellite. We derived the peculiar motion of PZ Cas of U{sub s} = 22.8 {+-} 1.5, V{sub s} = 7.1 {+-} 4.4, and W{sub s} = -5.7 {+-} 4.4 km s{sup -1}. This peculiar motion has rather a large U{sub s} component, unlike those of near high-mass star-forming regions with negatively large V{sub s} motions. The uniform proper motions of the Cas OB5 member stars suggest random motions of giant molecular clouds moving into local potential minima in a time-dependent spiral arm, rather than a velocity field caused by the spiral arm density wave.

  6. Blue supergiant model for ultra-long gamma-ray burst with superluminous-supernova-like bump

    SciTech Connect

    Nakauchi, Daisuke; Nakamura, Takashi; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Suwa, Yudai

    2013-11-20

    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) have a typical duration of ∼30 s, and some of them are associated with hypernovae, such as Type Ic SN 1998bw. Wolf-Rayet stars are the most plausible LGRB progenitors, since the free fall time of the envelope is consistent with the duration, and the natural outcome of the progenitor is a Type Ic SN. While a new population of ultra-long GRBs (ULGRBs), GRB 111209A, GRB 101225A, and GRB 121027A, has a duration of ∼10{sup 4} s, two of them are accompanied by superluminous-supernova-like (SLSN-like) bumps, which are ≲ 10 times brighter than typical hypernovae. Wolf-Rayet progenitors cannot explain ULGRBs because of durations that are too long and SN-like bumps that are too bright. A blue supergiant (BSG) progenitor model, however, can explain the duration of ULGRBs. Moreover, SLSN-like bumps can be attributed to the so-called cocoon fireball photospheric emissions (CFPEs). Since a large cocoon is inevitably produced during the relativistic jet piercing though the BSG envelope, this component can be smoking gun evidence of the BSG model for ULGRBs. In this paper, we examine u-, g-, r-, i-, and J-band light curves of three ULGRBs and demonstrate that they can be fitted quite well by our BSG model with the appropriate choices of the jet opening angle and the number density of the ambient gas. In addition, we predict that for 121027A, SLSN-like bump could have been observed for ∼20-80 days after the burst. We also propose that some SLSNe might be CFPEs of off-axis ULGRBs without visible prompt emissions.

  7. The Orbit and Properties of the BD+60 73 + IGRJ00370+612 Supergiant X-Ray Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, C. T.; Grunhut, J. H.

    2007-08-01

    Spectrograms of the blue and H alpha regions of BD+60 73 obtained with the Cassegrain spectrograph on the David Dunlap Observatory 1.88 m telescope have been measured for radial velocities. These measures confirm that BD+60 73 is a single-line spectroscopic binary with the same period, 15.665 d, as the x-ray flux variations of IGRJ00370+612. The x-ray maxima occur at or just after the time of periastron passage, even though the eccentricity e=0.37 does not seem large enough to produce a large increase in the mass flux at the position of the compact object at the time of periastron passage. The mass function combined with a plausible range of possible masses for a neutron star companion yields primary masses within the range expected for the spectral type of BD+60 73. The compact companion cannot be a black hole unless the supergiant has an exceptionally high mass for its B1Ib spectral type or the inclination of the orbit is very low. The H alpha line shows weak, variable emission, but we have insufficient data to test whether these variations are correlated with orbital phase. We note, as have other authors, that BD+60_73 is projected on the sky within the bounds of Cas OB5. It also lies close to the "adolescent" supernova remnant CTB1. However, the binary system has a radial velocity of approximately -40 km/s with respect to Cas OB5.

  8. Hot Post-AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, M.; Gauba, G.; Fujii, T.; Nakada, Y.

    2001-08-01

    From the study of IRAS sources with far-IR colors similar to planetary nebulae (PNe), several proto-planetary nebulae with hot (OB) post-AGB central stars have been detected. These stars form an evolutionary link between the cooler G,F,A supergiant stars that have evolved off the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) and the hot (OB) central stars of PNe. The optical spectra of these objects show strong Balmer emission lines and in some cases low excitation nebular emission lines such as [NII] and [SII] superposed on the OB stellar continuum. The absence of of [OIII] 5007Å line and the presence of low excitation nebular emission lines indicate that photoionisation has just started. The UV(IUE) spectra of some of these objects revealed violet shifted stellar wind P-Cygni profiles of CIV, SiIV and NV, indicating hot and fast stellar wind and post-AGB mass loss. These objects appear to be rapildy evolving into the early stages of PNe similar to that observed in the case of Hen1357 IRAS 17119-5926 (Stingray Nebula) and IRAS 18062+2410 SAO85766.

  9. Long-lasting X-ray emission from type IIb supernova 2011dh and mass-loss history of the yellow supergiant progenitor

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Keiichi; Katsuda, Satoru; Bamba, Aya; Terada, Yukikatsu; Fukazawa, Yasushi

    2014-04-20

    Type IIb supernova (SN) 2011dh, with conclusive detection of an unprecedented yellow supergiant (YSG) progenitor, provides an excellent opportunity to deepen our understanding on the massive star evolution in the final centuries toward the SN explosion. In this paper, we report on detection and analyses of thermal X-ray emission from SN IIb 2011dh at ∼500 days after the explosion on Chandra archival data, providing a solidly derived mass-loss rate of a YSG progenitor for the first time. We find that the circumstellar media should be dense, more than that expected from a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star by one order of magnitude. The emission is powered by a reverse shock penetrating into an outer envelope, fully consistent with the YSG progenitor but not with a W-R progenitor. The density distribution at the outermost ejecta is much steeper than that expected from a compact W-R star, and this finding must be taken into account in modeling the early UV/optical emission from SNe IIb. The derived mass-loss rate is ∼3 × 10{sup –6} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for the mass-loss velocity of ∼20 km s{sup –1} in the final ∼1300 yr before the explosion. The derived mass-loss properties are largely consistent with the standard wind mass-loss expected for a giant star. This is not sufficient to be a main driver to expel nearly all the hydrogen envelope. Therefore, the binary interaction, with a huge mass transfer having taken place at ≳ 1300 yr before the explosion, is a likely scenario to produce the YSG progenitor.

  10. Evolution of Intermediate Mass and Massive Binary Stars: Physics, Mass Loss, and Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanbeveren, D.; Mennekens, N.

    2017-02-01

    In the present review we discuss the past and present status of the interacting OB-type binary frequency. We critically examine the popular idea that Be-stars and supergiant sgB[e] stars are binary evolutionary products. The effects of rotation on stellar evolution in general, stellar population studies in particular, and the link with binaries will be evaluated. Finally a discussion is presented of massive double compact star binary mergers as possible major sites of chemical enrichment of r-process elements and as the origin of recent aLIGO GW events.

  11. Physics of Classical Be Stars and Possible Connection to the B[e] Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, A. T.

    2017-02-01

    In this talk, I discuss physical processes at work in circumstellar disks of Be stars and possible connection to the B[e] phenomenon. On the basis of the viscous decretion disk scenario, I first overview how a disk forms, develops, and dissipates around an isolated Be star. Then, I discuss various effects of a companion on the structure and dynamics of Be disks in binaries, which include the tidal/resonant truncation, the tidal warping and precession, and the Kozai-Lidov oscillations, all of which are important ingredients that cause various system activity. Finally, I briefly comment on the relevance of these processes to supergiant B[e] stars.

  12. The Puppis region and the last crusade for faint OB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsatti, Ana M.

    1992-08-01

    UBV photoelectric and photographic measurements of OB stars from a list of 397 OB stars and 5 early-type supergiants and from the Luminous Stars Survey are presented. The galactic distribution of the OB stars in the region shows concentrations around the open clusters Ruprecht 44 and Ruprecht 55, and the presence of an important grouping of young stars located far below the plane. The distribution in latitude shows that young stars in the region are not restricted to a thin sheet around the plane but are spread over negative latitudes reaching at least b = -5 deg. In longitude, the OB distribution exhibits a concentration of Ob stars in the interval 244-251 deg; this is argued to be due to the presence of the local arm extension.

  13. The discovery of nonthermal radio emission from magnetic Bp-Ap stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Stephen A.; Abbott, David C.; Bastian, T. S.; Bieging, J. H.; Churchwell, E.

    1987-01-01

    In a VLA survey of chemically peculiar B- and A-type stars with strong magnetic fields, five of the 34 stars observed have been identified as 6 cm continuum sources. Three of the detections are helium-strong early Bp stars (Sigma Ori E, HR 1890, and Delta Ori C), and two are helium weak, silicon-strong stars with spectral types near A0p (IQ Aur = HD 34452, Babcock's star = HD 215441). The 6 cm luminosities L6 (ergs/s Hz) range from log L6 = 16.2 to 17.9, somewhat less than the OB supergiants and W-R stars. Three-frequency observations indicate that the helium-strong Bp stars are variable nonthermal sources.

  14. IUE and IRAS observations of luminous M stars with varying gas-to dust ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, W.; Carpenter, K. G.; Stencel, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Circumstellar gas and dust surrounding M giants and supergiants show luminous M stars to split into two distinct classes. Stars with a high gas to dust ratio all show chromospheric Ca II, H, and K emission. Stars with a high dust to gas ratio do not show chromospheric Ca II emission but are the only ones to show Balmer emission indicative of atmospheric shocks and are also the only ones to show maser emission. In order to determine whether all chromospheric indicators disappear in high dust to gas ratio stars, a survey of stars in both these classes was conducted with the IUE satellite. Long wavelength infrared fluxes for the program stars were obtained from the IRAS point source catalog. There is no obvious difference in the long wavelength observations between the two groups of stars. The long wavelength excess tends to follow the 10 micron excess and not the dust to gas ratio.

  15. Hot Stars in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Upgren, Arthur R.; Adelman, Carol J.

    2011-03-01

    in the halo; 32. Baade-Wesselink analyses of field vs. cluster RR lyrae variables; 33. The rotation of population II A stars; 34. Horizontal branch stars and possibly related objects; 35. A new group of post-AGB objects - the hot carbon-poor stars; 36. MK classifications of hot stars in the halo 37. Photometry of XX Virginis and V716 Ophiuchi and the period luminosity relations of type II cepheids; 38. Rotation and oxygen line strengths in blue horizontal branch stars; Part V. Miscellaneous: 39. UBV CCd photometry of the halo of M31; 40. Can stars still form in the galactic halo?; 41. The ultraviolet imaging telescope on the Astro -1 and Astro -2 missions; 42. Are analogues of hot subdwarf stars responsible for the UVX phenomenon in galaxy nucleli; 43. A survey for field BHB stars outside the solar circle; 44. Post-AGB A and F supergiants as standard candles; 45. The extended horizontal-branch: a challenge for stellar evolution theory; 46. Astronomical patterns in fractals: the work of A. G. Davis Philip on the Mandelbrot Set; Part VI. Summary: 47. Final remarks; Author index; Subject index.

  16. Hot Stars in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Upgren, Arthur R.; Adelman, Carol J.

    1994-08-01

    in the halo; 32. Baade-Wesselink analyses of field vs. cluster RR lyrae variables; 33. The rotation of population II A stars; 34. Horizontal branch stars and possibly related objects; 35. A new group of post-AGB objects - the hot carbon-poor stars; 36. MK classifications of hot stars in the halo 37. Photometry of XX Virginis and V716 Ophiuchi and the period luminosity relations of type II cepheids; 38. Rotation and oxygen line strengths in blue horizontal branch stars; Part V. Miscellaneous: 39. UBV CCd photometry of the halo of M31; 40. Can stars still form in the galactic halo?; 41. The ultraviolet imaging telescope on the Astro -1 and Astro -2 missions; 42. Are analogues of hot subdwarf stars responsible for the UVX phenomenon in galaxy nucleli; 43. A survey for field BHB stars outside the solar circle; 44. Post-AGB A and F supergiants as standard candles; 45. The extended horizontal-branch: a challenge for stellar evolution theory; 46. Astronomical patterns in fractals: the work of A. G. Davis Philip on the Mandelbrot Set; Part VI. Summary: 47. Final remarks; Author index; Subject index.

  17. Wind Variability of B Supergiants. No. 1; The Rapid Rotator HD 64760 (B0.5 Ib)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Derck; Prinja, Raman K.; Fullerton, Alexander W.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a 6 day time series of observations of the rapidly rotating B0.5 Ib star HD 64760. We point out several reasons why such intermediate luminosity B supergiants are ideal targets for wind variability studies and then present our results that show the following: continuous wind activity throughout the 6 day run with the wind never in steady state for more than a few hr; wind variability very near nu = 0 km sec(exp -1) in the resonance lines from the lower ionization stages (Al III and C II); a distinct correlation between variability in the Si III ; lambda(lambda)1300 triplets, the strong C III (lambda)1247 singlet, and the onset of extremely strong wind activity, suggesting a connection between photospheric and wind activity; long temporal coherence in the behavior of the strong absorption events; evidence for large-scale spatial coherence, implied by a whole scale, simultaneous weakening in the wind absorption over a wide range in velocities; and ionization variability in the wind accompanying the largest changes in the absorption strengths of the wind lines. In addition, modeling of the wind lines provides the following information about the state the wind in HD 64760. The number of structures on the portion of a constant velocity surface occulting the stellar disk at a particular time must be quite small, while the number on the entire constant velocity surface throughout the wind must be large. The escape probability at low velocity is overestimated by a normal beta approx. 1 velocity law, perhaps due to the presence of low-velocity shocks deep in the wind or a shallow velocity gradient at low velocity. Estimates of the ionization structure in the wind indicate that the ionization ratios are not those expected from thermal equilibrium wind models or from an extrapolation of previous O star results. The large observed q(N V)/q(Si IV) ratio is almost certainly due to distributed X-rays, but the level of ionization predicted by distributed

  18. A Star on the Run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    Usually stars that are born together tend to move together but sometimes stars can go rogue and run away from their original birthplace. A pair of astronomers have now discovered the first runaway red supergiant (RSG) ever identified in another galaxy. With a radial velocity discrepancy of 300 km/s, its also the fastest runaway massive star known. Discrepant Speeds: When massive stars form in giant molecular clouds, they create what are known as OB associations: groups of hot, massive, short-lived stars that have similar velocities because theyre moving through space together. But sometimes stars that appear to be part of an OB association dont have the same velocity as the rest of the group. These stars are called runaways.What causes an OB star to run away is still debated, but we know that a fairly significant fraction of OB stars are runaways. In spite of this, surprisingly few runaways have been found that are evolved massive stars i.e., the post-main-sequence state of OB stars. This is presumably because these evolved stars have had more time to move away from their birthplace, and its more difficult to identify a runaway without the context of its original group. An Evolved Runaway: Difference between observed velocity and expected velocity, plotted as a function of expected velocity. The black points are foreground stars. The red points are expected RSGs, clustered around a velocity difference of zero. The green pentagon is the runaway RSG J004330.06+405258.4. [Evans Massey 2015]Despite this challenge, a recent survey of RSGs in the galaxy M31 has led to the detection of a massive star on the run! Kate Evans (Lowell Observatory and California Institute of Technology) and Philip Massey (Lowell Observatory and Northern Arizona University) discovered that RSG J004330.06+405258.4 is moving through the Andromeda Galaxy with a radial velocity thats off by about 300 km/s from the radial velocity expected for its location.Evans and Massey discovered this rogue star

  19. Evidence of the evolved nature of the B[e] star MWC 137

    SciTech Connect

    Muratore, M. F.; Arias, M. L.; Cidale, L.; Fernandes, M. Borges; Liermann, A.

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary phase of B[e] stars is difficult to establish due to the uncertainties in their fundamental parameters. For instance, possible classifications for the Galactic B[e] star MWC 137 include pre-main-sequence and post-main-sequence phases, with a large range in luminosity. Our goal is to clarify the evolutionary stage of this peculiar object, and to study the CO molecular component of its circumstellar medium. To this purpose, we modeled the CO molecular bands using high-resolution K-band spectra. We find that MWC 137 is surrounded by a detached cool (T=1900±100 K) and dense (N=(3±1)×10{sup 21} cm{sup −2}) ring of CO gas orbiting the star with a rotational velocity, projected to the line of sight, of 84 ± 2 km s{sup −1}. We also find that the molecular gas is enriched in the isotope {sup 13}C, excluding the classification of the star as a Herbig Be. The observed isotopic abundance ratio ({sup 12}C/{sup 13}C = 25 ± 2) derived from our modeling is compatible with a proto-planetary nebula, main-sequence, or supergiant evolutionary phase. However, based on some observable characteristics of MWC 137, we propose that the supergiant scenario seems to be the most plausible. Hence, we suggest that MWC 137 could be in an extremely short-lived phase, evolving from a B[e] supergiant to a blue supergiant with a bipolar ring nebula.

  20. Winds of low-metallicity OB-type stars: HST-COS spectroscopy in IC 1613

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Miriam; Najarro, Francisco; Herrero, Artemio; Urbaneja, Miguel Alejandro

    2014-06-10

    We present the first quantitative ultraviolet spectroscopic analysis of resolved OB stars in IC 1613. Because of its alleged very low metallicity (≲1/10 Z {sub ☉}, from H II regions), studies in this Local Group dwarf galaxy could become a significant step forward from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) toward the extremely metal-poor massive stars of the early universe. We present HST-COS data covering the ∼1150-1800 Å wavelength range with resolution R ∼ 2500. We find that the targets do exhibit wind features, and these are similar in strength to SMC stars. Wind terminal velocities were derived from the observed P Cygni profiles with the Sobolev plus Exact Integration method. The v {sub ∞}-Z relationship has been revisited. The terminal velocity of IC 1613 O stars is clearly lower than Milky Way counterparts, but there is no clear difference between IC 1613 and SMC or LMC analog stars. We find no clear segregation with host galaxy in the terminal velocities of B-supergiants, nor in the v {sub ∞}/v {sub esc} ratio of the whole OB star sample in any of the studied galaxies. Finally, we present the first evidence that the Fe-abundance of IC 1613 OB stars is similar to the SMC, which is in agreement with previous results on red supergiants. With the confirmed ∼1/10 solar oxygen abundances of B-supergiants, our results indicate that IC 1613's α/Fe ratio is sub-solar.

  1. Neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in HdC stars: the case of HE 1015-2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Aruna; Karinkuzhi, Drisya

    Hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars and R Coronae Borealis (RCB) type stars form a rare class of carbon-rich supergiants. A fraction of these stars in our Galaxy are known to exhibit strong features of light neutron-capture elements such as Sr, Y and Zr usually attributed to the weak component of the s-process. These stars are believed to be in a very short-lived evolutionary phase; hence, their ejecta could have significantly contributed to chemical enrichment in the Galaxy. From medium-resolution spectral analyses of faint high latitude carbon (FHLC) stars of Hamburg/ESO survey Goswami et al. (2010) have added a new member HE 1015-2050, to this rare class. This object is found to exhibit anomalously strong features of Sr in its spectrum. Possible scenarios that might have led to the formation of this object are discussed in the light of existing scenarios of HdC star formation.

  2. Photometry and spectroscopy of stars in the region of a highly reddened cluster in ARA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerlund, B. E.

    1987-09-01

    VRI photographic photometry is presented for 258 stars in the region of the cluster Wd1 in Ara together with near-infrared spectrophotometry of the brightest stars. The brightest member stars of the cluster are shown to be of spectral types B2 Ia to M2 Ia, forming a well defined sequence of supergiants with the maximum visual luminosity being reached in classes A2 and G0. One of the stars is of type Be with an extremely extended shell. Weak hydrogen emission can be traced in the spectra of a number of the stars as well as in between the stars. The interstellar absorption is very heavy, reaching A(V) = 10 mag; the surrounding field has an average absorption of about 3 mag. A redetermination of the distance of the cluster leads to a value of about 5 kpc as most likely. The age of the cluster is estimated to about seven million years.

  3. e-MERLIN 21 cm constraints on the mass-loss rates of OB stars in Cyg OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morford, J. C.; Fenech, D. M.; Prinja, R. K.; Blomme, R.; Yates, J. A.

    2016-11-01

    We present e-MERLIN 21 cm (L-band) observations of single luminous OB stars in the Cygnus OB2 association, from the Cyg OB2 Radio Survey Legacy programme. The radio observations potentially offer the most straightforward, least model-dependent, determinations of mass-loss rates, and can be used to help resolve current discrepancies in mass-loss rates via clumped and structured hot star winds. We report here that the 21 cm flux densities of O3 to O6 supergiant and giant stars are less than ˜70 μJy. These fluxes may be translated to `smooth' wind mass-loss upper limits of ˜4.4-4.8 × 10-6 M⊙ yr -1 for O3 supergiants and ≲2.9 × 10-6 M⊙ yr -1 for B0 to B1 supergiants. The first ever resolved 21 cm detections of the hypergiant (and luminous blue variable candidate) Cyg OB2 #12 are discussed; for multiple observations separated by 14 d, we detect an ˜69 per cent increase in its flux density. Our constraints on the upper limits for the mass-loss rates of evolved OB stars in Cyg OB2 support the model that the inner wind region close to the stellar surface (where Hα forms) is more clumped than the very extended geometric region sampled by our radio observations.

  4. RED SUPERGIANTS AS POTENTIAL TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS: SPATIALLY RESOLVED 4.6 {mu}m CO EMISSION AROUND VY CMa AND BETELGEUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Nathan; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Ryde, Nils E-mail: hinkle@noao.edu

    2009-03-15

    We present high-resolution 4.6 {mu}m CO spectra of the circumstellar environments of two red supergiants (RSGs) that are potential supernova (SN) progenitors: Betelgeuse and VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa). Around Betelgeuse, {sup 12}CO emission within {+-}3'' ({+-}12 km s{sup -1}) follows a mildly clumpy but otherwise spherical shell, smaller than its {approx}55'' shell in K I {lambda}7699. In stark contrast, 4.6 {mu}m CO emission around VY CMa is coincident with bright K I in its clumpy asymmetric reflection nebula, within {+-}5'' ({+-}40 km s{sup -1}) of the star. Our CO data reveal redshifted features not seen in K I spectra of VY CMa, indicating a more isotropic distribution of gas punctuated by randomly distributed asymmetric clumps. The relative CO and K I distribution in Betelgeuse arises from ionization effects within a steady wind, whereas in VY CMa, K I is emitted from skins of CO cloudlets resulting from episodic mass ejections 500-1000 yr ago. In both cases, CO and K I trace potential pre-SN circumstellar matter: we conclude that an extreme RSG like VY CMa might produce a Type IIn event like SN 1988Z if it were to explode in its current state, but Betelgeuse will not. VY CMa demonstrates that luminous blue variables are not necessarily the only progenitors of SNe IIn, but it underscores the requirement that SNe IIn suffer enhanced episodic mass loss shortly before exploding.

  5. Investigation of ultraviolet fluxes of normal and peculiar stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschman, W. A.; Schild, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Data from Project Celescope, a program that photographed the ultraviolet sky, in order to study several problems in current astrophysics are analyzed. Two star clusters, the Pleiades and the Hyades, reveal differences between the two that we are unable to explain simply from their differences in chemical abundance, rotation, or reddening. Data for Orion show large scatter, which appears to be in the sense that the Orion stars are too faint for their ground-based photometry. Similarly, many supergiants in the association Sco OB1 are too faint in the ultraviolet, but the ultraviolet brightness appears to be only poorly correlated with spectral type. Ultraviolet Celescope data for several groups of peculiar stars have also been analyzed. The strong He I stars are too faint in the ultraviolet, possibly owing to enhancement of O II continuous opacity due to oxygen overabundance. The Be stars appear to have ultraviolet colors normal for their MK spectral types. The P Cygni stars are considerably fainter than main-sequence stars of comparable spectral type, probably owing, at least in part, to line blocking by resonance lines of multiply ionized light metals. The Wolf-Rayet stars have ultraviolet color temperatures of O stars.

  6. A Spectroscopic Survey of Massive Stars in M31 and M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Philip; Neugent, Kathryn F.; Smart, Brianna M.

    2016-09-01

    We describe our spectroscopic follow-up to the Local Group Galaxy Survey (LGGS) photometry of M31 and M33. We have obtained new spectroscopy of 1895 stars, allowing us to classify 1496 of them for the first time. Our study has identified many foreground stars, and established membership for hundreds of early- and mid-type supergiants. We have also found nine new candidate luminous blue variables and a previously unrecognized Wolf-Rayet star. We republish the LGGS M31 and M33 catalogs with improved coordinates, and including spectroscopy from the literature and our new results. The spectroscopy in this paper is responsible for the vast majority of the stellar classifications in these two nearby spiral neighbors. The most luminous (and hence massive) of the stars in our sample are early-type B supergiants, as expected; the more massive O stars are more rare and fainter visually, and thus mostly remain unobserved so far. The majority of the unevolved stars in our sample are in the 20-40 M ⊙ range. The spectroscopic observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution. MMT telescope time was granted by NOAO, through the Telescope System Instrumentation Program (TSIP). TSIP is funded by the National Science Foundation. This paper uses data products produced by the OIR Telescope Data Center, supported by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  7. THE MASSIVE STAR POPULATION IN M101. III. SPECTRA AND PHOTOMETRY OF THE LUMINOUS AND VARIABLE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Grammer, Skyler H.; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Gerke, Jill E-mail: roberta@umn.edu

    2015-05-15

    We discuss moderate-resolution spectra, multicolor photometry, and light curves of 31 of the most luminous stars and variables in the giant spiral M101. The majority are intermediate A- to F-type supergiants. We present new photometry and light curves for three known “irregular blue variables,” V2, V4, and V9, and identify a new candidate. Their spectra and variability confirm that they are luminous blue variable (LBV) candidates and V9 may be in an LBV-like maximum light state or eruption.

  8. Pulsations of B stars: A review of observations and theories

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    The observational and theoretical status are discussed for several classes of variable B stars. The older classes now seem to be better understood in terms of those stars that probably have at least one radial mode and those that have only nonradial modes. The former are the ..beta.. Cephei variables, and the latter are the slowly rotating 53 Persei and the rapidly rotating zeta Ophiuchi variables. It seems that in this last class there are also some Be stars that show nonradial pulsations from the variations of the line shapes and their light. Among the nonradial pulsators, we must also include the supergiants which show pulsations with very short lifetimes. A review of the present observational and theoretical problems is given. The most persistent problem of the cause for the pulsations is briefly discussed, and many proposed mechanisms plus some new thoughts are presented. 57 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Identifying SRD Variables Among "Miscellaneous" ASAS Stars (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinonez, M.; Larsen, K.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) The International Variable Star Index (VSX) contains a large number of stars observed and analyzed by the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS). While ASAS is a powerful tool in terms of the sheer volume of data it collects, its automated light curve analysis is not always robust enough to reliably identify stars that are not strictly regular in their magnitude variations. As a consequence, it was suspected that potentially many variable stars of the semiregular type were instead added to the VSX under a miscellaneous (MISC) classification. A subset of these semiregular stars, known as SRD variables, has a well-defined set of parameters regarding their classification - they are of the F, G, or K spectral type, their amplitudes of light variation are between 0.1 and 4 magnitudes, and their periods of variation can span 30 to 1,100 days. Furthermore, SRD variables are giants or supergiants, and therefore typically distant with small proper motions. A search was made through stars listed as MISC in the VSX using the above parameters, as well detailed light curve analyses via the AAVSO's VStar program, in order to find ASAS SRDs that were misclassified as MISC. This study of 90 stars has yielded five new SRDs to date. In addition, some data pertaining to several stars that were not confirmed to be of the SRD type were found to contain errors, and have since been revised accordingly in VSX.

  10. MULTIPLE GENERATIONS OF STARS IN THE TARANTULA NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In the most active starburst region in the local universe lies a cluster of brilliant, massive stars, known to astronomers as Hodge 301. Hodge 301, seen in the lower right hand corner of this image, lives inside the Tarantula Nebula in our galactic neighbor, the Large Magellanic Cloud. This star cluster is not the brightest, or youngest, or most populous star cluster in the Tarantula Nebula -- that honor goes to the spectacular R136. In fact, Hodge 301 is almost 10 times older than the young cluster R136. But age has its advantages; many of the stars in Hodge 301 are so old that they have exploded as supernovae. These exploded stars are blasting material out into the surrounding region at speeds of almost 200 miles per second. This high speed ejecta are plowing into the surrounding Tarantula Nebula, shocking and compressing the gas into a multitude of sheets and filaments, seen in the upper left portion of the picture. Note for your calendar; Hodge 301 contains three red supergiants - stars that are close to the end of their evolution and are about to go supernova, exploding and sending more shocks into the Tarantula. Also present near the center of the image are small, dense gas globules and dust columns where new stars are being formed today, as part of the overall ongoing star formation throughout the Tarantula region. Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA)

  11. First supernova companion star found

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Supernova 1993J exploding hi-res Size hi-res: 222 kb Credits: ESA and Justyn R. Maund (University of Cambridge) Supernova 1993J exploding (artist’s impression) New observations with the Hubble Space Telescope allow a look into a supernova explosion under development. In this artist’s view the red supergiant supernova progenitor star (left) is exploding after having transferred about 10 solar masses of hydrogen gas to the blue companion star (right). This interaction process happened over about 250 years and affected the supernova explosion to such an extent that SN 1993J was later known as one of the most peculiar supernovae ever seen. Supernova 1993J exploding hi-res Size hi-res: 4200 kb Credits: ESA and Justyn R. Maund (University of Cambridge) The site of the Supernova 1993J explosion A virtual journey into one of the spiral arms of the grand spiral Messier 81 (imaged with the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma, left) reveals the superb razor-sharp imaging power of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (Hubble’s WFPC2 instrument, below). The close-up (with Hubble’s ACS, to the right) is centred on the newly discovered companion star to Supernova 1993J that itself is no longer visible. The quarter-circle around the supernova companion is a so-called light echo originating from sheets of dust in the galaxy reflecting light from the original supernova explosion. Supernova 1993J explosing site hi-res Size hi-res: 1502 kb Credits: ESA and Justyn R. Maund (University of Cambridge) Close-up of the Supernova 1993J explosion site (ACS/HRC image) This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the area in Messier 81 where Supernova 1993J exploded. The companion to the supernova ‘mother star’ that remains after the explosion is seen in the centre of the image. The image is taken with Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys and is a combination of four exposures taken with ACS’ High Resolution Camera. The exposures were taken through two near-UV filters (250W

  12. The Swift Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transients Project:. [A Review, New Results and Future Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romano, P.; Mangano, V.; Ducci, L.; Esposito, P.; Vercellone, S.; Bocchino, F.; Burrows, D. N.; Kennea, J. A.; Krimm, H. A.; Gehrels, N.; Farinelli, R.; Ceccobello, C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a review of the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXT) Project, a systematic investigation of the properties of SFXTs with a strategy that combines Swift monitoring programs with outburst follow-up observations. This strategy has quickly tripled the available sets of broad-band data of SFXT outbursts, and gathered a wealth of out-of-outburst data, which have led us to a broad-band spectral characterization, an assessment of the fraction of the time these sources spend in each phase, and their duty cycle of inactivity. We present some new observational results obtained through our outburst follow-ups, as fitting examples of the exceptional capabilities of Swift in catching bright flares and monitor them panchromatically.

  13. Properties of Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transients as Observed by Swift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romano, P.; Vercellone, S.; Krimm, H. A.; Esposito, P.; Cusumano, C.; LaParola, V.; Mangano, V.; Kennea, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Pagani, C.; Gehrels, N.

    2011-01-01

    We present the most recent results from our investigation on Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients, a class of High-Mass X-ray Binaries, with a possible counterpart in the gamma-ray energy band. Since 2007 Swift has contributed to this new field by detecting outbursts from these fast transients with the BAT and by following them for days with the XRT. Thus, we demonstrated that while the brightest phase of the outburst only lasts a few hours, further activity is observed at lower fluxes for a remarkably longer time, up to weeks. Furthermore, we have performed several campaigns of intense monitoring with the XRT, assessing the fraction of the time these sources spend in each phase, and their duty cycle of inactivity.

  14. OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE FOR A CORRELATION BETWEEN MACROTURBULENT BROADENING AND LINE-PROFILE VARIATIONS IN OB SUPERGIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Simon-Diaz, S.; Herrero, A.; Castro, N.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Puls, J.

    2010-09-10

    The spectra of O and B supergiants (Sgs) are known to be affected by a significant form of extra line broadening (usually referred to as macroturbulence) in addition to that produced by stellar rotation. Recent analyses of high-resolution spectra have shown that the interpretation of this line broadening as a consequence of large-scale turbulent motions would imply highly supersonic velocity fields in photospheric regions, making this scenario quite improbable. Stellar oscillations have been proposed as a likely alternative explanation. As part of a long-term observational project, we are investigating the macroturbulent broadening in O and B Sgs and its possible connection with spectroscopic variability phenomena and stellar oscillations. In this Letter, we present the first encouraging results of our project, namely, firm observational evidence for a strong correlation between the extra broadening and photospheric line-profile variations in a sample of 13 Sgs with spectral types ranging from O9.5 to B8.

  15. On the size distribution of newly formed grains in red supergiant atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seab, C. Gregory; Snow, Theodore P.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical ultraviolet extinction curves have been calculated for comparison with observed curves for circumstellar dust in M supergiants. The theoretical curves assume a silicate grain composition, because silicate grains are expected in the oxygen-rich environments that are observed. Calculations were performed with and without the inclusion of scattering into the beam, with largely similar results. A comparison of the computed curves with the observed ultraviolet extinction curve for circumstellar dust in Alpha Scorpii indicates that the size distribution of the circumstellar grains must cut off near 800 A; that is, there are few or no grains smaller than this. The conclusion is that smaller interstellar silicate grains, where they exist, must come from other sources such as grain fragmentation in shocks.

  16. Influence of a stellar wind on the evolution of a star of 30 solar masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.; Chin, C.

    1980-01-01

    A coarse grid of theoretical evolutionary tracks was calculated for a 30 solar mass star to determine the role of mass loss in the evolution of the star during core He burning. The Cox-Stewart opacities were applied, and the rate of mass loss, criterion for convection, and initial chemical composition were taken into consideration. Using the Schwarzschild criterion, the star undergoes little mass loss during core He burning and remains a blue supergiant separated from main sequence stars on the H-R diagram. The stellar remnant consists of the original He core and may appear bluer than equally luminous main sequence stars; a variety of possible evolutionary tracks can be obtained for an initial solar mass of 30 with proper choices of free parameters.

  17. Evolved star water maser cloud size determined by star size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, A. M. S.; Etoka, S.; Gray, M. D.; Lekht, E. E.; Mendoza-Torres, J. E.; Murakawa, K.; Rudnitskij, G.; Yates, J. A.

    2012-10-01

    Context. Cool, evolved stars undergo copious mass loss but the detailed mechanisms and the form in which the matter is returned to the ISM are still under debate. Aims: We investigated the structure and evolution of the wind at 5 to 50 stellar radii from asymptotic giant branch and red supergiant stars. Methods: 22-GHz water masers around seven evolved stars were imaged using MERLIN, at sub-AU resolution. Each source was observed at between 2 and 7 epochs, covering several stellar periods. We compared our results with long-term single dish monitoring provided by the Pushchino radio telescope. Results: The 22-GHz emission is located in approximately spherical, thick, unevenly filled shells. The outflow velocity increases twofold or more between the inner and outer shell limits. Water maser clumps could be matched at successive epochs separated by less than two years for AGB stars, or at least 5 years for RSG. This is much shorter than the decades taken for the wind to cross the maser shell, and comparison with spectral monitoring shows that some features fade and reappear. In five sources, most of the matched maser features brighten or dim in concert from one epoch to the next. A number of individual maser features show idiosyncratic behaviour, including one cloud in W Hya caught in the act of passing in front of a background cloud leading to 50-fold, transient amplification. The masing clouds are one or two orders of magnitude denser than the wind average and contain a substantial fraction of the mass loss in this region, with a filling factor <1%. The RSG clouds are about ten times bigger than those round the AGB stars. Conclusions: Proper motions are dominated by expansion, with no systematic rotation. The maser clouds presumably survive for decades (the shell crossing time) but the masers are not always beamed in our direction. Only radiative effects can explain changes in flux density throughout the maser shells on short timescales. The size of the clouds is

  18. Uncovering the monster stars in W49: the most luminous star-forming region in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shiwei; Bik, Arjan; Henning, Thomas; Pasquali, Anna; Brandner, Wolfgang; Stolte, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    As a part of the LOBSTAR project (Luci OBservations of STARburst regions), which aims at understanding the stellar content of some of the most massive star-forming regions, we present our result on the high-mass stellar content of W49. K-band spectra of the candidate massive stars from VLT/ISAAC and LBT/LUCI provide us with reliable spectral types of dozens of massive stars in this HII region.The first results show that this region hosts several of the most massive stars in our galaxy. Two most brightest stars, one in the core of the central cluster and one in W49 South, were identified as very massive stars (M > 100 M⊙). Their K-band spectra exhibit strong stellar wind features, and they are classified as O2-3.5If* supergiant stars. After comparison to the Geneva evolutionary models, the mass range of W49nr1 was estimated to be between 100 M⊙ and 180 M⊙. Additionally we find 12 O stars with spectral types between O7V and O3V and masses from 25 M⊙ to 125 M⊙, respectively.These results allow us to derive the fundamental parameters of the cluster (mass, age) as well as the total energy output in the form of ionising photons. This will enable us to study the feedback effects of this extreme star forming region in great detail. To our surprise, two young stellar objects with infrared excess feature showing CO emission lines in their spectra are identified. This suggests that circumstellar disks can survive even in this extreme environment. Finally the spatial distribution of the massive stars is analysed to discuss the star formation history and identify potential runaway stars. The extreme properties of this region makes it a good template for more extreme star formation outside our galaxy.

  19. Physical Theories of Winds From Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Cool stars in the late stages of their evolution generally lose mass at a prodigious rate. This includes low mass stars on the red giant branch, on the asymptotic giant branch, and those transiting from the asymptotic giant branch to the planetary nebula phase, as well as massive supergiants. All of these objects are surrounded by dense circumstellar gas and often dust envelopes. This mass loss is an important source of gas and dust for the interstellar medium. For some of these objects, the mass loss rate exceeds the nuclear burning rate and, hence, mass loss determines the subsequent evolution of the star. A variety processes have been invoked to explain the mass loss of these objects. A consensus has developed over the last decade: photospheric processes create an extended atmosphere which extends to several stellar radii. At this height above the photosphere, dust grains can form and radiation pressure drives the dust out. The gas is dragged along by friction. While the detailed processes involved, in particular those lifting the atmosphere, may differ from object to object, this paradigm seems applicable to all of these objects. The process of mass loss breaks up into three parts: 1) The formation of the extended atmosphere; 2) the nucleation and condensation of dust; and 3) The radiation pressure driven wind. Each of these processes will be discussed with an emphasis on those processes that play a role in the mass loss from asymptotic giant branch stars for which the most detailed theories have been developed.

  20. Massive stars in their death throes.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, John J

    2008-12-13

    The study of the stars that explode as supernovae used to be a forensic study, working backwards from the remnants of the star. This changed in 1987 when the first progenitor star was identified in pre-explosion images. Currently, there are eight detected progenitors with another 21 non-detections, for which only a limit on the pre-explosion luminosity can be placed. This new avenue of supernova research has led to many interesting conclusions, most importantly that the progenitors of the most common supernovae, type IIP, are red supergiants, as theory has long predicted. However, no progenitors have been detected thus far for the hydrogen-free type Ib/c supernovae, which, given the expected progenitors, is an unlikely result. Also, observations have begun to show evidence that luminous blue variables, which are among the most massive stars, may directly explode as supernovae. These results contradict the current stellar evolution theory. This suggests that we may need to update our understanding.

  1. Extrinsic and intrinsic S stars in the Henize sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eck, Sophie; Jorissen, Alain; Mayor, Michel; Udry, Stephane; Burnet, Michel

    Previous studies have identified two distinct families among S stars: intrinsic S stars exhibiting Tc lines in their spectrum, and extrinsic S stars lacking Tc lines. Extrinsic S stars were found to be binaries, and probably owe their chemical peculiarities to mass transfer in the binary system. On the contrary, intrinsic S stars are thermally-pulsating AGB stars where the third dredge-up brought heavy elements to the surface. The Henize sample of 205 S stars south of declination -25^circ is especially well suited for inferring the relative frequency of extrinsic/intrinsic S stars, since it is not biased towards low galactic latitudes where intrinsic S stars tend to concentrate. Each star has been measured 3 or 4 times over a period of 5 years with the spectrovelocimeter CORAVEL. The search for binaries is complicated by the fact that Mira-type pulsations are frequent among intrinsic S stars. Fortunately, radial-velocity variations due to atmospheric motions are generally associated with very broad and asymmetric CORAVEL cross-correlation profiles [see also poster P2-14!]. Therefore extrinsic and intrinsic S stars can be distinguished thanks to (1) radial velocity variations, (2) the shape of the CORAVEL cross-correlation profiles, (3) the presence or absence of the radioactive element Tc, as derived from high-resolution spectroscopy, (4) photometric variability, as derived from a survey in the Geneva photometric system. These criteria correlate in a nice way and allow to derive the frequency of intrinsic-genuine AGB-S stars. The galactic distributions of the two families of S stars are clearly distinct, intrinsic S stars being much more concentrated along the galactic plane that extrinsic S stars. High-resolution spectroscopy led to the discovery of two symbiotic stars among the Henize sample (symbiotic stars are interacting binary systems in which a hot compact object accretes matter ejected by a cool (super)giant). The physical parameters responsible for the

  2. Strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcock, Charles; Farhi, Edward; Olinto, Angela

    1986-01-01

    Strange matter, a form of quark matter that is postulated to be absolute stable, may be the true ground stage of the hadrons. If this hypothesis is correct, neutron stars may convert to 'strange stars'. The mass-radius relation for strange stars is very different from that of neutron stars; there is no minimum mass, and for mass of 1 solar mass or less, mass is proportional to the cube of the radius. For masses between 1 solar mass and 2 solar masses, the radii of strange stars are about 10 km, as for neutron stars. Strange stars may have an exposed quark surface, which is capable of radiating at rates greatly exceeding the Eddington limit, but has a low emissivity for X-ray photons. The stars may have a thin crust with the same composition as the preneutron drip outer layer of a conventional neutron star crust. Strange stars cool efficiently via neutrino emission.

  3. The local complex of O and B stars. I - Distribution of stars and interstellar dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.; Frogel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The O-B5 stars, supergiants, young clusters, and associations within 1 kpc of the sun populate two flat systems inclined to each other by 19 to 22 deg. The historical background, statistical significance, composition, spatial arrangement of the contents, and interstellar extinction in the two belts are discussed. A more or less random distribution in space and in age characterizes the O-B5 stars of the 'galactic belt', which is aligned nearly along the Milky Way. The 'Gould belt' is inclined to the Milky Way (north in Sco-Oph and south in Orion), and exhibits a projected distribution of O-B5 stars in its mean plane that resembles a 'dragonfly', with five major features defining it. A crude 'diameter' of the system is 750 to 1000 pc, and the sun's position is eccentric, lying toward Ophiuchus. The nuclear age of the system, while not unique, may be characterized as 30 m.y. from the spectral type of the broad main-sequence turnup near B2-5. Most of the O-B2 stars and youngest stellar groups near the sun belong to the Gould belt, but both belts have approximately equal space densities of B3-B5 stars and similar average values of interstellar extinction.-

  4. Can Very Massive Population III Stars Produce a Super-Collapsar?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sung-Chul; Kang, Jisu; Kozyreva, Alexandra

    2015-03-01

    A fraction of the first generation of stars in the early universe may be very massive (≳ 300 {{M}⊙ }) as they form in metal-free environments. Formation of black holes from these stars can be accompanied by supermassive collapsars to produce long gamma-ray bursts of a unique type having a very high total energy (˜ {{10}54} erg) as recently suggested by several authors. We present new stellar evolution models of very massive Population III stars including the effect of rotation to provide theoretical constraints on super-collapsar progenitors. We find that the angular momentum condition for a super-collapsar can be fulfilled if magnetic torques are ignored, in which case Eddington-Sweet circulations play the dominant role for the transport of angular momentum. We further find that the initial mass range for super-collapsar progenitors would be limited to 300 {{M}⊙ }≲ M≲ 700 {{M}⊙ }. However, all of our very massive star models of this mass range end their lives as red supergiants rather than blue supergiants, in good agreement with most of the previous studies. The predicted final fate of these stars is either a jet-powered type IIP supernova or an ultra-long, relatively faint gamma-ray transient, depending on the initial amount of angular momentum.

  5. FURTHER RESULTS FROM THE GALACTIC O-STAR SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: RAPIDLY ROTATING LATE ON GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Walborn, Nolan R.; MaIz Apellaniz, Jesus; Sota, Alfredo; Alfaro, Emilio J.; Barba, Rodolfo H.; Arias, Julia I.; Gamen, Roberto C. E-mail: jmaiz@iaa.es E-mail: emilio@iaa.es E-mail: rbarba@dfuls.cl E-mail: rgamen@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar

    2011-11-15

    With new data from the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey, we confirm and expand the ONn category of late-O, nitrogen-enriched (N), rapidly rotating (n) giants. In particular, we have discovered two 'clones' (HD 102415 and HD 117490) of one of the most rapidly rotating O stars previously known (HD 191423, 'Howarth's Star'). We compare the locations of these objects in the theoretical H-R diagram to those of slowly rotating ON dwarfs and supergiants. All ON giants known to date are rapid rotators, whereas no ON dwarf or supergiant is, but all ON stars are small fractions of their respective spectral-type/luminosity-class/rotational subcategories. The ONn giants, displaying both substantial processed material and high rotation at an intermediate evolutionary stage, may provide significant information about the development of these properties. They may have preserved high initial rotational velocities or may have been spun up by terminal-age main-sequence core contraction; alternatively, and perhaps more likely, they may be products of binary mass transfer. At least some of them are also runaway stars.

  6. The massive binary companion star to the progenitor of supernova 1993J.

    PubMed

    Maund, Justyn R; Smartt, Stephen J; Kudritzki, Rolf P; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Gilmore, Gerard F

    2004-01-08

    The massive star that underwent a collapse of its core to produce supernova (SN)1993J was subsequently identified as a non-variable red supergiant star in images of the galaxy M81 taken before explosion. It showed an excess in ultraviolet and B-band colours, suggesting either the presence of a hot, massive companion star or that it was embedded in an unresolved young stellar association. The spectra of SN1993J underwent a remarkable transformation from the signature of a hydrogen-rich type II supernova to one of a helium-rich (hydrogen-deficient) type Ib. The spectral and photometric peculiarities were best explained by models in which the 13-20 solar mass supergiant had lost almost its entire hydrogen envelope to a close binary companion, producing a 'type IIb' supernova, but the hypothetical massive companion stars for this class of supernovae have so far eluded discovery. Here we report photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN1993J ten years after the explosion. At the position of the fading supernova we detect the unambiguous signature of a massive star: the binary companion to the progenitor.

  7. Stars and Star Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  8. Taux of the Binaries in the Northern Hemisphere F G K M Supergiants - Results of Five Years of Measurements with CORAVEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burki, G.; Mayor, M.

    Since May 1977, more than 1500 radial velocity measurements have been performed with CORAVEL on 265 northern F-M supergiants. Twenty new spectroscopic binaries have been detected and the orbital elements are determined for 6 systems. The total binary rate among F-M supergiants is evaluated to 31-38%. The relation between the orbital eccentricity and the period is examined in the case of systems having a component of class Ib.

  9. The Massive Star Population in M101. II. Spatial Variations in the Recent Star Formation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammer, Skyler; Humphreys, Roberta M.

    2014-09-01

    We investigate star formation history (SFH) as a function of radius in M101 using archival Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry. We derive the SFH from the resolved stellar populations in five 2' wide annuli. Binning the SFH into time frames corresponding to stellar populations traced by Hα, far-ultraviolet, and near-ultraviolet emission, we find that the fraction of stellar populations young enough to contribute in Hα is 15%-35% in the inner regions, compared to less than 5% in the outer regions. This provides a sufficient explanation for the lack of Hα emission at large radii. We also model the blue to red supergiant ratio in our five annuli, examine the effects that a metallicity gradient and variable SFH have on the predicted ratios, and compare to the observed values. We find that the radial behavior of our modeled blue to red supergiant ratios is highly sensitive to both spatial variations in the SFH and metallicity. Incorporating the derived SFH into modeled ratios, we find that we are able to reproduce the observed values at large radii (low metallicity), but at small radii (high metallicity) the modeled and observed ratios are discrepant.

  10. The massive star population in M101. II. Spatial variations in the recent star formation history

    SciTech Connect

    Grammer, Skyler; Humphreys, Roberta M. E-mail: roberta@umn.edu

    2014-09-01

    We investigate star formation history (SFH) as a function of radius in M101 using archival Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry. We derive the SFH from the resolved stellar populations in five 2' wide annuli. Binning the SFH into time frames corresponding to stellar populations traced by Hα, far-ultraviolet, and near-ultraviolet emission, we find that the fraction of stellar populations young enough to contribute in Hα is 15%-35% in the inner regions, compared to less than 5% in the outer regions. This provides a sufficient explanation for the lack of Hα emission at large radii. We also model the blue to red supergiant ratio in our five annuli, examine the effects that a metallicity gradient and variable SFH have on the predicted ratios, and compare to the observed values. We find that the radial behavior of our modeled blue to red supergiant ratios is highly sensitive to both spatial variations in the SFH and metallicity. Incorporating the derived SFH into modeled ratios, we find that we are able to reproduce the observed values at large radii (low metallicity), but at small radii (high metallicity) the modeled and observed ratios are discrepant.

  11. The quantitative assessment of UV extinction derived from IUE data of giants and supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelli, Jason A.; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Mathis, John S.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown here that the UV interstellar extinction towards hot luminous stars can be determined as accurately as for hot main-sequence stars. An atlas of IUE dereddened fluxes is presented for 13 lightly reddened stars within the 1160-3125 A range. The fluxes of these stars how absorption line strengths that allow a rather accurate determination of relative temperatures and luminosities which is more suitable for the determination of UV extinction via the pair method than choosing a comparison star based on quoted optical MK classifications.

  12. Stars Just Got Bigger - A 300 Solar Mass Star Uncovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    raises the challenge to theorists still further. "Either they were born so big or smaller stars merged together to produce them," explains Crowther. Stars between about 8 and 150 solar masses explode at the end of their short lives as supernovae, leaving behind exotic remnants, either neutron stars or black holes. Having now established the existence of stars weighing between 150 and 300 solar masses, the astronomers' findings raise the prospect of the existence of exceptionally bright, "pair instability supernovae" that completely blow themselves apart, failing to leave behind any remnant and dispersing up to ten solar masses of iron into their surroundings. A few candidates for such explosions have already been proposed in recent years. Not only is R136a1 the most massive star ever found, but it also has the highest luminosity too, close to 10 million times greater than the Sun. "Owing to the rarity of these monsters, I think it is unlikely that this new record will be broken any time soon," concludes Crowther. Notes [1] The star A1 in NGC 3603 is a double star, with an orbital period of 3.77 days. The two stars in the system have, respectively, 120 and 92 times the mass of the Sun, which means that they have formed as stars weighing, respectively, 148 and 106 solar masses. [2] The team used the SINFONI, ISAAC and MAD instruments, all attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal, Chile. [3] (note added on 26 July 2010) The "bigger" in the title does not imply that these stars are the biggest observed. Such stars, called red supergiants, can have radii up to about a thousand solar radii, while R136a1, which is blue, is about 35 times as large as the Sun. However, R136a1 is the star with the greatest mass known to date. More information This work is presented in an article published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ("The R136 star cluster hosts several stars whose individual masses greatly exceed the accepted 150 Msun stellar mass limit", by

  13. THE DUSTIEST POST-MAIN SEQUENCE STARS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Olivia C.; Meixner, Margaret; Roman-Duval, Julia; Sargent, Benjamin A.; Boyer, Martha L.; Sewiło, Marta; Hony, Sacha

    2015-10-01

    Using observations from the Herschel Inventory of The Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) survey of the Magellanic Clouds (MC), we have found 35 evolved stars and stellar end products that are bright in the far-infrared. These 28 (LMC) and 7 (SMC) sources were selected from the 529 evolved star candidates in the HERITAGE far-infrared point source catalogs. Our source identification method is based on spectral confirmation, spectral energy distribution characteristics, careful examination of the multiwavelength images and includes constraints on the luminosity, resulting in a thoroughly vetted list of evolved stars. These sources span a wide range in luminosity and hence initial mass. We found 13 low- to intermediate-mass evolved stars, including asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, post-AGB stars, planetary nebulae, and a symbiotic star. We also identify 10 high mass stars, including 4 of the 15 known B[e] stars in the MC, 3 extreme red supergiants that are highly enshrouded by dust, a Luminous Blue Variable, a Wolf–Rayet star, and two supernova remnants. Further, we report the detection of 9 probable evolved objects which were previously undescribed in the literature. These sources are likely to be among the dustiest evolved objects in the MC. The Herschel emission may either be due to dust produced by the evolved star or it may arise from swept-up interstellar medium material.

  14. Discovery of a red supergiant counterpart to RX J004722.4-252051, a ULX in NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heida, M.; Torres, M. A. P.; Jonker, P. G.; Servillat, M.; Repetto, S.; Roberts, T. P.; Walton, D. J.; Moon, D.-S.; Harrison, F. A.

    2015-11-01

    We present two epochs of near-infrared spectroscopy of the candidate red supergiant counterpart to RX J004722.4-252051, a ULX in NGC 253. We measure radial velocities of the object and its approximate spectral type by cross-correlating our spectra with those of known red supergiants. Our VLT/X-shooter spectrum is best matched by that of early M-type supergiants, confirming the red supergiant nature of the candidate counterpart. The radial velocity of the spectrum, taken on 2014 August 23, is 417 ± 4 km s-1. This is consistent with the radial velocity measured in our spectrum taken with Magellan/MMIRS on 2013 June 28, of 410 ± 70 km s-1, although the large error on the latter implies that a radial velocity shift expected for a black hole of tens of M⊙ can easily be hidden. Using nebular emission lines we find that the radial velocity due to the rotation of NGC 253 is 351 ± 4 km s-1 at the position of the ULX. Thus the radial velocity of the counterpart confirms that the source is located in NGC 253, but also shows an offset with respect to the local bulk motion of the galaxy of 66 ± 6 km s-1. We argue that the most likely origin for this displacement lies either in a SN kick, requiring a system containing a ≳ 50 M⊙ black hole, and/or in orbital radial velocity variations in the ULX binary system, requiring a ≳ 100 M⊙ black hole. We therefore conclude that RX J004722.4-252051 is a strong candidate for a ULX containing a massive stellar black hole.

  15. Pulsating Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelan, M.; Smith, H. A.

    2015-03-01

    This book surveys our understanding of stars which change in brightness because they pulsate. Pulsating variable stars are keys to distance scales inside and beyond the Milky Way galaxy. They test our understanding not only of stellar pulsation theory but also of stellar structure and evolution theory. Moreover, pulsating stars are important probes of the formation and evolution of our own and neighboring galaxies. Our understanding of pulsating stars has greatly increased in recent years as large-scale surveys of pulsating stars in the Milky Way and other Local Group galaxies have provided a wealth of new observations and as space-based instruments have studied particular pulsating stars in unprecedented detail.

  16. The Stars behind the Curtain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    ESO is releasing a magnificent VLT image of the giant stellar nursery surrounding NGC 3603, in which stars are continuously being born. Embedded in this scenic nebula is one of the most luminous and most compact clusters of young, massive stars in our Milky Way, which therefore serves as an excellent "local" analogue of very active star-forming regions in other galaxies. The cluster also hosts the most massive star to be "weighed" so far. NGC 3603 is a starburst region: a cosmic factory where stars form frantically from the nebula's extended clouds of gas and dust. Located 22 000 light-years away from the Sun, it is the closest region of this kind known in our galaxy, providing astronomers with a local test bed for studying intense star formation processes, very common in other galaxies, but hard to observe in detail because of their great distance from us. The nebula owes its shape to the intense light and winds coming from the young, massive stars which lift the curtains of gas and clouds revealing a multitude of glowing suns. The central cluster of stars inside NGC 3603 harbours thousands of stars of all sorts (eso9946): the majority have masses similar to or less than that of our Sun, but most spectacular are several of the very massive stars that are close to the end of their lives. Several blue supergiant stars crowd into a volume of less than a cubic light-year, along with three so-called Wolf-Rayet stars - extremely bright and massive stars that are ejecting vast amounts of material before finishing off in glorious explosions known as supernovae. Using another recent set of observations performed with the SINFONI instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), astronomers have confirmed that one of these stars is about 120 times more massive than our Sun, standing out as the most massive star known so far in the Milky Way [1]. The clouds of NGC 3603 provide us with a family picture of stars in different stages of their life, with gaseous structures that are

  17. Bispectrum speckle interferometry observations and radiative transfer modelling of the red supergiant NML Cyg. Multiple dust-shell structures evidencing previous superwind phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöcker, T.; Balega, Y.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Weigelt, G.

    2001-04-01

    NML Cyg is a highly evolved OH/IR supergiant, one of the most prominent infrared objects due to its strong obscuration by dust, and supposed to be among the most luminous supergiants in the galaxy. We present the first diffraction-limited 2.13 mu m observations of NML Cyg with 73 mas resolution. The speckle interferograms were obtained with the 6 m telescope at the Special Astrophysical Observatory, and the image reconstruction is based on the bispectrum speckle-interferometry method. The visibility function declines towards the diffraction limit to ~ 0.6. Radiative transfer calculations have been carried out to model the spectral energy distribution, given by ground-based photometry and ISO spectroscopy, and our 2.13 mu m visibility function. Additionally, mid-infrared visibility functions at 11 mu m were considered. The observed dust shell properties do not appear to be in accordance with standard single-shell (uniform outflow) models but seem to require multiple components. Considering previous periods of enhanced mass-loss, various density enhancements in the dust shell were taken into account. An extensive grid of models was calculated for different locations and strenghts of such superwind regions in the dust shell. To match the observations from the optical to the sub-mm domain requires at least two superwind regions embedded in the shell. The best model includes a dust shell with a temperature of 1000 K at its inner radius of 6.2 R*, a close embedded superwind shell extending from 15.5 R* to 21.7 R* with an amplitude (factor of density enhancement) of 10, and a far-out density enhancement at 186 R* with an amplitude of 5. The angular diameters of the central star and of the inner rim of the dust shell amount to 16.2 mas and 105 mas, resp. The diameter of the embedded close superwind region extends from 263 mas to 368 mas, and the inner boundary of the distant superwind region has a diameter of 3\\farcs 15. In the near-infrared the dust condensation zone is

  18. The role of AGB stars feedback in sustaining galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javadi, A.; van Loon, J. Th.; Khosroshahi, H.

    We have conducted a near-infrared monitoring campaign at the UK InfraRed Telescope, of the Local Group spiral galaxy M 33. The main aim was to identify stars in the very final stage of their evolution, and for which the luminosity is more directly related to the birth mass than the more numerous less-evolved giant stars that continue to increase in luminosity. In first instance, only the central square kiloparsec were monitored and analysed, with the UIST camera. Photometry was obtained for 18,398 stars; of these 812 stars were found to be variable, most of which are asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We constructed the birth mass function and hence derived the star formation history. These stars are also important dust factories. We measure their dust production rates from a combination of our data with Spitzer Space Telescope mid-IR photometry. The mass loss rates are seen to increase with increasing strength of pulsation and with increasing bolometric luminosity. We construct a 2D map of the mass return rate, showing a radial decline but also local enhancements due to the concentration of red supergiants. We conclude that star formation in the central region of M 33 can only be sustained if gas is accreted from further out in the disc or from circum-galactic regions. By using data of the wide-field camera (WFCAM), the campaign was expanded to cover two orders of magnitude larger area, comprising the disc of M 33 and its spiral arms. Photometry was obtained for 403,734 stars; of these 4643 stars were found to be variable. We here present the star formation history across the disc of M 33.

  19. Massive Stars in the W33 Giant Molecular Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messineo, Maria; Clark, J. Simon; Figer, Donald F.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Najarro, Francisco; Rich, R. Michael; Menten, Karl M.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Valenti, Elena; Trombley, Christine; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Davies, Ben

    2015-06-01

    Rich in H ii regions, giant molecular clouds are natural laboratories to study massive stars and sequential star formation. The Galactic star-forming complex W33 is located at l=˜ 12\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 8 and at a distance of 2.4 kpc and has a size of ≈ 10 pc and a total mass of ≈ (0.8-8.0) × {{10}5} M ⊙ . The integrated radio and IR luminosity of W33—when combined with the direct detection of methanol masers, the protostellar object W33A, and the protocluster embedded within the radio source W33 main—mark the region as a site of vigorous ongoing star formation. In order to assess the long-term star formation history, we performed an infrared spectroscopic search for massive stars, detecting for the first time 14 early-type stars, including one WN6 star and four O4-7 stars. The distribution of spectral types suggests that this population formed during the past ˜2-4 Myr, while the absence of red supergiants precludes extensive star formation at ages 6-30 Myr. This activity appears distributed throughout the region and does not appear to have yielded the dense stellar clusters that characterize other star-forming complexes such as Carina and G305. Instead, we anticipate that W33 will eventually evolve into a loose stellar aggregate, with Cyg OB2 serving as a useful, albeit richer and more massive, comparator. Given recent distance estimates, and despite a remarkably similar stellar population, the rich cluster Cl 1813-178 located on the northwest edge of W33 does not appear to be physically associated with W33.

  20. Mass Loss and Dust Injection rates from Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.

    2010-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope is continuing to contribute greatly to our understanding of the mass return from evolved stars in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). I first review a number of smaller early Spitzer studies of evolved stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). These studies often built upon earlier such studies using data from prior missions, like the Midcourse Space Experiment. I discuss various Spitzer spectroscopic studies that have investigated the dust compositions of evolved stars in the lower metallicity environments of the MCs. Also, I review studies of the MCs' massive evolved stars, which have been given somewhat less attention than other populations. Excitingly, using Spitzer data, for the first time the mass-loss from the diverse evolved star MC populations is being quantified. With the advent of the Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE; PI: M. Meixner) Spitzer Legacy program, tens of thousands of stars in the LMC have been classified as evolved stars using SAGE Spitzer data. I briefly review how evolved stars are classified (e.g., by using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams) using data from the SAGE surveys. Finally, I discuss work on radiative transfer (RT) modeling of evolved stars, which follows earlier work estimating their mass-loss using colors or emission in excess of stellar photosphere emission. This RT work starts by seeking acceptable dust properties for RT models of both SAGE Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) and SAGE-Spectroscopy (Spitzer Legacy program; PI: F. Kemper) spectra of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Afterwards, large grids of RT models are constructed to determine mass-loss rates for AGB stars and red supergiants in the SAGE samples of the LMC and, eventually, the SMC.

  1. Spectroscopy of luminous blue stars in M31 and M33

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, R.M.; Massey, P.; Freedman, W.L. Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories, Pasadena, CA )

    1990-01-01

    Spectra have been obtained for classification of 42 candidate supergiants and 12 probable OB stars in M31 and eight early-type stars in M33. Twenty-six of those in M31 and six in M33 are confirmed as apparent single members with spectral types ranging from O8 to F8. Their interstellar extinction and luminosities are derived from published photographic and CCD photometry for all of the confirmed members. The preliminary and still incomplete HR diagram obtained for M31 shows an apparent lack of the most massive stars, stars with initial masses greater than 60 solar masses. The effects of incompleteness and observational selection on the interpretation of this HR diagram are discussed. 42 refs.

  2. A Study of Mass Loss and Dust Formation Near Hot Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuratov, K. S.; Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Alimgazinova, N. Sh.; Nuryzbaeva, A. Zh.; Manapbaeva, A. B.; Kuratova, A. K.

    At present dust formation is well studied only near cool stars, whose surface temperatures are close to those of dust sublimation. Hot stars need to supply large amounts of circumstellar material to allow dust formation around them. Such conditions naturally exist near supergiants with masses over 25 M⊙. The theory of stellar evolution predicts that less massive stars do not provide enough matter for dust formation. Nevertheless, dust exists near dwarfs with the B[e] phenomenon and giants of A-G spectral types which do not belong to star formation regions.A large group of objects with the B[e] phenomenon with extremely strong emission-line spectra that are neither young nor highly evolved has been recently identified. They are called FS CMa type objects. Their infrared excesses imply a large amount of recently created dust. Therefore, these objects can noticeably contribute to the Galactic dust content, but they have not been taken into consideration from this perspective.

  3. Optical Emission of Ultraluminous X-ray Sources: Donor Star or Disk Irradiation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grise, Fabien; Kaaret, P.; Corbel, S.; Feng, H.; Cseh, D.; Tao, L.; Pakull, M.; Motch, C.

    2011-09-01

    After a decade of intense studies using the latest X-ray and optical telescopes, the nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) is still largely unknown. No definitive answer has emerged on the question of the mass of the black hole powering these objects (intermediate-mass or supercritical stellar-mass?). Further, we lack even basic knowledge about the binary systems and the companion stars. We will review the properties of the optical counterparts of these systems, from where most properties can be derived. Among the burning issues are: what is the mass donor in these systems? Are they giant/supergiant stars or main-sequence stars? What is the donor mass? Is the optical light from the companion stars or dominated by the accretion disk? We will present new results from recent HST, Chandra, and VLT observations of ULXs addressing these questions.

  4. An atlas of ground UV spectra of selected stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkova, Valentina G.; Chentsov, Eugene L.; Kipper, Tonu; Panchuk, Vladimir E.; Tavolganskaya, Nonna S.; Yushkin, Maxim V.

    2011-09-01

    We present a spectral atlas of 4 B and A stars containing spectra in a poorly studied spectral range of 305-452 nm. The atlas is based on high resolution (R=60 000) spectra obtained with the 6 meter telescope (SAO, Russia) combined with the NES-spectrograph. The procedure of spectral lines identification and compilation of the atlas is discussed in detail. Using the spectral data we thoroughly investigated the velocity field in expanding atmospheres and envelopes of hot evolved stars β Ori, α Cyg and supergiant KS Per with the extreme hydrogen deficiency. The complete atlas and list of the identified spectral lines will be available via the astronomical database SIMBAD.

  5. Coronal Structures in Cool Stars: XMM-NEWTON Hybrid Stars and Coronal Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, Andrea K.; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This program addresses the evolution of stellar coronas by comparing a solar-like corona in the supergiant Beta Dra (G2 Ib-IIa) to the corona in the allegedly more evolved state of a hybrid star, alpha TrA (K2 II-III). Because the hybrid star has a massive wind, it appears likely that the corona will be cooler and less dense as the magnetic loop structures are no longer closed. By analogy with solar coronal holes, when the topology of the magnetic field is configured with open magnetic structures, both the coronal temperature and density are lower than in atmospheres dominated by closed loops. The hybrid stars assume a pivotal role in the definition of coronal evolution, atmospheric heating processes and mechanisms to drive winds of cool stars. We are attempting to determine if this model of coronal evolution is correct by using XMM-NEWTON RGS spectra for the 2 targets we were allocated through the Guest Observer program.

  6. Stellar Atmospheres, Atmospheric Extension, and Fundamental Parameters: Weighing Stars Using the Stellar Mass Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neilson, Hilding R.; Baron, Fabien; Norris, Ryan; Kloppenborg, Brian; Lester, John B.

    2016-10-01

    One of the great challenges of understanding stars is measuring their masses. The best methods for measuring stellar masses include binary interaction, asteroseismology, and stellar evolution models, but these methods are not ideal for red giant and supergiant stars. In this work, we propose a novel method for inferring stellar masses of evolved red giant and supergiant stars using interferometric and spectrophotometric observations combined with spherical model stellar atmospheres to measure what we call the stellar mass index, defined as the ratio between the stellar radius and mass. The method is based on the correlation between different measurements of angular diameter, used as a proxy for atmospheric extension, and fundamental stellar parameters. For a given star, spectrophotometry measures the Rosseland angular diameter while interferometric observations generally probe a larger limb-darkened angular diameter. The ratio of these two angular diameters is proportional to the relative extension of the stellar atmosphere, which is strongly correlated to the star’s effective temperature, radius, and mass. We show that these correlations are strong and can lead to precise measurements of stellar masses.

  7. Distance and absolute magnitudes of the brightest stars in the dwarf galaxy Sextans A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandage, A.; Carlson, G.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to improve present bright star calibration, data were gathered for the brightest red and blue stars and the Cepheids in the Im V dwarf galaxy, Sextans A. On the basis of a magnitude sequence measured to V and B values of about 22 and 23, respectively, the mean magnitudes of the three brightest blue stars are V=17.98 and B=17.88. The three brightest red supergiants have V=18.09 and B=20.14. The periods and magnitudes measured for five Cepheids yield an apparent blue distance modulus of 25.67 + or - 0.2, via the P-L relation, and the mean absolute magnitudes of V=-7.56 and B=-5.53 for the red supergiants provide additional calibration of the brightest red stars as distance indicators. If Sextans A were placed at the distance of the Virgo cluster, it would appear to have a surface brightness of 23.5 mag/sq arcec. This, together with the large angular diameter, would make such a galaxy easily discoverable in the Virgo cluster by means of ground-based surveys.

  8. The peculiar, luminous early-type emission line stars of the Magellanic clouds: A preliminary taxonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, S. N.; Sanduleak, N.

    1982-01-01

    A sample of some 20 early type emission supergiants in the Magellanic clouds was observed with both the SWP and LWR low resolution mode of IUE. All stars have strong H-emission, some showing P-Cygni structure as well with HeI, HeII, FeII and other ions also showing strong emission. It is found that the stars fall into three distinct groups on the basis of the HeII/HeI and HeI/HI strengths: (1) HeII strong, HeI, HI; (2) HeII absent, HeI, HI strong; (3) HeI absent, HI, FeII, FeII, strong in addition to low excitation ions. The two most extreme emission line stars found in the Clouds S 134/LMC and S 18/SMC are discussed. Results for the 2200A feature in these supergiants, and evidence for shells around the most luminous stars in the clouds are also described.

  9. Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  10. Spectral Classification of Central Stars of Bowshock Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chick, William T.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Povich, Matthew S.; Dixon, Don; Lee, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We present spectroscopic follow-up of bowshock-supporting stellar sources from our catalog of 709 bowshock nebula candidates using the 2.3m telescope at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory. We have collected optical spectra of 81 central stars of candidate nebulae which show that 71 of these nebulae are supported by massive early-type OB stars (88%). The remaining spectra may be explained as evolved descendants of massive stars, however our observations are unable to conclusively distinguish between dwarf and giant/supergiant evolutionary states. These results are in agreement with the accepted interpretation that bowshock nebulae are created by the interaction of strong stellar winds from massive stars with their surrounding interstellar medium where either the star is moving at a high peculiar velocity (estimated to be 77% of candidates in our catalog) or the star lies in an outflow of gas from a nearby photoevaporating molecular cloud (8%) or HII region (15%). This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants AST-1063146 (REU), AST-1411851 (RUI), and AST-1412845.

  11. A catalog of rotational and radial velocities for evolved stars. V. Southern stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Medeiros, J. R.; Alves, S.; Udry, S.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Mayor, M.

    2014-01-01

    Rotational and radial velocities have been measured for 1589 evolved stars of spectral types F, G, and K and luminosity classes IV, III, II, and Ib, based on observations carried out with the CORAVEL spectrometers. The precision in radial velocity is better than 0.30 km s-1 per observation, whereas rotational velocity uncertainties are typically 1.0 km s-1 for subgiants and giants and 2.0 km s-1 for class II giants and Ib supergiants. Based on observations collected at the Haute-Provence Observatory, Saint-Michel, France, and at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/561/A126

  12. A multiwavelength study of the Carlson-Henize sample of early-type Galactic extreme emission-line stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, Steven N.; Brown, Douglas N.; Bopp, B. W.; Robinson, C. R.; Sanduleak, N.

    1990-01-01

    A UV, optical, and radio study of nine early spectral type extreme emission-line Galactic stars from the Carlson and Henize (1979) sample is presented. He 3-407 and He 3-1482 appear to be analogs of the massive evolved B(e) and luminous blue variable stars of the Magellanic Clouds. The sample appears to be confined to a narrow range in spectral type from about B0 to B6. Most of the observed stars do not show strong N emission, with the striking exception of He 3-1482, and these Galactic stars may not have mixed significant quantities of nitrogen into their envelopes, unlike many of the LMC supergiants, Most of the Galactic stars are considerably fainter than those in the Magellanic Clouds, although their spectral properties are quite similar.

  13. NUCLEOSYNTHESIS AND EVOLUTION OF MASSIVE METAL-FREE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Heger, Alexander; Woosley, S. E. E-mail: woosley@ucolick.or

    2010-11-20

    The evolution and explosion of metal-free stars with masses 10-100 M{sub sun} are followed, and their nucleosynthetic yields, light curves, and remnant masses determined. Such stars would have been the first to form after the big bang and may have left a distinctive imprint on the composition of the early universe. When the supernova yields are integrated over a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF), the resulting elemental abundance pattern is qualitatively solar, but with marked deficiencies of odd-Z elements with 7 {<=} Z {<=} 13. Neglecting the contribution of the neutrino wind from the neutron stars that they form, no appreciable abundances are made for elements heavier than germanium. The computed pattern compares favorably with what has been observed in metal-deficient stars with [Z] {approx}< -3. The amount of ionizing radiation from this generation of stars is {approx}2.16 MeV per baryon (4.15 B per M{sub sun}; where 1 B = 1 Bethe = 10{sup 51} erg) for a Salpeter IMF, and may have played a role in reionizing the universe. Neglecting rotation, most of the stars end their lives as blue supergiants and form supernovae with distinctive light curves resembling SN 1987A, but some produce primary nitrogen due to dredge-up and become red supergiants. These make brighter supernovae like typical Type IIp's. For the lower mass supernovae considered, the distribution of remnant masses clusters around typical modern neutron star masses, but above 20-30 M{sub sun}, with the value depending on explosion energy, black holes are copiously formed by fallback, with a maximum hole mass of {approx}40 M{sub sun}. A novel automated fitting algorithm is developed for determining optimal combinations of explosion energy, mixing, and IMF in the large model database to agree with specified data sets. The model is applied to the low-metallicity sample of Cayrel et al. and the two ultra-iron-poor stars HE0107-5240 and HE1327-2326. Best agreement with these very low metallicity stars is

  14. Spectroscopic evolution of massive stars on the main sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Palacios, A.

    2017-02-01

    Context. The evolution of massive stars depends on several parameters, and the relation between different morphological types is not fully constrained. Aims: We aim to provide an observational view of evolutionary models in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, on the main sequence. This view should help compare observations and model predictions. Methods: We first computed evolutionary models with the code STAREVOL for initial masses between 15 and 100 M⊙. We subsequently calculated atmosphere models at specific points along the evolutionary tracks, using the code CMFGEN. Synthetic spectra obtained in this way were classified as if they were observational data: we assigned them a spectral type and a luminosity class. We tested our spectral classification by comparison to observed spectra of various stars with different spectral types. We also compared our results with empirical data of a large number of OB stars. Results: We obtain spectroscopic sequences along evolutionary tracks. In our computations, the earliest O stars (O2-3.5) appear only above 50 M⊙. For later spectral types, a similar mass limit exists, but is lower. A luminosity class V does not correspond to the entire main sequence. This only holds for the 15 M⊙ track. As mass increases, a larger portion of the main sequence is spent in luminosity class III. Above 50 M⊙, supergiants appear before the end of core-hydrogen burning. Dwarf stars (luminosity class V) do not occur on the zero-age main sequence above 80 M⊙. Consequently, the distribution of luminosity class V in the HR diagram is not a diagnostic of the length of the main sequence (above 15 M⊙) and cannot be used to constrain the size of the convective core. The distribution of dwarfs and giants in the HR diagram that results from our calculations agrees well with the location of stars analyzed by means of quantitative spectroscopy. For supergiants, there is a slight discrepancy in the sense that luminosity class I is observed slightly

  15. CH Stars and Barium Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, H.; Sion, E.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The classical barium (or `Ba II') stars are RED GIANT STARS whose spectra show strong absorption lines of barium, strontium and certain other heavy elements, as well as strong features due to carbon molecules. Together with the related class of CH stars, the Ba II stars were crucial in establishing the existence of neutron-capture reactions in stellar interiors that are responsible for the synt...

  16. Definition and empirical structure of the range of stellar chromospheres-coronae across the H-R diagram: Cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Major advances in our understanding of non-radiative heating and other activity in stars cooler than T sub eff = 10,000K has occured in the last few years. This observational evidence is reviewed and the trends that are now becoming apparent are discussed. The evidence for non-radiatively heated outer atmospheric layers (chromospheres, transition regions, and coronae) in dwarf stars cooler than spectral type A7, in F and G giants, pre-main sequence stars, and close bindary systems is unambiguous, as is the evidence for chromospheres in the K and M giants and supergiants. The existence of non-radiative heating in the outer layers of the A stars remains undetermined despite repeated searches at all wavelengths. Two important trends in the data are the decrease in plasma emission measure with age on the main sequence and decreasing rotational velocity. Variability and atmospheric inhomogeneity are commonly seen, and there is considerable evidence that magnetic fields define the geometry and control the energy balance in the outer atmospheric layers. In addition, the microwave observations imply that non-thermal electrons are confined in coronal magnetic flux tubes in at least the cool dwarfs and RS CVn systems. The chromospheres in the K and M giants and supergiants are geometrically extended, as are the coronae in the RS CVn systems and probably also in other stars.

  17. HV2112, a Thorne-Żytkow object or a super asymptotic giant branch star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tout, Christopher A.; Żytkow, Anna N.; Church, Ross P.; Lau, Herbert H. B.; Doherty, Carolyn L.; Izzard, Robert G.

    2014-11-01

    The very bright red star HV2112 in the Small Magellanic Cloud could be a massive Thorne-Żytkow object (TŻO), a supergiant-like star with a degenerate neutron core. With a luminosity of over 105 L⊙, it could also be a super asymptotic giant branch (SAGB) star, a star with an oxygen/neon core supported by electron degeneracy and undergoing thermal pulses with third dredge up. Both TŻOs and SAGB stars are expected to be rare. Abundances of heavy elements in HV2112's atmosphere, as observed to date, do not allow us to distinguish between the two possibilities based on the latest models. Molybdenum and rubidium can be enhanced by both the irp-process in a TŻO or by the s-process in SAGB stars. Lithium can be generated by hot bottom burning at the base of the convective envelope in either. HV2112's enhanced calcium could thus be the key determinant. Neither SAGB stars nor TŻOs are known to be able to synthesize their own calcium but it may be possible to produce it in the final stages of the process that forms a TŻO, when the degenerate electron core of a giant star is tidally disrupted by a neutron star. Hence, it is more likely, on a fine balance, that HV2112 is indeed a genuine TŻO.

  18. Low-metallicity massive single stars with rotation. Evolutionary models applicable to I Zwicky 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szécsi, Dorottya; Langer, Norbert; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Sanyal, Debashis; de Mink, Selma; Evans, Christopher J.; Dermine, Tyl

    2015-09-01

    Context. Low-metallicity environments such as the early Universe and compact star-forming dwarf galaxies contain many massive stars. These stars influence their surroundings through intense UV radiation, strong winds and explosive deaths. A good understanding of low-metallicity environments requires a detailed theoretical comprehension of the evolution of their massive stars. Aims: We aim to investigate the role of metallicity and rotation in shaping the evolutionary paths of massive stars and to provide theoretical predictions that can be tested by observations of metal-poor environments. Methods: Massive rotating single stars with an initial metal composition appropriate for the dwarf galaxy I Zw 18 ([Fe/H] = -1.7) are modelled during hydrogen burning for initial masses of 9-300 M⊙ and rotational velocities of 0-900 km s-1. Internal mixing processes in these models were calibrated based on an observed sample of OB-type stars in the Magellanic Clouds. Results: Even moderately fast rotators, which may be abundant at this metallicity, are found to undergo efficient mixing induced by rotation resulting in quasi chemically-homogeneous evolution. These homogeneously-evolving models reach effective temperatures of up to 90 kK during core hydrogen burning. This, together with their moderate mass-loss rates, make them transparent wind ultraviolet intense stars (TWUIN star), and their expected numbers might explain the observed He II ionising photon flux in I Zw 18 and other low-metallicity He II galaxies. Our slowly rotating stars above ~80 M⊙ evolve into late B- to M-type supergiants during core hydrogen burning, with visual magnitudes up to 19m at the distance of I Zw 18. Both types of stars, TWUIN stars and luminous late-type supergiants, are only predicted at low metallicity. Conclusions: Massive star evolution at low metallicity is shown to differ qualitatively from that in metal-rich environments. Our grid can be used to interpret observations of local star

  19. New spectroscopic and polarimetric observations of the A0 supergiant HD 92207

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Kholtygin, A. F.; Schöller, M.; Anderson, R. I.; Saesen, S.; González, J. F.; Ilyin, I.; Briquet, M.

    2015-02-01

    Our recent search for the presence of a magnetic field in the bright early A-type supergiant HD 92207 using FORS 2 in spectropolarimetric mode revealed the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field of the order of a few hundred Gauss. However, the definite confirmation of the magnetic nature of this object remained pending due to the detection of short-term spectral variability probably affecting the position of line profiles in left- and right-hand polarized spectra. We present new magnetic field measurements of HD 92207 obtained on three different epochs in 2013 and 2014 using FORS 2 in spectropolarimetric mode. A 3σ detection of the mean longitudinal magnetic field using the entire spectrum, _all=104±34 G, was achieved in observations obtained in 2014 January. At this epoch, the position of the spectral lines appeared stable. Our analysis of spectral line shapes recorded in opposite circularly polarized light, i.e. in light with opposite sense of rotation, reveals that line profiles in the light polarized in a certain direction appear slightly split. The mechanism causing such a behaviour in the circularly polarized light is currently unknown. Trying to settle the issue of short-term variability, we searched for changes in the spectral line profiles on a time scale of 8-10 min using HARPS polarimetric spectra and on a time scale of 3-4 min using time series obtained with the CORALIE spectrograph. No significant variability was detected on these time scales during the epochs studied. Based on observations collected with the CORALIE echelle spectrograph mounted on the 1.2-m Swiss telescope at La Silla Observatory, data obtained at the European Southern Observatory (ESO Prg. 092.D-0209(A), and data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility under request MSCHOELLER 102067).

  20. Enigma of Runaway Stars Solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    evolution theory predicts that all OB stars will end their life in a supernova explosion. The heavier the OB star, the shorter its life. For instance, an OB star with a mass of 25 times that of the Sun, will explode after only 10 million years, compared to an expected life-time of about 13,000 million years for the Sun (which is not an OB star and will not become a supernova). Blaauw suggested that when an OB star is bound to another OB star in a binary system (a `double star'), the supernova explosion of one of the stars (the heaviest of the two would explode first) results in the rapid acceleration (in astronomical terminology, a `kick') of the other one. The reason for this is as follows. When two heavy stars orbit each other at high velocity, they are held together by their mutual gravitational attraction. But after the supernova explosion, one of the stars has lost most of its mass and there is no force to hold back the remaining OB star. The OB-star therefore immediately leaves its orbit and continues in a straight line while preserving its high orbital velocity. The effect is the same as when cutting a swinging rope with a stone attached to the end. Soon thereafter, this star will escape from the OB-association and start its journey through interstellar space as a new OB-runaway. Stellar evolution in a binary system About half of the known OB stars are members of a binary system. Modern evolutionary scenarios for such systems were developed by Edward van den Heuvel [4]. He realized that during the evolution of a close binary system, a phase of intensive mass transfer occurs, whereby matter flows from the heavier star towards its lighter companion. This has important consequences for the further evolution of the system. The mass transfer happens, after a few million years or even less, when the heaviest and therefore most rapidly evolving star increases in size and becomes a supergiant , many times larger than our Sun. The rate of mass transfer can become so large

  1. An updated wing TiO sensitive index for classification of M-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, F.; Mirtorabi, M. T.

    2015-06-01

    By careful searching of synthetic and observed spectra in a sample of cool giant and supergiant stars, we have updated the continuum band-passes of near-infrared Wing three filter system. This photometric system measures the strength of titanium oxide (TiO) absorption in Near-Infrared (NIR) at 719 nm. We show that new reference continuum band-passes are essentially free from molecular absorptions and the updated TiO-index defines the temperature variation in a sample of cool giants with less scatter. A TiO-index vs. effective temperature calibration is derived based on new continuum band-passes.

  2. Evidence of the Evolved Nature of the B[e] Star MWC 137

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratore, M. F.; Kraus, M.; Oksala, M. E.; Arias, M. L.; Cidale, L.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Liermann, A.

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary phase of B[e] stars is difficult to establish due to the uncertainties in their fundamental parameters. For instance, possible classifications for the Galactic B[e] star MWC 137 include pre-main-sequence and post-main-sequence phases, with a large range in luminosity. Our goal is to clarify the evolutionary stage of this peculiar object, and to study the CO molecular component of its circumstellar medium. To this purpose, we modeled the CO molecular bands using high-resolution K-band spectra. We find that MWC 137 is surrounded by a detached cool (T=1900+/- 100 K) and dense (N=(3+/- 1)× {{10}21} {{cm}-2}) ring of CO gas orbiting the star with a rotational velocity, projected to the line of sight, of 84 ± 2 km s-1. We also find that the molecular gas is enriched in the isotope 13C, excluding the classification of the star as a Herbig Be. The observed isotopic abundance ratio (12C/13C = 25 ± 2) derived from our modeling is compatible with a proto-planetary nebula, main-sequence, or supergiant evolutionary phase. However, based on some observable characteristics of MWC 137, we propose that the supergiant scenario seems to be the most plausible. Hence, we suggest that MWC 137 could be in an extremely short-lived phase, evolving from a B[e] supergiant to a blue supergiant with a bipolar ring nebula. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), under program IDs GN-2011B-Q-24 and GN-2013B-Q-11.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RV and vsini of southern stars (de Medeiros+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Medeiros, J. R.; Alves, S.; Udry, S.; Andersen, J.; Nordstrom, B.; Mayor, M.

    2013-11-01

    Rotational and radial velocities have been measured for 1589 evolved stars of spectral types F, G, and K and luminosity classes IV, III, II, and Ib, based on observations carried out with the CORAVEL spectrometers. The precision in radial velocity is better than 0.30km/s per observation, whereas rotational velocity uncertainties are typically 1.0km/s for subgiants and giants and 2.0km/s for class II giants and Ib supergiants. (1 data file).

  4. The X-Ray View of OB Star Wind Structure and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    High-resolution X-ray grating spectroscopy enables us to measure the kinematics and spatial distribution of the shock-heated wind plasma in O and early B stars, testing the predictions of the embedded wind shock scenario of massive star X-ray production. By fitting models to the resolved, Doppler broadened X-ray emission line profiles measured by the Chandra X-ray Observatory's grating spectrometer, we find an onset radius of X-ray production of roughly Ro = 1.5 R★ for the O supergiants, ζ Pup and HD 93129A. From the profile fitting we also find that the terminal velocity of the X-ray emitting plasma is consistent with that of the bulk, UV absorbing wind. We also use the X-ray emission line profiles to measure the wind mass-loss rates and break the degeneracy between mass-loss rate and clumping factor that affects traditional Hα and radio free-free diagnostics. We find clumping factors of order fcl = 10, which also agrees with the simulations of the wind instability. And we find that clumping begins very close to the photosphere, significantly lower in the wind than the onset of X-ray production. For lower density B star winds, the X-ray emission lines are much narrower than in the O supergiants, and are inconsistent with the hot plasma sharing the kinematics of the bulk wind.

  5. Hα as a Luminosity Class Diagnostic for K- and M-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Jeff; Levesque, Emily M.

    2016-04-01

    We have identified the Hα absorption feature as a new spectroscopic diagnostic of luminosity class in K- and M-type stars. From high-resolution spectra of 19 stars with well-determined physical properties (including effective temperatures and stellar radii), we measured equivalent widths for Hα and the Ca ii triplet and examined their dependence on both luminosity class and stellar radius. Hα shows a strong relation with both luminosity class and radius that extends down to late M spectral types. This behavior in Hα has been predicted as a result of the density-dependent overpopulation of the metastable 2s level in hydrogen, an effect that should become dominant for Balmer line formation in non-LTE conditions. We conclude that this new metallicity-insensitive diagnostic of luminosity class in cool stars could serve as an effective means of discerning between populations such as Milky Way giants and supergiant members of background galaxies.

  6. Stellar evolution in real time: The exciting star of the Stingray nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reindl, N.; Rauch, T.; Parthasarathy, M.; Kruk, J. W.

    2014-04-01

    SAO 244567 (Hen 3-1357) was classified as a B-type supergiant in the 1970s. Within twenty years only, nebula emission lines became visible in the ultraviolet and optical wavelength range. Imaging in 1994 showed that SAO 244567 had become the central star of the bi-polar Stingray nebula. Prominent P-Cygni profiles that were exhibited in the first ultraviolet spectra from 1988 became weaker with time, but can still be seen in the FUSE spectrum in 2006. Recent observations show that the rapid evolution of this enigmatic star is still going on. For the first time, we performed a comprehensive spectral analysis by means of state-of-the NLTE models for static and expanding atmospheres based on all available spectra from 1988 until 2006. We determined the temporal evolution of its effective temperature, surface gravity, mass-loss rate, and photospheric abundances. We discuss possible single- and binary-star evolutionary scenarios.

  7. Evolution of massive stars under new mass-loss rates for RSG: is the mystery of the missing blue gap solved?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salasnich, Bernardo; Bressan, Alessandro; Chiosi, Cesare

    1999-02-01

    In this paper we present new models of massive stars based on recent advancements in the theory of diffusive mixing and a new empirical formulation of the mass-loss rates of red supergiant stars. The study is articulated in two main parts. First, by means of a simple diffusive algorithm, we amalgamate the results of complex studies on non local convection (overshooting region) by Xiong (1989) and Grossman (1996), and apply them to model the structure and evolution of massive stars in occurrence of mass loss by stellar winds according to the popular relationship by de Jager et al. (1988). Stars with initial mass in the range 6 to 120 M_sun and initial chemical composition [Z=0.008, Y=0.25] and [Z=0.020, Y=0.28] are followed from the zero age main sequence till core He-exhaustion. Particular attention is paid to the 20 M_sun star as the prototype of the evolution of massive stars in the luminosity (mass) interval in which both blue and red supergiants occur in the HR diagram (HRD). The models confirm that, in the evolution of a massive star with mass loss, the dimension of the H-exhausted core and the efficiency of intermediate mixing strongly affect the evolution during the subsequent core He-burning phase, the extension of the blue loops in particular. However, despite the new mixing prescription, also these models share the same problems of older models in literature as far as the interpretation of the observational distribution of stars across the HRD is concerned. In the second part, we examine possible causes of the failure and find that the rate of mass loss for the red supergiant stages implied by the de Jager et al. (1988) relationship under-estimates the observational values by a large factor. Revising the whole problem, we adopt the recent formulation by Feast (1991) based on infrared data, and take also into account the possibility that the dust to gas ratio varies with the stellar luminosity. Stellar models are then calculated with the new prescription

  8. Star Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  9. Radio stars.

    PubMed

    Hjellming, R M; Wade, C M

    1971-09-17

    Up to the present time six classes of radio stars have been established. The signals are almost always very faint and drastically variable. Hence their discovery has owed as much to serendipity as to the highly sophisticated equipment and techniques that have been used. When the variations are regular, as with the pulsars, this characteristic can be exploited very successfully in the search for new objects as well as in the detailed study of those that are already known. The detection of the most erratically variable radio stars, the flare stars and the x-ray stars, is primarily a matter of luck and patience. In the case of the novas, one at least knows where and oughly when to look for radio emission. A very sensitive interferometer is clearly the best instrument to use in the initial detection of a radio star. The fact that weak background sources are frequently present makes it essential to prove that the position of a radio source agrees with that of a star to within a few arc seconds. The potential of radio astronomy for the study of radio stars will not be realized until more powerful instruments than those that are available today can be utilized. So far, we have been able to see only the most luminous of the radio stars.

  10. Modeling populations of rotationally mixed massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brott, I.

    2011-02-01

    Stars: Rotation and Nitrogen Enrichment as the Key to Understanding Massive Star Evolution'', I.Hunter, I.Brott, D.J. Lennon, N. Langer, C. Trundle, A. de Koter, C.J. Evans and R.S.I. Ryans The Astrophysical Journal, 2008, 676, L29-L32 Ch. 4: ``The VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive Stars: Constraints on Stellar Evolution from the Chemical Compositions of Rapidly Rotating Galactic and Magellanic Cloud B-type Stars '', I. Hunter, I. Brott, N. Langer, D.J. Lennon, P.L. Dufton, I.D. Howarth R.S.I. Ryan, C. Trundle, C. Evans, A. de Koter and S.J. Smartt Published in Astronomy & Astropysics, 2009, 496, 841- 853 Ch. 5: ``Rotating Massive Main-Sequence Stars II: Simulating a Population of LMC early B-type Stars as a Test of Rotational Mixing '', I. Brott, C. J. Evans, I. Hunter, A. de Koter, N. Langer, P. L. Dufton, M. Cantiello, C. Trundle, D. J. Lennon, S.E. de Mink, S.-C. Yoon, P. Anders submitted to Astronomy & Astrophysics Ch 6: ``The Nature of B Supergiants: Clues From a Steep Drop in Rotation Rates at 22 000 K - The possibility of Bi-stability braking'', Jorick S. Vink, I. Brott, G. Graefener, N. Langer, A. de Koter, D.J. Lennon Astronomy & Astrophysics, 2010, 512, L7

  11. Massive Star Burps, Then Explodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    Berkeley -- In a galaxy far, far away, a massive star suffered a nasty double whammy. On Oct. 20, 2004, Japanese amateur astronomer Koichi Itagaki saw the star let loose an outburst so bright that it was initially mistaken for a supernova. The star survived, but for only two years. On Oct. 11, 2006, professional and amateur astronomers witnessed the star actually blowing itself to smithereens as Supernova 2006jc. Swift UVOT Image Swift UVOT Image (Credit: NASA / Swift / S.Immler) "We have never observed a stellar outburst and then later seen the star explode," says University of California, Berkeley, astronomer Ryan Foley. His group studied the event with ground-based telescopes, including the 10-meter (32.8-foot) W. M. Keck telescopes in Hawaii. Narrow helium spectral lines showed that the supernova's blast wave ran into a slow-moving shell of material, presumably the progenitor's outer layers ejected just two years earlier. If the spectral lines had been caused by the supernova's fast-moving blast wave, the lines would have been much broader. artistic rendering This artistic rendering depicts two years in the life of a massive blue supergiant star, which burped and spewed a shell of gas, then, two years later, exploded. When the supernova slammed into the shell of gas, X-rays were produced. (Credit: NASA/Sonoma State Univ./A.Simonnet) Another group, led by Stefan Immler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., monitored SN 2006jc with NASA's Swift satellite and Chandra X-ray Observatory. By observing how the supernova brightened in X-rays, a result of the blast wave slamming into the outburst ejecta, they could measure the amount of gas blown off in the 2004 outburst: about 0.01 solar mass, the equivalent of about 10 Jupiters. "The beautiful aspect of our SN 2006jc observations is that although they were obtained in different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, in the optical and in X-rays, they lead to the same conclusions," says Immler. "This

  12. Interferometric, astrometric, and photometric studies of Epsilon Aurigae: Seeing the disk around a distant star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppenborg, Brian

    2012-05-01

    Epsilon (epsilon) Aurigae is a binary star system that has baffled astronomers for 170 years. In 1821 it was first noticed that the star system had dimmed by nearly 50%. After many decades of photometric monitoring, the 27.1 year period was finally established in 1903. A few years later, in 1912, Henry Norris Russell published the first analytic methods for binary star analysis. Later application of these formulae came to an interesting conclusion; the system was composed of two stars: the visible F-type supergiant, and an equally massive, but yet photometrically and spectroscopically invisible, companion. Several theories were advanced to explain this low-light to high-mass conundrum, eventually settling on the notion that the companion object is obscured from view by a disk of opaque material. With this topic solved, the debate shifted the evolutionary state of the system. Two scenarios became dominant: the system is either relativity young, and composed of a massive, 15 Mo (solar mass), F-type supergiant and a nearly equally massive main sequence companion inside of the disk; or a much older and significantly less massive, 4 Mo, F-type post-asymptotic giant branch object with a more massive, 6 Mo, companion surrounded by a debris disk. In this dissertation I disentangle the two evolutionary states by comparing the photometric behavior of the F-type star to known supergiant and post-asymptotic giant branch objects; and deriving a dynamical mass for the two components using astrometric, radial velocity, and interferometric data. Along with this, I provide the first interferometric images during the eclipse which prove the 50% dimming is indeed caused by an opaque disk. The first chapter presents the reader with the status quo of epsilon Aurigae research and the topics I wish to address in this dissertation. Chapter two presents an analysis of nearly 30 years of photometry on the system, concluding the star periodically exhibits stable pulsation on 1/3 orbital

  13. Fates of the First Stars and Their Cosmological Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung

    2013-01-01

    We present results from our numerical simulations of the demise of the first stars and their cosmological consequences. Recent results of the first star formation suggest the mass scale of the first stars is around 100 M⊙. The first stars with initial masses between 140 M⊙ and 250 M⊙ might die as very powerful explosions called pair-instability supernovae (PSNe). We use CASTRO, a new multidimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code, to study the evolution of PSNe. Our 3D simulations start with the collapse phase and follow the explosion until the shock breaks out from the stellar surface. Unlike the iron-core collapse supernovae, PSNe are powered by thermonuclear runaway without leaving compact remnants. Much Ni is forged, up to 30 M⊙, and its decay energy powers the PSN luminosity for several months. During the explosion, the emergent fluid instabilities cause the mixing of PSN ejecta, and the amount of mixing is related to PSN progenitors. The red supergiant progenitors demonstrate strong mixing, altering the spectrum and light curves. After the explosion, we use sophisticated cosmological simulations to study how the PSNe impact the early universe. We find the shocks reheat the relic H II regions built by previous stars before they die as PSNe. Therefore, the hot gas can stay ionized for an additional several million years. It increases the Jeans mass of star-forming clouds, leading to the delay of later star formation. The dispersed metal rapidly enriches the pristine IGM to a critical metallicity, allowing the Pop II stars to form inside the first galaxies. Our simulations provide observational predictions for the first supernovae and their fingerprint on the first galaxies that will be the major targets of forthcoming high-z observatories such as JWST, LSST, and TMT.

  14. Eclipse Mapping of the Chromopsheric and Transition Region Structure of the Hybrid Chromosphere Star HR2554 (G6 Ii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alexander

    1994-01-01

    We propose to observe an eclipse of the Zeta Aurigae-type binary HR2554 using the GHRS. Every 195 days the A1 dwarf secondary passes behind the outer atmosphere of the G6 II primary and can be used as light source to observe absorption lines from plasma in the G star atmopshere. The G star has a hybrid-chromosphere structure with hot transition region plasma and a cool stellar wind. THESE OBSERVATIONS WOULD BE THE FIRST ECLIPSE OBSRRVATIONS OF THIS TYPE OF ATMOSPHERE WITH GHRS AND COMPARED WITH OUR RESULTS FOR THE K4 SUPERGIANT Zeta Aur, which shows only the typical red supergiant wind. We shall model the observed line profiles and determine the temperature structure, density stratification, wind acceleration/turbulence/ionization as a function of distance above the G star photosphere. The hot and cool plasma are intermixed in this outer atmosphere and we will quantify this "thermal bifurcation". Both the static and outflowing components of the atmopshere will be modelled. The mass loss rate and the wind velocity and density laws as a function of radius will be determined. The vast majority of the needed modelling code will have been developed already for our Zeta Aur analysis. This project represents an opportunity to significantly advance knowledge about the spatial structuring of cool star outer atmospheres and the physical process operating within them.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Variable stars in M31 & M33. II. LBVs (Humphreys+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, R. M.; Weis, K.; Davidson, K.; Bomans, D. J.; Burggraf, B.

    2016-08-01

    In Paper I (Humphreys et al. 2013ApJ...773...46H), we discussed a small group of intermediate temperature supergiants, the warm hypergiants, and suggested that they were likely post-red supergiants. In this second paper, we review the spectral characteristics, spectral energy distributions (SEDs), circumstellar ejecta, and mass loss of the LBVs, candidate LBVs, emission line stars, and other luminous and variable stars in M31 and M33. The observations (described in paper I) were made in 2010 October with the Hectospec Multi-Object Spectrograph on the 6.5m MMT on Mount Hopkins. A few stars of special interest (5 in M31 and 8 in M33) were also observed with the MODS1 spectrograph on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) during commissioning in 2011 September, and in 2012 October and November, and 2013 January. All of the stars for which we have spectra are listed in Table 1 in order of right ascension. (2 data files).

  16. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE SUPERGIANT H I SHELL AND PUTATIVE COMPANION IN NGC 6822

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, John M.; O'Leary, Erin M.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Bigiel, Frank; Cole, Andrew A.; Walter, Fabian; De Blok, W.J.G. E-mail: eoleary@macalester.edu E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu E-mail: bigiel@uni-heidelberg.de E-mail: edeblok@ast.uct.ac.za

    2012-03-10

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging of six positions spanning 5.8 kpc of the H I major axis of the Local Group dIrr NGC 6822, including both the putative companion galaxy and the large H I hole. The resulting deep color-magnitude diagrams show that NGC 6822 has formed >50% of its stars in the last {approx}5 Gyr. The star formation histories of all six positions are similar over the most recent 500 Myr, including low-level star formation throughout this interval and a weak increase in star formation rate during the most recent 50 Myr. Stellar feedback can create the giant H I hole, assuming that the lifetime of the structure is longer than 500 Myr; such long-lived structures have now been observed in multiple systems and may be the norm in galaxies with solid-body rotation. The old stellar populations (red giants and red clump stars) of the putative companion are consistent with those of the extended halo of NGC 6822; this argues against the interpretation of this structure as a bona fide interacting companion galaxy and against its being linked to the formation of the H I hole via an interaction. Since there is no evidence in the stellar population of a companion galaxy, the most likely explanation of the extended H I structure in NGC 6822 is a warped disk inclined to the line of sight.

  17. Core-collapse supernova progenitor constraints using the spatial distributions of massive stars in local galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, T.; Portinari, L.; Mattila, S.; Fraser, M.; Kankare, E.; Izzard, R. G.; James, P.; González-Fernández, C.; Maund, J. R.; Thompson, A.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the spatial correlations between the Hα emission and different types of massive stars in two local galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Messier 33. We compared these to correlations derived for core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) in the literature to connect CCSNe of different types with the initial masses of their progenitors and to test the validity of progenitor mass estimates which use the pixel statistics method. We obtained samples of evolved massive stars in both galaxies from catalogues with good spatial coverage and/or completeness, and combined them with coordinates of main-sequence stars in the LMC from the SIMBAD database. We calculated the spatial correlation of stars of different classes and spectral types with Hα emission. We also investigated the effects of distance, noise and positional errors on the pixel statistics method. A higher correlation with Hα emission is found to correspond to a shorter stellar lifespan, and we conclude that the method can be used as an indicator of the ages, and therefore initial masses, of SN progenitors. We find that the spatial distributions of type II-P SNe and red supergiants of appropriate initial mass (≳9 M⊙) are consistent with each other. We also find the distributions of type Ic SNe and WN stars with initial masses ≳20 M⊙ consistent, while supergiants with initial masses around 15 M⊙ are a better match for type IIb and II-L SNe. The type Ib distribution corresponds to the same stellar types as type II-P, which suggests an origin in interacting binaries. On the other hand, we find that luminous blue variable stars show a much stronger correlation with Hα emission than do type IIn SNe.

  18. Critically Rotating Post-Main Sequence Stars Hosting a Viscous Decretion Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granada, A.; Sigut, A.; Jones, C.; Georgy, C.; Ekström, S.; Meynet, G.

    2017-02-01

    Stellar evolution calculations of isolated, rotating, intermediate mass stars predict that only a handful of these objects reach the critical limit after the main sequence phase, during the helium burning phase, while describing a blue-loop in the HR diagram. During the red supergiant stage, angular momentum could be dredged-up to the surface so that when the star contracts describing the blue-loop, the surface velocities can reach larger values than those the star had when crossing the Hertzprung-Russell diagram for the first time. Even though these stars might indeed be rare objects, we explore the possibility of such stars undergoing mechanical mass loss and hence forming a viscous decretion disk. By taking into account the angular momentum loss rate from Geneva stellar evolution calculations for a star with 9 solar masses and large rotational rate at the ZAMS (Ω/Ωcrit=0.9), combined with the relations available in the literature we obtain the disk outer radius and disk mass loss rate for such an object. Using BEDISK/BERAY codes, we calculate observables (Hα and other hydrogen lines, forbidden lines, colors) generated in the gaseous component of the resulting star plus disk system and compare them with observations of evolved stars exhibiting the B[e] phenomenon.

  19. Swift-X-Ray Telescope Monitoring of the Candidate Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient IGR J16418-4532

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romano, P.; Mangano, V.; Ducci, L.; Esposito, P.; Evans, P. A.; Vercellone, S.; Kennea, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Gehrels, N.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the Swift monitoring of the candidate supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) IGR J16418-4532, for which both orbital and spin periods are known (approx. 3.7 d and approx.1250 s, respectively). Our observations, for a total of approx. 43 ks, span over three orbital periods and represent the most intense and complete sampling of the light curve of this source with a sensitive X-ray instrument. With this unique set of observations, we can address the nature of this transient. By applying the clumpy wind model for blue supergiants to the observed X-ray light curve, and assuming a circular orbit, the X-ray emission from this source can be explained in terms of the accretion from a spherically symmetric clumpy wind, composed of clumps with different masses, ranging from approx. 5 × 10(exp 16) to 10(exp 21) g. Our data suggest, based on the X-ray behaviour, that this is an intermediate SFXT.

  20. Swift/XRT Monitoring of the Candidate Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient IGR J16418-4532

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romano, P.; Mangano, V.; Ducci, L.; Esposito, P.; Evans, P. A.; Vercellone, S.; Kennea, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Gehrels, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the Swift monitoring of the candidate supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) IGR J16418.4532, for which both orbital and spin periods are known (approx. 3.7d and approx. 1250 s, respectively). Our observations, for a total of approx. 43 ks, span over three orbital periods and represent the most intense and complete sampling of the light curve of this source with a sensitive X-ray instrument. With this unique set of observations we can address the nature of this transient. By applying the clumpy wind model for blue supergiants to the observed X-ray light curve, and assuming a circular orbit, the X-ray emission from this source can be explained in terms of the accretion from a spherically symmetric clumpy wind, composed of clumps with different masses, ranging from 5 X 10(exp 16) g to 10(exp 21) g. Our data suggest, based on the X-ray behaviour, that this is an intermediate SFXT

  1. Magnetic field connected fast line profile variability in spectra of bright O supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholtygin, A.; Brown, J.; Fabrika, S.; Surkov, A.

    2004-10-01

    Results of study of fast line profile variability (lpv) in the spectra of selected bright O-stars are reported. A regular component of lpv in the spectra of the star λ Ori A with estimated period P≈ 3 d have been detected. We suppose that the formation of long time-scale regular components of lpv can be explained in the framework of the magnetically confined wind-shock (MCWS) model of Babel & Montmerle (1997a). In the context of testing the MCWS model the program of searching for weak magnetic fields in bright O and early B stars is outlined. The possibility of measuring weak longitudinal magnetic fields (Bl ≈ 100 G) is demonstrated.

  2. Absorption line profiles in a companion spectrum of a mass losing cool supergiant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodrigues, Liliya L.; Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1990-01-01

    Cool star winds can best be observed in resonance absorption lines seen in the spectrum of a hot companion, due to the wind passing in front of the blue star. We calculated absorption line profiles that would be seen in the ultraviolet part of the blue companion spectrum. Line profiles are derived for different radial dependences of the cool star wind and for different orbital phases of the binary. Bowen and Wilson find theoretically that stellar pulsations drive mass loss. We therefore apply our calculations to the Cepheid binary S Muscae which has a B5V companion. We find an upper limit for the Cepheid mass loss of M less than or equal to 7 x 10(exp -10) solar mass per year provided that the stellar wind of the companion does not influence the Cepheid wind at large distances.

  3. Evolved massive stars in W33 and in GMC 23.3-0.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messineo, Maria; Clark, J. Simon; Figer, Donald F.; Menten, Karl M.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Najarro, Francisco; Rich, Michael; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Valenti, Elena; Trombley, Christine; Chen, Rosie; Davies, Ben; MacKenty, John W.

    2015-08-01

    We have conducted an infrared spectroscopic survey for massive evolved stars and/or clusters in the Galactic giant molecular clouds G23.3-0.3 and W33. A large number of extraordinary sub-clumps/clusters of massive stars were detected. The spatial and temporal distribution of these massive stars yields information on the star formation history of the clouds.In G23.3-0.3, we discovered a dozen massive O-type stars, one candidate luminous blue variable, and several red supergiants. The O-type stars have masses from 25 to 50 Msun and ages of 5-8 Myr, while the RSGs belong to a burst that occurred 20-30 Myr ago. Therefore, GMC G23.3-0.3 has had one of the longest known histories of star formation (20-30 Myr). GMC G23.3-0.3 is rich in HII regions and supernova remnants; we detected massive stars in the cores of SNR W41 and of SNR G22.7-0.2.In W33, we detected a few evolved O-type stars and one Wolf-Rayet star, but none of the late-type objects has the luminosity of a red supergiant. W33 is characterized by discrete sources and has had at least 3-5 Myr of star formation history, which is now propagating from west to east. While our detections of massive evolved stars in W33 are made on the west side of the cloud, several dense molecular cores that may harbor proto clusters have recently been detected on the east side of the cloud by Immer et al. (2014).Messineo, Maria; Menten, Karl M.; Figer, Donald F.; Davies, Ben; Clark, J. Simon; Ivanov, Valentin D.Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Rich, R. Michael; MacKenty, John W.; Trombley, Christine 2014A&A...569A..20MMessineo, Maria; Clark, J. Simon; Figer, Donald F.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Francisco, Najarro; Rich, R. Michael; Menten, Karl M.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Valenti, Elena; Trombley, Christine; Chen, C.H. Rosie; Davies, Ben; submitted to ApJ.

  4. Wind structure of late B supergiants. I. Multi-line analyses of near-surface and wind structure in HD 199 478 (B8 Iae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, N.; Prinja, R. K.; Markov, H.; Kolka, I.; Morrison, N.; Percy, J.; Adelman, S.

    2008-08-01

    Aims: We provide a quantitative analysis of time-variable phenomena in the photospheric, near-star, and outflow regions of the late-B supergiant (SG) HD 199 478. This study aims to provide new perspectives on the nature of outflows in late-B SGs and on the influence of large-scale structures rooted at the stellar surface. Methods: The analysis is based primarily on optical spectroscopic datasets secured between 1999 and 2000 from the Bulgarian NAO, Tartu, and Ritter Observatories. The acquired time-series samples a wide range of weak metal lines, He i absorption, and both emission and absorption signatures in Hα. Non-LTE line synthesis modelling is conducted using FASTWIND for a strategic set of late-B SGs to constrain and compare their fundamental parameters within the context of extreme behaviour in the Hα lines. Results: The temporal behaviour of HD 199 478 is characterised by three key empirical properties: (i) systematic central velocity shifts in the photospheric absorption lines, including C ii and He i, over a characteristic time-scale of ~20 days; (ii) extremely strong, variable Hα emission with no clear modulation signal; and (iii) the occurrence in 2000 of a (rare) high-velocity absorption (HVA) event in Hα, which evolved over ~60 days, showing the clear signature of mass infall and outflows. In these properties HD 199 478 resembles few other late-B SGs with peculiar emission and HVAs in Hα (HD 91 619, HD 34 085, HD 96919). Different possibilities accounting for the phenomenon observed are indicated and briefly discussed. Conclusions: At the cooler temperature edge of B SGs, there are objects whose wind properties, as traced by Hα, are inconsistent with the predictions of the smooth, spherically symmetric wind approximation. This discordance is still not fully understood and may highlight the role of a non-spherical, disk-like, geometry, which may result from magnetically-driven equatorial compression of the gas. Ordered dipole magnetic fields may

  5. Evolved stars at high angular resolution: present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladini, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    The late evolutionary stages of stellar evolution are a key ingredient for our understanding in many fields of astrophysics, including stellar evolution and the enrichment of the interstellar medium (ISM) via stellar yields. Already the first interferometric campaigns identified evolved stars as the primary targets because of their extended and partially optically thin atmospheres, and the brightness in the infrared. Interferometric studies spanning different wavelength ranges, from visual to mid-infrared, have greatly increased our knowledge of the complex atmospheres of these objects where different dynamic processes are at play. In less than two decades this technique went from measuring simple diameters to produce the first images of stellar surfaces. By scanning the extended atmospheres we constrained theoretical models, learnt about molecular stratification, dust formation, and stellar winds, and there is still a lot to be done. In this contribution I will review the recent results that optical/infrared interferometry has made on our current understanding of cool evolved stars. The presentation will focus on asymptotic giant branch stars, and red supergiants. I will discuss the challenges of image reconstruction, and highlight how this field of research will benefit from the synergy of the current interferometric instrument(s) with the second generation VLTI facilities GRAVITY and MATISSE. Finally I will conclude with a short introspection on applications of a visible interferometer and of the the Planet Formation Imager (PFI) to the field of evolved stars.

  6. Dynamical Mass of the O-Type Supergiant in Zeta Orionis A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    nonradial pulsation. Abundance pat- terns are unlikely, since the distortion has a similar shape in all lines, regardless of species. To produce such a...shape, nonradial pulsation has to be a high-order p-mode type, meaning ζ Ori B is a βCephei star without a radial mode, where the photometric

  7. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of the brightest supergiants in M31 and M33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, R. M.; Blaha, C.; Dodorico, S.; Gull, T. R.; Benevenuti, P.

    1983-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectroscopy from the IUE, in combination with groundbased visual and infrared photometry, are to determine the energy distributions of the luminous blue variables, the Hubble-Sandage variables, in M31 and M33. The observed energy distributions, especially in the ultraviolet, show that these stars are suffering interstellar reddening. When corrected for interstellar extinction, the integrated energy distributions yield the total luminosities and black body temperatures of the stars. The resulting bolometric magnitudes and temperatures confirm that these peculiar stars are indeed very luminous, hot stars. They occupy the same regions of the sub B01 vs. log T sub e diagram as do eta Car, P Cyg and S Dor in our galaxy and the LMC. Many of the Hubble-Sandage variables have excess infrared radiation which is attributed to free-free emission from their extended atmospheres. Rough mass loss estimates from the infrared excess yield rates of 0.00001 M sub annual/yr. The ultraviolet spectra of the H-S variables are also compared with similar spectra of eta Car, P Cyg and S For.

  8. Multidimensional Simulations of Thermonuclear Supernovae from the First Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K. J.; Heger, A.; Almgren, A.

    2012-07-01

    Theoretical models suggest that the first stars in the universe could have been very massive, with typical masses ≥ 100 M⊙ . Many of them might have died as energetic thermonuclear explosions known as pair-instability supernovae (PSNe). We present multidimensional numerical simulations of PSNe with the new radiation-hydrodynamics code CASTRO. Our models capture all explosive burning and follow the explosion until the shock breaks out from the stellar surface. We find that fluid instabilities driven by oxygen and helium burning arise at the upper and lower boundaries of the oxygen shell ˜ 20 - 100 sec after the explosion begins. Later, when the shock reaches the hydrogen envelope a strong reverse shock forms that rapidly develops additional Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. In red supergiant progenitors, the amplitudes of these instabilities are sufficient to mix the supernova's ejecta and alter its observational signature. Our results provide useful predictions for the detection of PSNe by forthcoming telescopes.

  9. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE CAPTURES FIRST DIRECT IMAGE OF A STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This is the first direct image of a star other than the Sun, made with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Called Alpha Orionis, or Betelgeuse, it is a red supergiant star marking the shoulder of the winter constellation Orion the Hunter (diagram at right). The Hubble image reveals a huge ultraviolet atmosphere with a mysterious hot spot on the stellar behemoth's surface. The enormous bright spot, more than ten times the diameter of Earth, is at least 2,000 Kelvin degrees hotter than the surface of the star. The image suggests that a totally new physical phenomenon may be affecting the atmospheres of some stars. Follow-up observations will be needed to help astronomers understand whether the spot is linked to oscillations previously detected in the giant star, or whether it moves systematically across the star's surface under the grip of powerful magnetic fields. The observations were made by Andrea Dupree of the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA, and Ronald Gilliland of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, MD, who announced their discovery today at the 187th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Antonio, Texas. The image was taken in ultraviolet light with the Faint Object Camera on March 3, 1995. Hubble can resolve the star even though the apparent size is 20,000 times smaller than the width of the full Moon -- roughly equivalent to being able to resolve a car's headlights at a distance of 6,000 miles. Betelgeuse is so huge that, if it replaced the Sun at the center of our Solar System, its outer atmosphere would extend past the orbit of Jupiter (scale at lower left). Credit: Andrea Dupree (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA), Ronald Gilliland (STScI), NASA and ESA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on Internet via anonymous ftp from oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  10. Two bi-stability jumps in theoretical wind models for massive stars and the implications for luminous blue variable supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Blagovest; Vink, Jorick S.; Gräfener, Götz

    2016-05-01

    Luminous blue variables (LBVs) have been suggested to be the direct progenitors of supernova Types IIb and IIn, with enhanced mass loss prior to explosion. However, the mechanism of this mass loss is not yet known. Here, we investigate the qualitative behaviour of theoretical stellar wind mass loss as a function of Teff across two bi-stability jumps in blue supergiant regime and also in proximity to the Eddington limit, relevant for LBVs. To investigate the physical ingredients that play a role in the radiative acceleration we calculate blue supergiant wind models with the CMFGEN non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmosphere code over an effective temperature range between 30 000 and 8800 K. Although our aim is not to provide new mass-loss rates for BA supergiants, we study and confirm the existence of two bi-stability jumps in mass-loss rates predicted by Vink et al. However, they are found to occur at somewhat lower Teff (20 000 and 9000 K, respectively) than found previously, which would imply that stars may evolve towards lower Teff before strong mass loss is induced by the bi-stability jumps. When the combined effects of the second bi-stability jump and the proximity to Eddington limit are accounted for, we find a dramatic increase in the mass-loss rate by up to a factor of 30. Further investigation of both bi-stability jumps is expected to lead to a better understanding of discrepancies between empirical modelling and theoretical mass-loss rates reported in the literature, and to provide key inputs for the evolution of both normal AB supergiants and LBVs, as well as their subsequent supernova Type II explosions.

  11. Mass Loss and Pre-SN Evolution of Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N.

    2010-06-01

    I review the role that mass loss plays in the pre-SN evolution of massive stars in a variety of different scenarios, and what observable effect it may have on the resulting SN. The amount of mass lost, its speed, and how soon before core collapse the material is removed can have a dramatic effect on the resulting SN light curve and spectrum. Massive stars trek across the HR diagram as they evolve, and the SN can look very different depending on where along this path core collapse occurs; it may not depend solely on initial mass. The most extreme pre-SN mass ejections in massive luminous blue variables (LBVs) have recently (and surprisingly) been linked to the very luminous Type IIn supernovae with circumstellar interaction that dominates the spectrum and enhances the visual luminosity. In some cases these objects require strong LBV-like shell ejections in the decades immediately before a SN. Strong winds or episodic mass loss of luminous red supergiants (RSGs) and yellow hypergiants may also lead to less extreme Type IIn events. Post-RSG blue supergiants like SN 1987A's progenitor and lower-luminosity LBVs like HD 168625 are also candidates for Type II SNe with visible circumstellar material. Finally, progenitors that successfully shed their H envelopes (either through LBV eruptions, strong winds, or binary mass transfer) die as Type Ib or Ic supernovae, and some of these also show evidence for immediate pre-SN shell ejections. Many of the potential progenitors of Types Ib, Ic, IIn, IIb, and II-L overlap in their range of probable initial mass, and I will point to some open questions about how they fit together in the context of stellar evolution, and the roles of mass loss and initial mass in determining their relative rates.

  12. Theory of winds in late-type evolved and pre-main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macgregor, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    Recent observational results confirm that many of the physical processes which are known to occur in the Sun also occur among late-type stars in general. One such process is the continuous loss of mass from a star in the form of a wind. There now exists an abundance of either direct or circumstantial evidence which suggests that most (if not all) stars in the cool portion of the HR diagram possess winds. An attempt is made to assess the current state of theoretical understanding of mass loss from two distinctly different classes of late-type stars: the post-main-sequence giant/supergiant stars and the pre-main-sequence T Tauri stars. Toward this end, the observationally inferred properties of the wind associated with each of the two stellar classes under consideration are summarized and compared against the predictions of existing theoretical models. Although considerable progress has been made in attempting to identify the mechanisms responsible for mass loss from cool stars, many fundamental problems remain to be solved.

  13. HUBBLE WATCHES STAR TEAR APART ITS NEIGHBORHOOD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has snapped a view of a stellar demolition zone in our Milky Way Galaxy: a massive star, nearing the end of its life, tearing apart the shell of surrounding material it blew off 250,000 years ago with its strong stellar wind. The shell of material, dubbed the Crescent Nebula (NGC 6888), surrounds the 'hefty,' aging star WR 136, an extremely rare and short-lived class of super-hot star called a Wolf-Rayet. Hubble's multicolored picture reveals with unprecedented clarity that the shell of matter is a network of filaments and dense knots, all enshrouded in a thin 'skin' of gas [seen in blue]. The whole structure looks like oatmeal trapped inside a balloon. The skin is glowing because it is being blasted by ultraviolet light from WR 136. Hubble's view covers a small region at the northeast tip of the structure, which is roughly three light-years across. A picture taken by a ground-based telescope [lower right] shows almost the entire nebula. The whole structure is about 16 light-years wide and 25 light-years long. The bright dot near the center of NGC 6888 is WR 136. The white outline in the upper left-hand corner represents Hubble's view. Hubble's sharp vision is allowing scientists to probe the intricate details of this complex system, which is crucial to understanding the life cycle of stars and their impact on the evolution of our galaxy. The results of this study appear in the June issue of the Astronomical Journal. WR 136 created this web of luminous material during the late stages of its life. As a bloated, red super-giant, WR 136 gently puffed away some of its bulk, which settled around it. When the star passed from a super-giant to a Wolf-Rayet, it developed a fierce stellar wind - a stream of charged particles released from its surface - and began expelling mass at a furious rate. The star began ejecting material at a speed of 3.8 million mph (6.1 million kilometers per hour), losing matter equal to that of our Sun's every 10

  14. Do stellar winds prevent the formation of supermassive stars by accretion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakauchi, Daisuke; Hosokawa, Takashi; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Saio, Hideyuki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2017-03-01

    Supermassive stars (SMSs; ∼105 M⊙) formed from metal-free gas in the early Universe attract attention as progenitors of supermassive black holes observed at high redshifts. To form SMSs by accretion, central protostars must accrete at as high rates as ∼0.1-1 M⊙ yr-1. Such protostars have very extended structures with bloated envelopes, like supergiant stars, and are called supergiant protostars (SGPSs). Under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium, SGPSs have density-inverted layers, where the luminosity becomes locally super-Eddington, near the surface. If the envelope matter is allowed to flow out, however, a stellar wind could be launched and hinder the accretion growth of SGPSs before reaching the supermassive regime. We examine whether radiation-driven winds are launched from SGPSs by constructing steady and spherically symmetric wind solutions. We find that the wind velocity does not reach the escape velocity in any case considered. This is because once the temperature falls below ∼104 K, the opacity plummet drastically owing to the recombination of hydrogen and the acceleration ceases suddenly. This indicates that, in realistic non-steady cases, even if outflows are launched from the surface of SGPSs, they would fall back again. Such a 'wind' does not result in net mass-loss and does not prevent the growth of SGPSs. In conclusion, SGPSs will grow to SMSs and eventually collapse to massive black holes of ∼105 M⊙, as long as the rapid accretion is maintained.

  15. COMPUTING THE DUST DISTRIBUTION IN THE BOW SHOCK OF A FAST-MOVING, EVOLVED STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Van Marle, A. J.; Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.; Decin, L.

    2011-06-20

    We study the hydrodynamical behavior occurring in the turbulent interaction zone of a fast-moving red supergiant star, where the circumstellar and interstellar material collide. In this wind-interstellar-medium collision, the familiar bow shock, contact discontinuity, and wind termination shock morphology form, with localized instability development. Our model includes a detailed treatment of dust grains in the stellar wind and takes into account the drag forces between dust and gas. The dust is treated as pressureless gas components binned per grain size, for which we use 10 representative grain size bins. Our simulations allow us to deduce how dust grains of varying sizes become distributed throughout the circumstellar medium. We show that smaller dust grains (radius <0.045 {mu}m) tend to be strongly bound to the gas and therefore follow the gas density distribution closely, with intricate fine structure due to essentially hydrodynamical instabilities at the wind-related contact discontinuity. Larger grains which are more resistant to drag forces are shown to have their own unique dust distribution, with progressive deviations from the gas morphology. Specifically, small dust grains stay entirely within the zone bound by shocked wind material. The large grains are capable of leaving the shocked wind layer and can penetrate into the shocked or even unshocked interstellar medium. Depending on how the number of dust grains varies with grain size, this should leave a clear imprint in infrared observations of bow shocks of red supergiants and other evolved stars.

  16. X-Rays from Hybrid Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    The late-type giants and supergiants of the ``hybrid chromosphere'' class display signatures of cool (T<~2×104 K) winds together with hot emission lines from species like C IV (T~105 K). A survey of such stars by Reimers et al. using ROSAT reported numerous X-ray detections (T~106 K), strengthening the (then heretical) idea that hot coronae and cool winds can coexist in luminous giants. However, several of the candidate sources were offset from the predicted stellar coordinates, calling into question the identifications. In an effort to secure better knowledge of the X-ray luminosities of the hybrids, the ROSAT fields from the Reimers et al. survey were reexamined, exploiting the USNO-A2.0 astrometric catalog to register the pointings to a few arcseconds accuracy. On the basis of positional mismatches, at least two of the previously reported detections of key hybrid stars-γ Dra (K5 III) and β Aqr (G0 Ib)-must be rejected. The new X-ray upper limits for these stars, combined with the remaining candidate detections (and nondetections) from the original survey, place the hybrids into the same ``X-ray deficient'' category as the ``noncoronal'' red giants like Arcturus (α Boo: K1.5 III) and Aldebaran (α Tau: K5 III). A few of the hybrid X-ray sources are exceptional, however. The archetype α TrA (K2 II-III), in particular, is securely detected in terms of positional coincidence, but its anomalous, contradictory coronal properties suggest that an unseen companion-a young hyperactive G dwarf-might dominate the X-ray emission.

  17. Identification of dusty massive stars in star-forming dwarf irregular galaxies in the Local Group with mid-IR photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britavskiy, N. E.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Mehner, A.; Boyer, M. L.; McQuinn, K. B. W.

    2015-12-01

    Context. Increasing the statistics of spectroscopically confirmed evolved massive stars in the Local Group enables the investigation of the mass loss phenomena that occur in these stars in the late stages of their evolution. Aims: We aim to complete the census of luminous mid-IR sources in star-forming dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies of the Local Group. To achieve this we employed mid-IR photometric selection criteria to identify evolved massive stars, such as red supergiants (RSGs) and luminous blue variables (LBVs), by using the fact that these types of stars have infrared excess due to dust. Methods: The method is based on 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm photometry from archival Spitzer Space Telescope images of nearby galaxies. We applied our criteria to four dIrr galaxies: Pegasus, Phoenix, Sextans A, and WLM, selecting 79 point sources that we observed with the VLT/FORS2 spectrograph in multi-object spectroscopy mode. Results: We identified 13 RSGs, of which 6 are new discoveries, as well as two new emission line stars, and one candidate yellow supergiant. Among the other observed objects we identified carbon stars, foreground giants, and background objects, such as a quasar and an early-type galaxy that contaminate our survey. We use the results of our spectroscopic survey to revise the mid-IR and optical selection criteria for identifying RSGs from photometric measurements. The optical selection criteria are more efficient in separating extragalactic RSGs from foreground giants than mid-IR selection criteria, but the mid-IR selection criteria are useful for identifying dusty stars in the Local Group. This work serves as a basis for further investigation of the newly discovered dusty massive stars and their host galaxies. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme IDs 090.D-0009 and 091.D-0010.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. The peculiar early-type emission line supergiant S 18/SMC - An optical and ultraviolet study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, S. N.; Sanduleak, N.; Allen, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of S 18/SMC, obtained in the visible at CTIO, the AAT, and ESO and in the UV with the IUE SWP and LWR instruments during 1978-1983, are reported. The data are presented in tables and spectra and characterized in detail. The variability of the object in He II, C IV, N IV, N V, and Si IV and the lack of detectable photometric variation between 120 and 1000 nm are discussed in terms of a stellar-envelope model with mass-loss rate greater than or equal to 0.00001 solar mass/yr and N abundance 3-5 times the solar value, corresponding to a transitional phase between extreme mass loss (near the Humphrey-Davidson limit) and the presupernova stage. The FUV flux is tentatively attributed to an extremely hot He-star or neutron-star companion.

  19. Symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafatos, M.; Michalitsianos, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of symbiotic star systems are discussed, based on a review of recent observational data. A model of a symbiotic star system is presented which illustrates how a cool red-giant star is embedded in a nebula whose atoms are ionized by the energetic radiation from its hot compact companion. UV outbursts from symbiotic systems are explained by two principal models: an accretion-disk-outburst model which describes how material expelled from the tenuous envelope of the red giant forms an inwardly-spiralling disk around the hot companion, and a thermonuclear-outburst model in which the companion is specifically a white dwarf which superheats the material expelled from the red giant to the point where thermonuclear reactions occur and radiation is emitted. It is suspected that the evolutionary course of binary systems is predetermined by the initial mass and angular momentum of the gas cloud within which binary stars are born. Since red giants and Mira variables are thought to be stars with a mass of one or two solar mass, it is believed that the original cloud from which a symbiotic system is formed can consist of no more than a few solar masses of gas.

  20. The supergiant amphipod Alicella gigantea (Crustacea: Alicellidae) from hadal depths in the Kermadec Trench, SW Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, A. J.; Lacey, N. C.; Lörz, A.-N.; Rowden, A. A.; Piertney, S. B.

    2013-08-01

    Here we provide the first record of the 'supergiant' amphipod Alicella gigantea Chevreux, 1899 (Alicellidae) from the Southern Hemisphere, and extend the known bathymetric range by over 1000 m to 7000 m. An estimated nine individuals were observed across 1500 photographs taken in situ by baited camera at 6979 m in the Kermadec Trench, SW Pacific Ocean. Nine specimens, ranging in length from 102 to 290 mm were recovered by baited trap at depths of 6265 m and 7000 m. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences obtained indicate a cosmopolitan distribution for the species. Data and observations from the study are used to discuss the reason for gigantism in this species, and its apparently disjunct geographical distribution.

  1. BRITE-Constellation: Nanosatellites for precision photometry of bright stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, W. W.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.; Koudelka, O. F.; Grant, C. C.; Zee, R. E.; Kuschnig, R.; Mochnacki, St.; Rucinski, S. M.; Matthews, J. M.; Orleański, P.; Pamyatnykh, A. A.; Pigulski, A.; Alves, J.; Guedel, M.; Handler, G.; Wade, G. A.; Scholtz, A. L.; Scholtz

    2014-02-01

    will be selected is shown in Fig. 1. This sample falls into two principal classes of stars: (1) Hot luminous H-burning stars (O to F stars). Analyses of OB star variability have the potential to help solve two outstanding problems: the sizes of convective (mixed) cores in massive stars and the influence of rapid rotation on their structure and evolution. (2) Cool luminous stars (AGB stars, cool giants and cool supergiants). Measurements of the time scales involved in surface granulation and differential rotation will constrain turbulent convection models. Mass loss from these stars (especially the massive supernova progenitors) is a major contributor to the evolution of the interstellar medium, so in a sense, this sample dominates cosmic ``ecology'' in terms of future generations of star formation. The massive stars are believed to share many characteristics of the lower mass range of the first generation of stars ever formed (although the original examples are of course long gone). BRITE observations will also be used to detect some Jupiter- and even Neptune-sized planets around bright host stars via transits, as expected on the basis of statistics from the Kepler exoplanet mission. Detecting planets around such very bright stars will greatly facilitate their subsequent characterization. BRITE will also use surface spots to investigate stellar rotation. The following Table summarizes launch and orbit parameters of BRITE-Constellation components. The full version of this paper describing in more detail BRITE-Constellation will be published separately in a journal. The symposium presentation is available at http://iaus301.astro.uni.wroc.pl/program.php

  2. Sublimating comets as the source of nucleation seeds for grain condensation in the gas outflow from AGB stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, D. P.; Matese, John J.; Reynolds, R. T.

    1989-01-01

    A growing amount of observational and theoretical evidence suggests that most main sequence stars are surrounded by disks of cometary material. The dust production by comets in such disks is investigated when the central stars evolve up the red giant and asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Once released, the dust is ablated and accelerated by the gas outflow and the fragments become the seeds necessary for condensation of the gas. The origin of the requisite seeds has presented a well known problem for classical nucleation theory. This model is consistent with the dust production observed in M giants and supergiants (which have increasing luminosities) and the fact that earlier supergiants and most WR stars (whose luminosities are unchanging) do not have significant dust clouds even though they have significant stellar winds. Another consequence of the model is that the spatial distribution of the dust does not, in general, coincide with that of the gas outflow, in contrast to the conventional condensation model. A further prediction is that the condensation radius is greater that that predicted by conventional theory which is in agreement with IR interferometry measurements of alpha-Ori.

  3. Simultaneous X-ray and optical spectroscopy of the Oef supergiant λ Cephei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauw, G.; Hervé, A.; Nazé, Y.; González-Pérez, J. N.; Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K.-P.; Gosset, E.; Eenens, P.; Uuh-Sonda, J. M.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Probing the structures of stellar winds is of prime importance for the understanding of massive stars. Based on their optical spectral morphology and variability, it has been suggested that the stars in the Oef class feature large-scale structures in their wind. Aims: High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy and time-series of X-ray observations of presumably single O-type stars can help us understand the physics of their stellar winds. Methods: We have collected XMM-Newton observations and coordinated optical spectroscopy of the O6 Ief star λ Cep to study its X-ray and optical variability and to analyse its high-resolution X-ray spectrum. We investigate the line profile variability of the He ii λ 4686 and Hα emission lines in our time series of optical spectra, including a search for periodicities. We further discuss the variability of the broadband X-ray flux and analyse the high-resolution spectrum of λ Cep using line-by-line fits as well as a code designed to fit the full high-resolution X-ray spectrum consistently. Results: During our observing campaign, the He ii λ 4686 line varies on a timescale of ~18 h. On the contrary, the Hα line profile displays a modulation on a timescale of 4.1 days which is likely the rotation period of the star. The X-ray flux varies on timescales of days and could in fact be modulated by the same 4.1-day period as Hα, although both variations are shifted in phase. The high-resolution X-ray spectrum reveals broad and skewed emission lines as expected for the X-ray emission from a distribution of wind-embedded shocks. Most of the X-ray emission arises within less than 2 R∗ above the photosphere. Conclusions: The properties of the X-ray emission of λ Cep generally agree with the expectations of the wind-embedded shock model. There is mounting evidence for the existence of large-scale structures that modulate the Hα line and about 10% of the X-ray emission of λ Cep. Based on observations collected with XMM-Newton, an ESA

  4. ALE OF TWO CLUSTERS YIELDS SECRETS OF STAR BIRTH IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sequence stars (like our Sun) with average surface temperatures of 6000 Kelvin; red stars are cool giants and supergiants (3500 K); white stars are hot young stars (25,000 K or more) that are bright in ultraviolet. Credit: R. Gilmozzi, Space Telescope Science Institute/European Space Agency; Shawn Ewald, JPL; and NASA

  5. A modern search for Wolf-Rayet stars in the Magellanic Clouds: First results

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, Philip; Neugent, Kathryn F.; Morrell, Nidia; Hillier, D. John E-mail: kneugent@lowell.edu E-mail: hillier@pitt.edu

    2014-06-10

    Over the years, directed surveys and incidental spectroscopy have identified 12 Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and 139 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), numbers which are often described as 'essentially complete'. Yet, new WRs are discovered in the LMC almost yearly. We have therefore initiated a new survey of both Magellanic Clouds using the same interference-filter imaging technique previously applied to M31 and M33. We report on our first observing season, in which we have successfully surveyed ∼15% of our intended area of the SMC and LMC. Spectroscopy has confirmed nine newly found WRs in the LMC (a 6% increase), including one of WO-type, only the third known in that galaxy and the second to be discovered recently. The other eight are WN3 stars that include an absorption component. In two, the absorption is likely from an O-type companion, but the other six are quite unusual. Five would be classified naively as 'WN3+O3 V', but such a pairing is unlikely given the rarity of O3 stars, the short duration of this phase (which is incommensurate with the evolution of a companion to a WN star), and because these stars are considerably fainter than O3 V stars. The sixth star may also fall into this category. CMFGEN modeling suggests these stars are hot, bolometrically luminous, and N-rich like other WN3 stars, but lack the strong winds that characterize WNs. Finally, we discuss two rare Of?p stars and four Of supergiants we found, and propose that the B[e] star HD 38489 may have a WN companion.

  6. THE COMPACT STAR-FORMING COMPLEX AT THE HEART OF NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Davidge, T. J.

    2016-02-20

    We discuss integral field spectra of the compact star-forming complex that is the brightest near-infrared (NIR) source in the central regions of the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The spectra cover the H and K passbands and were recorded with the Gemini NIR Spectrograph during subarcsecond seeing conditions. Absorption features in the spectrum of the star-forming complex are weaker than in the surroundings. An absorption feature is found near 1.78 μm that coincides with the location of a C{sub 2} bandhead. If this feature is due to C{sub 2} then the star-forming complex has been in place for at least a few hundred Myr. Emission lines of Brγ, [Fe ii], and He i 2.06 μm do not track the NIR continuum light. Pockets of star-forming activity that do not have associated concentrations of red supergiants, and so likely have ages <8 Myr, are found along the western edge of the complex, and there is evidence that one such pocket contains a rich population of Wolf–Rayet stars. Unless the star-forming complex is significantly more metal-poor than the surroundings, then a significant fraction of its total mass is in stars with ages <8 Myr. If the present-day star formation rate is maintained then the timescale to double its stellar mass ranges from a few Myr to a few tens of Myr, depending on the contribution made by stars older than ∼8 Myr. If—as suggested by some studies—the star-forming complex is centered on the galaxy’s nucleus, which presumably contains a large population of old and intermediate-age stars, then the nucleus of NGC 253 is currently experiencing a phase of rapid growth in its stellar mass.

  7. Be Stars and Physical Properties of the Young Open Cluster NGC 6834

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, G. J.; Grebel, E. K.; Yoss, K. M.

    1996-12-01

    We present initial results for the young open cluster NGC 6834 obtained with the 1-m telescope at Mount Laguna Observatory. We observed this cluster as part of a CCD-photometric survey for Be stars using B,V filters and two narrow-band interference filters at Hα and Hα continuum. Through a census of Be stars in clusters, where stars are coeval, equidistant, have the same metallicities, and share a common origin, we hope to gain a better understanding of the properties and origins of the still enigmatic Be phenomenon. Our B,V color-magnitude diagram of NGC 6834 shows an extended blue main sequence widened at fainter magnitudes by field star contamination. Fitting Geneva isochrones with solar metallicity to the cluster population, we find an age of ~ 50 Myr, a mean reddening of E(B-V)~ 0.7 mag, and a distance modulus of 12.2 mag (i.e. a distance of ~ 2750 pc). Our data reach roughly 4 magnitudes fainter in V than previous photographic or photoelectric studies. For the detection of Be stars, we use a two-color diagram. The most prominent feature distinguishing Be stars from B stars is their Balmer emission. The (Hα \\ continuum - Hα ) index allows us to find stars bright in Hα . The (B-V) color index serves to distinguish blue stars from red giants and red supergiants, which also may exhibit Hα emission. We find six Be star candidates in NGC 6834, that stand out clearly through their enhanced Balmer emission. Only one was known previously in this cluster. The brightness in Hα is well-correlated with reddened (B-V) colors. The relatively small number of Be stars in NGC 6834 is consistent with the young age of the cluster and the spectral type (B5) at the main-sequence turnoff.

  8. The Drop in X-ray Flux at Spectral Type B1: Evidence for a B-Star Dividing Line?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, Wayne

    2010-10-01

    All B star luminosity classes show a substantial drop in their X-ray emission between spectral type B1 and B2 suggesting an H-R diagram B-star dividing line somewhat analogous to the one for K giants. This emission appears to be related to the bi-stability jump at spectral type B1. But our analyses of B supergiant and giant XMM data revealed several interesting and unexpected results that do not support theoretical predictions. There seems to be a fundamental, unknown, underlying process at work in this spectral region. We now wish to extent our study by requesting XMM EPIC observations of 4 B main sequence stars and 1 additional B giant to help us explain the abrupt X-ray changes that are occurring in this intriguing region of the H-R diagram.

  9. The Drop in X-ray Flux at Spectral Type B1: Evidence for a B-Star Dividing Line?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, Wayne

    2009-10-01

    All B star luminosity classes show a substantial drop in their X-ray emission between spectral type B1 and B2 suggesting an H-R diagram B-star dividing line somewhat analogous to the one for K giants. This emission appears to be related to the bi-stability jump at spectral type B1. But our analyses of B supergiant and giant XMM data revealed several interesting and unexpected results that do not support theoretical predictions. There seems to be a fundamental, unknown, underlying process at work in this spectral region. We now wish to extent our study by requesting XMM EPIC observations of 4 B main sequence stars and 2 additional B giants to help us explain the abrupt X-ray changes that are occurring in this intriguing region of the H-R diagram.

  10. The Drop in X-ray Flux at Spectral Type B1: Evidence for a B-Star Dividing Line?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, Wayne

    2011-10-01

    All B star luminosity classes show a substantial drop in their X-ray emission between spectral type B1 and B2 suggesting an H-R diagram B-star dividing line somewhat analogous to the one for K giants. This emission appears to be related to the bi-stability jump at spectral type B1. But our analyses of B supergiant and giant XMM data revealed several interesting and unexpected results that do not support theoretical predictions. There seems to be a fundamental, unknown, underlying process at work in this spectral region. We now wish to extent our study by requesting XMM EPIC observations of 4 B main sequence stars and 1 additional B giant to help us explain the abrupt X-ray changes that are occurring in this intriguing region of the H-R diagram.

  11. Rainbow's stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garattini, Remo; Mandanici, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a growing interest in the equilibrium of compact astrophysical objects like white dwarf and neutron stars has been manifested. In particular, various modifications due to Planck-scale energy effects have been considered. In this paper we analyze the modification induced by gravity's rainbow on the equilibrium configurations described by the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equation. Our purpose is to explore the possibility that the rainbow Planck-scale deformation of space-time could support the existence of different compact stars.

  12. Chameleon stars

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Singleton, Douglas

    2011-10-15

    We consider a gravitating spherically symmetric configuration consisting of a scalar field nonminimally coupled to ordinary matter in the form of a perfect fluid. For this system we find static, regular, asymptotically flat solutions for both relativistic and nonrelativistic cases. It is shown that the presence of the nonminimal interaction leads to substantial changes both in the radial matter distribution of the star and in the star's total mass. A simple stability test indicates that, for the choice of parameters used in the paper, the solutions are unstable.

  13. Cosmic ray electrons and positrons from supernova explosions of massive stars.

    PubMed

    Biermann, P L; Becker, J K; Meli, A; Rhode, W; Seo, E S; Stanev, T

    2009-08-07

    We attribute the recently discovered cosmic ray electron and cosmic ray positron excess components and their cutoffs to the acceleration in the supernova shock in the polar cap of exploding Wolf-Rayet and red supergiant stars. Considering a spherical surface at some radius around such a star, the magnetic field is radial in the polar cap as opposed to most of 4pi (the full solid angle), where the magnetic field is nearly tangential. This difference yields a flatter spectrum, and also an enhanced positron injection for the cosmic rays accelerated in the polar cap. This reasoning naturally explains the observations. Precise spectral measurements will be the test, as this predicts a simple E;{-2} spectrum for the new components in the source, steepened to E;{-3} in observations with an E;{-4} cutoff.

  14. Type C Semiregulars and Irregulars: the Forgotten Pulsating Luminous Stars (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) Variable M supergiants, comprising the SRC and LC classes of semiregular and irregular variables, represent late stages of evolution for stars of about 20-25 solar masses, and the likely progenitors for many core collapse supernovae. Most have escaped dedicated study, either long-term photometry or detailed spectroscopy, primarily because of lengthy pulsation periods of 100-1000 days. Yet they appear to share many of the characteristics of classical Cepheids, and their high luminosities make them just as valuable, if not more so, for calibrating the extragalactic distance scale. Many are double-mode, and possibly triple-mode, pulsators, much like Cepheids, which complicates estimates for their periods of variability. Demonstrated here are some of the techniques used for studying such stars, and what has been learned so far about their characteristics. AAVSO observers have a wonderful opportunity to contribute to the field through observations of the forthcoming 2016 maximum of m Cephei.

  15. Mg II h and k profiles in high-liminosity, late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. D.; Carpenter, K. G.

    1995-01-01

    Using high-resolution spectroscopic data taken with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrographic (GHRS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and with the International Ultraviolet Expolorer (IUE) satellite, we compare the profiles of the Mg II h and k lines seen in stars with spectral types ranging from early K through mid-M and luminosities from giants to supergiants. For all of these stars the lines are broad emission features with a central absorption. When plotted on a velocity scale the absorption features of the h and k lines agree very well in both shape and position, as do the blue wings of the emission component. The red wings of the emission, however, show a pronounced difference, with the k line wing consistently shifted to the red of the h line wing. At present the reason for this discrepancy is unknown, but we suggest several possibilities, including radiative transfer effects and high-speed stellar winds.

  16. A search for SiO, OH, CO and HCN radio emission from silicate-carbon stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little-Marenin, I. R.; Sahai, R.; Wannier, P. G.; Benson, P. J.; Gaylard, M.; Omont, A.

    1994-01-01

    We report upper limits for radio emission of SiO at 86 and 43 GHz, of OH at 1612 and 1665/1667 MHz, of CO at 115 GHz and HCN at 88.6 GHz in the silicate-carbon stars. These upper limits of SiO imply that oxygen-rich material has not been detected within 2R(sub star) of a central star even though the detected emission from silicate dust grains, H2O and OH maser establishes the presence of oxygen-rich material from about tens to thousands of AU of a central star. The upper limit of the SiO abundance is consistent with that found in oxygen-rich envelopes. Upper limits of the mass loss rate (based on the CO data) are estimated to be between 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -7) solar mass/yr assuming a distance of 1.5 kpc for these stars. The absence of HCN microwave emission implies that no carbon-rich material can be detected at large distances (thousands of AU) from a central star. The lack of detections of SiO, CO, and HCN emission is most likely due to the large distances of these stars. A number of C stars were detected in CO and HCN, but only the M supergiant VX Sgr was detected in CO.

  17. Star Power

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  18. Star Power

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  19. The structure and energy balance of cool star atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The atmospheric structure and energy balance phenomena associated with magnetic fields in the Sun are reviewed and it is shown that similar phenomena occur in cool stars. The evidence for the weakening or disappearance of transition regions and coronae is discussed together with the appearance of extended cool chromospheres with large mass loss, near V-R = 0.80 in the H-R diagram. Like the solar atmosphere, these atmospheres are not homogeneous and there is considerable evidence for plage regions with bright TR emission lines that overlie dark (presumably magnetic) star spots. The IUE observations are providing important information on the energy balance in these atmospheres that should guide theoretical calculations of the nonradiative heating rate. Recent high dispersion spectra are providing unique information concerning which components of close binary systems are the dominant contributors to the observed emission. A recent unanticipated discovery is that the transition lines are redshifted (an antiwind) in DRa (G2 Ib) and perhaps other stars. Finally, the G and K giants and supergiants are classified into three groups depending on whether their atmospheres are dominated by closed magnetic flux tubes, open field geometries, or a predominately open geometry with a few closed flux tubes embedded.

  20. Chemical abundances of massive stars in Local Group galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venn, Kim A.; Kaufer, Andreas; Tolstoy, Eline; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Przybilla, Norbert; Smartt, Stephen J.; Lennon, Daniel J.

    The relative abundances of elements in galaxies can provide valuable information on the stellar and chemical evolution of a galaxy. While nebulae can provide abundances for a variety of light elements, stars are the only way to directly determine the abundances of iron-group and s-process and r-process elements in a galaxy. The new 8m and 10m class telescopes and high-efficiency spectrographs now make high-quality spectral observations of bright supergiants possible in dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. We have been concentrating on elemental abundances in the metal-poor dwarf irregular galaxies, NGC 6822, WLM, Sextants A, and GR 8. Comparing abundance ratios to those predicted from their star formation histories, determined from color-magnitude diagrams, and comparing those ratios between these galaxies can give us new insights into the evolution of these dwarf irregular galaxies. Iron-group abundances also allow us to examine the metallicities of the stars in these galaxies directly, which affects their inferred mass loss rates and predicted stellar evolution properties.

  1. A massive hypergiant star as the progenitor of the supernova SN 2005gl.

    PubMed

    Gal-Yam, A; Leonard, D C

    2009-04-16

    Our understanding of the evolution of massive stars before their final explosions as supernovae is incomplete, from both an observational and a theoretical standpoint. A key missing piece in the supernova puzzle is the difficulty of identifying and studying progenitor stars. In only a single case-that of supernova SN 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud-has a star been detected at the supernova location before the explosion, and been subsequently shown to have vanished after the supernova event. The progenitor of SN 1987A was a blue supergiant, which required a rethink of stellar evolution models. The progenitor of supernova SN 2005gl was proposed to be an extremely luminous object, but the association was not robustly established (it was not even clear that the putative progenitor was a single luminous star). Here we report that the previously proposed object was indeed the progenitor star of SN 2005gl. This very massive star was likely a luminous blue variable that standard stellar evolution predicts should not have exploded in that state.

  2. The rotation rates of massive stars. How slow are the slow ones?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundqvist, J. O.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Puls, J.; Markova, N.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Rotation plays a key role in the life cycles of stars with masses above ~8 M⊙. Hence, accurate knowledge of the rotation rates of such massive stars is critical for understanding their properties and for constraining models of their evolution. Aims: This paper investigates the reliability of current methods used to derive projected rotation speeds vsini from line-broadening signatures in the photospheric spectra of massive stars, focusing on stars that are not rapidly rotating. Methods: We use slowly rotating magnetic O-stars with well-determined rotation periods to test the Fourier transform (FT) and goodness-of-fit (GOF) methods typically used to infer projected rotation rates of massive stars. Results: For our two magnetic test stars with measured rotation periods longer than one year, i.e., with vsini ≲ 1 km s-1, we derive vsini ≈ 40-50 km s-1 from both the FT and GOF methods. These severe overestimates are most likely caused by an insufficient treatment of the competing broadening mechanisms referred to as microturbulence and macroturbulence. Conclusions: These findings warn us not to rely uncritically on results from current standard techniques to derive projected rotation speeds of massive stars in the presence of significant additional line broadening, at least when vsini ≲ 50 km s-1. This may, for example, be crucial for i) determining the statistical distribution of observed rotation rates of massive stars; ii) interpreting the evolutionary status and spin-down histories of rotationally braked B-supergiants; and iii) explaining the deficiency of observed O-stars with spectroscopically inferred vsini ≈ 0 km s-1. Further investigations of potential shortcomings of the above techniques are presently under way. Final reduced spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/559/L10

  3. Quantitative Studies of the Far-Ultraviolet, Ultraviolet, and Optical Spectra of Late O- and Early B-Type Supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, C. J.; Crowther, P. A.; Fullerton, A. W.; Hillier, D. J.

    2004-08-01

    We present quantitative studies of eight late O- and early B-type supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds using far-ultraviolet Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, ultraviolet International Ultraviolet Explorer/Hubble Space Telescope, and optical VLT-UVES spectroscopy. Temperatures, mass-loss rates, and CNO abundances are obtained using the non-LTE, spherical, line-blanketed model atmosphere code of Hillier & Miller. We support recent results for lower temperatures of OB-type supergiants as a result of stellar winds and blanketing, which amounts to ~2000 K at B0 Ia. In general, Hα-derived mass-loss rates are consistent with UV and far-UV spectroscopy, although from consideration of the S IV λλ1063, 1073 doublet, clumped winds are preferred over homogenous models. AV 235 (B0 Iaw) is a notable exception, which has an unusually strong Hα profile that is inconsistent with the other Balmer lines and UV wind diagnostics. We also derive CNO abundances for our sample, revealing substantial nitrogen enrichment, with carbon and oxygen depletion. Our results are supported by comparison with the Galactic supergiant HD 2905 (BC0.7 Ia) for which near-solar CNO abundances are obtained. This bolsters previous suggestions that ``normal'' OB-type supergiants exhibit atmospheric compositions indicative of partial CNO processing. Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. FUSE is operated by Johns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS5-32985. Also based in part on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope in program 67.D-0238, plus archival data obtained with the NASA-ESA Hubble Space Telescope and the NASA-ESA-PPARC International Ultraviolet Explorer.

  4. Converting neutron stars into strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olinto, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    If strange matter is formed in the interior of a neutron star, it will convert the entire neutron star into a strange star. The proposed mechanisms are reviewed for strange matter seeding and the possible strange matter contamination of neutron star progenitors. The conversion process that follows seeding and the recent calculations of the conversion timescale are discussed.

  5. Star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labhardt, Lukas; Binggeli, Bruno

    Star clusters are at the heart of astronomy, being key objects for our understanding of stellar evolution and galactic structure. Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and other modern equipment have revealed fascinating new facts about these galactic building blocks. This book provides two comprehensive and up-to-date, pedagogically designed reviews on star clusters by two well-known experts in the field. Bruce Carney presents our current knowledge of the relative and absolute ages of globular clusters and the chemical history of our Galaxy. Bill Harris addresses globular clusters in external galaxies and their use as tracers of galaxy formation and cosmic distance indicators. The book is written for graduate students as well as professionals in astronomy and astrophysics.

  6. The MiMeS survey of magnetism in massive stars: CNO surface abundances of Galactic O stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Hervé, A.; Bouret, J.-C.; Marcolino, W.; Wade, G. A.; Neiner, C.; Alecian, E.; Grunhut, J.; Petit, V.

    2015-03-01

    Context. The evolution of massive stars is still partly unconstrained. Mass, metallicity, mass loss, and rotation are the main drivers of stellar evolution. Binarity and the magnetic field may also significantly affect the fate of massive stars. Aims: Our goal is to investigate the evolution of single O stars in the Galaxy. Methods: For that, we used a sample of 74 objects comprising all luminosity classes and spectral types from O4 to O9.7. We relied on optical spectroscopy obtained in the context of the MiMeS survey of massive stars. We performed spectral modelling with the code CMFGEN. We determined the surface properties of the sample stars, with special emphasis on abundances of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Results: Most of our sample stars have initial masses in the range of 20 to 50 M⊙. We show that nitrogen is more enriched and carbon and oxygen are more depleted in supergiants than in dwarfs, with giants showing intermediate degrees of mixing. CNO abundances are observed in the range of values predicted by nucleosynthesis through the CNO cycle. More massive stars, within a given luminosity class, appear to be more chemically enriched than lower mass stars. We compare our results with predictions of three types of evolutionary models and show that for two sets of models, 80% of our sample can be explained by stellar evolution including rotation. The effect of magnetism on surface abundances is unconstrained. Conclusions: Our study indicates that in the 20-50 M⊙ mass range, the surface chemical abundances of most single O stars in the Galaxy are fairly well accounted for by stellar evolution of rotating stars. Based on observations obtained at 1) the Telescope Bernard Lyot (USR5026) operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France; 2) at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut

  7. Exceptional Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S. R.; Hansen, B.; van Kerkwijk, M.; Phinney, E. S.

    2005-12-01

    As part of our Interdisciplinary Scientist effort (PI, Kulkarni) for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) we proposed an investigation with SIM of a number of exceptional stars. With SIM we plan to observe dozens of nearby white dwarfs and search for planets surviving the evolution away from the main sequence as well as (newly formed) planets formed in the circumbinary disks of post-AGB binaries or as a result of white dwarf mergers. We propose to measure the proper motion of a sample of X-ray binaries and Be star binaries with the view of understanding the originof high latitude objects and inferring natal kicks and pre-supernova orbits. We plan to observe several compact object binaries to determine the mass of the compact star. Of particular importance is the proposed observation of SS 433 (for which we propose to use the spectrometer on SIM to measure the proper motion of the emission line clumps embedded in the relativistic jets). Separately we are investigating the issue of frame tie between SIM and the ecliptic frame (by observing binary millisecond pulsars with SIM; the position of these objects is very well determined by pulsar timing) and the degree to which highly precise visibility amplitude measurements can be inverted to infer binary parameters.

  8. Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Heuvel, Ed

    Radio pulsars are unique laboratories for a wide range of physics and astrophysics. Understanding how they are created, how they evolve and where we find them in the Galaxy, with or without binary companions, is highly constraining of theories of stellar and binary evolution. Pulsars' relationship with a recently discovered variety of apparently different classes of neutron stars is an interesting modern astrophysical puzzle which we consider in Part I of this review. Radio pulsars are also famous for allowing us to probe the laws of nature at a fundamental level. They act as precise cosmic clocks and, when in a binary system with a companion star, provide indispensable venues for precision tests of gravity. The different applications of radio pulsars for fundamental physics will be discussed in Part II. We finish by making mention of the newly discovered class of astrophysical objects, the Fast Radio Bursts, which may or may not be related to radio pulsars or neutron stars, but which were discovered in observations of the latter.

  9. Formation of primordial supermassive stars by rapid mass accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Naoki; Yorke, Harold W.; Inayoshi, Kohei; Omukai, Kazuyuki E-mail: hosokwtk@gmail.com

    2013-12-01

    Supermassive stars (SMSs) forming via very rapid mass accretion ( M-dot {sub ∗}≳0.1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) could be precursors of supermassive black holes observed beyond a redshift of about six. Extending our previous work, here we study the evolution of primordial stars growing under such rapid mass accretion until the stellar mass reaches 10{sup 4–5} M {sub ☉}. Our stellar evolution calculations show that a star becomes supermassive while passing through the 'supergiant protostar' stage, whereby the star has a very bloated envelope and a contracting inner core. The stellar radius increases monotonically with the stellar mass until ≅ 100 AU for M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, after which the star begins to slowly contract. Because of the large radius, the effective temperature is always less than 10{sup 4} K during rapid accretion. The accreting material is thus almost completely transparent to the stellar radiation. Only for M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} can stellar UV feedback operate and disturb the mass accretion flow. We also examine the pulsation stability of accreting SMSs, showing that the pulsation-driven mass loss does not prevent stellar mass growth. Observational signatures of bloated SMSs should be detectable with future observational facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope. Our results predict that an inner core of the accreting SMS should suffer from the general relativistic instability soon after the stellar mass exceeds 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}. An extremely massive black hole should form after the collapse of the inner core.

  10. Circumstellar Dust Shells: Clues to the Evolution of R Coronae Borealis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montiel, Edward J.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.

    2016-06-01

    R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are an exotic group of extremely hydrogen- deficient, carbon-rich supergiants that are known for their spectacular declines in brightness (up to 8 mags) at irregular intervals. Two scenarios are currently competing to explain the origins of these stars. One suggests that RCB stars are the products after a binary white dwarf (WD) system merges. The other takes a single, evolved star and has it undergo a final, helium-shell flash (FF) and becoming a cool giant. Recently, observations of elemental abundances in RCB stars have strongly swung the argument in favor of the WD merger model. The FF scenario has maintained its relevancy by seemingly being the only model able to offer a suitable explanation for one RCB feature that merger model has historically struggled with explaining: the presence of cold, circumstellar dust envelopes which might be fossil planetary nebulae (PNe). In reality, the shells could actually be fossil PNe, material left over from the WD merger, or mass lost during the RCB phase, itself. I will present the results of my dissertation, which is to try and discern the nature and history of the far-IR dust shells around RCB stars to help understand the origin of these enigmatic stars. I will discuss our efforts to determine the mass, size, temperature, and morphology of these diffuse structures surrounding a sample of RCB stars using multi-wavelength observations ranging from the ultraviolet to the submillimeter. These observations have provided unprecedented wavelength coverage for both the central stars and their CSM. They have been examined by eye for morphology and have been used in the construction of maximum-light spectral energy distributions (SEDs). I will present the results of our Monte Carlo radiative transfer of the maximum-light SEDs. Finally, I will highlight our work investigating the HI abundance of the envelope of R Coronae Borealis, itself, using archival 21—cm observations from the Arecibo

  11. Boron Abundances in A and B-type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, David L.

    1997-01-01

    Boron abundances in A- and B-type stars may be a successful way to track evolutionary effects in these hot stars. The light elements - Li, Be, and B - are tracers of exposure to temperatures more moderate than those in which the H-burning CN-cycle operates. Thus, any exposure of surface stellar layers to deeper layers will affect these light element abundances. Li and Be are used in this role in investigations of evolutionary processes in cool stars, but are not observable in hotter stars. An investigation of boron, however, is possible through the B II 1362 A resonance line. We have gathered high resolution spectra from the IUE database of A- and B-type stars near 10 solar mass for which nitrogen abundances have been determined. The B II 1362 A line is blended throughout; the temperature range of this program, requiring spectrum syntheses to recover the boron abundances. For no star could we synthesize the 1362 A region using the meteoritic/solar boron abundance of log e (B) = 2.88; a lower boron abundance was necessary which may reflect evolutionary effects (e.g., mass loss or mixing near the main-sequence), the natal composition of the star forming regions, or a systematic error in the analyses (e.g., non-LTE effects). Regardless of the initial boron abundance, and despite the possibility of non-LTE effects, it seems clear that boron is severely depleted in some stars. It may be that the nitrogen and boron abundances are anticorrelated, as would be expected from mixing between the H-burning and outer stellar layers. If, as we suspect, a residue of boron is present in the A-type supergiants, we may exclude a scenario in which mixing occurs continuously between the surface and the deep layers operating the CN-cycle. Further exploitation of the B II 1362 A line as an indicator of the evolutionary status of A- and B-type stars will require a larger stellar sample to be observed with higher signal-to-noise as attainable with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  12. Constraints on the low-mass IMF in young super-star clusters in starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greissl, Julia Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    As evidence for variations in the initial mass function (IMF) in nearby star forming regions remains elusive we are forced to expand our search to more extreme regions of star formation. Starburst galaxies, which contain massive young clusters have in the past been reported to have IMFs different than that characterizing the field star IMF. In this thesis we use high signal-to-noise near-infrared spectra to place constraints on the shape of the IMF in extreme regions of extragalactic star formation and also try to understand the star formation history in these regions. Through high signal-to-noise near-infrared spectra it is possible to directly detect low-mass PMS stars in unresolved young super-star clusters, using absorption features that trace cool stars. Combining Starburst99 and available PMS tracks it is then possible to constrain the IMF in young super-star clusters using a combination of absorption lines each tracing different ranges of stellar masses and comparing observed spectra to models. Our technique can provide a direct test of the universality of the IMF compared to the Milky Way. We have obtained high signal-to-noise H- and K-band spectra of two young super-star clusters in the starburst galaxies NGC 4039/39 and NGC 253 in order to constrain the low-mass IMF and star formation history in the clusters. The cluster in NGC 4038/39 shows signs of youth such as thermal radio emission and strong hydrogen emission lines as well as late-type absorption lines indicative of cool stars. The strength and ratio of these absorption lines cannot be reproduced through either late-type pre-main sequence stars or red supergiants alone. We interpret the spectrum as a superposition of two star clusters of different ages over the physical region of 90 pc our spectrum represents. One cluster is young (≤ 3 Myr) and is responsible for part of the late-type absorption features, which are due to PMS stars in the cluster, and the hydrogen emission lines. The second

  13. Mining the HST Treasury: The ASTRAL Reference Spectra for Evolved M Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. G.; Ayres, T.; Harper, G.; Kober, G.; Wahlgren, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    The "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Cool Stars" (PI = T. Ayres) is an HST Cycle 18 Treasury Program designed to collect a definitive set of representative, high-resolution (R greater than 100,000) and high signal/noise (S/N greater than 100) UV spectra of eight F-M evolved cool stars. These extremely high-quality STIS UV echelle spectra are available from the HST archive and through the University of Colorado (http://casa.colorado.edu/ayres/ASTRAL/) portal and will enable investigations of a broad range of problems -- stellar, interstellar. and beyond -- for many years. In this current paper, we concentrate on producing a roadrnap to the very rich spectra of the two evolved M stars in the sample, the M3.4 giant Gamma Crucis (GaCrux) and the M2Iab supergiant Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) and illustrate the huge increase in coverage and quality that these spectra provide over that previously available from IUE and earlier HST observations. These roadmaps will facilitate the study of the spectra, outer atmospheres, and winds of not only these stars. but also numerous other cool, low-gravity stars and make a very interesting comparison to the already-available atlases of the K2III giant Arcturus.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Lick indices for FGK stars (Franchini+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchini, M.; Morossi, C.; Marcantonio, P. D.; Malagnini, M. L.; Chavez, M.

    2015-02-01

    The stars observed by FEROS and studied by the AMBRE project (Worley et al., 2012A&A...542A..48W) constitute an ideal working data set for our purposes since they include a large number of non-supergiant FGK stars with individual estimates of Teff, log g, [M/H], and α-to-iron ratio ([alpha/Fe]). We searched the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Science Archive Facility and retrieved, through the FEROS/HARPS pipeline processed data Query Form, all the public available spectra of FGK stars with AMBRE atmospheric parameter values in the following ranges: 38003.5, and global metallicity [M/H]>-3.0. A list of 1085 stars, corresponding to 2511 available spectra, was obtained. Since AMBRE provides individual estimates of stellar parameters derived from each spectrum, we computed for 202 stars with more than one observed spectrum average atmospheric parameter values. In any case, the dispersion of values for the same object resulted to be less than the external errors associated with AMBRE results. (1 data file).

  15. Following the rapid evolution of the central star of the Stingray Nebula in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reindl, Nicole

    2014-10-01

    SAO 244567 is an unusually fast evolving star. Within twenty years only, it has turned from a B-type supergiant into the central star of the Stingray nebula. Space and ground-based observations obtained over the last decades have revealed that its spectrum changes noticeably over just a few years, showing stellar evolution in real time. Previous analysis indicates it must be a low mass star and thus the observed fast evolution is in strong contradiction with canonical post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) evolution. A late He-shell flash is able to account for the rapid evolution. This scenario would predict an evolution back to the AGB, e.g. a decrease of the effective temperature (which is already indicated by the FUSE observations in 2006) and an increase of luminosity. With COS spectroscopy we want to follow the evolution of the surface properties of SAO 244567 to verify this thesis. The very compact nebula of SAO 244567 makes it impossible to derive these parameters from optical spectra, because most of the photospheric lines are blended by nebular emission lines thus they are not suitable for a spectral analysis. The derived surface parameters will establish constraints for late thermal pulse evolutionary calculations. With these calculations we aim not only to explain the nature of SAO 244567, but they also will provide a deeper insight in the formation process of hydrogen deficient stars, which make up 25% of the post AGB-stars and white dwarfs.

  16. CHARA/MIRC observations of two M supergiants in Perseus OB1: Temperature, bayesian modeling, and compressed sensing imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, F.; Monnier, J. D.; Anderson, M.; Aarnio, A.; Kiss, L. L.; Neilson, H. R.; Zhao, M.; Pedretti, E.; Thureau, N.; Ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Ridgway, S. T.; McAlister, H. A.

    2014-04-10

    Two red supergiants (RSGs) of the Per OB1 association, RS Per and T Per, have been observed in the H band using the Michigan Infra-Red Combiner (MIRC) instrument at the CHARA array. The data show clear evidence of a departure from circular symmetry. We present here new techniques specially developed to analyze such cases, based on state-of-the-art statistical frameworks. The stellar surfaces are first modeled as limb-darkened disks based on SATLAS models that fit both MIRC interferometric data and publicly available spectrophotometric data. Bayesian model selection is then used to determine the most probable number of spots. The effective surface temperatures are also determined and give further support to the recently derived hotter temperature scales of RSGs. The stellar surfaces are reconstructed by our model-independent imaging code SQUEEZE, making use of its novel regularizer based on Compressed Sensing theory. We find excellent agreement between the model-selection results and the reconstructions. Our results provide evidence for the presence of near-infrared spots representing about 3%-5% of the stellar flux.

  17. MASER OBSERVATIONS OF WESTERLUND 1 AND COMPREHENSIVE CONSIDERATIONS ON MASER PROPERTIES OF RED SUPERGIANTS ASSOCIATED WITH MASSIVE CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Fok, Thomas K. T.; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Yung, Bosco H. K.; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Deguchi, Shuji

    2012-11-20

    We report the results of Australia Telescope Compact Array observations of the Westerlund 1 (Wd1) region in the SiO v = 1, J = 1-0, and H{sub 2}O 6{sub 16}-5{sub 23} maser lines, and we also report the analysis of maser properties of red supergiants (RSGs) associated with six massive clusters including Wd1. The primary purpose of this research is to explore possibilities of using maser emission for investigating the nature of massive clusters and associated RSGs. The SiO v = 1, J = 1-0, and H{sub 2}O 6{sub 16}-5{sub 23} maser lines are detected toward two of four known RSGs in Wd1. The large velocity ranges of maser emission are consistent with the RSG status. RSGs with maser emission tend to exhibit redder log (F {sub 21}/F {sub 12}) and [K-12.13] colors compared to RSGs with no maser emission. The mass-loss rates derived from dust radiative transfer modeling suggest that RSGs with maser emission tend to exhibit larger mass-loss rates compared to RSGs with no maser emission. In an extended sample of 57 RSGs in six massive clusters, detections in the SiO line tend to homogeneously distribute in absolute luminosity L, whereas those in the H{sub 2}O line tend to distribute in a region with large L values.

  18. Hα line profiles for a sample of supergiant HII regions. II. Broad, low intensity components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozas, M.; Richer, M. G.; López, J. A.; Relaño, M.; Beckman, J. E.

    2006-08-01

    We analyze the broad, low intensity, high velocity components that are seen in the Hα line profiles for a sample of HII regions. These HII regions are chosen from among the brightest and most isolated in a sample of spiral galaxies for which we have photometric and spectroscopic data: NGC 157, NGC 3631, NGC 6764, NGC 3344, NGC 4321, NGC 5364, NGC 5055, NGC 5985, and NGC 7479. We confirm that the line profiles of most of these bright, giant extragalactic HII regions contain broad kinematic components of low intensity, but high velocity, that we denote as wings. We analyze these components, deriving emission measures, central velocities, and velocity dispersions of the blue and red features, which are similar. We interpret these components as expanding shells within the HII regions and produced by the stellar winds from the ionizing stars. We compare the kinetic energies of these expanding shells with the kinetic energy available from the stellar winds. If we allow for the hypothesis that the brightest HII regions are density bounded, we show that, for these HII regions, the stellar wind mechanism can explain the observed shell kinetic energies.

  19. Binary stars.

    PubMed

    Paczynacuteski, B

    1984-07-20

    Most stars in the solar neighborhood are either double or multiple systems. They provide a unique opportunity to measure stellar masses and radii and to study many interesting and important phenomena. The best candidates for black holes are compact massive components of two x-ray binaries: Cygnus X-1 and LMC X-3. The binary radio pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 provides the best available evidence for gravitational radiation. Accretion disks and jets observed in close binaries offer a very good testing ground for models of active galactic nuclei and quasars.

  20. The Magnetic Coupling of Chromospheres and Winds From Late Type Evolved Stars: Role of MHD Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, Vladimir; Leake, James; Carpenter, Kenneth

    2015-08-01

    Stellar chromospheres and winds represent universal attributes of stars on the cool portion of H-R diagram. In this paper we derive observational constrains for the chromospheric heating and wind acceleration from cool evolved stars and examine the role of Alfven waves as a viable source of energy dissipation and momentum deposition. We use a 1.5D magnetohydrodynamic code with a generalized Ohm's law to study propagation of Alfven waves generated along a diverging magnetic field in a stellar photosphere at a single frequency. We demonstrate that due to inclusion of the effects of ion-neutral collisions in magnetized weakly ionized chromospheric plasma on resistivity and the appropriate grid resolution, the numerical resistivity becomes 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the physical resistivity. The motions introduced by non-linear transverse Alfven waves can explain non-thermally broadened and non-Gaussian profiles of optically thin UV lines forming in the stellar chromosphere of α Tau and other late-type giant and supergiant stars. The calculated heating rates in the stellar chromosphere model due to resistive (Joule) dissipation of electric currents on Pedersen resistivity are consistent with observational constraints on the net radiative losses in UV lines and the continuum from α Tau. At the top of the chromosphere, Alfven waves experience significant reflection, producing downward propagating transverse waves that interact with upward propagating waves and produce velocity shear in the chromosphere. Our simulations also suggest that momentum deposition by non-linear Alfven waves becomes significant in the outer chromosphere within 1 stellar radius from the photosphere that initiates a slow and massive winds from red giants and supergiants.

  1. Non-LTE analysis of the Ofpe/WN9 star HDE 269227 (R84)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmutz, Werner; Leitherer, Claus; Hubeny, Ivan; Vogel, Manfred; Hamann, Wolf-Rainer

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a spectral analysis of the Ofpe/WN9 star HD 269227 (R84), which assumes a spherically expanding atmosphere to find solutions for equations of radiative transfer. The spectra of hydrogen and helium were predicted with a non-LTE model. Six stellar parameters were determined for R84. The shape of the velocity law is empirically found, since it can be probed from the terminal velocity of the wind. The six stellar parameters are further employed in a hydrodynamic model where stellar wind is assumed to be directed by radiation pressure, duplicating the mass-loss rate and the terminal wind velocity. The velocity laws found by computation and analysis are found to agree, supporting the theory of radiation-driven stellar wind. R84 is surmised to be a post-red supergiant which lost half of its initial mass, possibly during the red-supergiant phase. This mass loss is also suggested by its spectroscopic similarity to S Doradus.

  2. Observational constraints for the circumstellar disk of the B[e] star CPD-52 9243

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cidale, L. S.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Andruchow, I.; Arias, M. L.; Kraus, M.; Chesneau, O.; Kanaan, S.; Curé, M.; de Wit, W. J.; Muratore, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The formation and evolution of gas and dust environments around B[e] supergiants are still open issues. Aims: We intend to study the geometry, kinematics and physical structure of the circumstellar environment (CE) of the B[e] supergiant CPD-52 9243 to provide further insights into the underlying mechanism causing the B[e] phenomenon. Methods: The influence of the different physical mechanisms acting on the CE (radiation pressure, rotation, bi-stability or tidal forces) is somehow reflected in the shape and kinematic properties of the gas and dust regions (flaring, Keplerian, accretion or outflowing disks). To investigate these processes we mainly used quasi-simultaneous observations taken with high spatial resolution optical long-baseline interferometry (VLTI/MIDI), near-IR spectroscopy of CO bandhead features (Gemini/Phoenix and VLT/CRIRES) and optical spectra (CASLEO/REOSC). Results: High angular resolution interferometric measurements obtained with VLTI/MIDI provide strong support for the presence of a dusty disk(ring)-like structure around CPD-52 9243, with an upper limit for its inner edge of ~8 mas (~27.5 AU, considering a distance of 3.44 kpc to the star). The disk has an inclination angle with respect to the line of sight of 46 ± 7°. The study of CO first overtone bandhead evidences a disk structure in Keplerian rotation. The optical spectrum indicates a rapid outflow in the polar direction. Conclusions: The IR emission (CO and warm dust) indicates Keplerian rotation in a circumstellar disk while the optical line transitions of various species are consistent with a polar wind. Both structures appear simultaneously and provide further evidence for the proposed paradigms of the mass-loss in supergiant B[e] stars. The presence of a detached cold CO ring around CPD-52 9243 could be due to a truncation of the inner disk caused by a companion, located possibly interior to the disk rim, clearing the center of the system. More spectroscopic and

  3. Three-micron spectroscopy of highly reddened field stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapia, Mauricio; Persi, P.; Roth, M.; Ferrari-Toniolo, M.

    1989-01-01

    Broad absorption features centered at 3.45 microns and at 3.0-3.0 microns towards a number of late-type supergiants in the vicinity of the galactic center were repeatedly reported. Here, 2.0 to 2.5 and 3.0 to 4.0 micron spectra are presented for field late-type highly reddened (A sub V is approximately 17-27) stars located in different regions of the galactic plane more than 20 deg away from the galactic center direction. The observations, made with the 3.6, 2.2, and 1.0 m ESO telescopes at La Silla, Chile, consists of CVF spectra with resolution lambda/delta lambda is approximately or equal to 100 and IRSPEC spectra with resolution lambda/delta lambda is approximately or equal to 700. In the direction of the most highly reddened stars, definitive detections of the 3.45 and the 3.0 to 3.1 micron absorption features are reported. The 3.45 micron feature was attributed to absorption arising in a vibrational transition resulting from the C-H stretching in organic compounds, while the 3.0 to 3.1 micron broader feature are tentatively attributed to O-H bonds. The observations strongly support that the agent producing the 3.45 micron feature, presumably organic molecules, is an important component of the diffuse interstellar medium and is not characteristic only of the galactic center environment.

  4. The rapid evolution of the central star of the Stingray Nebula — latest news from the HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reindl, Nicole; Rauch, Thomas; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; Werner, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    SAO 244567 is an unusually fast evolving star. Within twenty years only, it had turned from a B-type supergiant into the central star of the Stingray Nebula. Space- and ground-based observations obtained over the last decades have revealed that its spectrum changes noticeably over just a few years, showing stellar evolution in real time. The low mass of SAO 244567 is, however, in strong contradiction with canonical post-asymptotic giant branch evolution. Thus, its fast evolution has been a mystery for decades. We present preliminary results of the non-LTE spectral analyis of the recently obtained HST/COS observations, which finally allow us to shed light on the evolutionary history of this extraordinary object.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS Observations of I Zw 18: A Population of Old Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars Revealed.

    PubMed

    Östlin

    2000-06-01

    I present the first results from a Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS imaging study of the most metal-poor blue compact dwarf galaxy, I Zw 18. The near-infrared color-magnitude diagram (CMD) is dominated by two populations, one 10-20 Myr population of red supergiants and one 0.1-5 Gyr population of asymptotic giant branch stars. Stars older than 1 Gyr are required to explain the observed CMD at the adopted distance of 12.6 Mpc, showing that I Zw 18 is not a young galaxy. The results hold also if the distance to I Zw 18 is significantly larger. This rules out the possibility that I Zw 18 is a truly young galaxy formed recently in the local universe.

  6. The ultraviolet spectrum of noncoronal late-type stars - The Gamma Crucis (M3.4 III) reference spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Pesce, Joseph E.; Stencel, Robert E.; Brown, Alexander; Johansson, Sveneric

    1988-01-01

    A guide is presented to the UV spectrum of M-type giants and supergiants whose outer atmospheres contain warm chromospheres but not coronae. The M3 giant Gamma Crucis is taken as the archetype of the cooler, oxygen-rich, noncoronal stars. Line identifications and integrated line flux measurements of the chromospheric emission features seen in the 1200-3200 A range of IUE high-resolution spectra are presented. The major fluorescence processes operating in the outer atmosphere of Gamma Crucis, including eight previously unknown pumping processes and 21 new fluorescent line products, are summarized, and the enhancements of selected line strengths by 'line leakage' is discussed. A set of absorption features toward the longer wavelength end of this range is identified which can be used to characterize the radial velocity of the stellar photospheres. The applicability of the results to the spectra of noncoronal stars with different effective temperatures and gravities is discussed.

  7. THE ROLE OF THE MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY IN MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, J. Craig; Kagan, Daniel; Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil

    2015-01-20

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is key to physics in accretion disks and is widely considered to play some role in massive star core collapse. Models of rotating massive stars naturally develop very strong shear at composition boundaries, a necessary condition for MRI instability, and the MRI is subject to triply diffusive destabilizing effects in radiative regions. We have used the MESA stellar evolution code to compute magnetic effects due to the Spruit-Tayler (ST) mechanism and the MRI, separately and together, in a sample of massive star models. We find that the MRI can be active in the later stages of massive star evolution, leading to mixing effects that are not captured in models that neglect the MRI. The MRI and related magnetorotational effects can move models of given zero-age main sequence mass across ''boundaries'' from degenerate CO cores to degenerate O/Ne/Mg cores and from degenerate O/Ne/Mg cores to iron cores, thus affecting the final evolution and the physics of core collapse. The MRI acting alone can slow the rotation of the inner core in general agreement with the observed ''initial'' rotation rates of pulsars. The MRI analysis suggests that localized fields ∼10{sup 12} G may exist at the boundary of the iron core. With both the ST and MRI mechanisms active in the 20 M {sub ☉} model, we find that the helium shell mixes entirely out into the envelope. Enhanced mixing could yield a population of yellow or even blue supergiant supernova progenitors that would not be standard SN IIP.

  8. All known hot RCB stars are fading fast over the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2016-08-01

    The R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are cool supergiants that display irregular and deep dips in their light curves, caused by dust formation. There are four known hot RCB stars (DY Cen, MV Sgr, V348 Sgr, and HV 2671), with surface temperatures of 15 000-25 000 K, and prior work has suggested that three of these have secular fading in brightness. I have tested this result by measuring century-long light curves in the Johnson B band with modern comparison star magnitudes, and I have extended this by measuring many magnitudes over a wide time range as well as for the fourth hot RCB star. In all four cases, the B band magnitude of the maximum light is now fast fading. The fading rates (in units of magnitudes per century) are 2.5 for DY Cen after 1960, 1.3 for MV Sgr, 1.3 for V348 Sgr, and 0.7 for HV 2671. This secular fading is caused by the expected evolution of the star across the top of the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram at constant luminosity, as the temperature rises and the bolometric correction changes. For DY Cen, the brightness at maximum light is rising from 1906 to 1932, and this is caused by the temperature increase from near 5800 to 7500 K. Before 1934, DY Cen had frequent dust dips, while after 1934 there are zero dust dips, so there is some apparent connection between the rising temperature and the formation of the dust. Thus, we have watched DY Cen evolve from an ordinary RCB star up to a hot RCB star and now appearing as an extreme helium star, all in under one century.

  9. Double core evolution. 7: The infall of a neutron star through the envelope of its massive star companion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terman, James L.; Taam, Ronald E.; Hernquist, Lars

    1995-01-01

    Binary systems with properties similar to those of high-mass X-ray binaries are evolved through the common envelope phase. Three-dimensional simulations show that the timescale of the infall phase of the neutron star depends upon the evolutionary state of its massive companion. We find that tidal torques more effectively accelerate common envelope evolution for companions in their late core helium-burning stage and that the infall phase is rapid (approximately several initial orbital periods). For less evolved companions the decay of the orbit is longer; however, once the neutron star is deeply embedded within the companion's envelope the timescale for orbital decay decreases rapidly. As the neutron star encounters the high-density region surrounding the helium core of its massive companion, the rate of energy loss from the orbit increases dramatically leading to either partial or nearly total envelope ejection. The outcome of the common envelope phase depends upon the structure of the evolved companion. In particular, it is found that the entire common envelope can be ejected by the interaction of the neutron star with a red supergiant companion in binaries with orbital periods similar to those of long-period Be X-ray binaries. For orbital periods greater than or approximately equal to 0.8-2 yr (for companions of mass 12-24 solar mass) it is likely that a binary will survive the common envelope phase. For these systems, the structure of the progenitor star is characterized by a steep density gradient above the helium core, and the common envelope phase ends with a spin up of the envelope to within 50%-60% of corotation and with a slow mass outflow. The efficiency of mass ejection is found to be approximately 30%-40%. For less evolved companions, there is insufficient energy in the orbit to unbind the common envelope and only a fraction of it is ejected. Since the timescale for orbital decay is always shorter than the mass-loss timescale from the common envelope

  10. The Nuclear Cluster of the Milky Way: Star Formation and Velocity Dispersion in the Central 0.5 Parsec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbe, A.; Genzel, R.; Eckart, A.; Najarro, F.; Lutz, D.; Cameron, M.; Kroker, H.; Tacconi-Garman, L. E.; Thatte, N.; Weitzel, L.; Drapatz, S.; Geballe, T.; Sternberg, A.; Kudritzki, R.

    1995-07-01

    We report the first results of an extensive new study of the Galactic center stellar cluster. The central parsec is powered by a cluster of about two dozen luminous and helium-rich blue supergiants/Wolf-Rayet stars (Teff ~ 20,000--30,000 K) with ZAMS masses up to ~100 M⊙. The most likely scenario for the formation of the massive stars is a small star formation burst between 3 x 106 and 7 x 106 years ago. In this scenario the Galactic center is presently in a short-lived, post--main-sequence "wind phase." In addition, there is evidence for another star formation event about 108 years ago, as well as for recently formed massive stars that may have been transported into the central core along with orbiting gas streamers. The radial velocity dispersion of 35 early- and late-type stars with distances of 1"--12" from Sgr A* is 154 +/- 19 km s-1. Our new results strongly favor the existence of a central dark mass of ~3 x 106 M⊙ (density >= 108.5 M⊙ pc-3, M/L >= 10 M⊙/L⊙) within 0.14 pc of the dynamic center.

  11. O stars and Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, Peter S.; Underhill, Anne B.; Jordan, Stuart (Editor); Thomas, Richard (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Basic information is given about O and Wolf-Rayet stars indicating how these stars are defined and what their chief observable properties are. Part 2 of the volume discussed four related themes pertaining to the hottest and most luminous stars. Presented are: an observational overview of the spectroscopic classification and extrinsic properties of O and Wolf-Rayet stars; the intrinsic parameters of luminosity, effective temperature, mass, and composition of the stars, and a discussion of their viability; stellar wind properties; and the related issues concerning the efforts of stellar radiation and wind on the immediate interstellar environment are presented.

  12. FEROS Finds a Strange Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-02-01

    New Spectrograph Explores the Skies from La Silla While a major effort is now spent on the Very Large Telescope and its advanced instruments at Paranal, ESO is also continuing to operate and upgrade the extensive research facilities at La Silla, its other observatory site. ESO PR Photo 03a/99 ESO PR Photo 03a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 1212 pix - 606k] [High-Res - JPEG: 1981 x 3000 pix - 3.6M] Caption to PR Photo 03a/99 : This photo shows the ESO 1.52-m telescope, installed since almost 30 years in its dome at the La Silla observatory in the southern Atacama desert. The new FEROS spectrograph is placed in an adjacent, thermally and humidity controlled room in the telescope building (where a classical coudé spectrograph was formerly located). The light is guided from the telescope to the spectrograph by 14-m long optical fibres. Within this programme, a new and powerful spectrograph, known as the Fibre-fed Extended Range Optical Spectrograph (FEROS) , has recently been built by a consortium of European institutes. It was commissioned in late 1998 at the ESO 1.52-m telescope by a small team of astronomers and engineers and has already produced the first, interesting scientific results. FEROS is able to record spectra of comparatively faint stars. For instance, it may be used to measure the chemical composition of stars similar to our Sun at distances of up to about 2,500 light-years, or to study motions in the atmospheres of supergiant stars in the Magellanic Clouds. These satellite galaxies to the Milky Way are more than 150,000 light-years away and can only be observed with telescopes located in the southern hemisphere. First FEROS observations uncover an unusual star ESO PR Photo 03b/99 ESO PR Photo 03b/99 [Preview - JPEG: 800 x 958 pix - 390k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 3594 pix - 1.7M] Caption to PR Photo 03b/99 : This diagramme shows the spectrum of the Lithium rich giant star S50 in the open stellar cluster Be21 , compared to that of a normal giant star ( S156

  13. Galex and Pan-STARRS1 Discovery of SN IIP 2010aq: The First Few Days After Shock Breakout in a Red Supergiant Star

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    present the early UV and optical light curve of Type IIP supernova (SN) 2010aq at z = 0.0862, and compare it to analytical models for thermal emission... supernovae : individual (SN 2010aq) – surveys – ultraviolet: general 1. INTRODUCTION Shock breakout in a core-collapse supernova (SN) marks the first escape...plateau lasting 2 days before fading away from Type IIP SN SNLS- 04D2dc at z = 0.185, two weeks before its discovery in the optical Supernova Legacy

  14. Lifestyles of the Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cocoa Beach, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    Some general information on stars is provided in this National Aeronautics and Space Administration pamphlet. Topic areas briefly discussed are: (1) the birth of a star; (2) main sequence stars; (3) red giants; (4) white dwarfs; (5) neutron stars; (6) supernovae; (7) pulsars; and (8) black holes. (JN)

  15. Egyptian "Star Clocks"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, Sarah

    Diagonal, transit, and Ramesside star clocks are tables of astronomical information occasionally found in ancient Egyptian temples, tombs, and papyri. The tables represent the motions of selected stars (decans and hour stars) throughout the Egyptian civil year. Analysis of star clocks leads to greater understanding of ancient Egyptian constellations, ritual astronomical activities, observational practices, and pharaonic chronology.

  16. A Suzaku X-ray Observation of One Orbit of the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient IGR J16479-4514

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidoli, L.; Esposito, P.; Sguera, V.; Bodaghee, A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Pottschmidt, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Ramano, P.; Wilms, J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a 250 ks long X-ray observation of the supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) IGR J16479-4514 performed with Suzaku in 2012 February. During this observation, about 80% of the short orbital period (P(sub orb) approximates 3.32 days) was covered as continuously as possible for the first time. The source light curve displays variability of more than two orders of magnitude, starting with a very low emission state (10(exp -13) erg / sq cm/s; 1-10 keV) lasting the first 46 ks, consistent with being due to the X-ray eclipse by the supergiant companion. The transition to the uneclipsed X-ray emission is energy dependent. Outside the eclipse, the source spends most of the time at a level of 6-7X10)(exp-12) erg/sq. cm/s) punctuated by two structured faint flares with a duration of about 10 and 15 ks, respectively, reaching a peak flux of 3-4X10(exp -11) erg/sq. cm./S, separated by about 0.2 in orbital phase. Remarkably, the first faint flare occurs at a similar orbital phase of the bright flares previously observed in the system. This indicates the presence of a phase-locked large scale structure in the supergiant wind, driving a higher accretion rate onto the compact object. The average X-ray spectrum is hard and highly absorbed, with a column density, NH, of 10*exp 23)/sq cm, clearly in excess of the interstellar absorption. There is no evidence for variability of the absorbing column density, except that during the eclipse, where a less absorbed X-ray spectrum is observed. A narrow Fe K-alpha emission line at 6.4 keV is viewed along the whole orbit, with an intensity which correlates with the continuum emission above 7 keV. The scattered component visible during the X-ray eclipse allowed us to directly probe the wind density at the orbital separation, resulting in rho(sub w)=7X10(exp -14) g/cubic cm. Assuming a spherical geometry for the supergiant wind, the derived wind density translates into a ratio M(sub w)/v(sub infinity) = 7X10(exp -17) Solar M

  17. IGR J17544-2619 IN DEPTH WITH SUZAKU: DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR CLUMPY WINDS IN A SUPERGIANT FAST X-RAY TRANSIENT

    SciTech Connect

    Rampy, Rachel A.; Smith, David M.; Negueruela, Ignacio

    2009-12-10

    We present direct evidence for dense clumps of matter in the companion wind in a Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient (SFXT) binary. This is seen as a brief period of enhanced absorption during one of the bright, fast flares that distinguish these systems. The object under study was IGR J17544-2619, and a total of 236 ks of data were accumulated with the Japanese satellite Suzaku. The activity in this period spans a dynamic range of almost 10{sup 4} in luminosity and gives a detailed look at SFXT behavior.

  18. Atmospheric parameter determination for massive stars via non-LTE spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieva, M.-F.; Przybilla, N.

    2010-11-01

    We describe a self-consistent spectrum analysis technique employing non-LTE line formation, which allows precise atmospheric parameters of massive stars to be derived: 1σ-uncertainties as low as ~1% in effective temperature and ~0.05-0.10 dex in surface gravity can be achieved. Special emphasis is given to the minimisation of the main sources of systematic errors in the atmospheric model computation, the observed spectra and the quantitative spectral analysis. Examples of applications are discussed for OB-type stars near the main sequence and their evolved progeny, the BA-type supergiants, covering masses of ~8 to 25 M⊙ and a range in effective temperature from ~8000 to 35000 K. Relaxing the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium in stellar spectral synthesis has been shown to be decisive for improving the accuracy of quantitative analyses. Despite the present examples, which concentrate on hot, massive stars, the same philosophy can be applied to line-formation calculations for all types of stars, including cooler objects like the Sun, once the underlying stellar atmospheric physics is reproduced consistently.

  19. Mining the Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL): Fluorescence in Evolved M-Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Nielsen, K. E.; Kober, G. V.; Cheng, K.; Ayres, T. R.; Wahlgren, G. M.; Harper, G.

    2013-01-01

    The "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Cool Stars" (PI = T. Ayres) is an HST Cycle 18 Treasury Program designed to collect a definitive set of representative, high-resolution ( 46,000 in the FUV up to ~1700 Å, 30,000 for 1700-2150 Å, and 114,000 >2150 Å) and high signal/noise (S/N>100) UV spectra of eight F-M evolved cool stars. These extremely high-quality STIS UV echelle spectra are available from the HST archive and through the University of Colorado (http://casa.colorado.edu ayres/ASTRAL/) and will enable investigations of a broad range of problems -- stellar, interstellar, and beyond -- for many years. In this paper, we use the very rich emission-line spectra of the two evolved M stars in the sample, the M3.4 giant Gamma Crucis (GaCrux) and the M2Iab supergiant Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse), to study the fluorescence processes operating in their outer atmospheres. We summarize the pumping transitions and fluorescent line products known on the basis of previous work (e.g. Carpenter 1988 and references therein) and newly identified in our current, on-going analysis and provide some comments on their implications for the structure of the outer atmospheres of these stars.

  20. A comparison of evolutionary tracks for single Galactic massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Palacios, A.

    2013-12-01

    preferred to reproduce the main sequence width. Determinations of surface abundances of carbon and nitrogen are partly inconsistent and cannot be used at present to discriminate between the predictions of published tracks. For stars with initial masses larger than about 60 M⊙, the FRANEC models with rotation can reproduce the observations of luminous O supergiants and WNh stars, while the Geneva models remain too hot. STAREVOL and MESA tracks are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/560/A16

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectral types of stars in Coalsack region (Vanas 1939)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanas, E.

    2010-11-01

    This table shows coordinates and identifications for 1930 stars in northern Cygnus ('Northern Coalsack' region) classified by Erik Vanas in an early spectral survey. In the source paper, the stars were identified by BD number (part I of the catalogue) and by approximate coordinates for fainter non-BD stars (part II of the catalogue). The spectral types were determined from scans of objective-prism plates (~260Å/mm). Accurate coordinates of the BD stars were derived mainly from the Tycho-2 catalogue. The non-BD stars had to be identified one-by-one from DSS images via SkyView, usually unambiguous, and coordinates found in VizieR. For the non-BD stars, the acronym [V39] was used. For pairs or crowded stars, 2MASS positions are sometimes used. Where the type applies to a near-equal double star, the coordinates are for the mid-point between the two stars (rounded to 1" precision), and the magnitude is for the combined light. The original Vanas photo-blue magnitudes are somewhat uncertain, probably including a color term. Instead standard V magnitudes from Tycho-2 or from the TASS MkIV survey (Cat. II/271) are supplied. The Vanas spectral types are formally on the 'Uppsala' system, which includes the strength of the CN band to distinguish dwarfs and giants among types later than G5. These are shown in modern MK notation. The scheme also includes a pseudo-luminosity class for hot stars based largely on the width of the Balmer lines. Since the He lines were not involved in the classification, the system loses resolution (or 'granularity') for types earlier than A0. There is also the danger at this dispersion of mistaking a late-B supergiant for an early-B dwarf. From consideration of his descriptions of the spectra, and also comparison with types from modern sources for the same stars, these 'Greek-lettered' types were transformed in modern notation as: * types 'A0μ' given as A0V * types 'A0σ' and 'A0σ+' given as B8 * types 'B{tau}-' given as B, and are mainly B3 to B

  2. Neutron Stars and NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalerao, Varun

    2012-05-01

    My thesis centers around the study of neutron stars, especially those in massive binary systems. To this end, it has two distinct components: the observational study of neutron stars in massive binaries with a goal of measuring neutron star masses and participation in NuSTAR, the first imaging hard X-ray mission, one that is extremely well suited to the study of massive binaries and compact objects in our Galaxy. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing high energy X-ray telescope to orbit. NuSTAR has an order-of-magnitude better angular resolution and has two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than any currently orbiting hard X-ray telescope. I worked to develop, calibrate, and test CdZnTe detectors for NuSTAR. I describe the CdZnTe detectors in comprehensive detail here - from readout procedures to data analysis. Detailed calibration of detectors is necessary for analyzing astrophysical source data obtained by the NuSTAR. I discuss the design and implementation of an automated setup for calibrating flight detectors, followed by calibration procedures and results. Neutron stars are an excellent probe of fundamental physics. The maximum mass of a neutron star can put stringent constraints on the equation of state of matter at extreme pressures and densities. From an astrophysical perspective, there are several open questions in our understanding of neutron stars. What are the birth masses of neutron stars? How do they change in binary evolution? Are there multiple mechanisms for the formation of neutron stars? Measuring masses of neutron stars helps answer these questions. Neutron stars in high-mass X-ray binaries have masses close to their birth mass, providing an opportunity to disentangle the role of "nature" and "nurture" in the observed mass distributions. In 2006, masses had been measured for only six such objects, but this small sample showed the greatest diversity in masses

  3. Radial-Velocity Analysis of the Post-AGB Star, HD101584

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, F.; Hearnshaw, J.; Rosenzweig, P.; Guzman, E.; Sivarani, T.; Parthasarathy, M.

    2007-08-01

    This project concerns the analysis of the periodicity of the radial velocity of the peculiar emission-line supergiant star HD 101584 (F0 Ia), and also we propose a physical model to account for the observations. From its peculiarities, HD 101584 is a star that is in the post-AGB phase. This study is considered as a key to clarify the multiple aspects related with the evolution of the circum-stellar layer associated with this star's last phase. The star shows many lines with P Cygni profiles, including H-alpha, Na D lines in the IR Ca triplet, indicating a mass outflow. For HD 101584 we have performed a detailed study of its radial-velocity variations, using both emission and absorption lines over a wide range of wavelength. We have analyzed the variability and found a periodicity for all types of lines of 144 days, which must arise from the star's membership in a binary system. The data span a period of five consecutive years and were obtained using the 1-m telescope of Mt John Observatory, in New Zealand., with the echelle and Hercules high resolution spectrographs and CCD camera. HD101584 is known to be an IRAS source, and our model suggests it is a proto-planetary nebula, probably with a bipolar outflow and surrounded by a dusty disk as part of a binary system. We have found no evidence for HD101584 to contain a B9 star as found by Bakker et al (1996). A low resolution IUE spectrum shows the absence of any strong UV continuum that would be expected for a B star to be in this system.

  4. NuSTAR Discovery of a Possible Black Hole HMXB and Cygnus X-1 Progenitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Hailey, Charles James; Zhang, Shuo; Mori, Kaya; Gomez, Sebastian; Hong, Jaesub; Tomsick, John

    2017-01-01

    We report on NuSTAR observations of HD96670, a single line spectroscopic binary in the Carina OB association. We selected this source as a possible BH-HMXB candidate based on its 5.53d orbital period and 0.10 Msun mass function, both similar to Cyg X-1. HD96670 is a O8.5V main sequence star, and if its secondary were a BH, and its O star evolves to a O9Ib star like that in Cyg X-1, it would be high luminosity BH-HXMB. HD96670 is detected as a soft source in RASS and in the XMM slew survey. With a 150 ksec exposure with NuSTAR, we found a best-fit power law spectrum with photon index 2.4 - 2.6 and factor of ~2 variability. The mean Lx ~ 5 x 10^32 (5 - 30 keV) is consistent with that expected for accretion from the weak wind that late-type main sequence O stars usually show for plausible assumptions for the secondary if it is a ~5Msun BH. In the poster by Gomez and Grindlay, we show the detailed photometry and spectroscopy and PHOEBE modelling which point to the secondary indeed being a 5 Msun object, either an accreting BH or possibly a B8V star for which the X-ray spectrum would be expected to not show the hard PL component. Additional X-ray observations at or near the optically determined phase of inferiour vs. superior conjunction will resolve the nature of the secondary. If it is indeed a BH, this points the way to a much larger population of low-luminosity (Weak Wind) BH-LMXBs, with longer lifetimes, than the presently explored systems which all (but one) have super-giant donors.

  5. Massive stars dying alone: Extremely remote environments of SN2009ip and SN2010jp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan

    2014-10-01

    We propose an imaging study of the astonishingly remote environments of two recent supernovae (SNe): SN2009ip and SN2010jp. Both were unusual Type IIn explosions that crashed into dense circumstellar material (CSM) ejected by the star shortly before explosion. The favored progenitors of these SNe are very massive luminous blue variable (LBV) stars. In fact, SN2009ip presents an extraordinay case where the LBV-like progenitor was actually detected directly in archival HST data, and where we obtained spectra and photometry for numerous pre-SN eruptions. No other SN has this treasure trove of detailed information about the progenitor (not even SN1987A). SN2010jp represents a possible collapsar-powered event, since it showed evidence of a fast bipolar jet in spectra and a low 56Ni mass; this would be an analog of the black-hole forming explosions that cause gamma ray bursts, but where the relativistic jet is damped by a residual H envelope on the star. In both cases, the only viable models for these SNe involve extremely massive (initial masses of 40-100 Msun) progenitor stars. This seems at odds with their extremely remote environments in the far outskirts of their host galaxies, with no detected evidence for an underlying massive star population in ground-based data (nor in the single shallow WFPC2/F606W image of SN2009ip). Here we propose deep UV HST images to search for any mid/late O-type stars nearby, deep red images to detect any red supergiants, and an H-alpha image to search for any evidence of ongoing star formation in the vicinity. These observations will place important and demanding constraints on the initial masses and ages of these progenitors.

  6. SURVEYING THE AGENTS OF GALAXY EVOLUTION IN THE TIDALLY STRIPPED, LOW METALLICITY SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD (SAGE-SMC). II. COOL EVOLVED STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Martha L.; Meixner, Margaret; Gordon, Karl D.; Shiao, Bernie; Srinivasan, Sundar; Van Loon, Jacco Th.; McDonald, Iain; Kemper, F.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Block, Miwa; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Misselt, Karl; Babler, Brian; Bracker, Steve; Meade, Marilyn; Whitney, Barbara; Hora, Joe; Robitaille, Thomas; Indebetouw, Remy; Sewilo, Marta

    2011-10-15

    We investigate the infrared (IR) properties of cool, evolved stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), including the red giant branch (RGB) stars and the dust-producing red supergiant (RSG) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars using observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy program entitled 'Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity SMC', or SAGE-SMC. The survey includes, for the first time, full spatial coverage of the SMC bar, wing, and tail regions at IR wavelengths (3.6-160 {mu}m). We identify evolved stars using a combination of near-IR and mid-IR photometry and point out a new feature in the mid-IR color-magnitude diagram that may be due to particularly dusty O-rich AGB stars. We find that the RSG and AGB stars each contribute {approx}20% of the global SMC flux (extended + point-source) at 3.6 {mu}m, which emphasizes the importance of both stellar types to the integrated flux of distant metal-poor galaxies. The equivalent SAGE survey of the higher-metallicity Large Magellanic Cloud (SAGE-LMC) allows us to explore the influence of metallicity on dust production. We find that the SMC RSG stars are less likely to produce a large amount of dust (as indicated by the [3.6] - [8] color). There is a higher fraction of carbon-rich stars in the SMC, and these stars appear to reach colors as red as their LMC counterparts, indicating that C-rich dust forms efficiently in both galaxies. A preliminary estimate of the dust production in AGB and RSG stars reveals that the extreme C-rich AGB stars dominate the dust input in both galaxies, and that the O-rich stars may play a larger role in the LMC than in the SMC.

  7. Are Ultra-long Gamma-Ray Bursts Caused by Blue Supergiant Collapsars, Newborn Magnetars, or White Dwarf Tidal Disruption Events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioka, Kunihito; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-12-01

    Ultra-long gamma-ray bursts (ulGRBs) are a new population of GRBs with extreme durations of ∼104 s. Leading candidates for their origin are blue supergiant collapsars, magnetars, and white dwarf tidal disruption events (WD-TDEs) caused by massive black holes (BHs). Recent observations of supernova-like (SN-like) bumps associated with ulGRBs challenged both the WD-TDE and the blue supergiant models because of the detection of SNe and the absence of hydrogen lines, respectively. We propose that WD-TDEs can accommodate the observed SN-like bumps if the fallback WD matter releases energy into the unbound WD ejecta. The observed ejecta energy, luminosity, and velocity are explained by the gravitational energy, Eddington luminosity, and escape velocity of the formed accretion disk, respectively. We also show that the observed X-rays can ionize the ejecta, eliminating lines. The SN-like light curves (SN 2011kl) for the ulGRB 111209A are consistent with all three models, although a magnetar model is unnatural because the spin-down time required to power the SN-like bump is a hundred times longer than the GRB. Our results imply that TDEs are a possible energy source for SN-like events in general and for ulGRBs in particular.

  8. Recent results on the connection between massive stars and supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, D. John

    2015-08-01

    With the dramatic increase in observational data on supernovae (SNe), SN studies are undergoing a renaissance. It is known that Type II SN IIP arise from the explosion of a red supergiant (RSG). In several cases the RSG is seen in pre-explosion images, but it is absent in post-SN images — unambiguous proof that the RSG has exploded. Surprisingly, all RSG progenitors identified have a mass less than approximately 20 M⊙. To date, there has been no direct detection of the progenitor of a Type Ib or Ic SN. Because their ejecta masses are generally low (3 to 5 M⊙), these SNe are believed to arise from a relatively low mass star in a binary system. Such systems dominate the statistics due to the initial mass function. The broad-lined Ic SNe tend to have higher mass, and some of these may be associated with classic Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars. Type IIn SNe are a heterogeneous class of SN — they arise when the SN ejecta interacts with preexisting circumstellar material. Their spectra often exhibit narrow emission lines, and they can be particularly luminous due to the efficient conversion of kinetic energy into radiation. The origin of Type IIn SN and their connection to stellar evolution is the subject of fierce debate and controversy. The final class to be discussed are the pair-instability supernovae (PISNe) which arise from a nuclear detonation. PISNe have a distinct chemical signature, and the observational evidence for the existence of this class of SN is ambiguous and controversial. While much progress has been made, it is still difficult to get models of core-collapse SNe to explode from first principles. The problem is inherently 3D and numerous questions remain unanswered. How much material falls back onto the core? What is the nature and extent of mixing in the ejecta? What are the chemical yields? Do all massive stars end their life as a luminous SN?

  9. High-precision atmospheric parameter and abundance determination of massive stars, and consequences for stellar and Galactic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieva, Maria-Fernanda; Przybilla, Norbert; Irrgang, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    The derivation of high precision/accuracy parameters and chemical abundances of massive stars is of utmost importance to the fields of stellar evolution and Galactic chemical evolution. We concentrate on the study of OB-type stars near the main sequence and their evolved progeny, the BA-type supergiants, covering masses of ~6 to 25 solar masses and a range in effective temperature from ~8000 to 35 000 K. The minimization of the main sources of systematic errors in the atmospheric model computation, the observed spectra and the quantitative spectral analysis play a critical role in the final results. Our self-consistent spectrum analysis technique employing a robust non-LTE line formation allows precise atmospheric parameters of massive stars to be derived, achieving 1σ-uncertainties as low as 1% in effective temperature and ~0.05-0.10 dex in surface gravity. Consequences on the behaviour of the chemical elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are discussed here in the context of massive star evolution and Galactic chemical evolution, showing tight relations covered in previous work by too large statistical and systematic uncertainties. The spectral analysis of larger star samples, like from the upcoming Gaia-ESO survey, may benefit from these findings.

  10. CCD star trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goss, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The application of CCDs to star trackers and star mappers is considered. Advantages and disadvantages of silicon CCD star trackers are compared with those of image dissector star trackers. It is concluded that the CCD has adequate sensitivity for most single star tracking tasks and is distinctly superior in multiple star tracking or mapping applications. The signal and noise figures of several current CCD configurations are discussed. The basic structure of the required signal processing is described, and it is shown that resolution in excess of the number of CCD elements may be had by interpolation.

  11. The Millennium Star Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnott, R. W.

    1997-08-01

    Derived from Hipparcos and Tycho observations, the Millennium Star Atlas is a set of 1548 charts covering the entire sky to about magnitude 11. It stands apart from all previous printed atlases in completeness to magnitude 10 and in uniformity around the sky. The generous chart scale has made possible a number of innovations never before seen in a star atlas: arrows on high-proper-motion stars, double-star ticks conveying separation and position angle for a specific modern epoch, distance labels for nearby stars, and variable stars coded by amplitude, period, and type. Among the nonstellar objects plotted, more than 8000 galaxies are shown with aspect ratio and orientation.

  12. Kinematic Masses of Super-Star Clusters in M82 from High-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrady, Nate; Gilbert, Andrea M.; Graham, James R.

    2003-10-01

    Using high-resolution (R~22,000) near-infrared (1.51-1.75 μm) spectra from Keck Observatory, we measure the kinematic masses of two super-star clusters in M82. Cross-correlation of the spectra with template spectra of cool evolved stars gives stellar velocity dispersions of σr=15.9+/-0.8 km s-1 for J0955505+694045 (MGG-9) and σr=11.4+/-0.8 km s-1 for J0955502+694045 (MGG-11). The cluster spectra are dominated by the light of red supergiants and correlate most closely with template supergiants of spectral types M0 and M4.5. King model fits to the observed profiles of the clusters in archival Hubble Space Telescope/Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectometer images give half-light radii of rhp=2.6+/-0.4 pc for MGG-9 and rhp=1.2+/-0.17 pc for MGG-11. Applying the virial theorem, we determine masses of 1.5+/-0.3×106 Msolar for MGG-9 and 3.5+/-0.7×105 Msolar for MGG-11 (where the quoted errors include σr, rhp, and the distance). Population synthesis modeling suggests that MGG-9 is consistent with a standard initial mass function (IMF), whereas MGG-11 appears to be deficient in low-mass stars relative to a standard IMF. There is, however, evidence of mass segregation in the clusters, in which case the virial mass estimates would represent lower limits. Based on observations made at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  13. Estimation of Mass-Loss Rates from Emission Line Profiles in the UV Spectra of Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. G.; Robinson, R. D.; Harper, G. M.

    1999-01-01

    The photon-scattering winds of cool, low-gravity stars (K-M giants and supergiants) produce absorption features in the strong chromospheric emission lines. This provides us with an opportunity to assess important parameters of the wind, including flow and turbulent velocities, the optical depth of the wind above the region of photon creation, and the star's mass-loss rate. We have used the Lamers et al. Sobolev with Exact Integration (SEI) radiative transfer code along with simple models of the outer atmospheric structure to compute synthetic line profiles for comparison with the observed line profiles. The SEI code has the advantage of being computationally fast and allows a great number of possible wind models to be examined. We therefore use it here to obtain initial first-order estimates of the wind parameters. More sophisticated, but more time-consuming and resource intensive calculations will be performed at a later date, using the SEI-deduced wind parameters as a starting point. A comparison of the profiles over a range of wind velocity laws, turbulence values, and line opacities allows us to constrain the wind parameters, and to estimate the mass-loss rates. We have applied this analysis technique (using lines of Mg II, 0 I, and Fe II) so far to four stars: the normal K5-giant alpha Tau, the hybrid K-giant gamma Dra, the K5 supergiant lambda Vel, and the M-giant gamma Cru. We present in this paper a description of the technique, including the assumptions which go into its use, an assessment of its robustness, and the results of our analysis.

  14. High resolution spectroscopy of the high latitude rapidly evolving post-AGB star SAO 85766 (= IRAS 18062+2410)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, M.; García-Lario, P.; Sivarani, T.; Manchado, A.; Sanz Fernández de Córdoba, L.

    2000-05-01

    SAO 85766 (b = +20o) is an IRAS source with far-infrared colours similar to planetary nebulae. According to the HDE catalogue, its spectrum in 1940 was that of an A5 star. The UV fluxes and colours derived from data obtained by the TD1 satellite in 1972 also indicate that SAO 85766 was an A-type supergiant at that epoch. However, high resolution spectra of SAO 85766 obtained in 1993 in the wavelength interval 4350Ä to 8820Ä shows that now it is similar to that of an early B type post-AGB supergiant. In addition to the absorptions lines typical of a B1I type star, the spectrum of SAO 85766 is found to show numerous permitted and forbidden emission lines of several elements, typically observed in the spectra of young high density low excitation planetary nebulae. From an analysis of the absorption lines we have estimated Teff=22000+/-500 K, log g=3.0+/-0.5, xi t=15+/-2km s-1 and [M/H]=-0.6. Carbon is found to be strongly underabundant ([C/Fe] = -1.0), similarly to what has been observed in other high galactic latitude hot post-AGB stars. The underabundance of carbon and metals, high galactic latitude, high radial velocity (46 km s-1), the presence of planetary nebula type detached cold circumstellar dust shell and also the presence of low excitation nebular emission lines in the spectrum indicate that SAO 85766 is a low mass star in the post-AGB stage of evolution. The above mentioned characteristics and the variations observed in the spectrum of SAO 85766 suggest that it has rapidly evolved during the past 50 years and it is now in the early stages of the planetary nebula phase. The central star may just have become hot enough to photoionize the circumstellar envelope ejected during the previous AGB phase. >From an analysis of the nebular emission lines we find Te=10000+/- 500K and Ne=2.5 104 cm-3. The nebula also shows an abundance pattern similar to that of the central star. The rapid post-AGB evolution of SAO 85766 appears to be similar to that observed in the

  15. The donor star of the X-ray pulsar X1908+075

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Núñez, S.; Sander, A.; Gímenez-García, A.; Gónzalez-Galán, A.; Torrejón, J. M.; Gónzalez-Fernández, C.; Hamann, W.-R.

    2015-06-01

    High-mass X-ray binaries consist of a massive donor star and a compact object. While several of those systems have been well studied in X-rays, little is known for most of the donor stars as they are often heavily obscured in the optical and ultraviolet regime. There is an opportunity to observe them at infrared wavelengths, however. The goal of this study is to obtain the stellar and wind parameters of the donor star in the X1908+075 high-mass X-ray binary system with a stellar atmosphere model to check whether previous studies from X-ray observations and spectral morphology lead to a sufficient description of the donor star. We obtained H- and K-band spectra of X1908+075 and analysed them with the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) model atmosphere code. For the first time, we calculated a stellar atmosphere model for the donor star, whose main parameters are: Mspec = 15 ± 6 M⊙, T∗ = 23-3+6 kK, log geff = 3.0 ± 0.2 and log L/L⊙ = 4.81 ± 0.25. The obtained parameters point towards an early B-type (B0-B3) star, probably in a supergiant phase. Moreover we determined a more accurate distance to the system of 4.85 ± 0.50 kpc than the previously reported value. Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Extinction in the Star Cluster SAI 113 and Galactic Structure in Carina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, Giovanni; Turner, David G.; Majaess, Daniel J.; Baume, Gustavo L.; Gamen, Roberto; Molina Lera, José A.

    2017-04-01

    Photometric CCD UB VI C photometry obtained for 4860 stars surrounding the embedded southern cluster SAI 113 (Skiff 8) is used to examine the reddening in the field and derive the distance to the cluster and nearby van Genderen 1. Spectroscopic color excesses for bright cluster stars, photometric reddenings for A3 dwarfs, and dereddening of cluster stars imply that the reddening and extinction laws match results derived for other young clusters in Carina: {E}U-B/{E}B-V≃ 0.64 and {R}V≃ 4. SAI 113 displays features that may be linked to a history of dynamical interactions among member stars: possible circumstellar reddening and rapid rotation of late B-type members, ringlike features in star density, and a compact core, with most stars distributed randomly across the field. The group van Genderen 1 resembles a stellar asterism, with potential members distributed randomly across the field. Distances of 3.90 ± 0.19 kpc and 2.49 ± 0.09 kpc are derived for SAI 113 and van Genderen 1, respectively, with variable reddenings {E}B-V ranging from 0.84 to 1.29 and 0.23 to 1.28. The SRC variables CK Car and EV Car may be outlying members of van Genderen 1, thereby of use for calibrating the period–luminosity relation for pulsating M supergiants. More importantly, the anomalous reddening and extinction evident in Carina and nearby regions of the Galactic plane in the fourth quadrant impact the mapping of spiral structure from young open clusters. The distribution of spiral arms in the fourth quadrant may be significantly different from how it is often portrayed.

  17. Astrophysics: Stars fight back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.

    2014-12-01

    Galaxies contain fewer stars than predicted. The discovery of a massive galactic outflow of molecular gas in a compact galaxy, which forms stars 100 times faster than the Milky Way, may help to explain why. See Letter p.68

  18. Star Formation in Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: star formation; galactic infrared emission; molecular clouds; OB star luminosity; dust grains; IRAS observations; galactic disks; stellar formation in Magellanic clouds; irregular galaxies; spiral galaxies; starbursts; morphology of galactic centers; and far-infrared observations.

  19. Dibaryons in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olinto, Angela V.; Haensel, Pawel; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects are studied of H-dibaryons on the structure of neutron stars. It was found that H particles could be present in neutron stars for a wide range of dibaryon masses. The appearance of dibaryons softens the equations of state, lowers the maximum neutron star mass, and affects the transport properties of dense matter. The parameter space is constrained for dibaryons by requiring that a 1.44 solar mass neutron star be gravitationally stable.

  20. Chromospheres of Coronal Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.

    1996-01-01

    We summarize the main results obtained from the analysis of ultraviolet emission line profiles of coronal late-type stars observed with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The excellent GHRS spectra provide new information on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena in the chromospheres and transition regions of these stars. One exciting new result is the discovery of broad components in the transition region lines of active stars that we believe provide evidence for microflare heating in these stars.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Far-UV spectral atlas of O-type stars (Smith, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a spectral atlas covering the wavelength interval 930-1188Å for O2-O9.5 stars using Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer archival data. The stars selected for the atlas were drawn from three populations: Galactic main-sequence (classes III-V) stars, supergiants, and main-sequence stars in the Magellanic Clouds, which have low metallicities. For several of these stars, we have prepared FITS files comprised of pairs of merged spectra for user access via the Multimission Archive at Space Telescope (MAST). We chose spectra from the first population with spectral types O4, O5, O6, O7, O8, and O9.5 and used them to compile tables and figures with identifications of all possible atmospheric and interstellar medium lines in the region 949-1188Å. Our identified line totals for these six representative spectra are 821 (500), 992 (663), 1077 (749), 1178 (847), 1359 (1001), and 1798 (1392) lines, respectively, where the numbers in parentheses are the totals of lines formed in the atmospheres, according to spectral synthesis models. The total number of unique atmospheric identifications for the six main-sequence O-star template spectra is 1792, whereas the number of atmospheric lines in common to these spectra is 300. The number of identified lines decreases toward earlier types (increasing effective temperature), while the percentages of "missed" features (unknown lines not predicted from our spectral syntheses) drop from a high of 8% at type B0.2, from our recently published B-star far-UV atlas (Cat. J/ApJS/186/175), to 1%-3% for type O spectra. The percentages of overpredicted lines are similar, despite their being much higher for B-star spectra. (4 data files).

  2. THE DUST BUDGET OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD: ARE ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS THE PRIMARY DUST SOURCE AT LOW METALLICITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, M. L.; Gordon, K. D.; Meixner, M.; Sargent, B. A.; Srinivasan, S.; Riebel, D.; McDonald, I.; Van Loon, J. Th.; Clayton, G. C.; Sloan, G. C.

    2012-03-20

    We estimate the total dust input from the cool evolved stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud, using the 8 {mu}m excess emission as a proxy for the dust-production rate (DPR). We find that asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars produce (8.6-9.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} of dust, depending on the fraction of far-infrared sources that belong to the evolved star population (with 10%-50% uncertainty in individual DPRs). RSGs contribute the least (<4%), while carbon-rich AGB stars (especially the so-called extreme AGB stars) account for 87%-89% of the total dust input from cool evolved stars. We also estimate the dust input from hot stars and supernovae (SNe), and find that if SNe produce 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} of dust each, then the total SN dust input and AGB input are roughly equivalent. We consider several scenarios of SN dust production and destruction and find that the interstellar medium (ISM) dust can be accounted for solely by stellar sources if all SNe produce dust in the quantities seen around the dustiest examples and if most SNe explode in dense regions where much of the ISM dust is shielded from the shocks. We find that AGB stars contribute only 2.1% of the ISM dust. Without a net positive contribution from SNe to the dust budget, this suggests that dust must grow in the ISM or be formed by another unknown mechanism.

  3. America's Star Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  4. The C-12/C-13 ratio in stellar atmospheres. VI - Five luminous cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkle, K. H.; Lambert, D. L.; Snell, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    A simple curve-of-growth technique is described for extracting the C-12/C-13 ratio for M stars from high-resolution spectra of CO infrared vibration-rotation lines. The technique is applied to the CO lines at 1.6 and 2.3 microns in spectra of two M supergiants (Alpha Ori and Alpha Sco), two M giants (Alpha Her and Beta Peg), and a Mira-type variable (Chi Cyg). As a check on the CO analysis, the C-12/C-13 ratio is derived from the red CN system at 8000 A for Alpha Sco, Alpha Ori, and Beta Peg. The CO analysis is also applied to the K giant Alpha Boo as a check. The CN and CO results are found to be in general agreement, and the C-12/C-13 ratio in all the examined stars is shown to be considerably lower than the solar-system value. It is suggested that these stars were formed from clouds with a C-12/C-13 ratio of 40 to 89 and that their atmospheres now exhibit an enhancement of C-13 abundance due to internal production and mixing to the surface.

  5. A new method for measuring metallicities of young super star clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Gazak, J. Zachary; Kudritzki, Rolf; Bresolin, Fabio; Davies, Ben; Bastian, Nate; Bergemann, Maria; Plez, Bertrand; Evans, Chris; Patrick, Lee; Schinnerer, Eva

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate how the metallicities of young super star clusters (SSC) can be measured using novel spectroscopic techniques in the J-band. The near-infrared flux of SSCs older than ∼6 Myr is dominated by tens to hundreds of red supergiant stars. Our technique is designed to harness the integrated light of that population and produces accurate metallicities for new observations in galaxies above (M83) and below (NGC 6946) solar metallicity. In M83 we find [Z] = +0.28 ± 0.14 dex using a moderate resolution (R ∼ 3500) J-band spectrum and in NGC 6496 we report [Z] = -0.32 ± 0.20 dex from a low resolution spectrum of R ∼ 1800. Recently commissioned low resolution multiplexed spectrographs on the Very Large Telescope (KMOS) and Keck (MOSFIRE) will allow accurate measurements of SSC metallicities across the disks of star-forming galaxies up to distances of 70 Mpc with single night observation campaigns using the method presented in this paper.

  6. Large-scale asymmetries in the winds of (binary) AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A.; Jorissen, A.; Kerschbaum, F.; Ottensamer, R.; Nowotny, W.; Aringer, B.; Paladini, C.; Mecina, M.; Pourbaix, D.; Groenewegen, M.; Mohamed, S.

    2014-04-01

    Observations of 78 Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars and Red Supergiants were carried out with the PACS photometer on-board Herschel as part of the MESS (Mass loss of Evolved StarS) program. For about 60% of these objects, the dusty wind differs from spherically symmetric and reveals a complex morphology. The majority of these asymmetries are caused by a rather simple incident, the interaction of the stellar wind with the interstellar medium. A bow shock is formed in direction of the stellar motion where the two media interact. However, also much more irregular shapes are encountered in the sample. These structures are often related to the binarity of the stellar system. Accreted material by the companion can cause nova outbursts or bipolar outflows which are relatively common. A rather rare encounter are Archimedean spirals that are imprinted in the wind which are now found for a handful of objects, among W Aquilae observed with Herschel and R Sculptoris with ALMA. The most complicated structures in the MESS sample indicate the interplay of multiple interacting influences. A prominent case is o Ceti (Mira). Its exceptionally high space motion produces a strong bow shock and its white dwarf companion drags an Archimedean spiral into the deformed stellar wind bubble and pierces it with a fast bipolar outflow.

  7. An Empirical UBV RI JHK Color-Temperature Calibration for Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthey, Guy; Lee, Hyun-chul

    2011-03-01

    A collection of Johnson/Cousins photometry for stars with known [Fe/H] is used to generate color-color relations that include the abundance dependence. Literature temperature and bolometric correction (BC) dependences are attached to the color relations. The JHK colors are transformed to the Bessell & Brett homogenized system. The main result of this work is the tabulation of seven colors and the V-band BC as a function of T eff, log g, and [Fe/H] for -1.06 < V - K < 10.2 and an accompanying interpolation program. Improvements to the present calibration would involve filling photometry gaps, obtaining more accurate and on-system photometry, knowing better log g and [Fe/H] values, improving the statistics for data-impoverished groups of stars such as metal-poor K dwarfs, applying small tweaks in the processing pipeline, and obtaining better empirical temperature and BC relations, especially for supergiants and M stars. A way to estimate dust extinction from M dwarf colors is pointed out.

  8. AN EMPIRICAL UBV RI JHK COLOR-TEMPERATURE CALIBRATION FOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Worthey, Guy; Lee, Hyun-chul

    2011-03-15

    A collection of Johnson/Cousins photometry for stars with known [Fe/H] is used to generate color-color relations that include the abundance dependence. Literature temperature and bolometric correction (BC) dependences are attached to the color relations. The JHK colors are transformed to the Bessell and Brett homogenized system. The main result of this work is the tabulation of seven colors and the V-band BC as a function of T {sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H] for -1.06 < V - K < 10.2 and an accompanying interpolation program. Improvements to the present calibration would involve filling photometry gaps, obtaining more accurate and on-system photometry, knowing better log g and [Fe/H] values, improving the statistics for data-impoverished groups of stars such as metal-poor K dwarfs, applying small tweaks in the processing pipeline, and obtaining better empirical temperature and BC relations, especially for supergiants and M stars. A way to estimate dust extinction from M dwarf colors is pointed out.

  9. Radiative Feedback from Primordial Protostars and Final Mass of the First Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki; Yorke, Harold W.

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution, we review our efforts toward understanding the typical mass-scale of primordial stars. Our direct numerical simulations show that, in both of Population III.1 and III.2 cases, strong UV stellar radiative feedback terminatesmass accretion onto a protostar.AnHII region formed around the protostar very dynamically expands throughout the gas accreting envelope, which cuts off the gas supply to a circumstellar disk. The disk is exposed to the stellar UV radiation and loses its mass by photoevaporation. The derived final masses are 43 Stellar Mass and 17 Stellar Mass in our fiducial Population III.1 and III.2 cases. Much more massive stars should form in other exceptional conditions. In atomic-cooling halos where H2 molecules are dissociated, for instance, a protostar grows via very rapid mass accretion with the rates M* approx. 0.1 - 1 Stellar Mass/yr. Our newstellar evolution calculations show that the protostar significantly inflates and never contracts to reach the ZAMS stage in this case. Such the "supergiant protostars" have very low UV luminosity, which results in weak radiative feedback against the accretion flow. In the early universe, supermassive stars formed through this process might provide massive seeds of supermassive black holes.

  10. High-dispersion spectroscopy of two A supergiant systems in the Small Magellanic Cloud with novel properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennickent, R. E.; Smith, M. A.

    2010-09-01

    We present the results of a spectroscopic investigation of two novel variable bright blue stars in the SMC, OGLE004336.91-732637.7 (SMC-SC3) and the periodically occulted star OGLE004633.76-731204.3 (SMC-SC4), whose photometric properties were reported by Mennickent et al. (2010). High-resolution spectra in the optical and far-UV show that both objects are actually A + B type binaries. Three spectra of SMC-SC4 show radial velocity variations, consistent with the photometric period of 184.26 d found in Mennickent et al. 2010. The optical spectra of the metallic lines in both systems show combined absorption and emission components that imply that they are formed in a flattened envelope. A comparison of the radial velocity variations in SMC-SC4 and the separation of the V and R emission components in the Hα emission profile indicate that this envelope, and probably also the envelope around SMC-SC3, is a circumbinary disc with a characteristic orbital radius some three times the radius of the binary system. The optical spectra of SMC-SC3 and SMC-SC4 show, respectively, HeI emission lines and discrete blue absorption components (BACs) in metallic lines. The high excitations of the HeI lines in the SMC-SC3 spectrum and the complicated variations of FeII emission and absorption components with orbital phase in the spectrum of SMC-SC4 suggests that shocks occur between the winds and various static regions of the stars' corotating binary-disc complexes. We suggest that BACs arise from wind shocks from the A star impacting the circumbinary disc and a stream of former wind-efflux from the B star accreting on to the A star. The latter picture is broadly similar to mass transfer occurring in the more evolved (but less massive) ALGOL (B/A + K) systems, except that we envision transfer occurring in the other direction and not through the inner Lagrangian point. Accordingly, we dub these objects prototype of a small group of Magellanic Cloud wind-interacting A + B binaries.

  11. Star field simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A Star Field Simulator has been developed to serve as a source of radiation for the ASTRO Star Tracker. The star tracker and simulator are components of a motion compensation test facility located at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Preflight tests and simulations using various levels of guide stars are performed in the test facility to establish performance of the motion compensation system before being used in a flight environment. The ASTRO Star Tracker operates over a wide dynamic range of irradiance corresponding to visual stellar magnitudes of -0.8 to 8. A minimum of three simulated guide stars with variable magnitudes are needed to fully test the Star Tracker performance under simulated mission conditions.

  12. Ponderable soliton stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The theory of Lee and Pang (1987), who obtained solutions for soliton stars composed of zero-temperature fermions and bosons, is applied here to quark soliton stars. Model soliton stars based on a simple physical model of the proton are computed, and the properties of the solitons are discussed, including the important problem of the existence of a limiting mass and thus the possible formation of black holes of primordial origin. It is shown that there is a definite mass limit for ponderable soliton stars, so that during cooling a soliton star might reach a stage beyond which no equilibrium configuration exists and the soliton star probably will collapse to become a black hole. The radiation of ponderable soliton stars may alter the short-wavelength character of the cosmic background radiation, and may be observed as highly redshifted objects at z of about 100,000.

  13. Spectroscopy of the M Supergiant α Ori in the 1 2.5 μm Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundqvist, Martin; Wahlgren, Glenn

    The study of elemental abundances in cool stars via atomic lines in the optical region is made di.cult by stellar molecular absorption. At infrared wavelengths this problem is diminished, but ground-based observations suffer from absorption by the earth’s atmosphere. Fortunately, there are spectral windows through which we can observe. We have explored several such windows in the spectral region from 1 2.5 μm, coinciding with the wavelength domain of the new VLT instrument CRIRES, for atomic lines suitable for the study of cool luminous stars, in particular α Ori (M2Iab). We present preliminary results from this search along with our first results on abundances of iron and the weak s-process elements Sr, Y, Zr.

  14. Tracking down R Coronae Borealis stars from their mid-infrared WISE colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisserand, P.

    2012-03-01

    Context. R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) are hydrogen-deficient and carbon-rich supergiant stars. They are very rare, with only ~50 actually known in our Galaxy. Interestingly, RCBs are strongly suspected of being the evolved merger product of two white dwarfs and could therefore be an important tool for understanding supernovae type Ia in the double degenerate scenario. Constraints on the spatial distribution and the formation rate of such stars are needed to picture their origin and test it in the context of actual population synthesis results. Aims: It is crucial to increase the number of known RCBs significantly. With an absolute magnitude MV ~ -5 and a bright/hot circumstellar shell made of amorphous carbon grains, RCBs are so distinctive that we should nowadays be able to find them everywhere in our Galaxy using publicly available catalogues. In the optical, the search is difficult because RCBs are known to undergo unpredictable photometric declines; however, mono-epoch mid-infrared data can help us to discriminate RCBs among other dust-producing stars. The aim is to produce from the mid-infrared WISE and near-infrared 2MASS catalogues a new catalogue of reasonable size, enriched with RCB stars. Methods: Colour-colour cuts used on all stars detected are the main selection criteria. The selection efficiency was monitored using the 52 known RCBs located in the sky area covered by the WISE first preliminary data release. Results: It has been found that selection cuts in mid-infrared colour-colour diagrams are a very efficient method of distinguishing RCBs from other stars. An RCB enriched catalogue made of only 1602 stars was produced, with a high detection efficiency of about 77%. Spectral energy distributions of 49 known RCBs and 5 known HdCs are also presented with estimates of their photosphere and circumstellar shell temperatures. Conclusions: The newly released WISE all sky catalogue has proven to be a valuable resource in finding RCB stars. Actual

  15. Toward Connecting Core-Collapse Supernova Theory with Observations: Nucleosynthetic Yields and Distribution of Elements in a 15 M⊙ Blue Supergiant Progenitor with SN 1987A Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plewa, Tomasz; Handy, Timothy; Odrzywolek, Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    We compute and discuss the process of nucleosynthesis in a series of core-collapse explosion models of a 15 solar mass, blue supergiant progenitor. We obtain nucleosynthetic yields and study the evolution of the chemical element distribution from the moment of core bounce until young supernova remnant phase. Our models show how the process of energy deposition due to radioactive decay modifies the dynamics and the core ejecta structure on small and intermediate scales. The results are compared against observations of young supernova remnants including Cas A and the recent data obtained for SN 1987A. The work has been supported by the NSF grant AST-1109113 and DOE grant DE-FG52-09NA29548. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, which is supported by the U.S. DoE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  16. CARBON CHEMISTRY IN THE ENVELOPE OF VY CANIS MAJORIS: IMPLICATIONS FOR OXYGEN-RICH EVOLVED STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Ziurys, L. M.; Tenenbaum, E. D.; Pulliam, R. L.; Woolf, N. J.; Milam, S. N. E-mail: emilyt@as.arizona.edu E-mail: nwoolf@as.arizona.edu

    2009-04-20

    Observations of the carbon-bearing molecules CO, HCN, CS, HNC, CN, and HCO{sup +} have been conducted toward the circumstellar envelope of the oxygen-rich red supergiant star, VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa), using the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO). CO and HCN were also observed toward the O-rich shells of NML Cyg, TX Cam, IK Tau, and W Hya. Rotational transitions of these species at 1 mm, 0.8 mm, and 0.4 mm were measured with the ARO Submillimeter Telescope, including the J = 6 {yields} 5 line of CO at 691 GHz toward TX Cam and W Hya. The ARO 12 m was used for 2 mm and 3 mm observations. Four transitions were observed for HCO{sup +} in VY CMa, the first definitive identification of this ion in a circumstellar envelope. Molecular line profiles from VY CMa are complex, indicating three separate outflows: a roughly spherical flow and separate red- and blueshifted winds, as suggested by earlier observations. Spectra from the other sources appear to trace a single outflow component. The line data were modeled with a radiative transfer code to establish molecular abundances relative to H{sub 2} and source distributions. Abundances for CO derived for these objects vary over an order of magnitude, f {approx} 0.4-5 x 10{sup -4}, with the lower values corresponding to the supergiants. For HCN, a similar range in abundance is found (f {approx} 0.9-9 x 10{sup -6}), with no obvious dependence on the mass-loss rate. In VY CMa, HCO{sup +} is present in all three outflows with f {approx} 0.4-1.6 x 10{sup -8} and a spatial extent similar to that of CO. HNC is found only in the red- and blueshifted components with [HCN]/[HNC] {approx} 150-190, while [CN]/[HCN] {approx} 0.01 in the spherical flow. All three velocity components are traced in CS, which has a confined spatial distribution and f {approx} 2-6 x 10{sup -7}. These observations suggest that carbon-bearing molecules in O-rich shells are produced by a combination of photospheric shocks and photochemistry. Shocks may play a more

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: DIB and NaD spectra of 3 nearby stars (Kohl+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, S.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-05-01

    The present data collection contains coadded spectra of tau Boo, HD 33608 and alpha CrB. This data was used to obtain the equivalent widths of interstellar features. The spectra show the wavelength regions around the Na D lines and around 5780Å. The latter location corresponds to a wavelength range where a strong diffuse interstellar band (DIB) is found in the spectrum of the early-type supergiant HD 183143. Each single spectrum has been corrected for telluric absorption and the wavelength axis has been shifted to the barycentric reference frame. However, the data has not been corrected for radial velocity of the star. The spectra have been acquired at the 1.2m Tigre telescope located in La Luz, Mexico. The spectral resolution of the HEROS spectrograph is 20000. A detailed description of the spectra is given in the aforementioned paper. (2 data files).

  18. Massive Compact Stars as Quark Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Hilário; Barbosa Duarte, Sérgio; de Oliveira, José Carlos T.

    2011-03-01

    High-mass compact stars have been reported recently in the literature, providing strong constraints on the properties of the ultra dense matter beyond the saturation nuclear density. In view of these results, the calculations of quark star or hybrid star equilibrium structure must be compatible with the provided observational data. But since the equations of state used in describing quark matter are in general too soft in comparison with the equation of states used to describe the hadronic or nuclear matter, the calculated quark star models presented in the literature are in general not suitable to explain the stability of highly-compact massive objects. In this work, we present the calculations of a spherically symmetric quark star structure by using an equation of state that takes into account the superconducting color-flavor locked phase of the strange quark matter. In addition, some fundamental aspects of QCD (asymptotic freedom and confinement) are considered by means of a phenomenological description of the deconfined quark phase, the density-dependent quark mass model. The quark matter behavior introduced by this model stiffens the corresponding equation of state. We thus investigate the influence of this model on the mass-radius diagram of quark stars. We obtain massive quark stars due to the stiffness of the equation of state, when a reasonable parameterization of the color superconducting gap is used. Models of quark stars enveloped by a nucleonic crust composed of a nuclear lattice embedded in an electron gas, with nuclei close to neutron drip line, are also discussed.

  19. The Search for Acoustically-Driven Mass-Loss in Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stencel, R. E.; Brown, A.; Carpenter, K. G.; Cuntz, M.; Judge, P.

    1992-12-01

    Recent ab-initio calculations of stochastic stellar wind models by Cuntz (1992 in Cool Stars VII, ASP Conf. Ser. 26, p.383) have proven remarkably robust in predicting observed chromospheric flow patterns including possible variabilities with time in selected cool, evolved stars. The calculations solve the equations of hydrodynamics using the method of characteristics and assume: (i) saw-tooth shock wave profiles, and (ii) wave periods were changed stochastically while keeping the wave amplitudes constant (see Cuntz 1990 Ap.J. 349, p.141). Among the results of fitting chromospheric flow velocities is the implication that the permitted range of acoustic wave periods for a given star is constrained. We made use of the IUE satellite during August and September 1992 to repeatedly observe two stars, the yellow giant Aldebaran (K5 III) and the red supergiant, Betelgeuse (M2 Iab), in order to sample variations in their atmospheres on timescales of ~ 10(4) to ~ 10(6) seconds, which bracket the predicted mean acoustic wave periods for these objects. In particular, we obtained deep exposures in order to measure density-sensitive line ratios within the C II] intercombination features near 2325A (cf. Lennon et al. 1985 Ap.J. 294, p.200) to test the hypothesis that density fluctuations could be measured as a consequence of these acoustic waves. The results of these observations will be presented and discussed in terms of the number and amplitude of acoustic waves contributing to chromospheric heating and mass loss from these stars, as well as the wave origins in the evolving oscillatory structure of these stellar interiors. We are pleased to acknowledge IUE--NASA grant NAG5-2103 for partial support of this effort.

  20. A Spitzer/IRAC characterization of Galactic AGB and RSG stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Megan; Marengo, Massimo; Hora, Joseph L.; Fazio, Giovanni G.

    2015-03-01

    We present new Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) observations of 55 dusty long-period variables (48 asymptotic giant branch, AGB, and 6 red supergiant stars) in the Galaxy that have different chemistry, variability type, and mass-loss rate. O-rich AGB stars (including intrinsic S-type) tend to have redder [3.6]-[8.0] colours than carbon stars for a given [3.6]-[4.5] colour due to silicate features increasing the flux in the 8.0-μm IRAC band. For colours including the 5.8 μm band, carbon stars separate into two distinct sequences, likely due to a variable photospheric C3 feature that is only visible in relatively unobscured, low mass-loss rate sources. Semiregular variables tend to have smaller infrared (IR) excess in [3.6]-[8.0] colour than Miras, consistent with the hypothesis that semiregular variables lose mass discontinuously. Miras have redder colours for longer periods while semiregular variables do not. Galactic AGB stars follow the period-luminosity sequences found for the Magellanic Clouds. Mira variables fall along the fundamental pulsation sequence, while semiregular variables are mostly on overtone sequences. We also derive a relationship between mass-loss rate and [3.6]-[8.0] colour. The fits are similar in shape to those found by other authors for AGBs in the Large Magellanic Cloud, but discrepant in overall normalization, likely due to different assumptions in the models used to derive mass-loss rates. We find that IR colours are not unique discriminators of chemical type, suggesting caution when using colour selection techniques to infer the chemical composition of AGB dust returned to the interstellar medium.

  1. The donor star winds in High-Mass X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskinova, Lida

    2014-10-01

    High-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) are essential astrophysical laboratories. These objects represent an advanced stage in the evolution of massive binary systems, after the initially more massive star has already collapsed in a supernova explosion, but its remnant, a neutron star or black hole, remains gravitationally bound. The stellar wind from the OB-type donor is partially accreted onto its compact companion powering its relatively high X-ray luminosity. Since HMXBs accrete from the stellar wind, parameters such as the donor's mass-loss rate, the velocity of the wind, and its clumpiness are of fundamental importance.This proposal takes advantage of the unique capabilities of HST/STIS for UV spectroscopy. We focus on the most populous in the Galaxy class of those HMXBs where the stellar wind of the OB donor is directly accreted onto a neutron star. Recently, a new sub-class of HMXBs - "supergiant fast X-ray transients" - was discovered. It has been proposed that these enigmatic objects can be explained by the specific properties of their donor-star winds. The only way to validate or disprove this hypothesis is by a studying the wind diagnostics lines in the UV spectra of donor stars. The observations proposed here will, for the first time, provide the UV spectra of this important new type of accreting binaries. Our state-of-the art non-LTE expanding stellar atmospheres and 3-D stellar wind simulations allow thorough exploitation of the STIS spectra. As a result we will obtain the wind parameters for a representative sample of six Galactic HMXBs, thus heightening our knowledge thereof considerably.

  2. Star Clusters within FIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Adrianna; Moreno, Jorge; Naiman, Jill; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the environments surrounding star clusters of simulated merging galaxies. Our framework employs Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. The project focuses on analyzing the properties of the star clusters formed in merging galaxies. The locations of these star clusters are identified with astrodendro.py, a publicly available dendrogram algorithm. Once star cluster properties are extracted, they will be used to create a sub-grid (smaller than the resolution scale of FIRE) of gas confinement in these clusters. Then, we can examine how the star clusters interact with these available gas reservoirs (either by accreting this mass or blowing it out via feedback), which will determine many properties of the cluster (star formation history, compact object accretion, etc). These simulations will further our understanding of star formation within stellar clusters during galaxy evolution. In the future, we aim to enhance sub-grid prescriptions for feedback specific to processes within star clusters; such as, interaction with stellar winds and gas accretion onto black holes and neutron stars.

  3. Dark stars: a review.

    PubMed

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >[Formula: see text] and luminosities  >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  4. Dark stars: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only ≲ 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (˜10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ˜10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ˜1{{M}⊙} as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >{{10}6}{{M}⊙} and luminosities  >{{10}10}{{L}⊙} , making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  5. STAR in CTO PCI: When is STAR not a star?

    PubMed

    Hira, Ravi S; Dean, Larry S

    2016-04-01

    Subintimal tracking and reentry (STAR) has been used as a bailout strategy and involves an uncontrolled dissection and recanalization into the distal lumen to reestablish vessel patency. In the current study, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow < 3 was the only variable which they found to be significantly associated with restenosis and reocclusion after stent placement. It may be reasonable to consider second generation drug eluting stent placement in patients receiving STAR that have TIMI 3 flow, however, this should only be done if there is no compromise of major side branches. If unsure, we recommend to perform balloon angioplasty without stenting.

  6. The First Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Naoki

    2010-10-01

    The standard cosmological model predicts that the first cosmological objects are formed when the age of the universe is a few hundred million years. Recent theoretical studies and numerical simulations consistently suggest that the first objects are very massive primordial stars. We introduce the key physics and explain why the first stars are thought to be massive, rather than to be low-mass stars. The state-of-the-art simulations include all the relevant atomic and molecular physics to follow the thermal evolution of a prestellar gas cloud to very high ``stellar'' densities. Evolutionary calculations of the primordial stars suggest the formation of massive blackholes in the early universe. Finally, we show the results from high-resolution simulations of star formation in a low-metallicity gas. Vigorous fragmentation is triggered in a star-forming gas cloud at a metallicity of as low as Z = 10-5Zsolar.

  7. Large proper motion of the Thorne-Żytkow object candidate HV 2112 reveals its likely nature as foreground Galactic S-star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccarone, Thomas J.; de Mink, Selma E.

    2016-05-01

    Using the Southern Proper Motion (SPM) catalogue, we show that the candidate Thorne-Żytkow object HV 2112 has a proper motion implying a space velocity of about 3000 {km} {s}^{-1}if the object is located at the distance of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The proper motion is statistically different from that of the SMC at approximately 4σ in SPM, although the result can drop to about 3σ significance by including the UCAC4 data and considering systematic uncertainties in addition to the statistical ones. Assuming the measurement is robust, this proper motion is sufficient to exclude its proposed membership of the SMC and to argue instead that it is likely to be a foreground star in the Milky Way halo. The smaller distance and therefore lower brightness argue against its proposed nature as a Thorne-Żytkow object (the hypothesized star-like object formed when a normal star and a neutron star merge) or a Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star. Instead we propose a binary scenario where this star is the companion of a former massive AGB star, which polluted the object with via its stellar wind, i.e. a special case of an extrinsic S star. Our new scenario solves two additional problems with the two existing scenarios for its nature as Thorne-Żytkow object or present-day super AGB star. The puzzling high ratio of the strength of calcium to iron absorption lines is unexpected for SMC supergiants, but is fully consistent with the expectations for halo abundances. Secondly, its strong variability can now be explained naturally as a manifestation of the Mira phenomenon. We discuss further observational tests that could distinguish between the foreground and SMC scenarios in advance of the improved proper motion measurements likely to come from Gaia.

  8. Strange nonchaotic stars.

    PubMed

    Lindner, John F; Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G; Ditto, William L

    2015-02-06

    The unprecedented light curves of the Kepler space telescope document how the brightness of some stars pulsates at primary and secondary frequencies whose ratios are near the golden mean, the most irrational number. A nonlinear dynamical system driven by an irrational ratio of frequencies generically exhibits a strange but nonchaotic attractor. For Kepler's "golden" stars, we present evidence of the first observation of strange nonchaotic dynamics in nature outside the laboratory. This discovery could aid the classification and detailed modeling of variable stars.

  9. SIRTF and star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Frank H.

    1988-01-01

    Four problems in the field of star formation that can be attacked to advantage with SIRTF are discussed: (1) the patterns of star formation in spiral galaxies, (2) the physical mechanism for bimodal star formation, (3) the nature of bipolar outflows from young stellar objects, and (4) the birth of brown dwarfs. In each case, SIRTF can provide the crucial combination of high angular resolution with great sensitivity over a broad range of wavelengths that is needed to address the relevant issues.

  10. Nagyszombat and the stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsoldos, E.

    Péter Pázmány, founder of the University of Nagyszombat, considered stars in terms inherited from medieval times. The theses, connected to the university graduation, soon left this definition, and imagined stars as made from sublunar elements. The 1753 decree of the Empress Maria Theresia ordered university professors to publish textbooks. These textbooks, together with the theses showed a definite improvement, defining stars according to contemporary knowledge.

  11. A DETAILED FAR-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRAL ATLAS OF O-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Myron A.

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, we present a spectral atlas covering the wavelength interval 930-1188 A for O2-O9.5 stars using Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer archival data. The stars selected for the atlas were drawn from three populations: Galactic main-sequence (classes III-V) stars, supergiants, and main-sequence stars in the Magellanic Clouds, which have low metallicities. For several of these stars, we have prepared FITS files comprised of pairs of merged spectra for user access via the Multimission Archive at Space Telescope (MAST). We chose spectra from the first population with spectral types O4, O5, O6, O7, O8, and O9.5 and used them to compile tables and figures with identifications of all possible atmospheric and interstellar medium lines in the region 949-1188 A. Our identified line totals for these six representative spectra are 821 (500), 992 (663), 1077 (749), 1178 (847), 1359 (1001), and 1798 (1392) lines, respectively, where the numbers in parentheses are the totals of lines formed in the atmospheres, according to spectral synthesis models. The total number of unique atmospheric identifications for the six main-sequence O-star template spectra is 1792, whereas the number of atmospheric lines in common to these spectra is 300. The number of identified lines decreases toward earlier types (increasing effective temperature), while the percentages of 'missed' features (unknown lines not predicted from our spectral syntheses) drop from a high of 8% at type B0.2, from our recently published B-star far-UV atlas, to 1%-3% for type O spectra. The percentages of overpredicted lines are similar, despite their being much higher for B-star spectra. We discuss the statistics of line populations among the various elemental ionization states. Also, as an aid to users we list those isolated lines that can be used to determine stellar temperatures and the presence of possible chemical anomalies. Finally, we have prepared FITS files that give pairs of merged spectra for

  12. A Detailed Far-ultraviolet Spectral Atlas of O-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Myron A.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a spectral atlas covering the wavelength interval 930-1188 Å for O2-O9.5 stars using Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer archival data. The stars selected for the atlas were drawn from three populations: Galactic main-sequence (classes III-V) stars, supergiants, and main-sequence stars in the Magellanic Clouds, which have low metallicities. For several of these stars, we have prepared FITS files comprised of pairs of merged spectra for user access via the Multimission Archive at Space Telescope (MAST). We chose spectra from the first population with spectral types O4, O5, O6, O7, O8, and O9.5 and used them to compile tables and figures with identifications of all possible atmospheric and interstellar medium lines in the region 949-1188 Å. Our identified line totals for these six representative spectra are 821 (500), 992 (663), 1077 (749), 1178 (847), 1359 (1001), and 1798 (1392) lines, respectively, where the numbers in parentheses are the totals of lines formed in the atmospheres, according to spectral synthesis models. The total number of unique atmospheric identifications for the six main-sequence O-star template spectra is 1792, whereas the number of atmospheric lines in common to these spectra is 300. The number of identified lines decreases toward earlier types (increasing effective temperature), while the percentages of "missed" features (unknown lines not predicted from our spectral syntheses) drop from a high of 8% at type B0.2, from our recently published B-star far-UV atlas, to 1%-3% for type O spectra. The percentages of overpredicted lines are similar, despite their being much higher for B-star spectra. We discuss the statistics of line populations among the various elemental ionization states. Also, as an aid to users we list those isolated lines that can be used to determine stellar temperatures and the presence of possible chemical anomalies. Finally, we have prepared FITS files that give pairs of merged spectra for

  13. The global structure of hot star winds: Constraints from spectropolarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eversberg, Thomas

    2000-11-01

    Chapter 1. We present time-series of ultra-high S/N, high resolution spectra of the He II λ 4686 Å emission line in the O4I(n)f supergiant ζ Puppis, the brightest early-type O-star in the sky. These reveal stochastic, variable substructures in the line, which tend to move away from the line-center with time. Similar scaled-up features are well established in the strong winds of Wolf-Rayet stars (the presumed descendants of O stars), where they are explained by outward moving inhomogeneities (e.g., blobs, clumps, shocks) in the winds. If all hot-star winds are clumped like that of ζ Pup, as is plausible, then mass-low rates based on recombination-line intensities will have to be revised downwards. Using a standard `β' velocity law we deduce a value of β = 1.0-1.2 to account for the kinematics of these structures in the wind of ζ Pup. In addition to the small-scale stochastic variations we also find a slow systematic variation of the mean central absorption reversal. Chapter 2. We introduce a new polarimeter unit which, mounted at the Cassegrain focus of any telescope and fiber-connected to a fixed CCD spectrograph, is able to measure all Stokes parameters I, Q, U and V across spectral lines of bright stellar targets and other point sources in a quasi-simultaneous manner. Applying standard reduction techniques for linearly and circularly polarized light we are able to obtain photon-noise limited line polarization. We briefly outline the technical design of the polarimeter unit and the linear algebraic Mueller calculus for obtaining polarization parameters of any point source. In addition, practical limitations of the optical elements are outlined. We present first results obtained with our spectropolarimeter for four bright, hot-star targets: We confirm previous results for Hα in the bright Be star γ Cas and find linear depolarization features across the emission line complex C III/C IV (λ 5696/λ 5808 Å) of the WR+O binary γ2 Vel. We also find circular

  14. Strange Nonchaotic Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, John F.; Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G.; Ditto, William L.

    2015-08-01

    Exploiting the unprecedented capabilities of the planet-hunting Kepler space telescope, which stared at 150 000 stars for four years, we discuss recent evidence that certain stars dim and brighten in complex patterns with fractal features. Such stars pulsate at primary and secondary frequencies whose ratios are near the famous golden mean, the most irrational number. A nonlinear system driven by an irrational ratio of frequencies is generically attracted toward a “strange” behavior that is geometrically fractal without displaying the “butterfly effect” of chaos. Strange nonchaotic attractors have been observed in laboratory experiments and have been hypothesized to describe the electrochemical activity of the brain, but a bluish white star 16 000 light years from Earth in the constellation Lyra may manifest, in the scale-free distribution of its minor frequency components, the first strange nonchaotic attractor observed in the wild. The recognition of stellar strange nonchaotic dynamics may improve the classification of these stars and refine the physical modeling of their interiors. We also discuss nonlinear analysis of other RR Lyrae stars in Kepler field of view and discuss some toy models for modeling these stars.References: 1) Hippke, Michael, et al. "Pulsation period variations in the RRc Lyrae star KIC 5520878." The Astrophysical Journal 798.1 (2015): 42.2) Lindner, John F., et al. "Strange nonchaotic stars." Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 054101 (2015)

  15. Charged Proca stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landea, Ignacio Salazar; García, Federico

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we study gauged solutions associated with a massive vector field representing a spin-1 condensate, namely, the Proca field. We focus on regular spherically symmetric solutions which we construct either using a self-interaction potential or general relativity in order to glue the solutions together. We start generating nongravitating solutions—so-called Proca Q -balls and charged Proca Q -balls. Then we turn on backreaction on the metric, allowing gravity to hold together the Proca condensate, to study the so-called Proca stars, charged Proca stars, Proca Q -stars, and charged Proca Q -stars.

  16. Massive soliton stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-05-01

    The structure of nontopological solutions of Einstein field equations as proposed by Friedberg, Lee, and Pang (1987) is examined. This analysis incorporates finite temperature effects and pair creation. Quarks are assumed to be the only species that exist in interior of soliton stars. The possibility of primordial creation of soliton stars in the incomplete decay of the degenerate vacuum in early universe is explored. Because of dominance of pair creation inside soliton stars, the luminosity of soliton stars is not determined by its radiative transfer characteristics, and the surface temperature of soliton stars can be the same as its interior temperature. It is possible that soliton stars are intense X-ray radiators at large distances. Soliton stars are nearly 100 percent efficient energy converters, converting the rest energy of baryons entering the interior into radiation. It is possible that a sizable number of baryons may also be trapped inside soliton stars during early epochs of the universe. In addition, if soliton stars exist they could assume the role played by massive black holes in galactic centers.

  17. Massive soliton stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The structure of nontopological solutions of Einstein field equations as proposed by Friedberg, Lee, and Pang (1987) is examined. This analysis incorporates finite temperature effects and pair creation. Quarks are assumed to be the only species that exist in interior of soliton stars. The possibility of primordial creation of soliton stars in the incomplete decay of the degenerate vacuum in early universe is explored. Because of dominance of pair creation inside soliton stars, the luminosity of soliton stars is not determined by its radiative transfer characteristics, and the surface temperature of soliton stars can be the same as its interior temperature. It is possible that soliton stars are intense X-ray radiators at large distances. Soliton stars are nearly 100 percent efficient energy converters, converting the rest energy of baryons entering the interior into radiation. It is possible that a sizable number of baryons may also be trapped inside soliton stars during early epochs of the universe. In addition, if soliton stars exist they could assume the role played by massive black holes in galactic centers.

  18. Introduction to neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Lattimer, James M.

    2015-02-24

    Neutron stars contain the densest form of matter in the present universe. General relativity and causality set important constraints to their compactness. In addition, analytic GR solutions are useful in understanding the relationships that exist among the maximum mass, radii, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers of neutron stars, all of which are accessible to observation. Some of these relations are independent of the underlying dense matter equation of state, while others are very sensitive to the equation of state. Recent observations of neutron stars from pulsar timing, quiescent X-ray emission from binaries, and Type I X-ray bursts can set important constraints on the structure of neutron stars and the underlying equation of state. In addition, measurements of thermal radiation from neutron stars has uncovered the possible existence of neutron and proton superfluidity/superconductivity in the core of a neutron star, as well as offering powerful evidence that typical neutron stars have significant crusts. These observations impose constraints on the existence of strange quark matter stars, and limit the possibility that abundant deconfined quark matter or hyperons exist in the cores of neutron stars.

  19. Delta Scuti stars: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzik, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of asteroseismology is not only to derive the internal structure of individual stars from their observed oscillation frequencies, but also to test and extend one's understanding of the physics of matter under the extremes of temperature, density, and pressure found in stellar interiors. In this review, the author hopes to point out what one can learn about the Sun by studying (delta) Scuti stars, as well as what one can learn about stars more massive or evolved than the Sun. He discusses some of the difficulties in theoretical approaches to asteroseismology for (delta) Scuti stars, using FG Vir, (delta) Scuti, and CD-24(degree) 7599 as examples.

  20. Observations and theory of Mg II lines in early type stars. II - Theory and predicted profiles. III - The observations and a comparison with the predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snijders, M. A. J.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.

    1975-01-01

    Profiles of the UV Mg II lines in the spectra of early type stars are computed in a grid of model atmospheres with effective temperatures between 8000 and 35,000 K and log g values of 2.5 to 4.0 using the LTE and non-LTE theories of line formation. The theoretical results indicate that the line cores are strengthened by non-LTE effects over the entire temperature range, resonance-line wings are weaker in the cooler models than in the LTE case, and very large deviations from LTE occur in the hot low-gravity models. These predictions are compared with the equivalent widths of the UV Mg II lines in 106 stars and of the visual lines in 48 stars (spectral types O4 to A3). The observed equivalent widths of normal stars in luminosity classes II through V are found to agree with the predictions over the entire range from O8 to A2 if a certain Mg/H abundance is adopted. The line intensities observed in supergiants, Be, Bp, and Ap stars are discussed.

  1. Combinations of 148 navigation stars and the star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R.

    1980-01-01

    The angular separation of all star combinations for 148 nav star on the onboard software for space transportation system-3 flight and following missions is presented as well as the separation of each pair that satisfies the viewing constraints of using both star trackers simultaneously. Tables show (1) shuttle star catalog 1980 star position in M 1950 coordinates; (2) two star combination of 148 nav stars; and (3) summary of two star-combinations of the s