Science.gov

Sample records for supplemental release limits

  1. Supplemental Release Limits for the Directed Reuse of Lead in Shielding Products by the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, R.L.

    2001-08-22

    The DOE National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle (NMR) proposes to define and implement a complex-wide directed reuse strategy for surplus radiologically impacted lead (Pb) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's commitment to the safe and cost-effective recycle or reuse of excess materials and equipment across the DOE complex. NMR will, under this proposal, act on behalf of the DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Technical Program Integration (specifically EM-22), as the Department's clearinghouse for DOE surplus lead and lead products by developing and maintaining a cost-effective commercially-based contaminated lead recycle program. It is NMR's intention, through this directed reuse strategy, to mitigate the adverse environmental and economic consequences of managing surplus lead as a waste within the complex. This approach would promote the safe and cost-effective reuse of DOE's scrap and surplus lead in support of the Department's goals of resource utilization, energy conservation, pollution prevention and waste minimization. This report discusses recommendations for supplemental radiological limits for the directed reuse of contaminated lead and lead products by the DOE within the nuclear industry. The limits were selected--with slight modification--from the recently published American National Standards Institute and Health Physics Society standard N13.12 titled Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance (ANSI/HPS 1999) and are being submitted for formal approval by the DOE. Health and measurement implications from the adoption and use of the limits for directed reuse scenarios are discussed within this report.

  2. Supplemental Release Limits for the Directed Reuse of Steel in Road Barriers and Lead in Shielding Products by the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, RL

    2006-04-07

    The DOE National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle (NMR) proposes to define and implement a complex-wide directed reuse strategy for surplus radiologically impacted lead (Pb) and steel as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's commitment to the safe and cost-effective recycle or reuse of excess materials and equipment across the DOE complex. NMR will, under this proposal, act on behalf of the DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Technical Program Integration (specifically EM-22), as the Department's clearinghouse for DOE surplus lead, steel and products created from these materials by developing and maintaining a cost-effective commercially-based contaminated lead and steel recycle program. It is NMR's intention, through this directed reuse strategy, to mitigate the adverse environmental and economic consequences of managing surplus lead and steel as a waste within the complex. This approach promotes the safe and cost-effective reuse of scrap metals in support of the Department's goals of resource utilization, energy conservation, pollution prevention and waste minimization. This report discusses recommendations for supplemental radiological release limits for the directed reuse of contaminated lead and steel by the DOE within the nuclear industry. The limits were originally selected from the American National Standards Institute and Health Physics Society standard N13.12 titled ''Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance'' (Health Physics Society, 1999) but were subsequently modified as a result of application-specific issues. Both the health and measurement implications from the adoption and use of the limits for directed reuse scenarios are discussed within this report.

  3. Limited incision carpal tunnel release

    PubMed Central

    Gaba, Sunil; Bhogesha, Sandeep; Singh, Onkar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral entrapment neuropathy. Limited incision techniques for carpal tunnel release are gaining popularity. The main advantages of these techniques are less scar load, less pillar pain, shorter recovery, and return-to-work time. However, the completeness of release, and risk of neurovascular injury are always a concern. We devised a method of limited incision release with two mini-incisions and use of nasal speculum and a probe. We aimed to evaluate the clinical and neurological outcome of this technique. Materials and Methods: Twenty seven cases (9 male and 18 female, age 28–56 years) of isolated CTS cases were enrolled in the study. A total of 33 hands (six bilateral) underwent limited incision carpal tunnel release. In this study, two mini-incisions were used and release was done with the help of nasal speculum. Evaluation preoperatively and in 6 months and at 1-year postoperatively was done, namely, (a) clinical status examination, (b) motor testing using grip and pinch dynamometer, and (c) neurological outcome measure using nerve conduction study. Results: All the patients had good clinical and neurological outcome with no recurrence during followup. The first symptom to get relieved was night pains, with a mean of 4.5 days (range 2–14 days). Compared to pain, improvement of sensory symptoms was delayed; the mean duration was 42.8 days (range 30–90 days). Scar tenderness was present only for a mean duration of 9 days (range 7–21 days). The mean duration for patients to resume their daily activities was12 days (range 7–28 days) and to work was 32 days (range 21–90 days). The hand grip showed mean values of 45.12 ± 16.16 g/mm2 preoperatively, 62.45 ± 18.86 g/mm2 at 6 months postoperatively, and 74.87 ± 20.35 g/mm2 at 1-year postoperatively. The key pinch showed mean values of 11.27 ± 3.51 g/mm2 preoperatively, 20.181 ± 3.94 g/mm2 at 6 months postoperatively, and 27.96 ± 94.42 g/mm2

  4. Limited incision carpal tunnel release.

    PubMed

    Gaba, Sunil; Bhogesha, Sandeep; Singh, Onkar

    2017-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral entrapment neuropathy. Limited incision techniques for carpal tunnel release are gaining popularity. The main advantages of these techniques are less scar load, less pillar pain, shorter recovery, and return-to-work time. However, the completeness of release, and risk of neurovascular injury are always a concern. We devised a method of limited incision release with two mini-incisions and use of nasal speculum and a probe. We aimed to evaluate the clinical and neurological outcome of this technique. Twenty seven cases (9 male and 18 female, age 28-56 years) of isolated CTS cases were enrolled in the study. A total of 33 hands (six bilateral) underwent limited incision carpal tunnel release. In this study, two mini-incisions were used and release was done with the help of nasal speculum. Evaluation preoperatively and in 6 months and at 1-year postoperatively was done, namely, (a) clinical status examination, (b) motor testing using grip and pinch dynamometer, and (c) neurological outcome measure using nerve conduction study. All the patients had good clinical and neurological outcome with no recurrence during followup. The first symptom to get relieved was night pains, with a mean of 4.5 days (range 2-14 days). Compared to pain, improvement of sensory symptoms was delayed; the mean duration was 42.8 days (range 30-90 days). Scar tenderness was present only for a mean duration of 9 days (range 7-21 days). The mean duration for patients to resume their daily activities was12 days (range 7-28 days) and to work was 32 days (range 21-90 days). The hand grip showed mean values of 45.12 ± 16.16 g/mm(2) preoperatively, 62.45 ± 18.86 g/mm(2) at 6 months postoperatively, and 74.87 ± 20.35 g/mm(2) at 1-year postoperatively. The key pinch showed mean values of 11.27 ± 3.51 g/mm(2) preoperatively, 20.181 ± 3.94 g/mm(2) at 6 months postoperatively, and 27.96 ± 94.42 g/mm(2) at 1-year postoperatively. The tip pinch

  5. 14 CFR 121.689 - Flight release form: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the flight is released. (b) The aircraft flight release must contain, or have attached to it, weather... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight release form: Supplemental... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.689...

  6. 14 CFR 121.689 - Flight release form: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the flight is released. (b) The aircraft flight release must contain, or have attached to it, weather... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight release form: Supplemental... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.689...

  7. 14 CFR 121.689 - Flight release form: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the flight is released. (b) The aircraft flight release must contain, or have attached to it, weather... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight release form: Supplemental... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.689...

  8. 14 CFR 121.689 - Flight release form: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the flight is released. (b) The aircraft flight release must contain, or have attached to it, weather... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight release form: Supplemental... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.689...

  9. 14 CFR 121.689 - Flight release form: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the flight is released. (b) The aircraft flight release must contain, or have attached to it, weather... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight release form: Supplemental... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.689...

  10. Explanatory Supplement to the WISE Preliminary Data Release Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E. L.; Conrow, T.; Bauer, J.; Benford, D.; Brandenburg, H.; Dailey, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Evans, T.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Fowler, J.; Gelino, C.; Grillmair, C.; Harbut, M.; Hoffman, D.; Jarrett, T.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Liu, W.; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, K.; Masci, F.; McCallon, H.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M. E.; Royer, D.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Stanford, S. A.; Wyatt, P. L.; Tholen, D.; Tsai, C. W.; Wachter, S.; Wheelock, S. L.; Yan, L.; Alles, R.; Beck, R.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; McCollum, B.; McGehee, P.; Wittman, M.

    2011-04-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) surveyed the entire sky at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns in 2010, achieving 5-sigma point source sensitivities per band better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic. The WISE Preliminary Data Release, conducted on April 14, 2011, incorporates data covering the first ~57% of the sky surveyed that were processed with initial calibrations and reduction algorithms. Release data products include: (1) an Atlas of 10,464 sets of calibrated, coadded images, depth-of-coverage and uncertainty maps in the four WISE bands, (2) a Source Catalog containing positions and four-band photometry for 257 million objects, and (3) an Explanatory Supplement. Ancillary products include an archive of 754,000 sets of calibrated WISE single-exposure images, uncertainty and bit-mask maps, and a database of 2.2 billion source extractions made from the single-exposure images, and moving object tracklets identified by the NEOWISE program (Mainzer et al. 2011). The Explanatory Supplement to the WISE Preliminary Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the WISE data. The Supplement contains an overview of the WISE mission, facilities, and operations, a description of the contents and formats of the WISE image and tabular data products, and cautionary notes that describe known limitations of the Preliminary Release products. Instructions for accessing the WISE data products via the services of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive are provided. Detailed descriptions of the data processing system and algorithms used to ingest and convert raw WISE data to the calibrated data products are presented, along with assessments of the achieved sky coverage, photometric and astrometric characteristics and completeness and reliability of the Preliminary Release data products. The WISE Preliminary Release Explanatory Supplement is an on-line document that is updated frequently to provide the most current

  11. Explanatory Supplement to the WISE All-Sky Release Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) surveyed the entire sky at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns in 2010, achieving 5-sigma point source sensitivities per band better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic. The WISE All-Sky Data Release, conducted on March 14, 2012, incorporates all data taken during the full cryogenic mission phase, 7 January 2010 to 6 August 20l0,that were processed with improved calibrations and reduction algorithms. Release data products include: (1) an Atlas of 18,240 match-filtered, calibrated and coadded image sets; (2) a Source Catalog containing positions and four-band photometry for over 563 million objects, and (3) an Explanatory Supplement. Ancillary products include a Reject Table that contains 284 million detections that were not selected for the Source Catalog because they are low signal-to-noise ratio or spurious detections of image artifacts, an archive of over 1.5 million sets of calibrated WISE Single-exposure images, and a database of 9.4 billion source extractions from those single images, and moving object tracklets identified by the NEOWISE program (Mainzer et aI. 2011). The WISE All-Sky Data Release products supersede those from the WISE Preliminary Data Release (Cutri et al. 2011). The Explanatory Supplement to the WISE All-Sky Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the WISE data. The Supplement contains an overview of the WISE mission, facilities, and operations, a detailed description of WISE data processing algorithms, a guide to the content and formals of the image and tabular data products, and cautionary notes that describe known limitations of the All-Sky Release products. Instructions for accessing the WISE data products via the services of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive are provided. The Supplement also provides analyses of the achieved sky coverage, photometric and astrometric characteristics and completeness and reliability of the All

  12. USDA dietary supplement ingredient database, release 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...

  13. Explanatory Supplement to the AllWISE Data Release Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E. L.; Conrow, T.; Fowler, J. W.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Grillmair, C.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Masci, F.; McCallon, H. L.; Wheelock, S. L.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Yan, L.; Benford, D.; Harbut, M.; Jarrett, T.; Lake, S.; Leisawitz, D.; Ressler, M. E.; Stanford, S. A.; Tsai, C. W.; Liu, F.; Helou, G.; Mainzer, A.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A.; Hoffman, D.; Marsh, K. A.; Padgett, D.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Beck, R. P.; Papin, M.; Wittman, M.

    2013-11-01

    The AllWISE program builds upon the successful Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) mission by combining data from all WISE and NEOWISE (Mainzer et al. 2011) survey phases to form the most comprehensive view of the mid-infrared sky currently available. By combining the data from two complete sky coverage epochs in an advanced data processing system, AllWISE has generated new products that have enhanced photometric sensitivity and accuracy, and improved astrometric precision compared with the earlier WISE All-Sky Data Release. Exploiting the 6 month baseline between the WISE sky coverage epochs enables AllWISE to measure source motions for the first time, and to compute improved flux variability statistics. AllWISE data release products include: a Source Catalog that contains 4-band fluxes, positions, apparent motion measurements, and flux variability statistics for over 747 million objects detected at SNR>5 in the combined exposures; a Multiepoch Photometry Database containing over 42 billion time-tagged, single-exposure fluxes for each object detected on the combined exposures; and an Image Atlas of 18,240 4-band calibrated FITS images, depth-of-coverage and noise maps that cover the sky produced by coadding nearly 7.9 million single-exposure images from the cryogenic and post-cryogenic survey phases. The Explanatory Supplement to the AllWISE Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the AllWISE data. The Supplement contains detailed descriptions of the format and characteristics of the AllWISE data products, as well as a summary of cautionary notes that describe known limitations. The Supplement is an on-line document that is updated frequently to provide the most current information for users of the AllWISE data products. The Explanatory Supplement is maintained at: http://wise2.ipac.caltech.edu/docs/release/allwise/expsup/index.html AllWISE makes use of data from WISE, which is a joint project of the University of

  14. Explanatory Supplement to the NEOWISE Data Release Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Mainzer, A.; Conrow, T.; Masci, F.; Bauer, J.; Dailey, J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Gelino, C.; Grillmair, C.; Wheelock, S. L.; Yan, L.; Harbut, M.; Beck, R.; Wittman, M.; Wright, E. L.; Masiero, J.; Grav, T.; Sonnett, S.; Nugent, C.; Kramer, E.; Stevenson, R.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Fabinsky, B.; Tholen, D.; Papin, M.; Fowler, J.; McCallon, H.

    2015-03-01

    's survey observations. The Explanatory Supplement to the NEOWISE Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the NEOWISE data. The Supplement contains an overview of the NEOWISE mission, facilities, and operations, a description of the contents and formats of the NEOWISE image and tabular data products, and cautionary notes that describe known limitations of the Release products. Instructions for accessing the NEOWISE data products via the services of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive are provided. Descriptions of the data processing system and algorithms used to ingest and convert raw NEOWISE images to the calibrated data products are presented, along with assessments of the sky coverage, photometric and astrometric characteristics and completeness and reliability of the NEOWISE Release data products. The NEOWISE Data Release Explanatory Supplement is an on-line document that is updated frequently to provide the most current information for users of the NEOWISE data products. The Explanatory Supplement is maintained at: http://wise2.ipac.caltech.edu/docs/release/neowise/expsup/ NEOWISE is a project of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the Planetary Science Division of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. Kinesin ATPase: Rate-Limiting ADP Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackney, David D.

    1988-09-01

    The ATPase rate of kinesin isolated from bovine brain by the method of S. A. Kuznetsov and V. I. Gelfand [(1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 8530-8534)] is stimulated 1000-fold by interaction with tubulin (turnover rate per 120-kDa peptide increases from ≈ 0.009 sec-1 to 9 sec-1). The tubulin-stimulated reaction exhibits no extra incorporation of water-derived oxygens over a wide range of ATP and tubulin concentrations, indicating that Pi release is faster than the reversal of hydrolysis. ADP release, however, is slow for the basal reaction and its release is rate limiting as indicated by the very tight ADP binding (Ki < 5 nM), the retention of a stoichiometric level of bound ADP through ion-exchange chromatography and dialysis, and the reversible labeling of a bound ADP by [14C]ATP at the steady-state ATPase rate as shown by centrifuge gel filtration and inaccessibility to pyruvate kinase. Tubulin accelerates the release of the bound ADP consistent with its activation of the net ATPase reaction. The detailed kinetics of ADP release in the presence of tubulin are biphasic indicating apparent heterogeneity with a fraction of the kinesin active sites being unaffected by tubulin.

  16. 14 CFR 121.615 - Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.615 Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental...

  17. 14 CFR 121.615 - Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.615 Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental...

  18. 14 CFR 121.615 - Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.615 Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental...

  19. 14 CFR 121.615 - Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.615 Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental...

  20. 14 CFR 121.615 - Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.615 Dispatch or flight release over water: Flag and supplemental...

  1. Explanatory Supplement to the WISE All-Sky Data Release Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.; Wright, E. L.; Conrow, T.; Bauer, J.; Benford, D.; Brandenburg, H.; Dailey, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Evans, T.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Fowler, J.; Gelino, C.; Grillmair, C.; Harbut, M.; Hoffman, D.; Jarrett, T.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Leisawitz, D.; Liu, W.; Mainzer, A.; Marsh, K.; Masci, F.; McCallon, H.; Padgett, D.; Ressler, M. E.; Royer, D.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Stanford, S. A.; Wyatt, P. L.; Tholen, D.; Tsai, C. W.; Wachter, S.; Wheelock, S. L.; Yan, L.; Alles, R.; Beck, R.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; McCollum, B.; McGehee, P.; Papin, M.; Wittman, M.

    2012-03-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010) surveyed the entire sky at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns in 2010, achieving 5-sigma point source sensitivities per band better than 0.08, 0.11, 1 and 6 mJy in unconfused regions on the ecliptic. The WISE All-Sky Data Release, conducted on March 14, 2012, incorporates all data taken during the full cryogenic mission phase, 7 January 2010 to 6 August 2010, that were processed with improved calibrations and reduction algorithms. Release data products include: (1) an Atlas of 18,240 match-filtered, calibrated and coadded image sets; (2) a Source Catalog containing positions and four-band photometry for over 563 million objects, and (3) an Explanatory Supplement. Ancillary products include a Reject Table that contains 284 million detections that were not selected for the Source Catalog because they are low signal-to-noise ratio or spurious detections of image artifacts, an archive of over 1.5 million sets of calibrated WISE Single-exposure images, and a database of 9.4 billion source extractions from those single-images, and moving object tracklets identified by the NEOWISE program (Mainzer et al. 2011). The WISE All-Sky Data Release products supersede those from the WISE Preliminary Data Release (Cutri et al. 2011). The Explanatory Supplement to the WISE All-Sky Data Release Products is a general guide for users of the WISE data. The Supplement contains an overview of the WISE mission, facilities, and operations, a detailed description of WISE data processing algorithms, a guide to the content and formats of the image and tabular data products, and cautionary notes that describe known limitations of the All-Sky Release products. Instructions for accessing the WISE data products via the services of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive are provided. The Supplement also provides analyses of the achieved sky coverage, photometric and astrometric characteristics and completeness and reliability of the All

  2. The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) - 3 release.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) provides analytically-derived estimates of ingredient content in dietary supplement (DS) products sold in the United States. DSID was developed by the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) within the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agricu...

  3. 78 FR 48331 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Release of Fundamental Research Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Regulation Supplement: Release of Fundamental Research Information (DFARS Case 2012-D054) AGENCY: Defense... relating to the release of fundamental research information. This rule was previously published as part of... fundamental research projects and not safeguarding. This rule was initiated to implement guidance provided...

  4. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) release 4.0

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nearly half of U.S. adults report taking dietary supplements (DS). A single serving of a DS may contain amounts of nutrients or other bioactive compounds that exceed their concentration in foods. During the manufacturing of DS, ingredients may be added in amounts exceeding the label claims in orde...

  5. 40 CFR 194.31 - Application of release limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of release limits. 194.31 Section 194.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S...

  6. 40 CFR 194.31 - Application of release limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of release limits. 194.31 Section 194.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S...

  7. 78 FR 6091 - Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge Settlement Take notice that on December 12, 2012, Enbridge Energy, Limited...

  8. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs: Understanding advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pratap; Sharma, Alok

    2014-07-01

    Pituitary stimulation with pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs induces both follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Pituitary gonadotropin secretions are blocked upon desensitization when a continuous GnRH stimulus is provided by means of an agonist or when the pituitary receptors are occupied with a competitive antagonist. GnRH antagonists were not available originally; therefore, prolonged daily injections of agonist with its desensitizing effect were used. Today, single- and multiple-dose injectable antagonists are also available to block the LH surge and thus to cause desensitization. This review provides an overview of the use of GnRH analogs which is potent therapeutic agents that are considerably useful in a variety of clinical indications from the past to the future with some limitations. These indications include management of endometriosis, uterine leiomyomas, hirsutism, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, premenstrual syndrome, assisted reproduction, and some hormone-dependent tumours, other than ovulation induction.

  9. 76 FR 17411 - Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to... Supplement to the Settlement should file its intervention or protest with the Federal Energy...

  10. 77 FR 15098 - Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to... Supplement to the Settlement should file its intervention or protest with the Federal Energy...

  11. Supplemental water releases for fisheries restoration in a Brazilian floodplain River: A conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godinho, Alexandre L.; Kynard, B.; Martinez, C.B.

    2007-01-01

    Highly productive floodplain rivers in Brazil and elsewhere provide livelihood and recreational fishing for millions of people around the world, but damming and controlled water discharge are a threat to these valuable ecosystems. Supplemental water releases (SWRs) at a dam are increasingly used for restoring fisheries productivity in many floodplain rivers. We proposed a conceptual model for a hypothetical water release to enhance fisheries using Tre??s Marias Reservoir (TMR) on the Sa??o Francisco River (SFR), Brazil. The information needed by the model follows: (i) Biologically, what is the best release date? (ii) How much water will be released? (iii) What is the pattern of impoundment and how much impounded water will be released? (iv) What is the lost revenue to the power plant associated with SWR? (v) What is the relationship between river discharge and the area of floodplain that is flooded? (vi) What is the relationship between SWR and fisheries value? Ichthyoplankton studies in the SFR showed a clear positive relationship between fish density and water level (WL). While the relationship between WL and floodplain area flooded and recruitment is not known, we concluded the best date for release is when there is a natural flood, which naturally triggers fish spawning and the SWR will add to the natural flood and cover a greater floodplain area. The released volume will range from 0.302km3 to 2.192 km3, depending on SWR duration. In most years from 1976 to 2003, TMR impounded enough water for SWR only in the second half of the fish-spawning season (January-March). Lost revenue at TMR depended on release volume and ranged from US$ 0.493 million to US$ 3.452 million for the actual power rate. However, SWR could increase commercial fisheries income an estimated US$ 4.468 million. We forecast that SWR can bring fisheries benefits that surpass the lost revenue.

  12. Clinical Assessment of Urinary Tract Damage during Sustained-Release Estrogen Supplementation in Mice.

    PubMed

    E Collins Kathleen R Mulka Mark J Hoenerhoff Russell S Taichman And Jason S Villano, Dalis

    2017-01-25

    Estrogen supplementation is a key component of numerous mouse research models but can adversely affect the urinary system.The goal of this study was to develop a clinical scoring system and identify biomarkers of occult urinary tract lesions prior to the development of systemic illness in mice. Ovariectomized or sham-surgery SCID mice were implanted subcutaneously with a placebo pellet or one containing sustained-release estradiol (0.18 mg 60-d release 17β-estradiol). Mice were assessed twice weekly for 4 to 6 wk by using a clinical scoring system that included body condition, general activity, posture, hair coat, hydration, abdominal distension, urine staining of coat and skin, and ability to urinate. Samples were collected weekly for urinalysis, BUN, creatinine,and serum estradiol levels. Terminal samples were analyzed for histopathologic lesions. Compared with placebo controls, estradiol supplemented mice had higher serum estradiol levels at weeks 2 and 3; significant differences in total clinical scores by the 3-wk time point; and in body condition, general activity, posture, hair coat, and urine staining scores by the 6-wk terminal time point.Urinary tract lesions included hydronephrosis, pyelonephritis, cystitis, and urolithiasis. All mice with urolithiasis had crystalluria,and 5 of the 6 mice with pyelonephritis or hydroureter had dilute urine (that is, specific gravity less than 1.030). However, these findings were not specific to mice with lesions. A total clinical score of 3.5 (maximum, 24) identified estradiol-supplemented mice with 83% specificity and 50% sensitivity, but no single clinical parameter, biomarker, or the total clinical score accurately predicted occult urinary tract lesions. Considering the lesions we observed, prudence is warranted when using pelleted sustained-release estradiol in mice, and important parameters to monitor for animal health include urine staining, body condition score, urine sediment,and urine specific gravity.

  13. 75 FR 10243 - Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...: 2010-4612] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. OR10-7-000] Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership; Notice of Filing of Supplement to Facilities Surcharge Settlement February 25, 2010. Take notice that on February 19, 2010, Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership...

  14. Supplementing the GALEX Source Catalog With the Final GALEX Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madore, Barry

    The NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) mission provided a vast wealth of ultraviolet imaging data. The archival data will be a legacy that will be utilized for decades to come. However, the nature of the many varied surveys GALEX completed, and in particular the heavy overlap within and between the surveys, makes it paramount to provide unique, vetted, uniform source catalogs supported by corresponding footprint, exposure time, and artifact maps. The GALEX CATalog (GCAT) project has done this for all GALEX data up to the penultimate GR6 data release with the GALEX All-Sky Source Catalog (GASC) and the GALEX Medium Source Catalog (GMSC). These catalogs are unique source catalogs of 40 million objects in 26,000 square degrees (GASC, AB mag < 21) and 22 million sources in 5,000 square degrees (GMSC, AB mag < 23). They are widely used in the major NASA data archives the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) and the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST, the official GALEX archive). However, the GALEX mission extended beyond the GR6 data release. An Extended Mission, partially privately funded, imaged an addition 5,300 square degrees of the sky. This is referred to as the GR7 supplement to GR6. We propose a modest program to include the incremental GR7 data as a supplement to the GCAT products. We have determined that this will add 1,200 square degrees of new footprint area to the GCAT and add 5.3 million new sources to the GASC and 1.8 million new sources to the GASC. This constitutes a significant 24% increase to the GMSC. Supplementing the GCAT with GR7 incremental data will enhance the legacy of the GALEX mission by enabling its dissemination and widest possible use.

  15. One is okay, more is better? Pharmacological aspects and safe limits of nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Mason, Pamela

    2007-11-01

    The use of vitamins, minerals and other supplements has increased considerably during recent years. In the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of British adults aged 19-64 years 40% of those surveyed were taking supplements. In 2005 sales of dietary supplements in the UK were approximately pound sterling 325.7 x 106 in 'bricks and mortar' shops (excluding health food shops). The physiological effects of vitamins and minerals in amounts approximating to the UK reference nutrient intake or the EU RDA are well understood in terms of reducing the risk of micronutrient deficiency. However, the effects of vitamins, minerals and other supplements in larger amounts have attracted much attention in recent decades, and these effects, some of which may be pharmacological, are not as well categorised. Some of these effects are beneficial, some are not. Although vitamins and minerals and other supplements are generally safe at higher doses, there are some safety issues that are relevant in the context of the wide availability of supplements without a doctor's prescription. Thus, several authorities throughout the world have established upper limits (UL) for the intake of vitamins and minerals, and the EU is in the process of setting maximum permitted levels (MPL) for vitamins and minerals in food supplements. The present paper discusses the potential benefits and safety issues relating to the use of supplements at doses higher than the RDA. The rationale for the establishment of UL is also discussed, explaining the differences between the values set by different authorities and the expected guidance and legislation from the European Commission on MPL for vitamins and minerals in food supplements.

  16. Clinical Assessment of Urinary Tract Damage during Sustained-Release Estrogen Supplementation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Collins, Dalis E; Mulka, Kathleen R; Hoenerhoff, Mark J; Taichman, Russell S; Villano, Jason S

    2017-02-01

    Estrogen supplementation is a key component of numerous mouse research models but can adversely affect the urinary system. The goal of this study was to develop a clinical scoring system and identify biomarkers of occult urinary tract lesions prior to the development of systemic illness in mice. Ovariectomized or sham-surgery SCID mice were implanted subcutaneously with a placebo pellet or one containing sustained-release estradiol (0.18 mg 60-d release 17β-estradiol). Mice were assessed twice weekly for 4 to 6 wk by using a clinical scoring system that included body condition, general activity, posture, hair coat, hydration, abdominal distension, urine staining of coat and skin, and ability to urinate. Samples were collected weekly for urinalysis, BUN, creatinine, and serum estradiol levels. Terminal samples were analyzed for histopathologic lesions. Compared with placebo controls, estradiolsupplemented mice had higher serum estradiol levels at weeks 2 and 3; significant differences in total clinical scores by the 3-wk time point; and in body condition, general activity, posture, hair coat, and urine staining scores by the 6-wk terminal time point. Urinary tract lesions included hydronephrosis, pyelonephritis, cystitis, and urolithiasis. All mice with urolithiasis had crystalluria, and 5 of the 6 mice with pyelonephritis or hydroureter had dilute urine (that is, specific gravity less than 1.030). However, these findings were not specific to mice with lesions. A total clinical score of 3.5 (maximum, 24) identified estradiol-supplemented mice with 83% specificity and 50% sensitivity, but no single clinical parameter, biomarker, or the total clinical score accurately predicted occult urinary tract lesions. Considering the lesions we observed, prudence is warranted when using pelleted sustained-release estradiol in mice, and important parameters to monitor for animal health include urine staining, body condition score, urine sediment, and urine specific gravity.

  17. 76 FR 9680 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Limitations on Procurements With Non-Defense...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 217 RIN 0750-AG67 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Limitations on Procurements With Non-Defense Agencies (DFARS Case 2009-D027) AGENCY...

  18. 76 FR 33170 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Inclusion of Option Amounts in Limitations on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 212 RIN 0750-AH23 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Inclusion of Option Amounts in Limitations on Authority of the Department of Defense...

  19. The Benefits and Limitations of Using Ultrasonography to Supplement Anatomical Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetman, Greg M.; Crawford, Gail; Hird, Kathryn; Fear, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomical understanding is critical to medical education. With reduced teaching time and limited cadaver availability, it is important to investigate how best to utilize in vivo imaging to supplement anatomical understanding and better prepare medical graduates for the proliferation of point-of-care imaging in the future. To investigate whether…

  20. The Benefits and Limitations of Using Ultrasonography to Supplement Anatomical Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetman, Greg M.; Crawford, Gail; Hird, Kathryn; Fear, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomical understanding is critical to medical education. With reduced teaching time and limited cadaver availability, it is important to investigate how best to utilize in vivo imaging to supplement anatomical understanding and better prepare medical graduates for the proliferation of point-of-care imaging in the future. To investigate whether…

  1. 19 CFR 142.23 - Time limit for filing documentation after release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time limit for filing documentation after release... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Special Permit for Immediate Delivery § 142.23 Time limit for filing documentation after release. The applicable documentation described in § 142...

  2. Effects of Time-Release Caffeine Containing Supplement on Metabolic Rate, Glycerol Concentration and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Adam M.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Wells, Adam J.; Mangine, Gerald T.; Townsend, Jeremy R.; Jajtner, Adam R.; Wang, Ran; Miramonti, Amelia A.; Pruna, Gabriel J.; LaMonica, Michael B.; Bohner, Jonathan D.; Hoffman, Mattan W.; Oliveira, Leonardo P.; Fukuda, David H.; Fragala, Maren S.; Stout, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared caffeine pharmacokinetics, glycerol concentrations, metabolic rate, and performance measures following ingestion of a time-release caffeine containing supplement (TR-CAF) versus a regular caffeine capsule (CAF) and a placebo (PL). Following a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over design, ten males (25.9 ± 3.2 y) who regularly consume caffeine ingested capsules containing either TR-CAF, CAF, or PL. Blood draws and performance measures occurred at every hour over an 8-hour period. Plasma caffeine concentrations were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in CAF compared to TR-CAF during hours 2-5 and significantly greater (p = 0.042) in TR-CAF compared to CAF at hour 8. There were no significant differences between trials in glycerol concentrations (p = 0.86) or metabolic measures (p = 0.17-0.91). Physical reaction time was significantly improved for CAF at hour 5 (p=0.01) compared to PL. Average upper body reaction time was significantly improved for CAF and TR-CAF during hours 1-4 (p = 0.04 and p = 0.01, respectively) and over the 8-hour period (p = 0.04 and p = 0.001, respectively) compared to PL. Average upper body reaction time was also significantly improved for TR-CAF compared to PL during hours 5-8 (p = 0.004). TR-CAF and CAF showed distinct pharmacokinetics yielding modest effects on reaction time, yet did not alter glycerol concentration, metabolic measures, or other performance measures. Key points Time-release caffeine and regular caffeine showed distinct pharmacokinetics over an 8-hour period following ingestion. Time-release caffeine and regular caffeine yielded modest effects on reaction time over an 8-hour period following ingestion. Time-release caffeine and regular caffeine did not alter glycerol concentration, metabolic measures, or other performance measures over an 8-hour period following ingestion. PMID:25983581

  3. Identification of the growth-hormone-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2) in a nutritional supplement.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andreas; Kohler, Maxie; Mester, Joachim; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Petrou, Michael; Thevis, Mario

    2010-03-01

    Black market products of a pharmaceutical nature and nutritional supplements have received substantial and increasing attention because of potential performance enhancement in elite and non-professional sports. In addition, improved general health is claimed for non-competing individuals. The risks and foreseeable dangers of the uncontrolled use of highly potent and non-approved pharmaceutical compounds in healthy individuals are of considerable concern. In the present case report, the emerging drug candidate GHRP-2 with verified growth-hormone-releasing properties was identified and quantified in tablets offered as an over-the-counter nutritional supplement. The impact of this orally active peptide on the hGH/IGF-axis has been established for several years and its illicit use in elite sports has been assumed. As a releasing factor for hGH, GHRP-2 belongs to the list of substances prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Unfortunately, to date there is no routinely performed assay for the determination of these peptides potentially occurring in biological fluids of competing athletes, but the present data will facilitate the implementation by providing principle analytical information on liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric behaviour. Qualitative identification of the target analyte after extraction from the tablet matrix was performed by high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometry after liquid chromatographic separation under consideration of the accurate masses and the ratios of the protonated molecules and their fragment ions derived from their collisionally induced dissociation. Quantitative results were obtained by means of liquid chromatography coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and linear regression using an external calibration curve (with GHRP-2 reference compound) adjusted via internal standard (Hexarelin). Hereby, the content of GHRP-2 was determined with approximately 50 µg per tablet.

  4. Comparing food limitation among three stages of nesting: supplementation experiments with the burrowing owl

    PubMed Central

    Wellicome, Troy I; Danielle Todd, L; Poulin, Ray G; Holroyd, Geoffrey L; Fisher, Ryan J

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Food availability is an important limiting factor for avian reproduction. In altricial birds, food limitation is assumed to be more severe during the nestling stage than during laying or incubation, but this has yet to be adequately tested. Using food-supplementation experiments over a 5-year period, we determined the degree and timing of food limitation for burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) breeding in Canada. Burrowing owls are an endangered species and food limitation during the nestling stage could influence reproductive performance of this species at the northern extent of their range. Supplemented pairs fledged on average 47% more owlets than unfed pairs, except during a year when natural food was not limiting (i.e., a prey irruption year). The difference in fledgling production resulted from high nestling mortality in unfed broods, with 96% of all nestling deaths being attributed to food shortage. Supplemental feeding during the nestling period also increased fledgling structural size. Pairs fed from the start of laying produced the same number of hatchlings as pairs that received no supplemental food before hatch. Furthermore, pairs supplemented from egg laying to fledging and pairs supplemented during the nestling period alone had the same patterns of nestling survival, equal numbers of fledglings, and similar fledgling mass and structural size. Our results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that the nestling period is the most food-limited phase of the breeding cycle. The experimental design we introduce here could be used with other altricial species to examine how the timing of food limitation differs among birds with a variety of life-history strategies. For burrowing owls, and other species with similar life histories, long-term, large-scale, and appropriately timed habitat management increasing prey abundance or availability is critical for conservation. Our results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that the nestling

  5. Comparing food limitation among three stages of nesting: supplementation experiments with the burrowing owl.

    PubMed

    Wellicome, Troy I; Danielle Todd, L; Poulin, Ray G; Holroyd, Geoffrey L; Fisher, Ryan J

    2013-08-01

    Food availability is an important limiting factor for avian reproduction. In altricial birds, food limitation is assumed to be more severe during the nestling stage than during laying or incubation, but this has yet to be adequately tested. Using food-supplementation experiments over a 5-year period, we determined the degree and timing of food limitation for burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) breeding in Canada. Burrowing owls are an endangered species and food limitation during the nestling stage could influence reproductive performance of this species at the northern extent of their range. Supplemented pairs fledged on average 47% more owlets than unfed pairs, except during a year when natural food was not limiting (i.e., a prey irruption year). The difference in fledgling production resulted from high nestling mortality in unfed broods, with 96% of all nestling deaths being attributed to food shortage. Supplemental feeding during the nestling period also increased fledgling structural size. Pairs fed from the start of laying produced the same number of hatchlings as pairs that received no supplemental food before hatch. Furthermore, pairs supplemented from egg laying to fledging and pairs supplemented during the nestling period alone had the same patterns of nestling survival, equal numbers of fledglings, and similar fledgling mass and structural size. Our results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that the nestling period is the most food-limited phase of the breeding cycle. The experimental design we introduce here could be used with other altricial species to examine how the timing of food limitation differs among birds with a variety of life-history strategies. For burrowing owls, and other species with similar life histories, long-term, large-scale, and appropriately timed habitat management increasing prey abundance or availability is critical for conservation. Our results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that the nestling period is

  6. Chromium supplements for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: limited evidence of effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Johanna T.; Bailey, Regan L.

    2016-01-01

    Some adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) believe that chromium-containing supplements will help control their disease, but the evidence is mixed. This narrative review examines the efficacy of chromium supplements for improving glycemic control as measured by decreases in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Using systematic search criteria, 20 randomized controlled trials of chromium supplementation in T2DM patients were identified. Clinically meaningful treatment goals were defined as an FPG of ≤7.2 mmol/dL, a decline in HbA1c to ≤7%, or a decrease of ≥0.5% in HbA1c. In only a few randomized controlled trials did FPG (5 of 20), HbA1c (3 of 14), or both (1 of 14) reach the treatment goals with chromium supplementation. HbA1c declined by ≥0.5% in 5 of 14 studies. On the basis of the low strength of existing evidence, chromium supplements have limited effectiveness, and there is little rationale to recommend their use for glycemic control in patients with existing T2DM. Future meta-analyses should include only high-quality studies with similar forms of chromium and comparable inclusion/exclusion criteria to provide scientifically sound recommendations for clinicians. PMID:27261273

  7. Chromium supplements for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: limited evidence of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Costello, Rebecca B; Dwyer, Johanna T; Bailey, Regan L

    2016-07-01

    Some adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) believe that chromium-containing supplements will help control their disease, but the evidence is mixed. This narrative review examines the efficacy of chromium supplements for improving glycemic control as measured by decreases in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Using systematic search criteria, 20 randomized controlled trials of chromium supplementation in T2DM patients were identified. Clinically meaningful treatment goals were defined as an FPG of ≤7.2 mmol/dL, a decline in HbA1c to ≤7%, or a decrease of ≥0.5% in HbA1c. In only a few randomized controlled trials did FPG (5 of 20), HbA1c (3 of 14), or both (1 of 14) reach the treatment goals with chromium supplementation. HbA1c declined by ≥0.5% in 5 of 14 studies. On the basis of the low strength of existing evidence, chromium supplements have limited effectiveness, and there is little rationale to recommend their use for glycemic control in patients with existing T2DM. Future meta-analyses should include only high-quality studies with similar forms of chromium and comparable inclusion/exclusion criteria to provide scientifically sound recommendations for clinicians.

  8. Comparative drug release measurements in limited amounts of liquid: a suppository formulation study.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ken; Ek, Ragnar; Strømme, Maria

    2006-07-01

    A novel method for the investigation of drug formulations in limited liquid volumes is presented. The experimental setup consists of a measurement cell containing an absorbent sponge cloth placed between two parallel electrodes. Conductivity measurements are used to monitor the drug release from the dosage form. By varying the amount of water contained in the absorbent cloth surrounding the dosage form, it is possible to measure the drug release performance of the dosage form in very limited amounts of water. The method was employed to test four different tablet formulations consisting of the model drug NaCl incorporated in excipient matrices of hard fat, polyethylene glycol, microcrystalline cellulose and a mixture of microcrystalline cellulose and croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol). The drug release rates of the different formulations in limited water volumes differed markedly from the release rates in an excess of water. Whereas the release rates from all tablet types in an excess of water showed only minor differences among the tablet types, the release rates from the tablets formulated with disintegrating excipients were clearly superior in limited water volumes. The developed method for drug release in limited volumes of liquid should be suitable for evaluation of rectal dosage forms.

  9. [Protein utilization in lysine-supplemented barley protein and effectiveness of the limiting amino acid lysine in growing pigs].

    PubMed

    Wecke, C; Gebhardt, G

    1982-04-01

    In 57 N-balance experiments with castrated male pigs (20 ... 65 kg live weight) the influence of graded lysine supplements to crushed barley enriched with energy, minerals and vitamins on nitrogen metabolism and lysine effectiveness was tested. Close correlative relations between lysine concentration and the b-value, the NPU-value, N-balance and N-excretion in urine could be detected. In agreement with the law of minimum a constant lysine effectiveness could be observed within the limiting range. The supplemented synthetic lysine distinguished itself by the same effectiveness as the protein-bound barley lysine. When barley supplemented with lysine is used, an amount of lysine supplement should be chosen from the point of view of nutrition physiology which raises the total lysine content to a maximum level of 6.3 g/16 g N because lysine supplementation exceeding this value without the simultaneous supplementation of limiting threonine remains ineffective.

  10. Maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation has limited impact on micronutrient status of Bangladeshi infants compared with standard iron and folic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Eneroth, Hanna; El Arifeen, Shams; Persson, Lars-Ake; Lönnerdal, Bo; Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Stephensen, Charles B; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge about the impact of maternal food and micronutrient supplementation on infant micronutrient status is limited. We examined the effect of maternal food and micronutrient supplementation on infant micronutrient status in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab Trial. Pregnant women (n = 4436) were randomized to Early or Usual promotion of enrollment in a food supplementation program. In addition, they were randomly allocated to 1 of the following 3 types of daily micronutrient supplements provided from wk 14 of gestation to 3 mo postpartum: 1) folic acid and 30 mg iron (Fe30Fol); 2) folic acid and 60 mg iron; or 3) a multiple micronutrient including folic acid and 30 mg iron (MMS). At 6 mo, infant blood samples (n = 1066) were collected and analyzed for hemoglobin and plasma ferritin, zinc, retinol, vitamin B-12, and folate. The vitamin B-12 concentration differed between the micronutrient supplementation groups (P = 0.049). The prevalence of vitamin B-12 deficiency was lower in the MMS group (26.1%) than in the Fe30Fol group (36.5%) (P = 0.003). The prevalence of zinc deficiency was lower in the Usual food supplementation group (54.1%) than in the Early group (60.2%) (P = 0.046). There were no other differential effects according to food or micronutrient supplementation groups. We conclude that maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation may have a beneficial effect on vitamin B-12 status in infancy.

  11. Maternal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation Has Limited Impact on Micronutrient Status of Bangladeshi Infants Compared with Standard Iron Folic Acid Supplementation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We examined the impact of type of maternal micronutrient supplement, time of introduction of a prenatal food supplement and the two interventions combined on micronutrient status of infants in rural Bangladesh. In a community trial, 4436 pregnant women were randomized to Early or Usual start of food...

  12. Press releases issued by supplements industry organisations and non-industry organisations in response to publication of clinical research findings: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michael T M; Gamble, Greg; Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplement use is increasing despite lack of evidence of benefits, or evidence of harm. Press releases issued by the supplements industry might contribute to this situation by using 'spin' (strategies to hype or denigrate findings) to distort the results of clinical studies. We assessed press releases issued in response to publication of clinical studies on dietary supplements. We analyzed 47 supplements industry press releases and 91 non-industry press releases and news stories, generated in response to 46 clinical studies of dietary supplements published between 1/1/2005 and 5/31/2013. The primary outcome was 'spin' content and direction. We also assessed disposition towards use of dietary supplements, reporting of study information, and dissemination of industry press releases. More supplements industry press releases (100%) contained 'spin' than non-industry media documents (55%, P<0.001). Hyping 'spin' scores were higher in industry than non-industry media documents for studies reporting benefit of supplements (median 'spin' score 3.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.5 vs 0.5, 0-1.0; P<0.001). Denigratory 'spin' scores were higher in industry than non-industry media documents for studies reporting no effect (6.0, 5.0-7.0 vs 0, 0-0; P<0.001) or harm (6.0, 5.5-7.5 vs 0, 0-0.5; P<0.001) from a supplement. Industry press releases advocated supplement use in response to >90% of studies that reported no benefit, or harm, of the supplement. Industry press releases less frequently reported study outcomes, sample size, and estimates of effect size than non-industry media documents (all P<0.001), particularly for studies that reported no benefit of supplements. Industry press releases were referenced by 148 news stories on the websites of 6 organizations that inform manufacturers, retailers and consumers of supplements. Dietary supplements industry press releases issued in response to clinical research findings are characterized by 'spin' that hypes results that are favourable to

  13. Press Releases Issued by Supplements Industry Organisations and Non-Industry Organisations in Response to Publication of Clinical Research Findings: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Michael T. M.; Gamble, Greg; Bolland, Mark J.; Grey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary supplement use is increasing despite lack of evidence of benefits, or evidence of harm. Press releases issued by the supplements industry might contribute to this situation by using ‘spin’ (strategies to hype or denigrate findings) to distort the results of clinical studies. We assessed press releases issued in response to publication of clinical studies on dietary supplements. Methods and Findings We analyzed 47 supplements industry press releases and 91 non-industry press releases and news stories, generated in response to 46 clinical studies of dietary supplements published between 1/1/2005 and 5/31/2013. The primary outcome was ‘spin’ content and direction. We also assessed disposition towards use of dietary supplements, reporting of study information, and dissemination of industry press releases. More supplements industry press releases (100%) contained ‘spin’ than non-industry media documents (55%, P<0.001). Hyping ‘spin’ scores were higher in industry than non-industry media documents for studies reporting benefit of supplements (median ‘spin’ score 3.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.5 vs 0.5, 0–1.0; P<0.001). Denigratory ‘spin’ scores were higher in industry than non-industry media documents for studies reporting no effect (6.0, 5.0–7.0 vs 0, 0–0; P<0.001) or harm (6.0, 5.5–7.5 vs 0, 0–0.5; P<0.001) from a supplement. Industry press releases advocated supplement use in response to >90% of studies that reported no benefit, or harm, of the supplement. Industry press releases less frequently reported study outcomes, sample size, and estimates of effect size than non-industry media documents (all P<0.001), particularly for studies that reported no benefit of supplements. Industry press releases were referenced by 148 news stories on the websites of 6 organizations that inform manufacturers, retailers and consumers of supplements. Conclusions Dietary supplements industry press releases issued in response to clinical research

  14. Functional limitations among home health care users in the National Health Interview Survey Supplement on Aging.

    PubMed

    Fredman, L; Droge, J A; Rabin, D L

    1992-10-01

    A case-control study compared home health care (HHC) users from the 1984 Supplement on Aging to users of other community services and of no community service, matched on age and gender. Examination of specific activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and sociodemographic variables showed that HHC users were significantly more limited than controls in every ADL and IADL. In multivariate analyses, HHC use was significantly associated with three ADLs (dressing, going outside, bathing), two IADLs (shopping, heavy housework), and poor health status.

  15. Dissolution of xylitol from a food supplement administered with a novel slow-release pacifier: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Taipale, T; Pienihakkinen, K; Alanen, P; Jokela, J; Söderling, E

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor the pattern of release and salivary xylitol concentrations during sucking of a slow-release pacifier used to deliver a novel food supplement. The food supplement tablet contained 300 mg xylitol and 0.5 x 10(10) colony-forming units of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12). The reference tablet contained 300 mg xylitol and was used by 10 adults (mean age 32 years) in the study. Whole saliva samples were collected with 2.5 min intervals during pacifier sucking. The salivary xylitol concentrations were determined using an enzyme assay kit. All subjects showed salivary xylitol concentrations exceeding 1% at least at one collection point. The xylitol and xylitol-Bb-12 tablets showed similar dissolving with no clear concentration peaks (comparison of saliva collection times; p = 0.139). Xylitol released from the food supplement, delivered with the novel pacifier, may result in salivary xylitol concentrations high enough to inhibit mutans streptococci in vivo.

  16. Kinetics of silver release from microfuel with taking into account the limited-solubility effect

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. S. Rusinkevich, A. A.

    2014-12-15

    The effect of a limited solubility of silver in silicon carbide on silver release from a microfuel with a TRISO coating is studied. It is shown that a limited solubility affects substantially both concentration profiles and silver release from a microfuel over a broad range of temperatures. A procedure is developed for obtaining fission-product concentration profiles in a microfuel and graphs representing the flow and integrated release of fission products on the basis of data from neutron-physics calculations and results obtained by calculating thermodynamics with the aid of the Ivtanthermo code and kinetics with the aid of the FP-Kinetics code. This procedure takes into account a limited solubility of fission products in protective coatings of microfuel.

  17. Release from limitation: Exploring phytoplankton nutrient limitation and community shifts in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, S.; D'Souza, N.; Subramaniam, A.; Juhl, A. R.; Montoya, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    The offshore surface waters of the Northern Gulf of Mexico are predominantly oligotrophic, though nutrients are supplied episodically by the offshore extension of the Mississippi River Plume as well as upwelling events associated with loop-current eddies. The many natural oil/gas seeps in the Northern Gulf can also enhance nutrient availability by promoting vertical mixing and the movement of water and nutrients across the thermocline and into the surface mixed layer. We carried out a series of microcosm experiments to explore nutrient limitation of native phytoplankton communities across a range of offshore habitats in the Northern Gulf of Mexico during a cruise in 2012. In brief, we amended surface seawater with nitrate, phosphate, and silicate at Redfield ratios in a factorial design experiment. We used a combination of flow cytometery, Aquatic Laser Fluorescence measurements, and nutrient measurements to quantify shifts in phytoplankton community abundance and composition, phytoplankton physiological state, and nutrient consumption over the course of a multi-day experiment. Biomass measurements showed co-limitation of phytoplankton by nitrate + phosphate, with clear responses from diatoms in our silicate amendment treatments. Time course analyses of pigment fluorescence reflected differential responses by different phytoplankton taxa, including cyanobacteria, cryptophytes, and diatoms.

  18. Improving Nutrition by Limiting Choice in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

    PubMed

    Klerman, Jacob A; Collins, Ann M; Olsho, Lauren E W

    2017-02-01

    In contrast to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) currently allows the purchase of almost any food. This paper reconsiders the role of two forms of limiting choice in SNAP. Using economic theory, descriptive analysis of survey data, and discussion of random assignment evaluation evidence from the Summer Electronic Benefit Transfer for Children Demonstration, the paper argues that because households can substitute cash for SNAP, banning the use of SNAP for less nutritionally desirable foods (e.g., soda, candy) is unlikely to have a large impact. By contrast, because many households currently consume so little of more nutritionally desirable foods (e.g., whole grains, fruits, and vegetables), requiring that some portion of SNAP benefits be spent on those foods is likely to improve dietary intake. Summer Electronic Benefit Transfer for Children Demonstration impact estimates are consistent with this conjecture. Furthermore, these data and evidence from the Healthy Incentives Pilot implementation suggest that such a policy can be feasibly integrated into existing operational processes.

  19. Overcoming limitations in nanoparticle drug delivery: triggered, intravascular release to improve drug penetration into tumors

    PubMed Central

    Manzoor, Ashley A.; Lindner, Lars H.; Landon, Chelsea D.; Park, Ji-Young; Simnick, Andrew J.; Dreher, Matthew R.; Das, Shiva; Hanna, Gabi; Park, Won; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Koning, Gerben A.; Hagen, Timo L.M. ten; Needham, David; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, the goal of nanoparticle-based chemotherapy has been to decrease normal tissue toxicity by improving drug specificity to tumors. The EPR effect (Enhanced Permeability and Retention) can permit passive accumulation into tumor interstitium. However, suboptimal delivery is achieved with most nanoparticles because of heterogeneities of vascular permeability, which limits nanoparticle penetration. Further, slow drug release limits bioavailability. We developed a fast drug-releasing liposome triggered by local heat that has already shown substantial anti-tumor efficacy and is in human trials. Here, we demonstrate that thermally sensitive liposomes release doxorubicin inside the tumor vasculature. Real-time confocal imaging of doxorubicin delivery to murine tumors in window chambers and histologic analysis of flank tumors illustrates that intravascular drug release increases free drug in the interstitial space. This increases both the time that tumor cells are exposed to maximum drug levels and the drug penetration distance, compared with free drug or traditional pegylated liposomes. These improvements in drug bioavailability establish a new paradigm in drug delivery: rapidly triggered drug release in the tumor bloodstream. PMID:22952218

  20. 77 FR 71587 - Badger Creek Limited; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Badger Creek Limited; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Badger Creek Limited's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  1. Arsenic release metabolically limited to permanently water-saturated soil in Mekong Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuckey, Jason W.; Schaefer, Michael V.; Kocar, Benjamin D.; Benner, Shawn G.; Fendorf, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Microbial reduction of arsenic-bearing iron oxides in the deltas of South and Southeast Asia produces widespread arsenic-contaminated groundwater. Organic carbon is abundant both at the surface and within aquifers, but the source of organic carbon used by microbes in the reduction and release of arsenic has been debated, as has the wetland type and sedimentary depth where release occurs. Here we present data from fresh-sediment incubations, in situ model sediment incubations and a controlled field experiment with manipulated wetland hydrology and organic carbon inputs. We find that in the minimally disturbed Mekong Delta, arsenic release is limited to near-surface sediments of permanently saturated wetlands where both organic carbon and arsenic-bearing solids are sufficiently reactive for microbial oxidation of organic carbon and reduction of arsenic-bearing iron oxides. In contrast, within the deeper aquifer or seasonally saturated sediments, reductive dissolution of iron oxides is observed only when either more reactive exogenous forms of iron oxides or organic carbon are added, revealing a potential thermodynamic restriction to microbial metabolism. We conclude that microbial arsenic release is limited by the reactivity of arsenic-bearing iron oxides with respect to native organic carbon, but equally limited by organic carbon reactivity with respect to the native arsenic-bearing iron oxides.

  2. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites: Methodology and data base. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1996-06-01

    This manual describes a dose assessment system used to estimate the population or collective dose commitments received via both airborne and waterborne pathways by persons living within a 2- to 80-kilometer region of a commercial operating power reactor for a specific year of effluent releases. Computer programs, data files, and utility routines are included which can be used in conjunction with an IBM or compatible personal computer to produce the required dose commitments and their statistical distributions. In addition, maximum individual airborne and waterborne dose commitments are estimated and compared to 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix 1, design objectives. This supplement is the last report in the NUREG/CR-2850 series.

  3. ICCS 2009 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 5: ICCS 2009 Released Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brese, Falk; Jung, Michael; Mirazchiyski, Plamen; Schulz, Wolfram; Zuehlke, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    This document contains released items used in the ICCS 2009 main survey. Seven clusters of items were used in the study in a rotated booklet design with three clusters per test booklet. Clusters 1 and 7 comprise the released item set. Cluster 1 comprises items that were newly developed for ICCS 2009 and Cluster 7 is drawn from previously secure…

  4. [Effects of limited supplemental irrigation with catchment rainfall on potato growth in rainfed areas of western Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Qin, Shu-Hao; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Pu, Yu-Lin

    2009-11-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of limited supplemental irrigation with catchment rainfall on the growth of potato cultivars Daxiyang and Tongshu 23 in rainfed areas of western Loess Plateau. Supplemental irrigation with catchment rainfall at seedling stage increased the potato yield significantly, and the increment was higher for Daxiyang than for Tongshu No. 23. Supplemental irrigation at tuber expanding stage increased the yield of Tongshu 23, but decreased the yield of Daxiyang. Low amount of supplemental irrigation (45 mm) increased the water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) of Tongshu 23. For Daxiyang, its WUE and IWUE were higher when the supplemental irrigation was made at seedling stage than at tuber expanding stage. Supplemental irrigation increased the tuber yield and the percentages of bigger and medium tubers of Tongshu 23, but the percentages of green and blet tubers were also increased. As for Daxiyang, supplemental irrigation increased the percentages of bigger and smaller tubers, as well as the percentage of blet tuber.

  5. DNA Barcoding for the Identification of Botanicals in Herbal Medicine and Dietary Supplements: Strengths and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Iffat; Gafner, Stefan; Techen, Natascha; Murch, Susan J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-09-01

    In the past decades, the use of traditional medicine has increased globally, leading to a booming herbal medicine and dietary supplement industry. The increased popularity of herbal products has led to a rise in demand for botanical raw materials. Accurate identification of medicinal herbs is a legal requirement in most countries and prerequisite for delivering a quality product that meets consumer expectations. Traditional identification methods include botanical taxonomy, macroscopic and microscopic examination, and chemical methods. Advances in the identification of biological species using DNA-based techniques have led to the development of a DNA marker-based platform for authentication of plant materials. DNA barcoding, in particular, has been proposed as a means to identify herbal ingredients and to detect adulteration. However, general barcoding techniques using universal primers have been shown to provide mixed results with regard to data accuracy. Further technological advances such as mini-barcodes, digital polymerase chain reaction, and next generation sequencing provide additional tools for the authentication of herbs, and may be successful in identifying processed ingredients used in finished herbal products. This review gives an overview on the strengths and limitations of DNA barcoding techniques for botanical ingredient identification. Based on the available information, we do not recommend the use of universal primers for DNA barcoding of processed plant material as a sole means of species identification, but suggest an approach combining DNA-based methods using genus- or species-specific primers, chemical analysis, and microscopic and macroscopic methods for the successful authentication of botanical ingredients used in the herbal dietary supplement industry. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Anticancer Drug Released from Near IR-activated Prodrug Overcomes Spatiotemporal Limits of Singlet Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Rajaputra, Pallavi; Bio, Moses; Nkepang, Gregory; Thapa, Pritam; Woo, Sukyung; You, Youngjae

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality where photosensitizer (PS) is activated by visible and near IR light to produce singlet oxygen (1O2). However, 1O2 has a short lifetime (< 40 ns) and cannot diffuse (< 20 nm) beyond the cell diameter (e.g., ~ 1,800 nm). Thus, 1O2 damage is both spatially and temporally limited and does not produce bystander effect. In a heterogeneous tumor, cells escaping 1O2 damage can regrow after PDT treatment. To overcome these limitations, we developed a prodrug concept (PS-L-D) composed of a photosensitizer (PS), an anti-cancer drug (D), and an 1O2-cleavable linker (L). Upon illumination of the prodrug, 1O2 is generated, which damages the tumor and also releases anticancer drug. The locally released drug could cause spatially broader and temporally sustained damage, killing the surviving cancer cells after the PDT damage. In our previous report, we presented the superior activity of our prodrug of CA4 (combretastatin A-4), Pc-(L-CA4)2, compared to its non-cleavable analog, Pc-(NCL-CA4)2, that produced only PDT effects. Here, we provide clear evidence demonstrating that the released anticancer drug, CA4, indeed damages the surviving cancer cells over and beyond the spatial and temporal limits of 1O2. In the limited light illumination experiment, cells in the entire well were killed due to the effect of released anticancer drug, whereas only a partial damage was observed in the pseudo-prodrug treated wells. A time-dependent cell survival study showed more cell death in the prodrug-treated cells due to the sustained damage by the released CA4. Cell cycle analysis and microscopic imaging data demonstrated the typical damage patterns by CA4 in the prodrug treated cells. A time-dependent histological study showed that prodrug-treated tumors lacked mitotic bodies, and the prodrug caused broader and sustained tumor size reduction compared to those seen in the tumors treated with the pseudo-prodrug. This data consistently

  7. Anticancer drug released from near IR-activated prodrug overcomes spatiotemporal limits of singlet oxygen.

    PubMed

    Rajaputra, Pallavi; Bio, Moses; Nkepang, Gregory; Thapa, Pritam; Woo, Sukyung; You, Youngjae

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment modality where photosensitizer (PS) is activated by visible and near IR light to produce singlet oxygen ((1)O2). However, (1)O2 has a short lifetime (<40 ns) and cannot diffuse (<20 nm) beyond the cell diameter (e.g., ∼ 1800 nm). Thus, (1)O2 damage is both spatially and temporally limited and does not produce bystander effect. In a heterogeneous tumor, cells escaping (1)O2 damage can regrow after PDT treatment. To overcome these limitations, we developed a prodrug concept (PS-L-D) composed of a photosensitizer (PS), an anti-cancer drug (D), and an (1)O2-cleavable linker (L). Upon illumination of the prodrug, (1)O2 is generated, which damages the tumor and also releases anticancer drug. The locally released drug could cause spatially broader and temporally sustained damage, killing the surviving cancer cells after the PDT damage. In our previous report, we presented the superior activity of our prodrug of CA4 (combretastatin A-4), Pc-(L-CA4)2, compared to its non-cleavable analog, Pc-(NCL-CA4)2, that produced only PDT effects. Here, we provide clear evidence demonstrating that the released anticancer drug, CA4, indeed damages the surviving cancer cells over and beyond the spatial and temporal limits of (1)O2. In the limited light illumination experiment, cells in the entire well were killed due to the effect of released anti-cancer drug, whereas only a partial damage was observed in the pseudo-prodrug treated wells. A time-dependent cell survival study showed more cell death in the prodrug-treated cells due to the sustained damage by the released CA4. Cell cycle analysis and microscopic imaging data demonstrated the typical damage patterns by CA4 in the prodrug treated cells. A time-dependent histological study showed that prodrug-treated tumors lacked mitotic bodies, and the prodrug caused broader and sustained tumor size reduction compared to those seen in the tumors treated with the pseudo-prodrug. This data

  8. Supplements to the release scenario analyses for the waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, F. W.; Merritt, M. L.; Tierney, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    This paper summarizes three analyses of long-term environmental impacts of the WIPP that were made subsequent to the publication of the DEIS in response to agency and public comments. Three supplemental scenarios are described in which activity is transported to the biosphere by groundwater. The scenarios are entitled: brine pocket rupture scenario, effects of water on domestic wells; and agricultural use of the Pecos River Water.

  9. Extensive gut metabolism limits the intestinal absorption of excessive supplemental dietary glutamate loads in infant pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glutamate (Glu) is a major intestinal oxidative fuel, key neurotransmitter, and may be a useful dietary supplement to augment health of the infant gut. We quantified the metabolic fate of various supplemental dietary Glu intakes in young pigs surgically implanted with vascular, intraduodenal (ID), o...

  10. SUPPLEMENT TO EPA COMPENDIUM METHOD TO-15 - REDUCTION OF METHOD DETECTION LIMITS TO MEET VAPOR INTRUSION MONITORING NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Supplement to EPA Compendium Method TO-15 provides guidance for reducing the method detection limit (MDL) for the compound 1,1- dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) and for other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 0.5 ppbv, as cited in Method TO-15, to much lower concentrations. R...

  11. SUPPLEMENT TO EPA COMPENDIUM METHOD TO-15 - REDUCTION OF METHOD DETECTION LIMITS TO MEET VAPOR INTRUSION MONITORING NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Supplement to EPA Compendium Method TO-15 provides guidance for reducing the method detection limit (MDL) for the compound 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) and for other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 0.5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), as cited in Method TO-15, to ...

  12. SUPPLEMENT TO EPA COMPENDIUM METHOD TO-15 - REDUCTION OF METHOD DETECTION LIMITS TO MEET VAPOR INTRUSION MONITORING NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Supplement to EPA Compendium Method TO-15 provides guidance for reducing the method detection limit (MDL) for the compound 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) and for other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 0.5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), as cited in Method TO-15, to ...

  13. SUPPLEMENT TO EPA COMPENDIUM METHOD TO-15 - REDUCTION OF METHOD DETECTION LIMITS TO MEET VAPOR INTRUSION MONITORING NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Supplement to EPA Compendium Method TO-15 provides guidance for reducing the method detection limit (MDL) for the compound 1,1- dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) and for other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 0.5 ppbv, as cited in Method TO-15, to much lower concentrations. R...

  14. Torque-Limiting Infinitely-Variable CAM Release Mechanism for a Rotatable Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moetteli, John B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention relates to a mechanism for permitting convenient manual or servo-powered control of a boom assembly, which is rotatably positionable about yaw and pitch axes by means of releasably locking, yaw and pitch torque-limiting mechanisms, each of which may be locked, unlocked, and positioned by respective yaw and pitch levers. The boom may be longitudinally projected and withdrawn by rotating a boom extension/retraction crank. Torque limiting is provided by spring loaded clutch mechanisms, whereby positioning forces applied to the handles are effective to move the boom unless overcome by greater opposing forces, sufficient to overcome the torque applied by the torque limiting clutch mechanisms. In operation, a structure positionable by the invention (e.g., and end-effector or robot arm) may be rotatably moved about yaw and pitch axes by moving a selected one of the three levers.

  15. [Release and supplement of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from jellyfish (Nemopilema nomurai) decomposition in seawater].

    PubMed

    Qu, Chang-feng; Song, Jin-ming; Li, Ning; Li, Xue-gang; Yuan, Hua-mao; Duan, Li-qin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Jellyfish bloom has been increasing in Chinese seas and decomposition after jellyfish bloom has great influences on marine ecological environment. We conducted the incubation of Nemopilema nomurai decomposing to evaluate its effect on carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus recycling of water column by simulated experiments. The results showed that the processes of jellyfish decomposing represented a fast release of biogenic elements, and the release of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus reached the maximum at the beginning of jellyfish decomposing. The release of biogenic elements from jellyfish decomposition was dominated by dissolved matter, which had a much higher level than particulate matter. The highest net release rates of dissolved organic carbon and particulate organic carbon reached (103.77 ± 12.60) and (1.52 ± 0.37) mg · kg⁻¹ · h⁻¹, respectively. The dissolved nitrogen was dominated by NH₄⁺-N during the whole incubation time, accounting for 69.6%-91.6% of total dissolved nitrogen, whereas the dissolved phosphorus was dominated by dissolved organic phosphorus during the initial stage of decomposition, being 63.9%-86.7% of total dissolved phosphorus and dominated by PO₄³⁻-P during the late stage of decomposition, being 50.4%-60.2%. On the contrary, the particulate nitrogen was mainly in particulate organic nitrogen, accounting for (88.6 ± 6.9) % of total particulate nitrogen, whereas the particulate phosphorus was mainly in particulate. inorganic phosphorus, accounting for (73.9 ±10.5) % of total particulate phosphorus. In addition, jellyfish decomposition decreased the C/N and increased the N/P of water column. These indicated that jellyfish decomposition could result in relative high carbon and nitrogen loads.

  16. Repeated supra-maximal sprint cycling with and without sodium bicarbonate supplementation induces endothelial microparticle release.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Richard J; Peart, Daniel J; Madden, Leigh A; Vince, Rebecca V

    2014-01-01

    Under normal homeostatic conditions, the endothelium releases microparticles (MPs), which are known to increase under stressful conditions and in disease states. CD105 (endoglin) and CD106 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) are expressed on the surface of endothelial cells and increased expression in response to stress may be observed. A randomised-controlled double-blinded study aimed to examine the use of endothelial MPs as a marker for the state of one's endothelium, as well as whether maintaining acid-base homeostasis affects the release of these MPs. This study tested seven healthy male volunteers, who completed a strenuous cycling protocol, with venous blood analysed for CD105+ and CD106+ MPs by flow cytometry at regular intervals. Prior to each trial participants consumed either 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), or 0.045 g·kg(-1) body mass of sodium chloride (NaCl). A significant rise in endothelial CD105+ MPs and CD106+ MPs (p<0.05) was observed at 90 min post-exercise. A significant trend was shown for these MPs to return to resting levels 180 min post-exercise in both groups. No significance was found between experimental groups, suggesting that maintaining acid-base variables closer to basal levels has little effect upon the endothelial stress response for this particular exercise mode. In conclusion, strenuous exercise is accompanied by MP release and the endothelium is able to rapidly recover in healthy individuals, whilst maintaining acid-base homeostasis does not attenuate the MP release from the endothelium after exercise.

  17. Release limits and decontamination efficacy for tritium: lessons learned outside nuclear power operations.

    PubMed

    Waller, Edward J; Cole, David; Jamieson, Terry

    2007-11-01

    Various pieces of equipment in use by the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) contain radiation-emitting components. One such piece is a sight knob used on light artillery. At the request of the DND's Director General Nuclear Safety (DGNS-DND's internal nuclear regulatory agency), the authors were contacted to remove the luminous tritium-impregnated paint strip from over 300 sight knobs. This paper discusses the physical description of the sight knobs, the protocol developed for decontaminating the sight knobs, the rationale for the release limits used, and experience gained in using and modifying the decontamination protocol.

  18. Skeletal benefits from calcium supplementation are limited in children with calcium intakes near 800 mg daily.

    PubMed

    Iuliano-Burns, S; Wang, X-F; Evans, A; Bonjour, J-P; Seeman, E

    2006-12-01

    Calcium supplementation enhances bone mass accrual during administration, with a sustained benefit observed using milk-based calcium but not calcium salts. We tested the hypothesis that calcium from milk minerals but not calcium carbonate will be sustained after supplementation was discontinued. Ninety-nine pre-pubertal boys and girls aged 5-11 years were followed for 12 months after being randomized to receive 800 mg/day of calcium from milk minerals (MM) or calcium carbonate (CC), or a placebo (Pla) in a 10-month double blind study. Total body and regional BMC, and femoral shaft bone dimensions were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Group differences were determined using ANCOVA. In the intention to treat analysis of the entire sample, no group differences were observed in increments in BMC or bone dimensions during or after supplementation. In those children who remained pre-pubertal, greater gains in pelvis BMC in the milk mineral group than controls were sustained (37.9 versus 29.3% respectively, p<0.02). In healthy children consuming about 800 mg calcium daily, calcium supplementation with milk minerals or calcium carbonate does not appear to be produce biologically meaningful benefits to skeletal health. A benefit of calcium supplementation in pre-pubertal was evident, but inconclusive, with the biological significance of the effect of calcium supplementation at the pelvis, and the longevity of this effect to be determined.

  19. Limits on the thermal energy release from radioactive wastes in a mined geologic repository

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The theraml energy release of nuclear wastes is a major factor in the design of geologic repositories. Thermal limits need to be placed on various aspets of the geologic waste disposal system to avoid or retard the degradation of repository performance because of increased temperatures. The thermal limits in current use today are summarized in this report. These limits are placed in a hierarchial structure of thermal criteria consistent with the failure mechanism they are trying to prevent. The thermal criteria hierarchy is used to evaluate the thermal performance of a sample repository design. The design consists of disassembled BWR spent fuel, aged 10 years, close packed in a carbon steel canister with 15 cm of crushed salt backfill. The medium is bedded salt. The most-restrictive temperature for this design is the spent-fuel centerline temperature limit of 300/sup 0/C. A sensitivity study on the effects of additional cooling prior to disposal on repository thermal limits and design is performed.

  20. Mineral stimulation of subsurface microorganisms: release of limiting nutrients from silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roger, Jennifer Roberts; Bennett, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    accelerated weathering and release of Si into solution as well as the accelerated degradation of the model substrate 3,4 DHBA. We propose that silicate-bound P and Fe inclusions are bioavailable, and microorganisms may use organic ligands to dissolve the silicate matrix and access these otherwise limiting nutrients.

  1. Analytical performance and clinical decision limit of a new release for cardiac troponin I assay.

    PubMed

    Moretti, M; Pieretti, B; Sisti, D; Rocchi, Mb; Gasperoni, S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac troponins (cTns) are the 'gold standard' biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of acute coronary syndrome. Analytical performance is critical at low concentrations of cTn, and many of the current assays do not meet the guideline requirement of a 10% coefficient of variation (CV) at the 99th percentile concentrations. The aim of the study was to establish if the newly released Access® AccuTnI®+3 (AccuTnI+3) cardiac troponin I assay (Beckman Coulter Inc., Brea, CA, USA) reached this objective. All AccuTnI+3 assays were performed on UniCel® DxI800 analyzer (Beckman Coulter Inc). Limit of Blank (LoB), Limit of Detection (LoD) and Limit of Quantitation (LoQ) were determined according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute EP17-A and EP5-A2 protocols. The 99th percentile upper reference limit (URL) was determined by analysing serum samples from 330 apparently healthy blood donors (260 men, 70 women, age range 18-70 years, median age 36 years). LoB and LoD values were 2.6 and 12 ng/L, respectively. The 10% CV was at 18 ng/L (95% confidence interval [CI] 8-25). The 99th percentile URL was 22 ng/L (95% CI 11-34). The newly released assay has improved low-end analytical performance and reaches the goal of having a total imprecision ≤ 10% at 99th percentile of a healthy reference population (guideline acceptable). With this assay, it is now possible to utilize the 99th percentile as decision level for myocardial injury detection. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Technical Note: Daily variation in intake of a salt-limited supplement by grazing steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to develop and test an automated supplement intake measurement system (SmartFeed, SF) in grazing trials. The SF was developed by C-lock Inc., (Rapid City, SD), and was designed using a stainless steel feed bin with load cells and an radio frequency identification ...

  3. Nitrogen Limitation Promotes Accumulation and Suppresses Release of Cylindrospermopsins in Cells of Aphanizomenon Sp.

    PubMed Central

    Preußel, Karina; Chorus, Ingrid; Fastner, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    As the biosynthesis of cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is assumed to depend on nitrogen availability, this study investigated the impact of nitrogen availability on intra- and extracellular CYN and deoxy-CYN (D-CYN) contents in three Aphanizomenon strains from temperate waters. Nitrogen deficient (−N) cultures showed a prolonged growth phase and intracellular toxin accumulation by a factor of 2–6. In contrast, cultures with additional nitrate supply (+N) did not accumulate CYN within the cells. Instead, the maximum conceivable CYN release estimated for dead cells (identified by SYTOX® Green staining) was much lower than the concentrations of dissolved CYN actually observed, suggesting these cultures actively release CYN from intact cells. Furthermore, we found remarkably altered proportions of CYN to D-CYN: as batch cultures grew, the proportion of D-CYN increased by up to 40% in +N medium, whereas D-CYN remained constant or decreased slightly in −N medium. Since +N cultures showed similar toxin patterns as −P cultures with increased extracellular CYNs and higher proportion of D-CYN we conclude that nitrogen limitation may affect the way the cells economize resources, especially the yield from phosphorus pools, and that this has an impact on CYN production and release. For water management, these result imply that nutrient availability not only determines the abundance of potentially CYN-producing cyanobacteria, but also the amount of extracellular CYNs (challenging drinking-water treatment) as well as the ratio of D-CYN to CYN (affecting toxicity). PMID:25271784

  4. What is Rate-Limiting during Sustained Synaptic Activity: Vesicle Supply or the Availability of Release Sites

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    For some types of synapses the availability of release-ready vesicles is a limiting factor during ongoing activity. Synaptic strength in this case is determined both by the recruitment of such vesicles and the probability of their release during an action potential. Here it is argued that not the availability of vesicles is the limiting factor for recruitment, but rather the availability of specific sites to which vesicles can dock. PMID:21423530

  5. Encapsulation, protection, and release of hydrophilic active components: potential and limitations of colloidal delivery systems.

    PubMed

    McClements, David Julian

    2015-05-01

    There have been major advances in the development of edible colloidal delivery systems for hydrophobic bioactives in recent years. However, there are still many challenges associated with the development of effective delivery systems for hydrophilic bioactives. This review highlights the major challenges associated with developing colloidal delivery systems for hydrophilic bioactive components that can be utilized in foods, pharmaceuticals, and other products intended for oral ingestion. Special emphasis is given to the fundamental physicochemical phenomena associated with encapsulation, stabilization, and release of these bioactive components, such as solubility, partitioning, barriers, and mass transport processes. Delivery systems suitable for encapsulating hydrophilic bioactive components are then reviewed, including liposomes, multiple emulsions, solid fat particles, multiple emulsions, biopolymer particles, cubosomes, and biologically-derived systems. The advantages and limitations of each of these delivery systems are highlighted. This information should facilitate the rational selection of the most appropriate colloidal delivery systems for particular applications in the food and other industries.

  6. Derived release limits for the greek research reactor site based on a diagnostic atmospheric modeling system for irregular terrain.

    PubMed

    Varvayanni, M; Catsaros, N; Antonopoulos-Domis, M

    2005-04-01

    The upper limits for the rate of release of radionuclides into the atmosphere, i.e., the "derived release limits," are calculated for the Greek Research Reactor (GRR-1) in order to determine possible operational schemes compatible with the effective dose limits for the general population. GRR-1 is located at the northwestern foot of Hymettos Mountain and at the eastern border of the urbanized area of Athens basin. Due to the topographic complexity of the region, the meteorological and atmospheric dispersion calculations were based on a numerical modeling system that is especially designed to work over irregular terrains by using a prismatic unstructured grid. The calculation of derived release limits was made using guidelines and methods that conform to the system of dose limits prescribed by the European radiation protection regulations.

  7. Limited Amount of Formula May Facilitate Breastfeeding: Randomized, Controlled Trial to Compare Standard Clinical Practice versus Limited Supplemental Feeding.

    PubMed

    Straňák, Zbyněk; Feyereislova, Simona; Černá, Marcela; Kollárová, Jana; Feyereisl, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is known to reduce infant morbidity and improve well-being. Nevertheless, breastfeeding rates remain low despite public health efforts. Our study aims to investigate the effect of controlled limited formula usage during birth hospitalisation on breastfeeding, using the primary hypothesis that early limited formula feeds in infants with early weight loss will not adversely affect the rate of exclusive or any breastfeeding as measured at discharge, 3 and 6 months of age. We randomly assigned 104 healthy term infants, 24 to 48 hours old, with ≥ 5% loss of birth weight to controlled limited formula (CLF) intervention (10 ml formula by syringe after each breastfeeding, discontinued at onset of lactation) or control group (standard approach, SA). Groups were compared for demographic data and breastfeeding rates at discharge, 3 months and 6 months of age (p-values adjusted for multiple testing). Fifty newborns were analysed in CLF and 50 in SA group. There were no differences in demographic data or clinical characteristics between groups. We found no evidence of difference between treatment groups in the rates of exclusive as well as any breastfeeding at discharge (p-value 0.2 and >0.99 respectively), 3 months (p-value 0.12 and 0.10) and 6 months of infants' age (p-value 0.45 and 0.34 respectively). The percentage weight loss during hospitalisation was significantly higher in the SA group (7.3% in CLF group, 8.4% in SA group, p = 0.002). The study shows that controlled limited formula use does not have an adverse effect on rates of breastfeeding in the short and long term. Larger studies are needed to confirm a possible potential in controlled limited formula use to support establishing breastfeeding and to help to improve the rates of breastfeeding overall. ISRCTN registry ISRCTN61915183.

  8. Combined food and micronutrient supplements during pregnancy have limited impact on child blood pressure and kidney function in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hawkesworth, Sophie; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Kahn, Ashraf I; Hawlader, Mohammad D H; Fulford, Anthony J C; Arifeen, Shams-El; Persson, Lars-Åke; Moore, Sophie E

    2013-05-01

    Observational evidence suggests nutritional exposures during in utero development may have long-lasting consequences for health; data from interventions are scarce. Here, we present a trial follow-up study to assess the association between prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation and childhood blood pressure and kidney function. During the MINIMat Trial in rural Bangladesh, women were randomly assigned early in pregnancy to receive an early or later invitation to attend a food supplementation program and additionally to receive either iron and folate or multiple micronutrient tablets daily. The 3267 singleton birth individuals with measured anthropometry born during the trial were eligible for a follow-up study at 4.5 y old. A total of 77% of eligible individuals were recruited and blood pressure, kidney size by ultrasound, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR; calculated from plasma cystatin c) were assessed. In adjusted analysis, early invitation to food supplementation was associated with a 0.72-mm Hg [(95% CI: 0.16, 1.28); P = 0.01] lower childhood diastolic blood pressure and maternal MMS supplementation was associated with a marginally higher [0.87 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.18, 1.56); P = 0.01] childhood diastolic blood pressure. There was also some evidence that a supplement higher in iron was associated with a higher offspring GFR. No other effects of the food or micronutrient interventions were observed and there was no interaction between the interventions on the outcomes studied. These marginal associations and small effect sizes suggest limited public health importance in early childhood.

  9. Supplementation of Slow-Release Melatonin Improves Recovery of Ovarian Cyclicity and Conception in Summer Anoestrous Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Mehrotra, S; Singh, G; Maurya, V P; Narayanan, K; Mahla, A S; Chaudhari, R K; Singh, M; Soni, Y K; Kumawat, B L; Dabas, S K; Srivastava, N

    2016-02-01

    The role of melatonin as a protective neurohormone against restoring cyclicity in summer anoestrous animals in photoperiod species has gained wider acceptance. This study was designed to uncover the evidence the slow-release melatonin (MLT) has on initiation of ovarian cyclicity and conception rate (CR) in summer anoestrous buffaloes. Thus, buffaloes diagnosed as summer anoestrous (absence of overt signs of oestrus, concurrent rectal examination and radioimmunoassay for serum progesterone at 10 days interval) were grouped as untreated (Group I, sterilized corn oil, n = 8) and treated (Group II, single subcutaneous injection of MLT @18 mg/50 kg bwt in sterilized corn oil, n = 20). Animals treated and detected in oestrus were artificially inseminated (AI) followed by division into Group III (second dose of MLT on 5th day post-AI, n = 8) and Group IV (no melatonin administration, n = 10). Blood samples were collected at 4 days interval for estimation of serum MLT, progesterone and oestrogen using radioimmunoassay kit. Mean oestrous induction rate (OIR), oestrous induction interval (OII), interoestrous interval (IOI) and CR were estimated. Compared to control, concentration of melatonin was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in treated group ranging from 14.34 ± 1.72 to 412.31 ± 14.47 pg/ml whereas other two hormones did not show any concentration difference. Melatonin-administered buffaloes showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher (90%) OIR with OII of 18.06 ± 1.57 days. Results showed improvement in conception rate in buffaloes administered with post-insemination melatonin. It can be concluded from the study that slow-release melatonin supplementation restored cyclicity in summer anoestrous animals resulting in improvement in conception rate in buffaloes. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Gaia Data Release 1. Open cluster astrometry: performance, limitations, and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaia Collaboration; van Leeuwen, F.; Vallenari, A.; Jordi, C.; Lindegren, L.; Bastian, U.; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Panem, C.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Perryman, M.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J.-M.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J.-B.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lorenz, D.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F.-X.; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Shih, I.-C.; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; vanLeeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Wevers, T.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H.-H.; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P.-M.; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A.-M.; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D.-W.; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A.-T.; Nordlander, T.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Ocvirk, P.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J.-M.; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2017-05-01

    Context. The first Gaia Data Release contains the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS). This is a subset of about 2 million stars for which, besides the position and photometry, the proper motion and parallax are calculated using Hipparcos and Tycho-2 positions in 1991.25 as prior information. Aims: We investigate the scientific potential and limitations of the TGAS component by means of the astrometric data for open clusters. Methods: Mean cluster parallax and proper motion values are derived taking into account the error correlations within the astrometric solutions for individual stars, an estimate of the internal velocity dispersion in the cluster, and, where relevant, the effects of the depth of the cluster along the line of sight. Internal consistency of the TGAS data is assessed. Results: Values given for standard uncertainties are still inaccurate and may lead to unrealistic unit-weight standard deviations of least squares solutions for cluster parameters. Reconstructed mean cluster parallax and proper motion values are generally in very good agreement with earlier Hipparcos-based determination, although the Gaia mean parallax for the Pleiades is a significant exception. We have no current explanation for that discrepancy. Most clusters are observed to extend to nearly 15 pc from the cluster centre, and it will be up to future Gaia releases to establish whether those potential cluster-member stars are still dynamically bound to the clusters. Conclusions: The Gaia DR1 provides the means to examine open clusters far beyond their more easily visible cores, and can provide membership assessments based on proper motions and parallaxes. A combined HR diagram shows the same features as observed before using the Hipparcos data, with clearly increased luminosities for older A and F dwarfs. Tables D.1 to D.19 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/601/A

  11. Effects of long-term supplementation of chestnut and valonea extracts on methane release, digestibility and nitrogen excretion in sheep.

    PubMed

    Wischer, G; Greiling, A M; Boguhn, J; Steingass, H; Schollenberger, M; Hartung, K; Rodehutscord, M

    2014-06-01

    The long-term effects of adding chestnut (CHE; Castanea sativa) and valonea (VAL; Quercus valonea) tannin-rich extracts to sheep feed were investigated. In Experiment 1, sheep (65 kg BW) were fed 842 g/day of a ryegrass-based hay. The control-treated animals (CON) received 464 g/day of concentrate, and tannin-treated animals received the same amount of concentrate additionally containing 20 g of the respective tannin-rich extract. Hay and concentrates were offered together in one meal. After the onset of treatment, methane release was measured in respiration chambers for 23.5-h intervals (nine times) in a 190-days period. Faeces and urine were collected three times (including once before the onset of the tannin treatment) to assess digestibility and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Based on the results obtained from Experiment 1, a second experiment (Experiment 2) was initiated, in which the daily tannin dosage was almost doubled (from 0.9 (Experiment 1) to 1.7 g/kg BW0.75). With the exception of the dosage and duration of the treatment (85 days), Experiment 2 followed the same design as Experiment 1, with the same measurements. In an attempt to compare in vitro and in vivo effects of tannin supplementation, the same substrates and tannin treatments were examined in the Hohenheim gas test. In vitro methane production was not significantly different between treatments. None of the tannin-rich extract doses induced a reduction in methane in the sheep experiments. On the 1st day of tannin feeding in both experiments, tannin inclusion tended to decrease methane release, but this trend disappeared by day 14 in both experiments. In balance period 3 of Experiment 1, lower dry matter and organic matter digestibility was noted for tannin treatments. The digestibility of CP, but not NDF or ADF, was reduced in both experiments. A significant shift in N excretion from urine to faeces was observed for both tannin-rich extracts in both experiments, particularly in

  12. Taurine supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive rats: Advantages and limitations for human applications.

    PubMed

    Suwanich, Atchariya; Wyss, J Michael; Roysommuti, Sanya

    2013-11-26

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a β-amino acid found in many tissues particularly brain, myocardium, and kidney. It plays several physiological roles including cardiac contraction, antioxidation, and blunting of hypertension. Though several lines of evidence indicate that dietary taurine can reduce hypertension in humans and in animal models, evidence that taurine supplementation reduces hypertension in humans has not been conclusive. One reason for the inconclusive nature of past studies may be that taurine having both positive and negative effects on cardiovascular system depending on when it is assessed, some effects may occur early, while others only appear later. Further, other consideration may play a role, e.g., taurine supplementation improves hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats on a low salt diet but fails to attenuate hypertension on a high salt diet. In humans, some epidemiologic studies indicate that people with high taurine and low salt diets display lower arterial pressure than those with low taurine and high salt diets. Differences in techniques for measuring arterial pressure, duration of treatment, and animal models likely affect the response in different studies. This review considers both the positive and negative effects of taurine on blood pressure in animal models and their applications for human interventions.

  13. The role of limited proteolysis of thyrotropin-releasing hormone in thermoregulation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, C.

    1982-01-01

    Cyclo (His-Pro) is a biologiclly active cyclic dipeptide derived from thyrotropin-releasing hormone by its limited proteolysis. We have developed a specific radioimmunoassay for this cyclic peptide and shown its presence throughout rat and monkey brains. The normal rat brain concentration of cyclo (His-Pro) ranged from 35-61 pmols/brain. The elution profiles of rat brain cyclo (His-Pro)-like immunoreactivity and synthetic radioactive cyclo (His-Pro) following gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography were similar. An analysis of the regional distribution of cyclo (His-Pro) and TRH in rat and monkey brains exhibited no apparent precursor-product relationship. Studies on the neuroanatomic sites for the thermoregulatory effects of cyclo (His-Pro) suggested that the neural loci responsible for cyclo (His-Pro)-induced hypothermia resides within POA/AHA. The endogenous levels of brain cyclo (His-Pro) were elevated when rats were made either hypothyroid by surgical thyroidectomy or forced to drink alcohol for six weeks. These studies demonstrate that cyclo (His-Pro) is present throughout the central nervous system in physiologically relevant concentrations which can be modified by appropriate physiological and pharamacological manipulations. These data in conjunction with earlier reports of multiple biological activities of exogenous cyclo (His-Pro), suggest that endogenous cyclo (His-Pro) is a biological active peptide and it may play a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator role in the central nervous system.

  14. Interleukin-38 is released from apoptotic cells to limit inflammatory macrophage responses.

    PubMed

    Mora, Javier; Schlemmer, Andrea; Wittig, Ilka; Richter, Florian; Putyrski, Mateusz; Frank, Ann-Christin; Han, Yingying; Jung, Michaela; Ernst, Andreas; Weigert, Andreas; Brüne, Bernhard

    2016-02-17

    Different modes of cell death regulate immunity. Whereas necrotic (necroptotic, pyroptotic) cell death triggers inflammation, apoptosis contributes to its resolution. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) family cytokines are key players in this interaction. A number of IL-1 family cytokines are produced by necrotic cells to induce sterile inflammation. However, release of IL-1 family proteins from apoptotic cells to regulate inflammation was not described. Here we show that IL-38, a poorly characterized IL-1 family cytokine, is produced selectively by human apoptotic cells to limit inflammation. Depletion of IL-38 in apoptotic cells provoked enhanced IL-6 and IL-8 levels and AP1 activation in co-cultured human primary macrophages, subsequently inducing Th17 cell expansion at the expense of IL-10-producing T cells. IL-38 was N-terminally processed in apoptotic cells to generate a mature cytokine with distinct properties. Both full-length and truncated IL-38 bound to X-linked interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1). However, whereas the IL-38 precursor induced an increase in IL-6 production by human macrophages, truncated IL-38 reduced IL-6 production by attenuating the JNK/AP1 pathway downstream of IL1RAPL1. In conclusion, we identified a mechanism of apoptotic cell-dependent immune regulation requiring IL-38 processing and secretion, which might be relevant in resolution of inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer.

  15. Effects of inorganic and organic manganese supplementation on gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I and follicle-stimulating hormone expression and reproductive performance of broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingjing; Tian, Chuanhuan; Zhu, Yongwen; Zhang, Liyang; Lu, Lin; Luo, Xugang

    2014-04-01

    Manganese is an essential microelement. Manganese deficiency affects reproduction performance and reproductive hormones in layers. However, little is known about its effects and the possible mechanism in regulating reproduction in broiler breeder hens. In the current study, broiler breeder hens at peak production were fed with diets supplemented with 0, 120, or 240 mg of Mn/kg as MnSO4 or Mn proteinate for 13 wk. Manganese supplementation did not alter egg laying rate, egg weight, fertility, hatchability, or hatchling weight over a 13-wk trial period. However, 240 mg of Mn/kg supplementation significantly increased serum Mn (P < 0.05). Manganese supplements increased the eggshell breaking strength (P < 0.05) without affecting the eggshell thickness. There was no difference in serum cholesterol and estradiol. Expression of follicle-stimulating hormone) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) genes was significantly elevated by 240 mg of Mn/kg (P < 0.05). Furthermore, inorganic Mn supplementation doubled GnRH-I expression compared with supplementation with the organic form (P < 0.05), although serum Mn was comparable between these 2 supplements. No obvious difference was shown in gene expression of luteinizing hormone, prolactin, GnRH-I receptor, inducible NO synthase, and dopamine receptor D1 in the pituitary as well as tyrosine hydroxylase and inducible NO synthase in the hypothalamus. This suggests that dietary Mn supplementation could improve eggshell quality in the long term. The central mechanism of nontoxic high doses of Mn suggested the transcriptional activation of GnRH-I and follicle-stimulating hormone genes. The central effect of inorganic Mn activating GnRH-I genes compared with the reduced effect by organic Mn could possibly be due to a decreased capacity of the latter passing through the blood-brain barrier.

  16. 76 FR 62605 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) Airplanes With Supplemental Type...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... 2011-CE-018-AD; Amendment 39-16709; AD 2011-12-02] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air... airworthiness directive (AD) that published in the Federal Register. That AD applies to Viking Air Limited Model... for Viking Air Limited Model DHC-3 (Otter) airplanes equipped with a Honeywell TPE331-10 or -12JR...

  17. Optimally designed collagen/polycaprolactone biocomposites supplemented with controlled release of HA/TCP/rhBMP-2 and HA/TCP/PRP for hard tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, WonJin; Jang, Chul Ho; Kim, GeunHyung

    2017-09-01

    Collagen has been widely used as a very promising material to regenerate various tissues. It is a chief component of the extracellular matrix, and encourages various biological effects conducive to tissue regeneration. However, poor mechanical stability, low processability, and high level of water absorption can lead to impaired control of growth factor release and have impeded the use of collagen as a functional biomedical scaffold. Here, to overcome the shortcomings of collagen scaffolds, we have additively manufactured collagen/polycaprolactone (PCL) biocomposites supplemented with a bioceramic (hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tricalcium-phosphate (TCP)) and two growth factors (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 [rhBMP-2] and platelet-rich plasma [PRP]). Various weight fractions of PCL in the collagen/PCL composites were manipulated to select optimal growth factor release and highly active cellular responses. After the optimal concentration of PCL in the collagen/PCL scaffold was determined, biocomposites supplemented with bioceramic/growth-factors were fabricated. Continuously released growth factors were assumed to increase the in vitro cellular activities of the osteoblast-like cells (MG63) cultured on the biocomposites. In vitro cellular responses, including osteogenic activities, were examined, and results showed that compared to the HA/TCP/rhBMP-2 supplemented scaffold the HA/TCP/PRP biocomposites provide significantly high cellular activities (cell proliferation: >1.3-fold) and mineralization (calcium deposition: >1.4-fold, osteocalcin: >2.6-fold) sufficient for regenerating bone tissue. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The effect of 2 mMol glutamine supplementation on HSP70 and TNF-α release by LPS stimulated blood from healthy children.

    PubMed

    Marino, L V; Pathan, N; Meyer, R; Wright, V J; Habibi, P

    2015-12-01

    Glutamine has been shown to promote heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) release both within experimental in vitro models of sepsis (2-10 mM) and in adults post trauma (0.5 g/kg), although the efficacy varies and is dependent on the model used. The effect of glutamine supplementation on HSP70 release in children is less clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 2 mM glutamine added to incubation media on HSP70 and inflammatory mediator release in an in vitro model of paediatric sepsis using whole blood from healthy paediatric volunteers. An in vitro whole blood endotoxin stimulation model using 1 μg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) over a 24 h time period was used to investigate the effects of 2 mM glutamine on HSP70 and inflammatory mediator release in healthy children. The addition of 2 mM glutamine to the incubation media significantly increased HSP70 release over time (p < 0.05). This was associated with an early pro-inflammatory effect on TNF-α release at 4 h (p < 0.005) which was not seen at 24 h. There was a non significant trend towards higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 following the addition of 2 mM glutamine, which appears to differ from the response reported in adult and animal models. Glutamine supplementation of incubation media promotes HSP70 and early TNF- α release in an in vitro model using blood samples from healthy children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Limited beneficial effects of piceatannol supplementation on obesity complications in the obese Zucker rat: gut microbiota, metabolic, endocrine, and cardiac aspects.

    PubMed

    Hijona, E; Aguirre, L; Pérez-Matute, P; Villanueva-Millán, M J; Mosqueda-Solis, A; Hasnaoui, M; Nepveu, F; Senard, J M; Bujanda, L; Aldámiz-Echevarría, L; Llarena, M; Andrade, F; Perio, P; Leboulanger, F; Hijona, L; Arbones-Mainar, J M; Portillo, M P; Carpéné, C

    2016-09-01

    Resveratrol is beneficial in obese and diabetic rodents. However, its low bioavailability raises questions about its therapeutic relevance for treating or preventing obesity complications. In this context, many related natural polyphenols are being tested for their putative antidiabetic and anti-obesity effects. This prompted us to study the influence of piceatannol, a polyhydroxylated stilbene, on the prevention of obesity complications in Zucker obese rats. A 6-week supplementation was followed by the determination of various markers in plasma, liver, adipose tissue and heart, together with a large-scale analysis of gut microbiota composition. When given in doses of 15 or 45 mg/kg body weight/day, piceatannol did not reduce either hyperphagia or fat accumulation. It did not modify the profusion of the most abundant phyla in gut, though slight changes were observed in the abundance of several Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Bacteroides species belonging to Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. This was accompanied by a tendency to reduce plasma lipopolysaccharides by 30 %, and by a decrease of circulating non-esterified fatty acids, LDL-cholesterol, and lactate. While piceatannol tended to improve lipid handling, it did not mitigate hyperinsulinemia and cardiac hypertrophy. However, it increased cardiac expression of ephrin-B1, a membrane protein that contributes to maintaining cardiomyocyte architecture. Lastly, ascorbyl radical plasma levels and hydrogen peroxide release by adipose tissue were similar in control and treated groups. Thus, piceatannol did not exhibit strong slimming capacities but did limit several obesity complications.

  20. Effect of lemon verbena supplementation on muscular damage markers, proinflammatory cytokines release and neutrophils' oxidative stress in chronic exercise.

    PubMed

    Funes, Lorena; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Cerdán-Calero, Manuela; Ferrer, Miguel D; Drobnic, Franchek; Pons, Antoni; Roche, Enrique; Micol, Vicente

    2011-04-01

    Intense exercise is directly related to muscular damage and oxidative stress due to excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both, plasma and white blood cells. Nevertheless, exercise-derived ROS are essential to regulate cellular adaptation to exercise. Studies on antioxidant supplements have provided controversial results. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moderate antioxidant supplementation (lemon verbena extract) in healthy male volunteers that followed a 90-min running eccentric exercise protocol for 21 days. Antioxidant enzymes activities and oxidative stress markers were measured in neutrophils. Besides, inflammatory cytokines and muscular damage were determined in whole blood and serum samples, respectively. Intense running exercise for 21 days induced antioxidant response in neutrophils of trained male through the increase of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Supplementation with moderate levels of an antioxidant lemon verbena extract did not block this cellular adaptive response and also reduced exercise-induced oxidative damage of proteins and lipids in neutrophils and decreased myeloperoxidase activity. Moreover, lemon verbena supplementation maintained or decreased the level of serum transaminases activity indicating a protection of muscular tissue. Exercise induced a decrease of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β levels after 21 days measured in basal conditions, which was not inhibited by antioxidant supplementation. Therefore, moderate antioxidant supplementation with lemon verbena extract protects neutrophils against oxidative damage, decreases the signs of muscular damage in chronic running exercise without blocking the cellular adaptation to exercise.

  1. Limited contribution of permafrost carbon to methane release from thawing peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Mark D. A.; Estop-Aragonés, Cristian; Fisher, James P.; Thierry, Aaron; Garnett, Mark H.; Charman, Dan J.; Murton, Julian B.; Phoenix, Gareth K.; Treharne, Rachael; Kokelj, Steve V.; Wolfe, Stephen A.; Lewkowicz, Antoni G.; Williams, Mathew; Hartley, Iain P.

    2017-07-01

    Models predict that thaw of permafrost soils at northern high latitudes will release tens of billions of tonnes of carbon (C) to the atmosphere by 2100 (refs ,,). The effect on the Earth’s climate depends strongly on the proportion of this C that is released as the more powerful greenhouse gas methane (CH4), rather than carbon dioxide (CO2) (refs ,); even if CH4 emissions represent just 2% of the C release, they would contribute approximately one-quarter of the climate forcing. In northern peatlands, thaw of ice-rich permafrost causes surface subsidence (thermokarst) and water-logging, exposing substantial stores (tens of kilograms of C per square meter, ref. ) of previously frozen organic matter to anaerobic conditions, and generating ideal conditions for permafrost-derived CH4 release. Here we show that, contrary to expectations, although substantial CH4 fluxes (>20 g CH4 m-2 yr-1) were recorded from thawing peatlands in northern Canada, only a small amount was derived from previously frozen C (<2 g CH4 m-2 yr-1). Instead, fluxes were driven by anaerobic decomposition of recent C inputs. We conclude that thaw-induced changes in surface wetness and wetland area, rather than the anaerobic decomposition of previously frozen C, may determine the effect of permafrost thaw on CH4 emissions from northern peatlands.

  2. The effectiveness of fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats is limited by an inefficient action on ASM function.

    PubMed

    Miranda, D T S Z; Zanatta, A L; Dias, B C L; Fogaça, R T H; Maurer, J B B; Donatti, L; Calder, P C; Nishiyama, A

    2013-09-01

    Episodes of acute exacerbation are the major clinical feature of asthma and therefore represent an important focus for developing novel therapies for this disease. There are many reports that the n-3 fatty acids found in fish oil exert anti-inflammatory effects, but there are few studies of the action of fish oil on airway smooth muscle (ASM) function. In the present investigation, we evaluated the effect of fish oil supplementation on smooth muscle force of contraction in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic Wistar rats, and its consequences on static lung compliance, mucus production, leukocyte chemotaxis and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Fish oil supplementation suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung in asthmatic animals (2.04 ± 0.19 × 10(6) cells vs. 3.33 ± 0.43 × 10(6) cells in the control asthmatic group; P < 0.05). Static lung compliance increased with fish oil supplementation in asthmatic rats (0.640 ± 0.053 mL/cm H2O vs. 0.399 ± 0.043 mL/cm H2O; P < 0.05). However, fish oil did not prevent asthma-associated lung eosinophilia and did not affect the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in lung tissue or the proportion of the airways obliterated with mucus. Fish oil had no effect on the force of contraction in asthmatic rats in response to acetylcholine (3.026 ± 0.274 mN vs. 2.813 ± 0.364 mN in the control asthmatic group). In conclusion, although fish oil exerts some benefits in this model of asthma, its effectiveness appears to be limited by an inefficient action on airway smooth muscle function.

  3. Limits on methane release and generation via hypervelocity impact of Martian analogue materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, M. C.; Ramkissoon, N. K.; McMahon, S.; Miljković, K.; Parnell, J.; Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Kearsley, A. T.; Blamey, N. J. F.; Cole, M. J.; Burchell, M. J.

    2014-04-01

    The quantity of methane in Mars' atmosphere, and the potential mechanism(s) responsible for its production, are still unknown. In order to test viable, abiotic, methangenic processes, we experimentally investigated two possible impact mechanisms for generating methane. In the first suite of experiments, basaltic rocks were impacted at 5 km s-1 and the quantity of gases (CH4, H2, He, N2, O2, Ar and CO2) released by the impacts was measured. In the second suite of experiments, a mixture of water ice, CO2 ice and anhydrous olivine grains was impacted to see if the shock induced rapid serpentinization of the olivine, and thus production of methane. The results of both suites of experiments demonstrate that impacts (at scales achievable in the laboratory) do not give rise to detectably enhanced quantities of methane release above background levels. Supporting hydrocode modelling was also performed to gain insight into the pressures and temperatures occurring during the impact events.

  4. Intracellular Hmgb1 Inhibits Inflammatory Nucleosome Release and Limits Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Rui; Zhang, Qiuhong; Hou, Wen; Yan, Zhenwen; Chen, Ruochan; Bonaroti, Jillian; Bansal, Preeti; Billiar, Timothy R.; Tsung, Allan; Wang, Qingde; Bartlett, David L.; Whitcomb, David C; Chang, Eugene B.; Zhu, Xiaorong; Wang, Haichao; Lu, Ben; Tracey, Kevin J.; Cao, Lizhi; Fan, Xue-Gong; Lotze, Michael T.; Zeh, Herbert J.; Tang, Daolin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an abundant protein that regulates chromosome architecture and also functions as a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule. Little is known about its intracellular roles in response to tissue injury or during subsequent local and systemic inflammatory responses. We investigated the function of Hmgb1 in mice following induction of acute pancreatitis. METHODS: We utilized a Cre/LoxP system to create mice with pancreas-specific disruption in Hmbg1 (Pdx1-Cre; HMGB1flox/flox mice). Acute pancreatitis was induced in these mice (HMGB1flox/flox mice served as controls) following injection of L-arginine or cerulein. Pancreatic tissues and acinar cells were collected and analyzed by histologic, immunoblot, and immunohistochemical analyses. RESULTS: Following injection of L-arginine or cerulein, Pdx1-Cre; HMGB1flox/flox mice developed acute pancreatitis more rapidly than controls, with increased mortality. Pancreatic tissues of these mice also had higher levels of serum amylase, acinar cell death, leukocyte infiltration, and interstitial edema than controls. Pancreatic tissues and acinar cells collected from the Pdx1-Cre; HMGB1flox/flox mice following L-arginine- or cerulein injection demonstrated nuclear catastrophe with greater nucleosome release when compared with controls, along with increased phosphorylation/activation of RELA Nfκb, degradation of Iκb, and phosphorylation of Mapk. Inhibitors of reactive oxygen species (N-acetyl-L-cysteine) blocked L-arginine–induced DNA damage, necrosis, apoptosis, release of nucleosomes, and activation of Nfκb in pancreatic tissues and acinar cells from Pdx1-Cre; HMGB1flox/flox and control mice. Exogenous genomic DNA and recombinant histone H3 proteins significantly induced release of HMGB1 from mouse macrophages; administration of antibodies against H3 to mice reduced serum levels of HMGB1 and increased survival following L-arginine injection. CONCLUSIONS: In 2 mouse

  5. Product release is rate-limiting for catalytic processing by the Dengue virus protease

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, A. E.; Pedroso, M. M.; Chappell, K. J.; Watterson, D.; Liebscher, S.; Kok, W. M.; Fairlie, D. P.; Schenk, G.; Young, P. R.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue Virus (DENV) is the most prevalent global arbovirus, yet despite an increasing burden to health care there are currently no therapeutics available to treat infection. A potential target for antiviral drugs is the two-component viral protease NS2B-NS3pro, which is essential for viral replication. Interactions between the two components have been investigated here by probing the effect on the rate of enzyme catalysis of key mutations in a mobile loop within NS2B that is located at the interface of the two components. Steady-state kinetic assays indicated that the mutations greatly affect catalytic turnover. However, single turnover and fluorescence experiments have revealed that the mutations predominantly affect product release rather than substrate binding. Fluorescence analysis also indicated that the addition of substrate triggers a near-irreversible change in the enzyme conformation that activates the catalytic centre. Based on this mechanistic insight, we propose that residues within the mobile loop of NS2B control product release and present a new target for design of potent Dengue NS2B-NS3 protease inhibitors. PMID:27897196

  6. Effects of exogenous vitamin A, C, E and NADH supplementation on proliferation, cytokines release, and cell redox status of lymphocytes from healthy aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Bouamama, Samia; Merzouk, Hafida; Medjdoub, Amel; Merzouk-Saidi, Amel; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed

    2017-01-23

    Aging is an inevitable biological event that is associated with immune alterations. These alterations are related to increased cellular oxidative stress and micronutrient deficiency. Antioxidant supplementation could improve these age-related abnormalities. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro effects of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and NADH on T cell proliferation, cytokine release, and cell redox status in the elderly compared to young adults. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated using a density gradient of Histopaque. They were cultured in vitro and stimulated with concanavalin A in the presence or absence of vitamins. Cell proliferation was determined by conducting MTT assays, and based on interleukin-2 and interleukin -4 secretions. Cell oxidant/antioxidant balance was assessed by assaying glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde, carbonyl protein levels, and catalase activity. The present study demonstrated that T-lymphocyte proliferation was decreased with aging and was associated with cytokine secretion alterations, GSH depletion, and intracellular oxidative stress. In the elderly, vitamin C, vitamin E, and NADH significantly improved lymphocyte proliferation and mitigated cellular oxidative stress, whereas vitamin A did not affect cell proliferation or cell redox status. In conclusion, vitamin C, vitamin E, and NADH supplementation improved T-lymphocytes response in the elderly, and could contribute to the prevention of age-related immune alterations. Consumption of food items containing these vitamins is recommended, and further investigation is necessary to evaluate the effect of vitamin supplementation in vivo.

  7. 14 CFR 121.467 - Flight attendant duty period limitations and rest requirements: Domestic, flag, and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight and ends 24 hours later... domestic, flag, or supplemental operations. The time is calculated using either Coordinated Universal Time..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time...

  8. 14 CFR 121.467 - Flight attendant duty period limitations and rest requirements: Domestic, flag, and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight and ends 24 hours later... domestic, flag, or supplemental operations. The time is calculated using either Coordinated Universal Time..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time...

  9. Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vernonia cinerea Less. (VC) supplementation and exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers, beta-endorphin release, and the rate of cigarette smoking. Methods Volunteer smokers were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: VC supplement; group 2: exercise with VC supplement; group 3: exercise; and group 4: control. VC was prepared by wash and dry techniques and taken orally before smoking, matching the frequency of strenuous exercise (three times weekly). Before and after a two month period, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), blood oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], nitric oxide [NOx], protein hydroperoxide [PrOOH] and total antioxidant capacity [TAC]), beta-endorphin and smoking rate were measured, and statistically analyzed. Results In Group 1, MDA, PrOOH, and NOx significantly decreased, whereas TAC increased (p < 0.05). In Group 2, MDA and PrOOH decreased (p < 0.05), with no other changes noted (p > 0.05). In Group 3, MDA, PrOOH, NOx, TAC, and beta-endorphin levels increased significantly (p < 0.05). Group 4 showed no change in oxidative stress variables or beta-endorphine levels (p > 0.05). All groups had lower levels of CO after the intervention. The smoking rate for light cigarette decreased in group 2(62.7%), 1(59.52%), 3 (53.57%) and 4(14.04%), whereas in self-rolled cigarettes it decreased in group 1 (54.47%), 3 (42.30%), 2 (40%) and 4 (9.2%). Conclusion Supplementation with Vernonia cinerea Less and exercise provided benefit related to reduced smoking rate, which may be related to oxidaive stress and beta-endorphine levels. PMID:20500899

  10. Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers.

    PubMed

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Pratanaphon, Sainatee; Pothongsunun, Prapas; Sriboonreung, Thanyaluck; Yankai, Araya; Bloomer, Richard J

    2010-05-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vernonia cinerea Less. (VC) supplementation and exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers, beta-endorphin release, and the rate of cigarette smoking. Volunteer smokers were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: VC supplement; group 2: exercise with VC supplement; group 3: exercise; and group 4: control. VC was prepared by wash and dry techniques and taken orally before smoking, matching the frequency of strenuous exercise (three times weekly). Before and after a two month period, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), blood oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], nitric oxide [NOx], protein hydroperoxide [PrOOH] and total antioxidant capacity [TAC]), beta-endorphin and smoking rate were measured, and statistically analyzed. In Group 1, MDA, PrOOH, and NOx significantly decreased, whereas TAC increased (p < 0.05). In Group 2, MDA and PrOOH decreased (p < 0.05), with no other changes noted (p > 0.05). In Group 3, MDA, PrOOH, NOx, TAC, and beta-endorphin levels increased significantly (p < 0.05). Group 4 showed no change in oxidative stress variables or beta-endorphine levels (p > 0.05). All groups had lower levels of CO after the intervention. The smoking rate for light cigarette decreased in group 2(62.7%), 1(59.52%), 3 (53.57%) and 4(14.04%), whereas in self-rolled cigarettes it decreased in group 1 (54.47%), 3 (42.30%), 2 (40%) and 4 (9.2%). Supplementation with Vernonia cinerea Less and exercise provided benefit related to reduced smoking rate, which may be related to oxidaive stress and beta-endorphine levels.

  11. Kinetic coupling of phosphate release, force generation and rate-limiting steps in the cross-bridge cycle.

    PubMed

    Stehle, Robert; Tesi, Chiara

    2017-09-16

    A basic goal in muscle research is to understand how the cyclic ATPase activity of cross-bridges is converted into mechanical force. A direct approach to study the chemo-mechanical coupling between Pi release and the force-generating step is provided by the kinetics of force response induced by a rapid change in [Pi]. Classical studies on fibres using caged-Pi discovered that rapid increases in [Pi] induce fast force decays dependent on final [Pi] whose kinetics were interpreted to probe a fast force-generating step prior to Pi release. However, this hypothesis was called into question by studies on skeletal and cardiac myofibrils subjected to Pi jumps in both directions (increases and decreases in [Pi]) which revealed that rapid decreases in [Pi] trigger force rises with slow kinetics, similar to those of calcium-induced force development and mechanically-induced force redevelopment at the same [Pi]. A possible explanation for this discrepancy came from imaging of individual sarcomeres in cardiac myofibrils, showing that the fast force decay upon increase in [Pi] results from so-called sarcomere 'give'. The slow force rise upon decrease in [Pi] was found to better reflect overall sarcomeres cross-bridge kinetics and its [Pi] dependence, suggesting that the force generation coupled to Pi release cannot be separated from the rate-limiting transition. The reasons for the different conclusions achieved in fibre and myofibril studies are re-examined as the recent findings on cardiac myofibrils have fundamental consequences for the coupling between Pi release, rate-limiting steps and force generation. The implications from Pi-induced force kinetics of myofibrils are discussed in combination with historical and recent models of the cross-bridge cycle.

  12. Evidence That the Pi Release Event Is the Rate-Limiting Step in the Nitrogenase Catalytic Cycle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Yong; Ledbetter, Rhesa; Shaw, Sudipta; Pence, Natasha; Tokmina-Lukaszewska, Monika; Eilers, Brian; Guo, Qingjuan; Pokhrel, Nilisha; Cash, Valerie L; Dean, Dennis R; Antony, Edwin; Bothner, Brian; Peters, John W; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2016-07-05

    Nitrogenase reduction of dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3) involves a sequence of events that occur upon the transient association of the reduced Fe protein containing two ATP molecules with the MoFe protein that includes electron transfer, ATP hydrolysis, Pi release, and dissociation of the oxidized, ADP-containing Fe protein from the reduced MoFe protein. Numerous kinetic studies using the nonphysiological electron donor dithionite have suggested that the rate-limiting step in this reaction cycle is the dissociation of the Fe protein from the MoFe protein. Here, we have established the rate constants for each of the key steps in the catalytic cycle using the physiological reductant flavodoxin protein in its hydroquinone state. The findings indicate that with this reductant, the rate-limiting step in the reaction cycle is not protein-protein dissociation or reduction of the oxidized Fe protein, but rather events associated with the Pi release step. Further, it is demonstrated that (i) Fe protein transfers only one electron to MoFe protein in each Fe protein cycle coupled with hydrolysis of two ATP molecules, (ii) the oxidized Fe protein is not reduced when bound to MoFe protein, and (iii) the Fe protein interacts with flavodoxin using the same binding interface that is used with the MoFe protein. These findings allow a revision of the rate-limiting step in the nitrogenase Fe protein cycle.

  13. Solvent and viscosity effects on the rate-limiting product release step of glucoamylase during maltose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Sierks, M R; Sico, C; Zaw, M

    1997-01-01

    Release of product from the active site is the rate-limiting step in a number of enzymatic reactions, including maltose hydrolysis by glucoamylase (GA). With GA, an enzymatic conformational change has been associated with the product release step. Solvent characteristics such as viscosity can strongly influence protein conformational changes. Here we show that the rate-limiting step of GA has a rather complex dependence on solvent characteristics. Seven different cosolvents were added to the GA/maltose reaction solution. Five of the cosolvents, all having an ethylene glycol base, resulted in an increase in activity at low concentration of cosolvent and variable decreases in activity at higher concentrations. The increase in enzyme activity was dependent on polymer length of the cosolvent; the longer the polymer, the lower the concentration needed. The maximum increase in catalytic activity at 45 degrees C (40-45%) was obtained with the three longest polymers (degree of polymerization from 200 to 8000). A further increase in activity to 60-65% was obtained at 60 degrees C. The linear relationship between ln(kcat) and (viscosity)2 obtained with all the cosolvents provides further evidence that product release is the rate-limiting step in the GA catalytic mechanism. A substantial increase in the turnover rate of GA by addition of relatively small amounts of a cosolvent has potential applications for the food industry where high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is one of the primary products produced with GA. Since maltodextrin hydrolysis by GA is by far the slowest step in the production of HFCS, increasing the catalytic rate of GA can substantially reduce the process time.

  14. Deposition of fluoride on enamel surfaces released from varnishes is limited to vicinity of fluoridation site.

    PubMed

    Attin, T; Lennon, A M; Yakin, M; Becker, K; Buchalla, W; Attin, R; Wiegand, A

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the in-situ study was to determine fluoride uptake in non-fluoridated, demineralized enamel after application of fluoride varnishes on enamel samples located at various distances from the non-fluoridated samples. All enamel samples used were demineralized with acidic hydroxyethylcellulose before the experiment. Intra-oral appliances were worn by ten volunteers in three series: (1, Mirafluorid, 0.15% F; 2, Duraphat, 2.3% F and 3, unfluoridated controls) of 6 days each. Each two enamel samples were prepared from 30 bovine incisors. One sample was used for the determination of baseline fluoride content (BFC); the other was treated according to the respective series and fixed in the intra-oral appliance for 6 days. Additionally, from 120 incisors, each four enamel samples were prepared (one for BFC). Three samples (a-c) were placed into each appliance at different sites: (a) directly neighboured to the fluoridated specimen (=next), (b) at 1-cm distance (=1 cm) and (c) in the opposite buccal aspect of the appliance (=opposite). At these sites, new unfluoridated samples were placed at days 1, 3 and 5, which were left in place for 1 day. The volunteers brushed their teeth and the samples with fluoridated toothpaste twice per day. Both the KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride were determined in all samples to determine fluoride uptake and were statistically analyzed. One day, after fluoridation with Duraphat, KOH-soluble fluoride uptake in specimen a (=next) was significantly higher compared to the corresponding samples of both the control and Mirafluorid series, which in turn were not significantly different from each other. At all other sites and time points, fluoride uptake in the enamel samples were not different from controls for both fluoride varnishes. Within the first day after application, intra-oral-fluoride release from the tested fluoride varnish Duraphat leads to KOH-soluble fluoride uptake only in enamel samples located in close vicinity to

  15. Deposition of fluoride on enamel surfaces released from varnishes is limited to vicinity of fluoridation site

    PubMed Central

    Lennon, A. M.; Yakin, M.; Becker, K.; Buchalla, W.; Attin, R.; Wiegand, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the in-situ study was to determine fluoride uptake in non-fluoridated, demineralized enamel after application of fluoride varnishes on enamel samples located at various distances from the non-fluoridated samples. All enamel samples used were demineralized with acidic hydroxyethylcellulose before the experiment. Intra-oral appliances were worn by ten volunteers in three series: (1, Mirafluorid, 0.15% F; 2, Duraphat, 2.3% F and 3, unfluoridated controls) of 6 days each. Each two enamel samples were prepared from 30 bovine incisors. One sample was used for the determination of baseline fluoride content (BFC); the other was treated according to the respective series and fixed in the intra-oral appliance for 6 days. Additionally, from 120 incisors, each four enamel samples were prepared (one for BFC). Three samples (a–c) were placed into each appliance at different sites: (a) directly neighboured to the fluoridated specimen (=next), (b) at 1-cm distance (=1 cm) and (c) in the opposite buccal aspect of the appliance (=opposite). At these sites, new unfluoridated samples were placed at days 1, 3 and 5, which were left in place for 1 day. The volunteers brushed their teeth and the samples with fluoridated toothpaste twice per day. Both the KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride were determined in all samples to determine fluoride uptake and were statistically analyzed. One day, after fluoridation with Duraphat, KOH-soluble fluoride uptake in specimen a (=next) was significantly higher compared to the corresponding samples of both the control and Mirafluorid series, which in turn were not significantly different from each other. At all other sites and time points, fluoride uptake in the enamel samples were not different from controls for both fluoride varnishes. Within the first day after application, intra-oral-fluoride release from the tested fluoride varnish Duraphat leads to KOH-soluble fluoride uptake only in enamel samples located in close

  16. Calcium and vitamin D supplements and health outcomes: a reanalysis of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) limited-access data set.

    PubMed

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew; Gamble, Greg D; Reid, Ian R

    2011-10-01

    Frequent use of personal, nonprotocol calcium supplements obscured an adverse effect of coadministered calcium and vitamin D (CaD) on cardiovascular risk in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). We investigated the effects of the use of personal calcium or vitamin D supplements on other outcomes in the WHI CaD Study (WHI CaD) by using the WHI limited-access clinical trials data set. The WHI CaD was a 7-y, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of CaD (1 g Ca/400 IU vitamin D daily) in 36,282 community-dwelling, postmenopausal women. The incidence of total cancer (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers), breast and colorectal cancers, hip and total fracture, and mortality was assessed by using Cox proportional hazards models. In the WHI CaD, interactions between the use of either personal calcium or vitamin D supplements and CaD were found for total, breast, and colorectal cancers but not for fracture or mortality. In 15,646 women (43%) who were not taking personal calcium or vitamin D supplements at randomization, CaD significantly decreased the risk of total, breast, and invasive breast cancers by 14-20% and nonsignificantly reduced the risk of colorectal cancer by 17%. In women taking personal calcium or vitamin D supplements, CaD did not alter cancer risk (HR: 1.06-1.26). For women in the WHI CaD who were not taking personal calcium or vitamin D supplements at randomization, CaD decreased the risk of total, breast, and colorectal cancers and did not change the risk of fractures or total mortality. The nonskeletal effects of CaD may be more important than the skeletal effects and should be considered when evaluating these supplements. The WHI CaD trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611.

  17. The metabolic, stress axis, and hematology response of zilpaterol hydrochloride supplemented beef heifers when exposed to a dual corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge.

    PubMed

    Buntyn, J O; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Schmidt, T B; Erickson, G E; Sieren, S E; Jones, S J; Carroll, J A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the metabolic, stress, and hematology response of beef heifers supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) when exposed to an endocrine stress challenge. Heifers ( = 20; 556 ± 7 kg BW) were randomized into 2 treatment groups: 1) control (CON), no ZH supplementation, and 2) zilpaterol (ZIL), supplemented with ZH at 8.33 mg/kg (DM basis). The ZIL group was supplemented ZH for 20 d, with a 3-d withdrawal period. On d 24, heifers received an intravenous bolus of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH; 0.3 µg/kg BW) and arginine vasopressin (VP; 1.0 µg/kg BW) to activate the stress axis. Blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals for serum and 60-min intervals for plasma and whole blood, from -2 to 8 h relative to the challenge at 0 h (1000 h). Samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin, NEFA, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and complete blood cell counts. Following the challenge, cattle were harvested over a 3-d period. Liver, LM, and biceps femoris (BF) samples were collected and analyzed for glucose, lactate, and glycolytic potential (GP). There was a treatment ( ≤ 0.001) effect for vaginal temperature (VT), with ZIL having a 0.1°C decrease in VT when compared with CON. A treatment × time effect ( = 0.002) was observed for NEFA. A treatment effect was observed for BUN; ZIL had decreased BUN concentrations compared with CON ( < 0.001) prior to the challenge; however, no treatment × time effect was observed. There was also a treatment effect for cortisol ( ≤ 0.01) and epinephrine ( = 0.003); ZIL had decreased cortisol and epinephrine during the CRH/VP challenge when compared with CON. There was a time effect for total white blood cells, lymphocytes, and monocytes; each variable increased ( ≤ 0.01) 2 h postchallenge. Additionally, neutrophil counts decreased ( ≤ 0.01) in response to CRH/VP challenge in both treatment groups. Glucose concentrations within the LM were

  18. Limited sampling strategy for prolonged-release tacrolimus in renal transplant patients by use of the dried blood spot technique.

    PubMed

    van Boekel, G A J; Donders, A R T; Hoogtanders, K E J; Havenith, T R A; Hilbrands, L B; Aarnoutse, R E

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a clinically applicable limited sampling strategy for ambulatory Caucasian kidney transplant patients to estimate area under the curve in a 24-h period (AUC0-24) of prolonged-release tacrolimus. Twenty six kidney recipients, at least 6 months after transplantation, receiving prolonged-release tacrolimus, were enrolled. In each patient, seven blood samples were collected during a period of 24 h by use of the validated dried blood spot method. Best subset selection multiple linear regression was performed to derive limited sampling strategy (LSS). The equations were constrained to include a maximum of three samples collected within 4 h after the intake to maintain clinical applicability. To assess the predictive performance of LSS, residuals for each patient were calculated based on models fitted to a dataset where that patient was omitted. The prediction formula for the AUC(0-24) using the time points 0, 2, and 4 h after ingestion (C(0h)-C(2h)-C(4h)) provided the highest correlation with the AUC(0-24) (r(2) = 0.95): AUC0-24 = 44.9 + 8.9 × C(0h) + 2.1 × C(2h) + 7.6 × C(4h). Measures for bias and precision, i.e., median percentage prediction error (MPPE) and median absolute prediction error (MAPE), were 0.4 and 4.8%, respectively. For the same patients, the correlation between C(24h) and AUC0-24 was worse (r(2) = 0.77) while MPPE and MAPE were 6.2 and 7.2%, respectively. In the outpatient department, a LSS using C(0h)-C(2h)-C(4h) can be used for reliable estimation of the AUC(0-24) of prolonged-release tacrolimus.

  19. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  20. Limitations for heavy metal release during thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Benedikt; Perutka, Libor; Aschenbrenner, Philipp; Kraus, Petra; Rechberger, Helmut; Winter, Franz

    2011-06-01

    Phosphate recycling from sewage sludge can be achieved by heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash (SSA) producing a fertilizer product: mixing SSA with chloride and treating this mixture (eventually after granulation) in a rotary kiln at 1000 ± 100°C leads to the formation of volatile heavy metal compounds that evaporate and to P-phases with high bio-availability. Due to economical and ecological reasons, it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption of this technology. Generally, fluidized bed reactors are characterized by high heat and mass transfer and thus promise the saving of energy. Therefore, a rotary reactor and a fluidized bed reactor (both laboratory-scale and operated in batch mode) are used for the treatment of granulates containing SSA and CaCl(2). Treatment temperature, residence time and - in case of the fluidized bed reactor - superficial velocity are varied between 800 and 900°C, 10 and 30 min and 3.4 and 4.6 ms(-1). Cd and Pb can be removed well (>95 %) in all experiments. Cu removal ranges from 25% to 84%, for Zn 75-90% are realized. The amount of heavy metals removed increases with increasing temperature and residence time which is most pronounced for Cu. In the pellet, three major reactions occur: formation of HCl and Cl(2) from CaCl(2); diffusion and reaction of these gases with heavy metal compounds; side reactions from heavy metal compounds with matrix material. Although, heat and mass transfer are higher in the fluidized bed reactor, Pb and Zn removal is slightly better in the rotary reactor. This is due the accelerated migration of formed HCl and Cl(2) out of the pellets into the reactor atmosphere. Cu is apparently limited by the diffusion of its chloride thus the removal is higher in the fluidized bed unit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Limitations for heavy metal release during thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge ash

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Benedikt

    2011-06-15

    Phosphate recycling from sewage sludge can be achieved by heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash (SSA) producing a fertilizer product: mixing SSA with chloride and treating this mixture (eventually after granulation) in a rotary kiln at 1000 {+-} 100 deg. C leads to the formation of volatile heavy metal compounds that evaporate and to P-phases with high bio-availability. Due to economical and ecological reasons, it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption of this technology. Generally, fluidized bed reactors are characterized by high heat and mass transfer and thus promise the saving of energy. Therefore, a rotary reactor and a fluidized bed reactor (both laboratory-scale and operated in batch mode) are used for the treatment of granulates containing SSA and CaCl{sub 2}. Treatment temperature, residence time and - in case of the fluidized bed reactor - superficial velocity are varied between 800 and 900 deg. C, 10 and 30 min and 3.4 and 4.6 m s{sup -1}. Cd and Pb can be removed well (>95 %) in all experiments. Cu removal ranges from 25% to 84%, for Zn 75-90% are realized. The amount of heavy metals removed increases with increasing temperature and residence time which is most pronounced for Cu. In the pellet, three major reactions occur: formation of HCl and Cl{sub 2} from CaCl{sub 2}; diffusion and reaction of these gases with heavy metal compounds; side reactions from heavy metal compounds with matrix material. Although, heat and mass transfer are higher in the fluidized bed reactor, Pb and Zn removal is slightly better in the rotary reactor. This is due the accelerated migration of formed HCl and Cl{sub 2} out of the pellets into the reactor atmosphere. Cu is apparently limited by the diffusion of its chloride thus the removal is higher in the fluidized bed unit.

  2. Limited agreement exists between rationale and practice in athletes' supplement use for maintenance of health: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Petróczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P; Mazanov, Jason; Holloway, Allison; Bingham, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    Background The widespread use of nutritional supplements among athletes is poorly understood. The prevalence of supplement intake and users' knowledge have been researched independently leading to useful, but disconnected, information on supplement use. Methods The 'UK Sport 2005 Drug Free Survey' data (n = 874) were re-analysed using association [χ2] and 'strength of association' tests [φ], to discover observed incongruencies between self-reported supplement use and the underlying motives. Results are given for test pairs between 'motive for use' [doctor's advice, avoiding sickness, overcoming injuries and enhancement of diet] and each supplement used and these were categorized as strong (φ > .7), intermediate (7 < φ > .3) and weak (φ < .3). Results The use of selected supplements varied widely as follows: multivitamin (72.7%), vitamin C (70.4%), echinacea (30.8%), iron (29.8%), magnesium (11.0%) and ginseng (8.3%). Associations with motive were found in 8 of the 10 test pairs which were expected from literature precedents, however only weak associations exist. Of these, four were associated with avoidance of sickness [iron (χ2 = 11.94, p < .001; φ = .15, p = .001), multivitamin (χ2 = 6.43, p < .001; φ = .11, p = .011), vitamin C (χ2 = 54.67, p < .001; φ = .32, p < .001) and echinacea (χ2 = 40.34, p < .001; φ = .28, p < .001)]. The remaining 4 associations were: no time to prepare meals with ginseng (χ2 = 7.64, p = .006; φ = .12, p = .006) and multivitamin (χ2 = 9.103, p = .003; φ = .13, p = .003); overcoming injuries with magnesium (χ2 = 6.99, p = .008; φ = .11, p = .008); doctors' advice and iron (χ2 = 35.00, p < .001; φ = .25, p = .001). Conclusion These results suggest a lack of understanding regarding supplements and health maintenance, except for vitamin C and echinacea. Furthermore, supplement use is apparently independent of physicians/dieticians' advice, except for iron. This may suggest a widespread circumvention of expert advice in

  3. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  4. Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three months in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Montelius, Caroline; Erlandsson, Daniel; Vitija, Egzona; Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few effective and safe drugs are available. We investigated if green-plant membranes, previously shown to reduce subjective hunger and promote satiety signals, could affect body weight when given long-term. 38 women (40-65 years of age, body mass index 25-33 kg/m(2)) were randomized to dietary supplementation with either green-plant membranes (5 g) or placebo, consumed once daily before breakfast for 12 weeks. All individuals were instructed to follow a three-meal paradigm without any snacking between the meals and to increase their physical activity. Body weight change was analysed every third week as was blood glucose and various lipid parameters. On days 1 and 90, following intake of a standardized breakfast, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in plasma were measured, as well as subjective ratings of hunger, satiety and urge for different palatable foods, using visual analogue scales. Subjects receiving green-plant membranes lost significantly more body weight than did those on placebo (p < 0.01). Mean weight loss with green-plant extract was 5.0 ± 2.3 kg compared to 3.5 ± 2.3 kg in the control group. Consumption of green-plant membranes also reduced total and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively) compared to control. Single-meal tests performed on day 1 and day 90 demonstrated an increased postprandial release of GLP-1 and decreased urge for sweet and chocolate on both occasions in individuals supplemented with green-plant membranes compared to control. Waist circumference, body fat and leptin decreased in both groups over the course of the study, however there were no differences between the groups. In conclusion, addition of green-plant membranes as a dietary supplement once daily induces weight loss, improves obesity-related risk-factors, and reduces the urge for palatable food. The mechanism may reside in the observed

  5. Limiting amino acids in bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) as determined from blood amino acid levels and amino acid supplementation studies in the rat.

    PubMed

    Khader, V; Rao, S V

    1982-01-01

    The limiting amino acids of Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) were determined from plasma amino acid score and ratio and growth response of weanling rats to supplements of amino acids. The results indicated that methionine, threonine and tryptophan are the most limiting amino acids. Protein efficiency ratio of raw and cooked Bengal gram fed at a dietary level of 10% protein increased from 2.7 to 3.7 and 2.4 to 3.4, respectively, on supplementing the diets with methionine, threonine and tryptophan. Plasma levels of lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan were similar in rats fed raw or cooked Bengal gram, indicating that the trypsin or other inhibitors that may be present in the raw gram do not affect the biological availability of these amino acids.

  6. 14 CFR 121.467 - Flight attendant duty period limitations and rest requirements: Domestic, flag, and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the period of elapsed time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight... Universal Time or local time to reflect the total elapsed time. Flight attendant means an individual, other..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time...

  7. 14 CFR 121.467 - Flight attendant duty period limitations and rest requirements: Domestic, flag, and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the period of elapsed time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight... Universal Time or local time to reflect the total elapsed time. Flight attendant means an individual, other..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time...

  8. 14 CFR 121.467 - Flight attendant duty period limitations and rest requirements: Domestic, flag, and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the period of elapsed time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight... Universal Time or local time to reflect the total elapsed time. Flight attendant means an individual, other..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and Duty Time...

  9. Mini-open blind procedure versus limited open technique for carpal tunnel release: a 30-month follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Cellocco, Paolo; Rossi, Constantino; Bizzarri, Francesco; Patrizio, Luigi; Costanzo, Giuseppe

    2005-05-01

    To evaluate prospectively the safety and effectiveness of a mini-open blind technique for carpal tunnel release (group A) when compared with a limited open technique (group B). From November 1999 to May 2001 (mean follow-up period, 30 mo) we performed 222 carpal tunnel release procedures on 185 consecutive patients. All patients were affected by mild to moderate median nerve compression. Patients in group A (82 patients, 99 procedures) had a short transverse incision at the wrist (length, 2 cm). We used a manual surgical instrument that helps in blindly dividing the flexor retinaculum because it has an integrated light source. The light makes it possible to locate precisely the tool blade by transillumination. Patients in group B (103 patients, 123 procedures) had a limited longitudinal incision (length, 3-4 cm). The preoperative and postoperative patient statuses were evaluated with an Italian modified version of the Boston Carpal Tunnel questionnaire with a mean of 30 months' follow-up after surgery (range, 24-39 mo). Group A patients showed better results than group B patients in all of the sections of the Italian modified version of the Boston Carpal Tunnel questionnaire at a mean follow-up period of 19 months, whereas after a mean of 30 months of follow-up evaluation the differences between groups A and B tended to decrease. Disease recurred in 7 group B patients, whereas only 1 patient in group A experienced symptom recurrence at the latest office evaluation. The blind mini-invasive technique has been shown to be as safe as traditional techniques but the recovery period is significantly shortened. With the technique we described a low recurrence rate was observed. All patients in group A reported great reduction in preoperative pain and numbness.

  10. Serum blood metabolite response and evaluation of select organ weight, histology and cardiac morphology of beef heifers exposed to a dual corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge following supplementation of

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to: 1) determine if supplementation of Zilpaterol Hydrochloride (ZH) altered select organ weights, histology and cardiac anatomical features at harvest and 2) determine if administration of a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) challenge followi...

  11. Effects of different supplemental soya bean oil levels on the performance of prepubertal Saanen goats: Oestrogen and progesterone release.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, G F; Merighe, G K F; de Oliveira, S A; Rodrigues, A D; Augusto, L; Teixeira, I A M A; de Resende, K T; Negrao, J A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of soya bean oil in the total diet on the growth rate, metabolic changes, and oestrogen and progesterone release in Saanen goats. After dietary adaptation, 21 prepubertal goats (weight of 29.12 ± 0.91 kg, 230 days old) were randomly distributed among three diets of D2: inclusion of 2% soya bean oil in the total diet; D3: basal diet - inclusion of 3% soya bean oil in the total diet; and D4: inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the total diet. The basal diet (D3) was formulated to promote a daily gain of 0.140 kg. The goats were weighed, and their blood samples were collected weekly. Glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, oestrogen and progesterone in the plasma were measured. Prepubertal goats that were fed D4 exhibited a significantly lower dry matter intake, urea and cholesterol levels compared with the goats that were fed D2 and D3. Indeed, goats that were fed D4 displayed a significantly lower final weight than goats that were fed D2 and D3. In contrast, the inclusion of soya bean oil in the diet increased the progesterone and oestrogen concentrations, and goats that were fed D4 released a significantly higher concentration of progesterone than those that were fed D2 and D3. Furthermore, the percentage of goats with a progesterone level greater than 1 ng/ml (functional Corpus luteum) was significantly higher among the goats that were fed D3 and D4 than among those that were fed D2. In this study, although the inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the diet decreased dry matter intake and growth rate, it increased progesterone concentration and the percentage of goats with a functional Corpus luteum, suggesting that the inclusion of soya bean oil accelerated puberty in prepubertal goats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Measurement of an upper limit of fission energy release in HOLOG using a germanium gamma ray detector

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.F.

    1998-01-01

    An upper limit of less than 4 mg TNT equivalent fission energy release from the HOLOG experiment was determined using a germanium {gamma}-ray detector to measure the ratio of selected fission-product and plutonium {gamma} rays. Only three hours of {gamma}-ray data collected immediately after the zero-time were analyzed to calculate the above limit. We found no peaks corresponding to the {sup 97} Zr - {sup 97} Nb fission product pair at the gamma-ray energies of E{sub {gamma}} = 743 keV and E{sub {gamma}} = 658 keV, respectively. No information on the plutonium isotopic ratios is revealed because {gamma}-ray peaks in the energy region below 100 keV are not observed due to the high absorption in the containment barrier. The measurement is relatively easy to perform and is not subject to false-positive results because specific fission product and plutonium {gamma} ray energies need to be detected.

  13. Combined Food and Micronutrient Supplements during Pregnancy Have Limited Impact on Child Blood Pressure and Kidney Function in Rural Bangladesh1234

    PubMed Central

    Hawkesworth, Sophie; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Kahn, Ashraf I.; Hawlader, Mohammad D. H.; Fulford, Anthony J. C.; Arifeen, Shams-El; Persson, Lars-Åke; Moore, Sophie E.

    2013-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests nutritional exposures during in utero development may have long-lasting consequences for health; data from interventions are scarce. Here, we present a trial follow-up study to assess the association between prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation and childhood blood pressure and kidney function. During the MINIMat Trial in rural Bangladesh, women were randomly assigned early in pregnancy to receive an early or later invitation to attend a food supplementation program and additionally to receive either iron and folate or multiple micronutrient tablets daily. The 3267 singleton birth individuals with measured anthropometry born during the trial were eligible for a follow-up study at 4.5 y old. A total of 77% of eligible individuals were recruited and blood pressure, kidney size by ultrasound, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR; calculated from plasma cystatin c) were assessed. In adjusted analysis, early invitation to food supplementation was associated with a 0.72-mm Hg [(95% CI: 0.16, 1.28); P = 0.01] lower childhood diastolic blood pressure and maternal MMS supplementation was associated with a marginally higher [0.87 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.18, 1.56); P = 0.01] childhood diastolic blood pressure. There was also some evidence that a supplement higher in iron was associated with a higher offspring GFR. No other effects of the food or micronutrient interventions were observed and there was no interaction between the interventions on the outcomes studied. These marginal associations and small effect sizes suggest limited public health importance in early childhood. PMID:23514767

  14. Development of an Alternative Release Limit for a Former Uranium and Thorium Processing Plant in Cushing Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Thatcher, A.H.

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this presentation will be to describe how, through dose modeling and analysis, a complex site was able to obtain an Alternative Release Limit (ARL) that adequately protected the environment, met regulatory approval, and saved money in the process. The Kerr-McGee Refinery Site in Cushing, OK supported an experimental facility that processed nuclear fuel materials from 1963 to 1966. Radiological contaminants at the site as a result of operations consist of natural thorium and isotopes of uranium (Th-228, Th-232, U-234, U-235 and U-238). Site contamination existed in both surface and sub-surface soils and within a shallow aquifer. After the soil was remediated to acceptable regulatory limits, however, the potential existed for residual groundwater contamination to result in exposure to individuals following site closure. Traditional exposure pathway analysis for the resident farmer seemed to indicate that this exposure was excessive. A closer look at the exposure pathways present in this rural location showed that groundwater contamination existed in a shallow aquifer insufficient to support significant irrigation activities and was of sufficiently poor water quality that it could not be used for drinking water. Through the determination of aquifer yield pumping tests, agreement from the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo techniques, it was shown that the average member of the critical population was adequately protected in the current site configuration without further remediation. This paper describes the analytical methods and models used to apply the general dose limit of 0.25 mSv yr{sup -1} (25 mrem yr{sup -1}) to the particulars of the Cushing Site, and demonstrates how these methods achieved a much higher ARL for total uranium in groundwater that was accepted by the regulators and achieved significant savings for the Licensee. (authors)

  15. Melatonin supplementation decreases prolactin synthesis and release in rat adenohypophysis: correlation with anterior pituitary redox state and circadian clock mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Barquilla, Pilar Cano; Pagano, Eleonora S; Fernández-Mateos, Pilar; Esquifino, Ana I; Cardinali, Daniel P

    2012-10-01

    In the laboratory rat, a number of physiological parameters display seasonal changes even under constant conditions of temperature, lighting, and food availability. Since there is evidence that prolactin (PRL) is, among the endocrine signals, a major mediator of seasonal adaptations, the authors aimed to examine whether melatonin administration in drinking water resembling in length the exposure to a winter photoperiod could affect accordingly the 24-h pattern of PRL synthesis and release and some of their anterior pituitary redox state and circadian clock modulatory mechanisms. Melatonin (3 µg/mL drinking water) or vehicle was given for 1 mo, and rats were euthanized at six time intervals during a 24-h cycle. High concentrations of melatonin (>2000 pg/mL) were detected in melatonin-treated rats from beginning of scotophase (at 21:00 h) to early photophase (at 09:00 h) as compared with a considerably narrower high-melatonin phase observed in controls. By cosinor analysis, melatonin-treated rats had significantly decreased MESOR (24-h time-series average) values of anterior pituitary PRL gene expression and circulating PRL, with acrophases (peak time) located in the middle of the scotophase, as in the control group. Melatonin treatment disrupted the 24-h pattern of anterior pituitary gene expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-1 and -2, heme oxygenase-1 and -2, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase, and catalase by shifting their acrophases to early/middle scotophase or amplifying the maxima. Only the inhibitory effect of melatonin on pituitary NOS-2 gene expression correlated temporally with inhibition of PRL production. Gene expression of metallothionein-1 and -3 showed maxima at early/middle photophase after melatonin treatment. The 24-h pattern of anterior pituitary lipid peroxidation did not vary after treatment. In vehicle-treated rats, Clock and Bmal1 expression peaked in the anterior pituitary at middle

  16. MUC1 Limits Helicobacter pylori Infection both by Steric Hindrance and by Acting as a Releasable Decoy

    PubMed Central

    Lindén, Sara K.; Sheng, Yong H.; Every, Alison L.; Miles, Kim M.; Skoog, Emma C.; Florin, Timothy H. J.; Sutton, Philip; McGuckin, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    The bacterium Helicobacter pylori can cause peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma. The cell-surface mucin MUC1 is a large glycoprotein which is highly expressed on the mucosal surface and limits the density of H. pylori in a murine infection model. We now demonstrate that by using the BabA and SabA adhesins, H. pylori bind MUC1 isolated from human gastric cells and MUC1 shed into gastric juice. Both H. pylori carrying these adhesins, and beads coated with MUC1 antibodies, induced shedding of MUC1 from MKN7 human gastric epithelial cells, and shed MUC1 was found bound to H. pylori. Shedding of MUC1 from non-infected cells was not mediated by the known MUC1 sheddases ADAM17 and MMP-14. However, knockdown of MMP-14 partially affected MUC1 release early in infection, whereas ADAM17 had no effect. Thus, it is likely that shedding is mediated both by proteases and by disassociation of the non-covalent interaction between the α- and β-subunits. H. pylori bound more readily to MUC1 depleted cells even when the bacteria lacked the BabA and SabA adhesins, showing that MUC1 inhibits attachment even when bacteria cannot bind to the mucin. Bacteria lacking both the BabA and SabA adhesins caused less apoptosis in MKN7 cells than wild-type bacteria, having a greater effect than deletion of the CagA pathogenicity gene. Deficiency of MUC1/Muc1 resulted in increased epithelial cell apoptosis, both in MKN7 cells in vitro, and in H. pylori infected mice. Thus, MUC1 protects the epithelium from non-MUC1 binding bacteria by inhibiting adhesion to the cell surface by steric hindrance, and from MUC1-binding bacteria by acting as a releasable decoy. PMID:19816567

  17. Primer release is the rate-limiting event in lagging-strand synthesis mediated by the T7 replisome

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Alfredo J.; Lee, Seung-Joo; Richardson, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication occurs semidiscontinuously due to the antiparallel DNA strands and polarity of enzymatic DNA synthesis. Although the leading strand is synthesized continuously, the lagging strand is synthesized in small segments designated Okazaki fragments. Lagging-strand synthesis is a complex event requiring repeated cycles of RNA primer synthesis, transfer to the lagging-strand polymerase, and extension effected by cooperation between DNA primase and the lagging-strand polymerase. We examined events controlling Okazaki fragment initiation using the bacteriophage T7 replication system. Primer utilization by T7 DNA polymerase is slower than primer formation. Slow primer release from DNA primase allows the polymerase to engage the complex and is followed by a slow primer handoff step. The T7 single-stranded DNA binding protein increases primer formation and extension efficiency but promotes limited rounds of primer extension. We present a model describing Okazaki fragment initiation, the regulation of fragment length, and their implications for coordinated leading- and lagging-strand DNA synthesis. PMID:27162371

  18. The Double Solid Reactant Method for modeling the release of trace elements from dissolving solid phases: I. Outline and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accornero, Marina; Marini, Luigi

    2008-10-01

    A Double Solid Reactant Method was elaborated from a suggestion of Marini (Geological sequestration of carbon dioxide: Thermodynamics, kinetics, and reaction path modeling. Developments in Geochemistry, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2007) to simulate the release of trace elements during the progressive dissolution of solid phases. The method is based on the definition, for each dissolving solid, of both an entity whose thermodynamic and kinetic properties are known (either a pure mineral or a solid mixture) and a special reactant, that is, a material of known stoichiometry and unknown thermodynamic and kinetic properties. The special reactant is utilised to take into account the concentrations of trace elements in the dissolving solid phase. In this communication, the influence of several trace elements on the Δ G f o, Δ G r o and log K of the minerals considered by Lelli et al. (Environ Geol, 2007) and Accornero and Marini (Geobasi, 2007a; Proceedings of IMWA symposium, Cagliari, 27 31 May 2007b) was evaluated assuming ideal mixing in the solid state. These effects were found to be negligible for albite and the leucite latitic glass, limited for muscovites and chlorites, and slightly more important for apatites. These influences become progressively higher with increasing concentration of trace elements in these minerals. Based on these deviations in thermodynamic parameters, special reactants should not include oxide components with molar fractions higher than 0.003.

  19. Evaluation of the effects of zilpateral hydrochloride supplementation on catecholamin response and other blood metabolites following a combined corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The stress response of cattle supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) has become a topic due to anecdotal claims of supplemented cattle responding poorly to stress. This study was designed to determine if differences exist in the catecholamine and blood metabolite response of ZH-supplemente...

  20. [Use of intravenous iron supplementation in chronic kidney disease: Interests, limits, and recommendations for a better practice].

    PubMed

    Rottembourg, Jacques; Rostoker, Guy

    2015-12-01

    Iron deficiency is an important clinical concern in chronic kidney disease (CKD), giving rise to iron-deficiency anaemia, and various impaired cellular functions. Oral supplementation, in particular with ferrous salts, is associated with a high rate of gastro-intestinal side effects and is poorly absorbed, a problem that is avoided with intravenous (IV) irons. Recently, with the approval of the European Medicines Agency's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use, the French Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM) took adequate measures to minimize the risk of allergic reactions, by correction on the summary of intravenous iron products characteristics. All IV iron products should be prescribed, administered and injected, inside public or private hospitals exclusively, and a clinical follow-up after the infusion for at least 30 minutes is mandatory. The most stable intravenous iron complexes (low molecular weight iron dextran, ferric carboxymaltose, and iron isomaltoside 1000 [under agreement]) can be given in higher single doses and more rapidly than less recent preparations such as iron sucrose (originator or similars). Test doses are advisable for conventional low molecular weight iron dextrans, but are no more mandatory. Iron supplementation is recommended for all CKD patients with iron-deficiency anaemia and those who receive erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, whether or not they require dialysis. Intravenous iron is the preferred route of administration in haemodialysis patients, with randomized trials showing a significantly greater increase in haemoglobin levels for intravenous versus oral iron and a low rate of treatment-related adverse events during these trials. According ANSM, physicians should apply the product's label recommendations especially the posology. In the non-dialysis CKD population, the erythropoietic response is also significantly higher using intravenous versus oral iron, and tolerability is at

  1. Analysis of level A in vitro-in vivo correlations for an extended-release formulation with limited bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Kakhi, Maziar; Marroum, Patrick; Chittenden, Jason

    2013-07-01

    A two-stage, numerical deconvolution approach was employed to develop level A in vitro-in vivo correlations using data for three formulations of an extended-release oral dosage form. The in vitro dissolution data for all formulations exhibited near-complete dissolution within the time frame of the test. The pharmacokinetic concentration-time profiles for 16 subjects in a cross-over study demonstrated notably limited bioavailability for the slowest formulation. These data were used as the basis for the IVIVC model development. Two models were identified that satisfied the nominal requirements for a conclusive internal predictability of the IVIVC, provided that all three formulations were used as internal datasets. These were a simple linear model with absorption cut-off and a piecewise-linear variable absorption scale model. A subsequent cross-validation of the models' robustness indicated that neither model predicted satisfactorily the pharmacokinetic characteristics of all formulations in a conclusive manner. The piecewise-linear variable absorption scale model provided the most accurate results, particularly with respect to the prediction of the slowest formulation's pharmacokinetic metrics. But this latter model also involved additional free parameters compared with the simple linear model with absorption cut-off. It is argued that more complex IVIVC models with extra parameterization require comprehensive validation to ascertain the accuracy and robustness of the model. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to ensure a complete suite of supporting datasets for internal and external validation, irrespective of the mathematical approach used subsequently to develop the IVIVC. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effect of a controlled-release urea supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal kinetics of sheep fed low quality tropical forage.

    PubMed

    Puga, D C.; Galina, H M.; Peréz-Gil, R F.; Sangines, G L.; Aguilera, B A.; Haenlein, G F.W.; Barajas, C R.; Herrera, H J.G.

    2001-07-01

    Four ruminally cannulated crossbred sheep (25+/-3.4kg BW) were divided into a 4x4 Latin square design to measure the effects of controlled-release urea supplement (CRUS). The basal diet consisted of 60% sugar cane tops (Saccharum officinarum), 30% full plant corn stubble (Zea mays), and 10% King grass (Pennisetum purpureum). Feed intake, digestibility, N balance and in situ ruminal kinetics were studied with four diets, D1 (control), D2, D3 and D4, which included the ratios of 100:0%, 90:10%, 80:20% or 70:30% of basal diet with CRUS. Results showed DMI differences (P<0.05) for D4 (822g per day) versus D1, D2 and D3 (580, 659 and 700g per day, respectively). N retention increased (P<0.05) for D4 (35.69g per day) versus D1, D2 and D3 (9.29, 6.85 and 19.10g per day, respectively). In vivo N digestibility was greater (P<0.05) in D4 (79.63%) than in D1 (57.57%). In vivo digestibility of DM, OM, GE, cellulose and hemicellulose was similar among the four groups. Digestibility of cell walls in D4 was higher (P<0.05) at 74.06% versus 67.78% in D1. In situ DM digestibility showed differences (P<0.05) among all diets at 9, 12, 24 and 48h of incubation. Potentially digestible fiber, 52.61%, was higher (P<0.05) in D4 versus 31.00% in D1. Indigestible fiber, 35.29%, was lowest (P<0.05) in D4 compared to 81.51% in D1. Digestion rate constant (k(d)) was different (P<0.05) between the experimental diets and control. Passage constant (k(p)) was different (P<0.05) between all diets (0.036/h in D4 to 0.081/h in D1). True digestibility was higher (P<0.05) in D4 (44.64%) compared to D1 (19.55%), but in D2 (24.54%) and D3 (28.22%) there was no difference. Cellulose in situ digestion rate, the potentially digestible fiber, was higher (P<0.05) in D3 (42.74%) as compared to D1 (22.50%). Time of disappearance of cellulose in D4 (14.79h) was less (P<0.05) than in D1 (24.03h), however there was no difference between D1 and D2. Hemicellulose in situ digestion was different (P<0.05) between D3

  3. Supplementation of oligofructose, but not sucralose, decreases high-fat diet induced body weight gain in mice independent of gustducin-mediated gut hormone release.

    PubMed

    Steensels, Sandra; Cools, Leen; Avau, Bert; Vancleef, Laurien; Farré, Ricard; Verbeke, Kristin; Depoortere, Inge

    2017-03-01

    Enteroendocrine cells sense nutrients through taste receptors similar to those on the tongue. Sweet and fatty acid taste receptors (FFAR) coupled to the gustatory G-protein, gustducin, on enteroendocrine cells play a role in gut hormone release. We studied if supplementation of artificial (sucralose) or prebiotic (oligofructose; OFS) sweeteners target gustducin-mediated signaling pathways to alter gut hormone release and reduce obesity-associated disorders. Wild-type (WT) and α-gustducin knockout (α-gust(-/-) ) mice were fed a high-fat diet and gavaged once daily (8 wk) with water or equisweet concentrations of sweeteners. OFS but not sucralose decreased body weight gain (-19 ± 3%, p < 0.01), fat pad mass (-55 ± 6%, p < 0.001), and insulin resistance (-39 ± 5%, p < 0.001) independent of α-gustducin. Neither sweetener improved glucose intolerance, while solely OFS improved the disturbed colonic permeability. OFS decreased (-65 ± 8%, p < 0.001) plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) but not ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) levels in WT mice. Cecal acetate and butyrate levels were reduced by OFS in both genotypes suggesting enhanced uptake of SCFAs that may target FFAR2 (upregulated expression) in adipose tissue. OFS, but not sucralose, reduced body weight gain and decreased intestinal permeability, but not glucose intolerance. Effects were not mediated by altered gut hormone levels or gustducin-mediated signaling. Artificial sweeteners do not affect gut hormone levels and are metabolically inert in mice on a high-fat diet. In contrast, prebiotic oligosaccharides (OFS) prevent body weight gain but not glucose intolerance. Alterations in sweet and short-chain fatty acid receptors (FFAR) (studied in WT and α-gust(-/-) mice) that regulate gut hormone levels are not mandatory for the positive effects of OFS. Enhanced uptake of SCFAs may favor interaction with FFAR2/3 on adipose tissue to induce weight loss. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Investigation of truck size and weight limits: technical supplement. Volume 3. Truck and rail fuel effects of truck size and weight limits. Final report, October 1978-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Knapton, D.A.

    1981-07-01

    Data and indirect fuel consumption for new truck size and weight limits are presented. These effects are examined in terms of changes in the competitive relationships between highway and rail services. The method for estimating fuel consumption includes line haul and access fuel and makes allowance for the system fuel requirements of empty backhaul and circuitry. Single unit trucks, conventional tractor-semi-trailer, Western Doubles, Turnpike Doubles, and Triple Trailer combination rigs as well as the competitive carload boxcar and TOFC rail services are considered. Truck service (i.e., van, reefer, household moving van, flat bed, tanker and dump), and the competitive rail services are disaggregated.

  5. Historical colonization and dispersal limitation supplement climate and topography in shaping species richness of African lizards (Reptilia: Agaminae)

    PubMed Central

    Kissling, W. Daniel; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Zwaan, Roelof E.; Wagner, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    To what extent deep-time dispersal limitation shapes present-day biodiversity at broad spatial scales remains elusive. Here, we compiled a continental dataset on the distributions of African lizard species in the reptile subfamily Agaminae (a relatively young, Neogene radiation of agamid lizards which ancestors colonized Africa from the Arabian peninsula) and tested to what extent historical colonization and dispersal limitation (i.e. accessibility from areas of geographic origin) can explain present-day species richness relative to current climate, topography, and climate change since the late Miocene (~10 mya), the Pliocene (~3 mya), and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 0.021 mya). Spatial and non-spatial multi-predictor regression models revealed that time-limited dispersal via arid corridors is a key predictor to explain macro-scale patterns of species richness. In addition, current precipitation seasonality, current temperature of the warmest month, paleo-temperature changes since the LGM and late Miocene, and topographic relief emerged as important drivers. These results suggest that deep-time dispersal constraints — in addition to climate and mountain building — strongly shape current species richness of Africa’s arid-adapted taxa. Such historical dispersal limitation might indicate that natural movement rates of species are too slow to respond to rates of ongoing and projected future climate and land use change. PMID:27671620

  6. Historical colonization and dispersal limitation supplement climate and topography in shaping species richness of African lizards (Reptilia: Agaminae).

    PubMed

    Kissling, W Daniel; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Zwaan, Roelof E; Wagner, Philipp

    2016-09-27

    To what extent deep-time dispersal limitation shapes present-day biodiversity at broad spatial scales remains elusive. Here, we compiled a continental dataset on the distributions of African lizard species in the reptile subfamily Agaminae (a relatively young, Neogene radiation of agamid lizards which ancestors colonized Africa from the Arabian peninsula) and tested to what extent historical colonization and dispersal limitation (i.e. accessibility from areas of geographic origin) can explain present-day species richness relative to current climate, topography, and climate change since the late Miocene (~10 mya), the Pliocene (~3 mya), and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 0.021 mya). Spatial and non-spatial multi-predictor regression models revealed that time-limited dispersal via arid corridors is a key predictor to explain macro-scale patterns of species richness. In addition, current precipitation seasonality, current temperature of the warmest month, paleo-temperature changes since the LGM and late Miocene, and topographic relief emerged as important drivers. These results suggest that deep-time dispersal constraints - in addition to climate and mountain building - strongly shape current species richness of Africa's arid-adapted taxa. Such historical dispersal limitation might indicate that natural movement rates of species are too slow to respond to rates of ongoing and projected future climate and land use change.

  7. The Fate of Nephrons in Congenital Obstructive Nephropathy: Adult Recovery is Limited by Nephron Number Despite Early Release of Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sergio, Maria; Galarreta, Carolina I.; Thornhill, Barbara A.; Forbes, Michael S.; Chevalier, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Urinary tract obstruction and reduced nephron number often occur together as a result of maldevelopment of kidneys and urinary tract. We wished to determine the role of nephron number on the adaptation of remaining nephrons of mice subjected to neonatal partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and followed through adulthood. Materials and Methods Wild-type (WT) and Os/+ mice (with 50% fewer nephrons) were subjected to sham operation or partial UUO in the first 2 days of life. Additional mice underwent release of UUO at 7 days. All kidneys were harvested at 3 weeks (weaning) or 6 weeks (adulthood). Glomerular number and area, glomerulotubular junction integrity, proximal tubular volume fraction, and interstitial fibrosis were measured by histomorphometry. Results In the obstructed kidney, UUO caused additional nephron loss in Os/+ but not WT mice. Glomerular growth from 3 to 6 weeks was impaired by ipsilateral UUO and was not preserved by release in WT or Os/+. Proximal tubular growth was impaired and interstitial collagen was increased by ipsilateral UUO in all mice. These were attenuated by release of UUO in WT mice, but were not restored in Os/+ mice. UUO increased interstitial collagen in the contralateral kidney; release of UUO enhanced tubular growth and reduced interstitial collagen. Conclusions We conclude that UUO in early postnatal development impairs adaptation to reduced nephron number and induces additional nephron loss despite release of obstruction. Premature and low birth weight infants with congenital obstructive nephropathy are likely at increased risk for progression of chronic kidney disease. PMID:25912494

  8. Summarizing activity limitations in children with chronic illnesses living in the community: a measurement study of scales using supplemented interRAI items

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To test the validity and reliability of scales intended to measure activity limitations faced by children with chronic illnesses living in the community. The scales were based on information provided by caregivers to service program personnel almost exclusively trained as social workers. The items used to measure activity limitations were interRAI items supplemented so that they were more applicable to activity limitations in children with chronic illnesses. In addition, these analyses may shed light on the possibility of gathering functional information that can span the life course as well as spanning different care settings. Methods Analyses included testing the internal consistency, predictive, concurrent, discriminant and construct validity of two activity limitation scales. The scales were developed using assessment data gathered in the United States of America (USA) from over 2,700 assessments of children aged 4 to 20 receiving Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic and Treatment (EPSDT) services, specifically Personal Care Services to assist children in overcoming activity limitations. The Medicaid program in the USA pays for health care services provided to children in low-income households. Data were collected in a single, large state in the southwestern USA in late 2008 and early 2009. A similar sample of children was assessed in 2010, and the analyses were replicated using this sample. Results The two scales exhibited excellent internal consistency. Evidence on the concurrent, predictive, discriminant, and construct validity of the proposed scales was strong. Quite importantly, scale scores were not correlated with (confounded with) a child's developmental stage or age. The results for these scales and items were consistent across the two independent samples. Conclusions Unpaid caregivers, usually parents, can provide assessors lacking either medical or nursing training with reliable and valid information on the activity

  9. Quantitative sustainability and qualitative concerns in an irrigations system using recycled water to supplement limited groundwater supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowing, John; Alataway, Abed

    2013-04-01

    Sustainability of irrigation in a country facing water scarcity depends upon adoption of best management practices to deliver 'more crop per drop' together with use of recycled waste-water from urban sewage systems. Saudi Arabia is a country facing extreme water scarcity and in this paper we report on research conducted at an extensive irrigation system where a concerted effort over several years has been devoted to achieving a high level of water productivity. Al-Ahsa oasis is located about 60 km inland from the Persian Gulf and has been inhabited since prehistoric times, due to the abundance of water in an otherwise arid region. It is one of the largest oases in the world with 12,000 hectares of irrigated land and more than 2 million palm trees. Historically the oasis was watered by over 60 artesian springs, but water is now pumped from the aquifer. To supplement this groundwater source, treated waste-water reuse has been practiced since 1992 and now comprises 30% of total supply. In addition, a comparable amount of agricultural drainage water is collected and recycled, so that the 'first-use' water represents only 40% of total irrigation supply. While this re-use system permits sustained irrigation with greatly reduced groundwater abstraction, there is a potential down-side in that fertilizers and contaminants applied with irrigation water move through the soil and return to the irrigation supply enhancing the risk for human and animal health. We investigated this problem using E coli and helminth eggs as indicators of human health risk. We sampled each of the three sources which are delivered separately to the head of the main irrigation canal where they are blended. The groundwater was free from E coli and helminths and the treated wastewater source was generally within designated quality standards. The recycled drainage water was delivered untreated into the canal system and was found to be contaminated with both E coli and helminths above acceptable

  10. Flash photolytic release of alcohols from photolabile carbamates or carbonates is rate-limited by decarboxylation of the photoproduct.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, George; Barth, Andreas; Corrie, John E T

    2005-02-01

    Flash photolysis of a 7-nitroindolinyl carbamate derivative in neutral aqueous solution rapidly generated a monoalkyl carbonate salt. The rate constant for subsequent decarboxylation of this salt [mono(2-phosphoryloxyethyl) carbonate], determined by rapid scan IR difference spectroscopy, was 0.4 s(-1) at pH 7.0, 20 degrees C. This rate reflects release of the product alcohol upon photolysis of the parent compound. In general, alcohols protected as photolabile carbamate (or carbonate) derivatives will therefore be released too slowly for studies of the kinetics of millisecond time scale biological processes.

  11. Sediment-water exchange of nutrients in the Marsdiep basin, western Wadden Sea: Phosphorus limitation induced by a controlled release?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leote, Catarina; Epping, Eric H. G.

    2015-01-01

    To quantify the release of inorganic phosphorus from the sediments and assess its contribution to present primary production, a basin-wide study of the Marsdiep (western Wadden Sea, The Netherlands) was performed. Two distinct sedimentary zones were identified: a depositional area characterized by a high content of silt and organic carbon and a small grain size and the majority of the area, composed of fine/medium sand and a low organic carbon content. The sediment-water exchange was higher in the fine grained depositional area and based on a relationship found between the release of inorganic phosphorus and the silt content, a total annual release of 1.0×107 mol P was estimated for the whole Marsdiep basin. A spatial variability in the processes controlling the nutrient release was found. The exchange in the depositional area resulted mainly from molecular diffusive transport, with mineralization and sorption determining the concentration of inorganic phosphorus in the porewater. For the coarser sediment stations the activity of macrofauna clearly enhanced the fluxes. Given the relative demand of nutrients (N:P:Si) for phytoplankton growth, the release was phosphorus deficient during most of the year. Nevertheless, it increased from February until September, in parallel with the increase in temperature and light, thus having the potential to fuel primary production during their seasonal growth period. In terms of absolute values, our results show that the present exchange, enhanced by the activity of macrofauna has the potential to fuel a significant fraction of the recent levels of primary productivity.

  12. An alkaline follicular fluid fraction induces capacitation and limited release of oviduct epithelium-bound stallion sperm.

    PubMed

    Leemans, Bart; Gadella, Bart M; Stout, Tom A E; Nelis, Hilde; Hoogewijs, Maarten; Van Soom, Ann

    2015-09-01

    Induction of hyperactivated motility is considered essential for triggering the release of oviduct-bound mammalian spermatozoa in preparation for fertilization. In this study, oviduct-bound stallion spermatozoa were exposed for 2 h to: i) pre-ovulatory and ii) post-ovulatory oviductal fluid; iii) 100% and iv) 10% follicular fluid (FF); v) cumulus cells, vi) mature equine oocytes, vii) capacitating and viii) non-capacitating medium. None of these triggered sperm release or hyperactivated motility. Interestingly, native FF was detrimental to sperm viability, an effect that was negated by heat inactivation, charcoal treatment and 30 kDa filtration alone or in combination. Moreover, sperm suspensions exposed to treated FF at pH 7.9 but not pH 7.4 showed Ca(2+)-dependent hypermotility. Fluo-4 AM staining of sperm showed elevated cytoplasmic Ca(2+) in hyperactivated stallion spermatozoa exposed to treated FF at pH 7.9 compared to a modest response in defined capacitating conditions at pH 7.9 and no response in treated FF at pH 7.4. Moreover, 1 h incubation in alkaline, treated FF induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation in 20% of spermatozoa. None of the conditions tested induced widespread release of sperm pre-bound to oviduct epithelium. However, the hyperactivating conditions did induce release of 70-120 spermatozoa per oviduct explant, of which 48% showed protein tyrosine phosphorylation and all were acrosome-intact, but capable of acrosomal exocytosis in response to calcium ionophore. We conclude that, in the presence of elevated pH and extracellular Ca(2+), a heat-resistant, hydrophilic, <30 kDa component of FF can trigger protein tyrosine phosphorylation, elevated cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and hyperactivated motility in stallion sperm, but infrequent release of sperm pre-bound to oviduct epithelium. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  13. The Fate of Nephrons in Congenital Obstructive Nephropathy: Adult Recovery is Limited by Nephron Number Despite Early Release of Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Sergio, Maria; Galarreta, Carolina I; Thornhill, Barbara A; Forbes, Michael S; Chevalier, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract obstruction and reduced nephron number often occur together as a result of maldevelopment of the kidneys and the urinary tract. We determined the role of nephron number on adaptation of the remaining nephrons of mice subjected to neonatal partial unilateral ureteral obstruction followed through adulthood. Wild-type and Os/+ mice (the latter with 50% fewer nephrons) underwent sham operation or partial unilateral ureteral obstruction in the first 2 days of life. Additional mice underwent release of unilateral ureteral obstruction at 7 days. All kidneys were harvested at 3 weeks (weaning) or 6 weeks (adulthood). Glomerular number and area, glomerulotubular junction integrity, proximal tubular volume fraction and interstitial fibrosis were measured by histomorphometry. In the obstructed kidney unilateral ureteral obstruction caused additional nephron loss in Os/+ but not in wild-type mice. Glomerular growth from 3 to 6 weeks was impaired by ipsilateral obstruction and not preserved by release in wild-type or Os/+ mice. Proximal tubular growth was impaired and interstitial collagen was increased by ipsilateral obstruction in all mice. These conditions were attenuated by release of unilateral ureteral obstruction in wild-type mice but were not restored in Os/+ mice. Unilateral ureteral obstruction increased interstitial collagen in the contralateral kidney while release of obstruction enhanced tubular growth and reduced interstitial collagen. Unilateral ureteral obstruction in early postnatal development impairs adaptation to reduced nephron number and induces additional nephron loss despite release of obstruction. Premature and low birth weight infants with congenital obstructive nephropathy are likely at increased risk for progression of chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rate-limiting step preceding cytochrome c release in cells primed for Fas-mediated apoptosis revealed by analysis of cellular mosaicism of respiratory changes.

    PubMed

    Hájek, P; Villani, G; Attardi, G

    2001-01-05

    In the present work, Jurkat cells undergoing anti-Fas antibody (anti-Fas)-triggered apoptosis exhibited in increasing proportion a massive release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, as revealed by double-labeling confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. The cytochrome c release was followed by a progressive reduction in the respiratory activity of the last respiratory enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), and with a little delay, by a decrease in overall endogenous respiration rate, as measured in vivo in the whole cell population. Furthermore, in vivo titration experiments showed that an approximately 30% excess of COX capacity over that required to support endogenous respiration, found in naive cells, was maintained in anti-Fas-treated cells having lost approximately 40% of their COX respiratory activity. This observation strongly suggested that only a subpopulation of anti-Fas-treated cells, which maintained the excess of COX capacity, respired. Fractionation of cells on annexin V-coated paramagnetic beads did indeed separate a subpopulation of annexin V-binding apoptotic cells with fully released cytochrome c and completely lacking respiration, and a nonbound cell subpopulation exhibiting nearly intact respiration and in their great majority preserving the mitochondrial cytochrome c localization. The above findings showed a cellular mosaicism in cytochrome c release and respiration loss, and revealed the occurrence of a rate-limiting step preceding cytochrome c release in the apoptotic cascade. Furthermore, the striking observation that controlled digitonin treatment caused a massive and very rapid release of cytochrome c and complete loss of respiration in the still respiring anti-Fas-treated cells, but not in naive cells, indicated that the cells responding to digitonin had already been primed for apoptosis, and that this treatment bypassed or accelerated the rate-limiting step most probably at the level of the mitochondrial outer membrane.

  15. A Scoping Review of Interventions to Supplement Spoken Communication for Children with Limited Speech or Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Costantino, Maria Antonella; Bonati, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) is used for treating children with severe disorders of speech-language production and/or comprehension. Various strategies are used, but research and debate on their efficacy have remained limited to a specific area and have rarely reached the general medical community. Objective To systematically evaluate outcomes of AAC interventions in children with limited speech or language skills. Methods Searches were conducted (up to December 2012) in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, DARE, and Cochrane Library databases. Furthermore, relevant journals were searched by hand. References from identified studies were examined. Only RCTs were considered. Trial quality was assessed according to a standardized and validated set of criteria. Results Fourteen of 1661 retrieved papers met inclusion criteria. A total of 666 children were included in the review and 7 papers involved only children <5 years old. Papers were of average quality and all but one had been published during the previous 10 years by one of 8 research groups, 5 of which from the United States. Seven studies directly addressed AAC use by children with different disabilities. Seven studies enrolled typically developing children: 5 evaluated the use of AAC technologies by children without disabilities in order to obtain results that could be used to improve interventions in peers with disabilities, and 2 evaluated peers’ attitudes towards children who used AAC. Both interventions and outcome measures varied widely between studies. Overall findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the AAC interventions considered, but the focus on RCTs alone appears too restrictive. Conclusions Solid evidence of the positive effects of AAC interventions in children with severe communication disorders must be generated, and different methods are needed besides RCTs. Moreover, it is important that knowledge, research, and debate extend to the medical community in order

  16. Authorized Limits for the Release of a 25 Ton Locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremy Gwin and Douglas Frenette

    2010-04-08

    This document contains process knowledge and radiological data and analysis to support approval for release of the 25-ton locomotive, Serial Number 21547, at the Area 25 Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility, located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 25-ton locomotive is a small, one-of-a-kind locomotive used to move railcars in support of the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application project. This locomotive was identified as having significant historical value by the Nevada State Railroad Museum in Boulder City, Nevada, where it will be used as a display piece. A substantial effort to characterize the radiological conditions of the locomotive was undertaken by the NTS Management and Operations Contractor, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). During this characterization process, seven small areas on the locomotive had contamination levels that exceeded the NTS release criteria (limits consistent with U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] Order DOE O 5400.5, “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment”). The decision was made to perform radiological decontamination of these known accessible impacted areas to further the release process. On February 9, 2010, NSTec personnel completed decontamination of these seven areas to within the NTS release criteria. Although all accessible areas of the locomotive had been successfully decontaminated to within NTS release criteria, it was plausible that inaccessible areas of the locomotive (i.e., those areas on the locomotive where it was not possible to perform radiological surveys) could potentially have contamination above unrestricted release limits. To access the majority of these inaccessible areas, the locomotive would have to be disassembled. A complete disassembly for a full radiological survey could have permanently destroyed parts and would have ruined the historical value of the locomotive. Complete disassembly would also add an unreasonable financial burden for the

  17. The release of dipicolinic acid--the rate-limiting step of Bacillus endospore inactivation during the high pressure thermal sterilization process.

    PubMed

    Reineke, Kai; Schlumbach, Karl; Baier, Daniel; Mathys, Alexander; Knorr, Dietrich

    2013-03-01

    High pressure combined with elevated temperatures can produce low acid, commercially sterile and shelf-stable foods. Depending on the temperature and pressure levels applied, bacterial endospores pass through different pathways, which can lead to a pressure-induced germination or inactivation. Regardless of the pathway, Bacillus endospores first release pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (DPA), which contributes to the low amount of free water in the spore core and is consequently responsible for the spore's high resistance against wet and dry heat. This is therefore the rate-limiting step in the high pressure sterilization process. To evaluate the impact of a broad pressure, temperature and time domain on the DPA release, Bacillus subtilis spores were pressure treated between 0.1 and 900 MPa at between 30 and 80 °C under isothermal isobaric conditions during dwell time. DPA quantification was assessed using HPLC, and samples were taken both immediately and 2 h after the pressure treatment. To obtain a release kinetic for some pressure-temperature conditions, samples were collected between 1s and 60 min after decompression. A multiresponse kinetic model was then used to derive a model covering all kinetic data. The isorate lines modeled for the DPA release in the chosen pressure-temperature landscape enabled the determination of three distinct zones. (I) For pressures <600 MPa and temperatures >50 °C, a 90% DPA release was achievable in less than 5 min and no difference in the amount of DPA was found immediately 2 h after pressurization. This may indicate irreversible damage to the inner spore membrane or membrane proteins. (II) Above 600 MPa the synergism between pressure and temperature diminished, and the treatment temperature alone dominated DPA release. (III) Pressures <600 MPa and temperatures <50 °C resulted in a retarded release of DPA, with strong increased differences in the amount of DPA released after 2 h, which implies a pressure-induced physiological

  18. Effect of a controlled-release urea supplement on rumen fermentation in sheep fed a diet of sugar cane tops (Saccharum officinarum), corn stubble (Zea mays) and King grass (Pennisetum purpureum).

    PubMed

    Puga, D C.; Galina, H M.; Pérez-Gil, R F.; Sanginés, G L.; Aguilera, B A.; Haenlein, G F.W.

    2001-03-01

    Four cannulated sheep were used to study ruminal fermentation of a diet consisting of 60% sugar cane tops (Saccharum officinarum), 30% corn stubble (Zea mays), 10% King grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and 0% (control), 10, 20 or 30% controlled-release urea supplement (CRUS) (diets 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Average ruminal pH did not differ among diets (P>0.05), but during the first 6h of sampling tended to be higher for CRUS diets. Ammonia concentrations were higher (P<0.01) in all treatments over controls, indicating microbial protein generation. Acetic acid production (mM/1) decreased (P<0.05), propionic acid increased (P<0.05), while butyric acid production did not differ among CRUS diets and controls (P>0.05). Total amounts of ruminal VFA were lowest (P<0.01) in controls, while CRUS diets produced more of these energy sources. Supplementation of the high fiber diets with 10, 20 or 30% CRUS increasingly improved rumen fermentation, ammonia supply and VFA production. The results show that low quality forages (up to 70% DMI) can be used efficiently by sheep when conditions for ruminal microorganism are improved with a controlled-release urea supplement.

  19. Price to be paid for two-metal catalysis: magnesium ions that accelerate chemistry unavoidably limit product release from a protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Douglas M; Bao, Zhao-Qin; O'Brien, Patrick; Brooks, Charles L; Young, Matthew A

    2012-09-19

    Incorporation of divalent metal ions into an active site is a fundamental catalytic tool used by diverse enzymes. Divalent cations are used by protein kinases to both stabilize ATP binding and accelerate chemistry. Kinetic analysis establishes that Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) requires simultaneous binding of two Mg(2+) ions for catalysis of phosphoryl transfer. This tool, however, comes with a price: the rate-acceleration effects are opposed by an unavoidable rate-limiting consequence of the use of two Mg(2+) ions by CDK2. The essential metal ions stabilize ADP product binding and limit the overall rate of the reaction. We demonstrate that product release is rate limiting for activated CDK2 and evaluate the effects of the two catalytically essential Mg(2+) ions on the stability of the ADP product within the active site. We present two new crystal structures of CDK2 bound to ADP showing how the phosphate groups can be coordinated by either one or two Mg(2+) ions, with the occupancy of one site in a weaker equilibrium. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that ADP phosphate mobility is more restricted when ADP is coordinated by two Mg(2+) ions compared to one. The structural similarity between the rigid ADP·2Mg product and the cooperatively assembled transition state provides a mechanistic rational for the rate-limiting ADP release that is observed. We demonstrate that although the simultaneous binding of two Mg(2+) ions is essential for efficient phosphoryl transfer, the presence of both Mg(2+) ions in the active site also cooperatively increases ADP affinity and opposes its release. Evolution of protein kinases must have involved careful tuning of the affinity for the second Mg(2+) ion in order to balance the needs to stabilize the chemical transition state and allow timely product release. The link between Mg(2+) site affinity and activity presents a chemical handle that may be used by regulatory factors as well as explain some mutational effects.

  20. A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions for comparison with the EPA release limits for radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.; Shiver, A.W.

    1994-10-01

    A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for comparison with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) release limits for radioactive waste disposal (40 CFR 191, Subpart B) is described and illustrated with results from a recent performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Monte Carlo procedure produces CCDF estimates similar to those obtained with stratified sampling in several recent PAs for the WIPP. The advantages of the Monte Carlo procedure over stratified sampling include increased resolution in the calculation of probabilities for complex scenarios involving drilling intrusions and better use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that underlie CCDF construction.

  1. Low effective activation energies for oxygen release from metal oxides: evidence for mass-transfer limits at high heating rates.

    PubMed

    Jian, Guoqiang; Zhou, Lei; Piekiel, Nicholas W; Zachariah, Michael R

    2014-06-06

    Oxygen release from metal oxides at high temperatures is relevant to many thermally activated chemical processes, including chemical-looping combustion, solar thermochemical cycles and energetic thermite reactions. In this study, we evaluated the thermal decomposition of nanosized metal oxides under rapid heating (~10(5) K s(-1)) with time-resolved mass spectrometry. We found that the effective activation-energy values that were obtained using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa isoconversional method are much lower than the values found at low heating rates, indicating that oxygen transport might be rate-determining at a high heating rate.

  2. Supplementation effect with slow-release urea in feed blocks for Thai beef cattle--nitrogen utilization, blood biochemistry, and hematology.

    PubMed

    Cherdthong, Anusorn; Wanapat, Metha; Rakwongrit, Damrongrak; Khota, Waroon; Khantharin, Sayan; Tangmutthapattharakun, Gasama; Kang, Sungchhang; Foiklang, Suban; Phesatcha, Kampanat

    2014-02-01

    Four Thai male native beef cattle, initial body weight (BW) of 100 ± 3.0 kg were randomly assigned in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments with inclusion of urea calcium sulphate mixture (U-cas) in feed block (FB) at 0, 120, 150, and 180 g/kg dry matter (DM). Total intakes were increased with the increasing level of U-cas supplementation in FB and the result obtained the highest when supplementation of U-cas in FB at 180, followed by 150, 120, and 0 g/kg DM, respectively. Moreover, supplementation of U-cas in FB at 180 g/kg DM could reduce total N excretion (4.1 g/day), as compared to others treatments, while N retention and proportion of N retention to N intake were increased up to 6.9 g/day and 14.9 %, respectively. On the other hand, the blood biochemistry and hematological parameters were not different among treatments except concentration of plasma urea N, plasma glucose, and total blood protein were improved especially with U-cas supplementation at 180 g/kg DM in FB. In conclusion, supplementation of U-cas at 180 g/kg in FB improved feed intake, N utilization, and blood biochemistry in Thai native beef cattle fed on rice straw.

  3. PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR6 promotes Arabidopsis mucilage release by limiting methylesterification of homogalacturonan in seed coat epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Berger, Adeline; Botran, Lucy; Ropartz, David; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M

    2013-01-01

    Imbibed seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana accession Djarly are affected in mucilage release from seed coat epidermal cells. The impaired locus was identified as a pectin methylesterase inhibitor gene, PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR6 (PMEI6), specifically expressed in seed coat epidermal cells at the time when mucilage polysaccharides are accumulated. This spatio-temporal regulation appears to be modulated by GLABRA2 and LEUNIG HOMOLOG/MUCILAGE MODIFIED1, as expression of PMEI6 is reduced in mutants of these transcription regulators. In pmei6, mucilage release was delayed and outer cell walls of epidermal cells did not fragment. Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) demethylate homogalacturonan (HG), and the majority of HG found in wild-type mucilage was in fact derived from outer cell wall fragments. This correlated with the absence of methylesterified HG labeling in pmei6, whereas transgenic plants expressing the PMEI6 coding sequence under the control of the 35S promoter had increased labeling of cell wall fragments. Activity tests on seeds from pmei6 and 35S:PMEI6 transgenic plants showed that PMEI6 inhibits endogenous PME activities, in agreement with reduced overall methylesterification of mucilage fractions and demucilaged seeds. Another regulator of PME activity in seed coat epidermal cells, the subtilisin-like Ser protease SBT1.7, acts on different PMEs, as a pmei6 sbt1.7 mutant showed an additive phenotype.

  4. Lactobacillus GG has in vitro effects on enhanced interleukin-10 and interferon-gamma release of mononuclear cells but no in vivo effects in supplemented mothers and their neonates.

    PubMed

    Kopp, M V; Goldstein, M; Dietschek, A; Sofke, J; Heinzmann, A; Urbanek, R

    2008-04-01

    The value of probiotics for primary prevention is controversial. Moreover, only little is known about the underlying immunological mechanisms of action. Therefore, we assessed the proliferative response and cytokine release in cultures of isolated mononuclear cells from pregnant women and their neonates supplemented with Lactobacillus GG (LGG) or placebo. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled prospective trial, pregnant women with at least one first-degree relative or a partner with an atopic disease were randomly assigned to receive either the probiotic LGG (ATCC 53103; 5 x 10(9) colony-forming units LGG twice daily) or placebo 4-6 weeks before expected delivery, followed by a post-natal period of 6 months. Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of the corresponding mother were isolated from cord blood and peripheral blood (n=68). The proliferative response of CBMC and PBMC was expressed as the stimulation index (SI), which was calculated according to the ratio between the mean counts per minute (c.p.m.) values measured in the wells with stimulated cells and the mean c.p.m. values measured in the wells with unstimulated cells. Additionally, the cytokines IFN-gamma, IL-10 and IL-13 in the cell culture supernatants were measured using the ELISA technique. No difference was observed between the LGG-supplemented group and the placebo group in terms of the proliferative capacity of maternal or neonatal cord blood cells in response to IL-2, beta-lactoglobulin or LGG. In vitro stimulation with LGG resulted in significantly enhanced release of IL-10 and IFN-gamma, compared with cytokine release in unstimulated controls. However, this phenomenon was observed in supernatants of maternal and neonatal MC in both groups, independent of prior supplementation with LGG. LGG has in vitro effects on enhanced IL-10 and IFN-gamma release of mononuclear cells. However, supplementation with LGG during pregnancy did not alter the proliferative

  5. The metabolic, stress axis, and hematology response of zilpaterol hydrochloride supplemented beef heifers when exposed to a dual corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the metabolic, stress, and hematology cell response of beef heifers supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) when exposed to an endocrine stress challenge. Heifers (n = 20; 556 ± 7 kg BW) were randomized into two treatment groups: 1) Control (CON):...

  6. Supplementation of zilpaterol hydrochloride to crossbred Angus heifers does not increase stress responsiveness or homeostatic metabolic parameters after a combined corticoptropin releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anecdotal claims suggest that feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) alters the stress response in cattle; however, there is no scientific data to support or refute these claims. This study was designed to determine if differences exist in the stress response of ZH-supplemented cattle when exposed to...

  7. Evaluation of the effects of zilpateral hydrochloride supplementation on catecholamine response and other blood metabolites following a combined corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Supplementation of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Zilmax®) to cattle has been implicated as having a negative impact on the well-being of cattle. However, there is no data to support or refute these claims. This study was designed to determine if differences exist in the serum metabolic profile and m...

  8. Using dynamic N-mixture models to test cavity limitation on northern flying squirrel demographic parameters using experimental nest box supplementation.

    PubMed

    Priol, Pauline; Mazerolle, Marc J; Imbeau, Louis; Drapeau, Pierre; Trudeau, Caroline; Ramière, Jessica

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic N-mixture models have been recently developed to estimate demographic parameters of unmarked individuals while accounting for imperfect detection. We propose an application of the Dail and Madsen (2011: Biometrics, 67, 577-587) dynamic N-mixture model in a manipulative experiment using a before-after control-impact design (BACI). Specifically, we tested the hypothesis of cavity limitation of a cavity specialist species, the northern flying squirrel, using nest box supplementation on half of 56 trapping sites. Our main purpose was to evaluate the impact of an increase in cavity availability on flying squirrel population dynamics in deciduous stands in northwestern Québec with the dynamic N-mixture model. We compared abundance estimates from this recent approach with those from classic capture-mark-recapture models and generalized linear models. We compared apparent survival estimates with those from Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models. Average recruitment rate was 6 individuals per site after 4 years. Nevertheless, we found no effect of cavity supplementation on apparent survival and recruitment rates of flying squirrels. Contrary to our expectations, initial abundance was not affected by conifer basal area (food availability) and was negatively affected by snag basal area (cavity availability). Northern flying squirrel population dynamics are not influenced by cavity availability at our deciduous sites. Consequently, we suggest that this species should not be considered an indicator of old forest attributes in our study area, especially in view of apparent wide population fluctuations across years. Abundance estimates from N-mixture models were similar to those from capture-mark-recapture models, although the latter had greater precision. Generalized linear mixed models produced lower abundance estimates, but revealed the same relationship between abundance and snag basal area. Apparent survival estimates from N-mixture models were higher and less precise

  9. Using dynamic N-mixture models to test cavity limitation on northern flying squirrel demographic parameters using experimental nest box supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Priol, Pauline; Mazerolle, Marc J; Imbeau, Louis; Drapeau, Pierre; Trudeau, Caroline; Ramière, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic N-mixture models have been recently developed to estimate demographic parameters of unmarked individuals while accounting for imperfect detection. We propose an application of the Dail and Madsen (2011: Biometrics, 67, 577–587) dynamic N-mixture model in a manipulative experiment using a before-after control-impact design (BACI). Specifically, we tested the hypothesis of cavity limitation of a cavity specialist species, the northern flying squirrel, using nest box supplementation on half of 56 trapping sites. Our main purpose was to evaluate the impact of an increase in cavity availability on flying squirrel population dynamics in deciduous stands in northwestern Québec with the dynamic N-mixture model. We compared abundance estimates from this recent approach with those from classic capture–mark–recapture models and generalized linear models. We compared apparent survival estimates with those from Cormack–Jolly–Seber (CJS) models. Average recruitment rate was 6 individuals per site after 4 years. Nevertheless, we found no effect of cavity supplementation on apparent survival and recruitment rates of flying squirrels. Contrary to our expectations, initial abundance was not affected by conifer basal area (food availability) and was negatively affected by snag basal area (cavity availability). Northern flying squirrel population dynamics are not influenced by cavity availability at our deciduous sites. Consequently, we suggest that this species should not be considered an indicator of old forest attributes in our study area, especially in view of apparent wide population fluctuations across years. Abundance estimates from N-mixture models were similar to those from capture–mark–recapture models, although the latter had greater precision. Generalized linear mixed models produced lower abundance estimates, but revealed the same relationship between abundance and snag basal area. Apparent survival estimates from N-mixture models were higher and

  10. Effects of pomegranate extract in supplementing gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy on idiopathic central precocious puberty in Chinese girls: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinsheng; Tang, Jiulai

    2017-02-22

    Central precocious puberty (CPP) without organic abnormality is called idiopathic CPP (ICPP). The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of pomegranate extract in supplementing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog therapy on ICPP-affected girls in the Chinese population. 286 girls, diagnosed with ICPP were initially enrolled into this trial, and among them 225 eligible patients were randomized to receive a combinational GnRH analog treatment supplemented with either a placebo or pomegranate extract on a daily basis for a period of 3 months. Their demographics, secondary sexual characteristics and hormone profiles were analyzed at baseline and end of trial. After 3 months of treatment, demographic profiles including bone age, growth velocity and height standard deviation score for bone age, and secondary sexual characteristics including uterus and ovary volume, as well as serum hormone profiles including estradiol, peak luteinizing hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 were all significantly improved in girls receiving a combinational treatment of both GnRH analog and pomegranate extract. Daily consumption of pomegranate extract was able to supplement and improve the treatment outcomes of the GnRH analog therapy for ICPP in Chinese girls.

  11. A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions for comparison with the EPA release limits for radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Helton, J C; Shiver, A W

    1996-02-01

    A Monte Carlo procedure for the construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for comparison with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) release limits for radioactive waste disposal (40 CFR 191, Subpart B) is described and illustrated with results from a recent performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Monte Carlo procedure produces CCDF estimates similar to those obtained with importance sampling in several recent PAs for the WIPP. The advantages of the Monte Carlo procedure over importance sampling include increased resolution in the calculation of probabilities for complex scenarios involving drilling intrusions and better use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that underlie CCDF construction.

  12. TEDS-M 2008 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 4: TEDS-M Released Mathematics and Mathematics Pedagogy Knowledge Assessment Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brese, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The goal for selecting the released set of test items was to have approximately 25% of each of the full item sets for mathematics content knowledge (MCK) and mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK) that would represent the full range of difficulty, content, and item format used in the TEDS-M study. The initial step in the selection was to…

  13. Effect of high-dose phytase supplementation in broilers from 22 to 42 days post-hatch given diets severely limited in available phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Taheri, H R; Heidari, A; Shahir, M H

    2015-01-01

    1. Two trials were conducted from 22 to 42 d post-hatch to evaluate the effectiveness of high concentrations of supplemental phytase in maize-soya bean meal-based diets severely limited in available phosphorus (P). Growth performance, plasma P and tibia ash (TA) were measured. 2. Each trial used 220 21-d-old male broilers in 20 pens with 11 birds per pen. Dietary treatments included a positive control [PC, 4.3 g/kg nonphytate P (NPP)], negative control [NC, 2.3 g/kg NPP (Trial 1) or 1.4 g/kg NPP (Trial 2)] and NC plus 1000, 2000 or 4000 phytase U/kg of the diet. 3. Birds fed on the PC diet had higher average daily gain (ADG), gain to feed ratio (G:F), plasma P (Trials 1 and 2) and TA (Trial 2) than those fed on the NC. 4. In Trial 1, ADG and G:F values of the NC plus 1000, 2000 or 4000 phytase U/kg reached those of the PC. Plasma P values of the NC plus 2000 or 4000 phytase U/kg reached that of the PC. Although TA values of the NC, NC + 1000 or NC + 2000 reached that of the PC, TA of the NC + 4000 was more than that of the PC. 5. In Trial 2, ADG and G:F values of the NC plus 4000 phytase U/kg reached those of the PC; nevertheless, plasma P values of the NC diets did not come up to that of the PC. While TA values of the NC, NC + 1000 or NC + 2000 did not reach that of the PC, TA of the NC + 4000 was greater than that of the PC. 6. Results of this study showed that, in the diets with 2.3 and 1.4 g/kg NPP, respectively, 1000 and 4000 phytase U/kg can be sufficient to obtain a comparable performance in broilers to those given diets adequate in available P.

  14. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids-rich fish oil supplementation attenuates strength loss and limited joint range of motion after eccentric contractions: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yosuke; Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Nakazato, Koichi; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Ochi, Eisuke

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids-rich fish oil (EPA + DHA) supplementation on eccentric contraction-induced muscle damage. Twenty-four healthy men were randomly assigned to consume the EPA + DHA supplement (EPA, n = 12) or placebo (PL, n = 12) by the double-blind method. Participants consumed EPA + DHA or placebo supplement for 8 weeks prior to exercise and continued it until 5 days after exercise. The EPA group consumed EPA + DHA-rich fish oil containing 600 mg EPA and 260 mg DHA per day. Subjects performed five sets of six maximal eccentric elbow flexion exercises. Changes in the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, range of motion (ROM), upper arm circumference, muscle soreness as well as serum creatine kinase, myoglobin, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in blood were assessed before, immediately after, and 1, 2, 3, and 5 days after exercise. MVC was significantly higher in the EPA group than in the PL group at 2-5 days after exercise (p < 0.05). ROM was also significantly greater in the EPA group than in the PL group at 1-5 days after exercise (p < 0.05). At only 3 days after exercise, muscle soreness of the brachialis was significantly greater in the PL group than in the EPA group (p < 0.05), with a concomitant increase in serum IL-6 levels in the PL group. Eight-week EPA + DHA supplementation attenuates strength loss and limited ROM after exercise. The supplementation also attenuates muscle soreness and elevates cytokine level, but the effect is limited.

  15. Brain docosahexaenoic acid status and learning in young rats submitted to dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency and supplementation limited to lactation.

    PubMed

    García-Calatayud, Salvador; Redondo, Carlos; Martín, Eva; Ruiz, José Ignacio; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Sanjurjo, Pablo

    2005-05-01

    N-3 fatty acid deficiency has been related to decreased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and increased docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) levels in brain and to learning disadvantages. The influence of n-3 deficiency and supplementation on brain fatty acids and learning were investigated in young rats. Newborn Wistar rats were assigned to three groups of cross-foster mothers. The control group (C) was nursed by mothers that received essential fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation, and the deficient group (D) was nursed by mothers that did not receive those fatty acids. The supplemental group (S) had the same conditions as D, receiving an additional DHA and arachidonic acid supplement during lactation. Cerebral cortex and hippocampus fatty acid composition was examined using thin-layer and capillary column gas chromatography, and learning was measured by passive-avoidance procedure. D brains showed low DHA and high DPA levels, but S brain composition was similar to C. Learning in the S group was unaffected, but in the D group, it was poorer than C. Learning was directly correlated with DHA levels and inversely with DPA levels in brain. Low DHA and high DPA brain levels both were correlated with poor learning. DPA seems not to be a suitable brain functional analogue of DHA, and DHA supplementation reversed both biochemical and learning adverse effects observed in n-3 deficiency.

  16. Efficacy of whey protein supplementation on resistance exercise-induced changes in muscle strength, lean mass, and function in mobility-limited older adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whey protein supplementation may augment resistance exercise-induced increases in muscle strength and mass. Further studies are required to determine whether this effect extends to functionally compromised older adults. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of whey protein concent...

  17. Micronutrient supplementation has limited effects on intestinal infectious disease and mortality in a Zambian population of mixed HIV status: a cluster randomized trial1-3

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Paul; Katubulushi, Max; Todd, Jim; Banda, Rose; Yambayamba, Vera; Fwoloshi, Mildred; Zulu, Isaac; Kafwembe, Emmanuel; Yavwa, Felistah; Sanderson, Ian R; Tomkins, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: Diarrheal disease remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in Africa, but host defense against intestinal infection is poorly understood and may depend on nutritional status. Objective: To test the hypothesis that defense against intestinal infection depends on micronutrient status, we undertook a randomized controlled trial of multiple micronutrient supplementation in a population where there is borderline micronutrient deficiency. Design: All consenting adults (≥18 y) living in a carefully defined sector of Misisi, Lusaka, Zambia, were included in a cluster-randomized (by household), double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a midpoint crossover. There were no exclusion criteria. Participants were given a daily tablet containing 15 micronutrients at just above the recommended nutrient intake or placebo. The primary endpoint was the incidence of diarrhea; secondary endpoints were severe episodes of diarrhea, respiratory infection, nutritional status, CD4 count, and mortality. Results: Five hundred participants were recruited and followed up for 3.3 y (10 846 person-months). The primary endpoint, incidence of diarrhea (1.4 episodes/y per person), did not differ with treatment allocation. However, severe episodes of diarrhea were reduced in the supplementation group (odds ratio: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.92; P = 0.017). Mortality was reduced in HIV-positive participants from 12 with placebo to 4 with supplementation (P = 0.029 by log-rank test), but this was not due to changes in CD4 count or nutritional status. Conclusion: Micronutrient supplementation with this formulation resulted in only modest reductions in severe diarrhea and reduced mortality in HIV-positive participants. The trial was registered as ISRCTN31173864. PMID:18842788

  18. Supplement use by Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    McDowall, Jill Anne

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of supplement use among child and adolescent athletes, focusing on prevalence and type of supplement use, as well as gender comparisons. Supplement use among adult athletes has been well documented however there are a limited number of studies investigating supplement use by child and adolescent athletes. A trend in the current literature revealed that the most frequently used supplements are in the form of vitamin and minerals. While health and illness prevention are the main reasons for taking supplements, enhanced athletic performance was also reported as a strong motivating factor. Generally, females are found to use supplements more frequently and are associated with reasons of health, recovery, and replacing an inadequate diet. Males are more likely to report taking supplements for enhanced performance. Both genders equally rated increased energy as another reason for engaging in supplement use. Many dietary supplements are highly accessible to young athletes and they are particularly vulnerable to pressures from the media and the prospect of playing sport at increasingly elite levels. Future research should provide more direct evidence regarding any physiological side effects of taking supplements, as well as the exact vitamin and mineral requirements for child and adolescent athletes. Increased education for young athletes regarding supplement use, parents and coaches should to be targeted to help the athletes make the appropriate choices. Key pointsSupplement use among the child and adolescent athlete population is widespread with the most frequently used supplement being a form of vitamin/mineral supplement.The effects of supplement use on the growth and development of children and adolescents remain unclear and thus use of supplements by this population should be discouraged.It is likely that there is a misunderstanding as to the role of vitamins and minerals in the diet, their function in maintaining overall health, their role

  19. Dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Massey, Patrick B

    2002-01-01

    The amount of published information on dietary supplements mushroomed in the 1990s. In fewer than 5 years, publications increased at least 100-fold in the medical literature alone. Dietary supplements are an uncharted territory that warrants complete and accurate exploration. One should not be surprised that disease and illness may respond to dietary supplements. Nutrition is the foundation to good health, and dietary supplements may prove to be some of the most powerful medicines ever discovered. An especially exciting discovery is that dietary supplements may enhance the effects of specific drugs. This discovery may lead to more effective and safer protocols for the treatment of cancer, heart and lung disease, and a host of chronic medical conditions. Information about dietary supplements is becoming more common in the popular medical literature and is creating increased curiosity and an increased awareness. The explosion of the dietary supplement market is compelling physicians to become aware of dietary supplements. Whether or not they are used in clinical practice is a decision for the individual physician. Given the increasing number of patients who are using dietary supplements, however, it is imperative that physicians have a good understanding of this topic. Considering the increasing complexity and magnitude of this topic, physician specialization may be essential. There are many good reference books, review articles, and internet sites on specific supplements that probably should be part of every physician's reference library. The accompanying box provides a brief list of such sources.

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Banaba-Moringa oleifera-Green Coffee Bean Extracts and Vitamin D3 in a Sustained Release Weight Management Supplement.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G

    2016-04-01

    This 60-day, 30-subject pilot study examined a novel combination of ingredients in a unique sustained release (Carbopol matrix) tablet consumed twice daily. The product was composed of extracts of banaba leaf, green coffee bean, and Moringa oleifera leaf and vitamin D3. Safety was assessed using a 45-measurement blood chemistry panel, an 86-item self-reported Quality of Life Inventory, bone mineral density, and cardiovascular changes. Efficacy was assessed by calculating a body composition improvement index (BCI) based on changes in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measured fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) as well as between the study group (SG) and a historical placebo group. No changes occurred in any blood chemistry measurements. Positive changes were found in the Quality of Life (QOL) inventory composite scores. No adverse effects were observed. Decreases occurred in FM (p = 0.004) and increases in FFM (p = 0.009). Relative to the historical placebo group, the SG lost more FM (p < 0.0001), gained more FFM (p = <0.0001), and had a negative BCI of -2.7 lb. compared with a positive BCI in the SG of 3.4 lb., a 6.1 discordance (p = 0.0009). The data support the safety and efficacy of this unique product and demonstrate importance of using changes in body composition versus scale weight and BMI. © 2016 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Safety and Efficacy of Banaba–Moringa oleifera–Green Coffee Bean Extracts and Vitamin D3 in a Sustained Release Weight Management Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Kaats, Gilbert R.; Preuss, Harry G.

    2016-01-01

    This 60‐day, 30‐subject pilot study examined a novel combination of ingredients in a unique sustained release (Carbopol matrix) tablet consumed twice daily. The product was composed of extracts of banaba leaf, green coffee bean, and Moringa oleifera leaf and vitamin D3. Safety was assessed using a 45‐measurement blood chemistry panel, an 86‐item self‐reported Quality of Life Inventory, bone mineral density, and cardiovascular changes. Efficacy was assessed by calculating a body composition improvement index (BCI) based on changes in dual energy X‐ray absorptiometry measured fat mass (FM) and fat‐free mass (FFM) as well as between the study group (SG) and a historical placebo group. No changes occurred in any blood chemistry measurements. Positive changes were found in the Quality of Life (QOL) inventory composite scores. No adverse effects were observed. Decreases occurred in FM (p = 0.004) and increases in FFM (p = 0.009). Relative to the historical placebo group, the SG lost more FM (p < 0.0001), gained more FFM (p = <0.0001), and had a negative BCI of −2.7 lb. compared with a positive BCI in the SG of 3.4 lb., a 6.1 discordance (p = 0.0009). The data support the safety and efficacy of this unique product and demonstrate importance of using changes in body composition versus scale weight and BMI. © 2016 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:26871553

  2. Plasma progesterone profile and conception rate following exogenous supplementation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin, and progesterone releasing intra-vaginal device in repeat-breeder crossbred cows

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, N. K. J.; Gupta, H. P.; Prasad, Shiv; Sheetal, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and progesterone impregnated intra-vaginal device on progesterone profile and conception rate in repeat-breeding crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: Repeat-breeding crossbred cows aged 3-8 years (n=32), lactating and negative to white side test were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 (Control, n=8), Group 2 (GnRH at 10 µg i.m, n=8), Group 3 (hCG at 1500 IU i.m., n=8), and Group 4 (progesterone impregnated intra-vaginal device at 958 mg, n=8). All the treatme nts were given on 5th daypostbreeding and in Group 4 intra-vaginally implanted device was withdrawn on 9th day (i.e., implant inserted for total 4 days) of the estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected on day 0, 5, 10, 15, and day 20 of estrous cycle, and plasma was separated for progesterone estimation. Results: Accessory corpus luteum was not formed in crossbred cows of Group4 and control group. However, total 6 and 8 accessory corpora lutea were found in Group 2 and Group 3, respectively. In pregnant cows, the plasma progesterone concentration increased continuously from day 0 to day 20. In non-pregnant cows, it increased from day 0 to day 15 and then declined. The conception rate on day 60 in Group 1, Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4 was 37.5%, 50%, 75%, and 37.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Treating repeat-breeder cows with hCG is effective in increasing conception rate by developing accessory corpora lutea and higher progesterone level. PMID:27397976

  3. The regulation of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Larissa L; Berry, Judith A

    2003-09-01

    To discuss the regulatory history of dietary supplements, define the term dietary supplement, clarify ingredient and nutrition information labeling, and discuss safety issues and implications for practice. Review of primary and secondary sources, including both Internet sites and journal articles. In the United States, 6 out of every 10 people use dietary supplements. For decades, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) protected the public from mislabeled and unsafe products by regulating as foods those dietary supplements that included only essential nutrients. The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 included herbs as dietary supplements. When the Dietary Supplement and Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 was passed, the FDA lost its regulatory power. The DSHEA expanded the definition of dietary supplements beyond essential nutrients. Dietary supplements are no longer considered food additives, which makes them exempt from prescreening or any safety and efficacy studies before they are released to the public. Under the DSHEA, the FDA may take action if a product poses a direct health threat and only after adverse health effects have already occurred. A good understanding of the regulatory procedures for dietary supplements will aid nurse practitioners (NPs) in patient education regarding these products. Patients should be advised to choose supplements that are made by nationally known food and drug manufacturers that belong to trade groups. NPs and patients can contact the manufacturer directly and can access government Internet sites for more product information.

  4. Parenteral iron supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kumpf, V J

    1996-08-01

    Indications for the use of parenteral iron are limited to conditions in which the oral supplementation of iron is not possible or fails. An overview of iron balance and iron requirements is presented to describe situations in which iron supplementation may be required. When parenteral iron supplementation is required, careful attention to proper dosing and administration is necessary to optimize efficacy and safety. The purpose of this article is to review the literature regarding the clinical use of parenteral iron therapy and provide guidelines on dosing and administration. Methods of iron dextran administration, including the IV and intramuscular injection of undiluted drug and total dose infusion, are compared. Complications associated with the use of parenteral iron are also be reviewed. Finally, the use of iron supplementation in patients receiving parenteral nutrition care explored.

  5. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements can play an important role in health. For example, calcium and vitamin D are important for keeping bones ...

  6. A limited contribution of Ca2+ current facilitation to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the rat calyx of Held.

    PubMed

    Müller, Martin; Felmy, Felix; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2008-11-15

    Recent studies have suggested that transmitter release facilitation at synapses is largely mediated by presynaptic Ca(2+) current facilitation, but the exact contribution of Ca(2+) current facilitation has not been determined quantitatively. Here, we determine the contribution of Ca(2+) current facilitation, and of an increase in the residual free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in the nerve terminal, to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the calyx of Held. Under conditions of low release probability imposed by brief presynaptic voltage-clamp steps, transmitter release facilitation at short interstimulus intervals (4 ms) was 227 +/- 31% of control, Ca(2+) current facilitation was 113 +/- 4% of control, and the peak residual [Ca(2+)](i) was 252 +/- 18 nm over baseline. By inferring the 'local' [Ca(2+)](i) transients that drive transmitter release during these voltage-clamp stimuli with the help of a kinetic release model, we estimate that Ca(2+) current facilitation contributes to approximately 40% to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release. The remaining component of facilitation strongly depends on the build-up, and on the decay of the residual free [Ca(2+)](i), but cannot be explained by linear summation of the residual free [Ca(2+)](i), and the back-calculated 'local' [Ca(2+)](i) signal, which only accounts for approximately 10% of the total release facilitation. Further voltage-clamp experiments designed to compensate for Ca(2+) current facilitation demonstrated that about half of the observed transmitter release facilitation remains in the absence of Ca(2+) current facilitation. Our results indicate that paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the calyx of Held is driven by at least two distinct mechanisms: Ca(2+) current facilitation, and a mechanism independent of Ca(2+) current facilitation that closely tracks the time course of residual free [Ca(2+)](i).

  7. A limited contribution of Ca2+ current facilitation to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the rat calyx of Held

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Martin; Felmy, Felix; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that transmitter release facilitation at synapses is largely mediated by presynaptic Ca2+ current facilitation, but the exact contribution of Ca2+ current facilitation has not been determined quantitatively. Here, we determine the contribution of Ca2+ current facilitation, and of an increase in the residual free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the nerve terminal, to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the calyx of Held. Under conditions of low release probability imposed by brief presynaptic voltage-clamp steps, transmitter release facilitation at short interstimulus intervals (4 ms) was 227 ± 31% of control, Ca2+ current facilitation was 113 ± 4% of control, and the peak residual [Ca2+]i was 252 ± 18 nm over baseline. By inferring the ‘local’[Ca2+]i transients that drive transmitter release during these voltage-clamp stimuli with the help of a kinetic release model, we estimate that Ca2+ current facilitation contributes to ∼40% to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release. The remaining component of facilitation strongly depends on the build-up, and on the decay of the residual free [Ca2+]i, but cannot be explained by linear summation of the residual free [Ca2+]i, and the back-calculated ‘local’[Ca2+]i signal, which only accounts for ∼10% of the total release facilitation. Further voltage-clamp experiments designed to compensate for Ca2+ current facilitation demonstrated that about half of the observed transmitter release facilitation remains in the absence of Ca2+ current facilitation. Our results indicate that paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the calyx of Held is driven by at least two distinct mechanisms: Ca2+ current facilitation, and a mechanism independent of Ca2+ current facilitation that closely tracks the time course of residual free [Ca2+]i. PMID:18832426

  8. Investigation of truck size and weight limits: technical supplement volume 7. carrier, market and regional cost and energy tradeoffs, part i. Final report oct 78-oct 81

    SciTech Connect

    Maio, D.J.

    1982-10-01

    This volume expands upon the summary results in the Secretary's Report to Congress and provides a more comprehensive treatment of the productivity and fuel tradeoffs among the categories of truck size, weight and configuration limits. Disaggregations of impacts among freight service user groups are reported to provide information to the interest groups most affected by alternative limit changes. It also presents an analysis of the sensitivity of the reported transport cost and fuel impacts of alternative limits to the possible inaccuracies in the analytical methods and data available to the study.

  9. Efficacy of an Exercise and Nutritional Supplement Program on Physical Performance and Nutritional Status in Older Adults With Mobility Limitations Residing at Senior Living Facilities.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Michael P; Nelson, Miriam E; Sacheck, Jennifer M; Reid, Kieran F; Kirn, Dylan; Fielding, Roger A; Chui, Kenneth K H; Folta, Sara C

    2017-01-17

    This cluster-randomized trial was designed to determine the efficacy of a 6-month exercise-nutritional supplement program (ENP) on physical function and nutritional status for older adults and the feasibility of implementing this program in a senior living setting. Twenty senior living facilities were randomized to either a three day per week group-based ENP led by a trained facility staff member or a health education program (SAP). Participants (N=121) completed a short physical performance battery, 400 meter walk, handgrip strength test, and mini-nutrition assessment. 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], Insulin-like growth-factor 1 (IGF-1) and activity level were also measured. The ENP did not significantly improve physical function or nutritional status compared with the SAP. Compared with baseline, participants in the ENP engaged in 39 minutes less physical activity per week at 6-months. Several facility characteristics hindered implementation of the ENP. This study highlights the complexity of implementing an evidence-based program in a field setting.

  10. The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method overestimates quality of proteins containing antinutritional factors and of poorly digestible proteins supplemented with limiting amino acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, G

    1997-05-01

    The validity of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) method in predicting the quality of fourteen protein products was compared with the commonly used protein quality methods, protein efficiency ratio (RER) and net protein ratio (NPR). A rat growth and balance study was conducted to determine protein digestibility and quality of the animal and vegetable protein products by the PER and NPR methods. Amino acid compositions of the products were also determined, and PDCAAS were calculated using a rat and a human pattern of amino acid requirements. Compared to the biological methods, the scoring method overestimated protein quality of mustard flour [PDCAAS of 84-92% vs. relative PER (RPER) or relative NPR (RNPR) of 0], raw black beans (PDCAAS of 45-72% vs. RPER or RNPR of 0), alkaline-treated lactalbumin and soybean protein isolate (PDCAAS of 44-67% vs. RPER or RNPR of 0) and heated skim milk (PDCAAS of 29-31% vs. RPER and RNPR of 0-5%). The scoring method also overestimated the protein quality of zein (true protein digestibility of 63%) supplemented with Lys, Met, Thr and Trp (PDCAAS of 63-71% vs. RPER and RNPR of 3-44%). These data demonstrate that the PDCAAS method is inappropriate for predicting protein quality of those protein sources which may contain naturally occurring growth-depressing factors or antinutritional factors formed during alkaline and/or heat processing.

  11. Toggle release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Thomas J. (Inventor); Yang, Robert A. (Inventor); Brown, Christopher W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A pyrotechnic actuated structural release device 10 which is mechanically two fault tolerant for release. The device 10 comprises a fastener plate 11 and fastener body 12, each attachable to a different one of a pair of structures to be joined. The fastener plate 11 and body 12 are fastenable by a toggle 13 supported at one end on the fastener plate and mounted for universal pivotal movement thereon. At its other end which is received in a central opening in the fastener body 12 and adapted for limited pivotal movement therein the toggle 13 is restrained by three retractable latching pins 61 symmetrically disposed in equiangular spacing about the axis of the toggle 13 and positionable in latching engagement with an end fitting on the toggle. Each pin 61 is individually retractable by combustion of a pyrotechnic charge 77, the expanding gases of which are applied to a pressure receiving face 67 on the latch pin 61 to effect its retraction from the toggle. While retraction of all three pins 62 releases the toggle, the fastener is mechanically two fault tolerant since the failure of any single one or pair of the latch pins to retract results in an asymmetrical loading on the toggle and its pivotal movement to effect a release. An annular bolt 18 is mounted on the fastener plate 11 as a support for the socket mounting 30, 37 of the toggle whereby its selective axial movement provides a means for preloading the toggle.

  12. Nepali Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This volume is intended as a supplement to Nepali language instruction. It contains songs, numerals, dialogues in Devanagari script, a Nepali-English, English-Nepali glossary, and an English-Nepali surveyor technical glossary. (AM)

  13. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  14. Creatine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Trojian, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    Creatine monohydrate is a dietary supplement that increases muscle performance in short-duration, high-intensity resistance exercises, which rely on the phosphocreatine shuttle for adenosine triphosphate. The effective dosing for creatine supplementation includes loading with 0.3 g·kg·d for 5 to 7 days, followed by maintenance dosing at 0.03 g·kg·d most commonly for 4 to 6 wk. However loading doses are not necessary to increase the intramuscular stores of creatine. Creatine monohydrate is the most studied; other forms such as creatine ethyl ester have not shown added benefits. Creatine is a relatively safe supplement with few adverse effects reported. The most common adverse effect is transient water retention in the early stages of supplementation. When combined with other supplements or taken at higher than recommended doses for several months, there have been cases of liver and renal complications with creatine. Further studies are needed to evaluate the remote and potential future adverse effects from prolonged creatine supplementation.

  15. Limited evidence for trans-generational effects of maternal dietary supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids on immunity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Koppenol, Astrid; Delezie, Evelyne; Parmentier, Henk K; Buyse, Johan; Everaert, Nadia

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the immune response of broiler chickens is modulated by including different omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the maternal diet. Broiler breeder hens (n = 120 birds per group) were fed one of four diets, differing in the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFAs and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). At 28 weeks of age, the eggs produced were incubated to obtain 720 chicks (n = 180 per group). All broiler chicks were fed a control diet and were vaccinated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Blood samples were taken at different time points after immunisation with human serum albumin (HuSA) in Freund's adjuvant to determine the acute phase response, antibody response and cytokine production. Addition of EPA to the maternal diet was associated with greater ovotransferrin concentrations post-immunisation, compared to other groups. Altering the ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA or EPA:DHA in the maternal diet did not affect the offspring in terms of production of caeruloplasmin, α1-acid glycoprotein, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Dietary manipulation of the maternal diet did not influence the specific antibody response to HuSA or NDV, nor did it alter the levels of natural antibody binding to keyhole limpet haemocyanin in the offspring. Thus, maternal supplementation with n-3 PUFAs played a minor role in perinatal programming of the immune response of broiler chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Driver Education. Supplemental Lessons and Activities for Use with Limited English Proficient (LEP) Students Enrolled in ESL or Special Education Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Schools, VA.

    A curriculum for use with limited English proficient students in English-as-a-second-language or special education classes who are enrolled in the driver education course is described. The 14 lessons require a basic proficiency in understanding, speaking, reading, and writing English. The lessons cover such topics as vocabulary and idioms related…

  17. Preliminary analysis of DHLW (Defense High-Level Waste) glass performance as related to the NRC 10CFR60 slow release limit criterion

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B.P.

    1988-07-01

    A preliminary analysis was performed to determine if the dissolution resistance of Defense High-Level Waste (DHLW) glass in silicia-saturated brine is sufficient to meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fractional release rate requirement for nuclear waste repositories. The sensitivities of fractional release to variations in temperature, surface area, and matrix solubility were also examined. Results indicate that a waste form dissolution resistance strategy is potentially viable for demonstrating compliance with the NRC regulatory requirement. However, major uncertainties exist in two areas: demonstrating that the brine contacting the glass is saturated in silica, and predicting the exposed glass surface area. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Transcriptional remodeling in response to transfer upon carbon-limited or metformin-supplemented media in S. cerevisiae and its effect on chronological life span.

    PubMed

    Borklu-Yucel, Esra; Eraslan, Serpil; Ulgen, Kutlu O

    2015-08-01

    One of the factors affecting chronological life span (CLS) in budding yeast is nutrient, especially carbon limitation. Aside from metabolites in the growth medium such as glucose, amino acids, and acetic acid, many pharmaceuticals have also been proven to alter CLS. Besides their impact on life span, these drugs are also prospective chemicals to treat the age-associated diseases, so the identification of their action mechanism and their potential side effects is of crucial importance. In this study, the effects of caloric restriction and metformin, a dietary mimetic pharmaceutical, on yeast CLS are compared. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown in synthetic dextrose complete (SDC) up to mid-exponential phase were either treated with metformin or were subjected to glucose limitation. The impacts of these perturbations were analyzed via transcriptomics, and the common (stimulation of glucose uptake, induction of mitochondrial maintenance, and reduction of protein translation) and divergent (stimulation of aerobic respiration and reprogramming of respiratory electron transport chain (ETC)) cellular responses specific to each treatment were determined. These results revealed that both glucose limitation and metformin treatment stimulate CLS extension and involve the mitochondrial function, probably by creating an efficient mitochondria-to-nucleus signaling of either aerobic respiration or ETC signaling stimulation, respectively.

  19. Osmolality of preterm formulas supplemented with nonprotein energy supplements.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, L; Dias, M Pitta-Grós; Virella, D; Moreira, A C; Serelha, M

    2008-02-01

    Addition of energy supplements to preterm formulas is an optional strategy to increase the energy intake in infants requiring fluid restriction, in conditions like bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This strategy may lead to an undesirable increase in osmolality of feeds, the maximum recommended safe limit being 400 mOsm/kg. The aim of the study was to measure the changes in osmolality of several commercialized preterm formulas after addition of glucose polymers and medium-chain triglycerides. Osmolality was measured by the freezing point depression method. Six powdered formulas with concentrations of 14 g/100 ml and 16 g/100 ml, and five ready-to-feed liquid formulas were analyzed. All formulas, were supplemented with 10% (low supplementation) or 20% (high supplementation) of additional calories, respectively, in the form of glucose polymers and medium chain triglycerides, maintaining a 1:1 glucose:lipid calorie ratio. Inter-analysis and intra-analysis coefficients of variation of the measurements were always < 3.9%. The mean osmolality (mOsm/kg) of the non-supplemented formulas varied between 268.5 and 315.3 mOsm/kg, increasing by 3-5% in low supplemented formulas, and by 6-10% in high supplemented formulas. None of the formulas analyzed exceeded 352.8 mOsm/kg. The supplementation of preterm formulas with nonprotein energy supplements with up to 20% additional calories did not exceed the maximum recommended osmolality for neonatal feedings.

  20. Supplemental development document for effluent-limitations guidelines and standards for the leather tanning and finishing. Point source category. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gile, R.R.

    1988-02-01

    EPA amended 40 CFR Part 425 which limits effluent discharges to waters of the U.S. and the introduction of pollutants into publicly owned treatment works (POTW) by existing and new sources engaged in leather tanning and finishing. EPA agreed to promulgate these amendments in a settlement agreement with the Tanners' Council of America, Inc. The agreement settles a dispute between the Council and EPA that was the subject of a petition for judicial review of the final leather tanning and finishing regulation promulgated by EPA on November 23, 1982 (47 FR 52848). The document describes the technical development of these amendments which include: (1) a new analytical method for the determination of the presence of sulfide in wastewater for use in the Hair Save or Pulp, Non-Chrome Tan, Retan-Wet Finish Subcategory; (2) clarification of procedural requirements for POTW to follow in determining whether sulfide pretreatment standards are applicable; (3) revisions to certain of the effluent limitations guidelines for best practicable control technology currently available (BPT) and new source performance standards (NSPS).

  1. Long-term reindeer grazing limits warming-induced increases in CO2 released by tundra heath soil: potential role of soil C quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väisänen, Maria; Sjögersten, Sofie; Large, David; Drage, Trevor; Stark, Sari

    2015-09-01

    The current climate warming in the Arctic may increase the microbial degradation of vast pools of soil carbon (C); however, the temperature sensitivity of decomposition is often highly dependent on the quality of accumulated soil C. Grazing by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) substantially affects the dominant vegetation and often increases graminoids in relation to dwarf shrubs in ecosystems, but the effect of this vegetation shift on the soil C quality has not been previously investigated. We analyzed the soil C quality and rate of microbially mediated CO2 release at different temperatures in long-term laboratory incubations using soils from lightly grazed dwarf shrub-dominated and heavily grazed graminoid-dominated tundra ecosystem. The soil C quality was characterized by solid-state cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS 13C NMR) spectroscopy, which showed a higher relative proportion of carbohydrate C under light grazing and higher relative proportion of aliphatic not-O-substituted C under heavy grazing. Initial measurements showed lower temperature sensitivity of the CO2 release in soils under light grazing compared with soil under heavy grazing, but the overall CO2 release rate and its temperature sensitivity increased under light grazing as the soil incubation progressed. At the end of incubation, significantly more carbohydrate C had been lost in soils under light grazing compared with heavy grazing. These findings indicate that there may be a link between the grazer-induced effects on soil C quality and the potential of soils to release CO2 to atmosphere. We suggest that vegetation shifts induced by grazing could influence the proportion of accumulated soil C that is vulnerable to microbial degradation under warming climate.

  2. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  3. Sports Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... For example, teen athletes who use medications like human growth hormone (hGH) that haven't been prescribed for them can have problems with growth, and may develop diabetes and heart problems. Lots of sports organizations have developed policies on sports supplements. The National ...

  4. Limiting prolonged inflammation during proliferation and remodeling phases of wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats supplemented with camel undenatured whey protein.

    PubMed

    Ebaid, Hossam; Ahmed, Osama M; Mahmoud, Ayman M; Ahmed, Rasha R

    2013-07-25

    Impaired diabetic wound healing occurs as a consequence of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokine production. We previously found that whey protein (WP) was able to normally regulate the ROS and inflammatory cytokines during the inflammatory phase (first day) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic wound healing. This study was designed to assess the effect of WP on metabolic status, the inflammation and anti-inflammation response, oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system during different phases of the wound healing process in diabetic rats. WP at a dosage of 100 mg/kg of body weight, dissolved in 1% CMC, was orally administered daily to wounded normal (non-diabetic) and STZ-induced diabetic rats for 8 days starting from the 1st day after wounding. The data revealed that WP enhanced wound closure and was associated with an increase in serum insulin levels in diabetic rats and an alleviation of hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic states in diabetic animals. The increase in insulin levels as a result of WP administration is associated with a marked multiplication of β-cells in the core of islets of Langerhans. WP induced a reduction in serum TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels and an increase in IL-10 levels, especially on the 4th day after wounding and treatment. WP also suppressed hepatic lipid peroxidation and stimulated the antioxidant defense system by increasing the level of glutathione and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in wounded diabetic rats. WP was observed to enhance wound closure by improving the diabetic condition, limiting prolonged inflammation, suppressing oxidative stress and elevating the antioxidant defense system in diabetic rats.

  5. Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids from weaning limits brain biochemistry and behavioural changes elicited by prenatal exposure to maternal inflammation in the mouse model.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Leung, Y O; Zhou, I; Ho, L C; Kong, W; Basil, P; Wei, R; Lam, S; Zhang, X; Law, A C K; Chua, S E; Sham, P C; Wu, E X; McAlonan, G M

    2015-09-22

    Prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA) increases the risk of schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. The MIA rodent model provides a valuable tool to directly test the postnatal consequences of exposure to an early inflammatory insult; and examine novel preventative strategies. Here we tested the hypotheses that behavioural differences in the MIA mouse model are accompanied by in vivo and ex vivo alterations in brain biochemistry; and that these can be prevented by a post-weaning diet enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The viral analogue PolyI:C (POL) or saline (SAL) was administered to pregnant mice on gestation day 9. Half the resulting male offspring (POL=21; SAL=17) were weaned onto a conventional lab diet (n-6 PUFA); half were weaned onto n-3 PUFA-enriched diet. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy measures were acquired prior to behavioural tests; glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and tyrosine hydroxylase protein levels were measured ex vivo. The main findings were: (i) Adult MIA-exposed mice fed a standard diet had greater N-acetylaspartate/creatine (Cr) and lower myo-inositol/Cr levels in the cingulate cortex in vivo. (ii) The extent of these metabolite differences was correlated with impairment in prepulse inhibition. (iii) MIA-exposed mice on the control diet also had higher levels of anxiety and altered levels of GAD67 ex vivo. (iv) An n-3 PUFA diet prevented all the in vivo and ex vivo effects of MIA observed. Thus, n-3 PUFA dietary enrichment from early life may offer a relatively safe and non-toxic approach to limit the otherwise persistent behavioural and biochemical consequences of prenatal exposure to inflammation. This result may have translational importance.

  6. Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids from weaning limits brain biochemistry and behavioural changes elicited by prenatal exposure to maternal inflammation in the mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Q; Leung, Y O; Zhou, I; Ho, L C; Kong, W; Basil, P; Wei, R; Lam, S; Zhang, X; Law, A C K; Chua, S E; Sham, P C; Wu, E X; McAlonan, G M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA) increases the risk of schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. The MIA rodent model provides a valuable tool to directly test the postnatal consequences of exposure to an early inflammatory insult; and examine novel preventative strategies. Here we tested the hypotheses that behavioural differences in the MIA mouse model are accompanied by in vivo and ex vivo alterations in brain biochemistry; and that these can be prevented by a post-weaning diet enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The viral analogue PolyI:C (POL) or saline (SAL) was administered to pregnant mice on gestation day 9. Half the resulting male offspring (POL=21; SAL=17) were weaned onto a conventional lab diet (n-6 PUFA); half were weaned onto n-3 PUFA-enriched diet. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy measures were acquired prior to behavioural tests; glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and tyrosine hydroxylase protein levels were measured ex vivo. The main findings were: (i) Adult MIA-exposed mice fed a standard diet had greater N-acetylaspartate/creatine (Cr) and lower myo-inositol/Cr levels in the cingulate cortex in vivo. (ii) The extent of these metabolite differences was correlated with impairment in prepulse inhibition. (iii) MIA-exposed mice on the control diet also had higher levels of anxiety and altered levels of GAD67 ex vivo. (iv) An n-3 PUFA diet prevented all the in vivo and ex vivo effects of MIA observed. Thus, n-3 PUFA dietary enrichment from early life may offer a relatively safe and non-toxic approach to limit the otherwise persistent behavioural and biochemical consequences of prenatal exposure to inflammation. This result may have translational importance. PMID:26393487

  7. Limiting prolonged inflammation during proliferation and remodeling phases of wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats supplemented with camel undenatured whey protein

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Impaired diabetic wound healing occurs as a consequence of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokine production. We previously found that whey protein (WP) was able to normally regulate the ROS and inflammatory cytokines during the inflammatory phase (first day) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic wound healing. This study was designed to assess the effect of WP on metabolic status, the inflammation and anti-inflammation response, oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system during different phases of the wound healing process in diabetic rats. WP at a dosage of 100 mg/kg of body weight, dissolved in 1% CMC, was orally administered daily to wounded normal (non-diabetic) and STZ-induced diabetic rats for 8 days starting from the 1st day after wounding. Results The data revealed that WP enhanced wound closure and was associated with an increase in serum insulin levels in diabetic rats and an alleviation of hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic states in diabetic animals. The increase in insulin levels as a result of WP administration is associated with a marked multiplication of β-cells in the core of islets of Langerhans. WP induced a reduction in serum TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels and an increase in IL-10 levels, especially on the 4th day after wounding and treatment. WP also suppressed hepatic lipid peroxidation and stimulated the antioxidant defense system by increasing the level of glutathione and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in wounded diabetic rats. Conclusions WP was observed to enhance wound closure by improving the diabetic condition, limiting prolonged inflammation, suppressing oxidative stress and elevating the antioxidant defense system in diabetic rats. PMID:23883360

  8. A retrograde signal from RyR1 alters DHP receptor inactivation and limits window Ca2+ release in muscle fibers of Y522S RyR1 knock-in mice.

    PubMed

    Andronache, Zoita; Hamilton, Susan L; Dirksen, Robert T; Melzer, Werner

    2009-03-17

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a life-threatening hypermetabolic condition caused by dysfunctional Ca(2+) homeostasis in skeletal muscle, which primarily originates from genetic alterations in the Ca(2+) release channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR1) of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Owing to its physical interaction with the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), RyR1 is controlled by the electrical potential across the transverse tubular (TT) membrane. The DHPR exhibits both voltage-dependent activation and inactivation. Here we determined the impact of an MH mutation in RyR1 (Y522S) on these processes in adult muscle fibers isolated from heterozygous RyR1(Y522S)-knock-in mice. The voltage dependence of DHPR-triggered Ca(2+) release flux was left-shifted by approximately 8 mV. As a consequence, the voltage window for steady-state Ca(2+) release extended to more negative holding potentials in muscle fibers of the RyR1(Y522S)-mice. A rise in temperature from 20 degrees to 30 degrees C caused a further shift to more negative potentials of this window (by approximately 20 mV). The activation of the DHPR-mediated Ca(2+) current was minimally changed by the mutation. However, surprisingly, the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation of DHPR-mediated calcium conductance and release were also shifted by approximately 10 mV to more negative potentials, indicating a retrograde action of the RyR1 mutation on DHPR inactivation that limits window Ca(2+) release. This effect serves as a compensatory response to the lowered voltage threshold for Ca(2+) release caused by the Y522S mutation and represents a novel mechanism to counteract excessive Ca(2+) leak and store depletion in MH-susceptible muscle.

  9. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  10. Limited influence of aspirin intake on mast cell activation in patients with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis: comparison using skin prick and histamine release tests.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Atsushi; Shimizu, Hideki; Tanaka, Mami; Kikuzawa, Ayuko; Tsujimoto, Mariko; Sekimukai, Akiko; Yamashita, Junji; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Nishigori, Chikako

    2012-09-01

    Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is a severe systemic syndrome induced by physical exercise after ingesting causative food. Aspirin is a well-known trigger for anaphylaxis in patients with FDEIA. Possible mechanisms by which symptoms are aggravated by aspirin include enhanced antigen absorption and mast cell activation. The aim of this study was to determine whether aspirin intake has an influence on mast cell/basophil activation in patients with FDEIA. Provocation tests revealed that adding aspirin to the causative food challenge in 7 of 9 (77.8%) patients with FDEIA provoked symptoms. In most cases, pretreatment with aspirin did not enhance skin tests (71.4%) or histamine release tests (88.9%) with food allergen challenges. The study confirms that histamine release and skin prick tests can be adjunctive tools for diagnosing FDEIA. In addition, our results suggest that exacerbation of FDEIA symptoms by aspirin is not mediated by direct effects of aspirin on mast cell/basophil activation.

  11. PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR6 Promotes Arabidopsis Mucilage Release by Limiting Methylesterification of Homogalacturonan in Seed Coat Epidermal Cells[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Berger, Adeline; Botran, Lucy; Ropartz, David; Marion-Poll, Annie; North, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Imbibed seeds of the Arabidopsis thaliana accession Djarly are affected in mucilage release from seed coat epidermal cells. The impaired locus was identified as a pectin methylesterase inhibitor gene, PECTIN METHYLESTERASE INHIBITOR6 (PMEI6), specifically expressed in seed coat epidermal cells at the time when mucilage polysaccharides are accumulated. This spatio-temporal regulation appears to be modulated by GLABRA2 and LEUNIG HOMOLOG/MUCILAGE MODIFIED1, as expression of PMEI6 is reduced in mutants of these transcription regulators. In pmei6, mucilage release was delayed and outer cell walls of epidermal cells did not fragment. Pectin methylesterases (PMEs) demethylate homogalacturonan (HG), and the majority of HG found in wild-type mucilage was in fact derived from outer cell wall fragments. This correlated with the absence of methylesterified HG labeling in pmei6, whereas transgenic plants expressing the PMEI6 coding sequence under the control of the 35S promoter had increased labeling of cell wall fragments. Activity tests on seeds from pmei6 and 35S:PMEI6 transgenic plants showed that PMEI6 inhibits endogenous PME activities, in agreement with reduced overall methylesterification of mucilage fractions and demucilaged seeds. Another regulator of PME activity in seed coat epidermal cells, the subtilisin-like Ser protease SBT1.7, acts on different PMEs, as a pmei6 sbt1.7 mutant showed an additive phenotype. PMID:23362209

  12. Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Ensuring that a woman is well-nourished, both before and during pregnancy, is crucial for the health of the woman and that of the unborn child.(1) Maternal deficiency in key nutrients has been linked to pre-eclampsia, restricted fetal growth, neural tube defects, skeletal deformity and low birth weight.(1,2) Many nutritional supplements containing vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients are heavily marketed to women for all stages of pregnancy. However, much of the evidence for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy comes from studies carried out in low-income countries,(3) where women are more likely to be undernourished or malnourished than within the UK population. The challenges lie in knowing which supplements are beneficial and in improving uptake among those at most need. Here we summarise current UK guidance for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy and review the evidence behind it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Release characteristics of anionic drug compounds from liquid crystalline gels. Part II. The effects of ion pairing and buffering on the passive delivery of anionic drugs across non-rate-limiting membranes.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Dara; Corish, John

    2006-03-27

    This is the second in a series of papers that report on the release and transport of a range of anionic drugs (diclofenac, salicylic acid) from liquid crystalline gels and ultimately on their use in transdermal delivery. The previous paper [Fitzpatrick, D., Corish, J., 2005. Release characteristics of anionic drug compounds from liquid crystalline gels for transdermal delivery. Part I. Passive release across non-rate limiting membranes. Int. J. Pharm. 301, 226-236] investigated passive release profiles across a non-rate-limiting membrane: here we report on the search for a suitable model enhancer (benzyl dimethyldodecyl ammonium bromide) for the transdermal delivery of anionic compounds. The results presented reveal a significant role for ion pairing and for buffering, analogous to those found in the investigations of cationic species (salbutamol) by Nolan, L.M.A., Corish, J., Corrigan, O.I., Fitzpatrick, D., 2003. Iontophoretic and chemical enhancement of drug delivery. Part I. Across artificial membranes. Int. J. Pharm. 12, 41-55. The method of vehicle preparation is also investigated. It is shown that ion pairing of the drug with the enhancer decreases the amount of drug available for transport from the liquid crystalline gels into aqueous receptor media. This decrease is directly related to the ratio of the concentration of drug to that of the enhancer. Buffering the vehicle inhibits the ion-pair formation to some extent. Vehicle preparation was also found to influence the degree of ion-pair association. The inclusion of a similarly charged enhancer (oleic acid) to the drug was found not to impede the diffusion of the drug from the gels.

  14. DSCOVR Public Release Statement

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-11-23

    ... DSCOVR Public Release Statement Wednesday, July 20, 2016 The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) is a ... is limited to the near infrared solar reflected signal. The fourth detector is a high signal-to-noise photodiode spanning UV, Visible, and ...

  15. To supplement or not to supplement: a metabolic network framework for human nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Nogiec, Christopher D; Kasif, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Flux balance analysis and constraint based modeling have been successfully used in the past to elucidate the metabolism of single cellular organisms. However, limited work has been done with multicellular organisms and even less with humans. The focus of this paper is to present a novel use of this technique by investigating human nutrition, a challenging field of study. Specifically, we present a steady state constraint based model of skeletal muscle tissue to investigate amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis. We implement several in silico supplementation strategies to study whether amino acid supplementation might be beneficial for increasing muscle contractile protein synthesis. Concurrent with published data on amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis in a post resistance exercise state, our results suggest that increasing bioavailability of methionine, arginine, and the branched-chain amino acids can increase the flux of contractile protein synthesis. The study also suggests that a common commercial supplement, glutamine, is not an effective supplement in the context of increasing protein synthesis and thus, muscle mass. Similar to any study in a model organism, the computational modeling of this research has some limitations. Thus, this paper introduces the prospect of using systems biology as a framework to formally investigate how supplementation and nutrition can affect human metabolism and physiology.

  16. To Supplement or Not to Supplement: A Metabolic Network Framework for Human Nutritional Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Nogiec, Christopher D.; Kasif, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Flux balance analysis and constraint based modeling have been successfully used in the past to elucidate the metabolism of single cellular organisms. However, limited work has been done with multicellular organisms and even less with humans. The focus of this paper is to present a novel use of this technique by investigating human nutrition, a challenging field of study. Specifically, we present a steady state constraint based model of skeletal muscle tissue to investigate amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis. We implement several in silico supplementation strategies to study whether amino acid supplementation might be beneficial for increasing muscle contractile protein synthesis. Concurrent with published data on amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis in a post resistance exercise state, our results suggest that increasing bioavailability of methionine, arginine, and the branched-chain amino acids can increase the flux of contractile protein synthesis. The study also suggests that a common commercial supplement, glutamine, is not an effective supplement in the context of increasing protein synthesis and thus, muscle mass. Similar to any study in a model organism, the computational modeling of this research has some limitations. Thus, this paper introduces the prospect of using systems biology as a framework to formally investigate how supplementation and nutrition can affect human metabolism and physiology. PMID:23967053

  17. Dietary Supplement Use, Knowledge, and Perceptions Among Student Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Vanova, Janka; Edel, Courtney; Slack, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To compare dietary supplement use between student pharmacists and the general population, and assess knowledge, attitudes toward use, and dietary supplement effectiveness; and to explore how student pharmacists view their education on dietary supplements. Methods. Paper questionnaires administered to student pharmacists collected data about their use, knowledge, and attitudes of dietary supplements. Use was compared to the 2007 National Health Interview survey findings. Results. Of 179 students who responded, 52% had used at least one dietary supplement in their lifetime versus 25% in the general population. Students perceived supplement label information as unhelpful, research into supplements inadequate, and supplements non-essential to health. Students thought supplement knowledge was important but their education was inadequate. Conclusion. Dietary supplement use was higher in this sample of student pharmacists than the general population. Student pharmacists had limited knowledge and need more education on dietary supplements. PMID:28720920

  18. A new Bayesian method to estimate upper limits of radioactive release source terms by scrutinizing measurement data from CTBTO experimental radioxenon monitoring systems in late May and early June 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zähringer, Matthias; Nikkinen, Mika; Becker, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    A global experimental monitoring network for traces of radioactive xenon is currently installed by the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO) within the framework of the "International Noble Gas Experiment" (INGE). After the announced test in the DPRK on 25 May 2009 collected seismic signals detected at various sites were reported by the PTS. However, no significant detections of radioactive effluents were reported publicly. This lack of radioactive signature begs the question on an upper limit of a source term that would be consistent with the non-detection in the INGE network. In this approach we use Bayesian estimators for confidence limits from measurements of 133Xe at different sites and atmospheric transport and dilution simulations in order to infer maximum possible daily releases on 25 May and following days. The method combines all available data and extracts maximum information from all data, regardless of whether 133Xe has been detected or not. The results indicate that releases at the explosion site, if any, must have been less than 10E13 Bq 133Xe on 25 May and even two orders of magnitude lower at some days in the week after.

  19. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberg, Billy D.

    1993-02-02

    This is the first annual summary of results for chinook salmon supplementation studies in Idaho Rivers conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Management. The Nez Perce Tribe has coordinated chinook salmon supplementation research activities with the Bonneville Power Administration, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, U. S. Forest Service, and the Shoshone Bannock Tribe. The project is a cooperative effort involving members of the Idaho Supplementation Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC). This project has also been extensively coordinated with the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) which identified specific research needs and integrated and coordinated supplementation research activities through development of a five year work plan. In this study we are assessing what strategies, both brood stock and release stage, are best for supplementing natural or depleted spring and summer chinook populations and what effect supplementation has on these populations. This research should identify which of the supplementation strategies employed are beneficial in terms of increasing adult returns and the ability of these returns to sustain themselves. Biological evaluation points will be parr density, survival to Lower Granite Dam, adult return to weirs, redd counts and presmolt and smolt yield from both treatment and control streams. Genetic monitoring of treatment and control populations will also occur. The supplementation research study has the following objectives: (1) Monitor and evaluate the effect of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon. (2) Monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation. (3) Determine which supplementation strategies (brood stock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural

  20. Commercially marketed supplements for bodybuilding athletes.

    PubMed

    Grunewald, K K; Bailey, R S

    1993-02-01

    We conducted a survey of 624 commercially available supplements targeted towards bodybuilding athletes. Over 800 performance claims were made for these supplements. Supplements include amino acids, boron, carnitine, choline, chromium, dibencozide, ferulic acid, gamma oryzanol, medium chain triglycerides, weight gain powders, Smilax compounds and yohimbine. Many performance claims advertised were not supported by published research studies. In some instances, we found no research to validate the claims; in other cases, research findings were extrapolated to inappropriate applications. For example, biological functions of some non-essential compounds were interpreted as performance claims for the supplements. Claims for others were based on their ability to enhance hormonal release or activity. We suggest that more research be conducted on this group of athletes and their nutritional needs. Furthermore, the effectiveness and safety of supplements merit further investigation.

  1. Determinants of dietary supplements use among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sien, Yeo Pei; Sahril, Norhafizah; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta; Zaki, Nor Azian Mohd; Abdul Ghaffar, Suhaila

    2014-09-01

    Dietary supplements use is relatively widespread in some countries but knowledge of supplements consumption in Malaysia is limited, more so among adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the determinants of dietary supplements use among Malaysian adolescents using multiple logistic regressions analysis. Data from the Malaysia School-based Nutrition Survey 2012 based on a 2-stage stratified sampling was used. The prevalence of vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements intake among adolescents was 54.1% and 40.2%, respectively. Usage was significantly higher among younger adolescents and among boys. Dietary supplements were also taken mostly by those who thought they were underweight. The most common vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements consumed were vitamin C and bee products. The main reason for taking supplements was parents' instruction. These findings can be useful for developing health communications on supplement use targeted to adolescents and their parents. © 2014 APJPH.

  2. The 2017 Release Cloudy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferland, G. J.; Chatzikos, M.; Guzmán, F.; Lykins, M. L.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Williams, R. J. R.; Abel, N. P.; Badnell, N. R.; Keenan, F. P.; Porter, R. L.; Stancil, P. C.

    2017-10-01

    We describe the 2017 release of the spectral synthesis code Cloudy, summarizing the many improvements to the scope and accuracy of the physics which have been made since the previous release. Exporting the atomic data into external data files has enabled many new large datasets to be incorporated into the code. The use of the complete datasets is not realistic for most calculations, so we describe the limited subset of data used by default, which predicts significantly more lines than the previous release of Cloudy. This version is nevertheless faster than the previous release, as a result of code optimizations. We give examples of the accuracy limits using small models, and the performance requirements of large complete models. We summarize several advances in the H- and He-like iso-electronic sequences and use our complete collisional-radiative models to establish the densities where the coronal and local thermodynamic equilibrium approximations work.

  3. Dietary supplements for dysmenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Pattanittum, Porjai; Kunyanone, Naowarat; Brown, Julie; Sangkomkamhang, Ussanee S; Barnes, Joanne; Seyfoddin, Vahid; Marjoribanks, Jane

    2016-03-22

    conducted in Iran and the rest were performed in other middle-income countries. Only one study addressed secondary dysmenorrhoea. Interventions included 12 different herbal medicines (German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla, M recutita, Chamomilla recutita), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, C. verum), Damask rose (Rosa damascena), dill (Anethum graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), guava (Psidium guajava), rhubarb (Rheum emodi), uzara (Xysmalobium undulatum), valerian (Valeriana officinalis), and zataria (Zataria multiflora)) and five non-herbal supplements (fish oil, melatonin, vitamins B1 and E, and zinc sulphate) in a variety of formulations and doses. Comparators included other supplements, placebo, no treatment, and NSAIDs.We judged all the evidence to be of low or very low quality. The main limitations were imprecision due to very small sample sizes, failure to report study methods, and inconsistency. For most comparisons there was only one included study, and very few studies reported adverse effects. Effectiveness of supplements for primary dysmenorrhoea We have presented pain scores (all on a visual analogue scale (VAS) 0 to 10 point scale) or rates of pain relief, or both, at the first post-treatment follow-up. Supplements versus placebo or no treatmentThere was no evidence of effectiveness for vitamin E (MD 0.00 points, 95% CI -0.34 to 0.34; two RCTs, 135 women).There was no consistent evidence of effectiveness for dill (MD -1.15 points, 95% CI -2.22 to -0.08, one RCT, 46 women), guava (MD 0.59, 95% CI -0.13 to 1.31; one RCT, 151 women); one RCT, 73 women), or fennel (MD -0.34 points, 95% CI -0.74 to 0.06; one RCT, 43 women).There was very limited evidence of effectiveness for fenugreek (MD -1.71 points, 95% CI -2.35 to -1.07; one RCT, 101 women), fish oil (MD 1.11 points, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77; one RCT, 120 women), fish oil plus vitamin B1 (MD -1.21 points, 95% CI -1.79 to -0.63; one RCT, 120

  4. Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Bowles, Edward C.; Plaster, Kurtis

    1993-10-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho. The objectives are to monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation and; determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest effects on and highest response in natural production without adverse productivity.

  5. The impact of supplementation in winter-run chinook salmon on effective population size.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, P W; Hedgecock, D; Hamelberg, S; Croci, S J

    2000-01-01

    Supplementation of young raised at a protected site, such as a hatchery, may influence the effective population size of an endangered species. A supplementation program for the endangered winter-run chinook salmon from the Sacramento River, California, has been releasing fish since 1991. A breeding protocol, instituted in 1992, seeks to maximize the effective population size from the captive spawners by equaling their contributions to the released progeny. As a result, the releases in 1994 and 1995 appear not to have decreased the overall effective population size and may have increased it somewhat. However, mistaken use of non-winter-run chinook spawners resulted in artificial crosses between runs with a potential reduction in effective population size, and imprinting of the released fish on Battle Creek, the site of the hatchery, resulted in limiting the contribution of the released fish to the target mainstem population. Rapid genetic analysis of captured spawners and a new rearing facility on the Sacramento River should alleviate these problems and their negative effect on the effective population size in future years.

  6. Use of dietary supplements among preschool children in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoko; Yamagishi, Azumi; Hashimoto, Yoko; Virgona, Nantiga; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Umegaki, Keizo

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to examine the characteristics and use of dietary supplements by preschool children in Japan. A survey was conducted among 2,125 parents of preschool children to discover the status of dietary supplement use and their attitudes towards supplement use by their children. Logistic regression models were used to determine which characteristics predict supplement use in this population. For detailed characterization, child supplement users were also categorized as either the users of vitamins and minerals only or the users of other supplement components. For parents of non-user children, the parent's knowledge and attitudes toward supplements for children were investigated. Fifteen percent of children had used dietary supplements. Two parent-related factors were especially important, the frequency with which they referred to nutritional labels and their own supplement use, which had a significant encouraging effect on their children's supplement use. The parents of child supplement users showed limited awareness of the government system concerning diet and food, placed safety over efficacy, selected products with natural ingredients, and did not seek consultations with professionals. These parents, especially those who were aware of the specially designed supplements for children, exhibited positive responses to supplement use by their children. It is likely that parents' knowledge and attitudes toward dietary supplements and nutrition have a striking effect on their children's use of supplements. Unfortunately, their knowledge at present was less than satisfactory. More accurate information on nutrition, dietary intake and dietary supplements must be disseminated.

  7. The Multi-Lingual Supplement to the Astronomy Thesaurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobbrook, R. M.

    The compilers and translators of the recently released IAU "Astronomy Thesaurus" (affectionately known as TREX), are pleased to announce the availability of the new multi-lingual supplement (ML-TREX) in French, German, Italian and Spanish. The primary terms as well as the non-preferred terms have been translated in the supplement and it is designed enhance the main thesaurus as an online reference tool. Some review copies have been sent out on a limited distribution basis. Although much of current scientific research is reported in English there is a need by librarians to have a reference resource of terminology in a variety of languages. Librarians are aware of the amount of literature in their libraries in all languages both current and historical which must be dealt with and few of us have the multi-lingual skills to cope with it. The supplement is designed to be used as an online reference resource and therefore has been made available via the World Wide Web and an anonymous ftp account at the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The files can be down- loaded directly into any preferred word processor or into a computer system as a "knowledge base" together with the main thesaurus. For more information: LIB@aaoepp.aao.gov.au or http://www.aao.gov.au or the thesaurus directory via anonymous ftp access.

  8. Specialty Engineering Supplement to IEEE-15288.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER TAILORING SPECIALTY ENGINEERING SUPPLEMENT TO IEEE -15288.1 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION...IS UNLIMITED 1 Tailoring of IEEE 15288.1: Specialty Engineering Supplement. 1. Intent of this Tailoring Document This tailoring document is...historically deemed valuable to mission assurance/success of high-reliability space systems. This tailoring document supplements IEEE 15288.1-2015 Annex E

  9. Supplementation of prepartum dairy cows with β-carotene.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R C; Guerreiro, B M; Morais Junior, N N; Araujo, R L; Pereira, R A N; Pereira, M N

    2015-09-01

    The prepartum supplementation of dairy cows with β-carotene was evaluated. Cows were blocked by parity and expected calving date and assigned to a treatment: β-carotene (1.2 g/cow per d) or control (no supplementation). The same total mixed ration batch was offered to all cows, and β-carotene was top dressed to individual cows once per day. The data set contained 283 Holsteins that received a treatment for >14 d (29.1±6.9 d). Frequency distributions were analyzed with the GENMOD procedure of SAS using logistic regression for binomial data. Continuous variables were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS. Within parity, nonparametric estimates of the survivor function for reproductive variables were computed using the product-limit method of the Kaplan-Meier method with the LIFETEST procedure of SAS. Plasma β-carotene concentration before supplementation was similar between supplemented and nonsupplemented cows (2.99µg/mL) and peaked at 3.26±0.175µg/mL on d -15±2.4 precalving for supplemented cows (2.62±0.168µg/mL for control). Colostrum density, milk yield, and milk composition were similar between treatments. β-Carotene tended to increase milk protein content from 2.90 to 2.96% and to decrease the proportion of primiparous cows with a milk fat to protein ratio >1.5 from 22.6 to 6.4%. The proportion of primiparous and multiparous cows with difficult calving, metritis, progesterone >1 ng/mL at 21 d and at 42 d in lactation, % conception at first service, and % pregnancy at 90 and 150 d in lactation were similar between treatments. A trend for decreased incidence of somatic cell count >200,000 cells/mL was present in multiparous cows supplemented with β-carotene (38.9% vs. 28.1%). β-Carotene was associated with a reduction in the proportion of multiparous cows with retained placenta 12 h postpartum from 29.9 to 21.7%; time of placenta release was 392 min (340 to 440) for β-carotene and 490 min (395 to 540) for control (median and 95% confidence

  10. Syndactyly Release.

    PubMed

    Braun, Tara L; Trost, Jeffrey G; Pederson, William C

    2016-11-01

    Syndactyly is one of the most common congenital hand anomalies treated by pediatric plastic surgeons. Established principles of syndactyly separation dictate the timing and order of syndactyly release, with the goals of surgery being the creation of an anatomically normal webspace, tension-free closure of soft tissue, and return of function to the fingers. Numerous surgical methods have been described, many of which involve the use of local flaps to reconstruct the commissure and full-thickness skin grafts for coverage of raw areas. Recently, reconstructive techniques without the use of skin grafts have been devised, which work well for certain indications. Special considerations are described for complete, complex, and syndromic syndactylies. Outcomes for simple syndactyly release are typically good when surgical principles are followed, whereas complex syndactyly release tends to have less-favorable outcomes and more complications.

  11. A retrospective cohort study of long-term immediate-release hydrocodone/acetaminophen use and acetaminophen dosing above the Food and Drug Administration recommended maximum daily limit among commercially insured individuals in the United States (2008-2013).

    PubMed

    DeVeaugh-Geiss, Angela; Kadakia, Aditi; Chilcoat, Howard; Alexander, Louis; Coplan, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Immediate-release (IR) hydrocodone/acetaminophen is the most prescribed opioid in the United States; however, patterns of use, including long-term treatment and dose, are not well described. Duration of use, including the percentage of patients on long-term treatment (>90 days of continuous use), was assessed for patients newly prescribed IR hydrocodone/acetaminophen compared to other opioid analgesics in a national commercial insurance database (January 2008-September 2013). Though only a small percentage of IR hydrocodone/acetaminophen patients continued treatment long-term (1.7%), the number was large (104,839) and was nearly 5 times the number receiving extended-release (ER) morphine (n = 22,338) and nearly 4 times the number receiving ER oxycodone (n = 26,946) long-term. Using a less conservative allowable gap in treatment increased the number of patients meeting the criteria for long-term use (approximately 160,000 for IR hydrocodone/acetaminophen vs <30,000 for ER morphine and ER oxycodone). Most patients meeting these criteria received IR hydrocodone doses between >20 and ≤60 mg/d (n = 56,220, 53.6%) in month 4; 5.5% (n = 5,743) received doses >60 mg/d. Moreover, approximately 15% of IR hydrocodone/acetaminophen patients (n > 900,000) were prescribed total daily acetaminophen doses exceeding 4 g (the limit recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration) at their initial IR hydrocodone/acetaminophen prescription or any time during therapy. Although most patients were prescribed IR hydrocodone/acetaminophen for acute pain, the number of patients prescribed long-term therapy exceeds the number of patients prescribed ER opioids. It is important to consider the benefits and risks inherent with long-term opioid therapy, whether with IR or ER opioids, to ensure safe use of these products. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy of nutritional supplements used by athletes.

    PubMed

    Beltz, S D; Doering, P L

    1993-12-01

    Findings on the efficacy of nutritional supplements used by athletes are reviewed. Many athletes have turned away from anabolic steroids and toward nutritional supplements in the hope of gaining a competitive edge without threatening their health. Athletes may require slightly more protein than sedentary people do to maintain positive nitrogen balance, but it is dubious whether extra dietary protein will help someone to achieve athletic goals. Purified amino acids have become a popular if expensive form of protein supplementation; there is no scientific evidence, however, to support their use. Excessive protein supplementation can lead to dehydration, gout, liver and kidney damage, calcium loss, and gastrointestinal effects. Supplementation with vitamins and minerals in excess of recommended daily allowances appears to have no effect on muscle mass or athletic performance. Other substances touted as having ergogenic properties are carnitine, cobamamide, growth hormone releasers, octacosanol, and ginseng; again, there is no reliable scientific evidence to support claims that products containing these compounds have ergogenic potential, and heavy supplementation may lead to adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are promoted through unsubstantiated claims by magazine advertisements, health food stores, coaches, and other sources. The FDA considers nutritional supplements to be foodstuffs, not drugs, and therefore has not required that they be proved safe and effective. Dosage guidelines are inadequate, and quality control is poor. The FDA has begun to revise regulations governing labeling and health claims for these products. There is little if any evidence that nutritional supplements have ergogenic effects in athletes consuming a balanced diet, and some products have the potential for harm.

  13. RAVEN Beta Release

    SciTech Connect

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  14. Two rate-limiting steps in the kinetic mechanism of the serine/threonine specific protein kinase ERK2: a case of fast phosphorylation followed by fast product release.

    PubMed

    Waas, William F; Rainey, Mark A; Szafranska, Anna E; Dalby, Kevin N

    2003-10-28

    Extracellular regulated protein kinase 2 (ERK2) is a eukaryotic protein kinase whose activity is regulated by mitogenic stimuli. To gain insight into the catalytic properties of ERK2 and to complement structure-function studies, we undertook a pre-steady state kinetic analysis of the enzyme. To do this, ERK2 was quantitatively activated by MAPKK1 in vitro by monitoring the stoichiometry and site specificity of phosphorylation using a combination of protein mass spectrometry, tryptic peptide analysis, and (32)P radiolabeling. Using a quench-flow apparatus, MgATP(2-) was rapidly mixed (<1 ms) with both ERK2 and the protein substrate EtsDelta138 in the presence of a saturating total concentration (20 mM) of magnesium ion at 27 degrees C and pH 7.5. An exponential burst of product was observed over the first few milliseconds that followed mixing. This burst had an amplitude alpha of 0.44 and was followed by a slower linear phase. The pre-steady state burst is consistent with two partially rate-limiting enzymatic steps, which have the following rate constants: k(2) = 109 +/- 9 s(-1) and k(3) = 56 +/- 4 s(-1). These are attributed to rapid phosphorylation of EtsDelta138 and the process of product release, respectively. Single-turnover experiments provided an independent determination of k(2) (106 +/- 25 s(-1)). The observed catalytic constant (k(cat)(obs)) was found to be sensitive to the concentration of ERK2. The data fit a model in which ERK2 monomers form dimers and suggest that both the monomeric and dimeric forms of ERK2 are active with catalytic constants (k(cat)) of 25 and 37 s(-1), respectively. In addition, the model suggests that in the presence of saturating concentrations of both magnesium and substrates ERK2 subunits dissociate with a dissociation constant (K(d)) of 32 +/- 16 nM.

  15. IRAS sky survey atlas: Explanatory supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheelock, S. L.; Gautier, T. N.; Chillemi, J.; Kester, D.; Mccallon, H.; Oken, C.; White, J.; Gregorich, D.; Boulanger, F.; Good, J.

    1994-01-01

    This Explanatory Supplement accompanies the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) and the ISSA Reject Set. The first ISSA release in 1991 covers completely the high ecliptic latitude sky, absolute value of beta is greater than 50 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 40 deg. The second ISSA release in 1992 covers ecliptic latitudes of 50 deg greater than the absolute value of beta greater than 20 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 13 deg. The remaining fields covering latitudes within 20 deg of the ecliptic plane are of reduced quality compared to the rest of the ISSA fields and therefore are released as a separate IPAC product, the ISSA Reject Set. The reduced quality is due to contamination by zodiacal emission residuals. Special care should be taken when using the ISSA Reject images. In addition to information on the ISSA images, some information is provided in this Explanatory Supplement on the IRAS Zodiacal History File (ZOHF), Version 3.0, which was described in the December 1988 release memo. The data described in this Supplement are available at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The interested reader is referred to the NSSDC for access to the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA).

  16. IRAS sky survey atlas: Explanatory supplement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheelock, S. L.; Gautier, T. N.; Chillemi, J.; Kester, D.; McCallon, H.; Oken, C.; White, J.; Gregorich, D.; Boulanger, F.; Good, J.

    1994-05-01

    This Explanatory Supplement accompanies the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA) and the ISSA Reject Set. The first ISSA release in 1991 covers completely the high ecliptic latitude sky, absolute value of beta is greater than 50 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 40 deg. The second ISSA release in 1992 covers ecliptic latitudes of 50 deg greater than the absolute value of beta greater than 20 deg, with some coverage down to the absolute value of beta approx. equal to 13 deg. The remaining fields covering latitudes within 20 deg of the ecliptic plane are of reduced quality compared to the rest of the ISSA fields and therefore are released as a separate IPAC product, the ISSA Reject Set. The reduced quality is due to contamination by zodiacal emission residuals. Special care should be taken when using the ISSA Reject images. In addition to information on the ISSA images, some information is provided in this Explanatory Supplement on the IRAS Zodiacal History File (ZOHF), Version 3.0, which was described in the December 1988 release memo. The data described in this Supplement are available at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The interested reader is referred to the NSSDC for access to the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas (ISSA).

  17. The effect of long-term supplementation with different dietary ω-6/ω-3 ratios on mineral content and ex vivo prostaglandin E2 release in bone of growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Alnouri, Doha Mustafa; El-Din, Mohamed Fekry Serag; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrhman Salih

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this research was to study the different long term effects of consumption of dietary oil sources with varying omega-6/omega-3 (ω-6/ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ratios on bone marrow fatty acid level, ex vivo prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release, and mineral content of bone in rabbits. For this purpose, weaning and female New Zealand white rabbits were purchased and randomly divided into five groups and offered ad libitum diets containing 70 g/kg of added oil for 100 days. The dietary lipid treatments were formulated to provide the following ratios of ω-6/ω-3 fatty acids: 8.68 soy bean oil (SBO control), 21.75 sesame oil (SO), 0.39 fish oil (FO), 0.63 algae oil (DHA), and 0.68 algae oils (DHA/ARA). DHA and ARA are two types of marine microalgae of the genus Crypthecodinium cohnii. The dietary treatments had significant effects on the bone marrow fatty acids of rabbits. Rabbits fed the FO diet, containing the highest ω-3 PUFA concentration, and those fed the SBO diet showed the highest ω-6 PUFA. On the other hand, a positive correlation was observed between Ex vivo PGE2 level and the ω-6/ω-3 dietary ratio. Significant effects of dietary treatment on femur Ca, P, Mg, and Zn contents were observed in both genders. Findings of the current study clearly demonstrated that dietary PUFA, particularly ω-6/ω-3 and ARA/EPA ratios are important factors in determining bone marrow fatty acid profile, and this in turn determines the capacity of bone for synthesis of PGE2, thereby reducing bone resorption and improving bone mass during growth.

  18. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  19. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1989-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1987 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1987 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  20. Idaho Supplementation Studies : 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Plaster, Kurtis; Hassemer, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Idaho as part of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. The objectives are to: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; and (3) determine which supplementation strategies provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity. Field work began in 1991 with the collection of baseline data from treatment and some control streams. Full implementation began in 1992 with baseline data collection on treatment and control streams and releases of supplementation fish into several treatment streams. Field methods included snorkeling to estimate chinook salmon parr populations, PIT tagging summer parr to estimate parr-to-smolt survival, multiple redd counts to estimate spawning escapement and collect carcass information. Screw traps were used to trap and PIT tag outmigrating chinook salmon during the spring and fall outmigration. Weirs were used to trap and enumerate returning adult salmon in select drainages.

  1. Supplements and athletes.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, John A

    2004-09-01

    Supplements have become a staple with athletes. Athletes take supplements to enhance their performance through replenishment of real and perceived deficiencies, anabolic action of stimulants, increased energy and alertness, and for weight control. Physicians who deal with athletes should be aware of the supplements being utilized by athletes, the athletes' desired effects and the efficacy of the supplement, the adverse effects, and whether the supplement is banned by leagues or organizations in which the athletes are competing. For those athletes who are regularly drug tested for performance enhancers, it is important to remember that one cannot be 100% sure that any supplement will not result in a positive drug test, because there is no independent agency certifying purity.

  2. Chemical delivery array with millisecond neurotransmitter release

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Amanda; Sjöström, Theresia Arbring; Tybrandt, Klas; Berggren, Magnus; Simon, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Technologies that restore or augment dysfunctional neural signaling represent a promising route to deeper understanding and new therapies for neurological disorders. Because of the chemical specificity and subsecond signaling of the nervous system, these technologies should be able to release specific neurotransmitters at specific locations with millisecond resolution. We have previously demonstrated an organic electronic lateral electrophoresis technology capable of precise delivery of charged compounds, such as neurotransmitters. However, this technology, the organic electronic ion pump, has been limited to a single delivery point, or several simultaneously addressed outlets, with switch-on speeds of seconds. We report on a vertical neurotransmitter delivery device, configured as an array with individually controlled delivery points and a temporal resolution of 50 ms. This is achieved by supplementing lateral electrophoresis with a control electrode and an ion diode at each delivery point to allow addressing and limit leakage. By delivering local pulses of neurotransmitters with spatiotemporal dynamics approaching synaptic function, the high-speed delivery array promises unprecedented access to neural signaling and a path toward biochemically regulated neural prostheses. PMID:27847873

  3. Serotonin release varies with brain tryptophan levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines directly the effects on serotonin release of varying brain tryptophan levels within the physiologic range. It also addresses possible interactions between tryptophan availability and the frequency of membrane depolarization in controlling serotonin release. We demonstrate that reducing tryptophan levels in rat hypothalamic slices (by superfusing them with medium supplemented with 100 microM leucine) decreases tissue serotonin levels as well as both the spontaneous and the electrically-evoked serotonin release. Conversely, elevating tissue tryptophan levels (by superfusing slices with medium supplemented with 2 microM tryptophan) increases both the tissue serotonin levels and the serotonin release. Serotonin release was found to be affected independently by the tryptophan availability and the frequency of electrical field-stimulation (1-5 Hz), since increasing both variables produced nearly additive increases in release. These observations demonstrate for the first time that both precursor-dependent elevations and reductions in brain serotonin levels produce proportionate changes in serotonin release, and that the magnitude of the tryptophan effect is unrelated to neuronal firing frequency. The data support the hypothesis that serotonin release is proportionate to intracellular serotonin levels.

  4. Serotonin release varies with brain tryptophan levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines directly the effects on serotonin release of varying brain tryptophan levels within the physiologic range. It also addresses possible interactions between tryptophan availability and the frequency of membrane depolarization in controlling serotonin release. We demonstrate that reducing tryptophan levels in rat hypothalamic slices (by superfusing them with medium supplemented with 100 microM leucine) decreases tissue serotonin levels as well as both the spontaneous and the electrically-evoked serotonin release. Conversely, elevating tissue tryptophan levels (by superfusing slices with medium supplemented with 2 microM tryptophan) increases both the tissue serotonin levels and the serotonin release. Serotonin release was found to be affected independently by the tryptophan availability and the frequency of electrical field-stimulation (1-5 Hz), since increasing both variables produced nearly additive increases in release. These observations demonstrate for the first time that both precursor-dependent elevations and reductions in brain serotonin levels produce proportionate changes in serotonin release, and that the magnitude of the tryptophan effect is unrelated to neuronal firing frequency. The data support the hypothesis that serotonin release is proportionate to intracellular serotonin levels.

  5. 14 CFR 121.611 - Dispatch or flight release under VFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dispatch or flight release under VFR. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.611 Dispatch or flight release under VFR. No person may dispatch or release an aircraft for...

  6. 14 CFR 121.611 - Dispatch or flight release under VFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dispatch or flight release under VFR. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.611 Dispatch or flight release under VFR. No person may dispatch or release an aircraft for...

  7. 14 CFR 121.611 - Dispatch or flight release under VFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dispatch or flight release under VFR. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.611 Dispatch or flight release under VFR. No person may dispatch or release an aircraft for...

  8. 14 CFR 121.611 - Dispatch or flight release under VFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dispatch or flight release under VFR. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.611 Dispatch or flight release under VFR. No person may dispatch or release an aircraft for...

  9. 14 CFR 121.611 - Dispatch or flight release under VFR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dispatch or flight release under VFR. 121... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.611 Dispatch or flight release under VFR. No person may dispatch or release an aircraft for...

  10. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  11. Using Dietary Supplements Wisely

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to take. If you experience any side effects that concern you, stop taking the dietary supplement, and contact your health care provider. You can report serious problems suspected with dietary supplements to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the National Institutes of ...

  12. Micronutrient supplementation and T-cell mediated immune responses in patients with tuberculosis in Tanzania

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Limited studies exist regarding whether incorporating micronutrient supplements during tuberculosis (TB) treatment may improve cell-mediated immune response. We examine the effect of micronutrient supplementation on lymphocyte proliferation response to mycobacteria or T cell mitogens in a randomize...

  13. Minerals: exercise performance and supplementation in athletes.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, P M

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines whether mineral supplements are necessary for athletes, and whether these supplements will enhance performance. Macrominerals (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) and trace minerals (zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, and iron) are described. Calcium supplements are important for the health of bones. Athletes tend to have enhanced calcium status as assessed by bone mineral density, with the notable exception of female amenorrhoeic athletes. Magnesium status is adequate for most athletes, and there is no evidence that magnesium supplements can enhance performance. Phosphorus status is adequate for athletes. Phosphorus supplementation over an extended period of time can result in lowered blood calcium, however, some studies have shown that acute 'phosphate loading' will enhance performance. Athletes may have a zinc deficiency induced by poor diet and loss of zinc in sweat and urine. Limited data exist on the relationship of performance and zinc status. Widespread deficiencies in copper have not been documented, and there are no data to suggest that copper supplementation will enhance performance. There is no reason to suspect a selenium deficiency in athletes. The relationship between selenium status and performance has not been established, but selenium may play a role as an antioxidant. Because of the low intakes of chromium for the general population, there is a possibility that athletes may be deficient. Exercise may create a loss in chromium because of increased excretion into the urine. Many athletes, particularly female, are iron depleted, but true iron deficiencies are rare. Iron depletion does not affect exercise performance but iron deficiency anaemia does. Iron supplements have not been shown to enhance performance except where iron deficiency anaemia exists. In conclusion, poor diets are perhaps the main reason for any mineral deficiencies found in athletes, although in certain cases exercise could contribute to the deficiency. Mineral

  14. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  15. Tyrosine Supplementation Attenuates Cognitive and Psychomotor Deficits in Cold Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited In rats, dietary supplementation with the amino acid tyrosine (TYR) prevented depletion of central...that cold exposure degrades cognitive performance and supplementation with TYR alleviates working memory decrements, even with a reduced core

  16. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines It is best to get vitamins and minerals ... this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements Side Effects and Drug ...

  17. Environmental democracy in action: The Toxics Release Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynn, Frances M.; Kartez, Jack D.

    1994-07-01

    The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) created by the 1986 Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act initially received limited attention. During the early years of its implementation, the TRI has become the basis for a national experiment in voluntaristic problem solving among citizens and industry, but that process of environmental democracy hinges on citizens' ability to actually acquire, understand, and apply the new data on industrial toxic emissions. A national study of TRI-using organizations in the public and private sectors reveals that effective citizen access depends in part on the efforts of intermediary public interest groups to bridge individual needs and right-to-know data. Although the TRI has had early success as a supplement to conventional command and control regulation, questions exist about the extent to which state and federal government should or must provide special efforts to make environmental information access work for citizens.

  18. Zoo Animals. Supplemental Lessons and Activities to Develop Vocabulary and Sentence and Writing Skills of Limited English Proficient (LEP) Students in ESL or Special Education Classes. Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Schools, VA.

    An instructional unit that enhances student interest and curiosity about animals and promotes conceptual growth through development of observation and listening skills is discussed. The lessons and activities are for use with limited English proficient students in kindergarten through fourth grade who are receiving services from the…

  19. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the final...

  20. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the final...

  1. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the final...

  2. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the final...

  3. 10 CFR 51.93 - Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Distribution of final environmental impact statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.93 Section 51.93 Energy NUCLEAR... statement and supplement to final environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the final...

  4. Dietary supplements for football.

    PubMed

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  5. Supplements for exotic pets.

    PubMed

    Mejia-Fava, Johanna; Colitz, Carmen M H

    2014-09-01

    The use of supplements has become commonplace in an effort to complement traditional therapy and as part of long-term preventive health plans. This article discusses historical and present uses of antioxidants, vitamins, and herbs. By complementing traditional medicine with holistic and alternative nutrition and supplements, the overall health and wellness of exotic pets can be enhanced and balanced. Further research is needed for understanding the strengths and uses of supplements in exotic species. Going back to the animals' origin and roots bring clinicians closer to nature and its healing powers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary supplements in sport.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  7. The use of dietary supplements in oncology.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Moshe; Sierpina, Victor

    2014-11-01

    The use of dietary supplements among patients affected by cancer is extensive, with an estimated 20-90 % of patients using these products. Their use of these products is often not shared with the treating physician. This is because patients perceive or believe that their physicians are indifferent or negative toward the use of dietary supplements. As a result, patients may obtain information about dietary supplements from unreliable sources, exposing themselves to unnecessary risks. Since there are limited scientific data on the efficacy and safety of many dietary supplements, advising patients about when to use them during the course of illness is a clinical challenge. Improving the communication process between the health care team and their patients in this area is critical. We describe a practical patient-centered approach to managing dietary supplement use in cancer care. This approach makes use of all available scientific data relating to the safety and efficacy of these supplements combined with how to have an open, patient-centered discussion with patients about their needs and expectations.

  8. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-03-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commerical light water reactors during 1978 have been compiled and reported. Data on soild waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1978 release data are compared with previous years releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  9. Metabolic response of muscle to alanine, glutamine, and valine supplementation during severe illness.

    PubMed

    Gore, Dennis C; Wolfe, Robert R

    2003-01-01

    Alanine and glutamine are released from muscle in response to critical illness. Subsequent depletion of glutamine from muscle is proposed as a principal factor in the limitation of muscle protein synthesis in severely ill patients. The objective of this study was to assess the peripheral metabolic response to enteral supplementation of alanine, glutamine, and valine in critically ill patients. Isotopic tracers of alanine, glutamine, and phenylalanine were given IV to 6 critically ill patients and 6 healthy volunteers. Blood sampling from the femoral artery and vein along with muscle biopsies provided assessment of leg (ie, muscle) kinetics. Measurements were obtained during enteral nutrition alone and then with combined alanine (11.25 g), glutamine (7.5 g) and valine (11.25 g) supplementation for 3 hours. Compared with healthy volunteers, critically ill patients had significantly reduced concentrations of alanine and glutamine in arterial plasma (p < .05), which increased significantly with amino acid supplementation. Muscle glutamine concentrations were significantly less in the patients and were not significantly affected by supplementation. Alanine and glutamine transport into and out of muscle and the rates of alanine and glutamine incorporation into and production from muscle were not affected by supplementation. Phenylalanine kinetics, as a marker of muscle protein metabolism, were not significantly altered by alanine, glutamine, and valine intake. These results demonstrate that alanine, glutamine, and valine administration fails to significantly affect muscle glutamine availability or muscle protein metabolism. These findings suggest that accelerated muscle catabolism in critically ill patients is not in response to any deficiency in alanine or glutamine availability.

  10. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    MedlinePlus

    ... about which supplements are needed and the amounts. Iron Deficiency Iron deficiency does occur among some young children and can ... Drinking large quantities of milk may lead to iron deficiency anemia, as the child will be less interested ...

  11. Iron supplements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  12. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    MedlinePlus

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  13. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    MedlinePlus

    ... able to synthesize additional vitamin D through routine sunlight exposure. However, published reports of cases of vitamin ... a vitamin supplement or from adequate exposure to sunlight. A number of factors decrease the amount of ...

  14. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2005familydoctor.org editorial staffOver-the-counter ProductsDrug-Nutrient Interactions and Drug-Supplement Interactions | Drug Interactions with St. John's WortOctober 2016October 2016familydoctor. ...

  15. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  16. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  17. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... has certain safety monitoring responsibilities. These include monitoring mandatory reporting of serious adverse events by dietary supplement ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas ...

  18. 30 CFR 556.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf Oil, Gas, and Sulphur... in this part, except § 556.22. (c) Supplemental sales shall be limited to blocks falling into one or more of the following categories: (1) Blocks for which bids were rejected during the calendar...

  19. 30 CFR 556.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf Oil, Gas, and Sulphur... in this part, except § 556.22. (c) Supplemental sales shall be limited to blocks falling into one or more of the following categories: (1) Blocks for which bids were rejected during the calendar...

  20. 30 CFR 556.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf Oil, Gas, and Sulphur... in this part, except § 556.22. (c) Supplemental sales shall be limited to blocks falling into one or more of the following categories: (1) Blocks for which bids were rejected during the calendar...

  1. β-Alanine supplementation and military performance.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Harris, Roger C; Moran, Daniel S

    2015-12-01

    During sustained high-intensity military training or simulated combat exercises, significant decreases in physical performance measures are often seen. The use of dietary supplements is becoming increasingly popular among military personnel, with more than half of the US soldiers deployed or garrisoned reported to using dietary supplements. β-Alanine is a popular supplement used primarily by strength and power athletes to enhance performance, as well as training aimed at improving muscle growth, strength and power. However, there is limited research examining the efficacy of β-alanine in soldiers conducting operationally relevant tasks. The gains brought about by β-alanine use by selected competitive athletes appears to be relevant also for certain physiological demands common to military personnel during part of their training program. Medical and health personnel within the military are expected to extrapolate and implement relevant knowledge and doctrine from research performed on other population groups. The evidence supporting the use of β-alanine in competitive and recreational athletic populations suggests that similar benefits would also be observed among tactical athletes. However, recent studies in military personnel have provided direct evidence supporting the use of β-alanine supplementation for enhancing combat-specific performance. This appears to be most relevant for high-intensity activities lasting 60-300 s. Further, limited evidence has recently been presented suggesting that β-alanine supplementation may enhance cognitive function and promote resiliency during highly stressful situations.

  2. Hydrogen release behavior.

    SciTech Connect

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Keller, Jay O.; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Houf, William G.; Winters, William Stanley, Jr.; Ruggles, A.; Zhang, J.

    2010-04-01

    The summary of this presentation is: (1) Barrier walls are used to reduce setbacks by factor of 2; (2) We found no ignition-timing vs. over-pressure sensitivities for jet flow obstructed by barrier walls; (3) Cryogenic vapor cloud model indicates hazard length scales exceed the room-temperature release; validation experiments are required to confirm; (4) Light-up maps developed for lean limit ignition; flammability factor model provides good indication of ignition probability; and (5) Auto-ignition is enhanced by blunt-body obstructions - increases gas temperature and promotes fuel/air mixing.

  3. Knowledge of dietary supplement label information among female supplement users.

    PubMed

    Miller, Carla K; Russell, Teri

    2004-03-01

    The use of dietary supplements is a popular form of health behavior, especially among women. Little research has been conducted to determine consumers' comprehension of supplement label information. Therefore, this research evaluated comprehension of supplement label information among women 25-45 years of age who consumed a dietary supplement > or =4 times per week. Participants (n=51) completed a written questionnaire about supplement practices, a 10-item knowledge test, and an individual interview about terms used on supplement labels. Participants answered 70% of the questions correctly on the knowledge test indicating adequate knowledge of dietary sources of nutrients. Knowledge of recommended dosages, dosing instructions, and instructions about inappropriate use of supplements for certain people also was adequate. However, misconceptions regarding the term "natural" on supplement labels, product claims, and testing for product safety existed among participants. Supplement users need additional education about supplement claims and testing for product safety and efficacy to make informed health care choices.

  4. Oral supplementation with whey proteins increases plasma glutathione levels of HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Micke, P; Beeh, K M; Schlaak, J F; Buhl, R

    2001-02-01

    HIV infection is characterized by an enhanced oxidant burden and a systemic deficiency of the tripeptide glutathione (GSH), a major antioxidant. The semi-essential amino acid cysteine is the main source of the free sulfhydryl group of GSH and limits its synthesis. Therefore, different strategies to supplement cysteine supply have been suggested to increase glutathione levels in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation with two different cysteine-rich whey protein formulas on plasma GSH levels and parameters of oxidative stress and immune status in HIV-infected patients. In a prospective double blind clinical trial, 30 patients (25 male, 5 female; mean age (+/- SD) 42 +/- 9.8 years) with stable HIV infection (221 +/- 102 CD4 + lymphocytes L-1) were randomized to a supplemental diet with a daily dose of 45 g whey proteins of either Protectamin (Fresenius Kabi, Bad Hamburg, Germany) or Immunocal (Immunotec, Vandreuil, Canada) for two weeks. Plasma concentrations of total, reduced and oxidized GSH, superoxide anion (O2-) release by blood mononuclear cells, plasma levels of TNF-alpha and interleukins 2 and 12 were quantified with standard methods at baseline and after therapy. Pre-therapy, plasma GSH levels (Protectamin: 1.92 +/- 0.6 microM; Immunocal: 1.98 +/- 0.9 microM) were less than normal (2.64 +/- 0.7 microM, P = 0.03). Following two weeks of oral supplementation with whey proteins, plasma GSH levels increased in the Protectamin group by 44 +/- 56% (2.79 +/- 1.2 microM, P = 0.004) while the difference in the Immunocal group did not reach significance (+ 24.5 +/- 59%, 2.51 +/- 1.48 microM, P = 0.43). Spontaneous O2- release by blood mononuclear cells was stable (20.1 +/- 14.2 vs. 22.6 +/- 16.1 nmol h-1 10-6 cells, P = 0.52) whereas PMA-induced O2- release decreased in the Protectamin group (53.7 +/- 19 vs. 39.8 +/- 18 nmol h-1 10-6 cells, P = 0.04). Plasma concentrations of TNF-alpha and interleukins 2 and

  5. Added release time in diffusion/dissolution coupled release.

    PubMed

    Nuxoll, Eric

    2015-10-15

    While increasingly sophisticated models have been developed to more accurately predict dispersed solute release from complex systems, distillation of their results into quantitative trends has been difficult. Here, the numerically calculated release profiles of coupled diffusion/dissolution systems are quantified by their cumulative release time (CRT) and compared against corresponding diffusion-controlled limits. The increase in CRT due to a finite dissolution rate was found to vary inversely with the second Damköhler number across several orders of magnitude, and also vary linearly with the amount of solid drug loaded in the system. The analytical nature of the relationship provides new physical insights into the system and appears to be indifferent to the form of the secondary rate-limiting step. This work provides a simple analytical expression with which one can not only predict the mean release time for a given set of parameter values, but understand precisely how each parameter value will affect it. The simplicity of the correlation and the lack of apparent limits to its validity also suggest the existence of an analytical pathway for its derivation, which may yield additional insights into the effect of secondary rate processes on controlled release.

  6. Idaho Supplementation Studies : Five Year Report : 1992-1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jody P.

    1999-08-01

    In 1991, the Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) project was implemented to address critical uncertainties associated with hatchery supplementation of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha populations in Idaho. The project was designed to address questions identified in the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) Five-Year-Workplan (STWG 1988). Two goals of the project were identified: (1) assess the use of hatchery chinook salmon to increase natural populations in the Salmon and Clearwater river drainages, and (2) evaluate the genetic and ecological impacts of hatchery chinook salmon on naturally reproducing chinook salmon populations. Four objectives to achieve these goals were developed: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced fish; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; (3) determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity; and (4) develop supplementation recommendations. This document reports on the first five years of the long-term portion of the ISS project. Small-scale studies addressing specific hypotheses of the mechanisms of supplementation effects (e.g., competition, dispersal, and behavior) have been completed. Baseline genetic data have also been collected. Because supplementation broodstock development was to occur during the first five years, little evaluation of supplementation is currently possible. Most supplementation adults did not start to return to study streams until 1997. The objectives of this report are to: (1) present baseline data on production and productivity indicators such as adult escapement, redd counts, parr densities, juvenile emigrant estimates, and juvenile survival to Lower Granite Dam (lower Snake

  7. Dietary supplements for chronic gout.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Mariano; Sivera, Francisca; Falzon, Louise; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Carmona, Loreto

    2014-10-07

    Dietary supplements are frequently used for the treatment of several medical conditions, both prescribed by physicians or self administered. However, evidence of benefit and safety of these supplements is usually limited or absent. To assess the efficacy and safety of dietary supplementation for people with chronic gout. We performed a search in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL on 6 June 2013. We applied no date or language restrictions. In addition, we performed a handsearch of the abstracts from the 2010 to 2013 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) conferences, checked the references of all included studies and trial registries. We considered all published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs that compared dietary supplements with no supplements, placebo, another supplement or pharmacological agents for adults with chronic gout for inclusion. Dietary supplements included, but were not limited to, amino acids, antioxidants, essential minerals, polyunsaturated fatty acids, prebiotic agents, probiotic agents and vitamins. The main outcomes were reduction in frequency of gouty attacks and trial participant withdrawal due to adverse events. We also considered pain reduction, health-related quality of life, serum uric acid (sUA) normalisation, function (i.e. activity limitation), tophus regression and the rate of serious adverse events. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We identified two RCTs (160 participants) that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. As these two trials evaluated different diet supplements (enriched skim milk powder (SMP) and vitamin C) with different outcomes (gout flare prevention for enriched SMP and sUA reduction for vitamin C), we reported the results separately.One trial including 120 participants, at moderate risk of bias, compared SMP enriched with glycomacropeptides (GMP) with

  8. [Safety aspects of parenteral iron supplementation therapies in patients with chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Potthoff, S A; Münch, H G

    2013-06-01

    Iron deficiency often occurs in patients with chronic kidney disease and can be effectively treated with parenteral supplementation of iron. In these patients, prompt application of iron therapy can help to reduce the dependence of erythropoietin-stimulating agents and effectively treat anemia. Correct evaluation of iron metabolism in CKD patients can be difficult. Duration of and response to therapy should always be considered while planning parenteral supplementation of iron. The main safety aspects of parenteral iron preparations relate to their possible anaphylactic potential and the potential induction of oxidative stress due to the release of free iron. However, parenteral iron supplementation is usually safe and without major side effects. Regarding current data, none of the iron preparations is showing definitive superiority. Although uncommon, iron preparations containing dextran can lead to severe side effects, therefore these preparations appear to have an inferior safety profile. Due to limited data, a comparison of third-generation iron preparations with previous preparations is not possible. Recently, for the first time, the third generation iron preparation ferumoxytol has been directly compared to iron sucrose. From this data and others, it remains unclear whether third generation iron preparations show safety-relevant superiority.

  9. Identification of phthalates in medications and dietary supplement formulations in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Katherine E; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; Chaplin, Erica L; Hauser, Russ; Mitchell, Allen A

    2012-03-01

    In animal studies, some ortho-phthalates, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), have been shown to be reproductive and developmental toxicants. Human studies show widespread population exposure to background levels of phthalates. Limited evidence suggests that particularly high exposure levels may result from orally ingested medicinal products containing phthalates as excipients (inactive ingredients). In this study we aimed to identify and describe the scope of prescription (RX) and nonprescription (over-the-counter; OTC) medicinal products and dietary supplements marketed in the United States and Canada since 1995 that include phthalates as excipients. We used lists of modified-release drug products to identify potential drug products. Inclusion of phthalates was verified using available electronic databases, print references, published package inserts, product packages, and direct communication from manufacturers. Additional products were identified using Internet searches utilizing keywords for phthalates. Based on labeling information, 6 RX drug products included DBP as an excipient, and 45 specified the use of diethyl phthalate (DEP). Phthalate polymers with no known toxicity--hypromellose phthalate (HMP), cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), and polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP)--were included in 75 RX products. Three OTC drug and dietary supplement products listed DBP, 64 listed DEP, and > 90 indicated inclusion of polymers. Numerous RX and OTC drug products and supplements from a wide range of therapeutic categories may use DBP or DEP as excipients in oral dosage forms. The potential effects of human exposure to these phthalates through medications are unknown and warrant further investigation.

  10. Preparation, quality criteria, and properties of human blood platelet lysate supplements for ex vivo stem cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Shih, Daniel Tzu-Bi; Burnouf, Thierry

    2015-01-25

    Most clinical applications of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for cell therapy, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and treatment of immune and inflammatory diseases require a phase of isolation and ex vivo expansion allowing a clinically meaningful cell number to be reached. Conditions used for cell isolation and expansion should meet strict quality and safety requirements. This is particularly true for the growth medium used for MSC isolation and expansion. Basal growth media used for MSC expansion are supplemented with multiple nutrients and growth factors. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) has long been the gold standard medium supplement for laboratory-scale MSC culture. However, FBS has a poorly characterized composition and poses risk factors, as it may be a source of xenogenic antigens and zoonotic infections. FBS has therefore become undesirable as a growth medium supplement for isolating and expanding MSCs for human therapy protocols. In recent years, human blood materials, and most particularly lysates and releasates of platelet concentrates have emerged as efficient medium supplements for isolating and expanding MSCs from various origins. This review analyzes the advantages and limits of using human platelet materials as medium supplements for MSC isolation and expansion. We present the modes of production of allogeneic and autologous platelet concentrates, measures taken to ensure optimal pathogen safety profiles, and methods of preparing PLs for MSC expansion. We also discuss the supply of such blood preparations. Produced under optimal conditions of standardization and safety, human platelet materials can become the future 'gold standard' supplement for ex vivo production of MSCs for translational medicine and cell therapy applications.

  11. An atmospheric tritium release database for model comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Wortham, G.R.

    1997-10-13

    A database of vegetation, soil, and air tritium concentrations at gridded coordinate locations following nine accidental atmospheric releases is described. The concentration data is supported by climatological data taken during and immediately after the releases. In six cases, the release data is supplemented with meteorological data taken at seven towers scattered throughout the immediate area of the releases and data from a single television tower instrumented at eight heights. While none of the releases caused a significant dose to the public, the data collected is valuable for comparison with the results of tritium transport models used for risk assessment. The largest, potential off-site dose from any of the releases was calculated to be 1.6 mrem. The population dose from this same release was 46 person-rem which represents 0.04 percent of the natural background dose to the population in the path of the release.

  12. Supplementation during pregnancy: beliefs and science.

    PubMed

    Milman, Nils; Paszkowski, Tomasz; Cetin, Irene; Castelo-Branco, Camil

    2016-07-01

    Pregnancy represents a challenge from a nutritional perspective, because micronutrient intake during the periconceptional period and in pregnancy affects fetal organ development and the mother's health. Inappropriate diet/nutrition in pregnancy can lead to numerous deficiencies including iron deficiency and may impair placental function and play a role in miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, and preeclampsia. This article reviews the risks associated with nutrient deficiencies in pregnant women and presents an overview of recommendations for dietary supplementation in pregnancy, focusing on oral iron supplementation. Risk factor detection, including dietary patterns and comorbidities, is paramount in optimal pregnancy management. Dietary habits, which can lead to deficiencies (e.g., iron, folate, vitamin D, and calcium) and result in negative health consequences for the mother and fetus/newborn, need to be investigated. Prenatal care should be personalized, accounting for ethnicity, culture, education, information level about pregnancy, and dietary and physical habits. Clinicians should make a plan for appropriate supplementation and prophylaxis/treatment of nutritional and other needs, and consider adequate intake of calcium, iodine, vitamin D, folate, and iron. Among the available oral iron supplements, prolonged-released ferrous sulfate (ferrous sulfate-polymeric complex) presents the lowest incidence of overall and gastrointestinal adverse events, with positive implications for compliance.

  13. Best practices for code release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    In this talk, I want to describe what I think are the best practices for releasing code and having it adopted by end users. Make sure your code is licensed, so users will know how the software can be used and modified, and place your code in a public repository that (and make sure that you follow institutional policies in doing this). Yet licensing and releasing code are not enough: the code must be organized and documented so users can understand what it does, what its limitations are, and how to build and use it. I will describe what I think are best practices in developing the content to support release, including tutorials, design documents, specifications of interfaces and so on. Much of what I have learned on based on ten years of experience in supporting releases of the Montage Image Mosaic Engine.

  14. Mitochondrial disease patients' perception of dietary supplements' use.

    PubMed

    Karaa, Amel; Kriger, Joshua; Grier, Johnston; Holbert, Amy; Thompson, John L P; Parikh, Sumit; Hirano, Michio

    2016-09-01

    Surveys of mitochondrial disease physicians conducted through the Mitochondrial Medicine Society have shown that virtually all providers recommend a variety of dietary supplements as treatments to their patients in an effort to enhance energy production and reduce oxidative stress. In this survey, we asked patients and their parents about their experiences taking these dietary supplements for mitochondrial disease. The survey was disseminated through the North American Mitochondrial Disease Consortium (NAMDC) and the Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN) registries and gathered 162 responses. The study ascertained each patient's mitochondrial disease diagnosis, dietary supplements used, adjunct therapy, and effects of the supplements on symptoms and health. Regardless of the specific underlying mitochondrial disease, the majority of the survey respondents stated they are or have been on dietary supplements. Most patients take more than four supplements primarily coenzyme Q10, l-carnitine, and riboflavin. The majority of patients taking supplements reported health benefits from the supplements. The onset of perceived benefits was between 2weeks to 3months of initiating intake. Supplements seem to be safe, with only 28% of patients experiencing mild side-effects and only 5.6% discontinuing their intake due to intolerance. Only 9% of patients had insurance coverage for their supplements and when paying out of pocket, 95% of them spend up to $500/month. Despite the use of concomitant therapies (prescribed medications, physical therapy, diet changes and other), 45.5% of patients think that dietary supplements are the only intervention improving their symptoms. Some limitations of this study include the retrospective collection of data probably associated with substantial recall bias, lack of longitudinal follow up to document pre- and post-supplement clinical status and second hand reports by parents for children which may reflect parents' subjective

  15. Environmental Releases Report for Calendar Year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    1999-08-27

    This report fulfills the annual reporting requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. It presents summaries of air emissions and liquid effluents released to the environment as well as nonroutine releases during calendar-year 1998 from facilities and activities managed by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH), and Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). Besides the summaries, the report also has extensive data on those releases and the radioactive and hazardous substances they contained. These data were obtained from direct sampling and analysis and from estimations deriving from approved release factors. This report further serves as a supplemental resource to the Hanford Site Environmental Report (HSER, PNNL-12088), which gives a yearly accounting of the major activities and environmental status of the Hanford Site. The HSER documents the Hanford Site's state of compliance with applicable environmental regulations as well as describing the impacts of activities on the Site to the surrounding populace and environment.

  16. 14 CFR 121.659 - Initial approach altitude: Domestic and supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial approach altitude: Domestic and... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.659 Initial approach altitude: Domestic and supplemental operations....

  17. 14 CFR 121.659 - Initial approach altitude: Domestic and supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial approach altitude: Domestic and... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.659 Initial approach altitude: Domestic and supplemental operations....

  18. 14 CFR 121.687 - Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dispatch release: Flag and domestic... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.687 Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations. (a) The dispatch release may be in any form but must contain...

  19. 14 CFR 121.687 - Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dispatch release: Flag and domestic... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.687 Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations. (a) The dispatch release may be in any form but must contain...

  20. 14 CFR 121.687 - Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dispatch release: Flag and domestic... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.687 Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations. (a) The dispatch release may be in any form but must contain...

  1. 14 CFR 121.663 - Responsibility for dispatch release: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibility for dispatch release... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.663 Responsibility for dispatch release: Domestic and flag operations....

  2. 14 CFR 121.613 - Dispatch or flight release under IFR or over the top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dispatch or flight release under IFR or... OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.613 Dispatch or flight release under IFR or over the top. Except as provided in §...

  3. 14 CFR 121.687 - Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dispatch release: Flag and domestic... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.687 Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations. (a) The dispatch release may be in any form but must contain...

  4. 14 CFR 121.663 - Responsibility for dispatch release: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility for dispatch release... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.663 Responsibility for dispatch release: Domestic and flag operations....

  5. 14 CFR 121.613 - Dispatch or flight release under IFR or over the top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dispatch or flight release under IFR or... OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.613 Dispatch or flight release under IFR or over the top. Except as provided in §...

  6. 14 CFR 121.663 - Responsibility for dispatch release: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibility for dispatch release... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.663 Responsibility for dispatch release: Domestic and flag operations....

  7. 14 CFR 121.663 - Responsibility for dispatch release: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibility for dispatch release... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.663 Responsibility for dispatch release: Domestic and flag operations....

  8. 14 CFR 121.613 - Dispatch or flight release under IFR or over the top.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dispatch or flight release under IFR or... OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.613 Dispatch or flight release under IFR or over the top. Except as provided in §...

  9. 14 CFR 121.687 - Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dispatch release: Flag and domestic... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Records and Reports § 121.687 Dispatch release: Flag and domestic operations. (a) The dispatch release may be in any form but must contain...

  10. 14 CFR 121.663 - Responsibility for dispatch release: Domestic and flag operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibility for dispatch release... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.663 Responsibility for dispatch release: Domestic and flag operations....

  11. Anterior segment complications of a nutritional supplement.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Sandeep; Abowd, Michael; Sharma, Ashish; Weiss, Jayne S

    2007-05-01

    A patient who had been taking an oral L-arginine-based body-building supplement developed bilateral diffuse subconjunctival hemorrhages, circumcorneal dilated vessels, and peripheral corneal infiltrates after bilateral laser in situ keratomileusis. There is limited information regarding the efficacy, safety, and constituents of nutritional supplements because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulates them differently than prescription medications, and they do not require approval prior to marketing. These products may result in adverse effects as evidenced by the subconjunctival hemorrhages (an exaggerated vasodilator and antithrombotic effect of nitric oxide formed from arginine) and peripheral corneal infiltrates in this case. The case highlights the importance of eliciting a history of nutritional supplement and/or herbal medication use, especially in patients scheduled to have surgery.

  12. Supplement to the annual energy outlook 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    This report is a companion document to the Annual Energy Outlook 1994 (AEO94), (DOE/EIA-0383(94)), released in Jan. 1994. Part I of the Supplement presents the key quantitative assumptions underlying the AEO94 projections, responding to requests by energy analysts for additional information on the forecasts. In Part II, the Supplement provides regional projections and other underlying details of the reference case projections in the AEO94. The AEO94 presents national forecasts of energy production, demand and prices through 2010 for five scenarios, including a reference case and four additional cases that assume higher and lower economic growth and higher and lower world oil prices. These forecasts are used by Federal, State, and local governments, trade associations, and other planners and decisionmakers in the public and private sectors.

  13. Selenium nanoparticles as a nutritional supplement.

    PubMed

    Skalickova, Sylvie; Milosavljevic, Vedran; Cihalova, Kristyna; Horky, Pavel; Richtera, Lukas; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element in the diet, required for maintenance of health and growth; however, its toxicity could cause serious damage depending on dose and chemical form. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) represent what we believe to be a novel prospect for nutritional supplementation because of their lower toxicity and ability to gradually release selenium after ingestion. In this review, we discuss various forms and types of SeNPs, as well as the way they are synthesized. We also discuss absorption and bioavailability of nanoparticles within the organism. SeNPs demonstrate anticancer and antimicrobial properties that may contribute to human health, not only as dietary supplements, but also as therapeutic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    PubMed

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Risk Management Supplement to IEEE-15288.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER TAILORING RISK MANAGEMENT SUPPLEMENT TO IEEE -15288.1 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...IEC- IEEE -15288: 2015, SYSTEMS AND SOFTWARE ENGINEERING — SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE PROCESSES...1 2.2. IEEE -15288.1: 2015, STANDARD FOR APPLICATION OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING ON DEFENSE PROGRAMS

  16. Vitamin supplementation benefits in master athletes.

    PubMed

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Louis, Julien

    2014-03-01

    Master athletes are more than 35 years of age and continue to train as hard as their young counterparts despite the aging process. All life long, they are capable of accomplishing exceptional sporting performances. For these participants in endurance events, matching energy intake and expenditure is critical to maintain health and performance. The proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein must be optimized to provide enough calories to sustain the energy requirements of competition or training, and for recovery. In addition, endurance athletes must include adequate vitamins and minerals in their diets to maintain healthy immune function. Vitamins and minerals may be sufficient in the diets of endurance athletes, who have a high energy intake. This would make it unnecessary to use vitamin and mineral supplements. Furthermore, one major limitation for these athletes is the management of oxidative stress, which, when in excess, can be deleterious for the organism. For individuals exposed to oxidative stress, micronutritional supplementations rich in vitamins and minerals can be also an alternative strategy. Although these supplementations are increasingly used by master athletes, very few data are available on their effects on oxidative stress, muscle recovery, and physical performance. The potential benefits of supplement use in athletes are thus questionable. Some studies indicate no benefits, while others highlight potential negative side effects of vitamin supplementation. Additional studies are warranted in order to design adapted prescriptions in antioxidant vitamins and minerals.

  17. The Palatability of Cereal Based Nutritional Supplements in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Baik, Hyun Wook; Lee, Yu Sun; Song, Min-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Recently, it is reported that intervention of oral nutritional supplement improves the nutritional status of cancer patients, and the effectiveness is affected by the sensory preference of cancer patients on the oral nutritional supplement. However, the variety of oral nutritional supplement is extremely limited and the number of patient's benefits from using the products are restricted mostly due to sensory dislikes. The objective of this study was to provide sensory preference score of trial manufactured products with different accessory ingredients to maximize the use of oral nutritional supplements. Cancer patients (n = 30) and age, sex-matched healthy volunteers (n = 30) participated in the sensory assessments (taste, flavor, viscosity, color and overall preference) of three types of oral supplements (cereal base, cereal base+herb and cereal base+fruit) and a control supplement product with scorched cereal flavor, a top seller in current Korean market. Results indicate that the cancer patients' overall preference was significantly higher for the control supplement, and fruit added supplement was preferred over plain cereal and herb added products, although the difference was insignificant. However, there was no significant preference difference for the supplements among the control group for all sensory factors. These results suggest that cancer patients are more sensitive to sensory preferences compared to the control group, and the patients prefer the flavor of cooked cereal which is a staple food in Korea. PMID:24527420

  18. The Importance of Carotenoid Dose in Supplementation Studies with Songbirds.

    PubMed

    Koch, Rebecca E; Wilson, Alan E; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoid coloration is the one of the most frequently studied ornamental traits in animals. Many studies of carotenoid coloration test the associations between carotenoid coloration and measures of performance, such as immunocompetence and oxidative state, proceeding from the premise that carotenoids are limited resources. Such studies commonly involve supplementing the diets of captive birds with carotenoids. In many cases, however, the amount of carotenoid administered is poorly justified, and even supposedly carotenoid-limited diets may saturate birds' systems. To quantify the relationships among the amount of carotenoids administered in experiments, levels of circulating carotenoids, and quantities of carotenoids deposited into colored ornaments, we performed a meta-analysis of 15 published studies that supplemented carotenoids to one of seven songbird species. We used allometric scaling equations to estimate the per-gram carotenoid consumption of each study's subjects, and we used meta-regression to evaluate the effects of this carotenoid dose on differences in coloration and plasma carotenoid levels between supplemented and control groups of birds. After accounting for supplementation duration and species, we observed a significant positive correlation between carotenoid intake and response of plasma carotenoid level to supplementation. The presence of supplemental carotenoids also tended to increase the expression of ornamental coloration, but the magnitude of the carotenoid dose did not significantly affect how strongly coloration changed with supplementation. Further, coloration effect sizes had no significant relationship with plasma carotenoid effect sizes. We also found significant heterogeneity in responses among studies and species, and the parameters used to measure color significantly affected response to supplementation. Our results emphasize the importance of performing dosage trials to determine what supplementation levels provide limited

  19. Children and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... and dietary supplements. This issue provides information about scope of use of complementary health practices by children , ... Systematic Reviews/Reviews/Meta-analyses (PubMed®) Randomized Controlled Trials (PubMed®) Research Spotlights National Survey Reports on CAM ...

  20. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  1. Supplemental TV Taped Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Robert G.; Frank, David V.

    1983-01-01

    Videotapes were developed as supplemental material for a course in chemical engineering thermodynamics. Describes the course, videotapes produced (includes list by topics as related to course content), and effectiveness of the tapes. Although no significant improvement in test performance was noted, students indicated they learned material faster…

  2. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  3. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, Vanitha A; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Thaker, Vidhu; Chang, Anne B

    2015-01-18

    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder which can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. Malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur and can cause subclinical deficiencies of some of these vitamins. Vitamin K is known to play an important role in both blood coagulation and bone formation. Supplementation with vitamin K appears to be one way of addressing the deficiency, but there is very limited agreement on the appropriate dose and frequency of use of these supplements. To assess the effects of vitamin K supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis and to determine the optimal dose and route of administration of vitamin K for both routine and therapeutic use. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Most recent search: 08 October 2014. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of all preparations of vitamin K used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose or route and for any duration, in children or adults diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (by sweat test or genetic testing). Two authors independently screened papers, extracted trial details and assessed their risk of bias. Two trials (total of 32 participants) each lasting one month were included in the review and were assessed as having a moderate risk of bias. One was a dose-ranging parallel group trial in children (aged 8 to 18 years); and the other (with an older cohort) had a cross-over design comparing supplements to no treatment, but no separate data were reported for the first intervention period. Neither of the trials addressed any of the primary outcomes (coagulation, bone formation and quality of life). Both trials reported the restoration of serum vitamin K and undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels to the normal range after one month of

  4. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, Vanitha A; Thaker, Vidhu; Chang, Anne B; Price, Amy I

    2017-08-22

    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder which can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. Malabsorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) may occur and can cause subclinical deficiencies of some of these vitamins. Vitamin K is known to play an important role in both blood coagulation and bone formation. Supplementation with vitamin K appears to be one way of addressing the deficiency, but there is very limited agreement on the appropriate dose and frequency of use of these supplements. This is an updated version of the review. To assess the effects of vitamin K supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis and to determine the optimal dose and route of administration of vitamin K for both routine and therapeutic use. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Most recent search: 30 January 2017. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of all preparations of vitamin K used as a supplement compared to either no supplementation (or placebo) at any dose or route and for any duration, in children or adults diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (by sweat test or genetic testing). Two authors independently screened papers, extracted trial details and assessed their risk of bias. Two trials (total of 32 participants) each lasting one month were included in the review and were assessed as having a moderate risk of bias. One was a dose-ranging parallel group trial in children (aged 8 to 18 years); and the other (with an older cohort) had a cross-over design comparing supplements to no treatment, but no separate data were reported for the first intervention period. Neither of the trials addressed any of the primary outcomes (coagulation, bone formation and quality of life). Both trials reported the restoration of serum vitamin K and undercarboxylated osteocalcin

  5. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed ...

  6. Reusable Release Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, J. W.; Ritchie, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Slider release mechanism reusable. Bears heavy loads while latched, yet gives smooth release motion. Release effected by explosively driving perpendicular slider out of engagement with load-bearing shank. Device has potential industrial applications such as emergency release of lifting cables from helicopters, cranes and hoists.

  7. Optical Limiting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-22

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave EPO RT D A TE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Optical Limiting 6. AUTHOR(S) , 1 oS...to nanoseconds and find that, since the excited state absorption is cummulative, that the dyes can limit well for nanosecond pulses but not for...over which the device limits . In addition, we find that the dynamic range of limiting devices can be substantially increased using two elements without

  8. Effect of zinc supplements in the attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat heart.

    PubMed

    Kansal, Sunil Kumar; Jyoti, Uma; Sharma, Samridhi; Kaura, Arun; Deshmukh, Rahul; Goyal, Sandeep

    2015-06-01

    Hyperlipidemia is regarded as independent risk factor in the development of ischemic heart disease, and it can increase the myocardial susceptibility to ischemia-/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury. Hyperlipidemia attenuates the cardioprotective response of ischemic preconditioning (IPC). The present study investigated the effect of zinc supplements in the attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat hearts. Hyperlipidemia was induced in rat by feeding high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks then the serum lipid profile was observed. In experiment, the isolated Langendorff rat heart preparation was subjected to 4 cycles of ischemic preconditioning (IPC), then 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size was elaborated morphologically by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and biochemically by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) release from coronary effluent and left ventricular collagen content. However, the effect of zinc supplement, i.e., zinc pyrithione (10 μM) perfused during reperfusion for 120 min, significantly abrogated the attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat heart whereas administration of chelator of this zinc ionophore, i.e., N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylene diamine (TPEN; 10 μM), perfused during reperfusion 2 min before the perfusion of zinc pyrithione abrogated the cardioprotective effect of zinc supplement during experiment in hyperlipidemic rat heart. Thus, the administration of zinc supplements limits the infarct size, LDH, and CK-MB and enhanced the collagen level which suggests that the attenuated cardioprotective effect of IPC in hyperlipidemic rat is due to zinc loss during reperfusion caused by ischemia/reperfusion.

  9. Vitamin and mineral supplements: what is the dentist to do?

    PubMed

    Touger-Decker, Riva

    2007-09-01

    Vitamins and minerals are essential for systemic and oral health and the prevention of nutrient deficiencies. The author reviews recommendations for their use, consumer intake patterns and considerations for dental practice. Vitamin and mineral supplements are designed to treat and prevent deficiency syndromes and promote health. Consumers frequently misuse them, as they are guided by the belief that these supplements will prevent diseases and cure symptoms. Scientific evidence demonstrates their limited usefulness in systemic disease prevention or treatment. The author reviews demonstrated benefits in select diseases. Being familiar with the appropriate uses of vitamin and mineral supplements, as well as nutrient-supplement and drug-supplement interactions, will give dental professionals the knowledge to question and advise patients using evidence-based resources.

  10. Creatine supplementation and swim performance: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Melissa J; Graham, Kenneth; Rooney, Kieron B

    2006-03-01

    Nutritional supplements are popular among athletes participating in a wide variety of sports. Creatine is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements, as it has been shown to be beneficial in improving performance during repeated bouts of high-intensity anaerobic activity. This review examines the specific effects of creatine supplementation on swimming performance, and considers the effects of creatine supplementation on various measures of power development in this population. Research performed on the effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance indicates that whilst creatine supplementation is ineffective in improving performance during a single sprint swim, dietary creatine supplementation may benefit repeated interval swim set performance. Considering the relationship between sprint swimming performance and measurements of power, the effect of creatine supplementation on power development in swimmers has also been examined. When measured on a swim bench ergometer, power development does show some improvement following a creatine supplementation regime. How this improvement in power output transfers to performance in the pool is uncertain. Although some evidence exists to suggest a gender effect on the performance improvements seen in swimmers following creatine supplementation, the majority of research indicates that male and female swimmers respond equally to supplementation. A major limitation to previous research is the lack of consideration given to the possible stroke dependant effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance. The majority of the research conducted to date has involved examination of the freestyle swimming stroke only. The potential for performance improvements in the breaststroke and butterfly swimming strokes is discussed, with regards to the biomechanical differences and differences in efficiency between these strokes and freestyle. Key PointsCreatine supplementation does not improve single sprint

  11. Current limiters

    SciTech Connect

    Loescher, D.H.; Noren, K.

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  12. Tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Webster, Diana; Wildgoose, Joanne

    2010-08-04

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease for which the main treatment is the dietary restriction of the amino acid phenylalanine. The diet has to be initiated in the neonatal period to prevent or reduce mental handicap. However, the diet is very restrictive and unpalatable and can be difficult to follow. A deficiency of the amino acid tyrosine has been suggested as a cause of some of the neuropsychological problems exhibited in phenylketonuria. Therefore, this review aims to assess the efficacy of tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria. To assess the effects of tyrosine supplementation alongside or instead of a phenylalanine-restricted diet for people with phenylketonuria, who commenced on diet at diagnosis and either continued on the diet or relaxed the diet later in life. To assess the evidence that tyrosine supplementation alongside, or instead of a phenylalanine-restricted diet improves intelligence, neuropsychological performance, growth and nutritional status, mortality rate and quality of life. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register which is comprised of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Additional studies were identified from handsearches of the Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease (from inception in 1978 to 1998). The manufacturers of prescribable dietary products used in the treatment of phenylketonuria were also contacted for further references.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register: 09 June 2010. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials investigating the use of tyrosine supplementation versus placebo in people with phenylketonuria in addition to, or instead of, a phenylalanine-restricted diet. People treated for maternal phenylketonuria were excluded. Two authors independently assessed the trial eligibility, methodological quality

  13. Tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Webster, Diana; Wildgoose, Joanne

    2013-06-05

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease for which the main treatment is the dietary restriction of the amino acid phenylalanine. The diet has to be initiated in the neonatal period to prevent or reduce mental handicap. However, the diet is very restrictive and unpalatable and can be difficult to follow. A deficiency of the amino acid tyrosine has been suggested as a cause of some of the neuropsychological problems exhibited in phenylketonuria. Therefore, this review aims to assess the efficacy of tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria. To assess the effects of tyrosine supplementation alongside or instead of a phenylalanine-restricted diet for people with phenylketonuria, who commenced on diet at diagnosis and either continued on the diet or relaxed the diet later in life. To assess the evidence that tyrosine supplementation alongside, or instead of a phenylalanine-restricted diet improves intelligence, neuropsychological performance, growth and nutritional status, mortality rate and quality of life. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register which is comprised of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Additional studies were identified from handsearches of the Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease (from inception in 1978 to 1998). The manufacturers of prescribable dietary products used in the treatment of phenylketonuria were also contacted for further references.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register: 28 June 2012. All randomised or quasi-randomised trials investigating the use of tyrosine supplementation versus placebo in people with phenylketonuria in addition to, or instead of, a phenylalanine-restricted diet. People treated for maternal phenylketonuria were excluded. Two authors independently assessed the trial eligibility, methodological quality

  14. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  15. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  16. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations. In...

  17. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations. In...

  18. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations. In...

  19. [Food supplements--potential and limits: part 3].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Ageing processes are associated with physiological changes, e.g. a reduction of metabolically active body mass and an impaired hunger-satiety regulation, which--combined with chronic diseases and psychosocial problems--significantly increase the risk for malnutrition. However, considering their nutrition and health status elderly people are a very heterogeneous group. The nutrition situation of "young" seniors does generally not differ from the situation of working-age adults while institutionalized elderly people and those in need of care often show signs of a global malnutrition. The critical nutrients in the nutrition of the elderly particularly include vitamin B12 and D. Six percent of all elderly have a manifest and 10 to 30% a functional vitamin B12 deficiency. The main cause is vitamin B12 malabsorption resulting from a type B atrophic gastritis. The functional vitamin B12 deficiency and the associated hyperhomocysteinemia are risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases and accelerate bone loss. With increasing age the vitamin D status is deteriorating. About 50% of the elderly living in private households is deficient in vitamin D; in geriatrics vitamin D deficiency is more the rule than an exception. This is caused by a reduced endogenous biosynthesis, low UVB exposure and a diet low in vitamin D. A vitamin D deficiency increases the risk for falls and fractures as well as the risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Also the overall mortality is increased.

  20. Intermittent oral iron supplementation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Gomez Malave, Heber; Flores-Urrutia, Monica C; Dowswell, Therese

    2015-10-19

    Anaemia is a frequent condition during pregnancy, particularly among women in low- and middle-income countries. Traditionally, gestational anaemia has been prevented with daily iron supplements throughout pregnancy, but adherence to this regimen due to side effects, interrupted supply of the supplements, and concerns about safety among women with an adequate iron intake, have limited the use of this intervention. Intermittent (i.e. two or three times a week on non-consecutive days) supplementation has been proposed as an alternative to daily supplementation. To assess the benefits and harms of intermittent supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals to pregnant women on neonatal and pregnancy outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 July 2015), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 July 2015) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies (31 July 2015). Randomised or quasi-randomised trials. We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. This review includes 27 trials from 15 countries, but only 21 trials (with 5490 women) contributed data to the review. All studies compared daily versus intermittent iron supplementation. The methodological quality of included studies was mixed and most had high levels of attrition.The overall assessment of the quality of the evidence for primary infant outcomes was low and for maternal outcomes very low.Of the 21 trials contributing data, three studies provided intermittent iron alone, 14 intermittent iron + folic acid and four intermittent iron plus multiple vitamins and minerals in comparison with the same composition of supplements provided in a daily regimen.Overall, for women receiving any intermittent

  1. Phylogeographic implications for release of critically endangered manatee calves rescued in Northeast Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luna, Fábia O.; Bonde, Robert K.; Attademo, Fernanda L.N.; Saunders, Jonathan W.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Passavante, José Zanon O.; Hunter, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1989 the calves have been rescued (N=67), rehabilitated, and released (N=25) to supplement the small wild manatee population. The rescued calves, and those born in captivity, are typically, not released to their rescue location, mainly for logistical reasons. Therefore, phylogeographic analyses can help to identify related populations and appropriate release sites. 3. Here, mitochondrial DNA analyses identified low haplotype (h=0.08) and nucleotide (π=0.0026) genetic diversity in three closely related haplotypes. All three haplotypes (M01, M03, and a previously unidentified haplotype, M04) were found in the northern portion of the region, while only a single haplotype (M01) was represented in the south. This suggests the presence of two genetic groups with a central mixing zone. Release of rehabilitated calves to unrelated populations may result in genetic swamping of locally adapted alleles or genotypes, limiting the evolutionary potential of the population. 4. The small population size coupled with low genetic diversity indicates that the Northeast Brazil manatee population is susceptible to inbreeding depression and possible local extinction. Further conservation measures incorporating genetic information could be beneficial to the critically endangered Brazilian manatee population.

  2. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and navigation...

  3. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and navigation...

  4. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and navigation...

  5. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and navigation...

  6. 14 CFR 121.609 - Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communication and navigation facilities... Flight Release Rules § 121.609 Communication and navigation facilities: Supplemental operations. No person may release an aircraft over any route or route segment unless communication and navigation...

  7. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  8. Controlled release from recombinant polymers.

    PubMed

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-09-28

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed.

  9. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  10. Analysis of Salmon and Steelhead Supplementation, 1990 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William H.; Coley, Travis C.; Burge, Howard L.

    1990-09-01

    Supplementation or planting salmon and steelhead into various locations in the Columbia River drainage has occurred for over 100 years. All life stages, from eggs to adults, have been used by fishery managers in attempts to establish, rebuild, or maintain anadromous runs. This report summarizes and evaluates results of past and current supplementation of salmon and steelhead. Conclusions and recommendations are made concerning supplementation. Hatchery rearing conditions and stocking methods can affect post released survival of hatchery fish. Stress was considered by many biologists to be a key factor in survival of stocked anadromous fish. Smolts were the most common life stage released and size of smolts correlated positively with survival. Success of hatchery stockings of eggs and presmolts was found to be better if they are put into productive, underseeded habitats. Stocking time, method, species stocked, and environmental conditions of the receiving waters, including other fish species present, are factors to consider in supplementation programs. The unpublished supplementation literature was reviewed primarily by the authors of this report. Direct contact was made in person or by telephone and data compiled on a computer database. Areas covered included Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Alaska, California, British Columbia, and the New England states working with Atlantic salmon. Over 300 projects were reviewed and entered into a computer database. The database information is contained in Appendix A of this report. 6 refs., 9 figs., 21 tabs.

  11. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality.

  12. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information about the potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian) and four other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are

  13. Environmental releases for calendar year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-07-01

    This report fulfills the annual environmental release reporting requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. This report provides supplemental information to the Hanford Site Environmental Report. The Hanford Site Environmental Report provides an update on the environmental status of the entire Hanford Site. The sitewide annual report summarizes the degree of compliance of the Hanford Site with applicable environmental regulations and informs the public about the impact of Hanford operations on the surrounding environment. Like the Hanford Site Environmental Report, this annual report presents a summary of the environmental releases from facilities managed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and monitored by Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI). In addition to the summary data, this report also includes detailed data on air emissions, liquid effluents, and hazardous substances released to the environment during calendar year 1994 from these facilities.

  14. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1987-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1984 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1984 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  15. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1988-01-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1985 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1985 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  16. Stochastic Modeling of Radioactive Material Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, Jason; Pope, Chad

    2015-09-01

    Nonreactor nuclear facilities operated under the approval authority of the U.S. Department of Energy use unmitigated hazard evaluations to determine if potential radiological doses associated with design basis events challenge or exceed dose evaluation guidelines. Unmitigated design basis events that sufficiently challenge dose evaluation guidelines or exceed the guidelines for members of the public or workers, merit selection of safety structures, systems, or components or other controls to prevent or mitigate the hazard. Idaho State University, in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratory, has developed a portable and simple to use software application called SODA (Stochastic Objective Decision-Aide) that stochastically calculates the radiation dose associated with hypothetical radiological material release scenarios. Rather than producing a point estimate of the dose, SODA produces a dose distribution result to allow a deeper understanding of the dose potential. SODA allows users to select the distribution type and parameter values for all of the input variables used to perform the dose calculation. SODA then randomly samples each distribution input variable and calculates the overall resulting dose distribution. In cases where an input variable distribution is unknown, a traditional single point value can be used. SODA was developed using the MATLAB coding framework. The software application has a graphical user input. SODA can be installed on both Windows and Mac computers and does not require MATLAB to function. SODA provides improved risk understanding leading to better informed decision making associated with establishing nuclear facility material-at-risk limits and safety structure, system, or component selection. It is important to note that SODA does not replace or compete with codes such as MACCS or RSAC, rather it is viewed as an easy to use supplemental tool to help improve risk understanding and support better informed decisions. The work was

  17. Supplement analysis 2 of environmental impacts resulting from modifications in the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-23

    The West Valley Demonstration Project, located in western New York, has approximately 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in storage in underground tanks. While corrosion analysis has revealed that only limited tank degradation has taken place, the failure of these tanks could release HLW to the environment. Congress requires DOE to demonstrate the technology for removal and solidification of HLW. DOE issued the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) in 1982. The purpose of this second supplement analysis is to re-assess the 1982 Final Environmental Impact Statement's continued adequacy. This report provides the necessary and appropriate data for DOE to determine whether the environmental impacts presented by the ongoing refinements in the design, process, and operations of the Project are considered sufficiently bounded within the envelope of impacts presented in the FEIS and supporting documentation.

  18. Supplementation patterns in marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Nieman, D C; Gates, J R; Butler, J V; Pollett, L M; Dietrich, S J; Lutz, R D

    1989-11-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the use of supplements in a large group of endurance runners (no. = 347) who had participated in the 1987 Los Angeles Marathon. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for nutrient content and supplement usage. The runners' supplementation patterns with respect to demographics, dietary quality, training habits, and race performance were investigated. In general, no significant associations were found between supplement use and the aforementioned variables. Use of supplements, especially vitamins C and E, calcium, and zinc, increased with age (p less than .05). Daily use of at least one type of supplement was reported by 29% of the runners; 48% reported use of at least one type of supplement within the 3-day period.

  19. Delayed simultaneous release mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, X. W.; Webb, J. B. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The disclosed appendage release mechanism is particularly adapted for use with spacecraft operating with despin mechanisms and releasable appendages. It includes a flexible loop and a number of appendage releasing devices which are attached to the flexible loop. The appendage releasing devices are made up of piston-cams and ball latches which hold the appendages as long as the flexible loop is maintained in a taut condition, but which release the appendages upon relaxation of the flexible loop. The flexible loop remains taut as long as the despin weights remain attached, but relaxes when the despin weights are released.

  20. Effects of hyperparathyroidism and dietary calcium supplementation on bone healing.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, G B; Schmidt, R E; Gleiser, C A; MacKenzie, W F

    1979-02-01

    Effects of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism and dietary calcium supplementation on bone healing were determined. Groups (n = 4) of 5 mature male dogs each were fed the following diets: group 1, control diet (0.48% Ca, 0.43% P); group 2, test diet (0.12% Ca, 1.14% P): group 3, control diet plus calcium; group 4, test diet plus calcium. The dietary calcium supplementation was calcium gluconate. Lesions were induced in the right tibial cortex by trephinization. Within the time limitations of this study, it was determined that nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism does not inhibit bone healing and that dietary calcium supplementation does not aid bone healing.

  1. Steelhead Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1993 Annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Alan

    1996-01-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using artificial production to increase natural steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations and to collect baseline life history, genetic, and disease data from natural steelhead populations. To evaluate supplementation, the authors focused their experimental design on post-release survival, reproductive success, long-term fitness, and ecological interactions. They began field experiments in 1993 by outplanting hatchery adults and fingerlings to assess reproductive fitness and long-term survival. They snorkeled eight streams to estimate juvenile steelhead densities, recorded temperatures in 17 streams, and tagged natural steelhead in six streams with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags.

  2. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Jia; Dong, Man; Liu, Yan-Long; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zi-Yu; Ren, Jing-Nan; Pan, Si-Yi; Fan, Gang

    2016-04-22

    This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release.

  3. [Regulation of food supplements in the European Union and its member states. Part I].

    PubMed

    Petrenko, A S; Ponomareva, M N; Sukhanov, B P

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses aspects of the regional (the European Union) and national (European countries) regulation of food supplements. The definition of the supplement category is given. The contemporary issues of nutrition in developed countries are discussed, and the essential role of food supplements in the diet is emphasized. In particular, the use of vitamins, minerals, botanicals and their chemical constituents in food supplements as well as the issue of setting maximum daily limits are discussed. The positive lists of vitamins, minerals and their chemical modifications are presented. The paper also outlines aspects of supplement safety, requirements for their labelling and pre-market notification procedure.

  4. Dietary supplementation of yucca (Yucca schidigera) affects ovine ovarian functions.

    PubMed

    Vlčková, Radoslava; Sopková, Drahomíra; Andrejčáková, Zuzana; Valocký, Igor; Kádasi, Attila; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Petrilla, Vladimír; Sirotkin, Alexander V

    2017-01-15

    Yucca (Yucca schidigera) is a popular medicinal plant due to its many positive effects on animal and human physiology, including their reproductive systems. To examine the effect of supplemental yucca feeding on sheep reproduction, including ovarian functions and their hormonal regulators, ewes were fed (or not fed, control) yucca powder (1.5 g/head/day, 30 days). Macromorphometric indexes of the oviduct, ovary, and ovarian folliculogenesis were measured. Reproductive hormone levels in the blood were measured using a radioimmunoassay. Granulosa cells were aspirated from the ovary, and their proliferation and apoptosis were detected using immunocytochemistry. To assess secretory activity and its response to gonadotropin, ovarian fragments of treated and control ewes were cultured with and without follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; 0, 0.1, 1, 10, or 100 IU/mL), and the release of reproductive hormones into the culture medium was evaluated. Finally, to examine the direct action of yucca on the ovary, ovarian fragments from control ewes were cultured with and without yucca extract (1, 10, or 100 μg/mL), and the release of reproductive hormones was measured. Yucca supplementation significantly decreased the size of small antral follicles (2 to <5 mm in diameter), increased accumulation of the apoptosis marker bax, and decreased serum progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) levels. It inhibited the release of P4 (but not other hormones), to prevent the stimulatory action of FSH on P4 output and promoted insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) release by fragments cultured with FSH. However, yucca supplementation did not affect the size of larger follicles and number of follicles, volume and weight of ovaries, length and weight of oviducts, caspase 3 accumulation, cell proliferation, testosterone (T) or IGF-I serum levels, or T or E2 release by cultured ovarian fragments and their response to FSH. Yucca addition to culture medium inhibited P4 and IGF-I, but not T or E2

  5. Controlled release fertilizer improves quality of container longleaf pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Jeff Parkhurst; James P. Barnett

    2005-01-01

    In an operational trial, increasing the amount of nitrogen (N) applied to container longleaf pine seedlings by incorporating controlled release fertilizer (CRF) into the media improved seedling growth and quality. Compared with control seedlings that received 40 mg N, seedlings receiving 66 mg N through CRF supplemented with liquid fertilizer had needles that were 4 in...

  6. Supplementing managed competition.

    PubMed

    Higgins, W

    President Clinton's proposal for health care reform calls for managed competition within global expenditure targets. However, it is unlikely that health plans will have sufficient leverage with providers to negotiate arrangements consistent with expenditure targets in nonurban areas. This paper describes a reimbursement system based on competitive prospective payment and capitation (CPPC) which can supplement managed competition in less populous areas or replace managed competition should that strategy prove unsuccessful. The CPPC system is capable of enforcing an expenditure target while encouraging the formation of capitated networks and creating strong incentives for efficiency. It is generally compatible with the Clinton administration's version of managed competition.

  7. Hyperkalemia from Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Villgran, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte problem in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is typically caused by medications in patients with poor kidney function. Patients with comorbodities such as heart failure and diabetes are predisposed to electrolyte problems. Salt substitutes and dietary supplements are uncommon causes of hyperkalemia, but we propose that they are under-recognized and underdiagnosed causes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Our case report and literature review illustrates that a careful dietary history is essential in patients presenting with electrolyte disorders, especially hyperkalemia. PMID:27924248

  8. Special Supplement Introduction: Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079

  9. Supplementing national menu labeling.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; White, Lexi C

    2012-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants' menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., "heart-healthy" graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence.

  10. Effectiveness of dietary supplements in spinal cord injury subjects.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Opazo, Angela; Cuitiño, Pilar; Salas, Inés

    2017-04-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) consume more dietary supplements than the general population. However, there is limited information regarding the clinical effectiveness of dietary supplements in SCI population. To systematically review the effectiveness of dietary supplements for the prevention or treatment of health-related conditions associated with SCI. Randomized or non-randomized controlled clinical trials were selected, comparing the effect of any dose and form of a dietary supplement (defined by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act), with either no treatment, placebo, or other medication. Data Sources included the Cochrane Database, DARE, LILACS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, OTSeeker, PEDro, PsycINFO, SpeechBITE, ScienceDirect, Scopus, clinicaltrials.gov, Google Scholar, and OpenGrey. Two reviewers independently classified articles from January 1970 through October 2015, and 18 articles were selected. Due to the heterogeneity of outcome measures across studies, a meta-analysis was not conducted. However, high-quality evidence showed that cranberry supplementation is not effective for prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in SCI. Moderate-quality evidence supported a beneficial effect of vitamin D, alpha-lipoic acid, and omega-3 supplementation, although replication of results is needed. There were conflicting results for the effect of creatine supplementation on improvement of motor outcomes. Low-quality evidence does not permit assessment of the effectiveness of melatonin, whey protein, vitamin C, and Chinese herb in SCI. There is sufficient data suggesting that cranberry supplementation is ineffective for prevention of UTIs in individuals with SCI. There is insufficient data to support or refute the use of any other dietary supplement in individuals with SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Ansary, Ali; Kulier, Regina; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2012-02-15

    concentrations of vitamin D in serum at term than those women who received no intervention or a placebo; however the magnitude of the response was highly heterogenous. Data from three trials involving 463 women suggest that women who receive vitamin D supplements during pregnancy less frequently had a baby with a birthweight below 2500 grams than those women receiving no treatment or placebo; statistical significance was borderline (RR 0.48; 95% CI 0.23 to 1.01).In terms of other conditions, there were no significant differences in adverse side effects including nephritic syndrome (RR 0.17; 95% CI 0.01 to 4.06; one trial, 135 women); stillbirths (RR 0.17; 95% CI 0.01 to 4.06; one trial, 135 women) or neonatal deaths (RR 0.17; 95% CI 0.01 to 4.06; one trial, 135 women) between women who received vitamin D supplements in comparison with women who received no treatment or placebo. No studies reported on preterm birth, maternal death, admission to neonatal intensive care unit/special nursery or Apgar scores. Vitamin D supplementation in a single or continued dose during pregnancy increases serum vitamin D concentrations as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D at term. The clinical significance of this finding and the potential use of this intervention as a part of routine antenatal care are yet to be determined as the number of high quality trials and outcomes reported is too limited to draw conclusions on its usefulness and safety. Further rigorous randomised trials are required to evaluate the role of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy.

  12. Oral calorie supplements for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Rosalind L; Rayner, Oli

    2017-05-04

    concerns surrounding allocation concealment. There were no significant differences between people receiving supplements or dietary advice alone for change in weight, height, body mass index, z score or other indices of nutrition or growth. Changes in weight (kg) at three, six and 12 months respectively were: mean difference (MD) 0.32 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.09 to 0.72); MD 0.47 (95% CI -0.07 to 1.02 ); and MD 0.16 (-0.68 to 1.00). Total calorie intake was greater in people taking supplements at 12 months, MD 265.70 (95% CI 42.94 to 488.46). There were no significant differences between the groups for anthropometric measures of body composition, lung function, gastro-intestinal adverse effects or activity levels. Moderate quality evidence exists for the outcomes of changes in weight and height and low quality evidence exists for the outcomes of change in total calories, total fat and total protein intake as results are applicable only to children between the ages of 2 and 15 years and many post-treatment diet diaries were not returned. Evidence for the rate of adverse events in the treatment groups was extremely limited and judged to be of very low quality AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Oral calorie supplements do not confer any additional benefit in the nutritional management of moderately malnourished children with cystic fibrosis over and above the use of dietary advice and monitoring alone. While nutritional supplements may be used, they should not be regarded as essential. Further randomised controlled trials are needed to establish the role of short-term oral protein energy supplements in people with cystic fibrosis and acute weight loss and also for the long-term nutritional management of adults with cystic fibrosis or advanced lung disease, or both.

  13. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Ansary, Ali; Kulier, Regina; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    involving 414 women consistently show that women who received vitamin D supplements had higher concentrations of vitamin D in serum at term than those women who received no intervention or a placebo; however the magnitude of the response was highly heterogenous. Data from three trials involving 463 women suggest that women who receive vitamin D supplements during pregnancy less frequently had a baby with a birthweight below 2500 grams than those women receiving no treatment or placebo; statistical significance was borderline (RR 0.48; 95% CI 0.23 to 1.01). In terms of other conditions, there were no significant differences in adverse side effects including nephritic syndrome (RR 0.17; 95% CI 0.01 to 4.06; one trial, 135 women); stillbirths (RR 0.17; 95% CI 0.01 to 4.06; one trial, 135 women) or neonatal deaths (RR 0.17; 95% CI 0.01 to 4.06; one trial, 135 women) between women who received vitamin D supplements in comparison with women who received no treatment or placebo. No studies reported on preterm birth, maternal death, admission to neonatal intensive care unit/special nursery or Apgar scores. Authors' conclusions Vitamin D supplementation in a single or continued dose during pregnancy increases serum vitamin D concentrations as measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D at term. The clinical significance of this finding and the potential use of this intervention as a part of routine antenatal care are yet to be determined as the number of high quality trials and outcomes reported is too limited to draw conclusions on its usefulness and safety. Further rigorous randomised trials are required to evaluate the role of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy. PMID:22336854

  14. Zinc supplementation in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Caldis-Coutris, Nancy; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2012-01-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is a common practice throughout many burn centers across North America; however, uncertainty pertaining to dose, duration, and side effects of such supplements persists. The authors prospectively collected data from 23 hospitalized patients with burn sizes ranging from 10 to 93% TBSA. Each patient received a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement, 50 mg zinc (Zn) daily, and 500 mg vitamin C twice daily. Supplements were administered orally or enterally. Albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, serum Zn, and serum copper were measured weekly during hospital admission until levels were within normal reference range. Our study concluded that 50 mg daily dose of Zn resulted in normal serum levels in 19 of 23 patients at discharge; 50 mg Zn supplementation did not interfere with serum copper levels; and Zn supplements, regardless of administration route, did not result in gastrointestinal side effects.

  15. [Lateral retinacular release].

    PubMed

    Verdonk, P; Bonte, F; Verdonk, R

    2008-09-01

    This overview of numerous studies discusses, based on short-term and long-term results, which diagnoses are indications for lateral retinacular release. No significant differences in outcome between arthroscopic and open lateral release could be documented. Isolated lateral release offers a good success rate for treating a stable patella with excessive lateral pressure. In patellar instability, the results are less favorable in long-term follow-up evaluation. Hyperlaxity with hypermobility of the patella is an absolute contraindication. Lateral release provides only temporary benefit for patellofemoral osteoarthritis. Proximal and/or distal realignment of the extensor mechanism gives better results than isolated lateral release.

  16. Dietary Supplementation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Common, Insufficient, and Excessive.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Patricia A; Hyman, Susan L; Schmidt, Brianne L; Macklin, Eric A; Reynolds, Ann; Johnson, Cynthia R; James, S Jill; Manning-Courtney, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the effect on dietary adequacy of supplements given to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This cross-sectional study examines dietary supplement use and micronutrient intake in children with ASD. Three-day diet/supplement records and use of a gluten/casein-free diet (GFCF) were documented. Estimates of usual intake of micronutrients from food and supplements were compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Children aged 2 to 11 years (N=288) with ASD from five Autism Treatment Network sites from 2009-2011. Percentage of children meeting or exceeding upper limits of micronutrient intake with or without supplements and relative to GFCF diet status. Micronutrient intake from food and supplements was compared by Spearman rank correlation. Usual intake was estimated by the National Cancer Institute method adjusted for age, sex, supplement use, and GFCF diet. Adequacy of intake was compared between supplement use status and between food and total intake in supplement users relative to Dietary Reference Intakes limits. Dietary supplements, especially multivitamin/minerals, were used by 56% of children with ASD. The most common micronutrient deficits were not corrected (vitamin D, calcium, potassium, pantothenic acid, and choline) by supplements. Almost one-third of children remained deficient for vitamin D and up to 54% for calcium. Children receiving GFCF diets had similar micronutrient intake but were more likely to use supplements (78% vs 56%; P=0.01). Supplementation led to excess vitamin A, folate, and zinc intake across the sample, vitamin C, and copper among children aged 2 to 3 years, and manganese and copper for children aged 4 to 8 years. Few children with ASD need most of the micronutrients they are commonly given as supplements, which often leads to excess intake. Even when supplements are used, careful attention should be given to adequacy of vitamin D and calcium intake. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

  17. ELECTROMAGNETIC RELEASE MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Michelson, C.

    1960-09-13

    An electromagnetic release mechanism is offered that may be used, for example, for supporting a safety rod for a nuclear reactor. The release mechanism is designed to have a large excess holding force and a rapid, uniform, and dependable release. The fast release is accomplished by providing the electromagnet with slotttd polts separated by an insulating potting resin, and by constructing the poles with a ferro-nickel alloy. The combination of these two features materially reduces the eddy current power density whenever the magnetic field changes during a release operation. In addition to these features, the design of the armature is such as to provide ready entrance of fluid into any void that might tend to form during release of the armature. This also improves the release time for the mechanism. The large holding force for the mechanism is accomplished by providing a small, selected, uniform air gap between the inner pole piece and the armature.

  18. Nanostructured Diclofenac Sodium Releasing Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Harlin, A.; Seppälä, J.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques have been developed to produce second generation biomaterials for tissue repair. These include extrusion, molding, salt leaching, spinning etc, but success in regenerating tissues has been limited. It is important to develop porous material, yet with a fibrous structure for it to be biomimetic. To mimic biological tissues, the extra-cellular matrix usually contains fibers in nano scale. To produce nanostructures, self-assembly or electrospinning can be used. Adding a drug release function to such a material may advance applications further for use in controlled tissue repair. This turns the resulting device into a multifunctional porous, fibrous structure to support cells and drug releasing properties in order to control tissue reactions. A bioabsorbable poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L lactide) 95/5 (PCL) was made into diluted solution using a solvent, to which was added 2w-% of diclofenac sodium (DS). Nano-fibers were made by electrospinning onto substrate. Microstructure of the resulting nanomat was studied using SEM and drug release profiles with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Thickness of the electrospun nanomat was about 2 mm. SEM analysis showed that polymeric nano-fibers containing drug particles form a highly interconnected porous nano structure. Average diameter of the nano-fibers was 130 nm. There was a high burst peak in drug release, which decreased to low levels after one day. The used polymer has slow a degradation rate and though the nanomat was highly porous with a large surface area, drug release rate is slow. It is feasible to develop a nano-fibrous porous structure of bioabsorbable polymer, which is loaded with test drug. Drug release is targeted at improving the properties of biomaterial for use in controlled tissue repair and regeneration.

  19. 14 CFR 121.623 - Alternate airport for destination: IFR or over-the-top: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... over-the-top: Supplemental operations. 121.623 Section 121.623 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Flight Release Rules § 121.623 Alternate airport for destination: IFR or over-the-top: Supplemental... operation under IFR or over-the-top shall list at least one alternate airport for each destination...

  20. 14 CFR 121.623 - Alternate airport for destination: IFR or over-the-top: Supplemental operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... over-the-top: Supplemental operations. 121.623 Section 121.623 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Flight Release Rules § 121.623 Alternate airport for destination: IFR or over-the-top: Supplemental... operation under IFR or over-the-top shall list at least one alternate airport for each destination...

  1. 48 CFR 1827.404 - Basic rights in data clause. (NASA supplements paragraphs (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), and (i))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Basic rights in data clause. (NASA supplements paragraphs (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), and (i)) 1827.404 Section 1827.404 Federal... supplements paragraphs (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), and (i)) (g) Release, publication, and use of data. (3)(A...

  2. 48 CFR 1827.404 - Basic rights in data clause. (NASA supplements paragraphs (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), and (i))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Basic rights in data clause. (NASA supplements paragraphs (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), and (i)) 1827.404 Section 1827.404 Federal... supplements paragraphs (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), and (i)) (g) Release, publication, and use of data. (3)(A...

  3. 48 CFR 1827.404 - Basic rights in data clause. (NASA supplements paragraphs (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), and (i))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Basic rights in data clause. (NASA supplements paragraphs (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), and (i)) 1827.404 Section 1827.404 Federal... supplements paragraphs (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), and (i)) (g) Release, publication, and use of data. (3)(A...

  4. 48 CFR 1827.404 - Basic rights in data clause. (NASA supplements paragraphs (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), and (i))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Basic rights in data clause. (NASA supplements paragraphs (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), and (i)) 1827.404 Section 1827.404 Federal... supplements paragraphs (d), (e), (f), (g), (h), and (i)) (g) Release, publication, and use of data. (3)(A...

  5. Intermittent oral iron supplementation during pregnancy (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaemia is a frequent condition during pregnancy, particularly among women from developing countries who have insufficient iron intake to meet increased iron needs of both the mother and the fetus. Traditionally, gestational anaemia has been prevented with the provision of daily iron supplements throughout pregnancy, but adherence to this regimen due to side effects, interrupted supply of the supplements, and concerns about safety among women with an adequate iron intake, have limited the use of this intervention. Intermittent (i.e. one, two or three times a week on non-consecutive days) supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals has recently been proposed as an alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of intermittent supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals to pregnant women on neonatal and pregnancy outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (23 March 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) for ongoing studies and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies (23 March 2012). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results This review includes 21 trials from 13 different countries, but only 18 trials (with 4072 women) reported on our outcomes of interest and contributed data to the review. All of these studies compared daily versus intermittent iron supplementation. Three studies provided iron alone, 12 iron+folic acid and three more iron plus multiple vitamins and minerals. Their methodological quality was mixed

  6. Intermittent oral iron supplementation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

    2012-07-11

    Anaemia is a frequent condition during pregnancy, particularly among women from developing countries who have insufficient iron intake to meet increased iron needs of both the mother and the fetus.Traditionally, gestational anaemia has been prevented with the provision of daily iron supplements throughout pregnancy, but adherence to this regimen due to side effects, interrupted supply of the supplements, and concerns about safety among women with an adequate iron intake, have limited the use of this intervention. Intermittent (i.e. one, two or three times a week on non-consecutive days) supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals has recently been proposed as an alternative to daily supplementation. To assess the benefits and harms of intermittent supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals to pregnant women on neonatal and pregnancy outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (23 March 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) for ongoing studies and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies (23 March 2012). Randomised or quasi-randomised trials. We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. This review includes 21 trials from 13 different countries, but only 18 trials (with 4072 women) reported on our outcomes of interest and contributed data to the review. All of these studies compared daily versus intermittent iron supplementation.Three studies provided iron alone, 12 iron+folic acid and three more iron plus multiple vitamins and minerals. Their methodological quality was mixed and most had high levels of attrition. Overall, there was no clear evidence of differences between

  7. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  8. Beware of Fraudulent 'Dietary Supplements'

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Marketed as Dietary Supplements Hidden Risks of Erectile Dysfunction 'Treatments' Sold Online 'All Natural' Alternatives for Erectile Dysfunction: A Risky Proposition For More Information Questions and ...

  9. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries.

  10. Issues in Nutrition: Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The majority of American adults report use of one or more dietary supplements every day or occasionally. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 defines dietary supplements and regulates their manufacture and distribution. One of the most commonly used supplements is vitamin D. Measurement of serum levels of vitamin D must be undertaken with the caveats that different laboratories define normal levels differently, and that there is rarely a clinical correlation with the actual level. Patients should understand that supplements should not be used to excess, as there are toxicities and other adverse effects associated with most of them. There currently is considerable research being performed on probiotics and how the gut microbiome affects health and disease states. Protein supplements may be useful in reducing mortality rates in elderly patients but they do not appear to increase quality of life. If used, protein supplements should contain essential amino acids. Casein and whey supplements, derived from dairy sources, help transport essential amino acids to tissues. Although there have been many studies investigating the role of vitamin supplements in disease prevention, there have been few conclusive positive results. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  11. Nutritional Supplementation and Meal Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, Jim

    For the competitive athlete and the serious recreational athlete, nutritional supplementation can have a positive effect on training and on performance. There are many fad supplements on the market, and many that have come and gone. However, two nutrients have withstood the test of time and many tests in research laboratories around the world, and they continue to have positive training- and performance-enhancing effects. Carbohydrates are commonly supplemented to improve energy availability and to replace valuable muscle and liver glycogen stores. Protein supplementation usually is associated with building muscle tissue.

  12. Evaluation of heavy metals content in dietary supplements in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The consumption of dietary supplements is widely spread and on the rise. These dietary supplements are generally used without prescriptions, proper counseling or any awareness of their health risk. The current study aimed at analyzing the metals in 33 samples of imported dietary supplements highly consumed by the Lebanese population, using 3 different techniques, to ensure the safety and increase the awareness of the citizen to benefit from these dietary supplements. Results Some samples had levels of metals above their maximum allowable levels (Fe: 24%, Zn: 33%, Mn: 27%, Se: 15%, Mo: 12% of samples), but did not pose any health risk because they were below permitted daily exposure limit and recommended daily allowance except for Fe in 6% of the samples. On the other hand, 34% of the samples had Cu levels above allowable limit where 18% of them were above their permitted daily exposure and recommended daily allowance. In contrast, all samples had concentration of Cr, Hg, and Pb below allowable limits and daily exposure. Whereas, 30% of analyzed samples had levels of Cd above allowable levels, and were statistically correlated with Ca, and Zn essential minerals. Similarly 62% of the samples had levels of As above allowable limits and As levels were associated with Fe and Mn essential minerals. Conclusion Dietary supplements consumed as essential nutrients for their Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn content should be monitored for toxic metal levels due to their natural geochemical association with these essential metals to provide citizens the safe allowable amounts. PMID:23331553

  13. Assessment of glutathione levels in model solution and grape ferments supplemented with glutathione-enriched inactive dry yeast preparations using a novel UPLC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Kritzinger, E C; Stander, M A; Du Toit, W J

    2013-01-01

    A novel, robust and fast ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-MS method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidised glutathione (GSSG) in grape juice, wine and model wine solution. Sample preparation is minimal and does not require derivatisation. The method has very good performance in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. The limit of detection was 0.002 and 0.001 mg L(-1) for GSH and GSSG, respectively. The amount of GSH and GSSG released by commercial glutathione-enriched inactivated dry yeast preparations (GSH-IDYs) into a model solution was assessed. Significant differences in the amount of GSH and/or GSSG released into a model wine by different GSH-IDYs were observed, with ethanol influencing this release under certain conditions. The GSH and GSSG levels in grape juice fermentations supplemented with GSH-IDY were also assessed in relation to different addition times during fermentation. GSH-IDY addition can lead to elevated wine GSH levels, provided the supplementation is done early during alcoholic fermentation.

  14. On Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2008-01-01

    In the last 3 decades or so, the size of systems we have been able to verify formally with automated tools has increased dramatically. At each point in this development, we encountered a different set of limits -- many of which we were eventually able to overcome. Today, we may have reached some limits that may be much harder to conquer. The problem I will discuss is the following: given a hypothetical machine with infinite memory that is seamlessly shared among infinitely many CPUs (or CPU cores), what is the largest problem size that we could solve?

  15. Phosphorus supplementation of lactating dairy cattle on a Northland farm.

    PubMed

    Betteridge, K; Haynes, D A; Killen, W J

    1989-09-01

    Forty-eight Friesian or Friesian-X factory supply dairy cows were divided into two groups. Group 1 received a supplement of sodiumtripolyphosphate (TPP, 25g P, 25g Na/cow/day), and group 2 a supplement of sodium chloride (25g Na/cow/day). Supplementation began at peak lactation, when the mean serum inorganic phosphorus (Pi) of all cows was 1.13 mmol/l. After four weeks, group 2 changed from NaCl to dicalcium phosphate supplementation (25g P/cow/day). Serum Pi and yields of milk, butterfat and protein were measured before, during and after supplementation. Pasture availability was assessed and P and Ca contents in pasture and the Pi content in milk were also determined. Supplementation raised serum Pi from 1.30 mmol/l (NaCI) to 1.42 mmol/l (TPP, P<0.05) but when dicalcium phosphate replaced NaCl the difference between groups disappeared (P>0.05). P supplementation had no effect on any milk parameter. Pre-grazing pasture mass above estimated grazing height averaged 2260 kg DM and contained >or=0.39 per cent P. It is concluded that a herd mean serum Pi concentration of around 1.2-1.3 mmol/l imposes no limitation to dairy production around the period of peak lactation of grazing dairy cattle.

  16. Botanical supplements: detecting the transition from ingredients to supplements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E. purpurea root samples and solid s...

  17. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.24...

  18. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.24...

  19. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.24...

  20. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.24...

  1. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.24...

  2. Environmental Releases for Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    DYEKMAN, D L

    2002-08-01

    This report fulfills the annual reporting requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. The report contains tabular data summaries on air emissions and liquid effluents released to the environment as well as nonroutine releases during calendar year (CY) 2001. These releases, bearing radioactive and hazardous substances, were from Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG), and Fluor Hanford (FH) managed facilities and activities. These data were obtained from direct sampling and analysis and from estimates based upon approved release factors. This report further serves as a supplemental resource to the Hanford Site Environmental Report (HSER PNNL-13910), published by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. HSER includes a yearly accounting of the impacts on the surrounding populace and environment from major activities at the Hanford Site. HSER also summarizes the regulatory compliance status of the Hanford Site. Tables ES-1 through ES-5 display comprehensive data summaries of CY2001 air emission and liquid effluent releases. The data displayed in these tables compiles the following: Radionuclide air emissions; Nonradioactive air emissions; Radionuclides in liquid effluents discharged to ground; Total volumes and flow rates of radioactive liquid effluents discharged to ground; and Radionuclides discharged to the Columbia River.

  3. Unaffected Arm Muscle Hypercatabolism in Dysphagic Subacute Stroke Patients: The Effects of Essential Amino Acid Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Aquilani, Roberto; Boselli, Mirella; D'Antona, Giuseppe; Baiardi, Paola; Boschi, Federica; Viglio, Simona; Iadarola, Paolo; Pasini, Evasio; Barbieri, Annalisa; Dossena, Maurizia; Bongiorno, Andria Innocenza; Verri, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in muscle protein turnover of the unaffected side of stroke patients could contribute to physical disability. We investigated whether hypercatabolic activity occurred in unaffected arm muscle and whether supplemented essential amino acids (EAAs) could limit muscle hypercatabolism (MH). Thirty-eight dysphagic subacute stroke subjects (<3 months after acute event) (29 males + 9 females; 69.7 ± 11.4 yrs) were enrolled and randomized to receive 8 g/day EAAs (n = 19; EAA group) or isocaloric placebo (maltodextrin; n = 19, Plac group). Before randomization, all patients had their arterial (A) and venous (V) amino acids measured and muscle (A − V) differences calculated in the unaffected arm. Eight matched and healthy subjects served as controls. When compared to healthy controls, the entire stroke population showed significant muscle release (= negative value A − V) of the amino acid phenylalanine (phenyl-) indicating a prevalence of MH. Moreover, randomized EAA and Plac groups had similar rates of MH. After 38 days from the start of the protocol, the EAA group but not the Plac group had MH converted to balanced protein turnover or anabolic activity. We concluded that muscle protein metabolism of the unaffected arm of dysphagic subacute stroke individuals could be characterized by MH which can be corrected by supplemented EAAs. PMID:25431770

  4. Extended-release oxybutynin.

    PubMed

    Comer, A M; Goa, K L

    2000-02-01

    Extended-release oxybutynin (Ditropan XL) uses an osmotic system (OROS) to deliver a controlled amount of oxybutynin chloride into the gastrointestinal tract over a 24-hour period when taken once daily. Oxybutynin binds to M3 muscarinic receptors on the detrusor muscle of the bladder, preventing acetylcholinergic activation and relaxing the muscle. Mean peak plasma concentrations are lower with extended-release oxybutynin 15mg once daily than with conventional immediate-release oxybutynin 5mg taken 3 times daily. Relative bioavailabilities of parent drug and metabolite N-desethoxybutynin are 153 and 69%, respectively, for extended-release oxybutynin when compared with immediate-release oxybutynin. In short (< or =6 weeks) randomised, double-blind clinical trials of patients with detrusor instability, extended-release oxybutynin 5 to 30mg once daily significantly reduced the mean weekly number of urge incontinence episodes by 84 to 90%. Extended-release oxybutynin had similar efficacy to immediate-release oxybutynin. Adverse events reported by patients taking extended-release oxybutynin were dose-related anticholinergic effects, most frequently dry mouth, somnolence, constipation, blurred vision and dizziness. A large noncomparative study demonstrated that approximately two thirds of the patients prescribed extended-release oxybutynin for detrusor instability were still taking the medication 6 months later.

  5. Multicomponent Implant Releasing Dexamethasone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkola, L.; Vapalahti, K.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    Several inflammatory conditions are usually treated with corticosteroids. There are various problems like side effects with traditional applications of steroids, e.g. topical, or systemic routes. Local drug delivery systems have been studied and developed to gain more efficient administration with fewer side effects. Earlier, we reported on developing Dexamethasone (DX) releasing biodegradable fibers. However, their drug release properties were not satisfactory in terms of onset of drug release. Thus, we assessed the development of multicomponent (MC) implant to enhance earlier drug release from such biodegradable fibers. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and 2 wt-% and 8 wt-% DX were compounded and extruded with twin-screw extruder to form of fibers. Some of the fibers were sterilized to obtain a change in drug release properties. Four different fiber classes were studied: 2 wt-%, 8 wt-%, sterilized 2 wt-%, and sterilized 8 wt-%. 3×4 different DX-releasing fibers were then heat-pressed to form one multicomponent rod. Half of the rods where sterilized. Drug release was measured from initial fibers and multicomponent rods using a UV/VIS spectrometer. Shear strength and changes in viscosity were also measured. Drug release studies showed that drug release commenced earlier from multicomponent rods than from component fibers. Drug release from multicomponent rods lasted from day 30 to day 70. The release period of sterilized rods extended from day 23 to day 57. When compared to the original component fibers, the drug release from MC rods commenced earlier. The initial shear strength of MC rods was 135 MPa and decreased to 105 MPa during four weeks of immersion in phosphate buffer solution. Accordingly, heat pressing has a positive effect on drug release. After four weeks in hydrolysis, no disintegration was observed.

  6. Bibliography of In-House and Contract Reports. Supplement 15.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    15 Annemarie Black E. James Books Karen Carroll April 1988 U- D" LECTE APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED. U.S. ARMY CORPS OF...Security Classification) Bibliography of In-House and Contract Reports, Supplement 15 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Annemarie Black, E. James Books and Karen...this report. 13 ETL-0433 AD-A171 561 A PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT FOR PARALLEL VISION ALGORITHMS August 1986 0 Brown , Christopher University of Rochester

  7. [Vitamin and mineral supplements: regulation, consumption, and health implications].

    PubMed

    Abe-Matsumoto, Lucile Tiemi; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Bastos, Deborah H M

    2015-07-01

    Micronutrient supplementation to reduce nutritional deficiencies has grown in recent years due to changes in the population's dietary patterns. Widespread preoccupation with health, ease in marketing vitamin and mineral supplements, and strong advertising appeal have encouraged increasing consumption of these products, thereby posing health risks. The current study addresses legislation, consumption, and health risks related to vitamin and mineral supplements in Brazil. The Brazilian legislation on dietary supplements is complex. Studies on their consumption by the Brazilian population are limited, and inappropriate use due to gaps in knowledge poses a potential health risk to the population. The study concludes that public policies are needed to raise awareness on this topic among the general public, health professionals, and sales personnel.

  8. Nitric Oxide Release Part I. Macromolecular Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, Daniel A.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The roles of nitric oxide (NO) in physiology and pathophysiology merit the use of NO as a therapeutic for certain biomedical applications. Unfortunately, limited NO payloads, too rapid NO release, and the lack of targeted NO delivery have hindered the clinical utility of NO gas and low molecular weight NO donor compounds. A wide-variety of NO-releasing macromolecular scaffolds has thus been developed to improve NO’s pharmacological potential. In this tutorial review, we provide an overview of the most promising NO release scaffolds including protein, organic, inorganic, and hybrid organic-inorganic systems. The NO release vehicles selected for discussion were chosen based on their enhanced NO storage, tunable NO release characteristics, and potential as therapeutics. PMID:22362355

  9. Airway pressure release ventilation: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Frawley, P M; Habashi, N M

    2001-05-01

    Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a relatively new mode of ventilation, that only became commercially available in the United States in the mid-1990s. Airway pressure release ventilation produces tidal ventilation using a method that differs from any other mode. It uses a release of airway pressure from an elevated baseline to simulate expiration. The elevated baseline facilitates oxygenation, and the timed releases aid in carbon dioxide removal. Advantages of APRV include lower airway pressures, lower minute ventilation, minimal adverse effects on cardio-circulatory function, ability to spontaneously breathe throughout the entire ventilatory cycle, decreased sedation use, and near elimination of neuromuscular blockade. Airway pressure release ventilation is consistent with lung protection strategies that strive to limit lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. Future research will probably support the use of APRV as the primary mode of choice for patients with acute lung injury.

  10. The cysteine releasing pattern of some antioxidant thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Önen Bayram, F Esra; Sipahi, Hande; Acar, Ebru Türköz; Kahveci Ulugöl, Reyhan; Buran, Kerem; Akgün, Hülya

    2016-05-23

    Oxidative stress that corresponds to a significant increase in free radical concentration in cells can cause considerable damage to crucial biological macromolecules if not prevented by cellular defense mechanisms. The low-molecular-weight thiol glutathione (GSH) constitutes one of the main intracellular antioxidants. It is synthesized via cysteine, an amino acid found only in limited amounts in cells because of its neurotoxicity. Thus, to ensure an efficient GSH synthesis in case of an oxidative stress, cysteine should be provided extracellularly. Yet, given its nucleophilic properties and its rapid conversion into cystine, its corresponding disulfide, cysteine presents some toxicity and therefore is usually supplemented in a prodrug approach. Here, some thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids were synthesized and evaluated for their antioxidant properties via the DDPH and CUPRAC assays. Then, the cysteine releasing capacity of the obtained compounds was investigated in aqueous and organic medium in order to correlate the relevant antioxidant properties of the molecules with their cysteine releasing pattern. As a result, the structures' antioxidative properties were not only attributed to cysteine release but also to the thiazolidine cycle itself.

  11. A multicarotenoid beadlet for human nutrition - proof of concept of in vitro timed release.

    PubMed

    Gellenbeck, Kevin; Salter-Venzon, Dawna; Lala, Rajendra; Chavan, Jayanthi

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1980's when the predominate focus of study and use of carotenoids in human nutritional formulations was solely on beta-carotene, there has been a steady increase in research aimed to understand the role of a wide variety of carotenoids in human health. This work has increasingly demonstrated the benefits of a number of carotenoids, and there has been a corresponding increase in the number of carotenoids provided in nutritional supplements (multicarotenoids). Numerous published observations in both human and animal studies suggest significant interaction and competition between various carotenoids during absorption and metabolism, resulting in the inhibition of uptake of one over the other. This competition has the end result of reducing the beneficial effects of the inhibited carotenoid. To limit such competition and maximize carotenoid uptakes, a layered beadlet was designed to release a defined ratio of carotenoids sequentially. Preliminary dissolution testing is presented showing the release profile in simulated digestive conditions of a combination of beta-carotene, alpha carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and astaxanthin derived from natural sources. Comparison is made to an immediate release beadlet formulation using the same combination of carotenoids. These results will be used to guide proof of concept clinical testing for effectiveness in humans.

  12. Identification of Phthalates in Medications and Dietary Supplement Formulations in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; Chaplin, Erica L.; Hauser, Russ; Mitchell, Allen A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In animal studies, some ortho-phthalates, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), have been shown to be reproductive and developmental toxicants. Human studies show widespread population exposure to background levels of phthalates. Limited evidence suggests that particularly high exposure levels may result from orally ingested medicinal products containing phthalates as excipients (inactive ingredients). Objective: In this study we aimed to identify and describe the scope of prescription (RX) and nonprescription (over-the-counter; OTC) medicinal products and dietary supplements marketed in the United States and Canada since 1995 that include phthalates as excipients. Methods: We used lists of modified-release drug products to identify potential drug products. Inclusion of phthalates was verified using available electronic databases, print references, published package inserts, product packages, and direct communication from manufacturers. Additional products were identified using Internet searches utilizing keywords for phthalates. Results: Based on labeling information, 6 RX drug products included DBP as an excipient, and 45 specified the use of diethyl phthalate (DEP). Phthalate polymers with no known toxicity—hypromellose phthalate (HMP), cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), and polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP)—were included in 75 RX products. Three OTC drug and dietary supplement products listed DBP, 64 listed DEP, and > 90 indicated inclusion of polymers. Conclusions: Numerous RX and OTC drug products and supplements from a wide range of therapeutic categories may use DBP or DEP as excipients in oral dosage forms. The potential effects of human exposure to these phthalates through medications are unknown and warrant further investigation. PMID:22169271

  13. Detection limit

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, P.S.; Ward, R.C.; Bell, H.F.

    1988-08-01

    Water quality monitoring data are plagued with levels of chemicals that are too low to be measured precisely. This discussion will focus on the information needs of water quality management and how these needs are best met for monitoring systems that require many trace-level measurements. We propose that the limit of detection (LOD) or the limit of quantitation (LOQ) not be used to censor data. Although LOD and LOQ aid in the interpretation of individual measurements, they hinder statistical analysis of water quality data. More information is gained when a numerical result and an estimate of measurement precision are reported for every measurement, as opposed to reporting not detected or less than. This article is not intended to be a review of the issues pertaining to the LOD and related concepts.

  14. Calcium Supplement Intake and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Women

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Julie M.; Curhan, Gary C.; Sun, Qi; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Rimm, Eric B.; Taylor, Eric N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Some recent reports suggest that calcium supplements may increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Purpose The objective was to examine the independent associations between calcium supplement use and risk of CVD. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of supplemental calcium use and incident CVD in 74,245 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1984–2008) free of CVD and cancer at baseline. Calcium supplement intake was assessed every four years. Outcomes were incident coronary heart disease (CHD) (nonfatal or fatal MI) and stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic), confirmed by medical record review. Results During 24 years of follow-up, 4,565 cardiovascular events occurred (2,709 CHD and 1,856 strokes). At baseline, women who took calcium supplements had higher levels of physical activity, smoked less, and had lower trans fat intake compared with those who did not take calcium supplements. After multivariable adjustment for age, body mass index, dietary calcium, vitamin D intake, and other CVD risk factors, the relative risk of CVD for women taking >1,000mg/day of calcium supplements compared with none was 0.82 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.92; p for trend <0.001). For women taking >1,000mg/day of calcium supplements compared with none, the multivariable-adjusted relative risk for CHD was 0.71 (0.61 to 0.83; p for trend<0.001) and for stroke was 1.03 (0.87 to 1.21; p for trend=0.61). The relative risks were similar in analyses limited to non-smokers, women without hypertension, and women who had regular physical exams. Conclusions Our findings do not support the hypothesis that calcium supplement intake increases CVD risk in women. PMID:24803331

  15. Dendritic Release of Neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Mike; Apps, David; Menzies, John; Patel, Jyoti C; Rice, Margaret E

    2016-12-06

    Release of neuroactive substances by exocytosis from dendrites is surprisingly widespread and is not confined to a particular class of transmitters: it occurs in multiple brain regions, and includes a range of neuropeptides, classical neurotransmitters, and signaling molecules, such as nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, ATP, and arachidonic acid. This review is focused on hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells that release vasopressin and oxytocin and midbrain neurons that release dopamine. For these two model systems, the stimuli, mechanisms, and physiological functions of dendritic release have been explored in greater detail than is yet available for other neurons and neuroactive substances. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:235-252, 2017.

  16. Release the Body, Release the Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, Martha Goff

    1998-01-01

    A college English teacher describes the anxiety and resentment of students during in-class writing assignments and the successful classroom use of meditation and body movement. Movement seemed to relax the students, change their attitudes, and release their creative impulses to write. Implications related to the body-mind connection are pondered.…

  17. The Influence of 8-Weeks of Whey Protein and Leucine Supplementation on Physical and Cognitive Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    extension resistance training than did a carbohydrate placebo (22%). Protein and branched chain amino acids ( BCAA ) supplementation may also improve... BCAAs scored better on both mood levels and 2 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited, Public Affairs Case File No. 09-189, 27 April 2009...supplemented subjects with whey and casein (WC), whey and BCAAs (WBC), or placebo (P) over 10 weeks of resistance training (RT). They observed a significant

  18. SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME: Status of Efforts to Improve Overpayment Detection and Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    GAO For Release on Delivery Expected at 10:00 a.m., EDT Thursday July 25, 2002 SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME Status of Efforts to Improve Overpayment...Detection and Recovery Statement of Robert E. Robertson, Director Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues GAO-02-962T Report Documentation Page...Report Date 00JUL2002 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME : Status of Efforts to Improve

  19. Drugs, Herbs and Supplements: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/druginformation.html Drugs, Herbs and Supplements To use the sharing features on ... approved labels included in drug packages, see DailyMed . Herbs and Supplements Browse dietary supplements and herbal remedies ...

  20. Dietary Supplement Use in Older People Attending Memory Clinics in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cross, A J; George, J; Woodward, M C; Ames, D; Brodaty, H; Elliott, R A

    2017-01-01

    Dietary supplement use is common in older adults. There has been limited research in people attending memory clinics. To explore the use of dietary supplements in older people attending Australian memory clinics. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Prospective Research In MEmory clinics (PRIME) study. Community-dwelling older people who attended nine memory clinics and had a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. Dietary supplement was defined as a product that contains one or more: vitamin, mineral, herb or other botanical, amino acid or other dietary substance. Non-prescribed supplement was defined as a supplement that is not usually prescribed by a medical practitioner. Polypharmacy was defined as use of five or more medications. 964 patients, mean age 77.6 years, were included. Dietary supplements were used by 550 (57.1%) patients; 353 (36.6%) used two or more. Non-prescribed supplements were used by 364 (36.8%) patients. Supplement use was associated with older age (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03-1.21), lower education level (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.01-2.32) and a diagnosis of MCI rather than dementia (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.05-2.21). Potential drug-supplement interactions were identified in 107 (11.1%) patients. Supplement users had increased prevalence of polypharmacy compared to non-users (80.5% vs. 48.1%, p<0.001). Dietary supplements, including non-prescribed supplements, were commonly used by people attending memory clinics. Supplement use increased the prevalence of polypharmacy and resulted in potential supplement-drug interactions. Further research is required to assess the clinical outcomes of supplement use.

  1. Are those in need taking dietary supplements? A survey of 21 923 adults.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R A; Holt, D; Pattison, D J; Elton, P J

    2004-04-01

    Many people take dietary supplements, but information on characteristics associated with their use is lacking. The relationship between lifestyle behaviours, morbidity and use of dietary supplements has not been examined and earlier studies have limited applicability to a general population. These issues were addressed in the current study. Information was obtained by postal questionnaire sent to a sample of the general population. The questionnaire was completed by 70.5 % of the sample (15 465 from a total sample of 21 923), with at least one-third (35.5 %) taking dietary supplements. In adjusted analyses, supplement users were more likely to be women, white, home-owners, non-smokers and physically active. Use of vitamin, mineral and/or antioxidant supplements was associated with eating more fruits and vegetables, and taking fish-oil supplements was associated with eating oil-rich fish. A history of CVD or risk factors for CVD reduced the risk of taking vitamins, minerals and/or antioxidants or fish-oil supplements. Those reporting musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis were more likely to take fish-oil supplements For the first time, we have shown that dietary supplement use is related to different types of morbidity. In particular, people at risk of primary or secondary CVD seem less likely to use dietary supplements, despite possible benefits shown in clinical trials. Public health organisations need to develop guidelines for the public and health professionals regarding the uncontrolled use of dietary supplements in the community.

  2. Liver injury from herbal and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Khan, Ikhlas; Björnsson, Einar; Seeff, Leonard B; Serrano, Jose; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2017-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are used increasingly both in the United States and worldwide, and HDS-induced liver injury in the United States has increased proportionally. Current challenges in the diagnosis and management of HDS-induced liver injury were the focus of a 2-day research symposium sponsored by the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease and the National Institutes of Health. HDS-induced liver injury now accounts for 20% of cases of hepatotoxicity in the United States based on research data. The major implicated agents include anabolic steroids, green tea extract, and multi-ingredient nutritional supplements. Anabolic steroids marketed as bodybuilding supplements typically induce a prolonged cholestatic but ultimately self-limiting liver injury that has a distinctive serum biochemical as well as histological phenotype. Green tea extract and many other products, in contrast, tend to cause an acute hepatitis-like injury. Currently, however, the majority of cases of HDS-associated liver injury are due to multi-ingredient nutritional supplements, and the component responsible for the toxicity is usually unknown or can only be suspected. HDS-induced liver injury presents many clinical and research challenges in diagnosis, identification of the responsible constituents, treatment, and prevention. Also important are improvements in regulatory oversight of nonprescription products to guarantee their constituents and ensure purity and safety. The confident identification of injurious ingredients within HDS will require strategic alignments among clinicians, chemists, and toxicologists. The ultimate goal should be to prohibit or more closely regulate potentially injurious ingredients and thus promote public safety. (Hepatology 2017;65:363-373).

  3. Use of nutritional supplements by high school football and volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Mason, M A; Giza, M; Clayton, L; Lonning, J; Wilkerson, R D

    2001-01-01

    The known use of performance enhancing agents by athletes has occurred throughout history. In the 1960s and 1970s steroids and amphetamines were the supplements most often used. Now athletes are turning to supplements that are either natural or stimulate the release of natural hormones. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of use of nutritional supplements among high school football and volleyball players. This study surveyed 495 male football players and 407 female volleyball players from 20 high schools in Northwest Iowa. These athletes completed anonymous surveys and returned them to their coaches. Results showed that 8% of the male athletes and 2% of the female athletes were using supplementation. Supplements used included creatine, androstiendione, HMB, amino acids, DHEA, phosphogen, weight gainer 1850, Tribulus, muscle plus, multivitamins, calcium, GABA, and Shaklee Vita Lea and Physique.

  4. Determination of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin in algal food supplements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H.; Scott, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    For the analysis of blue–green algal food supplements for cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a C18 solid-phase extraction column and a polygraphitized carbon solid-phase extraction column in series was an effective procedure for the clean-up of extracts. Determination of CYN was by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet light detection. At extract spiking levels of CYN equivalent to 25–500 μg g−1, blue–green algal supplement recoveries were in the range 70–90%. CYN was not detected in ten samples of food supplements and one chocolate product, all containing blue–green algae. The limit of detection for the method was 16 μg g−1, and the limit of quantification was 52 μg g−1. PMID:21623503

  5. Determination of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin in algal food supplements.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Scott, P M

    2011-06-01

    For the analysis of blue-green algal food supplements for cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a C18 solid-phase extraction column and a polygraphitized carbon solid-phase extraction column in series was an effective procedure for the clean-up of extracts. Determination of CYN was by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet light detection. At extract spiking levels of CYN equivalent to 25-500 µg g(-1), blue-green algal supplement recoveries were in the range 70-90%. CYN was not detected in ten samples of food supplements and one chocolate product, all containing blue-green algae. The limit of detection for the method was 16 µg g(-1), and the limit of quantification was 52 µg g(-1).

  6. Nutritional Supplements in Canine Dermatoses

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Lowell

    1987-01-01

    Nutritionally-related dermatoses of dogs have received considerable attention in the veterinary community in the past few years and most of this attention has centered on the role of vitamin E, vitamin A, zinc, and the essential fatty acids. Nutritional supplements for dogs abound in the marketplace yet few actually meet the requirements of a pet with a skin problem. Many more are not formulated strictly for dermatological cases but rather as general supplements to augment the nutritional needs of pets. The potential actions of these different nutrients are discussed and comparisons made of the different commercial supplements. PMID:17422880

  7. Zinc supplementation for tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Person, Osmar C; Puga, Maria Es; da Silva, Edina Mk; Torloni, Maria R

    2016-11-23

    Tinnitus is the perception of sound without external acoustic stimuli. Patients with severe tinnitus may have physical and psychological complaints and their tinnitus can cause deterioration in their quality of life. At present no specific therapy for tinnitus has been found to be satisfactory in all patients. In recent decades, a number of reports have suggested that oral zinc supplementation may be effective in the management of tinnitus. Since zinc has a role in cochlear physiology and in the synapses of the auditory system, there is a plausible mechanism of action for this treatment. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of oral zinc supplementation in the management of patients with tinnitus. The Cochrane ENT Information Specialist searched the ENT Trials Register; Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 6); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; ClinicalTrials.gov; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 14 July 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing zinc supplementation versus placebo in adults (18 years and over) with tinnitus. We used the standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. Our primary outcome measures were improvement in tinnitus severity and disability, measured by a validated tinnitus-specific questionnaire, and adverse effects. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, change in socioeconomic impact associated with work, change in anxiety and depression disorders, change in psychoacoustic parameters, change in tinnitus loudness, change in overall severity of tinnitus and change in thresholds on pure tone audiometry. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome; this is indicated in italics. We included three trials involving a total of 209 participants. The studies were at moderate to high risk of bias. All included studies had differences in participant selection criteria, length of follow-up and outcome measurement

  8. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the draft environmental impact statement will be...

  9. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the draft environmental impact statement will be...

  10. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the draft environmental impact statement will be...

  11. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the draft environmental impact statement will be...

  12. 10 CFR 51.74 - Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Distribution of draft environmental impact statement and supplement to draft environmental impact statement; news releases. 51.74 Section 51.74 Energy NUCLEAR... environmental impact statement; news releases. (a) A copy of the draft environmental impact statement will be...

  13. 14 CFR 121.645 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... specifications, no person may release for flight or takeoff a turbine-engine powered airplane (other than a turbo... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered... SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.645 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered...

  14. 14 CFR 121.645 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... specifications, no person may release for flight or takeoff a turbine-engine powered airplane (other than a turbo... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered... SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.645 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered...

  15. 14 CFR 121.645 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered... SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.645 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered... specifications, no person may release for flight or takeoff a turbine-engine powered airplane (other than a...

  16. 14 CFR 121.645 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered... SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.645 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered... specifications, no person may release for flight or takeoff a turbine-engine powered airplane (other than a...

  17. 14 CFR 121.645 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered airplanes, other than turbo propeller: Flag and supplemental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered... SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Dispatching and Flight Release Rules § 121.645 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine powered... specifications, no person may release for flight or takeoff a turbine-engine powered airplane (other than a...

  18. 34 CFR 200.47 - SEA responsibilities for supplemental educational services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... School Improvement § 200.47 SEA responsibilities for supplemental educational services. (a) If one or... that are able to serve students with disabilities or limited English proficient students. (4... increasing the academic proficiency of students receiving supplemental educational services from...

  19. 48 CFR 1832.202-1 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1832.202-1 Section 1832.202-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... Financing 1832.202-1 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b)(6) Advance payment limitations do not...

  20. 48 CFR 1832.202-1 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1832.202-1 Section 1832.202-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... Financing 1832.202-1 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b)(6) Advance payment limitations do not...

  1. 48 CFR 1832.202-1 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1832.202-1 Section 1832.202-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... Financing 1832.202-1 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b)(6) Advance payment limitations do not...

  2. 48 CFR 1832.202-1 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1832.202-1 Section 1832.202-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... Financing 1832.202-1 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b)(6) Advance payment limitations do not...

  3. 48 CFR 1832.202-1 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (b))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) 1832.202-1 Section 1832.202-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND... Financing 1832.202-1 Policy. (NASA supplements paragraph (b)) (b)(6) Advance payment limitations do not...

  4. Supplement Use and Risk of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Asgari, Maryam M.; Chren, Mary-Margaret; Warton, E. Margaret; Friedman, Gary D.; White, Emily

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Laboratory and epidemiologic studies suggest that certain dietary supplements may alter risk of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). OBJECTIVE To examine the association between supplement use and SCC risk. METHODS Cases (n= 415) were defined as Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) members with a pathology-verified SCC in 2004 and controls (n=415) were age, gender, and race-matched members with no previous history of skin cancer. Supplement use and SCC risk factors were ascertained by questionnaire. Associations of SCC with use of multivitamins, vitamins A, C, D and E, and grape seed extract were estimated as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using conditional logistic regression. Models were adjusted for SCC risk factors and other supplement use. RESULTS Grape seed extract users had a significantly decreased risk of cutaneous SCC (adjusted OR = 0.26, CI: 0.08-0.89, p=0.031). Multivitamin use was associated with a borderline significant reduction in SCC risk (adjusted OR = 0.71, CI: 0.51-1.00, p= 0.049). Use of vitamins A, C, D, and E was not associated with SCC risk. LIMITATIONS The data may be prone to recall and selection bias due to the case-control design. No information was obtained on dose or duration of supplement use. CONCLUSIONS Use of grape seed extract may be associated with a decreased risk of cutaneous SCC. The other supplements included in our study did not reveal clear associations with SCC risk. PMID:21664718

  5. Estimation of optimum amino acid supplements to triticale.

    PubMed

    Heger, J

    1990-04-01

    Based on the nitrogen balance (NB) data and the efficiency of amino acid utilization, optimum supplements of limiting amino acids (AA) to triticale were calculated and their effect on true N digestibility (TD), biological value of protein (BV) and net protein utilization (NPU) of a triticale-based diet was evaluated. To determine if AA balance must be considered in the calculation of the optimum supplements, the effect of a 20% or 40% excess of essential AA in lysine-, methionine-, threonine- or tryptophan-deficient diets was also studied. The AA excess had no significant effect on NB in diets deficient in lysine, methionine or threonine. However, NB in rats fed on the tryptophan-deficient diet increased as the AA excess increased. BV of the diet containing the optimized supplements of lysine, threonine, methionine and valine was comparable to that of lactalbumin or to the diet supplemented with all essential AA. The deletion of valine from the optimized supplement caused an insignificant decrease in BV. Due to the lower TD, NPU of diets containing the optimized AA supplements was lower than that of the diet containing all essential AA or of the lactalbumin-based diet.

  6. Safety of Popular Herbal Supplements in Lactating Women.

    PubMed

    Amer, Marwa R; Cipriano, Gabriela C; Venci, Jineane V; Gandhi, Mona A

    2015-08-01

    The increasing popularity and use of dietary supplements has required health care professionals to become more knowledgeable of their properties, interactions, and adverse effects. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the safety of popular dietary supplements in breastfeeding mothers and the effects on the infants. Nine of the most popular herbal dietary supplements were identified based on the 2011 US market report of the top 10 selling botanicals and the most frequently received inquiries by the Ruth A. Lawrence Lactation Study Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center. Relevant publications were identified through June 2014 using PubMed and EMBASE; tertiary references, including the Drugs and Lactation Database and Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database, were also reviewed. These herbals include black cohosh, cranberry, echinacea, evening primrose, garlic, ginseng, melatonin, milk thistle, and St John's wort. Studies varied greatly with regard to study design, herbal intervention, and outcome measures. Findings suggested that dietary/herbal supplements have not been evaluated in high-quality clinical trials, and there is limited evidence supporting safety of use, particularly among lactating women. Therefore, it is essential for physicians to provide counseling for nursing mothers seeking information on dietary supplements, highlighting reliable safety profiles, inquiring about the potential benefits the patient is seeking, and assessing the patient's perception of this supplement during breastfeeding. More research and clinical trials are required in this area to guide the recommendations and expand our current knowledge of these products. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Supplementation of Infant Formula with Bovine Milk Fat Globule Membranes.

    PubMed

    Timby, Niklas; Domellöf, Magnus; Lönnerdal, Bo; Hernell, Olle

    2017-03-01

    Studies have shown that supplementation of infant formula with bovine milk fat globule membranes (MFGMs) may substantially narrow the gap in health outcomes between formula-fed and breastfed infants. In one study, consumption of a formula supplemented with a lipid-rich MFGM concentrate between 2 and 6 mo of age improved cognitive performance at 24 wk of age. In another study, a formula supplemented with a protein-rich MFGM concentrate given between 2 and 6 mo of age improved cognitive performance at 12 mo of age, decreased infectious morbidity until 6 mo of age, and yielded serum cholesterol concentrations closer to those of breastfed infants. A third study that assessed the safety of supplementing infant formula with a lipid-rich or a protein-rich MFGM concentrate found a noninferior weight gain for both groups compared with a nonsupplemented formula. In this study, there was an increased risk of eczema in the protein-rich group, but no serious adverse events. Infant formulas with supplemental MFGMs have been launched on the market in several countries. However, the evidence base must still be considered quite limited. Based on 3 randomized controlled trials that are not comparable, the intervention seems safe, but there is not enough evidence for a general recommendation on which MFGM fraction to use and at what concentration as formula supplement for a given outcome. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Vitamin and supplement use among old order amish: sex-specific prevalence and associations with use.

    PubMed

    Reed, Robert M; Reed, Anna W; McArdle, Patrick F; Miller, Michael; Pollin, Toni I; Shuldiner, Alan R; Steinle, Nanette I; Mitchell, Braxton D

    2015-03-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the form of vitamin and supplement use is increasingly prevalent in the United States. The interplay between CAM use and use of conventional medications is not well studied. We examined this issue in Old Order Amish (OOA), a population lacking several factors known to influence supplement use, whose culture and barriers to conventional medications may result in high rates of supplement use. We characterized the patterns of supplement use in OOA, including the extent to which CAM use aggregates in families, and assessed whether higher use of supplements is associated with lower medication use. We conducted a cross-sectional study of conventional medications and supplements in 2,372 adult Amish from the Lancaster County, PA, area. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews. Supplements were subcategorized as herbal vs vitamin/mineral supplements. Seventy-seven percent of all Amish adults reported current supplement use, whereas 22% reported medication use. Women used supplements more often and used more supplements than men, and familial aggregation of supplement use was stronger in family pairs involving women. Supplement use was associated with less medication use after controlling for age, sex, body mass index, and self-reported histories of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.96, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.00; P=0.047). This association was driven primarily by use of herbal supplements (adjusted OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.89 to 0.99; P=0.025) as vitamin/mineral supplements were not associated with different use of medication (adjusted OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.09; P=0.8). In analyses limited to cardiovascular medications and cardiovascular supplements in participants with hyperlipidemia, hypertension, or diabetes, supplement use was not associated with conventional medication use. OAA, particularly women, take dietary supplements much more frequently than they use conventional medications

  9. Patient release criteria for low dose rate brachytherapy implants.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Dale E; Sheetz, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    A lack of consensus regarding a model governing the release of patients following sealed source brachytherapy has led to a set of patient release policies that vary from institution to institution. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued regulatory guidance on patient release in NUREG 1556, Volume 9, Rev. 2, Appendix U, which allows calculation of release limits following implant brachytherapy. While the formalism presented in NUREG is meaningful for the calculation of release limits in the context of relatively high energy gamma emitters, it does not estimate accurately the effective dose equivalent for the common low dose rate brachytherapy sources Cs, I, and Pd. NUREG 1556 states that patient release may be based on patient-specific calculations as long as the calculation is documented. This work is intended to provide a format for patient-specific calculations to be used for the consideration of patients' release following the implantation of certain low dose rate brachytherapy isotopes.

  10. Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is it OK to give my baby breast milk and formula? Although breast milk is the best nutritional choice for infants, in ... with a supplemental nursing system in which pumped milk or formula goes through a small tube that ...

  11. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes. 1977 Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, D. Kent

    This 1977 supplement presents higher education price index data for fiscal years 1971 through 1977. The basic study presents complete descriptions of the indexes together with the index values and price data for fiscal years 1961 through 1974. It includes a discussion of index number theory and computation, explains the uses and limitations of…

  12. Senior High Health Supplement for Cambodian Students. English/Khmer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laska, Patricia

    A volume of materials for limited English-speaking native Khmer-speaking Cambodian students designed to supplement a high school health education course contains a series of chapters in English, with each page faced by a translation in Khmer. The topics covered include a holistic approach to health and wellness, interpersonal relations, emotions,…

  13. Senior High Health Supplement for Vietnamese Students. English/Vietnamese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laska, Patricia

    A volume of materials for limited English-speaking native Vietnamese-speaking students designed to supplement a high school health education course contains a series of topical chapters in English, each followed by a translation in Vietnamese. The topics covered include a holistic approach to health and wellness, interpersonal relations, emotions,…

  14. Higher Education Prices and Price Indexes. 1977 Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, D. Kent

    This 1977 supplement presents higher education price index data for fiscal years 1971 through 1977. The basic study presents complete descriptions of the indexes together with the index values and price data for fiscal years 1961 through 1974. It includes a discussion of index number theory and computation, explains the uses and limitations of…

  15. Senior High Health Supplement for Vietnamese Students. English/Vietnamese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laska, Patricia

    A volume of materials for limited English-speaking native Vietnamese-speaking students designed to supplement a high school health education course contains a series of topical chapters in English, each followed by a translation in Vietnamese. The topics covered include a holistic approach to health and wellness, interpersonal relations, emotions,…

  16. Senior High Health Supplement for Laotian Students. English/Laotian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laska, Patricia

    A volume of materials for limited English-speaking native Lao-speaking students designed to supplement a high school health education course contains a series of chapters in English, with each page faced by a translation in Lao. The topics covered include a holistic approach to health and wellness, interpersonal relations, emotions, stress,…

  17. Senior High Health Supplement for Cambodian Students. English/Khmer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laska, Patricia

    A volume of materials for limited English-speaking native Khmer-speaking Cambodian students designed to supplement a high school health education course contains a series of chapters in English, with each page faced by a translation in Khmer. The topics covered include a holistic approach to health and wellness, interpersonal relations, emotions,…

  18. Dietary supplements in weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Allison, David B; Coates, Paul M

    2005-05-01

    We summarize evidence on the role of dietary supplements in weight reduction, with particular attention to their safety and benefits. Dietary supplements are used for two purposes in weight reduction: (a) providing nutrients that may be inadequate in calorie-restricted diets and (b) for their potential benefits in stimulating weight loss. The goal in planning weight-reduction diets is that total intake from food and supplements should meet recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels without greatly exceeding them for all nutrients, except energy. If nutrient amounts from food sources in the reducing diet fall short, dietary supplements containing a single nutrient/element or a multivitamin-mineral combination may be helpful. On hypocaloric diets, the addition of dietary supplements providing nutrients at a level equal to or below recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels or 100% daily value, as stated in a supplement's facts box on the label, may help dieters to achieve nutrient adequacy and maintain electrolyte balance while avoiding the risk of excessive nutrient intakes. Many botanical and other types of dietary supplements are purported to be useful for stimulating or enhancing weight loss. Evidence of their efficacy in stimulating weight loss is inconclusive at present. Although there are few examples of safety concerns related to products that are legal and on the market for this purpose, there is also a paucity of evidence on safety for this intended use. Ephedra and ephedrine-containing supplements, with or without caffeine, have been singled out in recent alerts from the Food and Drug Administration because of safety concerns, and use of products containing these substances cannot be recommended. Dietitians should periodically check the Food and Drug Administration Web site ( www.cfsan.fda.gov ) for updates and warnings and alert patients/clients to safety concerns. Dietetics professionals should also consult authoritative sources for

  19. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2017-02-12

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time.

  20. Age Limits.

    PubMed

    Antfolk, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Whereas women of all ages prefer slightly older sexual partners, men-regardless of their age-have a preference for women in their 20s. Earlier research has suggested that this difference between the sexes' age preferences is resolved according to women's preferences. This research has not, however, sufficiently considered that the age range of considered partners might change over the life span. Here we investigated the age limits (youngest and oldest) of considered and actual sex partners in a population-based sample of 2,655 adults (aged 18-50 years). Over the investigated age span, women reported a narrower age range than men and women tended to prefer slightly older men. We also show that men's age range widens as they get older: While they continue to consider sex with young women, men also consider sex with women their own age or older. Contrary to earlier suggestions, men's sexual activity thus reflects also their own age range, although their potential interest in younger women is not likely converted into sexual activity. Compared to homosexual men, bisexual and heterosexual men were more unlikely to convert young preferences into actual behavior, supporting female-choice theory.

  1. 40 CFR 66.93 - Time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Time limits. 66.93 Section 66.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ASSESSMENT AND COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Supplemental Rules for Formal Adjudicatory Hearings § 66.93 Time...

  2. 40 CFR 66.93 - Time limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Time limits. 66.93 Section 66.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ASSESSMENT AND COLLECTION OF NONCOMPLIANCE PENALTIES BY EPA Supplemental Rules for Formal Adjudicatory Hearings § 66.93 Time...

  3. The Limited English Speaking Program: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinnander, Elizabeth; Spinelli, Maria-Lydia

    Los Angeles Pierce College (LAPC) serves many Extended Opportunity Programs and Services (EOPS) students, most of them refugees, for whom English is a second language. In the past, LAPC provided limited English tutoring based on a conversational approach to supplement the more academically oriented ESL instruction available on campus. In response…

  4. Cardiovascular effects of calcium supplements.

    PubMed

    Reid, Ian R

    2013-07-05

    Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%-31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%-20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  5. In Vitro Release Kinetics and Transferrin Saturation Study of Intravenous Iron Sucrose Entrapped in Poly(ethylene glycol)-Assisted Silica Xerogel.

    PubMed

    Jha, Jahnavi; Chakraborty, Suparna; Chaudhuri, Mahua Ghosh; Dey, Rajib

    2016-04-01

    The presence of labile iron fractions in intravenous iron supplements compromises their safety. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-assisted silica xerogel was evaluated as a potential drug carrier for iron sucrose with the purpose of limiting labile iron available for in vitro uptake by transferrin. The drug entrapped xerogels were synthesized by the sol-gel process with varying amounts of PEG. In vitro release studies were conducted in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 ± 0.02 °C (pH 7.4). The results indicated that the cumulative release percentage increased with the increase in the amount of PEG in the matrix. The biphasic release profile followed first-order kinetics for the first 6 h and Higuchi model for the remaining time (up to 168 h). The sample showing highest percentage of cumulative release (the xerogel with 16 % PEG) was used for in vitro transferrin saturation studies in contrast with the plain drug. The xerogel formulation exhibited 7.25 ± 0.4 % transferrin saturation in 180 min as compared to 12.89 ± 0.2 % for the raw drug. These results indicate that encapsulation of iron sucrose in PEG-assisted silica xerogel and subsequent sustained release from the matrix can improve the safety of the drug when presence of labile iron is a major concern.

  6. Rad-Release

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The R&D 100 Award winning Rad-Release Chemical Decontamination Technology is a highly effective (up to 99% removal rate), affordable, patented chemical-foam-clay decontamination process tailored to specific radiological and metal contaminants, which is applicable to a wide variety of substrates. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/rad-release/

  7. Rad-Release

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The R&D 100 Award winning Rad-Release Chemical Decontamination Technology is a highly effective (up to 99% removal rate), affordable, patented chemical-foam-clay decontamination process tailored to specific radiological and metal contaminants, which is applicable to a wide variety of substrates. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/rad-release/

  8. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  9. 7 CFR 1924.49 - State supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State supplements. 1924.49 Section 1924.49 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... supplements. State Supplements or policies will not be issued or adopted to either supplement or set...

  10. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  11. Supplementing biomechanical modeling with EMG analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Jagodnik, Kathleen; Crentsil, Lawton; Humphreys, Bradley; Funk, Justin; Gallo, Christopher; Thompson, William; DeWitt, John; Perusek, Gail

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that astronauts experience musculoskeletal deconditioning when exposed to microgravity environments for long periods of time. Spaceflight exercise is used to counteract these effects, and the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been effective in minimizing musculoskeletal losses. However, the exercise devices of the new exploration vehicles will have requirements of limited mass, power and volume. Because of these limitations, there is a concern that the exercise devices will not be as effective as ARED in maintaining astronaut performance. Therefore, biomechanical modeling is being performed to provide insight on whether the small Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) device, which utilizes a single-strap design, will provide sufficient physiological loading to maintain musculoskeletal performance. Electromyography (EMG) data are used to supplement the biomechanical model results and to explore differences in muscle activation patterns during exercises using different loading configurations.

  12. Risk assessment of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Boobis, Alan R

    2007-01-01

    Risk assessment of dietary supplements shares many of the requirements of that for other chemicals, although there are some important differences. Amongst these is the essential nature of some nutrients so that it may be necessary to balance the need to minimize toxicological risk with the need to avoid deficiency. There may also be limitations on experimental design, in that high doses may not be achievable for nutritional reasons and available human data on toxicological hazard is likely to be very limited. Prior to embarking on a risk assessment the problem needs to be formulated. This involves risk assessors, risk managers and relevant stakeholders. A key decision is whether a risk assessment is necessary and, if so, what is required of the assessment. This will shape the nature and output of the assessment. Risk assessment itself is a scientific process comprising four steps, hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Hazard identification involves determining the range of toxicological effects that might be caused by the substance, whilst hazard characterization establishes dose-response relationships, toxicological and species relevance of the findings and establishes health based guidance values. Exposure assessment involves predicting or measuring the level, pattern and duration of intake of the substance by exposed individuals. This may require dietary consumption data. Finally, risk characterization is the process whereby all of the prior information is integrated to reach conclusions in a form appropriate to the question posed. The nature of the output can take several different forms, and may be qualitative or quantitative. There are some cross-cutting issues in risk assessment, primarily on uncertainty and variability. The sources of uncertainty at each step of the risk assessment should be clearly identified and quantified to the extent possible. Variability requires that the risk assessment should

  13. Dietary Supplements are Not all Safe and Not all Food: How the Low Cost of Dietary Supplements Preys on the Consumer.

    PubMed

    Sax, Joanna K

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements are regulated as food, even though the safety and efficacy of some supplements are unknown. These products are often promoted as 'natural.' This leads many consumers to fail to question the supplements' safety, and some consumers even equate 'natural' with safe. But, 'natural' does not mean safe. For example, many wild berries and mushrooms are dangerous although they are natural. Another example is tobacco--a key ingredient in cigarettes: it is natural, but overwhelming studies have established the harm of cigarette smoke. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires safety and efficacy testing prior to market entry for drugs. In contrast, the FDA only has limited ability to regulate the entry of new dietary supplements into the marketplace because supplements are treated as food. Two main arguments support the current regulatory structure of dietary supplements: (1) cost and (2) access. But lower cost and increased access to dietary supplements do not necessary have any relationship to safety and efficacy. Manufacturers' marketing techniques tout the health benefits of their supplements. Meanwhile, consumers are ingesting supplements without scientific studies indicating whether or not they are harmful. The FDA Food Safety and Modernization Act, signed into law on January 4, 2011, did not address the safety concerns regarding dietary supplements. This article discusses the regulatory deficiencies concerning dietary supplements and proposes novel solutions to address this specific sector of the food supply. This article advocates for the use of scientific data to support a multi-tiered classification system to ensure that dietary supplements on the market are safe.

  14. Influence of mineral and vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Hovdenak, Nils; Haram, Kjell

    2012-10-01

    The literature was searched for publications on minerals and vitamins during pregnancy and the possible influence of supplements on pregnancy outcome. Maternal iron (Fe) deficiency has a direct impact on neonatal Fe stores and birth weight, and may cause cognitive and behavioural problems in childhood. Fe supplementation is recommended to low-income pregnant women, to pregnant women in developing countries, and in documented deficiency, but overtreatment should be avoided. Calcium (Ca) deficiency is associated with pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth restriction. Supplementation may reduce both the risk of low birth weight and the severity of pre-eclampsia. Gestational magnesium (Mg) deficiency may cause hematological and teratogenic damage. A Cochrane review showed a significant low birth weight risk reduction in Mg supplemented individuals. Intake of cereal-based diets rich in phytate, high intakes of supplemental Fe, or any gastrointestinal disease, may interfere with zinc (Zn) absorption. Zn deficiency in pregnant animals may limit fetal growth. Supplemental Zn may be prudent for women with poor gastrointestinal function, and in Zn deficient women, increasing birth weight and head circumference, but no evidence was found for beneficial effects of general Zn supplementation during pregnancy. Selenium (Se) is an antioxidant supporting humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Low Se status is associated with recurrent abortion, pre-eclampsia and IUGR, and although beneficial effects are suggested there is no evidence-based recommendation for supplementation. An average of 20-30% of pregnant women suffer from any vitamin deficiency, and without prophylaxis, about 75% of these would show a deficit of at least one vitamin. Vitamin B6 deficiency is associated with pre-eclampsia, gestational carbohydrate intolerance, hyperemesis gravidarum, and neurologic disease of infants. About 25% of pregnant women in India are folate deficient. Folate deficiency may lead to

  15. Advanced release technologies program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdy, Bill

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the ARTS program was to develop lighter and less expensive spacecraft ordnance and release systems that answer to the requirements of a wide variety of spacecraft applications. These improvements were to be evaluated at the spacecraft system level, as it was determined that there were substantial system-level costs associated with the present ordnance and release subsystems. New, better devices were to be developed, then flight qualified, then integrated into a flight experiment in order to prove the reliability required for their subsequent use on high-reliability spacecraft. The secondary goal of the program was to quantify the system-level benefits of these new subsystems based upon the development program results. Three non-explosive release mechanisms and one laser-diode-based ordnance system were qualified under the program. The release devices being developed were required to release high preloads because it is easier to scale down a release mechanism than to scale it up. The laser initiator developed was required to be a direct replacement for NASA Standard Initiators, since these are the most common initiator in use presently. The program began in October, 1991, with completion of the flight experiment scheduled for February, 1994. This paper provides an overview of the ARTS program, discusses the benefits of using the ARTS components, introduces the new components, compares them with conventional systems and each other, and provides recommendations on how best to implement them.

  16. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    PubMed Central

    Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

  17. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Onjukka, Sam T.; Harbeck, Jim

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  18. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Onjukka, Sam T.; Harbeck, Jim

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  19. Hexamethylenetetramine carboxyborane: synthesis, structural characterization and CO releasing properties.

    PubMed

    Ayudhya, T I; Raymond, C C; Dingra, N N

    2017-01-17

    Carbon monoxide, although widely known as a toxic gas, has received great attention in the past few decades due to its promising role as a medical gas. Several classes of carbon monoxide releasing molecules (CORMs) have been synthesised with many of them having pharmacological activities under physiological conditions. Herein, we report the synthesis and structural characterization of the first example of amine carboxyborane that releases CO under physiological conditions without the aid of inducers. A representative compound hexamethylenetetramine carboxyborane (HMTA-CB) described here has a half-life of 2.7 days and gradually releases CO with the rate constant of 3.0 × 10(-6) s(-1). Its ability to promote cell growth shows the beneficial effect of slow CO release to supplement CO in small amounts over time.

  20. Doping through supplement use: a review of the available empirical data.

    PubMed

    Outram, Simon; Stewart, Bob

    2015-02-01

    The potential for supplement use to result in doping infringements is likely to be of concern for anyone involved in sports nutrition. The available data indicates that between 40-70% of athletes use supplements, and that between 10-15% of supplements may contain prohibited substances. Such data indicates that there is a considerable risk of accidental or inadvertent doping through using supplements. Accordingly, this paper sets out to provide an overview of the currently available empirical evidence of accidental doping by supplement use. In carrying out this task, the authors refer to press releases and proxy measures associated with nutritional supplement use, as well as statistical data on supplement contamination rates and doping infractions. A number of different indications as to the percentage of doping cases that might be attributed to supplement use are presented, ranging from 6.4% to 8.8%. Such percentages are not comparable; instead they are provided as indications as to how difficult it is to ascertain or estimate the scale of this problem. Although some forms of estimation can be made, it is suggested that it is currently not possible to quantify the scale of the problem. By way of conclusion, it is argued that antidoping regulators may wish to review current data gathering and information provision systems so that the problem of inadvertent doping can be more directly assessed as a factor in sports doping overall.

  1. Slow-Release Fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under an SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research), ZeoponiX, Inc., introduced ZeoPro. This product is used as a fertilizer/soil amendment for golf courses, ball fields, greenhouse and horticultural uses. A combination of superior growth medium and soil conditioner allow for nutrient supplementation and high efficiency delivery of nutrients throughout the plant. ZeoPro provides a balanced nutrient system for major, minor, and trace nutrients.

  2. Imaging neurotransmitter release kinetics in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Weihong; Yeung, E.S.; Haydon, P.G.

    1996-12-31

    A new UV-laser based optical microscope and CCD detection system has been developed to image neurotransmitter in living biological cells. We demonstrate the detection of serotonin that has been taken up into and released from individual living glial cells (astrocytes) based on its native fluorescence. The detection methodology has high sensitivity, low limit of detection and does not require coupling to fluorescence dyes. We have studied serotonin uptake kinetics and its release dynamics in single glial cells. Different regions of a glial cell have taken up different amounts of serotonin with a variety of kinetics. Similarly, different serotonin release mechanisms have been observed in different astrocyte cell regions. The temporal resolution of this detection system is as fast as 50 ms, and the spatial resolution is diffraction limited. We will also report on single enzyme molecule reaction studies and single metal ion detection based on CCD imaging of pL reaction vials formed by micromachining on fused silica.

  3. Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Chemical Release Modeling Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Stirrup, Timothy Scott

    2016-12-20

    This evaluation documents the methodology and results of chemical release modeling for operations at Building 518, Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) Core Facility. This evaluation is intended to supplement an update to the CINT [Standalone] Hazards Analysis (SHA). This evaluation also updates the original [Design] Hazards Analysis (DHA) completed in 2003 during the design and construction of the facility; since the original DHA, additional toxic materials have been evaluated and modeled to confirm the continued low hazard classification of the CINT facility and operations. This evaluation addresses the potential catastrophic release of the current inventory of toxic chemicals at Building 518 based on a standard query in the Chemical Information System (CIS).

  4. DSCOVR Public Release Statement V02

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-07-06

    ... Public Release Statement V02 Wednesday, July 12, 2017 The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) is a ... is limited to the near infrared solar reflected signal. The fourth detector is a high signal-to-noise photodiode spanning UV, Visible, and ...

  5. Endoscopic-assisted infraorbital nerve release

    PubMed Central

    Sosin, Michael; De La Cruz, Carla; Christy, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Endoscopic-assisted techniques in plastic and craniofacial surgeries are limited. We present a patient with infraorbital nerve entrapment following traumatic facial injury that failed conservative management. Compression of the nerve was treated with an endoscopic-assisted nerve release of the surrounding soft tissue with a circumferential foraminal osteotomy. PMID:27252952

  6. Slow ammonia release from urea: rumen and metabolism studies.

    PubMed

    Owens, F N; Lusby, K S; Mizwicki, K; Forero, O

    1980-03-01

    A new slow-release urea (SRU) made by coating prilled urea with a tung oil-linseed oil-talc-catalyst mixture was evaluated for ammonia-nitrogen release rate, animal acceptability, toxicity and effects on dry matter digestibility, diet intake and nitrogen retention. When added at a level equal to 1% urea in an 80% concentrate steer diet and fed twice daily, SRU gave a ruminal ammonia-nitrogen peak 1 hr postfeeding of 32 mg/dl compared to a peak from prilled urea of 53 mg/dl at 30 minutes. Bi-hourly feeding of prilled urea and SRU produced similar rumen ammonia-nitrogen levels and demonstrated that SRU was almost completely hydrolyzed in the rumen. Steers fasted for 26 hr and refed with supplements containing 10% urea from prilled urea had rumen ammonia levels of 120 ml/dl and showed muscle tremors 35 min after feeding. Rumen ammonia levels of steers fed equivalent urea from SRU remained below 35 ml/dl and exhibited no toxicity symptoms. Sheep fed ad libitum cottonseed hulls were offered a supplement containing 5% or 10% urea from urea or SRU once daily. Intake of SRU supplement was 7 and 17% greater, while cottonseed hull intakes were similar for sheep fed urea or SRU at the 5 and 10% levels. In a nitrogen balance trial, steers were fed ad libitum cottonseed hulls unsupplemented or supplemented with isonitrogenous amounts of SRU, prilled urea or soybean meal. Added nitrogen from all sources increased cottonseed hull intake. Steers fed SRU consumed more (P less than .05) cottonseed hulls than steers fed urea. Dry matter digestibility and nitrogen retention values tended to be highest for steers fed soybean meal supplement with little difference noted between prilled urea and SRU supplements.

  7. How effective are antioxidant supplements in obesity and diabetes?

    PubMed

    Abdali, Daniyal; Samson, Sue E; Grover, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a central health issue due to its epidemic prevalence and its association with type 2 diabetes and other comorbidities. Obesity is not just being overweight. It is a metabolic disorder due to the accumulation of excess dietary calories into visceral fat and the release of high concentrations of free fatty acids into various organs. It represents a state of chronic oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation whose intermediary molecules may include leptin, adiponectin and cytokines. It may progress to hyperglycemia, leading to type 2 diabetes. Whether or not dietary antioxidant supplements are useful in the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes is discussed in this review. Only the benefits for obesity and diabetes are examined here. Other health benefits of antioxidants are not considered. There are difficulties in comparing studies in this field because they differ in the time frame, participants' ethnicity, administration of antioxidant supplements, and even in how obesity was measured. However, the literature presents reasonable evidence for marginal benefits of supplementation with zinc, lipoic acid, carnitine, cinnamon, green tea, and possibly vitamin C plus E, although the evidence is much weaker for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, coenzyme Q10, green coffee, resveratrol, or lycopene. Overall, antioxidant supplements are not a panacea to compensate for a fast-food and video-game way of living, but antioxidant-rich foods are recommended as part of the lifestyle. Such antioxidant foods are commonly available.

  8. Multivitamin supplementation and multiple births.

    PubMed

    Werler, M M; Cragan, J D; Wasserman, C R; Shaw, G M; Erickson, J D; Mitchell, A A

    1997-07-11

    It is well established that maternal multivitamin supplementation reduces the risk of neural tube defects and evidence suggests that it may be associated with other reproductive outcomes. The present study was prompted by a report from a randomized trial in Hungary which showed a 40% increase in multiple births among periconceptional vitamin users. Retrospectively collected data on multivitamin supplementation were obtained on multiple and singleton births from three separate studies: Atlanta Birth Defects Case-Control Study (ABDCCS) malformed and nonmalformed infants born 1968-1980, California Birth Defects Monitoring Program (CBDMP) malformed and nonmalformed infants born 1987-1989, and Boston University Slone Epidemiology Unit Birth Defects Study (SEU-BDS) malformed infants born 1987-1994. Supplementation was divided into three mutually exclusive categories based on timing: "periconceptional" use--before through at least the third month after conception; "early" use--beginning in the first month and continuing through at least the third month after conception; and "later" use--beginning in the second or third month after conception. For periconceptional use, four of five datasets showed a 30 to 60% greater prevalence of supplementation among mothers of multiple births. In contrast, this pattern was not evident for "early" and "later" use. Overall, the study findings are tentative, due to a lack of consistency across all five datasets and they should not alter recent recommendations related to folate supplementation for the prevention of neural tube defects.

  9. Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, Alice; Ota, Erika; Nagata, Chie; Shahrook, Sadequa; Crowther, Caroline A

    2015-09-29

    Vitamin C supplementation may help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal anaemia. There is a need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. To evaluate the effects of vitamin C supplementation, alone or in combination with other separate supplements on pregnancy outcomes, adverse events, side effects and use of health resources. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating vitamin C supplementation in pregnant women. Interventions using a multivitamin supplement containing vitamin C or where the primary supplement was iron were excluded. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Twenty-nine trials involving 24,300 women are included in this review. Overall, 11 trials were judged to be of low risk of bias, eight were high risk of bias and for 10 trials it was unclear. No clear differences were seen between women supplemented with vitamin C alone or in combination with other supplements compared with placebo or no control for the risk of stillbirth (risk ratio (RR) 1.15, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.89 to 1.49; 20,038 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%; moderate quality evidence), neonatal death (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08; 19,575 participants; 11 studies; I² = 0%), perinatal death (average RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.49; 17,105 participants; seven studies; I² = 35%), birthweight (mean difference (MD) 26.88 g, 95% CI -18.81 to 72.58; 17,326 participants; 13 studies; I² = 69%), intrauterine growth restriction (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.06; 20,361 participants; 12 studies; I² = 15%; high quality evidence), preterm birth (average RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.10; 22,250 participants; 16 studies; I² = 49%; high quality evidence

  10. Environmental Report 2000 Data Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, A H; Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Clark, L M; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Grayson, A R; Harrach, R J; Larson, J M; MacQueen, D H; Mathews, S; Nisbet, B; Ring Peterson, S; Taffet, M J; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Williams, R A

    2001-09-01

    This Data Supplement to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual ''Environmental Report 2000'' was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The main volume is intended to provide all information on LLNL's environmental impact and compliance activities that is of interest to most readers. The Data Supplement supports main volume summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in the Data Supplement, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. The two volumes are organized in a parallel fashion to aid the reader in cross-referencing between them. This supplement includes more detailed information to support the nine chapters in the main volume that cover monitoring of air surveillance, air effluent, sewerable water, surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance. The other five chapters in the main volume have no supporting information in the Data Supplement. As in our previous annual reports, data are presented in Systeme International (SI) units. In particular, the primary units used for radiological results are becquerels and sieverts for activity and dose, with curies and rem used secondarily (1 Bq = 2.7 x 10{sup -11} Ci; 1 Sv = 100 rem).

  11. Environmental Report 1999 Data Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J M; Biermann, A H; Harrach, R J; Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Brandstetter, E R; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Christofferson, E; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Garcia, L M; Giesing, T A; Grayson, A R; Hall, L C; MacQueen, D H; Mathews, S; Peterson, S R; Taffet, M J; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Ward, R J; Williams, R A

    2000-09-01

    This Data Supplement to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual ''Environmental Report 1999'' was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The main volume is intended to provide all information on LLNL's environmental impact and compliance activities that is of interest to most readers. The Data Supplement supports main volume summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in the Data Supplement, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. The two volumes are organized in a parallel fashion to aid the reader in cross-referencing between them. This supplement includes more detailed information to support the nine chapters in the main volume that cover monitoring of air, air effluent, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance. The other five chapters in the main volume have no supporting information in the Data Supplement. As in our previous annual reports, data are presented in Systeme International (SI) units. In particular, the primary units used for radiological results are becquerels and sieverts for activity and dose, with curies and rem used secondarily (1 Bq = 2.7 x 10{sup -11} Ci; 1 Sv = 100 rem).

  12. 40 CFR 60.102a - Emissions limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of multiple process trains or release points the owner or operator shall comply with the 250 ppmv limit for each process train or release point or comply with a flow rate weighted average of 250 ppmv for all release points from the sulfur recovery plant; or (ii) For a sulfur recovery plant with a...

  13. 40 CFR 60.102a - Emissions limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of multiple process trains or release points the owner or operator shall comply with the 250 ppmv limit for each process train or release point or comply with a flow rate weighted average of 250 ppmv for all release points from the sulfur recovery plant; or (ii) For a sulfur recovery plant with a...

  14. Winter-annual pasture as a supplement for beef cows.

    PubMed

    Gunter, S A; Cassida, K A; Beck, P A; Phillips, J M

    2002-05-01

    In each of two experiments, 120 pregnant beef cows were stratified by body condition score, BW, breed, and age, randomly divided into six groups of 20, and assigned to one of six 5.1-ha bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.) pastures (two replicates/ treatment) in early January to evaluate the use of winter-annual pasture as a supplement. All cows in Exp. 1 and 2 had ad libitum access to bermudagrass/dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) hay plus three treatments: 1) a concentrate-based supplement fed 3 d/wk, 2) limit grazing on winter-annual pasture 2 d/wk (7 hr/ d; 0.04 ha x cow(-1) x grazing d(-1)), or 3) limit grazing on winter-annual pasture 3 d/wk (7 hr/d; 0.04 ha x cow(-1) x grazing d(-1)) sod-seeded into a portion of the pasture until mid-May. The seeded portion of pastures in Exp. 1 was planted with a mixture of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.), but annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was added to the seed mixture in Exp. 2. In mid-May, cows were blocked by treatment and the previous sorting factors, randomly assigned to six new groups of 20, and placed on the six perennial pastures until calves were weaned. Groups of cows were exposed to a bull for 60 d beginning in mid-May. In Exp. 1 and 2, limit-grazing winter-annual pasture compared to the concentrate-based supplement or limit grazing 2 vs 3 d/wk did not affect (P > 0.15) cow BW. In Exp. 1, cows limit grazed on winter-annual pasture had a lower (P = 0.05) body condition score than cows fed the concentrate-based supplement in the early spring. However, in Exp. 2, cows limit grazed on winter-annual pasture had higher (P < or = 0.07) body condition score than cows fed the concentrate-based supplement. The conception rate of cows in Exp. 1 and 2 did not differ (P > 0.22) between cows fed concentrate-based supplements and cows limit grazed on winter-annual pasture. In Exp. 2, cows limit grazed 2 d/wk tended to have a greater (P = 0.10) conception rate than cows limit

  15. A fluoride release-adsorption-release system applied to fluoride-releasing restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Suljak, J P; Hatibovic-Kofman, S

    1996-09-01

    This investigation compared the initial fluoride release and release following refluoridation of three resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (Photac-Fil Applicap, Vitremer, and Fuji II LC) and a new polyacid-modified resin composite material (Dyract). After daily flouride release was measured for 8 days, specimens were refluoridated in 1,000-ppm solutions of fluoride ion for 10 minutes and fluoride release was measured for 5 days. Two further 5-day refluoridation-release periods were carried out. All materials released fluoride initially. Photac released the most; Dyract released the least. Initial release was greatest over the first few days. All materials released significantly more fluoride for 24 to 48 hours after refluoridation. Less fluoride was released with each successive refluoridation for the three glass-ionomer cements. The release from the Dyract compomer remained at a comparatively constant and significantly lower level following each refluoridation.

  16. [Effects of ß-alanine supplementation on athletic performance].

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Raúl; Hernández Lougedo, Juan; Maté-Muñoz, José Luis; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel Vicente

    2014-10-06

    Carnosine, dipeptide formed by amino acids ß-alanine and L-histidine, has important physiological functions among which its antioxidant and related memory and learning. However, in connection with the exercise, the most important functions would be associated with muscle contractility, improving calcium sensitivity in muscle fibers, and the regulatory function of pH. Thus, it is proposed that carnosine is the major intracellular buffer, but could contribute to 7-10% in buffer or buffer capacity. Since carnosine synthesis seems to be limited by the availability of ß-alanine supplementation with this compound has been gaining increasing popularity among the athlete population. Therefore, the objective of this study literature review was to examine all those research works have shown the effect of ß-alanine supplementation on athletic performance. Moreover, it also has attempted to establish a specific dosage that maximizing the potential benefits, minimize paresthesia, the main side effect presented in response to supplementation.

  17. Nutritional supplements for people being treated for active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Abba, Katharine; Sudarsanam, Thambu D; Grobler, Liesl; Volmink, Jimmy

    2008-10-08

    ). There was no evidence that any supplement affected the number of deaths or number of participants with sputum test positive results at the end of treatment. There is limited evidence that high energy supplements and some combinations of zinc with other micronutrients may help people with tuberculosis to gain weight. There is not enough evidence to assess the effect of other combinations of nutrients. A number of relevant trials are in progress, and, where appropriate, the results will be incorporated into future updates of this review.

  18. Load limiting parachute inflation control

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.; Hinnerichs, T.; Parker, G.

    1994-01-01

    Excessive deceleration forces experienced during high speed deployment of parachute systems can cause damage to the payload and the canopy fabric. Conventional reefing lines offer limited relief by temporarily restricting canopy inflation and limiting the peak deceleration load. However, the open-loop control provided by existing reefing devices restrict their use to a specific set of deployment conditions. In this paper, the sensing, processing, and actuation that are characteristic of adaptive structures form the basis of three concepts for active control of parachute inflation. These active control concepts are incorporated into a computer simulation of parachute inflation. Initial investigations indicate that these concepts promise enhanced performance as compared to conventional techniques for a nominal release. Furthermore, the ability of each controller to adapt to off-nominal release conditions is examined.

  19. Altitude release mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Kulhanek, Frank C.

    1977-01-01

    An altitude release mechanism for releasing a radiosonde or other measuring instrument from a balloon carrying it up into the atmosphere includes a bottle partially filled with water, a tube sealed into the bottle having one end submerged in the water in the bottle and the free end extending above the top of the bottle and a strip of water-disintegrable paper held within the free end of the tube linking the balloon to the remainder of the package. As the balloon ascends, the lowered atmospheric air pressure causes the air in the bottle to expand, forcing the water in the bottle up the tubing to wet and disintegrate the paper, releasing the package from the balloon.

  20. Controlled-release microchips.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sadhana; Nijdam, A Jasper; Sinha, Piyush M; Walczak, Robbie J; Liu, Xuewu; Cheng, Mark M-C; Ferrari, Mauro

    2006-05-01

    Efficient drug delivery remains an important challenge in medicine: continuous release of therapeutic agents over extended time periods in accordance with a predetermined temporal profile; local delivery at a constant rate to the tumour microenvironment to overcome much of the systemic toxicity and to improve antitumour efficacy; improved ease of administration, and increasing patient compliance required are some of the unmet needs of the present drug delivery technology. Microfabrication technology has enabled the development of novel controlled-release microchips with capabilities not present in the current treatment modalities. In this review, the current status and future prospects of different types of controlled-release microchips are summarised and analysed with reference to microneedle-based microchips, as well as providing an in-depth focus on microreservoir-based and nanoporous microchips.