Sample records for supplementation improves endothelial

  1. Folic Acid Supplementation Improves Vascular Function in Professional Dancers With Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Anne Z.; Papanek, Paula; Szabo, Aniko; Widlansky, Michael E.; Gutterman, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine if folic acid supplementation improves vascular function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation [FMD]) in professional dancers with known endothelial dysfunction. Design Prospective cross-sectional study. Setting Academic institution in the Midwestern United States. Subjects Twenty-two professional ballet dancers volunteered for this study. Main Outcome Measures Subjects completed a 3-day food record to determine caloric and micronutrient intake. Menstrual status was determined by interview and questionnaire. Endothelial function was determined as flow-induced vasodilation measured by high-frequency ultrasound of the brachial artery. A change in brachial diameter of <5% to hyperemic flow stimulus was defined a priori as endothelial dysfunction. Subjects with abnormal FMD took 10 mg of folic acid daily for 4 weeks, and FMD testing was then repeated. Serum whole blood was measured for folic acid levels before and after supplementation. Results Sixty-four percent of dancers (n = 14) had abnormal brachial artery FMD (<5%) (mean ± standard deviation, 2.9% ± 1.5%). After 4 weeks of folic acid supplementation (10 mg/day), FMD improved in all the subjects (7.1% ± 2.3%; P < .0001). Conclusions This study reveals that vascular endothelial function improves in dancers after supplementation with folic acid (10 mg/day) for at least 4 weeks. This finding may have clinically important implications for future cardiovascular disease risk prevention. PMID:21715240

  2. Oral trehalose supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Kaplon, Rachelle E; Hill, Sierra D; Bispham, Nina Z; Santos-Parker, Jessica R; Nowlan, Molly J; Snyder, Laura L; Chonchol, Michel; LaRocca, Thomas J; McQueen, Matthew B; Seals, Douglas R

    2016-06-01

    We hypothesized that supplementation with trehalose, a disaccharide that reverses arterial aging in mice, would improve vascular function in middle-aged and older (MA/O) men and women. Thirty-two healthy adults aged 50-77 years consumed 100 g/day of trehalose (n=15) or maltose (n=17, isocaloric control) for 12 weeks (randomized, double-blind). In subjects with Δbody mass less than 2.3kg (5 lb.), resistance artery endothelial function, assessed by forearm blood flow to brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (FBFACh), increased ~30% with trehalose (13.3±1.0 vs. 10.5±1.1 AUC, P=0.02), but not maltose (P=0.40). This improvement in FBFACh was abolished when endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production was inhibited. Endothelium-independent dilation, assessed by FBF to sodium nitroprusside (FBFSNP), also increased ~30% with trehalose (155±13 vs. 116±12 AUC, P=0.03) but not maltose (P=0.92). Changes in FBFACh and FBFSNP with trehalose were not significant when subjects with Δbody mass ≥ 2.3kg were included. Trehalose supplementation had no effect on conduit artery endothelial function, large elastic artery stiffness or circulating markers of oxidative stress or inflammation (all P>0.1) independent of changes in body weight. Our findings demonstrate that oral trehalose improves resistance artery (microvascular) function, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, in MA/O adults, possibly through increasing NO bioavailability and smooth muscle sensitivity to NO.

  3. Oral trehalose supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kaplon, Rachelle E.; Hill, Sierra D.; Bispham, Nina Z.; Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; Nowlan, Molly J.; Snyder, Laura L.; Chonchol, Michel; LaRocca, Thomas J.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that supplementation with trehalose, a disaccharide that reverses arterial aging in mice, would improve vascular function in middle-aged and older (MA/O) men and women. Thirty-two healthy adults aged 50-77 years consumed 100 g/day of trehalose (n=15) or maltose (n=17, isocaloric control) for 12 weeks (randomized, double-blind). In subjects with Δbody mass<2.3kg (5 lb.), resistance artery endothelial function, assessed by forearm blood flow to brachial artery infusion of acetylcholine (FBFACh), increased ∼30% with trehalose (13.3±1.0 vs. 10.5±1.1 AUC, P=0.02), but not maltose (P=0.40). This improvement in FBFACh was abolished when endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production was inhibited. Endothelium-independent dilation, assessed by FBF to sodium nitroprusside (FBFSNP), also increased ∼30% with trehalose (155±13 vs. 116±12 AUC, P=0.03) but not maltose (P=0.92). Changes in FBFACh and FBFSNP with trehalose were not significant when subjects with Δbody mass≥2.3kg were included. Trehalose supplementation had no effect on conduit artery endothelial function, large elastic artery stiffness or circulating markers of oxidative stress or inflammation (all P>0.1) independent of changes in body weight. Our findings demonstrate that oral trehalose improves resistance artery (microvascular) function, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, in MA/O adults, possibly through increasing NO bioavailability and smooth muscle sensitivity to NO. PMID:27208415

  4. Curcumin supplementation improves vascular endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R; Strahler, Talia R; Bassett, Candace J; Bispham, Nina Z; Chonchol, Michel B; Seals, Douglas R

    2017-01-03

    We hypothesized that curcumin would improve resistance and conduit artery endothelial function and large elastic artery stiffness in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Thirty-nine healthy men and postmenopausal women (45-74 yrs) were randomized to 12 weeks of curcumin (2000 mg/day Longvida®; n=20) or placebo (n=19) supplementation. Forearm blood flow response to acetylcholine infusions (FBF ACh ; resistance artery endothelial function) increased 37% following curcumin supplementation (107±13 vs. 84±11 AUC at baseline, P=0.03), but not placebo (P=0.2). Curcumin treatment augmented the acute reduction in FBF ACh induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; P=0.03), and reduced the acute increase in FBF ACh to the antioxidant vitamin C (P=0.02), whereas placebo had no effect (both P>0.6). Similarly, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (conduit artery endothelial function) increased 36% in the curcumin group (5.7±0.4 vs. 4.4±0.4% at baseline, P=0.001), with no change in placebo (P=0.1). Neither curcumin nor placebo influenced large elastic artery stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity or carotid artery compliance) or circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation (all P>0.1). In healthy middle-aged and older adults, 12 weeks of curcumin supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function by increasing vascular nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress, while also improving conduit artery endothelial function.

  5. Curcumin supplementation improves vascular endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; Strahler, Talia R.; Bassett, Candace J.; Bispham, Nina Z.; Chonchol, Michel B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that curcumin would improve resistance and conduit artery endothelial function and large elastic artery stiffness in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Thirty-nine healthy men and postmenopausal women (45-74 yrs) were randomized to 12 weeks of curcumin (2000 mg/day Longvida®; n=20) or placebo (n=19) supplementation. Forearm blood flow response to acetylcholine infusions (FBFACh; resistance artery endothelial function) increased 37% following curcumin supplementation (107±13 vs. 84±11 AUC at baseline, P=0.03), but not placebo (P=0.2). Curcumin treatment augmented the acute reduction in FBFACh induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; P=0.03), and reduced the acute increase in FBFACh to the antioxidant vitamin C (P=0.02), whereas placebo had no effect (both P>0.6). Similarly, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (conduit artery endothelial function) increased 36% in the curcumin group (5.7±0.4 vs. 4.4±0.4% at baseline, P=0.001), with no change in placebo (P=0.1). Neither curcumin nor placebo influenced large elastic artery stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity or carotid artery compliance) or circulating biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation (all P>0.1). In healthy middle-aged and older adults, 12 weeks of curcumin supplementation improves resistance artery endothelial function by increasing vascular nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress, while also improving conduit artery endothelial function. PMID:28070018

  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Improves Endothelial Function in Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome: A Small-Scale Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Felau, Sheylla M; Sales, Lucas P; Solis, Marina Y; Hayashi, Ana Paula; Roschel, Hamilton; Sá-Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Andrade, Danieli Castro Oliveira De; Katayama, Keyla Y; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda; Bonfa, Eloisa; Gualano, Bruno; Benatti, Fabiana B

    2018-01-01

    Endothelial cells are thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been shown to improve endothelial function in a number of diseases; thus, it could be of high clinical relevance in APS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of n-3 PUFA supplementation on endothelial function (primary outcome) of patients with primary APS (PAPS). A 16-week randomized clinical trial was conducted with 22 adult women with PAPS. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive placebo (PL, n  = 11) or n-3 PUFA (ω-3, n  = 11) supplementation. Before (pre) and after (post) 16 weeks of the intervention, patients were assessed for endothelial function (peripheral artery tonometry) (primary outcome). Patients were also assessed for systemic markers of endothelial cell activation, inflammatory markers, dietary intake, international normalized ratio (INR), and adverse effects. At post, ω-3 group presented significant increases in endothelial function estimates reactive hyperemia index (RHI) and logarithmic transformation of RHI (LnRHI) when compared with PL (+13 vs. -12%, p  = 0.06, ES = 0.9; and +23 vs. -22%, p  = 0.02, ES = 1.0). No changes were observed for e-selectin, vascular adhesion molecule-1, and fibrinogen levels ( p  > 0.05). In addition, ω-3 group showed decreased circulating levels of interleukin-10 (-4 vs. +45%, p  = 0.04, ES = -0.9) and tumor necrosis factor (-13 vs. +0.3%, p  = 0.04, ES = -0.95) and a tendency toward a lower intercellular adhesion molecule-1 response (+3 vs. +48%, p  = 0.1, ES = -0.7) at post when compared with PL. No changes in dietary intake, INR, or self-reported adverse effects were observed. In conclusion, 16 weeks of n-3 PUFA supplementation improved endothelial function in patients with well-controlled PAPS. These results support a role of n-3 PUFA supplementation as an

  7. Impact of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial and inflammatory markers in adults: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Agbalalah, Tari; Hughes, Stephen F; Freeborn, Ellen J; Mushtaq, Sohail

    2017-10-01

    This systematic review aims to evaluate randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial function and inflammation in adults. An electronic search of published randomised controlled trials, using Cochrane, Pubmed and Medline databases was conducted, with the search terms related to vitamin D and endothelial function. Inclusion criteria were RCTs in adult humans with a measure of vitamin D status using serum/plasma 25(OH)D and studies which administered the intervention through the oral route. Among the 1107 studies retrieved, 29 studies met the full inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Overall, 8 studies reported significant improvements in the endothelial/inflammatory biomarkers/parameters measured. However, in 2 out of the 8 studies, improvements were reported at interim time points, but improvements were absent post-intervention. The remaining 21 trial studies did not show significant improvements in the markers of interest measured. Evidence from the studies included in this systematic review did not demonstrate that vitamin D supplementation in adults, results in an improvement in circulating inflammatory and endothelial function biomarkers/parameters. This systematic review does not therefore support the use of vitamin D supplementation as a therapeutic or preventative measure for CVD in this respect. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Calcium supplementation prevents endothelial cell activation: possible relevance to preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Tong, Mancy; Wu, Man; Stone, Peter R; Snowise, Saul; Chamley, Lawrence W

    2013-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. A hallmark of preeclampsia is endothelial cell dysfunction/activation in response to 'toxins' from the placenta. Necrotic trophoblastic debris (NTD) is one possible placental toxin and other activators of endothelial cells include inflammatory cytokines. Calcium supplementation appears to protect 'at-risk' women from developing preeclampsia but how is unclear. Placental explants were cultured with interleukin-6 (IL-6) in varied concentrations of calcium. The resultant trophoblastic debris was exposed to endothelial cells. Endothelial cells were exposed to activators including NTD, IL-6, and preeclamptic sera in the presence of varied concentrations of calcium and activation monitored by quantifying cell surface markers by ELISA. Raising the levels of calcium did not prevent the IL-6-induced shedding of NTD from placental explants but did prevent the activation of endothelial cells in response to IL-6, preeclamptic sera, or NTD. Reducing the level of calcium directly induced the activation of endothelial cells. Inhibiting nitric oxide synthetase ablated the ability of high calcium levels to protect endothelial cell activation. The activity of endothelial cell nitric oxide synthetase was blocked with L-N-nitroarginine methyl ester. Our results demonstrate calcium levels do not affect the shedding of trophoblastic debris but are important to endothelial cell activation and supplemental calcium may reverse the activation of the endothelium in preeclamptic women. These results may in part explain the benefits of calcium supplementation in the reduction of risk for developing preeclampsia and provide in-vitro mechanistic support for the use of calcium supplementation in at-risk women.

  9. Reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction by coenzyme Q10 supplement improves endothelial function in patients with ischaemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yuk-Ling; Luk, Ting-Hin; Yiu, Kai-Hang; Wang, Mei; Yip, Pandora M C; Lee, Stephen W L; Li, Sheung-Wai; Tam, Sidney; Fong, Bonnie; Lau, Chu-Pak; Siu, Chung-Wah; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2011-06-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with endothelial dysfunction and mitochondrial dysfunction (MD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ) supplementation, which is an obligatory coenzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory transport chain, can reverse MD and improve endothelial function in patients with ischaemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effects of CoQ supplement (300 mg/day, n=28) vs. placebo (controls, n=28) for 8 weeks on brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in patients with ischaemic LVSD(left ventricular ejection fraction <45%). Mitochondrial function was determined by plasma lactate/pyruvate ratio (LP ratio). After 8 weeks, CoQ-treated patients had significant increases in plasma CoQ concentration (treatment effect 2.20 μg/mL, P<0.001) and FMD (treatment effect 1.51%, P=0.03); and decrease in LP ratio (treatment effect -2.46, P=0.03) compared with controls. However, CoQ treatment did not alter nitroglycerin-mediated dilation, blood pressure, blood levels of fasting glucose, haemoglobin A1c, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and oxidative stress as determined by serum superoxide dismutase and 8-isoprostane (all P>0.05). Furthermore, the reduction in LP ratio significantly correlated with improvement in FMD (r=-0.29, P=0.047). In patients with ischaemic LVSD, 8 weeks supplement of CoQ improved mitochondrial function and FMD; and the improvement of FMD correlated with the change in mitochondrial function, suggesting that CoQ improved endothelial function via reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction in patients with ischaemic LVSD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Isoflavone supplementation and endothelial function in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hale, Georgina; Paul-Labrador, Maura; Dwyer, James H; Merz, C Noel Bairey

    2002-06-01

    Despite strong observational evidence for a beneficial role of oestrogen in cardiovascular disease, recent trial results suggest that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may have adverse effects in menopausal women with established coronary heart disease. Isoflavones are oestrogen analogues found in plants with oestrogen-like properties and, because of a favourable side-effect profile, may be ideal alternatives to HRT with respect to cardiovascular benefits. Endothelial function is a marker of cardiovascular health. We aimed to determine the effect of isoflavones on endothelial function using the brachial artery reactivity test. Twenty-nine healthy menopausal women underwent entry and exit brachial artery reactivity testing following randomization to 2 weeks of an oral soy isoflavone concentrate containing 80 mg of soy isoflavones (Archer Daniel Midland Inc., IL, USA) or placebo. At study exit, there was no difference between placebo and isoflavone groups with respect to flow-mediated dilation (%FMD(max)), change (entry to exit) in %FMD(max) or response to nitroglycerine (%TNG). Subgroup analyses assessing lipid and oestrogen effects did not produce any significant results. These results suggest that short-term oral isoflavone supplements do not improve endothelial function in healthy menopausal women.

  11. Purified anthocyanin supplementation improves endothelial function via NO-cGMP activation in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanna; Xia, Min; Yang, Yan; Liu, Fengqiong; Li, Zhongxia; Hao, Yuantao; Mi, Mantian; Jin, Tianru; Ling, Wenhua

    2011-11-01

    Anthocyanins have been shown to improve endothelial function in animal models. However, whether these compounds have similar beneficial effects in humans is largely unknown. In a short-term crossover study, 12 hypercholesterolemic individuals were given oral anthocyanins (320 mg) isolated from berries or placebo. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed before and after the intervention. In a long-term intervention trial (12 weeks), 150 hypercholesterolemic individuals were given anthocyanins (320 mg/day, n = 75) or placebo (n = 75), after which we measured FMD, plasma cGMP, and other serum biomarkers. Another short-term intervention was conducted in the presence of NO-cGMP inhibitors in 6 people and in a rat aortic ring model (n = 8). Significant increases of FMD from 8.3% (0.6%) at baseline to 11.0% (0.8%) at 1 h and 10.1% (0.9%) at 2 h were observed after short-term anthocyanin consumption, concomitantly with increases of plasma anthocyanin concentrations (P < 0.05). In the study participants who received long-term anthocyanin intervention, compared with the control group, we observed significant increases in the FMD (28.4% vs 2.2%), cGMP (12.6% vs -1.2%), and HDL-cholesterol concentrations, but decreases in the serum soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 and LDL cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.05). The changes in the cGMP and HDL cholesterol concentrations positively correlated with FMD in the anthocyanin group (P < 0.05). In the presence of NO-cGMP inhibitors, the effects of anthocyanin on endothelial function were abolished in human participants and in a rat aortic ring model. Anthocyanin supplementation improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypercholesterolemic individuals. This effect involves activation of the NO-cGMP signaling pathway, improvements in the serum lipid profile, and decreased inflammation.

  12. No Evidence of Racial Differences in Endothelial Function and Exercise Blood Flow in Young, Healthy Males Following Acute Antioxidant Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Rosenberg, Alexander J; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute antioxidant supplementation on endothelial function, exercise blood flow and oxidative stress biomarkers in 9 young African American compared to 10 Caucasian males (25.7±1.2 years). We hypothesized that African American males would have lower exercise blood flow and endothelial responsiveness compared to Caucasian males, and these responses would be improved following antioxidant supplementation. Ultrasonography was used to measure blood flow during handgrip exercise. Endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated dilation, and lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring levels of malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. African American males exhibited lower endothelial function than Caucasians at baseline (8.3±1.7 vs. 12.2±1.7%) and the difference was ameliorated with antioxidant supplementation (10.7±1.9% vs. 10.8±1.8%), but the interaction was not significant (p=0.10). There were no significant changes in malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances following antioxidant supplementation. There was a significant increase in brachial blood flow and forearm vascular conductance with exercise but no differences with antioxidant supplementation. There were no group differences in exercise responses and no differences with antioxidant supplementation, suggesting a lack of influence of oxidative stress during exercise in this cohort. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Effect of oral isoflavone supplementation on vascular endothelial function in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-Hua; Liu, Xu-Xia; Bai, Yong-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Kai; Chen, Jing-Zhou; Hui, Ru-Tai

    2010-02-01

    The effect of isoflavone on endothelial function in postmenopausal women is controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral isoflavone supplementation on endothelial function, as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), in postmenopausal women. A meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials was conducted to evaluate the effect of oral isoflavone supplementation on endothelial function in postmenopausal women. Trials were searched in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library database, and reviews and reference lists of relevant articles. Summary estimates of weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% CIs were obtained by using random-effects models. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. A total of 9 trials were reviewed in the present meta-analysis. Overall, the results of the 9 trials showed that isoflavone significantly increased FMD (WMD: 1.75%; 95% CI: 0.83%, 2.67%; P = 0.0002). Meta-regression analysis indicated that the age-adjusted baseline FMD was inversely related to effect size. Subgroup analysis showed that oral supplementation of isoflavone had no influence on FMD if the age-adjusted baseline FMD was > or = 5.2% (4 trials; WMD: 0.24%; 95% CI: -0.94%, 1.42%; P = 0.69). This improvement seemed to be significant when the age-adjusted baseline FMD levels were <5.2% (5 trials; WMD: 2.22%; 95% CI: 1.15%, 3.30%; P < 0.0001), although significant heterogeneity was still detected in this low-baseline-FMD subgroup. Oral isoflavone supplementation does not improve endothelial function in postmenopausal women with high baseline FMD levels but leads to significant improvement in women with low baseline FMD levels.

  14. Acute EGCG Supplementation Reverses Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Widlansky, Michael E.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Anter, Elad; Holbrook, Monika; Kahn, David F.; Elliott, James G.; Keaney, John F.; Vita, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies demonstrate an inverse relation between dietary flavonoid intake and cardiovascular risk. Recent studies with flavonoid-containing beverages suggest that the benefits of these nutrients may relate, in part, to improved endothelial function. Objective We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major catechin in tea, would improve endothelial function in humans. Design We examined the effects of EGCG on endothelial function in a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated dilation by vascular ultrasound at six time points: prior to treatment with EGCG or placebo, two hours after an initial dose of EGCG (300 mg) or placebo, and after two weeks of treatment with EGCG (150 mg twice daily) or placebo. The order of treatments (EGCG or placebo) was randomized and there was a one-week washout period between treatments. Results A total of 42 subjects were enrolled, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation improved from 7.1±4.1 to 8.6±4.7% two hours after the first dose of 300mg of EGCG (P=0.01), but was similar to baseline (7.8±4.2%, P=0.12) after two weeks of treatment with the final measurements made approximately 14 hours after the last dose. Placebo treatment had no significant effect, and there were no changes in reactive hyperemia or the response to sublingual nitroglycerin. The changes in vascular function paralleled plasma EGCG concentrations, which increased from 2.6±10.9 to 92.8±78.7 ng/ml after acute EGCG (P<0.001), but were unchanged from baseline after two weeks of treatment (3.4±13.1 ng/ml). Conclusion EGCG acutely improves endothelial function in humans with coronary artery disease, and may account for a portion of the beneficial effects of flavonoid-rich food on endothelial function. PMID:17536120

  15. Acute EGCG supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Widlansky, Michael E; Hamburg, Naomi M; Anter, Elad; Holbrook, Monika; Kahn, David F; Elliott, James G; Keaney, John F; Vita, Joseph A

    2007-04-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate an inverse relation between dietary flavonoid intake and cardiovascular risk. Recent studies with flavonoid-containing beverages suggest that the benefits of these nutrients may relate, in part, to improved endothelial function. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major catechin in tea, would improve endothelial function in humans. We examined the effects of EGCG on endothelial function in a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design study. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated dilation by vascular ultrasound at six time points: prior to treatment with EGCG or placebo, two hours after an initial dose of EGCG (300 mg) or placebo, and after two weeks of treatment with EGCG (150 mg twice daily) or placebo. The order of treatments (EGCG or placebo) was randomized and there was a one-week washout period between treatments. A total of 42 subjects completed the study, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation improved from 7.1 +/- 4.1 to 8.6 +/- 4.7% two hours after the first dose of 300 mg of EGCG (P = 0.01), but was similar to baseline (7.8 +/- 4.2%, P = 0.12) after two weeks of treatment with the final measurements made approximately 14 hours after the last dose. Placebo treatment had no significant effect, and there were no changes in reactive hyperemia or the response to sublingual nitroglycerin. The changes in vascular function paralleled plasma EGCG concentrations, which increased from 2.6 +/- 10.9 to 92.8 +/- 78.7 ng/ml after acute EGCG (P < 0.001), but were unchanged from baseline after two weeks of treatment (3.4 +/- 13.1 ng/ml). EGCG acutely improves endothelial function in humans with coronary artery disease, and may account for a portion of the beneficial effects of flavonoid-rich food on endothelial function.

  16. Successful treatment of refractory TAFRO syndrome with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor using thyroxine supplements.

    PubMed

    Oka, Satoko; Ono, Kazuo; Nohgawa, Masaharu

    2018-04-01

    Although the clinical significance of hypothyroidism in TAFRO syndrome is unknown, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels decreased with improvements in the condition of our refractory TAFRO cases after thyroxine supplement therapy. Our results indicate that elevated VEGF levels are a potential factor in the pathogenesis and anasarca of TAFRO syndrome with hypothyroidism.

  17. Tetrahydrobiopterin Improves Endothelial Function in Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiongying; Yang, Mina; Xu, Han; Yu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Background. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is reduced during the early stage of vascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetic vasculopathy, and even throughout the entire progression of atherosclerosis. Methods. A literature search was performed using electronic databases (up to January 31, 2014), including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), using an established strategy. Results. Fourteen articles were selected with a total of 370 patients. Ten of the fourteen studies showed a significant improvement in the endothelial dysfunction of various cardiovascular disease groups with BH4 supplementation compared with the control groups or placebos. Three studies showed no positive outcome, and one study showed that low-dose BH4 had no effect but that high-dose BH4 did have a significantly different result. Conclusions. This review concludes that supplementation with BH4 and/or augmentation of the endogenous levels of BH4 will be a novel approach to improve the endothelial dysfunction observed in various cardiovascular diseases. BH4 might be considered to be a new therapeutic agent to prevent the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25548592

  18. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibition enhances endothelial repair and improves endothelial function in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ben J; Shrestha, Sudichhya; Ong, Kwok L; Johns, Douglas; Hou, Liming; Barter, Philip J; Rye, Kerry-Anne

    2015-03-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) can potentially protect against atherosclerosis by multiple mechanisms, including enhancement of endothelial repair and improvement of endothelial function. This study asks if increasing HDL levels by inhibiting cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity with the anacetrapib analog, des-fluoro-anacetrapib, enhances endothelial repair and improves endothelial function in New Zealand White rabbits with balloon injury of the abdominal aorta. New Zealand White rabbits received chow or chow supplemented with 0.07% or 0.14% (wt/wt) des-fluoro-anacetrapib for 8 weeks. Endothelial denudation of the abdominal aorta was carried out after 2 weeks. The animals were euthanized 6 weeks postinjury. Treatment with 0.07% and 0.14% des-fluoro-anacetrapib reduced cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity by 81±4.9% and 92±12%, increased plasma apolipoprotein A-I levels by 1.4±0.1-fold and 1.5±0.1-fold, increased plasma HDL-cholesterol levels by 1.8±0.2-fold and 1.9±0.1-fold, reduced intimal hyperplasia by 37±11% and 51±10%, and inhibited vascular cell proliferation by 25±6.1% and 35±6.7%, respectively. Re-endothelialization of the injured aorta increased from 43±6.7% (control) to 69±6.6% and 76±7.7% in the 0.07% and 0.14% des-fluoro-anacetrapib-treated animals, respectively. Aortic ring relaxation and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate production in response to acetylcholine were also improved. Incubation of HDLs from the des-fluoro-anacetrapib-treated animals with human coronary artery endothelial cells increased cell proliferation and migration relative to control. These effects were abolished by knockdown of scavenger receptor-B1 and PDZ domain-containing protein 1 and by pharmacological inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/Akt. Increasing HDL levels by inhibiting cholesteryl ester transfer protein reduces intimal thickening and regenerates functional endothelium in damaged New Zealand White rabbit aortas

  19. Olive Oil Supplements Ameliorate Endothelial Dysfunction Caused by Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for clinical cardiovascular events and progression of atherosclerosis. Dietary supplements such as olive oil and fish oil have beneficial effects on endothelial function, and ther...

  20. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Brazil Nuts on Microvascular Endothelial Function in Hypertensive and Dyslipidemic Patients: A Randomized Crossover Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Huguenin, Grazielle V B; Moreira, Annie S B; Siant'Pierre, Tatiana D; Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; Rosa, Glorimar; Oliveira, Glaucia M M; Luiz, Ronir R; Tibirica, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with GBNs on microvascular endothelial function in hypertensive and dyslipidemic patients. Ninety-one patients of both sexes aged 62.1 ± 9.3 years received 13 g/day of GBNs or a placebo for three months with a washout period of one month between treatments. Microvascular endothelial function was assessed using LSCI coupled with iontophoresis of ACh and PORH. We also used skin video capillaroscopy to measure capillary density and recruitment at rest and during PORH. Plasma concentrations of NOx were also measured as a marker of nitric oxide bioavailability. Supplementation with GBNs significantly increased the plasma levels of Se (p < 0.05) and NOx (p < 0.05). However, we did not observe any effects of GBN consumption on microvascular vasodilator responses to ACh or PORH (p > 0.05), and GBNs did not improve capillary density at baseline or recruitment during PORH (p > 0.05). Supplementation with GBNs induced significant increases in the plasma Se concentration and systemic bioavailability of nitric oxide. Nevertheless, GBN supplementation did not lead to any improvement in systemic microvascular reactivity or density in patients with arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia who were undergoing multiple drug therapies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Low dose dietary nitrate improves endothelial dysfunction and plaque stability in the ApoE-/- mouse fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Bakker, J R; Bondonno, N P; Gaspari, T A; Kemp-Harper, B K; McCashney, A J; Hodgson, J M; Croft, K D; Ward, N C

    2016-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important vascular signalling molecule. NO is synthesised endogenously by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). An alternate pathway is exogenous dietary nitrate, which can be converted to nitrite and then stored or further converted to NO and used immediately. Atherosclerosis is associated with endothelial dysfunction and subsequent lesion formation. This is thought to arise due to a reduction in the bioavailability and/or bioactivity of endogenous NO. To determine if dietary nitrate can protect against endothelial dysfunction and lesion formation in the ApoE -/- mouse fed a high fat diet (HFD). ApoE -/- fed a HFD were randomized to receive (i) high nitrate (10mmol/kg/day, n=12), (ii) moderate nitrate (1mmol/kg/day, n=8), (iii) low nitrate (0.1mmol/kg/day, n=8), or (iv) sodium chloride supplemented drinking water (control, n=10) for 10 weeks. A group of C57BL6 mice (n=6) received regular water and served as a healthy reference group. At 10 weeks, ACh-induced vessel relaxation was significantly impaired in ApoE -/- mice versus C57BL6. Mice supplemented with low or moderate nitrate showed significant improvements in ACh-induced vessel relaxation compared to ApoE -/- mice given the high nitrate or sodium chloride. Plaque collagen expression was increased and lipid deposition reduced following supplementation with low or moderate nitrate compared to sodium chloride, reflecting increased plaque stability with nitrate supplementation. Plasma nitrate and nitrite levels were significantly increased in all three groups fed the nitrate-supplemented water. Low and moderate dose nitrate significantly improved endothelial function and atherosclerotic plaque composition in ApoE -/- mice fed a HFD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Beta-Glucans Supplementation Associates with Reduction in P-Cresyl Sulfate Levels and Improved Endothelial Vascular Reactivity in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Maria; Rocchetti, Maria Teresa; Montemurno, Eustacchio; Maranzano, Valentina; Dalfino, Giuseppe; Manno, Carlo; Zito, Annapaola; Gesualdo, Michele; Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Gobbetti, Marco; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2017-01-01

    Background Oat and barley beta-glucans are prebiotic fibers known for their cholesterol-lowering activity, but their action on the human gut microbiota metabolism is still under research. Although the induction of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) following their ingestion has previously been reported, no study has investigated their effects on proteolytic uremic toxins p-cresyl sulfate (pCS) and indoxyl sulfate (IS) levels, while others have failed to demonstrate an effect on the endothelial function measured through flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate whether a nutritional intervention with a functional pasta enriched with beta-glucans could promote a saccharolytic shift on the gut microbial metabolism and improve FMD. Methods We carried out a pilot study on 26 healthy volunteers who underwent a 2-month dietary treatment including a daily administration of Granoro “Cuore Mio” pasta enriched with barley beta-glucans (3g/100g). Blood and urine routine parameters, serum pCS/IS and FMD were evaluated before and after the dietary treatment. Results The nutritional treatment significantly reduced LDL and total cholesterol, as expected. Moreover, following beta-glucans supplementation we observed a reduction of serum pCS levels and an increase of FMD, while IS serum levels remained unchanged. Conclusions We demonstrated that a beta-glucans dietary intervention in healthy volunteers correlates with a saccharolytic shift on the gut microbiota metabolism, as suggested by the decrease of pCS and the increase of SCFA, and associates with an improved endothelial reactivity. Our pilot study suggests, in addition to cholesterol, novel pCS-lowering properties of beta-glucans, worthy to be confirmed in large-scale trials and particularly in contexts where the reduction of the microbial-derived uremic toxin pCS is of critical importance, such as in chronic kidney disease. PMID:28107445

  3. Reduction of C-reactive protein with isoflavone supplement reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yap-Hang; Lau, Kui-Kai; Yiu, Kai-Hang; Li, Sheung-Wai; Chan, Hiu-Ting; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak; Tam, Sidney; Lau, Chu-Pak; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the effect of oral isoflavone supplement on vascular endothelial function in patients with established cardiovascular disease. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was performed to determine the effects of isoflavone supplement (80 mg/day, n = 50) vs. placebo (n = 52) for 12 weeks on brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in patients with prior ischaemic stroke. Compared with controls, FMD at 12 weeks was significantly greater in isoflavone-treated patients [treatment effect 1.0%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.1-2.0, P = 0.035]. Adjusted for baseline differences in FMD, isoflavone treatment was independently associated with significantly less impairment of FMD at 12 weeks (odds ratio 0.32, 95% CI 0.13-0.80, P = 0.014). The absolute treatment effect of isoflavone on brachial FMD was inversely related to baseline FMD (r = -0.51, P < 0.001), suggesting that vasoprotective effect of isoflavone was more pronounced in patients with more severe endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, isoflavone treatment for 12 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in serum high-sensitivity (hs)-C-reactive protein level (treatment effect -1.7 mg/L, 95% CI -3.3 to -0.1, P = 0.033). Nevertheless, isoflavone did not have any significant treatment effects on nitroglycerin-mediated dilatation, blood pressure, heart rate, serum levels of fasting glucose and insulin, haemoglobin A1c, and oxidative stress as determined by serum superoxide dismutase, 8-isoprostane, and malondialdehyde (all P > 0.05). This study demonstrated that 12 week isoflavone treatment reduced serum hs-C-reactive protein and improved brachial FMD in patients with clinically manifest atherosclerosis, thus reversing their endothelial dysfunction status. These findings may have important implication for the use of isoflavone for secondary prevention in patients with cardiovascular disease, on top of conventional interventions.

  4. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activation improves endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Costa-Fraga, Fabiana P; Murça, Tatiane M; Moraes, Patrícia L; Martins Lima, Augusto; Lautner, Roberto Q; Castro, Carlos H; Soares, Célia Maria A; Borges, Clayton L; Nadu, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Marilene L; Shenoy, Vinayak; Katovich, Michael J; Santos, Robson A S; Raizada, Mohan K; Ferreira, Anderson J

    2013-06-01

    Diminished release and function of endothelium-derived nitric oxide coupled with increases in reactive oxygen species production is critical in endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidences have shown that activation of the protective axis of the renin-angiotensin system composed by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, angiotensin-(1-7), and Mas receptor promotes many beneficial vascular effects. This has led us to postulate that activation of intrinsic angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 would improve endothelial function by decreasing the reactive oxygen species production. In the present study, we tested 1-[[2-(dimetilamino)etil]amino]-4-(hidroximetil)-7-[[(4-metilfenil)sulfonil]oxi]-9H-xantona-9 (XNT), a small molecule angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activator, on endothelial function to validate this hypothesis. In vivo treatment with XNT (1 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks) improved the endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats and of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats when evaluated through the vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine/sodium nitroprusside. Acute in vitro incubation with XNT caused endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation in aortic rings of rats. This vasorelaxation effect was attenuated by the Mas antagonist D-pro7-Ang-(1-7), and it was reduced in Mas knockout mice. These effects were associated with reduction in reactive oxygen species production. In addition, Ang II-induced reactive oxygen species production in human aortic endothelial cells was attenuated by preincubation with XNT. These results showed that chronic XNT administration improves the endothelial function of hypertensive and diabetic rat vessels by attenuation of the oxidative stress. Moreover, XNT elicits an endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation response, which was mediated by Mas. Thus, this study indicated that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activation promotes beneficial effects on the endothelial function and it is a potential target for treating cardiovascular disease.

  5. ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME 2 ACTIVATION IMPROVES ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A.; Costa-Fraga, Fabiana P.; Murça, Tatiane M.; Moraes, Patrícia L.; Lima, Augusto Martins; Lautner, Roberto Q.; Castro, Carlos H.; Soares, Célia Maria A.; Borges, Clayton L.; Nadu, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Marilene L.; Shenoy, Vinayak; Katovich, Michael J.; Santos, Robson A.S.; Raizada, Mohan K.; Ferreira, Anderson J.

    2013-01-01

    Diminished release and function of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) coupled with increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is critical in endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidences have shown that activation of the protective axis of the renin-angiotensin system composed by angiotensin-converting enzyme2 (ACE2), Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] and Mas receptor promotes many beneficial vascular effects. This has led us to postulate that activation of intrinsic ACE2 would improve endothelial function by decreasing the ROS production. In the present study, we tested 1-[[2-(dimetilamino)etil]amino]-4-(hidroximetil)-7-[[(4-metilfenil)sulfonil]oxi]-9H-xantona-9 (XNT), a small molecule ACE2 activator, on endothelial function to validate this hypothesis. In vivo treatment with XNT (1mg/kg/day for 4 weeks) improved the endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats and of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats when evaluated through the vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine/sodium nitroprusside. Acute in vitro incubation with XNT caused endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation in aortic rings of rats. This vasorelaxation effect was attenuated by the Mas antagonist D-pro7-Ang-(1-7) and it was reduced in Mas knockout mice. These effects were associated with reduction in ROS production. In addition, Ang II-induced ROS production in human aortic endothelial cells was attenuated by pre-incubation with XNT. These results showed that chronic XNT administration improves the endothelial function of hypertensive and diabetic rat vessels by attenuation of the oxidative stress. Moreover, XNT elicits an endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation response, which was mediated by Mas. Thus, this study indicated that ACE2 activation promotes beneficial effects on the endothelial function and it is a potential target for treating cardiovascular disease. PMID:23608648

  6. N-acetylcysteine neither lowers plasma homocysteine concentrations nor improves brachial artery endothelial function in cardiac transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Miner, S E S; Cole, D E C; Evrovski, J; Forrest, Q; Hutchison, S J; Holmes, K; Ross, H J

    2002-05-01

    N-acetylcysteine is a novel antioxidant that has been reported to reduce plasma homocysteine concentrations and improve endothelial function. Cardiac transplant recipients have a high incidence of coronary endothelial dysfunction and hyperhomocysteinemia, both of which may lead to the development of transplantation coronary artery disease. It was hypothesized that N-acetylcysteine would reduce plasma homocysteine concentrations and improve brachial endothelial function in cardiac transplant recipients. A cohort of stable cardiac transplant recipients was recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario. Brachial artery endothelial functions were studied according to standard techniques to determine flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery. Plasma homocysteine concentrations were assayed using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and pulsed integrated amperometry. After baseline testing, patients were treated in an unblinded fashion with N-acetylcysteine 500 mg/day. After 10 weeks of therapy, patients returned for follow-up endothelial function and homocysteine testing. Thirty-one patients were initially enrolled. Two patients withdrew due to excessive gastrointestinal upset. Two patients did not return for follow-up testing. The remaining 27 patients tolerated the treatment well. At baseline, 85% of the patients had hyperhomocysteinemia (greater than 15 mol/L) with a mean plasma concentration of 18.6 4.7 mol/L. No changes in homocysteine concentrations were seen at follow-up. At baseline, the average flow-mediated dilation was only 4.7 6.3%. No changes were seen at follow-up. Hyperhomocysteinemia and brachial endothelial dysfunction are common in stable cardiac transplant recipients and are unaffected by supplementation with N-acetylcysteine.

  7. Effects of six-month supplementation with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, glutamine, and arginine on vascular endothelial function of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Amy; Patterson, Morgan; Dudenbostel, Tanja; Calhoun, David; Gower, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial function declines with advancing age, due in part to increased oxidative stress and inflammation, and this age-related vascular dysfunction has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effects of a dietary supplement containing β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), glutamine, and arginine on endothelial-dependent vasodilation of older adults. Subjects/Methods Thirty-one community-dwelling men and women aged 65-87 years were randomly assigned to two groups. The treatment group received two doses of the supplement daily (totaling 3g HMB, 14g glutamine, 14g arginine) for six months while the control group received an isocaloric placebo. At baseline and week 24, vascular endothelial function was measured by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, and fasting blood samples were obtained to measure high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Results Paired samples t-tests revealed a 27% increase in flow-mediated dilation among the treatment group (p=0.003) while no change was observed in the placebo group (p=0.651). Repeated-measures ANOVA verified a significant time by group interaction (p=0.038). Although no significant changes were observed for hsCRP or TNF-α, a trend was observed for increasing hsCRP among the placebo group only (p=0.059). Conclusions These results suggest that dietary supplementation of HMB, glutamine, and arginine may favorably impact vascular endothelial function in older adults. Additional studies are needed to elucidate whether reduced inflammation or other mechanisms may underlie the benefits of supplementation. PMID:26306566

  8. Effects of 6-month supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, glutamine and arginine on vascular endothelial function of older adults.

    PubMed

    Ellis, A C; Patterson, M; Dudenbostel, T; Calhoun, D; Gower, B

    2016-02-01

    Vascular endothelial function declines with advancing age, due in part to increased oxidative stress and inflammation, and this age-related vascular dysfunction has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effects of a dietary supplement containing β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), glutamine and arginine on endothelial-dependent vasodilation of older adults. A total of 31 community-dwelling men and women aged 65-87 years were randomly assigned to two groups. The treatment group received two doses of the supplement daily (totaling 3 g HMB, 14 g glutamine and 14 g arginine) for 6 months, whereas the control group received an isocaloric placebo. At baseline and week 24, vascular endothelial function was measured by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, and fasting blood samples were obtained to measure high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Paired sample t-tests revealed a 27% increase in flow-mediated dilation among the treatment group (P=0.003), whereas no change was observed in the placebo group (P=0.651). Repeated-measures analysis of variance verified a significant time by group interaction (P=0.038). Although no significant changes were observed for hsCRP or TNF-α, a trend was observed for increasing hsCRP among the placebo group only (P=0.059). These results suggest that dietary supplementation of HMB, glutamine and arginine may favorably affect vascular endothelial function in older adults. Additional studies are needed to elucidate whether reduced inflammation or other mechanisms may underlie the benefits of supplementation.

  9. Attenuation of oxidative stress in Type 1 diabetic rats supplemented with a seasoning obtained from winemaking by-products and its effect on endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Del Pino-García, Raquel; Rivero-Pérez, María D; González-SanJosé, María L; Castilla-Camina, Pablo; Croft, Kevin D; Muñiz, Pilar

    2016-10-12

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from insulin deficiency. This is usually accompanied by a pro-oxidative environment, dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction, thus leading to several micro- and macro-vascular complications. This study investigated the potential benefits of a seasoning obtained from seedless red wine pomace (RWPS) in protecting against oxidative damage and preserving endothelial function in Type 1 DM, and the underlying mechanisms involved at the level of gene expression. The diet of streptozotocin (45 mg kg -1 )-induced diabetic (DB) and control (CN) male Wistar rats (n = 5 rats per group) was supplemented with RWPS (300 mg per kg per day) or vehicle for 4 weeks. Characteristic indicators of DM such as increased food and water intakes and weight loss were significantly ameliorated in DB + RWPS rats, with a notable normalization in their fasting glycemic control and cholesterol profile. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was substantially increased, and biomarkers of oxidative damage to lipids (F 2 -isoprostanes, 24.9%; malondialdehyde, 28.4%) and proteins (carbonyl groups, 5.91%) were significantly decreased. Nitric oxide availability tended to improve in plasma of DB + RWPS compared with DB rats. Insulin levels were increased (1.51-fold) and aortic tissue antioxidant enzymes such as mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2, 1.93-fold) were up-regulated. Other important genes for endothelial function, including endothelial β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX4), endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases (eNOS, iNOS), and angiotensin-converting enzyme-I (ACE), were non-significantly modulated, although certain potentially positive trends were observed. These results indicate that RWPS supplementation might be a useful nutritional approach to manage Type 1 DM and ameliorate its vascular complications.

  10. Allopurinol improves endothelial dysfunction in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Farquharson, Colin A J; Butler, Robert; Hill, Alexander; Belch, Jill J F; Struthers, Allan D

    2002-07-09

    Increased oxidative stress in chronic heart failure is thought to contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Xanthine oxidase produces oxidative stress and therefore we examined whether allopurinol improved endothelial dysfunction in chronic heart failure. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study on 11 patients with New York Heart Association class II-III chronic heart failure, comparing 300 mg allopurinol daily (1 month) versus placebo. Endothelial function was assessed by standard forearm venous occlusion plethysmography with acetylcholine, nitroprusside, and verapamil. Plasma malondialdehyde levels were also compared to assess significant changes in oxidative stress. Allopurinol significantly increased the forearm blood flow response to acetylcholine (percentage change in forearm blood flow [mean+/-SEM]: 181+/-19% versus 120+/-22% allopurinol versus placebo; P=0.003). There were no significant differences in the forearm blood flow changes between the placebo and allopurinol treatment arms with regard to sodium nitroprusside or verapamil. Plasma malondialdehyde was significantly reduced with allopurinol treatment (346+/-128 nmol/L versus 461+/-101 nmol/L, allopurinol versus placebo; P=0.03), consistent with reduced oxidative stress with allopurinol therapy. We have shown that allopurinol improves endothelial dysfunction in chronic heart failure. This raises the distinct possibility that allopurinol might reduce cardiovascular events and even improve exercise capacity in chronic heart failure.

  11. Effects of inorganic nitrate and beetroot supplementation on endothelial function: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lara, Jose; Ashor, Ammar W; Oggioni, C; Ahluwalia, A; Mathers, John C; Siervo, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Diets rich in inorganic nitrate are associated with lower blood pressure, an effect that may be mediated by an improvement of endothelial function (EF). Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted to examine the effects of inorganic nitrate and beetroot supplementation on measures of EF. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched from inception until November 2014. Specific inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) RCTs; (2) trials comparing inorganic nitrate or beetroot supplementation with placebo control groups; and (3) trials reporting effects of these interventions on outcomes of vascular function. Random-effect models were used to assess the pooled effect sizes showed as standardised mean differences (SMD). Nine crossover trials and three parallel trials met our inclusion criteria. The trials were conducted between 2008 and 2014 and included a total of 246 participants with 10-64 participants per study. The duration of each intervention ranged from 1.5 h to 28 days. Inorganic nitrate and beetroot consumption was associated with an improvement in vascular function (SMD 0.36; 95 % CI 0.16, 0.56; P < 0.001). The effect on EF was significantly associated with the dose of inorganic nitrate (β = 0.04, SE = 0.01, P < 0.001), age (β = -0.01, SE = 0.004, P = 0.02), baseline BMI (β = -0.04, SE = 0.02, P = 0.05) and systolic BP (β = -0.01, SE = 0.005, P = 0.02). Inorganic nitrate and beetroot supplementation was associated with beneficial effects on EF. These effects appear to be reduced in older subjects and in subjects with greater cardiometabolic risk.

  12. Long term exposure to L-arginine accelerates endothelial cell senescence through arginase-II and S6K1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yuyani; Fru, Michael Forbiteh; Yu, Yi; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Ming, Xiu-Fen; Yang, Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    L-arginine supplementation is proposed to improve health status or as adjunct therapy for diseases including cardiovascular diseases. However, controversial results and even detrimental effects of L-arginine supplementation are reported. We investigate potential mechanisms of L-arginine-induced detrimental effects on vascular endothelial cells. Human endothelial cells were exposed to a physiological (0.1 mmol/L) or pharmacological (0.5 mmol/L) concentration of L-arginine for 30 minutes (acute) or 7 days (chronic). The effects of L-arginine supplementation on endothelial senescence phenotype, i.e., levels of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, eNOS-uncoupling, arginase-II expression/activity, and mTORC1-S6K1 activity were analyzed. While acute L-arginine treatment enhances endothelial NO production accompanied with superoxide production and activation of S6K1 but no up-regulation of arginase-II, chronic L-arginine supplementation causes endothelial senescence, up-regulation of the adhesion molecule expression, and eNOS-uncoupling (decreased NO and enhanced superoxide production), which are associated with S6K1 activation and up-regulation of arginase-II. Silencing either S6K1 or arginase-II inhibits up-regulation/activation of each other, prevents endothelial dysfunction, adhesion molecule expression, and senescence under the chronic L-arginine supplementation condition. These results demonstrate that S6K1 and arginase-II form a positive circuit mediating the detrimental effects of chronic L-arginine supplementation on endothelial cells. PMID:24860943

  13. Chronic Supplementation With a Mitochondrial Antioxidant (MitoQ) Improves Vascular Function in Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Matthew J; Santos-Parker, Jessica R; Steward, Chelsea A C; Bispham, Nina Z; Cuevas, Lauren M; Rosenberg, Hannah L; Woodward, Kayla A; Chonchol, Michel; Gioscia-Ryan, Rachel A; Murphy, Michael P; Seals, Douglas R

    2018-06-01

    Excess reactive oxygen species production by mitochondria is a key mechanism of age-related vascular dysfunction. Our laboratory has shown that supplementation with the mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant MitoQ improves vascular endothelial function by reducing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and ameliorates arterial stiffening in old mice, but the effects in humans are unknown. Here, we sought to translate our preclinical findings to humans and determine the safety and efficacy of MitoQ. Twenty healthy older adults (60-79 years) with impaired endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation <6%) underwent 6 weeks of oral supplementation with MitoQ (20 mg/d) or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover design study. MitoQ was well tolerated, and plasma MitoQ was higher after the treatment versus placebo period ( P <0.05). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was 42% higher after MitoQ versus placebo ( P <0.05); the improvement was associated with amelioration of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-related suppression of endothelial function (assessed as the increase in flow-mediated dilation with acute, supratherapeutic MitoQ [160 mg] administration; n=9; P <0.05). Aortic stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity) was lower after MitoQ versus placebo ( P <0.05) in participants with elevated baseline levels (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity >7.60 m/s; n=11). Plasma oxidized LDL (low-density lipoprotein), a marker of oxidative stress, also was lower after MitoQ versus placebo ( P <0.05). Participant characteristics, endothelium-independent dilation (sublingual nitroglycerin), and circulating markers of inflammation were not different (all P >0.1). These findings in humans extend earlier preclinical observations and suggest that MitoQ and other therapeutic strategies targeting mitochondrial reactive oxygen species may hold promise for treating age-related vascular dysfunction. URL: http

  14. Endothelial mechanotransduction proteins and vascular function are altered by dietary sucrose supplementation in healthy young male subjects.

    PubMed

    Gliemann, Lasse; Rytter, Nicolai; Lindskrog, Mads; Slingsby, Martina H Lundberg; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Sylow, Lykke; Richter, Erik A; Hellsten, Ylva

    2017-08-15

    Mechanotransduction in endothelial cells is a central mechanism in the regulation of vascular tone and vascular remodelling Mechanotransduction and vascular function may be affected by high sugar levels in plasma because of a resulting increase in oxidative stress and increased levels of advanced glycation end-products (AGE). In healthy young subjects, 2 weeks of daily supplementation with 3 × 75 g of sucrose was found to reduce blood flow in response to passive lower leg movement and in response to 12 W of knee extensor exercise. This vascular impairment was paralleled by up-regulation of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase and Rho family GTPase Rac1 protein expression, an increased basal phosphorylation status of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and a reduced phosphorylation status of PECAM-1. There were no measurable changes in AGE levels. The findings of the present study demonstrate that daily high sucrose intake markedly affects mechanotransduction proteins and has a detrimental effect on vascular function. Endothelial mechanotransduction is important for vascular function but alterations and activation of vascular mechanosensory proteins have not been investigated in humans. In endothelial cell culture, simple sugars effectively impair mechanosensor proteins. To study mechanosensor- and vascular function in humans, 12 young healthy male subjects supplemented their diet with 3 × 75 g sucrose day -1 for 14 days in a randomized cross-over design. Before and after the intervention period, the hyperaemic response to passive lower leg movement and active knee extensor exercise was determined by ultrasound doppler. A muscle biopsy was obtained from the thigh muscle before and after acute passive leg movement to allow assessment of protein amounts and the phosphorylation status of mechanosensory proteins and NADPH oxidase. The sucrose intervention led to a reduced flow

  15. Roselle supplementation prevents nicotine-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and remodelling in rats.

    PubMed

    Si, Lislivia Yiang-Nee; Kamisah, Yusof; Ramalingam, Anand; Lim, Yi Cheng; Budin, Siti Balkis; Zainalabidin, Satirah

    2017-07-01

    Vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED) plays an important role in the initiation of cardiovascular diseases. Roselle, enriched with antioxidants, demonstrates high potential in alleviating hypertension. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of roselle supplementation of VED and remodelling in a rodent model with prolonged nicotine administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were administered with 0.6 mg/kg nicotine for 28 days to induce VED. The rats were given either aqueous roselle (100 mg/kg) or normal saline orally 30 min prior to nicotine injection daily. One additional group of rats served as control. Thoracic aorta was isolated from rats to measure vascular reactivity, vascular remodelling and oxidative stress. Roselle significantly lowered aortic sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction (Endo-(+) C max = 234.5 ± 3.9%, Endo-(-) C max = 247.6 ± 5.2%) compared with untreated nicotine group (Endo-(+) C max = 264.5 ± 6.9%, Endo-(-) C max = 276.5 ± 6.8%). Roselle also improved aortic response to endothelium-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine (Endo-(+) R max = 73.2 ± 2.1%, Endo-(-) R max = 26.2 ± 0.8%) compared to nicotine group (Endo-(+) R max = 57.8 ± 1.7%, Endo-(-) R max = 20.9 ± 0.8%). In addition, roselle prevented an increase in intimal media thickness and elastic lamellae proliferation to preserve vascular architecture. Moreover, we also observed a significantly lowered degree of oxidative stress in parallel with increased antioxidant enzymes in aortic tissues of the roselle-treated group. This study demonstrated that roselle prevents VED and remodelling, and as such it has high nutraceutical value as supplement to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Exercise training improves in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early endothelial progenitor cells in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sonnenschein, Kristina; Horváth, Tibor; Mueller, Maja; Markowski, Andrea; Siegmund, Tina; Jacob, Christian; Drexler, Helmut; Landmesser, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and injury are considered to contribute considerably to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that intense exercise training can increase the number and angiogenic properties of early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). However, whether exercise training stimulates the capacity of early EPCs to promote repair of endothelial damage and potential underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of moderate exercise training on in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs, and their nitric oxide and superoxide production as characterized by electron spin resonance spectroscopy analysis in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-four subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to an 8 weeks exercise training or a control group. Superoxide production and nitric oxide (NO) availability of early EPCs were characterized by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy analysis. In vivo endothelial repair capacity of EPCs was examined by transplantation into nude mice with defined carotid endothelial injury. Endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation was analysed using high-resolution ultrasound. Importantly, exercise training resulted in a substantially improved in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs (24.0 vs 12.7%; p < 0.05) and improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Nitric oxide production of EPCs was substantially increased after exercise training, but not in the control group. Moreover, exercise training reduced superoxide production of EPCs, which was not observed in the control group. The present study suggests for the first time that moderate exercise training increases nitric oxide production of early endothelial progenitor cells and reduces their superoxide production. Importantly, this is associated with a marked beneficial effect on the in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs in subjects with

  17. REM sleep deprivation induces endothelial dysfunction and hypertension in middle-aged rats: Roles of the eNOS/NO/cGMP pathway and supplementation with L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiaye; Gan, Zhongyuan; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Wenqi; Li, Hanqing; Zheng, Jian-Pu; Ke, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Sleep loss can induce or aggravate the development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is poorly understood. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of REM sleep deprivation on blood pressure in rats and the underlying mechanisms of these effects. After Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to REM sleep deprivation for 5 days, their blood pressures and endothelial function were measured. In addition, one group of rats was given continuous access to L-arginine supplementation (2% in distilled water) for the 5 days before and the 5 days of REM sleep deprivation to reverse sleep deprivation-induced pathological changes. The results showed that REM sleep deprivation decreased body weight, increased blood pressure, and impaired endothelial function of the aortas in middle-aged rats but not young rats. Moreover, nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) concentrations as well as endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in the aorta were decreased by REM sleep deprivation. Supplementation with L-arginine could protect against REM sleep deprivation-induced hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and damage to the eNOS/NO/cGMP signaling pathway. The results of the present study suggested that REM sleep deprivation caused endothelial dysfunction and hypertension in middle-aged rats via the eNOS/NO/cGMP pathway and that these pathological changes could be inhibited via L-arginine supplementation. The present study provides a new strategy to inhibit the signaling pathways involved in insomnia-induced or insomnia-enhanced cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Periodontal treatment improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with severe periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Seinost, Gerald; Wimmer, Gernot; Skerget, Martina; Thaller, Erik; Brodmann, Marianne; Gasser, Robert; Bratschko, Rudolf O; Pilger, Ernst

    2005-06-01

    Because epidemiological studies provide evidence that periodontal infections are associated with an increased risk of progression of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, we postulated that endothelial dysfunction, a critical element in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, would be present in patients with periodontal disease. We tested endothelial function in 30 patients with severe periodontitis and 31 control subjects using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. The groups were matched for age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors. Three months after periodontal treatment, including both mechanical and pharmacological therapy, endothelial function was reassessed by brachial artery FMD. Markers of systemic inflammation were measured at baseline and at follow up. Flow-mediated dilation was significantly lower in patients with periodontitis than in control subjects (6.1% +/- 4.4% vs 8.5% +/- 3.4%, P = .002). Successful periodontal treatment resulted in a significant improvement in FMD (9.8% +/- 5.7%; P = .003 compared to baseline) accompanied by a significant decrease in C-reactive protein concentrations (1.1 +/- 1.9 vs 0.8 +/- 0.8 at baseline, P = .026). Endothelium-independent nitro-induced vasodilation did not differ between the study groups at baseline or after periodontal therapy. These results indicate that treatment of severe periodontitis reverses endothelial dysfunction. Whether improved endothelial function will translate into a beneficial effect on atherogenesis and cardiovascular events needs further investigation.

  19. Impaired Endothelial Repair Capacity of Early Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Hypertensive Patients With Primary Hyperaldosteronemia: Role of 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydrobiopterin Oxidation and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Ding, Mei-Lin; Wu, Fang; He, Wen; Li, Jin; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Xie, Wen-Li; Duan, Sheng-Zhong; Xia, Wen-Hao; Tao, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Although hyperaldosteronemia exerts detrimental impacts on vascular endothelium in addition to elevating blood pressure, the effects and molecular mechanisms of hyperaldosteronemia on early endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-mediated endothelial repair after arterial damage are yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs from hypertensive patients with primary hyperaldosteronemia (PHA). In vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs from PHAs (n=20), age- and blood pressure-matched essential hypertension patients (n=20), and age-matched healthy subjects (n=20) was evaluated by transplantation into a nude mouse carotid endothelial denudation model. Endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated dilation of brachial artery in human subjects. In vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs and flow-mediated dilation were impaired both in PHAs and in essential hypertension patients when compared with age-matched healthy subjects; however, the early EPC in vivo endothelial repair capacity and flow-mediated dilation of PHAs were impaired more severely than essential hypertension patients. Oral spironolactone improved early EPC in vivo endothelial repair capacity and flow-mediated dilation of PHAs. Increased oxidative stress, oxidative 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin degradation, endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling and decreased nitric oxide production were found in early EPCs from PHAs. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit p47(phox) knockdown or 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin supplementation attenuated endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling and enhanced in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs from PHAs. In conclusion, PHAs exhibited more impaired endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs than did essential hypertension patients independent of blood pressure, which was associated with mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent oxidative stress and subsequently 5

  20. Vitamin D(2) supplementation induces the development of aortic stenosis in rabbits: interactions with endothelial function and thioredoxin-interacting protein.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Doan T M; Stafford, Irene; Kelly, Darren J; Sverdlov, Aaron L; Wuttke, Ronald D; Weedon, Helen; Nightingale, Angus K; Rosenkranz, Anke C; Smith, Malcolm D; Chirkov, Yuliy Y; Kennedy, Jennifer A; Horowitz, John D

    2008-08-20

    Understanding of the pathophysiology of aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and finding potentially effective treatments are impeded by the lack of suitable AVS animal models. A previous study demonstrated the development of AVS in rabbits with vitamin D(2) and cholesterol supplementation without any hemodynamic changes in the cholesterol supplemented group alone. The current study aimed to determine whether AVS develops in an animal model with vitamin D(2) supplementation alone, and to explore pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this process. The effects of 8 weeks' treatment with vitamin D(2) alone (n=8) at 25,000 IU/4 days weekly on aortic valve structure and function were examined in male New Zealand white rabbits. Echocardiographic aortic valve backscatter (AV(BS)), transvalvular velocity, and transvalvular pressure gradient were utilized to quantitate changes in valve structure and function. Valvular histology/immunochemistry and function were examined after 8 weeks. Changes in valves were compared with those in endothelial function and in valvular measurement of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), a marker/mediator of reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress. Vitamin D(2) treated rabbits developed AVS with increased AV(BS) (17.6+/-1.4 dB vs 6.7+/-0.8 dB, P<0.0001), increased transvalvular velocity and transvalvular pressure gradient (both P<0.01 via 2-way ANOVA) compared to the control group. There was associated valve calcification, lipid deposition and macrophage infiltration. Endothelial function was markedly impaired, and intravalvular TXNIP concentration increased. In this model, vitamin D(2) induces the development of AVS with histological features similar to those of early AVS in humans and associated endothelial dysfunction/redox stress. AVS development may result from the loss of nitric oxide suppression of TXNIP expression.

  1. Effects of Flavonoid-Containing Beverages and EGCG on Endothelial Function

    PubMed Central

    Shenouda, Sherene M.; Vita, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities of the vascular endothelium contribute to all stages of atherosclerosis from lesion development to clinical cardiovascular disease events. Recognized risk factors, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cigarette smoking, and sedentary lifestyle are associated with endothelial dysfunction. A variety of pharmacological and behavioral interventions have been shown to reverse endothelial dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease. A large number of epidemiological studies suggest that dietary factors, including increased intake of flavonoid-containing foods and beverages, reduce cardiovascular risk, and recent studies have shown that such beverages have favorable effects on endothelial function. These studies have engendered interest in the development of dietary supplements or drugs that would allow for more convenient and higher dose administration of flavonoids and might prove useful for prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we will review the contribution of endothelial dysfunction to the pathogenesis and clinical expression of atherosclerosis and recent data linking flavonoid and EGCG consumption to improved endothelial function and reduced cardiovascular risk. PMID:17906190

  2. Dietary glutamine supplementation enhances endothelial progenitor cell mobilization in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice subjected to limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Su, Shiau-Tsz; Yeh, Chiu-Li; Hou, Yu-Chen; Pai, Man-Hui; Yeh, Sung-Ling

    2017-02-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder with increased risk of vascular diseases. Tissue ischemia may occur with diabetic vascular complications. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) constitute a reparative response to ischemic injury. This study investigated the effects of oral glutamine (GLN) supplementation on circulating EPC mobilization and expression of tissue EPC-releasing markers in diabetic mice subjected to limb ischemia. Diabetes was induced by a daily intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin for 5 days. Diabetic mice were divided into 2 nonischemic groups and 6 ischemic groups. One of the nonischemic and 3 ischemic groups were fed the control diet, while the remaining 4 groups received diets with identical components except that part of the casein was replaced by GLN. The respective diets were fed to the mice for 3 weeks, and then the nonischemic mice were sacrificed. Unilateral hindlimb ischemia was created in the ischemic groups, and mice were sacrificed at 1, 7 or 21 days after ischemia. Their blood and ischemic muscle tissues were collected for further analyses. Results showed that plasma matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9 and the circulating EPC percentage increased after limb ischemia in a diabetic condition. Compared to groups without GLN, GLN supplementation up-regulated plasma stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 and muscle MMP-9, SDF-1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor gene expression. The CD31-immunoreactive intensities were also higher in the ischemic limb. These findings suggest that GLN supplementation enhanced circulating EPC mobilization that may promote endothelium repair at ischemic tissue in diabetic mice subjected to limb ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. FY 1998 Proposed Rail Improvement Program Supplement

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    This FY 1998 Proposed Rail Improvement Program Supplement contains those rail plan amendments which have been published subsequent to the FY 1997 Proposed Rail Improvement program supplement. This document also contains the benefit/cost methodology u...

  4. Comparative effects of enzogenol and vitamin C supplementation versus vitamin C alone on endothelial function and biochemical markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic smokers.

    PubMed

    Young, Joanna M; Shand, Brett I; McGregor, Patrice M; Scott, Russell S; Frampton, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    Chronic smoking is associated with endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, with oxidative stress contributing to both these processes. In this study, we investigated the effect of combined antioxidant treatment with Enzogenol, a flavonoid extract from the bark of Pinus radiata and vitamin C, over and above vitamin C alone, on endothelial function, plasma markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, blood pressure (BP) and anthropometrics. Forty-four chronic smokers without established cardiovascular disease were assigned randomly to receive either 480 mg Enzogenol and 60 mg vitamin C, or 60 mg vitamin C alone daily for 12 weeks. Endothelial function in the brachial artery was assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). FMD improved in both treatment groups (p < 0.001), with no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.84). In the group receiving Enzogenol and vitamin C, protein carbonyl levels were significantly reduced compared to the group taking vitamin C alone (p = 0.03). Enzogenol and vitamin C resulted in a significant reduction in fibrinogen levels in heavy smokers compared with vitamin C alone (p < 0.009). These findings demonstrated that co-supplementation with Enzogenol and vitamin C in smokers conferred no additional beneficial effect on macrovascular endothelial function over and above that seen in the vitamin C alone group. However, Enzogenol did demonstrate additional favourable effects on protein oxidative damage and fibrinogen levels.

  5. Arginase Inhibition Improves Microvascular Endothelial Function in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kövamees, Oskar; Shemyakin, Alexey; Checa, Antonio; Wheelock, Craig E; Lundberg, Jon O; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Pernow, John

    2016-11-01

    The development of microvascular complications in diabetes is a complex process in which endothelial dysfunction is important. Emerging evidence suggests that arginase is a key mediator of endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus by reciprocally regulating nitric oxide bioavailability. The aim of this prospective intervention study was to test the hypothesis that arginase activity is increased and that arginase inhibition improves microvascular endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes and microvascular dysfunction. Microvascular endothelium-dependent and -independent dilatation was determined in patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 12) and healthy age-matched control subjects (n = 12) with laser Doppler flowmetry during iontophoretic application of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively, before and after administration of the arginase inhibitor N ω -hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (120 min). Plasma ratios of amino acids involved in arginase and nitric oxide synthase activities were determined. The laser Doppler flowmetry data were the primary outcome variable. Microvascular endothelium-dependent dilatation was impaired in subjects with type 2 diabetes (P < .05). After administration of N ω -hydroxy-nor-L-arginine, microvascular endothelial function improved significantly in patients with type 2 diabetes to the level observed in healthy controls. Endothelium-independent vasodilatation did not change significantly. Subjects with type 2 diabetes had higher levels of ornithine and higher ratios of ornithine/citrulline and ornithine/arginine (P < .05), suggesting increased arginase activity. Arginase inhibition improves microvascular endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes and microvascular dysfunction. Arginase inhibition may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to improve microvascular endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  6. Supplementation of a γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols in healthy men protects against vascular endothelial dysfunction induced by postprandial hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Noh, Sang K; Ballard, Kevin D; Park, Hea Jin; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2013-01-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress responses, impairs vascular endothelial function (VEF) and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of a γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) would protect against vascular dysfunction that is otherwise caused by postprandial hyperglycemia by decreasing oxidative stress and proinflammatory responses, and improving nitric oxide (NO•) homeostasis. In a randomized, crossover study, healthy men (n=15; 21.8 ± 0.8 years) completed a fasting oral glucose challenge (75 g) with or without prior supplementation of γ-TmT (5 days). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), plasma glucose, insulin, antioxidants, malondialdehyde (MDA), inflammatory proteins, arginine and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were measured at regular intervals during a 3-h postprandial period. Supplementation of γ-TmT increased (P<.05) plasma γ-T by threefold and γ-carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman by more than ninefold without affecting α-T, glucose, arginine or ADMA. Baseline FMD, MDA, arginine and ADMA were unaffected by γ-TmT (P>.05). Postprandial FMD decreased 30%-44% (P<.05) following glucose ingestion, but was maintained with γ-TmT. Supplementation of γ-TmT also attenuated postprandial increases in MDA that occurred following glucose ingestion. Plasma arginine decreased (P<.05) in both trials to a similar extent regardless of γ-TmT supplementation. However, the ratio of ADMA/arginine increased time-dependently in both trials (P<.05), but to a lesser extent following γ-TmT supplementation (P<.05). Inflammatory proteins were unaffected by glucose ingestion or γ-TmT. Collectively, these findings support that short-term supplementation of γ-TmT maintains VEF during postprandial hyperglycemia possibly by attenuating lipid peroxidation and disruptions in NO• homeostasis, independent of inflammation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Inhibitory Effect of a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract-Based Nutritional Supplement on TNF-α-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Kristine C. Y.; Li, Xiao-Hong; McRobb, Lucinda S.; Heather, Alison K.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to endothelial dysfunction, contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The popularity of natural product supplements has increased in recent years, especially those with purported anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant effects. The efficacy and mechanism of many of these products are not yet well understood. In this study, we tested the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a supplement, HIPER Health Supplement (HIPER), on cytokine-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). HIPER is a mixture of French maritime pine bark extract (PBE), honey, aloe vera, and papaya extract. Treatment for 24 hours with HIPER reduced TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that was associated with decreased NADPH oxidase 4 and increased superoxide dismutase-1 expression. HIPER inhibited TNF-α induced monocyte adhesion to HCAECs that was in keeping with decreased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and decreased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Further investigation of mechanism showed HIPER reduced TNF-α induced IκBα and p38 and MEK1/2 MAP kinases phosphorylation. Our findings show that HIPER has potent inhibitory effects on HCAECs inflammatory and oxidative stress responses that may protect against endothelial dysfunction that underlies early atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:26664450

  8. Resistance-based interval exercise acutely improves endothelial function in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Francois, Monique E; Durrer, Cody; Pistawka, Kevin J; Halperin, Frank A; Little, Jonathan P

    2016-11-01

    Different modes of exercise, disease, and training status can modify endothelial shear stress and result in distinct effects on endothelial function. To date, no study has examined the influence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and training status on the acute endothelial response to different modes of interval exercise (INT). We examined the effect of a single session of resistance- and cardio-based INT compared with a time-matched control on endothelial function in 12 age-matched T2D participants, 12 untrained, and 11 trained adults (aged 56 ± 7 yr). Flow-mediated dilation (%FMD) of the brachial artery was assessed at baseline and immediately, 1, and 2 h after an acute bout of cardio interval (C-INT), resistance interval (R-INT), and seated control (CTL); these interventions were randomized and separated by >2 days. C-INT involved seven 1-min cycling intervals at 85% of peak power with 1-min recovery between. R-INT involved the same pattern of seven 1-min intervals using leg resistance exercises. Endothelial function (%FMD) was improved after R-INT in all groups (Condition × Time interaction, P < 0.01), an effect that was most robust in T2D where %FMD was higher immediately (+4.0 ± 2.8%), 1 h (+2.5 ± 2.5%), and 2 h (+1.9 ± 1.9%) after R-INT compared with CTL (P < 0.01 for all). C-INT improved %FMD in T2D at 1-h postexercise (+1.6 ± 2.2%, P = 0.03) compared with CTL. In conclusion, R-INT acutely improves endothelial function throughout the 2-h postexercise period in T2D patients. The long-term impact of resistance exercise performed in an interval pattern is warranted. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Resistance-based interval exercise acutely improves endothelial function in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Francois, Monique E.; Durrer, Cody; Pistawka, Kevin J.; Halperin, Frank A.

    2016-01-01

    Different modes of exercise, disease, and training status can modify endothelial shear stress and result in distinct effects on endothelial function. To date, no study has examined the influence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and training status on the acute endothelial response to different modes of interval exercise (INT). We examined the effect of a single session of resistance- and cardio-based INT compared with a time-matched control on endothelial function in 12 age-matched T2D participants, 12 untrained, and 11 trained adults (aged 56 ± 7 yr). Flow-mediated dilation (%FMD) of the brachial artery was assessed at baseline and immediately, 1, and 2 h after an acute bout of cardio interval (C-INT), resistance interval (R-INT), and seated control (CTL); these interventions were randomized and separated by >2 days. C-INT involved seven 1-min cycling intervals at 85% of peak power with 1-min recovery between. R-INT involved the same pattern of seven 1-min intervals using leg resistance exercises. Endothelial function (%FMD) was improved after R-INT in all groups (Condition × Time interaction, P < 0.01), an effect that was most robust in T2D where %FMD was higher immediately (+4.0 ± 2.8%), 1 h (+2.5 ± 2.5%), and 2 h (+1.9 ± 1.9%) after R-INT compared with CTL (P < 0.01 for all). C-INT improved %FMD in T2D at 1-h postexercise (+1.6 ± 2.2%, P = 0.03) compared with CTL. In conclusion, R-INT acutely improves endothelial function throughout the 2-h postexercise period in T2D patients. The long-term impact of resistance exercise performed in an interval pattern is warranted. PMID:27638878

  10. Role of folic acid in nitric oxide bioavailability and vascular endothelial function

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, W. Larry

    2017-01-01

    Folic acid is a member of the B-vitamin family and is essential for amino acid metabolism. Adequate intake of folic acid is vital for metabolism, cellular homeostasis, and DNA synthesis. Since the initial discovery of folic acid in the 1940s, folate deficiency has been implicated in numerous disease states, primarily those associated with neural tube defects in utero and neurological degeneration later in life. However, in the past decade, epidemiological studies have identified an inverse relation between both folic acid intake and blood folate concentration and cardiovascular health. This association inspired a number of clinical studies that suggested that folic acid supplementation could reverse endothelial dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recently, in vitro and in vivo studies have begun to elucidate the mechanism(s) through which folic acid improves vascular endothelial function. These studies, which are the focus of this review, suggest that folic acid and its active metabolite 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate improve nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability by increasing endothelial NO synthase coupling and NO production as well as by directly scavenging superoxide radicals. By improving NO bioavailability, folic acid may protect or improve endothelial function, thereby preventing or reversing the progression of CVD in those with overt disease or elevated CVD risk. PMID:27974600

  11. Dietary L-arginine supplementation enhances intestinal development and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in weanling piglets.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kang; Guan, Shu; Li, Tiejun; Huang, Ruilin; Wu, Guoyao; Ruan, Zheng; Yin, Yulong

    2011-03-01

    Oral administration of L-arginine has been reported to prevent gut disease in human infants. However, little is known about the effects of dietary arginine supplementation on intestinal development of weaned piglets. In the present study, twenty 21-d-old castrated piglets with 5·3 (SEM 0·13) kg body weight (BW) were weaned from sows, individually housed and randomly assigned to one of the two maize- and soyabean meal-based diets supplemented with 0 or 1% L-arginine. After consuming the diets for 7 d, six pigs were randomly selected from each group to obtain various tissues. Compared with control pigs, dietary supplementation with 1% L-arginine did not affect feed intake but enhanced (P<0·05) the relative weight of the small intestine (+33 %), daily BW gain (+38 %) and feed efficiency (+28 %). The villus height of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum in arginine-supplemented piglets was 21, 28 and 25% greater (P<0·05) than in the nonsupplemented control group. Arginine supplementation increased (P<0·05) protein levels for vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in duodenal, jejunal and ileal mucosae by 14, 39 and 35 %, respectively. Compared with the control group, dietary supplementation with 1% L-arginine increased (P<0·05) plasma concentrations of arginine and insulin (+36 %), and decreased (P<0·05) plasma concentrations of cortisol (233 %), NH3 (221 %) and urea (219 %). These results indicate that arginine supplementation enhances intestinal growth, development and expression of VEGF in early-weaned pigs fed a maize- and soyabean meal-based diet. The findings may have important implications for neonatal pigs under stressful or diseased conditions.

  12. A Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil or nuts improves endothelial markers involved in blood pressure control in hypertensive women.

    PubMed

    Storniolo, C E; Casillas, R; Bulló, M; Castañer, O; Ros, E; Sáez, G T; Toledo, E; Estruch, R; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V; Fitó, M; Martínez-González, M A; Salas-Salvadó, J; Mitjavila, M T; Moreno, J J

    2017-02-01

    Serum nitric oxide (NO) reduction and increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) play a pivotal role in endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Considering that traditional Mediterranean diet (TMD) reduces blood pressure (BP), the aim of this study was to analyze whether TMD induced changes on endothelial physiology elements such as NO, ET-1 and ET-1 receptors which are involved in BP control. Non-smoking women with moderate hypertension were submitted for 1 year to interventions promoting adherence to the TMD, one supplemented with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and the other with nuts versus a control low-fat diet (30 participants/group). BP, NO, ET-1 and related gene expression as well as oxidative stress biomarkers were measured. Serum NO and systolic BP (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP) were negatively associated at baseline, as well as between NO and ET-1. Our findings also showed a DBP reduction with both interventions. A negative correlation was observed between changes in NO metabolites concentration and SBP or DBP after the intervention with TMD + EVOO (p = 0.033 and p = 0.044, respectively). SBP reduction was related to an impairment of serum ET-1 concentrations after the intervention with TMD + nuts (p = 0.008). We also observed changes in eNOS, caveolin 2 and ET-1 receptors gene expression which are related to NO metabolites levels and BP. The changes in NO and ET-1 as well as ET-1 receptors gene expression explain, at least partially, the effect of EVOO or nuts on lowering BP among hypertensive women.

  13. Effects of magnesium supplements on blood pressure, endothelial function and metabolic parameters in healthy young men with a family history of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cosaro, E; Bonafini, S; Montagnana, M; Danese, E; Trettene, M S; Minuz, P; Delva, P; Fava, C

    2014-11-01

    Magnesium plays an important role in the modulation of vascular tone and endothelial function and can regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Patients with hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have low body magnesium content; indeed, magnesium supplementation has been shown to have a positive effect on blood pressure (BP) and gluco-metabolic parameters. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of magnesium supplements on hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in healthy men with a positive family history of MetS or T2DM. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week crossover trial with a 4 week wash-out period, oral supplements of 8.1 mmol of magnesium-pidolate or placebo were administered twice a day to 14 healthy normomagnesemic participants, aged 23-33 years. The primary endpoint was office BP, measured with a semiautomatic oscillometric device. Secondary endpoints included characteristics of the MetS, namely endothelial function, arterial stiffness and inflammation. Plasma and urinary magnesium were measured in all participants while free intracellular magnesium was measured only in a subsample. There was no significant difference in either systolic and diastolic BP in participants post-magnesium supplementation and post-placebo treatment when compared to baseline BP measurements. Further, the metabolic, inflammatory and hemodynamic parameters did not vary significantly during the study. Our study showed no beneficial effect of magnesium supplements on BP, vascular function and glycolipid profile in young men with a family history of MetS/T2DM (trial registration at clinicaltrial.gov ID: NCT01181830; 12th of Aug 2010). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduced Ang2 expression in aging endothelial cells

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hohensinner, P.J., E-mail: philipp.hohensinner@meduniwien.ac.at; Ebenbauer, B.; Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster for Cardiovascular Research, Vienna

    Aging endothelial cells are characterized by increased cell size, reduced telomere length and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, we describe here that aging reduces the migratory distance of endothelial cells. Furthermore, we observe an increase of the quiescence protein Ang1 and a decrease of the endothelial activation protein Ang2 upon aging. Supplementing Ang2 to aged endothelial cells restored their migratory capacity. We conclude that aging shifts the balance of the Ang1/Ang2 network favouring a quiescent state. Activation of endothelial cells in aging might be necessary to enhance wound healing capacities. -- Highlights: •Endothelial cells display signs of agingmore » before reaching proliferative senescence. •Aging endothelial cells express more angiopoietin 1 and less angiopoietin 2 than young endothelial cells. •Migratory capacity is reduced in aging endothelial cells.« less

  15. Metformin improves circulating endothelial cells and endothelial progenitor cells in type 1 diabetes: MERIT study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Fahad W; Rider, Rachel; Glanville, Michael; Narayanan, Kilimangalam; Razvi, Salman; Weaver, Jolanta U

    2016-08-26

    Type 1 diabetes is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD). Decreased endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) number plays a pivotal role in reduced endothelial repair and development of CVD. We aimed to determine if cardioprotective effect of metformin is mediated by increasing circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs), pro-angiogenic cells (PACs) and decreasing circulating endothelial cells (cECs) count whilst maintaining unchanged glycemic control. This study was an open label and parallel standard treatment study. Twenty-three type 1 diabetes patients without overt CVD were treated with metformin for 8 weeks (treatment group-TG). They were matched with nine type 1 diabetes patients on standard treatment (SG) and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (HC). Insulin dose was adjusted to keep unchanged glycaemic control. cEPCs and cECs counts were determined by flow cytometry using surface markers CD45(dim)CD34(+)VEGFR-2(+) and CD45(dim)CD133(-)CD34(+)CD144(+) respectively. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured to assess changes in PACs number, function and colony forming units (CFU-Hill's colonies). At baseline TG had lower cEPCs, PACs, CFU-Hills' colonies and PACs adhesion versus HC (p < 0.001-all variables) and higher cECs versus HC (p = 0.03). Metformin improved cEPCs, PACs, CFU-Hill's colonies number, cECs and PACs adhesion (p < 0.05-all variables) to levels seen in HC whilst HbA1c (one-way ANOVA p = 0.78) and glucose variability (average glucose, blood glucose standard deviation, mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion, continuous overall net glycaemic action and area under curve) remained unchanged. No changes were seen in any variables in SG. There was an inverse correlation between CFU-Hill's colonies with cECs. Metformin has potential cardio-protective effect through improving cEPCs, CFU-Hill's colonies, cECs, PACs count and function independently of hypoglycaemic effect. This finding needs to be confirmed by long

  16. Tetrahydrobiopterin recycling, a key determinant of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase-dependent signaling pathways in cultured vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Toru; Levy, Bruce D; Michel, Thomas

    2009-05-08

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a key redox-active cofactor in endothelial isoform of NO synthase (eNOS) catalysis and is an important determinant of NO-dependent signaling pathways. BH4 oxidation is observed in vascular cells in the setting of the oxidative stress associated with diabetes. However, the relative roles of de novo BH4 synthesis and BH4 redox recycling in the regulation of eNOS bioactivity remain incompletely defined. We used small interference RNA (siRNA)-mediated "knockdown" GTP cyclohydrolase-1 (GTPCH1), the rate-limiting enzyme in BH4 biosynthesis, and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an enzyme-recycling oxidized BH4 (7,8-dihydrobiopterin (BH2)), and studied the effects on eNOS regulation and biopterin metabolism in cultured aortic endothelial cells. Knockdown of either DHFR or GTPCH1 attenuated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced eNOS activity and NO production; these effects were recovered by supplementation with BH4. In contrast, supplementation with BH2 abolished VEGF-induced NO production. DHFR but not GTPCH1 knockdown increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The increase in ROS production seen with siRNA-mediated DHFR knockdown was abolished either by simultaneous siRNA-mediated knockdown of eNOS or by supplementing with BH4. In contrast, addition of BH2 increased ROS production; this effect of BH2 was blocked by BH4 supplementation. DHFR but not GTPCH1 knockdown inhibited VEGF-induced dephosphorylation of eNOS at the inhibitory site serine 116; these effects were recovered by supplementation with BH4. These studies demonstrate a striking contrast in the pattern of eNOS regulation seen by the selective modulation of BH4 salvage/reduction versus de novo BH4 synthetic pathways. Our findings suggest that the depletion of BH4 is not sufficient to perturb NO signaling, but rather that concentration of intracellular BH2, as well as the relative concentrations of BH4 and BH2, together play a determining role in the redox

  17. Reduced Ang2 expression in aging endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hohensinner, P J; Ebenbauer, B; Kaun, C; Maurer, G; Huber, K; Wojta, J

    2016-06-03

    Aging endothelial cells are characterized by increased cell size, reduced telomere length and increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, we describe here that aging reduces the migratory distance of endothelial cells. Furthermore, we observe an increase of the quiescence protein Ang1 and a decrease of the endothelial activation protein Ang2 upon aging. Supplementing Ang2 to aged endothelial cells restored their migratory capacity. We conclude that aging shifts the balance of the Ang1/Ang2 network favouring a quiescent state. Activation of endothelial cells in aging might be necessary to enhance wound healing capacities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cyclooxygenase inhibition improves endothelial vasomotor dysfunction of visceral adipose arterioles in human obesity

    PubMed Central

    Farb, Melissa G.; Tiwari, Stephanie; Karki, Shakun; Ngo, Doan TM; Carmine, Brian; Hess, Donald T.; Zuriaga, Maria A.; Walsh, Kenneth; Fetterman, Jessica L.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Vita, Joseph A.; Apovian, Caroline M.; Gokce, Noyan

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether cyclooxygenase inhibition improves vascular dysfunction of adipose microvessels from obese humans. Design and Methods In 20 obese subjects (age 37±12 yrs, BMI 47±8 kg/m2) we collected subcutaneous and visceral fat during bariatric surgery and characterized adipose depot-specific gene expression, endothelial cell phenotype, and microvascular function. Vasomotor function was assessed in response to endothelium-dependent agonists using videomicroscopy of small arterioles from fat. Results Arterioles from visceral fat exhibited impaired endothelium-dependent, acetylcholine-mediated vasodilation, compared to the subcutaneous depot (p<0.001). Expression of mRNA transcripts relevant to the cyclooxygenase pathway were upregulated in visceral compared to subcutaneous fat. Pharmacological inhibition of cyclooxygenase with indomethacin improved endothelium-dependent vasodilator function of arterioles from visceral fat by 2-fold (p=0.01), whereas indomethacin had no effect in the subcutaneous depot. Indomethacin increased activation via serine-1177 phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in response to acetylcholine in endothelial cells from visceral fat. Inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester abrogated the effects of cyclooxygenase-inhibition suggesting that vascular actions of indomethacin were related to increased nitric oxide bioavailability. Conclusions Our findings suggest that cyclooxygenase-mediated vasoconstrictor prostanoids partly contribute to endothelial dysfunction of visceral adipose arterioles in human obesity. PMID:23640904

  19. Does Iron Supplementation Improve Performance in Iron-Deficient Nonanemic Athletes?

    PubMed

    Rubeor, Amity; Goojha, Carmen; Manning, Jeffrey; White, Jordan

    2018-05-01

    Supplementing iron-deficient nonanemic (IDNA) athletes with iron to improve performance is a trend in endurance sports. To investigate the benefits of iron on performance, identify a ferritin level cutoff in IDNA athletes, and determine which iron supplementation regimens are most effective. A search of the PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, and Cochrane databases was performed in 2014 including all articles. Citations of pertinent review articles were also searched. In 2017, the search was repeated. Inclusion criteria comprised studies of level 1 to 3 evidence, written in the English language, that researched iron supplementation in nonanemic athletes and reported performance outcomes. Systematic review. Level 3. The search terms used included athletic performance, resistance training, athletes, physical endurance, iron, iron deficiency, supplement, non-anemic, low ferritin, ferritin, ferritin blood level, athletes, and sports. A total of 1884 studies were identified through the initial database search, and 13 were identified through searching references of relevant review articles. A subsequent database search identified 46 studies. Following exclusions, 12 studies with a total of 283 participants were included. Supplementing IDNA athletes with iron improved performance in 6 studies (146 participants) and did not improve performance in the other 6 studies (137 participants). In the 6 studies that showed improved performance with iron supplementation, all used a ferritin level cutoff of ≤20 μg/L for treatment. Additionally, all studies that showed improved performance used oral iron as a supplement. The evidence is equivocal as to whether iron supplementation in IDNA athletes improves athletic performance. Supplementing athletes with ferritin levels <20 μg/L may be more beneficial than supplementing athletes with higher baseline ferritin levels.

  20. Geraniol improves endothelial function by inhibiting NOX-2 derived oxidative stress in high fat diet fed mice

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Shiqi; Su, Mengqi

    Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese patients and high-fat diet (HFD) fed experimental animals. While geraniol has been reported to ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress, inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and improve atherosclerosis, its direct effect on endothelial function remains uncharacterized. The present study therefore investigated the effect of geraniol on endothelial function in HFD mice and its underlying mechanisms. C57 BL/6 mice were fed an HFD (n = 40) or a normal diet (n = 20) for 8 weeks. HFD fed mice then were randomized to intraperitoneal treatment with geraniol (n = 20) or vehicle (n = 20) for another 6 weeks. Acetylcholine (Ach)-induced endothelial dependent vasorelaxation was measuredmore » on wire myography; reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by fluorescence imaging, and NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and adhesive molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression by western blotting. Geraniol improved endothelial function in HFD fed mice, as evidenced by its: 1. restoring endothelial dependent vasorelaxation induced by Ach, and reversing increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression; 2. attenuating HFD induced increased serum TBARS and aortic ROS generation; and 3. downregulating aortic NOX-2 expression in both HFD fed mice and in palmitic acid treated endothelial cells. Geraniol therefore protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by HFD through reducing NOX-2 associated ROS generation. -- Highlights: •Geraniol improved endothelial dependent relaxation in high fat diet fed mice. •Geraniol alleviated vascular injury in high fat diet fed mice. •Geraniol inhibited ROS generation through downregulating NOX-2 expression.« less

  1. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on endothelial function: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hussin, Azizah Mat; Ashor, Ammar W; Schoenmakers, Inez; Hill, Tom; Mathers, John C; Siervo, Mario

    2017-04-01

    In addition to regulating calcium homoeostasis and bone health, vitamin D influences vascular and metabolic processes including endothelial function (EF) and insulin signalling. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were conducted to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on EF and to examine whether the effect size was modified by health status, study duration, dose, route of vitamin D administration, vitamin D status (baseline and post-intervention), body mass index (BMI), age and type of vitamin D. We searched the Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases from inception until March 2015 for studies meeting the following criteria: (1) RCT with adult participants, (2) vitamin D administration alone, (3) studies that quantified EF using commonly applied methods including ultrasound, plethysmography, applanation tonometry and laser Doppler. Sixteen articles reporting data for 1177 participants were included. Study duration ranged from 4 to 52 weeks. The effect of vitamin D on EF was not significant (SMD: 0.08, 95 % CI -0.06, 0.22, p = 0.28). Subgroup analysis showed a significant improvement of EF in diabetic subjects (SMD: 0.31, 95 % CI 0.05, 0.57, p = 0.02). A non-significant trend was found for diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.02; p = 0.07) and BMI (β = 0.05; p = 0.06). Vitamin D supplementation did not improve EF. The significant effect of vitamin D in diabetics and a tendency for an association with BMI may indicate a role of excess adiposity and insulin resistance in modulating the effects of vitamin D on vascular function. This remains to be tested in future studies.

  2. Improved vascularization of planar membrane diffusion devices following continuous infusion of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, N; Steil, G M; Colton, C K; Bonner-Weir, S; Weir, G C

    2000-01-01

    Improving blood vessel formation around an immunobarrier device should improve the survival of the encapsulated tissue. In the present study we investigated the formation of new blood vessels around a planar membrane diffusion device (the Baxter Theracyte System) undergoing a continuous infusion of vascular endothelial growth factor through the membranes and into the surrounding tissue. Each device (20 microl) had both an inner immunoisolation membrane and an outer vascularizing membrane. Human recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor-165 was infused at 100 ng/day (low dose: n = 6) and 500 ng/day (high dose: n = 7) for 10 days into devices implanted s.c. in Sprague-Dawley rats; noninfused devices transplanted for an identical period were used as controls (n = 5). Two days following the termination of VEGF infusion, devices were loaded with 20 microl of Lispro insulin (1 U/kg) and the kinetics of insulin release from the lumen of the device was assessed. Devices were then explanted and the number of blood vessels (capillary and noncapillary) was quantified using morphometry. High-dose vascular endothelial growth factor infusion resulted in two- to threefold more blood vessels around the device than that obtained with the noninfused devices and devices infused with low-dose vascular endothelial growth factor. This increase in the number of blood vessels was accompanied by a modest increase in insulin diffusion from the device in the high-dose vascular endothelial growth factor infusion group. We conclude that vascular endothelial growth factor can be used to improve blood vessel formation adjacent to planar membrane diffusion devices.

  3. Role of folic acid in nitric oxide bioavailability and vascular endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Kenney, W Larry

    2017-01-01

    Folic acid is a member of the B-vitamin family and is essential for amino acid metabolism. Adequate intake of folic acid is vital for metabolism, cellular homeostasis, and DNA synthesis. Since the initial discovery of folic acid in the 1940s, folate deficiency has been implicated in numerous disease states, primarily those associated with neural tube defects in utero and neurological degeneration later in life. However, in the past decade, epidemiological studies have identified an inverse relation between both folic acid intake and blood folate concentration and cardiovascular health. This association inspired a number of clinical studies that suggested that folic acid supplementation could reverse endothelial dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recently, in vitro and in vivo studies have begun to elucidate the mechanism(s) through which folic acid improves vascular endothelial function. These studies, which are the focus of this review, suggest that folic acid and its active metabolite 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate improve nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability by increasing endothelial NO synthase coupling and NO production as well as by directly scavenging superoxide radicals. By improving NO bioavailability, folic acid may protect or improve endothelial function, thereby preventing or reversing the progression of CVD in those with overt disease or elevated CVD risk. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Human platelet lysate is a feasible candidate to replace fetal calf serum as medium supplement for blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, Pablo; Riedl, Sabrina; Witzeneder, Karin; Hildner, Florian; Wolbank, Susanne; Groeger, Marion; Gabriel, Christian; Redl, Heinz; Holnthoner, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    As angiogenic and lymphangiogenic key players, endothelial cells (ECs) are promising candidates for vascular regenerative therapies. To culture ECs in vitro, fetal calf serum (FCS) is most often used. However, some critical aspects of FCS usage, such as possible internalization of xenogeneic proteins and prions, must be considered. Therefore, the aim of this project was to determine if human platelet lysate (hPL) is a suitable alternative to FCS as medium supplement for the culture of blood vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. The usability of hPL was tested by analysis of endothelial surface marker expression, metabolic activity and vasculogenic potential of outgrowth ECs (OECs), human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), and lymphatic ECs (LECs). Expression of EC markers CD31, VEGFR2, VE-cadherin and CD146 did not differ significantly between the EC types cultured in FCS or hPL. In addition, OECs, HUVECs and LECs formed tube-like structures on Matrigel when cultured in hPL and FCS. With the use of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromid assays, we found that the metabolic activity of OECs and LECs was slightly decreased when hPL was used. However, HUVECs and LECs did not show a significant decrease in metabolic activity, and HUVECs showed a slightly higher activity at low seeding densities. The use of hPL on different EC types did not reveal any substantial negative effects on EC behavior. Thus, hPL appears to be a favorable candidate to replace FCS as a medium supplement in the culture of ECs. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. L-arginine as dietary supplement for improving microvascular function.

    PubMed

    Melik, Ziva; Zaletel, Polona; Virtic, Tina; Cankar, Ksenija

    2017-01-01

    Reduced availability of nitric oxide leads to dysfunction of endothelium which plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the dietary supplement L-arginine improves the endothelial function of microvessels by increasing nitric oxide production. We undertook experiments on 51 healthy male volunteers, divided into 4 groups based on their age and physical activity since regular physical activity itself increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The skin laser Doppler flux was measured in the microvessels before and after the ingestion of L-arginine (0.9 g). The endothelium-dependent vasodilation was assessed by acetylcholine iontophoresis and the endothelium-independent vasodilation by sodium nitroprusside iontophoresis. In addition, we measured endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation in 81 healthy subjects divided into four age groups. After the ingestion of L-arginine, the endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the young trained subjects increased (paired t-test, p < 0.05), while in the other groups it remained the same. There were no differences in the endothelium-independent vasodilation after ingestion of L-arginine. With aging endothelium-independent vasodilation decreased while endothelium-dependent vasodilation remained mainly unchanged. Obtained results demonstrated that a single dose of L-arginine influences endothelium-dependent vasodilation predominantly in young, trained individuals.

  6. Febuxostat improves endothelial function in hemodialysis patients with hyperuricemia: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, Yuki; Kikuchi, Kan; Tsuruta, Yukio; Sasaki, Yuko; Moriyama, Takahito; Itabashi, Mitsuyo; Takei, Takashi; Uchida, Keiko; Akiba, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku

    2015-10-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is often found in both hyperuricemia and hemodialysis patients. Recent studies have shown that treating hyperuricemia with allopurinol improves endothelial dysfunction. This study is performed to assess the effect of febuxostat on endothelial dysfunction in hemodialysis patients with hyperuricemia. We randomly assigned 53 hemodialysis patients with hyperuricemia to a febuxostat (10 mg daily) group and a control group and measured flow-mediated dilation, serum uric acid (UA) levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL), and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) at baseline and at the end of a 4-week study period. Flow-mediated dilation increased from 5.3% ± 2.4% to 8.9% ± 3.6% in the febuxostat group but did not change significantly in the control group. Treatment with febuxostat resulted in a significant decrease in serum UA level and a significant decrease in MDA-LDL compared with baseline, but no significant difference was observed in hsCRP level or blood pressure. No significant differences were observed in the control group. Febuxostat improved endothelial dysfunction and reduced serum UA levels and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients with hyperuricemia. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  7. Circulating metabolites of strawberry mediate reductions in vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Chrissa; Bharat, Divya; Cutler, Brett Ronald; Gholami, Samira; Denetso, Christopher; Mueller, Jennifer Ellen; Cho, Jae Min; Kim, Ji-Seok; Symons, J David; Anandh Babu, Pon Velayutham

    2018-07-15

    Cardiovascular disease is 2-4-fold more prevalent in patients with diabetes. Human studies support the cardiovascular benefits of strawberry consumption but the effects of strawberry on diabetic vasculature are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that dietary strawberry supplementation attenuates vascular inflammation and dysfunction in diabetic mice. Seven-week-old diabetic db/db mice that consumed standard diet (db/db) or diet supplemented with 2.35% freeze-dried strawberry (db/db + SB) for ten weeks were compared to non-diabetic control mice (db/+). Indices of vascular inflammation and dysfunction were measured. Endothelial cells (ECs) were isolated from the vasculature to determine the influence of strawberry on them. The effect of metabolites of strawberry on endothelial inflammation was determined by incubating mouse aortic ECs (MAECs) with ±5% serum, obtained from strawberry fed mice (metabolites serum) or standard diet fed mice (control serum) ± 25 mM glucose and 100 μM palmitate. db/db mice exhibited an increased monocyte binding to vessel, elevated blood pressure, and reduced endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation compared with db/+ mice but each defect was attenuated in db/db + SB mice. The elevation of inflammatory molecules, NOX2 and inhibitor-κB kinase observed in ECs from db/db vs. db/+ mice was suppressed in db/db + SB mice. Glucose and palmitate increased endothelial inflammation in MAECs but were normalized by co-incubation with metabolites serum. Dietary supplementation of strawberry attenuates indices of vascular inflammation and dysfunction in diabetic db/db mice. The effect of strawberry on vasculature is endothelial-dependent and possibly mediated through their circulating metabolites. Strawberry might complement conventional therapies to improve vascular complications in diabetics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Geraniol improves endothelial function by inhibiting NOX-2 derived oxidative stress in high fat diet fed mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Shiqi; Su, Mengqi; Sun, Li; Zhang, Song; Wang, Dingyu; Liu, Zhaorui; Yuan, Yue; Liu, Yang; Li, Yue

    2016-05-20

    Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese patients and high-fat diet (HFD) fed experimental animals. While geraniol has been reported to ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress, inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and improve atherosclerosis, its direct effect on endothelial function remains uncharacterized. The present study therefore investigated the effect of geraniol on endothelial function in HFD mice and its underlying mechanisms. C57 BL/6 mice were fed an HFD (n = 40) or a normal diet (n = 20) for 8 weeks. HFD fed mice then were randomized to intraperitoneal treatment with geraniol (n = 20) or vehicle (n = 20) for another 6 weeks. Acetylcholine (Ach)-induced endothelial dependent vasorelaxation was measured on wire myography; reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by fluorescence imaging, and NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and adhesive molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression by western blotting. Geraniol improved endothelial function in HFD fed mice, as evidenced by its: 1. restoring endothelial dependent vasorelaxation induced by Ach, and reversing increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression; 2. attenuating HFD induced increased serum TBARS and aortic ROS generation; and 3. downregulating aortic NOX-2 expression in both HFD fed mice and in palmitic acid treated endothelial cells. Geraniol therefore protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by HFD through reducing NOX-2 associated ROS generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exercise training improves endothelial function in young prehypertensives

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Darren T; Casey, Darren P; Martin, Jeffrey S; Emerson, Blaze D; Braith, Randy W

    2015-01-01

    Prehypertensives exhibit marked endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the ability of exercise to ameliorate endothelial dysfunction in prehypertensives is grossly underinvestigated. This prospective randomized and controlled study examined the separate effects of resistance and endurance training on conduit artery endothelial function in young prehypertensives. Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive (systolic blood pressure [SBP]=120–139 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure [DBP]=80–89 mmHg) but otherwise healthy men and women and 15 normotensive matched time-controls (NMTC); n = 15) between 18 and 35 y of age met screening requirements and participated in the study. Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to either a resistance exercise training (PHRT; n = 15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n = 13) or time-control group (PHTC; n = 15). The treatment groups performed exercise training three days per week for eight weeks. The control groups did not initiate exercise programs throughout the study. Flow mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, biomarkers of enodothelial function and peripheral blood pressure were evaluated before and after exercise intervention or time-matched control. PHRT and PHET reduced resting SBP (9.6 ± 3.6 and 11.9 ± 3.4 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05) and DBP (8.0 ± 5.1 and 7.2 ± 3.4 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). Exercise training improved brachial artery FMD absolute diameter, percent dilation and normalized percent dilation by 30%, 34% and 19% for PHRT, P < 0.05; and by 54%, 63% and 75% for PHET, P < 0.05; respectively. PHRT and PHET increased plasma concentrations of 6-keto prostaglandin F1α (19% and 22%, respectively; P < 0.05), NOx (19% and 23%, respectively; P < 0.05), and reduced endothelin-1 by (16% and 24%, respectively; P < 0.01). This study provides novel evidence that resistance and endurance exercise separately have beneficial effects on resting

  10. Cardioprotective effects of red wine and vodka in a model of endothelial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lassaletta, Antonio D; Chu, Louis M; Elmadhun, Nassrene Y; Burgess, Thomas A; Feng, Jun; Robich, Michael P; Sellke, Frank W

    2012-01-01

    Background Moderate alcohol consumption is largely believed to be cardioprotective, while red wine is hypothesized to offer benefit in part due to the pro-angiogenic and antioxidant properties of polyphenols. We investigated the cardiovascular effects of both red wine and vodka in a swine model of endothelial dysfunction. Methods Twenty-seven male Yorkshire swine fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet were divided into three groups and received either no alcohol (Control), red wine, or vodka. After seven weeks, myocardial perfusion was measured, and ventricular tissue was analyzed for microvascular reactivity, and immunohistochemical studies. Results There were no differences in myocardial perfusion, in arteriolar or capillary density, or in VEGF expression among groups. Total protein oxidation as well as expression of superoxide dismutase-1 and -2 (SOD1, SOD2) and NADPH-oxidase (NOX2) was decreased in both treatment groups compared to controls. Endothelium-dependent microvessel relaxation, however, was significantly improved only in the red wine-supplemented group. Conclusions Supplementation with both red wine and vodka decreased oxidative stress by several measures, implicating the effects of ethanol in reducing oxidative stress in the myocardium. However, it was only in the red wine-supplemented group that an improvement in microvessel function was observed. This suggests that a component of red wine, independent of ethanol, possibly a polyphenol such as resveratrol, may confer cardioprotection by normalizing endothelial dysfunction induced by an atherogenic diet. PMID:22748601

  11. Citrus Polyphenol Hesperidin Stimulates Production of Nitric Oxide in Endothelial Cells while Improving Endothelial Function and Reducing Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rizza, Stefano; Muniyappa, Ranganath; Iantorno, Micaela; Kim, Jeong-a; Chen, Hui; Pullikotil, Philomena; Senese, Nicoletta; Tesauro, Manfredi; Lauro, Davide; Cardillo, Carmine

    2011-01-01

    Context: Hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid, and its metabolite hesperetin may have vascular actions relevant to their health benefits. Molecular and physiological mechanisms of hesperetin actions are unknown. Objective: We tested whether hesperetin stimulates production of nitric oxide (NO) from vascular endothelium and evaluated endothelial function in subjects with metabolic syndrome on oral hesperidin therapy. Design, Setting, and Interventions: Cellular mechanisms of action of hesperetin were evaluated in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) in primary culture. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial examined whether oral hesperidin administration (500 mg once daily for 3 wk) improves endothelial function in individuals with metabolic syndrome (n = 24). Main Outcome Measure: We measured the difference in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation between placebo and hesperidin treatment periods. Results: Treatment of BAEC with hesperetin acutely stimulated phosphorylation of Src, Akt, AMP kinase, and endothelial NO synthase to produce NO; this required generation of H2O2. Increased adhesion of monocytes to BAEC and expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in response to TNF-α treatment was reduced by pretreatment with hesperetin. In the clinical study, when compared with placebo, hesperidin treatment increased flow-mediated dilation (10.26 ± 1.19 vs. 7.78 ± 0.76%; P = 0.02) and reduced concentrations of circulating inflammatory biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A protein, soluble E-selectin). Conclusions: Novel mechanisms for hesperetin action in endothelial cells inform effects of oral hesperidin treatment to improve endothelial dysfunction and reduce circulating markers of inflammation in our exploratory clinical trial. Hesperetin has vasculoprotective actions that may explain beneficial cardiovascular effects of citrus consumption. PMID:21346065

  12. Chromium Supplementation Improves Glucose Tolerance in Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdourahman, Aicha; Edwards, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Chromium supplementation (Cr) may be useful in the management of diabetes and appears to improve some aspects of glucose handling. However, several studies have used either high doses of Cr supplementation or have placed control animals on a Cr-deficient diet. We therefore wanted to test whether Cr dosages in the ranges that more closely approximate recommended levels of supplementation in humans are efficacious in glycemic control under normal dietary conditions. Euglycemic Wistar or diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats (a model of nonobese NIDDM) were assigned to water (control) or chromium picolinate (Cr-P) supplementation (1 or 10 mg/kg/day) groups for up to 32 weeks. Glucose tolerance was tested following an overnight fast by injecting sterile glucose (1.0 g/kg, i.p.) and then measuring blood glucose at select times to determine the sensitivity to glucose by calculation of the area under the curve. Cr-P did not significantly alter the growth of the animals. In the euglycemic Wistar rats, Cr-P supplementation did not alter the response to a glucose tolerance test. In the GK rats, Cr-P supplementation significantly improved glucose tolerance at both levels of Cr-P supplementation (1 mg/kg/day: H20; 100 ± 11%; Cr-P 70 6 8%; 10 mg/kg/day: H20; 100 ± 10%; Cr-P 66 ± 9 %). Cr-P supplementation produced a small improvement in some indices of glycemic control. There were no differences observed for the two levels of Cr-P supplementation suggested that we did not identify a threshold for Cr-P effects, and future studies may use lower doses to find a threshold effect for improving glucose tolerance in diabetics. PMID:18629917

  13. Carbohydrate restriction with postmeal walking effectively mitigates postprandial hyperglycemia and improves endothelial function in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Francois, Monique E; Myette-Cote, Etienne; Bammert, Tyler D; Durrer, Cody; Neudorf, Helena; DeSouza, Christopher A; Little, Jonathan P

    2018-01-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia has deleterious effects on endothelial function. Restricting carbohydrate intake and postmeal walking have each been shown to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia, but their combination and subsequent effects on endothelial function have not been investigated. Here, we sought to examine the effect of blunting postprandial hyperglycemia by following a low-carbohydrate diet, with or without postmeal walking exercise, on markers of vascular health in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In a randomized crossover design, individuals with T2D ( n = 11) completed three 4-day controlled diet interventions consisting of 1) low-carbohydrate diet alone (LC), 2) low-carbohydrate diet with 15-min postmeal walks (LC + Ex), and 3) low-fat control diet (CON). Fasting blood samples and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (%FMD) were measured before and after each intervention. Total circulating microparticles (MPs), endothelial MPs, platelet MPs, monocyte-platelet aggregates, and adhesion molecules were assessed as biomarkers of vascular health. There was a significant condition × time interaction for %FMD ( P = 0.01), with post hoc tests revealing improved %FMD after LC + Ex (+0.8 ± 1.0%, P = 0.02), with no change after LC or CON. Endothelial MPs were significantly reduced with the LC diet by ~45% (from 99 ± 60 to 44 ± 31 MPs/μl, P = 0.02), with no change after LC + Ex or CON (interaction: P = 0.04). Total MPs were lower (main effect time: P = 0.02), whereas monocyte-platelet aggregates were higher (main effect time: P < 0.01) after all interventions. Plasma adhesion molecules and C-reactive protein were unaltered. Attenuating postprandial hyperglycemic excursions using a low-carbohydrate diet combined with postmeal walking appears to be an effective strategy to improve endothelial function in individuals with T2D. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Carbohydrate restriction and postmeal walking lower postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Here, we show

  14. The effects of vitamin E and omega-3 PUFAs on endothelial function among adolescents with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Gharipour, Mojgan; Arabzadeh, Gholamreza; Moin, Payam; Hashemipour, Mahin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to explore the effects of vitamin E and omega-3 on endothelial function indicators among adolescents with metabolic syndrome. In a randomized, double blind, and placebo-controlled trial, 90 young individuals, aged 10 to 18 years, with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to receive either vitamin E tablets (400 IU/day) or omega-3 tablets (2.4 gr/day) or placebo. For assessing endothelial functional state, the serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured by ELISA test. The use of omega-3 supplementation for eight weeks led to significant increase in serum HDL level compared with the group treated with vitamin E or placebo group. In this regard, no significant correlations were found between the change in VEGF and baseline levels of other markers including anthropometric indices and serum lipids. Omega-3 could significantly reduce VEGF with the presence of other baseline variables (Beta = -12.55; P = 0.012). The administration of omega-3 can effectively improve endothelial function in adolescents with metabolic syndrome by reducing the level of serum VEGF, as a major index for atherosclerosis progression and endothelial destabilization. Omega-3 can be proposed as a VEGF antagonist for improving endothelial function in metabolic syndrome. The clinical implications of our findings should be assessed in future studies.

  15. Adding a Vitamin D Supplement Likely Does Not Improve Knee Osteoarthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vitamin D Supplement Likely Does Not Improve Knee Osteoarthritis By Colleen Labbe, M.S. | June 1, 2013 Vitamin ... supplements likely do not improve symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA), according to results from a clinical trial ...

  16. Arginase Inhibition Restores Peroxynitrite-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction via L-Arginine-Dependent Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Cong; Park, Jong Taek; Jeon, Yeong Gwan; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Hoe, Kwang Lae; Kim, Young Myeong; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Ryoo, Sungwoo

    2016-11-01

    Peroxynitrite plays a critical role in vascular pathophysiology by increasing arginase activity and decreasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate whether arginase inhibition and L-arginine supplement could restore peroxynitrite-induced endothelial dysfunction and determine the involved mechanism. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with SIN-1, a peroxynitrite generator, and arginase activity, nitrite/nitrate production, and expression levels of proteins were measured. eNOS activation was evaluated via Western blot and dimer blot analysis. We also tested nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and performed a vascular tension assay. SIN-1 treatment increased arginase activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner and reciprocally decreased nitrite/nitrate production that was prevented by peroxynitrite scavenger in HUVECs. Furthermore, SIN-1 induced an increase in the expression level of arginase I and II, though not in eNOS protein. The decreased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 and the increased at Thr495 by SIN-1 were restored with arginase inhibitor and L-arginine. The changed eNOS phosphorylation was consistent in the stability of eNOS dimers. SIN-1 decreased NO production and increased ROS generation in the aortic endothelium, all of which was reversed by arginase inhibitor or L-arginine. N(G)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) prevented SIN-1-induced ROS generation. In the vascular tension assay, SIN-1 enhanced vasoconstrictor responses to U46619 and attenuated vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine that were reversed by arginase inhibition. These findings may explain the beneficial effect of arginase inhibition and L-arginine supplement on endothelial dysfunction under redox imbalance-dependent pathophysiological conditions.

  17. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant (MitoQ) ameliorates age-related arterial endothelial dysfunction in mice.

    PubMed

    Gioscia-Ryan, Rachel A; LaRocca, Thomas J; Sindler, Amy L; Zigler, Melanie C; Murphy, Michael P; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-06-15

    Age-related arterial endothelial dysfunction, a key antecedent of the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is largely caused by a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability as a consequence of oxidative stress. Mitochondria are a major source and target of vascular oxidative stress when dysregulated. Mitochondrial dysregulation is associated with primary ageing, but its role in age-related endothelial dysfunction is unknown. Our aim was to determine the efficacy of a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, MitoQ, in ameliorating vascular endothelial dysfunction in old mice. Ex vivo carotid artery endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) to increasing doses of acetylcholine was impaired by ∼30% in old (∼27 months) compared with young (∼8 months) mice as a result of reduced NO bioavailability (P < 0.05). Acute (ex vivo) and chronic (4 weeks in drinking water) administration of MitoQ completely restored EDD in older mice by improving NO bioavailability. There were no effects of age or MitoQ on endothelium-independent dilation to sodium nitroprusside. The improvements in endothelial function with MitoQ supplementation were associated with the normalization of age-related increases in total and mitochondria-derived arterial superoxide production and oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine abundance), as well as with increases in markers of vascular mitochondrial health, including antioxidant status. MitoQ also reversed the age-related increase in endothelial susceptibility to acute mitochondrial damage (rotenone-induced impairment in EDD). Our results suggest that mitochondria-derived oxidative stress is an important mechanism underlying the development of endothelial dysfunction in primary ageing. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants such as MitoQ represent a promising novel strategy for the preservation of vascular endothelial function with advancing age and the prevention of age-related CVD. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological

  18. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant (MitoQ) ameliorates age-related arterial endothelial dysfunction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gioscia-Ryan, Rachel A; LaRocca, Thomas J; Sindler, Amy L; Zigler, Melanie C; Murphy, Michael P; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    Age-related arterial endothelial dysfunction, a key antecedent of the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is largely caused by a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability as a consequence of oxidative stress. Mitochondria are a major source and target of vascular oxidative stress when dysregulated. Mitochondrial dysregulation is associated with primary ageing, but its role in age-related endothelial dysfunction is unknown. Our aim was to determine the efficacy of a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, MitoQ, in ameliorating vascular endothelial dysfunction in old mice. Ex vivo carotid artery endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) to increasing doses of acetylcholine was impaired by ∼30% in old (∼27 months) compared with young (∼8 months) mice as a result of reduced NO bioavailability (P < 0.05). Acute (ex vivo) and chronic (4 weeks in drinking water) administration of MitoQ completely restored EDD in older mice by improving NO bioavailability. There were no effects of age or MitoQ on endothelium-independent dilation to sodium nitroprusside. The improvements in endothelial function with MitoQ supplementation were associated with the normalization of age-related increases in total and mitochondria-derived arterial superoxide production and oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine abundance), as well as with increases in markers of vascular mitochondrial health, including antioxidant status. MitoQ also reversed the age-related increase in endothelial susceptibility to acute mitochondrial damage (rotenone-induced impairment in EDD). Our results suggest that mitochondria-derived oxidative stress is an important mechanism underlying the development of endothelial dysfunction in primary ageing. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants such as MitoQ represent a promising novel strategy for the preservation of vascular endothelial function with advancing age and the prevention of age-related CVD. PMID:24665093

  19. Inhibition of Vascular c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase 2 Improves Obesity-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Doytcheva, Petia; Bächler, Thomas; Tarasco, Erika; Marzolla, Vincenzo; Engeli, Michael; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Stivala, Simona; Rohrer, Lucia; Tona, Francesco; Camici, Giovanni G; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Matter, Christian M; Lutz, Thomas A; Lüscher, Thomas F; Osto, Elena

    2017-11-14

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) reduces obesity-associated comorbidities and cardiovascular mortality. RYGB improves endothelial dysfunction, reducing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) vascular phosphorylation. JNK activation links obesity with insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Herein, we examined whether JNK1 or JNK2 mediates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and if pharmacological JNK inhibition can mimic RYGB vascular benefits. After 7 weeks of a high-fat high-cholesterol diet, obese rats underwent RYGB or sham surgery; sham-operated ad libitum-fed rats received, for 8 days, either the control peptide D-TAT or the JNK peptide inhibitor D-JNKi-1 (20 mg/kg per day subcutaneous). JNK peptide inhibitor D-JNKi-1 treatment improved endothelial vasorelaxation in response to insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1, as observed after RYGB. Obesity increased aortic phosphorylation of JNK2, but not of JNK1. RYGB and JNK peptide inhibitor D-JNKi-1 treatment blunted aortic JNK2 phosphorylation via activation of glucagon-like peptide-1-mediated signaling. The inhibitory phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 was reduced, whereas the protein kinase B/endothelial NO synthase pathway was increased and oxidative stress was decreased, resulting in improved vascular NO bioavailability. Decreased aortic JNK2 phosphorylation after RYGB rapidly improves obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction. Pharmacological JNK inhibition mimics the endothelial protective effects of RYGB. These findings highlight the therapeutic potential of novel strategies targeting vascular JNK2 against the severe cardiovascular disease associated with obesity. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  20. Treatment with sodium nitroprusside improves the endothelial function in aortic rings with endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Buzinari, Tereza Cristina; Oishi, Jorge Camargo; De Moraes, Thiago Francisco; Vatanabe, Izabela Pereira; Selistre-de-Araújo, Heloisa Sobreiro; Pestana, Cezar Rangel; Rodrigues, Gerson Jhonatan

    2017-07-15

    Verify if sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is able to improve endothelial function and if this effect is independent of nitric oxide (NO) release of the compound. Normotensive (2K) and hypertensive (2K-1C) wistar rats were used. Intact endothelium aortas were placed in a myograph and incubated with SNP: 0.1nM; 1nM or 10nM during 30min. Cumulative concentration-effect curves for acetylcholine (Ach) were realized to measure the relaxing capacity. Intracellular NO were measured (by DAF-2DA probe) in HUVEC treated with SNP 0.1nM or DETA/NO 0.1μM. The detection of intracellular superoxide radical (O 2 •- ) was obtained by using DHE probe. Treatment of 2K-1C aortic rings with SNP (0.1; 1.0 and 10nM) improved endothelium dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine. This improvement induced by SNP was verified at the concentration of 0.1nM, which does not release NO, suggesting that this effect was not induced due to NO release by SNP compound. Besides, we show that the cell treatment with 0.1nM of SNP decreased the fluorescence intensity to DHE in cells stimulated with angiotensin II. These results indicate that SNP decreases the concentration of O 2 •- in HUVEC cells. The SNP at a concentration that does not release NO inside the cells is able to attenuate endothelial dysfunction. Acetylcholine (Ach) (PubChem CID:6060); angiotensin II human (Ang II) (PubChem CID: 16211177); diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide (DETA-NO) (PubChem CID 4518); dihydroethidium (DHE) (PubChem CID: 128682); phenylephrine (Phe) (PubChem CID: 5284443); sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (PubChem CID: 11963579); Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide (MTT) (PubChem CID: 64965); 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA); 4-hidroxy-Tempo (Tempol) (PubChem CID: 137994), were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rhynchophylla total alkaloid rescues autophagy, decreases oxidative stress and improves endothelial vasodilation in spontaneous hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Jiang, Feng; Li, Yun-Lun; Jiang, Yue-Hua; Yang, Wen-Qing; Sheng, Jie; Xu, Wen-Juan; Zhu, Qing-Jun

    2018-03-01

    Autophagy plays an important role in alleviating oxidative stress and stabilizing atherosclerotic plaques. However, the potential role of autophagy in endothelial vasodilation function has rarely been studied. This study aimed to investigate whether rhynchophylla total alkaloid (RTA) has a positive role in enhancing autophagy through decreasing oxidative stress, and improving endothelial vasodilation. In oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), RTA (200 mg/L) significantly suppressed ox-LDL-induced oxidative stress through rescuing autophagy, and decreased cell apoptosis. In spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), administration of RTA (50 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 , ip, for 6 weeks) improved endothelin-dependent vasodilation of thoracic aorta rings. Furthermore, RTA administration significantly increased the antioxidant capacity and alleviated oxidative stress through enhancing autophagy in SHR. In ox-LDL-treated HUVECs, we found that the promotion of autophagy by RTA resulted in activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Our results show that RTA treatment rescues the ox-LDL-induced autophagy impairment in HUVECs and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation function in SHR.

  2. Magnolol Nanoparticles Exhibit Improved Water Solubility and Suppress TNF-α-Induced VCAM-1 Expression in Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiang-Wen; Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Yen, Feng-Lin; Hsu, Lee-Fen; Lee, I-Ta; Lin, Zih-Chan; Tsai, Ming-Horng; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Liang, Chan-Jung; Chiang, Yao-Chang

    2017-03-01

    The expression of the adhesion molecule vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on endothelial cells enables the attachment of leukocytes to the endothelium, which may lead to inflammation and the development of atherosclerosis. Magnolol is a major bioactive compound derived from the plant species Magnolia officinalis. In this study, we synthesized a novel nanoparticle formulation of magnolol to improve its water solubility and physicochemical properties, evaluated its effects on TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression in endothelial cells, and determined the signal transduction pathways involved. Our findings demonstrated that the magnolol nanoparticle system showed great improvements in physicochemical properties and water solubility owing to a reduction in particle size, transformation from a crystalline to amorphous structure, and the formation of hydrogen bonds with the nanoparticle carriers. In terms of its biological actions, magnolol nanoparticles attenuated TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 protein expression, promoter activity, and mRNA expression in endothelial cells in vitro. This was found to be mediated by the ERK, AKT, and NF-κB signaling pathways. In addition, magnolol nanoparticles inhibited TNF-α-induced leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, and suppressed TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression in the aortic endothelium of mice. In summary, since magnolol nanoparticles inhibit endothelial VCAM-1 expression and leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, this novel drug formulation may be a potentially useful therapeutic formulation to prevent the development of atherosclerosis and inflammatory diseases.

  3. Arginase Inhibition Restores Peroxynitrite-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction via L-Arginine-Dependent Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh Cong; Park, Jong Taek; Jeon, Yeong Gwan; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Hoe, Kwang Lae; Kim, Young Myeong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Peroxynitrite plays a critical role in vascular pathophysiology by increasing arginase activity and decreasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate whether arginase inhibition and L-arginine supplement could restore peroxynitrite-induced endothelial dysfunction and determine the involved mechanism. Materials and Methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with SIN-1, a peroxynitrite generator, and arginase activity, nitrite/nitrate production, and expression levels of proteins were measured. eNOS activation was evaluated via Western blot and dimer blot analysis. We also tested nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and performed a vascular tension assay. Results SIN-1 treatment increased arginase activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner and reciprocally decreased nitrite/nitrate production that was prevented by peroxynitrite scavenger in HUVECs. Furthermore, SIN-1 induced an increase in the expression level of arginase I and II, though not in eNOS protein. The decreased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 and the increased at Thr495 by SIN-1 were restored with arginase inhibitor and L-arginine. The changed eNOS phosphorylation was consistent in the stability of eNOS dimers. SIN-1 decreased NO production and increased ROS generation in the aortic endothelium, all of which was reversed by arginase inhibitor or L-arginine. NG-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) prevented SIN-1-induced ROS generation. In the vascular tension assay, SIN-1 enhanced vasoconstrictor responses to U46619 and attenuated vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine that were reversed by arginase inhibition. Conclusion These findings may explain the beneficial effect of arginase inhibition and L-arginine supplement on endothelial dysfunction under redox imbalance-dependent pathophysiological conditions. PMID:27593859

  4. Nutritional improvement of the endothelial control of vascular tone by polyphenols: role of NO and EDHF.

    PubMed

    Schini-Kerth, Valérie B; Auger, Cyril; Kim, Jong-Hun; Etienne-Selloum, Nelly; Chataigneau, Thierry

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies indicate that regular intake of polyphenol-rich beverages (red wine and tea) and foods (chocolate, fruit, and vegetables) is associated with a protective effect on the cardiovascular system in humans and animals. Beyond the well-known antioxidant properties of polyphenols, several other mechanisms have been shown to contribute to their beneficial cardiovascular effects. Indeed, both experimental and clinical studies indicate that polyphenols improve the ability of endothelial cells to control vascular tone. Experiments with isolated arteries have shown that polyphenols cause nitric oxide (NO)-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxations and increase the endothelial formation of NO. The polyphenol-induced NO formation is due to the redox-sensitive activation of the phosphatidylinositol3-kinase/Akt pathway leading to endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activation subsequent to its phosphorylation on Ser 1177. Besides the phosphatidylinositol3-kinase/Akt pathway, polyphenols have also been shown to activate eNOS by increasing the intracellular free calcium concentration and by activating estrogen receptors in endothelial cells. In addition to causing a rapid and sustained activation of eNOS by phosphorylation, polyphenols can increase the expression level of eNOS in endothelial cells leading to an increased formation of NO. Moreover, the polyphenol-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation also involves endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, besides NO, in several types of arteries. Altogether, polyphenols have the capacity to improve the endothelial control of vascular tone not only in several experimental models of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension but also in healthy and diseased humans. Thus, these experimental and clinical studies highlight the potential of polyphenol-rich sources to provide vascular protection in health and disease.

  5. Blueberries improve endothelial function, but not blood pressure, in adults with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Stull, April J; Cash, Katherine C; Champagne, Catherine M; Gupta, Alok K; Boston, Raymond; Beyl, Robbie A; Johnson, William D; Cefalu, William T

    2015-05-27

    Blueberry consumption has been shown to have various health benefits in humans. However, little is known about the effect of blueberry consumption on blood pressure, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in humans. The present study investigated the role of blueberry consumption on modifying blood pressure in subjects with metabolic syndrome. In addition, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity (secondary measurements) were also assessed. A double-blind and placebo-controlled study was conducted in 44 adults (blueberry, n = 23; and placebo, n = 21). They were randomized to receive a blueberry or placebo smoothie twice daily for six weeks. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity were assessed pre- and post-intervention. The blood pressure and insulin sensitivity did not differ between the blueberry and placebo groups. However, the mean change in resting endothelial function, expressed as reactive hyperemia index (RHI), was improved significantly more in the group consuming the blueberries versus the placebo group (p = 0.024). Even after adjusting for confounding factors, i.e., the percent body fat and gender, the blueberry group still had a greater improvement in endothelial function when compared to their counterpart (RHI; 0.32 ± 0.13 versus -0.33 ± 0.14; p = 0.0023). In conclusion, daily dietary consumption of blueberries did not improve blood pressure, but improved (i.e., increased) endothelial function over six weeks in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  6. Chronic treatment with tadalafil improves endothelial function in men with increased cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Rosano, Giuseppe M C; Aversa, Antonio; Vitale, Cristiana; Fabbri, Andrea; Fini, Massimo; Spera, Giovanni

    2005-02-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is often associated with a cluster of risk factors for coronary artery disease and reduced endothelial function. Acute and chronic administration of oral sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, improves endothelial function in patients with ED. Tadalafil (TAD) is a new PDE5 inhibitor with a long half life that allows alternate day administration. Aim of the study was to evaluate whether chronic therapy (4 weeks) with TAD improves endothelial function in patients with increased cardiovascular risk and whether this effect is sustained after discontinuation of therapy. We randomized 32 patients with increased cardiovascular risk to receive either TAD 20 mg on alternate days or matching placebo (PLB) for 4 weeks. Patients underwent evaluation of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), nitrite/nitrate and endothelin-1 plasma levels at baseline, at the end of treatment period and after two-weeks follow-up. At 4 weeks, FMD was significantly improved by TAD (from 4.2+/-3.2 to 9.3+/-3.7%, p<0.01 vs. baseline), but was not modified by PLB (from 4.1+/-2.8 to 4.0+/-3.4%, p=NS). At 6 weeks the benefit in FMD was sustained in patients that received TAD (9.1+/-3.9% vs. 4.2+/-3.2%, p=0.01 vs. baseline; 9.1+/-3.9% vs. 9.3+/-3.7%, vs. 4 weeks, p=NS) while no changes in FMD were observed in patients randomized to PLB. Also, compared to baseline, a net increase in nitrite/nitrate levels (38.2+/-12.3 vs. 52.6+/-11.7 and 51.1+/-3.1, p<0.05) and a decrease in endothelin-1 levels (3.3+/-0.9 vs. 2.9.+/-0.7 and 2.9+/-0.9, p<0.05) was found both at four and six-weeks after TAD; these changes were inversely correlated as shown by regression analysis (adjusted R2=0.81, p<0.0001). Chronic therapy with TAD improves endothelial function in patients with increased cardiovascular risk regardless their degree of ED. The benefit of this therapy is sustained for at least two weeks after the discontinuation of therapy. Larger studies are needed in order

  7. Treatment of denture-related stomatitis improves endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated vascular dilation.

    PubMed

    Osmenda, Grzegorz; Maciąg, Joanna; Wilk, Grzegorz; Maciąg, Anna; Nowakowski, Daniel; Loster, Jolanta; Dembowska, Elżbieta; Robertson, Douglas; Guzik, Tomasz; Cześnikiewicz-Guzik, Marta

    2017-02-01

    The presence of oral inflammation has recently been linked with the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. While numerous studies have described links between periodontitis and endothelial dysfunction, little is known about the influence of denture-related stomatitis (DRS) on cardiovascular risk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the treatment of DRS can lead to improvement of the clinical measures of vascular dysfunction. The DRS patients were treated with a local oral antifungal agent for 3 weeks. Blood pressure, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and nitroglycerine-mediated vascular dilatation (NMD) were measured during three study visits: before treatment, one day and two months after conclusion of antifungal therapy. Flow-mediated dilatation measurements showed significant improvement of endothelial function 2 months after treatment (FMD median 5%, 95 CI: 3-8.3 vs. 11%, 95% CI: 8.8-14.4; p < 0.01), while there was no difference in control, endothelium-independent vasorelaxations (NMD; median = 15.3%, 95% CI: 10.8-19.3 vs. 12.7%, 95% CI: 10.6-15; p = 0.3). Other cardiovascular parameters such as systolic (median = 125 mm Hg; 95% CI: 116-129 vs. 120 mm Hg, 95% CI: 116-126; p = 0.1) as well as diastolic blood pressure and heart rate (median = 65.5 bpm, 95% CI: 56.7-77.7 vs. 71 bpm, 95% CI: 66.7-75; p = 0.5) did not change during or after the treatment. Treatment of DRS is associated with improvement of endothelial function. Since endothelial dysfunction is known to precede the development of severe cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and hypertension, patients should be more carefully screened for DRS in general dental practice, and immediate DRS treatment should be advised.

  8. Improvement of endothelial function by pitavastatin: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Katsiki, Niki; Reiner, Željko; Tedeschi Reiner, Eugenia; Al-Rasadi, Khalid; Pirro, Matteo; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2018-02-01

    Dyslipidemia is commonly associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased cardiovascular risk. Pitavastatin has been shown to reduce total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and improve HDL function. Furthermore, several trials explored its effects on flow-mediated dilation (FMD), as an index of endothelial function. The authors evaluated the effect of pitavastatin therapy on FMD. The authors performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all clinical trials exploring the impact of pitavastatin on FMD. The search included PubMed-Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar databases. Quantitative data synthesis was performed using a random-effects model, with weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) as summary statistics. Six eligible studies comprising 7 treatment arms were selected for this meta-analysis. Overall, WMD was significant for the effect of pitavastatin on FMD (2.45%, 95% CI: 1.31, 3.60, p < 0.001) and the effect size was robust in the leave-one-out sensitivity analysis. This meta-analysis of all available clinical trials revealed a significant increase of FMD induced by pitavastatin.

  9. The metabolism of N-acetylcysteine by human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cotgreave, I; Moldéus, P; Schuppe, I

    1991-06-21

    When human umbilical endothelial cells were depleted of their glutathione by incubation in a sulfur amino acid-free medium, subsequent incubation of the cells with this deficient medium supplemented with N-acetylcysteine resulted in a dose-dependent stimulation of the synthesis of cellular glutathione. Similarly, the inclusion of N-acetylcysteine in the medium during the period of depletion of glutathione caused a dose-dependent retardation of the depletion kinetics. In contrast, the incubation of control cells in normal medium supplemented with N-acetylcysteine did not increase cellular glutathione levels above controls. These observations indicate the presence of an N-deacetylase in/on the cells with specificity for N-acetylcysteine. Due to the large surface area of the endothelium in the vasculature it seems likely that endothelial cell N-deacetylation plays a role in the metabolic disposition of N-acetylcysteine, particularly when administered intravenously. N-Acetylcysteine is, however, a relatively poor precursor to glutathione biosynthesis in comparison to cystine. Thus, any cytoprotective, antioxidant effect exerted by N-acetylcysteine on the human endothelium is likely to be due to direct scavenging of reactive intermediates rather than by stimulated glutathione synthesis in the endothelial cells themselves.

  10. Chronic administration of the probiotic kefir improves the endothelial function in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Friques, Andreia G F; Arpini, Clarisse M; Kalil, Ieda C; Gava, Agata L; Leal, Marcos A; Porto, Marcella L; Nogueira, Breno V; Dias, Ananda T; Andrade, Tadeu U; Pereira, Thiago Melo C; Meyrelles, Silvana S; Campagnaro, Bianca P; Vasquez, Elisardo C

    2015-12-30

    recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells was decreased in the non-treated SHR and partially restored by kefir treatment. Kefir treatment for 60 days was able to improve the endothelial function in SHR by partially restoring the ROS/NO imbalance and the endothelial architecture due to endothelial progenitor cells recruitment.

  11. Exercise training improves endothelial function in resistance arteries of young prehypertensives.

    PubMed

    Beck, D T; Martin, J S; Casey, D P; Braith, R W

    2014-05-01

    Prehypertension is associated with reduced conduit artery endothelial function and perturbation of oxidant/antioxidant status. It is unknown whether endothelial dysfunction persists to resistance arteries and whether exercise training affects oxidant/antioxidant balance in young prehypertensives. We examined resistance artery function using venous occlusion plethysmography measurement of forearm (FBF) and calf blood flow (CBF) at rest and during reactive hyperaemia (RH), as well as lipid peroxidation (8-iso-PGF2α) and antioxidant capacity (Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity; TEAC) before and after exercise intervention or time control. Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive and 15 matched normotensive time controls met screening requirements and participated in the study (age: 21.1±0.8 years). Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to resistance exercise training (PHRT; n=15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n=13) or time-control groups (PHTC; n=15). Treatment groups exercised 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Peak and total FBF were lower in prehypertensives than normotensives (12.7±1.2 ml min(-1) per100 ml tissue and 89.1±7.7 ml min(-1) per 100 ml tissue vs 16.3±1.0 ml min(-1) per 100 ml tissue and 123.3±6.4 ml min(-1) per 100 ml tissue, respectively; P<0.05). Peak and total CBF were lower in prehypertensives than normotensives (15.3±1.2 ml min(-1) per 100 ml tissue and 74±8.3 ml min(-1) per 100 ml tissue vs 20.9±1.4 ml min(-1) per 100 ml tissue and 107±9.2 ml min(-1) per 100 ml tissue, respectively; P<0.05). PHRT and PHET improved humoral measures of TEAC (+24 and +30%) and 8-iso-PGF2α (-43 and -40%, respectively; P < or = 0.05). This study provides evidence that young prehypertensives exhibit reduced resistance artery endothelial function and that short-term (8 weeks) resistance or endurance training are effective in improving resistance artery endothelial function and oxidant

  12. Impaired endothelial function in patients with mild primary hyperparathyroidism improves after parathyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Tuna, Mazhar M; Doğan, Berçem A; Arduç, Ayşe; Imga, Narin Nasiroğlu; Tütüncü, Yasemin; Berker, Dilek; Güler, Serdar

    2015-12-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity; however, data on the reversibility of cardiovascular disease in mild primary hyperparathyroidism are conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess endothelial function in patients with mild PHPT before and after parathyroidectomy (Ptx). We prospectively evaluated 53 patients with mild PHPT (Group 1; 45 women, eight men; aged 52 ± 3·1 years) and 46 healthy control subjects (Group 2; 38 women, eight men; aged 46 ± 9·5 years). Endothelial function was measured as flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) using Doppler ultrasonography. Patients with diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, impaired renal function, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and a history of smoking were excluded from the study. Patients were studied at baseline and 6-12 months after the first evaluation. There were no differences with respect to age, gender and BMI between the two groups. Hypertension prevalence was three times higher in group 1 than in controls. % FMD was lower in group 1 than in group 2 (2·6 ± 1·2 vs 14·8 ± 9·6, P < 0·001). CIMT was higher in patients with PHPT than controls (0·69 ± 0·18 vs 0·61 ± 0·12, P = 0·045). This significance remained when hypertensive patients were excluded from the analysis. While FMD and CIMT improved significantly after Ptx, there were no differences in mild PHPT patients who followed without parathyroidectomy. FMD and CIMT are impaired in patients with mild PHPT compared to controls and improved significantly after a successful Ptx. Ptx improves endothelial function in patients with mild PHPT that may lead to decreased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Clinical evaluation of blood pressure lowering, endothelial function improving, hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects of pomegranate juice in hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Afshani, Mohammad Reza; Keshvari, Mahtab; Haghjooyjavanmard, Shaghayegh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice (PJ) contains different types of antioxidants and bioactive polyphenols and has been reported to promote cardiovascular health through several mechanisms. The present study aimed to examine the effects of 2-week intake of fresh PJ on blood pressure, flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), serum lipid profile and concentrations of inflammatory and endothelial function biomarkers. Twenty-one hypertensive patients (aged 30-67 years) were recruited into the trial and assigned to receive either PJ (150 ml/day in a single occasion between lunch and dinner; n = 11) or the same amount of water (n = 10) for a period of 2 weeks. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) pressures together with FMD and serum concentrations of lipid profile parameters, apolipoproteins A and B, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular endothelial adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured at baseline and at the end of trial. PJ consumption was associated with significant reductions in SBP (p = 0.002) and DBP (p = 0.038) but not FMD (p > 0.05). Serum levels of VCAM-1 (p = 0.008) were significantly reduced by PJ while those of E-selectin were elevated (p = 0.039). However, no significant effect was observed from PJ on serum levels of ICAM-1, hs-CRP, lipid profile parameters, apolipoproteins and IL-6 in any of the study groups (p > 0.05). Consumption of PJ for 2 weeks has effective hypotensive effects, and may improve endothelial function by decreasing serum concentrations of VCAM-1. These findings suggest PJ as a beneficial cardioprotective supplement for hypertensive subjects. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Oligonucleotide and Parylene Surface Coating of Polystyrene and ePTFE for Improved Endothelial Cell Attachment and Hemocompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Schleicher, Martina; Hansmann, Jan; Elkin, Bentsian; Kluger, Petra J.; Liebscher, Simone; Huber, Agnes J. T.; Fritze, Olaf; Schille, Christine; Müller, Michaela; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Seifert, Martina; Walles, Heike; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Stock, Ulrich A.

    2012-01-01

    In vivo self-endothelialization by endothelial cell adhesion on cardiovascular implants is highly desirable. DNA-oligonucleotides are an intriguing coating material with nonimmunogenic characteristics and the feasibility of easy and rapid chemical fabrication. The objective of this study was the creation of cell adhesive DNA-oligonucleotide coatings on vascular implant surfaces. DNA-oligonucleotides immobilized by adsorption on parylene (poly(monoaminomethyl-para-xylene)) coated polystyrene and ePTFE were resistant to high shear stress (9.5 N/m2) and human blood serum for up to 96 h. Adhesion of murine endothelial progenitor cells, HUVECs and endothelial cells from human adult saphenous veins as well as viability over a period of 14 days of HUVECs on oligonucleotide coated samples under dynamic culture conditions was significantly enhanced (P < 0.05). Oligonucleotide-coated surfaces revealed low thrombogenicity and excellent hemocompatibility after incubation with human blood. These properties suggest the suitability of immobilization of DNA-oligonucleotides for biofunctionalization of blood vessel substitutes for improved in vivo endothelialization. PMID:22481939

  15. Blueberries Improve Endothelial Function, but Not Blood Pressure, in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stull, April J.; Cash, Katherine C.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Gupta, Alok K.; Boston, Raymond; Beyl, Robbie A.; Johnson, William D.; Cefalu, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Blueberry consumption has been shown to have various health benefits in humans. However, little is known about the effect of blueberry consumption on blood pressure, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in humans. The present study investigated the role of blueberry consumption on modifying blood pressure in subjects with metabolic syndrome. In addition, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity (secondary measurements) were also assessed. A double-blind and placebo-controlled study was conducted in 44 adults (blueberry, n = 23; and placebo, n = 21). They were randomized to receive a blueberry or placebo smoothie twice daily for six weeks. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure, endothelial function and insulin sensitivity were assessed pre- and post-intervention. The blood pressure and insulin sensitivity did not differ between the blueberry and placebo groups. However, the mean change in resting endothelial function, expressed as reactive hyperemia index (RHI), was improved significantly more in the group consuming the blueberries versus the placebo group (p = 0.024). Even after adjusting for confounding factors, i.e., the percent body fat and gender, the blueberry group still had a greater improvement in endothelial function when compared to their counterpart (RHI; 0.32 ± 0.13 versus −0.33 ± 0.14; p = 0.0023). In conclusion, daily dietary consumption of blueberries did not improve blood pressure, but improved (i.e., increased) endothelial function over six weeks in subjects with metabolic syndrome. PMID:26024297

  16. Endothelial cell repopulation after stenting determines in-stent neointima formation: effects of bare-metal vs. drug-eluting stents and genetic endothelial cell modification.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Gillian; Van Kampen, Erik; Hale, Ashley B; McNeill, Eileen; Patel, Jyoti; Crabtree, Mark J; Ali, Ziad; Hoerr, Robert A; Alp, Nicholas J; Channon, Keith M

    2013-11-01

    Understanding endothelial cell repopulation post-stenting and how this modulates in-stent restenosis is critical to improving arterial healing post-stenting. We used a novel murine stent model to investigate endothelial cell repopulation post-stenting, comparing the response of drug-eluting stents with a primary genetic modification to improve endothelial cell function. Endothelial cell repopulation was assessed en face in stented arteries in ApoE(-/-) mice with endothelial-specific LacZ expression. Stent deployment resulted in near-complete denudation of endothelium, but was followed by endothelial cell repopulation, by cells originating from both bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells and from the adjacent vasculature. Paclitaxel-eluting stents reduced neointima formation (0.423 ± 0.065 vs. 0.240 ± 0.040 mm(2), P = 0.038), but decreased endothelial cell repopulation (238 ± 17 vs. 154 ± 22 nuclei/mm(2), P = 0.018), despite complete strut coverage. To test the effects of selectively improving endothelial cell function, we used transgenic mice with endothelial-specific overexpression of GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH-Tg) as a model of enhanced endothelial cell function and increased NO production. GCH-Tg ApoE(-/-) mice had less neointima formation compared with ApoE(-/-) littermates (0.52 ± 0.08 vs. 0.26 ± 0.09 mm(2), P = 0.039). In contrast to paclitaxel-eluting stents, reduced neointima formation in GCH-Tg mice was accompanied by increased endothelial cell coverage (156 ± 17 vs. 209 ± 23 nuclei/mm(2), P = 0.043). Drug-eluting stents reduce not only neointima formation but also endothelial cell repopulation, independent of strut coverage. In contrast, selective targeting of endothelial cell function is sufficient to improve endothelial cell repopulation and reduce neointima formation. Targeting endothelial cell function is a rational therapeutic strategy to improve vascular healing and decrease neointima formation after stenting.

  17. Inorganic Nitrate Supplementation in Young and Old Obese Adults Does Not Affect Acute Glucose and Insulin Responses but Lowers Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Ashor, Ammar W; Chowdhury, Shakir; Oggioni, Clio; Qadir, Othman; Brandt, Kirsten; Ishaq, Abbas; Mathers, John C; Saretzki, Gabriele; Siervo, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Aging and obesity are associated with raised oxidative stress and a reduction of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, with subsequent decline in insulin sensitivity and endothelial function. Inorganic nitrate is converted into NO via a 2-step reduction process and may be an effective nutritional intervention to modify vascular and metabolic functions. This study tested whether inorganic nitrate supplementation improved glucose disposal and attenuated the acute effects of hyperglycemia on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular function in young and old obese participants. Ten young (aged 18-44 y) and 10 old (aged 55-70 y) obese participants consumed 75 g glucose followed by either potassium nitrate (7 mg/kg body weight) or potassium chloride (placebo) in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. Resting blood pressure (BP), endothelial function, and blood biomarkers were measured for 3 h postintervention. Biomarkers included plasma nitrate/nitrite (NOx), glucose, insulin, cyclic GMP, interleukin 6, 3-nitrotyrosine, E- and P-selectins, intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3), and thrombomodulin, as well as superoxide in freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Inorganic nitrate supplementation did not affect plasma glucose (P = 0.18) or insulin (P = 0.26) responses. The increase in plasma NOx concentrations 3 h after the administration of inorganic nitrate was significantly higher in young than in old participants (234% increase compared with 149% increase, respectively, P < 0.001). Plasma 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations declined significantly after inorganic nitrate supplementation compared with placebo (3 h postdose, 46% decrease compared with 27% increase, respectively, P = 0.04), and a similar nonsignificant trend was observed for superoxide concentrations (3 h postdose, 16% decrease compared with 23% increase, respectively, P = 0.06). Plasma cyclic GMP, ICAM-3, and thrombomodulin concentrations differed between young and old

  18. Influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hydrocortisone on the co-culture of mature adipocytes and endothelial cells for vascularized adipose tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Huber, Birgit; Czaja, Alina Maria; Kluger, Petra Juliane

    2016-05-01

    The composition of vascularized adipose tissue is still an ongoing challenge as no culture medium is available to supply adipocytes and endothelial cells appropriately. Endothelial cell medium is typically supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF) as well as hydrocortisone (HC). The effect of EGF on adipocytes is discussed controversially. Some studies say it inhibits adipocyte differentiation while others reported of improved adipocyte lipogenesis. HC is known to have lipolytic activities, which might result in mature adipocyte dedifferentiation. In this study, we evaluated the influence of EGF and HC on the co-culture of endothelial cells and mature adipocytes regarding their cell morphology and functionality. We showed in mono-culture that high levels of HC promoted dedifferentiation and proliferation of mature adipocytes, whereas EGF seemed to have no negative influence. Endothelial cells kept their typical cobblestone morphology and showed a proliferation rate comparable to the control independent of EGF and HC concentration. In co-culture, HC promoted dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, which was shown by a higher glycerol release. EGF had no negative impact on adipocyte morphology. No negative impact on endothelial cell morphology and functionality could be seen with reduced EGF and HC supplementation in co-culture with mature adipocytes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that reduced levels of HC are needed for co-culturing mature adipocytes and endothelial cells. In co-culture, EGF had no influence on mature adipocytes. Therefore, for the composition of vascularized adipose tissue constructs, the media with low levels of HC and high or low levels of EGF can be used. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  19. The glutathione mimic ebselen inhibits oxidative stress but not endoplasmic reticulum stress in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ahwach, Salma Makhoul; Thomas, Melanie; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Mooradian, Arshag D; Haas, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species are associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, yet the use of antioxidants in clinical trials has been ineffective at improving outcomes. In endothelial cells, high-dextrose-induced oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress promote endothelial dysfunction leading to the recruitment and activation of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the breakdown of barrier function. Ebselen, a glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) mimic, has been shown to improve β-cell function in diabetes and prevent atherosclerosis. To determine if ebselen inhibits both oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in endothelial cells, we examined its effects in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with and without high-dextrose. Oxidative stress and ER stress were measured by 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride chemiluminescence and ER stress alkaline phosphatase assays, respectively. GPX1 over-expression and knockdown were performed by transfecting cells with a GPX1 expression construct or a GPX1-specific siRNA, respectively. Ebselen inhibited dextrose-induced oxidative stress but not ER stress in both HUVEC and HCAEC. Ebselen also had no effect on tunicamycin-induced ER stress in HCAEC. Furthermore, augmentation of GPX1 activity directly by sodium selenite supplementation or transfection of a GPX1 expression plasmid decreased dextrose-induced oxidative stress but not ER stress, while GPX1 knockout enhanced oxidative stress but had no effect on ER stress. These results suggest that ebselen targets only oxidative stress but not ER stress. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. [Circuit resistance training improved endothelial dysfunction in obese aged women].

    PubMed

    Rosety, Ignacio; Pery, María Teresa; Rosety, Jesús; García, Natalia; Rodríguez-Pareja, María Antonia; Brenes-Martín, Francisco; Díaz, Antonio; Rosety-Rodríguez, Manuel; Ordoñez, Francisco Javier; Rosety, Miguel Ángel

    2016-02-16

    It is widely accepted that obesity is associated with endothelial dysfunction. In a recent paper, we have also found circuit resistance training may reduce visceral fat in obese aged women. Accordingly, the current study was conducted to ascertain the effects of circuit resistance training on markers of endothelial dysfunction in this population group. In the present interventional study, a total of 48 obese aged women were recruited from the community. Twenty-four of them were randomly assigned to perform a 12-week resistance circuit training programme, 3-days per week. This training was circularly performed in 6 stations: arm curl, leg extension, seated row, leg curl, triceps extension and leg press. The Jamar handgrip electronic dynamometer was used to assess maximal handgrip strength of the dominant hand. Lastly, serum samples were analysed using an immunoassay (ELISA) for endothelin-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). When compared to baseline, resistance training significantly reduced serum levels of endothelin-1 (2.28 ± 0.7 vs. 1.98 ± 1.1 pg/ml; p = 0.019; d = 0.67) and ICAM-1 (290 ± 69 vs. 255 ± 76 ng/ml; p = 0.004; d = 0.92) in the experimental group. No significant changes in any of the tested outcomes were found in the control group. A short-term circuit resistance program improved endothelial dysfunction in aged obese women. Further studies on this topic are still required to consolidate this approach in clinical application.

  1. Eicosapentaenoic acid improves endothelial function and nitric oxide bioavailability in a manner that is enhanced in combination with a statin.

    PubMed

    Mason, R Preston; Dawoud, Hazem; Jacob, Robert F; Sherratt, Samuel C R; Malinski, Tadeusz

    2018-07-01

    The endothelium exerts many vasoprotective effects that are largely mediated by release of nitric oxide (NO). Endothelial dysfunction represents an early but reversible step in atherosclerosis and is characterized by a reduction in the bioavailability of NO. Previous studies have shown that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA), and statins individually improve endothelial cell function, but their effects in combination have not been tested. Through a series of in vitro experiments, this study evaluated the effects of a combined treatment of EPA and the active metabolite of atorvastatin (ATM) on endothelial cell function under conditions of oxidative stress. Specifically, the comparative and time-dependent effects of these agents on endothelial dysfunction were examined by measuring the levels of NO and peroxynitrite (ONOO - ) released from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The data suggest that combined treatment with EPA and ATM is beneficial to endothelial function and was unique to EPA and ATM since similar improvements could not be recapitulated by substituting another O3FA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or other TG-lowering agents such as fenofibrate, niacin, or gemfibrozil. Comparable beneficial effects were observed when HUVECs were pretreated with EPA and ATM before exposure to oxidative stress. Interestingly, the kinetics of EPA-based protection of endothelial function in response to oxidation were found to be significantly different than those of DHA. Lastly, the beneficial effects on endothelial function generated by combined treatment of EPA and ATM were reproduced when this study was expanded to an ex vivo model utilizing rat glomerular endothelial cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that a combined treatment of EPA and ATM can inhibit endothelial dysfunction that occurs in response to conditions such as hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  2. Consumption of High-Polyphenol Dark Chocolate Improves Endothelial Function in Individuals with Stage 1 Hypertension and Excess Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lívia de Paula; Knibel, Marcela Paranhos; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Nogueira Neto, José Firmino; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hypertension and excess body weight are important risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chocolate 70% cocoa intake with metabolic profile, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure, and endothelial function in stage 1 hypertensives with excess body weight. Methods. Intervention clinical trial includes 22 stage 1 hypertensives without previous antihypertensive treatment, aged 18 to 60 years and presents a body mass index between 25.0 and 34.9 kg/m2. All participants were instructed to consume 50 g of chocolate 70% cocoa/day (2135 mg polyphenols) for 4 weeks. Endothelial function was evaluated by peripheral artery tonometry using Endo-PAT 2000 (Itamar Medical). Results. Twenty participants (10 men) completed the study. Comparison of pre-post intervention revealed that (1) there were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters, percentage body fat, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation, adhesion molecules, oxidized LDL, and blood pressure; (2) the assessment of endothelial function through the reactive hyperemia index showed a significant increase: 1.94 ± 0.18 to 2.22 ± 0.08, P = 0.01. Conclusion.In individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weight, high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function. PMID:23209885

  3. Improved Cryopreservation of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: A Systematic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultani, A. Billal; Marquez-Curtis, Leah A.; Elliott, Janet A. W.; McGann, Locksley E.

    2016-10-01

    Cryopreservation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) facilitated their commercial availability for use in vascular biology, tissue engineering and drug delivery research; however, the key variables in HUVEC cryopreservation have not been comprehensively studied. HUVECs are typically cryopreserved by cooling at 1 °C/min in the presence of 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). We applied interrupted slow cooling (graded freezing) and interrupted rapid cooling with a hold time (two-step freezing) to identify where in the cooling process cryoinjury to HUVECs occurs. We found that linear cooling at 1 °C/min resulted in higher membrane integrities than linear cooling at 0.2 °C/min or nonlinear two-step freezing. DMSO addition procedures and compositions were also investigated. By combining hydroxyethyl starch with DMSO, HUVEC viability after cryopreservation was improved compared to measured viabilities of commercially available cryopreserved HUVECs and viabilities for HUVEC cryopreservation studies reported in the literature. Furthermore, HUVECs cryopreserved using our improved procedure showed high tube forming capability in a post-thaw angiogenesis assay, a standard indicator of endothelial cell function. As well as presenting superior cryopreservation procedures for HUVECs, the methods developed here can serve as a model to optimize the cryopreservation of other cells.

  4. Femtosecond laser cutting of endothelial grafts: comparison of endothelial and epithelial applanation.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Aurélien; He, Zhiguo; Gauthier, Anne Sophie; Trone, Marie Caroline; Baubeau, Emmanuel; Forest, Fabien; Dumollard, Jean Marc; Peocʼh, Michel; Thuret, Gilles; Gain, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    Stromal surface quality of endothelial lamellae cut for endothelial keratoplasty with a femtosecond laser (FSL) with epithelial applanation remains disappointing. Applanation of the endothelial side of the cornea, mounted inverted on an artificial chamber, has therefore been proposed to improve cut quality. We compared lamellar quality after FSL cutting using epithelial versus endothelial applanation. Lamellae were cut with an FSL from organ-cultured corneas. After randomization, 7 were cut with epithelial applanation and 7 with endothelial applanation. Lamellae of 50-, 75-, and 100-μm thickness were targeted. Thickness was measured by optical coherence tomography before and immediately after cutting. Viable endothelial cell density was quantified immediately after cutting using triple labeling with Hoechst/ethidium/calcein-AM coupled with image analysis with ImageJ. The stromal surface was evaluated by 9 masked observers using semiquantitative scoring of scanning electronic microscopy images. Histology of 2 samples was also analyzed before lamellar detachment. Precision (difference in target/actual thickness) and thickness regularity [coefficient of variation (CV) of 10 measurements] were significantly better with endothelial applanation (precision: 18 μm; range, 10-30; CV: 11%; range, 8-12) than with epithelial applanation (precision: 84 μm; range, 54-107; P = 0.002; CV: 24%; range, 13-47; P = 0.001). Endothelial applanation provided thinner lamellae. However, viable endothelial cell density was significantly lower after endothelial applanation (1183 cells/mm2; range, 787-1725 versus 1688 cells/mm2; range, 1288-2025; P = 0.018). FSL cutting of endothelial lamellae using endothelial applanation provides thinner more regular grafts with more predictable thickness than with conventional epithelial applanation but strongly reduces the pool of viable endothelial cells.

  5. Dietary Lecithin Supplementation Can Improve the Quality of the M. Longissimus thoracis

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Darryl N.; Blake, Bronwyn L.; Williams, Ian H.; Mullan, Bruce P.; Pethick, David W.; Dunshea, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Meat tenderness and texture can be influenced by the connective tissue content. Dietary lecithin offers a means of improving fat digestibility of pigs and reducing the connective tissue of pork. This feeding study confirmed that dietary lecithin decreased the chewiness and improved the fatty acid composition of pork without impacting on growth performance of pigs. Therefore, dietary lecithin supplementation has the potential to improve the quality attributes of pork. Abstract Forty crossbred (Large White × Landrace × Duroc) female pigs (16.4 kg ± 0.94 kg) were used to investigate the effect of dietary lecithin supplementation on growth performance and pork quality. Pigs were randomly allocated to a commercial diet containing either 0, 3, 15 or 75 g lecithin/kg of feed during the grower and finisher growth phase. Pork from pigs consuming the diets containing 15 g and 75 g lecithin/kg had lower hardness (P < 0.001) and chewiness (P < 0.01) values compared to the controls. Dietary lecithin supplementation at 75 g/kg significantly increased (P < 0.05) the linoleic acid and reduced (P < 0.05) the myristic acid levels of pork compared to the control and the 3 g/kg and 15 g/kg lecithin supplemented treatments. Pigs fed the 75 g/kg lecithin supplemented diet had lower plasma cholesterol (P < 0.05) at slaughter compared to pigs fed the control diet and the 3 g/kg and 15 g/kg lecithin supplemented treatments. These data indicate that dietary lecithin supplementation has the potential to improve the quality attributes of pork from female pigs. PMID:26610579

  6. Association Between Fungal Contamination and Eye Bank-Prepared Endothelial Keratoplasty Tissue: Temperature-Dependent Risk Factors and Antifungal Supplementation of Optisol-Gentamicin and Streptomycin.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Kimberly M; Shanks, Robert M Q; Hurlbert, Susan; Kowalski, Regis P; Tu, Elmer Y

    2017-11-01

    Fungal contamination and infection from donor tissues processed for endothelial keratoplasty is a growing concern, prompting analysis of donor tissues after processing. To determine whether eyebank-processed endothelial keratoplasty tissue is at higher risk of contamination than unprocessed tissue and to model eyebank processing with regard to room temperature exposure on Candida growth in optisol-gentamicin and streptomycin (GS) with and without antifungal supplementation. An examination of the 2013 Eversight Eyebank Study follow-up database for risk factors associated with post-keratoplasty infection identified an increased risk of positive fungal rim culture results in tissue processed for endothelial keratoplasty vs unprocessed tissue. Processing steps at room temperature were hypothesized as a potential risk factor for promotion of fungal growth between these 2 processes. Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis endophthalmitis isolates were each inoculated into optisol-GS and subjected to 2 different room temperature incubation regimens reflective of current corneal tissue handling protocols. Eversight Eyebank Study outcomes and measures were follow-up inquiries from 6592 corneal transplants. Efficacy study outcomes and measures were fungal colony-forming units from inoculated vials of optisol-GS taken at 2 different processing temperatures. Donor rim culture results were 3 times more likely to be positive for fungi in endothelial keratoplasty-processed eyes (1.14%) than for other uses (0.37%) (difference, 0.77%; 95% CI, 0.17-.1.37) (P = .009). In vitro, increased room temperature incubation of optisol-GS increased growth of Candida species over time. The addition of caspofungin and voriconazole decreased growth of Candida in a species-dependent manner. Detectable Candida growth in donor rim cultures, associated with a higher rate of post keratoplasty infection, is seen in endothelial keratoplasty tissue vs other uses at the time of

  7. Influence of radiographic contrast media (Iodixanol and Iomeprol) on the endothelin-1 release from human arterial and venous endothelial cells cultured on an extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Franke, R P; Fuhrmann, R; Hiebl, B; Jung, F

    2012-01-01

    Various radiographic contrast media (RCM) are available for visualization of blood vessels in interventional cardiology which can vary widely in their physicochemical properties thereby influencing different functions of blood cells. In the in vitro study described here the influence of two RCMs on arterial as well as on venous endothelial cells was compared to control cultures and examined under statical culture conditions, thus eliminating the influence of RCM viscosity almost completely. The supplementation of the culture medium with RCM (30% v/v) resulted in clearly different reactions of the endothelial cells exposed. Exposition to Iodixanol supplemented culture medium was followed by endothelin-1 release from venous endothelial cells which was equivalent to the endothelin-1 release from venous control cultures. Compared to control cultures, venous endothelial cells exposed to culture medium supplemented with Iomeprol displayed a completely different reaction, the increase in endothelin-1 secretion was missing completely after a 12 hours exposure. Following a 12 hours exposure to both RCMs there were no longer endothelial cells adherent, neither in venous nor in arterial endothelial cell cultures. The study showed that not the wall shear stress was responsible for the differing effects visible after 1.5 min, 5 min, and 12 hours exposure to culture media supplemented with RCM but differences in chemotoxicity of the RCM applied.

  8. Low Molecular Weight Heparin Improves Endothelial Function in Pregnant Women at High Risk of Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Kelsey; Baczyk, Dora; Potts, Audrey; Hladunewich, Michelle; Parker, John D; Kingdom, John C P

    2017-01-01

    Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been investigated for the prevention of severe preeclampsia, although the mechanisms of action are unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of LMWH in pregnant women at high risk of preeclampsia. Pregnant women at high risk of preeclampsia (n=25) and low-risk pregnant controls (n=20) at 22 to 26 weeks' gestation underwent baseline cardiovascular assessments. High-risk women were then randomized to LMWH or saline placebo (30 mg IV bolus and 1 mg/kg subcutaneous dose). Cardiovascular function was assessed 1 and 3 hours post randomization. The in vitro endothelial effects of patient serum and exogenous LMWH on human umbilical venous endothelial cells were determined. High-risk women demonstrated a reduced cardiac output, high resistance hemodynamic profile with impaired radial artery flow-mediated dilation compared with controls. LMWH increased flow-mediated dilation in high-risk women 3 hours after randomization compared with baseline and increased plasma levels of placental growth factor, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and myeloperoxidase. Serum from high-risk women impaired endothelial cell angiogenesis and increased PlGF-1 and PlGF-2 transcription compared with serum from low-risk controls. Coexposure of high-risk serum with LMWH improved the in vitro angiogenic response such that it was equivalent to that of low-risk serum and promoted placental growth factor secretion. LMWH improves maternal endothelial function in pregnant women at high risk of developing preeclampsia, possibly mediated through increased placental growth factor bioavailability. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Simple educational intervention will improve the efficacy of routine antenatal iron supplementation.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Hemantha M; Premaratne, Samanthi P; Palihawadana, Thilina; Wijeratne, Sumeda

    2010-06-01

    Sri Lanka has a policy of free provision of iron supplements to pregnant women. However, iron deficiency anemia remains common in pregnancy. We tested the hypothesis that educating women regarding improving bioavailability could improve the efficacy of iron supplementation. The education focused on how best supplements could be taken and on how they should be stored. We carried out a study using a quasi-experimental design on a group of women attending for antenatal care at a suburban University Obstetric Unit in Sri Lanka. The control group had care free of charge including iron supplementation and antihelminthic therapy. In addition, the study group received an education in small groups regarding maximizing bioavailability of iron. Hemoglobin and iron status of the women were compared between the groups at recruitment and at 34 weeks of gestation. The two groups were equally matched in demographic data, and hemoglobin and iron status. There were significant differences between the two groups at 34 weeks in the hemoglobin levels, serum ferritin levels, anemia rates and the number with low ferritin (P < 0.0001 for all parameters), with a favorable outcome in the study group. The study group had used the iron tablets in ways that improved their bioavailability. A simple health education improved the efficacy of iron supplementation in this population. Such interventions should be an integral part of iron supplementation programs, especially in populations whose habits tend to reduce the bioavailability of iron.

  10. Manganese supplementation increases adiponectin and lowers ICAM-1 and creatinine blood levels in Zucker type 2 diabetic rats, and downregulates ICAM-1 by upregulating adiponectin multimerization protein (DsbA-L) in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Burlet, Elodie; Jain, Sushil K

    2017-05-01

    Blood and tissue levels of manganese (Mn) are lower in type 2 diabetic and atherosclerosis patients compared with healthy subjects. Adiponectin has anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic properties. Impairment in Disulfide bond A-like protein (DsbA-L) is associated with low adiponectin levels and diabetes. This study investigates the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of Mn supplementation are mediated by adiponectin and DsbA-L. At 6 weeks of age, Male Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF) were randomly divided into two groups: diabetic controls and Mn-supplemented diabetic rats. Each rat was supplemented with Mn (D+Mn, 16 mg/kg BW) or water (placebo, D+P) daily for 7 weeks by oral gavage. For cell culture studies, Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) or 3T3L1 adipocytes were pretreated with Mn (0-10 µM MnCl 2 ) for 24 h, followed by high glucose (HG, 25 mM) or normal glucose (5 mM) exposure for another 24 h. Mn supplementation resulted in higher adiponectin (p = 0.01), and lower ICAM-1 (p = 0.04) and lower creatinine (p = 0.04) blood levels compared to those in control ZDF rats. Mn-supplemented rats also caused reduced oxidative stress (ROS) and NADPH oxidase, and higher DsbA-L expression in the liver (p = 0.03) of ZDF rats compared to those in livers of control rats; however, Fe levels in liver were lower but not significant (p = 0.08). Similarly, treatment with high glucose (25 mM) caused a decrease in DsbA-L, which was prevented by Mn supplementation in HUVEC and adipocytes. Mechanistic studies with DsbA-L siRNA showed that the beneficial effects of Mn supplementation on ROS, NOX4, and ICAM-1 expression were abolished in DsbA-L knock-down HUVEC. These studies demonstrate that DsbA-L-linked adiponectin mediates the beneficial effects observed with Mn supplementation and provides evidence for a novel mechanism by which Mn supplementation can increase adiponectin and reduce the biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes.

  11. Houttuynia cordata Extract Improves Physical Endurance Performance by Regulating Endothelial Production of Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ui-Jeong; Maeng, Hyojin; Park, Tae-Sik; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2015-09-01

    Vascular function is mediated by various regulatory molecules, including endothelial nitric oxide (NO), which regulates the vasodilation of smooth muscle cells. We investigated whether standardized Houttuynia cordata extract (SHCE) could improve physical endurance performance by regulating the endothelial production of NO. For the standardization of Houttuynia cordata (HC) extract, its bioactive components were identified and quantified using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bioaccessibility and biological activity were measured by the in vitro digestion model system and free radical scavenging capacity, respectively. The vascular function in the endothelium was assessed by the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). A preliminary clinical trial was carried out to assess the physical endurance performance. HC extract was standardized to bioactive components, including chlorogenic acid, rutin, and quercitrin, with the concentration of 5.53, 6.09, and 16.15 mg from 1 g of dry weight, respectively. Bioaccessibility was 33.17%, 31.67%, and 11.18% for chlorogenic acid, rutin, and quercitrin, respectively. Antioxidant activities of SHCE were expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity in 55.81 and 17.23 mg/g of HC extract using ABTS and DPPH scavenging assay, respectively. In human aortic endothelial cells, insulin-mediated phosphorylation of eNOS was increased by SHCE in the presence of palmitate. However, the expression of blood pressure-regulating genes was not altered. The level of blood lactate concentration and the heart rate of subjects who drank SHCE were lower than those of subjects who drank plain water. Oxygen uptake from subjects drinking SHCE was slightly higher than that from those who drank plain water. This study demonstrated that SHCE decreased heart rate and blood lactate, increased oxygen uptake, and improved physical performance, presumably due to the increased NO production.

  12. Platelet-rich fibrin matrix improves wound angiogenesis via inducing endothelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sashwati; Driggs, Jason; Elgharably, Haytham; Biswas, Sabyasachi; Findley, Muna; Khanna, Savita; Gnyawali, Urmila; Bergdall, Valerie K; Sen, Chandan K

    2011-11-01

    The economic, social, and public health burden of chronic ulcers and other compromised wounds is enormous and rapidly increasing with the aging population. The growth factors derived from platelets play an important role in tissue remodeling including neovascularization. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been utilized and studied for the last four decades. Platelet gel and fibrin sealant, derived from PRP mixed with thrombin and calcium chloride, have been exogenously applied to tissues to promote wound healing, bone growth, hemostasis, and tissue sealing. In this study, we first characterized recovery and viability of as well as growth factor release from platelets in a novel preparation of platelet gel and fibrin matrix, namely platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM). Next, the effect of PRFM application in a delayed model of ischemic wound angiogenesis was investigated. The study, for the first time, shows the kinetics of the viability of platelet-embedded fibrin matrix. A slow and steady release of growth factors from PRFM was observed. The vascular endothelial growth factor released from PRFM was primarily responsible for endothelial mitogenic response via extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase activation pathway. Finally, this preparation of PRFM effectively induced endothelial cell proliferation and improved wound angiogenesis in chronic wounds, providing evidence of probable mechanisms of action of PRFM in healing of chronic ulcers. 2011 by the Wound Healing Society.

  13. Improvement in signs and symptoms in psoriasis patients with Pycnogenol® supplementation.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, G; Luzzi, R; Hu, S; Cesarone, M R; Dugall, M; Ippolito, E; Corsi, M; Caporale, S

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of supplementation with Pycnogenol®, French maritime pine bark extract (registered trademark of Horphag Research Ltd.) to improve the effects of the management of psoriasis and reduce the need for treatments. Patients (age range 30-45) with moderate/severe plaque psoriasis were included in a 12-week registry study that did not interfere with 'standard management'. The minimum Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) score at inclusion was 10. Subjects with 10-29% (grade 2) and 30-49% (grade 3) of involved area were included. Oxidative stress (plasma free radicals) was measured. Patient-reported measures included the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). The supplement was used at a dosage of 150 mg/day (50 mg three times daily). The two registry groups (standard management and standard management+supplementation) were comparable. Dropouts were due to logistical problems. Single PASI items were evaluated: a decrease in the affected body area in boths groups was observed. The decrease in affected areas was more pronounced in the Pycnogenol group in all body regions. The severity score (erythema, induration, desquamation) improved more significantly with Pycnogenol. Considering the water content of skin in all areas, the increase was higher with Pycnogenol. The quantity of exfoliating cells (score from -5 to +5) was significantly reduced in both groups, with a better action using Pycnogenol. Skin moisture improved with treatment in all subjects, with better effects using Pycnogenol. Using a modified (12 items) DLQI indicating how much psoriasis had affected the patient's life in the previous week, Pycnogenol-supplemented subjects performed better for each single parameter in comparison with standard management. Improvement in the treatment time (-32% in comparison with standard management) and costs (decreased on average 36.4% in comparison with standard management) were observed in the supplement group. A decrease in consumption

  14. N,N-diacetyl-L-cystine improves endothelial function in atherosclerotic Watanabe heritable hyperlipidaemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Knut S; Eliasson, Ulla Brandt; Abrahamsson, Tommy; Wågberg, Maria; Carrier, Martin; Kengatharan, Ken M

    2007-01-01

    N,N-diacetyl-L-cystine (DiNAC), a novel immunomodulator, stimulates contact sensitivity/delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in mice induced by oxazolone and reduces atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidaemic (WHHL) rabbits. Forty-week-old WHHL rabbits were given DiNAC (3 micromol/kg per day) for 8 weeks, and endothelium-mediated dilatation was investigated in vivo using pulse wave analysis. A significant improvement in endothelial function was found after 3 weeks of treatment, which was further improved after 8 weeks. For experiments on isolated blood vessels, 40-week-old rabbits were treated for 3 weeks. Treatment did not affect plasma lipid levels. At termination, aortic rings from the thoracic and abdominal aorta were contracted with phenylephrine in vitro. Concentration-effect curves to acetylcholine and the calcium ionophore A 23187 were used to measure endothelium-mediated vasodilatation, and nitroprusside to elicit endothelium-independent relaxations. Abdominal aorta relaxations were generally larger than in thoracic aorta. DiNAC improved endothelium-dependent relaxations in the abdominal but not in the thoracic aorta. This effect was independent of the degree of atherosclerosis. It is concluded that DiNAC improved endothelial function in atherosclerotic rabbit arteries in vivo and in vitro, and may represent a new treatment modality for atherosclerosis-related diseases.

  15. Anti-TNFα therapy transiently improves high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and microvascular endothelial function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). This can be only partially attributed to traditional CVD risk factors such as dyslipidaemia and their downstream effects on endothelial function. The most common lipid abnormality in RA is reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, probably due to active inflammation. In this longitudinal study we hypothesised that anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNFα) therapy in patients with active RA improves HDL cholesterol, microvascular and macrovascular endothelial function. Methods Twenty-three RA patients starting on anti-TNFα treatment were assessed for HDL cholesterol level, and endothelial-dependent and -independent function of microvessels and macrovessels at baseline, 2-weeks and 3 months of treatment. Results Disease activity (CRP, fibrinogen, DAS28) significantly decreased during the follow-up period. There was an increase in HDL cholesterol levels at 2 weeks (p < 0.05) which was paralleled by a significant increase in microvascular endothelial-dependent function (p < 0.05). However, both parameters returned towards baseline at 12 weeks. Conclusion Anti-TNFα therapy in RA patients appears to be accompanied by transient but significant improvements in HDL cholesterol levels, which coexists with an improvement in microvascular endothelial-dependent function. PMID:22824166

  16. Flavanol-rich cocoa ameliorates lipemia-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Sabine; Luley, Claus

    2011-09-01

    Consumption of flavanols improves chronic endothelial dysfunction. We investigated whether it can also improve acute lipemia-induced endothelial dysfunction. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 18 healthy subjects received a fatty meal with cocoa either rich in flavanols (918 mg) or flavanol-poor. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), triglycerides, and free fatty acids were then determined over 6 h. After the flavanol-poor fat loading, the FMD deteriorated over 4 h. The consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa, in contrast, improved this deterioration in hours 2, 3, and 4 without abolishing it completely. Flavanols did not have any influence on triglycerides or on free fatty acids. Flavanol-rich cocoa can alleviate the lipemia-induced endothelial dysfunction, probably through an improvement in endothelial NO synthase.

  17. Improvement of seminal quality and sexual function of men with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia syndrome following supplementation with L-arginine and Pycnogenol®.

    PubMed

    Kobori, Yoshitomo; Suzuki, Keisuke; Iwahata, Toshiyuki; Shin, Takeshi; Sadaoka, Yuko; Sato, Ryo; Nishio, Kojiro; Yagi, Hiroshi; Arai, Gaku; Soh, Shigehiro; Okada, Hiroshi; Strong, Jeffry Michael; Rohdewald, Peter

    2015-09-30

    We evaluated the effectiveness of antioxidant co-supplementation therapy using Larginine and Pycnogenol(®) in Japanese men with oligoasthenozoospermia and mild erectile dysfunction (ED). A total of forty-seven adult males with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia syndrome (OAT) were eligible for enrollment. The effectiveness of supplementation with a combination of L-arginine 690 mg and French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol(®)) 60mg for OAT and ED was investigated. The sperm concentration was enhanced significantly after treatment 2 and 4 months (11.79 ± 9.86 to 21.22 ± 28.17 and 20.15 ± 23.99 × 106/ml). Significant improvements in the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) were observed in the total score of IIEF (57.69 ± 11.04 to 59.43 ± 12.57) and domain of Orgasmic Function (9.01 ± 1.92 to 9.34 ± 1.66) after 4 months of treatment. L-arginine acts to increase the production of nitric oxide and Pycnogenol(®) activates the endothelial nitric oxide synthase and it is a potent antioxidant and inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase. This study suggests that the combination of Pycnogenol(®) and L-arginine (Edicare(®)) is helpful for infertile men to ameliorate simultaneously quality of sperms as well as erectile functions.

  18. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, endothelial function and markers of endothelialization. Changes after CPAP.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Hernandez, Rocio; Vallejo-Vaz, Antonio J; Sanchez Armengol, Angeles; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Caballero-Eraso, Candela; Macher, Hada C; Villar, Jose; Merino, Ana M; Castell, Javier; Capote, Francisco; Stiefel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This study tries to assess the endothelial function in vivo using flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and several biomarkers of endothelium formation/restoration and damage in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome at baseline and after three months with CPAP therapy. Observational study, before and after CPAP therapy. We studied 30 patients with apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) >15/h that were compared with themselves after three months of CPAP therapy. FMD was assessed non-invasively in vivo using the Laser-Doppler flowmetry. Circulating cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) and microparticles (MPs) were measured as markers of endothelial damage and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was determined as a marker of endothelial restoration process. After three month with CPAP, FMD significantly increased (1072.26 ± 483.21 vs. 1604.38 ± 915.69 PU, p< 0.005) cf-DNA and MPs significantly decreased (187.93 ± 115.81 vs. 121.28 ± 78.98 pg/ml, p<0.01, and 69.60 ± 62.60 vs. 39.82 ± 22.14 U/μL, p<0.05, respectively) and VEGF levels increased (585.02 ± 246.06 vs. 641.11 ± 212.69 pg/ml, p<0.05). These changes were higher in patients with more severe disease. There was a relationship between markers of damage (r = -0.53, p<0.005) but not between markers of damage and restoration, thus suggesting that both types of markers should be measured together. CPAP therapy improves FMD. This improvement may be related to an increase of endothelial restoration process and a decrease of endothelial damage.

  19. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves reaction time in type 2 diabetes: development and application of a novel nitrate-depleted beetroot juice placebo.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Mark; Winyard, Paul G; Fulford, Jon; Anning, Christine; Shore, Angela C; Benjamin, Nigel

    2014-08-31

    In this substudy of the effect of dietary nitrate on blood pressure, endothelial function, and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, we report the development of a novel nitrate depleted beetroot juice for use clinical trials and determine if dietary nitrate supplementation improved cognitive function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Beetroot juice was treated with the anion exchange resin Purolite A520e. UV-vis-spectrophotometry, and a blind taste test were performed along with determination of sugar content, measurement of ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, the ionic composition of juice and Proton NMR. Subsequently, 27 patients, age 67.2±4.9 years, (18 male) were recruited for a double blind, randomised, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants were randomised to begin in either order beetroot juice (nitrate content 7.5 mmol per 250 ml) or placebo (nitrate depleted beetroot juice nitrate content 0.002 mmol per 250 ml). At the end of each 2 week supplementation period cognitive function was assessed using E-prime, E-Studio software with 5 separate tests being performed. The tests utilised in the present study have been adapted from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). The differences in the UV-vis spectra were comparable to the natural variation found in differing cultivars. There were no discernable differences in taste, sugar content, or Proton NMR. Ascorbate and dehydroascorbate were undetectable in either juice. After 2 weeks of beetroot juice simple reaction time was significantly quicker in the active arm at 327±40 ms versus 341.8±52.7 ms in the placebo arm, mean difference 13.9±25.6 ms (95% CI 3.8-24.0 ms), p=0.009. No other measures of cognitive function differed between treatment arms. We have developed an effective placebo beetroot juice for use in trials of supplementation of dietary nitrate. Two weeks supplementation of the diet with 7.5 mmol of nitrate per day caused a significant improvement in

  20. Reverse-D-4F Increases the Number of Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Improves Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunctions in High Fat Diet Mice.

    PubMed

    Nana, Yang; Peng, Jiao; Jianlin, Zhang; Xiangjian, Zhang; Shutong, Yao; Enxin, Zhan; Bin, Li; Chuanlong, Zong; Hua, Tian; Yanhong, Si; Yunsai, Du; Shucun, Qin; Hui, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Although high density lipoprotein (HDL) improves the functions of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), the effect of HDL ApoAI mimetic peptide reverse-D-4F (Rev-D4F) on EPC mobilization and repair of EPC dysfunctions remains to be studied. In this study, we investigated the effects of Rev-D4F on peripheral blood cell subpopulations in C57 mice treated with a high fat diet and the mechanism of Rev-D4F in improving the function of EPCs impaired by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The high fat diet significantly decreased the number of EPCs, EPC migratory functions, and the percentage of lymphocytes in the white blood cells. However, it significantly increased the number of white blood cells, the percentage of monocytes in the white blood cells, and the level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and TNF-α in the plasma. Rev-D4F clearly inhibited the effect of the high fat diet on the quantification of peripheral blood cell subpopulations and cytokine levels, and increased stromal cell derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) in the plasma. We provided in vitro evidence that TNF-α impaired EPC proliferation, migration, and tube formation through inactive AKT and eNOS, which was restored by Rev-D4F treatment. In contrast, both the PI3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) and AKT inhibitor (perifosine) obviously inhibited the restoration of Rev-4F on EPCs impaired by TNF-α. Our results suggested that Rev-D4F increases the quantity of endothelial progenitor cells through increasing the SDF-1α levels and decreasing the TNF-α level of peripheral blood in high fat diet-induced C57BL/6J mice, and restores TNF-α induced dysfunctions of EPCs partly through stimulating the PI3K/AKT signal pathway.

  1. The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra improves endothelial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Susana; Palacios, Erika; Romacho, Tania; Villalobos, Laura; Peiró, Concepción; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F

    2014-12-18

    Endothelial dysfunction is a crucial early phenomenon in vascular diseases linked to diabetes mellitus and associated to enhanced oxidative stress. There is increasing evidence about the role for pro-inflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1β (IL-1β), in developing diabetic vasculopathy. We aimed to determine the possible involvement of this cytokine in the development of diabetic endothelial dysfunction, analysing whether anakinra, an antagonist of IL-1 receptors, could reduce this endothelial alteration by interfering with pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory pathways into the vascular wall. In control and two weeks evolution streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, either untreated or receiving anakinra, vascular reactivity and NADPH oxidase activity were measured, respectively, in isolated rings and homogenates from mesenteric microvessels, while nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation was determined in aortas. Plasma levels of IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured by ELISA. In isolated mesenteric microvessels from control rats, two hours incubation with IL-1β (1 to 10 ng/mL) produced a concentration-dependent impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations, which were mediated by enhanced NADPH oxidase activity via IL-1 receptors. In diabetic rats treated with anakinra (100 or 160 mg/Kg/day for 3 or 7 days before sacrifice) a partial improvement of diabetic endothelial dysfunction occurred, together with a reduction of vascular NADPH oxidase and NF-κB activation. Endothelial dysfunction in diabetic animals was also associated to higher activities of the pro-inflammatory enzymes cyclooxygenase (COX) and the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which were markedly reduced after anakinra treatment. Circulating IL-1β and TNF-α levels did not change in diabetic rats, but they were lowered by anakinra treatment. In this short-term model of type 1 diabetes, endothelial dysfunction is associated to an IL-1 receptor-mediated activation of

  2. Endothelial glycocalyx dysfunction in disease: albuminuria and increased microvascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Andrew H J; Satchell, Simon C

    2012-03-01

    Appreciation of the glomerular microcirculation as a specialized microcirculatory bed, rather than as an entirely separate entity, affords important insights into both glomerular and systemic microvascular pathophysiology. In this review we compare regulation of permeability in systemic and glomerular microcirculations, focusing particularly on the role of the endothelial glycocalyx, and consider the implications for disease processes. The luminal surface of vascular endothelium throughout the body is covered with endothelial glycocalyx, comprising surface-anchored proteoglycans, supplemented with adsorbed soluble proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans and plasma constituents. In both continuous and fenestrated microvessels, this endothelial glycocalyx provides resistance to the transcapillary escape of water and macromolecules, acting as an integral component of the multilayered barrier provided by the walls of these microvessels (ie acting in concert with clefts or fenestrae across endothelial cell layers, basement membranes and pericytes). Dysfunction of any of these capillary wall components, including the endothelial glycocalyx, can disrupt normal microvascular permeability. Because of its ubiquitous nature, damage to the endothelial glycocalyx alters the permeability of multiple capillary beds: in the glomerulus this is clinically apparent as albuminuria. Generalized damage to the endothelial glycocalyx can therefore manifest as both albuminuria and increased systemic microvascular permeability. This triad of altered endothelial glycocalyx, albuminuria and increased systemic microvascular permeability occurs in a number of important diseases, such as diabetes, with accumulating evidence for a similar phenomenon in ischaemia-reperfusion injury and infectious disease. The detection of albuminuria therefore has implications for the function of the microcirculation as a whole. The importance of the endothelial glycocalyx for other aspects of vascular function

  3. A NOS3 polymorphism determines endothelial response to folate in children with type 1 diabetes or obesity.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, Esko J; Peña, Alexia S; MacKenzie, Karen; Bose-Sundernathan, Tulika; Gent, Roger; Couper, Jennifer J

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of polymorphisms in NOS3 and folate pathway enzymes on vascular function and folate status and endothelial response to folate in children with diabetes or obesity. A total of 244 subjects (age 13.8 ± 2.8 years, 125 males) were studied for NOS3 and/or folate pathway polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism, including at baseline: 139 with type 1 diabetes; 58 with obesity; and 47 controls. The effect of NOS3 genotype on endothelial response to folate (5 mg) was assessed in 85 subjects with diabetes and 28 obese subjects who received active treatment during intervention trials. Vascular function (flow-mediated dilatation [FMD] and glyceryl trinitrate-mediated dilatation), clinical, and biochemical measurements were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks in folate intervention studies. Folate pathway enzyme and NOS3 polymorphisms did not significantly affect baseline vascular function. The polymorphism in intron 4 of endothelial nitric oxide synthase altered endothelial response to folate significantly: in subjects with diabetes FMD improved by 6.4 ± 5% (insertion carriers) vs 2.3 ± 6.6% (deletion carriers), P = .01; in obese subjects FMD improved by 1.8 ± 5.4% (insertion carriers) and deteriorated by -3.2 ± 7.2% (deletion carriers), P = .05. More subjects carrying the insertion normalized FMD after folate supplementation (insertion 64% vs deletion 28%, χ(2) = 10.14, P = .001). A NOS3 polymorphism predicts endothelial response to folate in children with diabetes or obesity, with implications for vascular risk and folate intervention studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of onion peel extract on endothelial function and endothelial progenitor cells in overweight and obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Yong; Lee, Hansongyi; Woo, Jong Shin; Jang, Hyun Hee; Hwang, Seung Joon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Woo-Sik; Kim, Young-Seol; Choue, Ryowon; Cha, Yong-Jun; Yim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Weon

    2015-09-01

    Acute or chronic intake of polyphenol-rich foods has been reported to improve endothelial function. Quercetin, found abundantly in onion, is a potent antioxidant flavonoid. The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of onion peel extract (OPE) improves endothelial function in healthy overweight and obese individuals. This was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Seventy-two healthy overweight and obese participants were randomly assigned to receive a red, soft capsule of OPE (100 mg quercetin/d, 50 mg quercetin twice daily; n = 36 participants) or an identical placebo capsule (n = 36) for 12 wk. Endothelial function, defined by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) by flow cytometry, and laboratory test were determined at baseline and after treatment. Baseline characteristics and laboratory findings did not significantly differ between the two groups. Compared with baseline values, the OPE group showed significantly improved FMD at 12 wk (from 12.5 ± 5.2 to 15.2 ± 6.1; P = 0.002), whereas the placebo group showed no difference. Nitroglycerin-mediated dilation did not change in either group. EPC counts (44.2 ± 25.6 versus 52.3 ± 18.6; P = 0.005) and the percentage of EPCs were significantly increased in the OPE group. When FMD was divided into quartiles, rate of patients with endothelial dysfunction defined as lowest quartile (cutoff value, 8.6%) of FMD improved from 26% to 9% by OPE. Medium-term administration of OPE an improvement in FMD and circulating EPCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chronic hydroxychloroquine improves endothelial dysfunction and protects kidney in a mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Guzmán, Manuel; Jiménez, Rosario; Romero, Miguel; Sánchez, Manuel; Zarzuelo, María José; Gómez-Morales, Mercedes; O'Valle, Francisco; López-Farré, Antonio José; Algieri, Francesca; Gálvez, Julio; Pérez-Vizcaino, Francisco; Sabio, José Mario; Duarte, Juan

    2014-08-01

    Hydroxychloroquine has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus. Hydroxychloroquine-treated lupus patients showed a lower incidence of thromboembolic disease. Endothelial dysfunction, the earliest indicator of the development of cardiovascular disease, is present in lupus. Whether hydroxychloroquine improves endothelial function in lupus is not clear. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of hydroxychloroquine on hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and renal injury in a female mouse model of lupus. NZBWF1 (lupus) and NZW/LacJ (control) mice were treated with hydroxychloroquine 10 mg/kg per day by oral gavage, or with tempol and apocynin in the drinking water, for 5 weeks. Hydroxychloroquine treatment did not alter lupus disease activity (assessed by plasma double-stranded DNA autoantibodies) but prevented hypertension, cardiac and renal hypertrophy, proteinuria, and renal injury in lupus mice. Aortae from lupus mice showed reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and enhanced contraction to phenylephrine, which were normalized by hydroxychloroquine or antioxidant treatments. No differences among all experimental groups were found in both the relaxant responses to acetylcholine and the contractile responses to phenylephrine in rings incubated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester. Vascular reactive oxygen species content and mRNA levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits NOX-1 and p47(phox) were increased in lupus mice and reduced by hydroxychloroquine or antioxidants. Chronic hydroxychloroquine treatment reduced hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and organ damage in severe lupus mice, despite the persistent elevation of anti-double-stranded DNA, suggesting the involvement of new additional mechanisms to improve cardiovascular complications. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Quercetin, Hyperin, and Chlorogenic Acid Improve Endothelial Function by Antioxidant, Antiinflammatory, and ACE Inhibitory Effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wu-Yang; Fu, Lin; Li, Chun-Yang; Xu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Li-Xia; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the blueberry cultivation and processing industry developed quickly because blueberries are super-fruit with healthy function. Blueberry leaves are byproducts of the blueberry industry, which are rich in bioactive phenolics, such as quercetin (Q), hyperin (H), and chlorogenic acid (C). This study investigated protective effects of 3 phenolics (Q, H, and C) from leaves of rabbiteye blueberry Vaccinium ashei on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The results showed that all these 3 phenolics could improve endothelial function by inhibiting oxidative damage and proinflammatory cytokines caused by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The cell vitalities of endothelial cells pretreated with Q, H, and C were higher than those stimulated with TNF-α only. These phenolics could decrease reactive oxygen species and xanthine oxidase-1 levels and increase superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase-1 levels in endothelial cells. They also could decrease the protein expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 induced by TNF-α. In addition, Q, H, and C also exhibited vasodilatory effect by reducing the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) protein levels in endothelial cells. Mostly 3 phenolics exhibited bioactivities as a function of concentration, but the effects not always depended on the concentration. The antioxidant and antiinflammatory effects of Q seemed to be more pronounced than H; however, H exhibited higher cell vitalities. The results indicated that phenolics from rabbiteye blueberry leaves could be potential antioxidants, inflammation and ACE inhibitors, and rabbiteye blueberry leaves provide a new resources of phytochemicals beneficial for cardiovascular health. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Improved Blood Biomarkers but No Cognitive Effects from 16 Weeks of Multivitamin Supplementation in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Elizabeth; Macpherson, Helen; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation with vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients may be beneficial for cognition, especially in older adults. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of multivitamin supplementation in older adults on cognitive function and associated blood biomarkers. In a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial, healthy women (n = 68) and men (n = 48) aged 55–65 years were supplemented daily for 16 weeks with women’s and men’s formula multivitamin supplements. Assessments at baseline and post-supplementation included computerised cognitive tasks and blood biomarkers relevant to cognitive aging. No cognitive improvements were observed after supplementation with either formula; however, several significant improvements were observed in blood biomarkers including increased levels of vitamins B6 and B12 in women and men; reduced C-reactive protein in women; reduced homocysteine and marginally reduced oxidative stress in men; as well as improvements to the lipid profile in men. In healthy older people, multivitamin supplementation improved a number of blood biomarkers that are relevant to cognition, but these biomarker changes were not accompanied by improved cognitive function. PMID:25996285

  8. Mesenchymal-endothelial-transition contributes to cardiac neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Ubil, Eric; Duan, Jinzhu; Pillai, Indulekha C.L.; Rosa-Garrido, Manuel; Wu, Yong; Bargiacchi, Francesca; Lu, Yan; Stanbouly, Seta; Huang, Jie; Rojas, Mauricio; Vondriska, Thomas M.; Stefani, Enrico; Deb, Arjun

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial cells contribute to a subset of cardiac fibroblasts by undergoing endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition, but whether cardiac fibroblasts can adopt an endothelial cell fate and directly contribute to neovascularization after cardiac injury is not known. Here, using genetic fate map techniques, we demonstrate that cardiac fibroblasts rapidly adopt an endothelial cell like phenotype after acute ischemic cardiac injury. Fibroblast derived endothelial cells exhibit anatomical and functional characteristics of native endothelial cells. We show that the transcription factor p53 regulates such a switch in cardiac fibroblast fate. Loss of p53 in cardiac fibroblasts severely decreases the formation of fibroblast derived endothelial cells, reduces post infarct vascular density and worsens cardiac function. Conversely, stimulation of the p53 pathway in cardiac fibroblasts augments mesenchymal to endothelial transition, enhances vascularity and improves cardiac function. These observations demonstrate that mesenchymal-to-endothelial-transition contributes to neovascularization of the injured heart and represents a potential therapeutic target for enhancing cardiac repair. PMID:25317562

  9. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome, Endothelial Function and Markers of Endothelialization. Changes after CPAP

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez Armengol, Angeles; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Caballero-Eraso, Candela; Macher, Hada C.; Villar, Jose; Merino, Ana M; Castell, Javier; Capote, Francisco; Stiefel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Study objectives This study tries to assess the endothelial function in vivo using flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and several biomarkers of endothelium formation/restoration and damage in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome at baseline and after three months with CPAP therapy. Design Observational study, before and after CPAP therapy. Setting and Patients We studied 30 patients with apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) >15/h that were compared with themselves after three months of CPAP therapy. FMD was assessed non-invasively in vivo using the Laser-Doppler flowmetry. Circulating cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) and microparticles (MPs) were measured as markers of endothelial damage and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was determined as a marker of endothelial restoration process. Measurements and results After three month with CPAP, FMD significantly increased (1072.26 ± 483.21 vs. 1604.38 ± 915.69 PU, p< 0.005) cf-DNA and MPs significantly decreased (187.93 ± 115.81 vs. 121.28 ± 78.98 pg/ml, p<0.01, and 69.60 ± 62.60 vs. 39.82 ± 22.14 U/μL, p<0.05, respectively) and VEGF levels increased (585.02 ± 246.06 vs. 641.11 ± 212.69 pg/ml, p<0.05). These changes were higher in patients with more severe disease. There was a relationship between markers of damage (r = -0.53, p<0.005) but not between markers of damage and restoration, thus suggesting that both types of markers should be measured together. Conclusions CPAP therapy improves FMD. This improvement may be related to an increase of endothelial restoration process and a decrease of endothelial damage. PMID:25815511

  10. FY 1998 Proposed Rail Improvement Program Supplement Update - Pontiac

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this amendment to the FY 1998 Rail Improvement Program Supplement is to present an analysis which has been formulated, using prescribed methodology, to assist in an investment decision concerning new track construction at the Prairie C...

  11. Multiple dietary supplements do not affect metabolic and cardiovascular health

    PubMed Central

    Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for health purposes. However, little is known about the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of combinations of popular over-the-counter supplements, each of which has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-longevity properties in cell culture or animal studies. This study was a 6-month randomized, single-blind controlled trial, in which 56 non-obese (BMI 21.0-29.9 kg/m2) men and women, aged 38 to 55 yr, were assigned to a dietary supplement (SUP) group or control (CON) group, with a 6-month follow-up. The SUP group took 10 dietary supplements each day (100 mg of resveratrol, a complex of 800 mg each of green, black, and white tea extract, 250 mg of pomegranate extract, 650 mg of quercetin, 500 mg of acetyl-l-carnitine, 600 mg of lipoic acid, 900 mg of curcumin, 1 g of sesamin, 1.7 g of cinnamon bark extract, and 1.0 g fish oil). Both the SUP and CON groups took a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement. The main outcome measures were arterial stiffness, endothelial function, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty-four weeks of daily supplementation with 10 dietary supplements did not affect arterial stiffness or endothelial function in nonobese individuals. These compounds also did not alter body fat measured by DEXA, blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress. In summary, supplementation with a combination of popular dietary supplements has no cardiovascular or metabolic effects in non-obese relatively healthy individuals. PMID:24659610

  12. Inorganic nitrite supplementation for healthy arterial aging

    PubMed Central

    DeVan, Allison E.; Fleenor, Bradley S.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This is attributable primarily to adverse changes in arteries, notably, increases in large elastic artery stiffness and endothelial dysfunction mediated by inadequate concentrations of the vascular-protective molecule, nitric oxide (NO), and higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation. Inorganic nitrite is a promising precursor molecule for augmenting circulating and tissue NO bioavailability because it requires only a one-step reduction to NO. Nitrite also acts as an independent signaling molecule, exerting many of the effects previously attributed to NO. Results of recent studies indicate that nitrite may be effective in the treatment of vascular aging. In old mice, short-term oral sodium nitrite supplementation reduces aortic pulse wave velocity, the gold-standard measure of large elastic artery stiffness, and ameliorates endothelial dysfunction, as indicated by normalization of NO-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation. These improvements in age-related vascular dysfunction with nitrite are mediated by reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation, and may be linked to increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and health. Increasing nitrite levels via dietary intake of nitrate appears to have similarly beneficial effects in many of the same physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being performed to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing nitrite bioavailability on human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In summary, inorganic nitrite, as well as dietary nitrate supplementation, represents a promising therapy for treatment of arterial aging and prevention of age-associated CVD in humans. PMID:24408999

  13. Four Weeks of β-alanine Supplementation Improves High-Intensity Game Activities in Water Polo.

    PubMed

    Brisola, Gabriel Motta Pinheiro; de Souza Malta, Elvis; Santiago, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Vieira, Luiz Henrique Palucci; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2018-04-13

    The present study aimed to investigate whether four weeks of β-alanine supplementation improves total distance covered, distance covered and time spent in different speed zones, and sprint numbers during a simulated water polo game. The study design was double-blind, parallel and placebo controlled. Eleven male water polo players participated in the study, divided randomly into two homogeneous groups (placebo and β-alanine groups). The participants performed a simulated water polo game before and after the supplementation period (4 weeks). Participants received 4.8g∙day -1 of dextrose or β-alanine on the first ten days and 6.4g∙day -1 on the final 18 days. Only the β-alanine group presented a significant improvement in total sprint numbers compared to the pre-supplementation moment (PRE=7.8±5.2a.u.; POST=20.2±7.8a.u.; p=.002). Furthermore, β-alanine supplementation presented a likely beneficial effect on improving total distance covered (83%) and total time spent (81%) in zone 4 of speed (i.e., speed≥1.8m∙s -1 ). There was no significant interaction effect (group×time) for any variable. To conclude, four weeks of β-alanine supplementation can slightly improve sprint numbers and had a likely beneficial effect on improving distance covered and time spent in zone 4 of speed in a water polo simulated game.

  14. Human endothelial colony-forming cells expanded with an improved protocol are a useful endothelial cell source for scaffold-based tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Denecke, Bernd; Horsch, Liska D; Radtke, Stefan; Fischer, Johannes C; Horn, Peter A; Giebel, Bernd

    2015-11-01

    One of the major challenges in tissue engineering is to supply larger three-dimensional (3D) bioengineered tissue transplants with sufficient amounts of nutrients and oxygen and to allow metabolite removal. Consequently, artificial vascularization strategies of such transplants are desired. One strategy focuses on endothelial cells capable of initiating new vessel formation, which are settled on scaffolds commonly used in tissue engineering. A bottleneck in this strategy is to obtain sufficient amounts of endothelial cells, as they can be harvested only in small quantities directly from human tissues. Thus, protocols are required to expand appropriate cells in sufficient amounts without interfering with their capability to settle on scaffold materials and to initiate vessel formation. Here, we analysed whether umbilical cord blood (CB)-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) fulfil these requirements. In a first set of experiments, we showed that marginally expanded ECFCs settle and survive on different scaffold biomaterials. Next, we improved ECFC culture conditions and developed a protocol for ECFC expansion compatible with 'Good Manufacturing Practice' (GMP) standards. We replaced animal sera with human platelet lysates and used a novel type of tissue-culture ware. ECFCs cultured under the new conditions revealed significantly lower apoptosis and increased proliferation rates. Simultaneously, their viability was increased. Since extensively expanded ECFCs could still settle on scaffold biomaterials and were able to form tubular structures in Matrigel assays, we conclude that these ex vivo-expanded ECFCs are a novel, very potent cell source for scaffold-based tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. In Vitro Biocompatibility and Endothelialization of Novel Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloys for Improved Stent Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Watson, Nevija; Xu, Zhigang; Chen, Yongjun; Waterman, Jenora; Sankar, Jagannathan; Zhu, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) based alloys are the most advanced cardiovascular stent materials. This new generation of stent scaffold is currently under clinical evaluation with encouraging outcomes. All these Mg alloys contain a certain amount of rare earth (RE) elements though the exact composition is not yet disclosed. RE alloying can usually enhance the mechanical strength of different metal alloys but their toxicity might be an issue for medical applications. It is still unclear how RE elements will affect the magnesium (Mg) alloys intended for stent materials as a whole. In this study, we evaluated MgZnCaY-1RE, MgZnCaY-2RE, MgYZr-1RE, and MgZnYZr-1RE alloys for cardiovascular stents applications regarding their mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, hemolysis, platelet adhesion/activation, and endothelial biocompatibility. The mechanical properties of all alloys were significantly improved. Potentiodynamic polarization showed that the corrosion resistance of four alloys was at least 3–10 times higher than that of pure Mg control. Hemolysis test revealed that all the materials were non-hemolytic while little to moderate platelet adhesion was found on all materials surface. No significant cytotoxicity was observed in human aorta endothelial cells cultured with magnesium alloy extract solution for up to seven days. Direct endothelialization test showed that all the alloys possess significantly better capability to sustain endothelial cell attachment and growth. The results demonstrated the promising potential of these alloys for stent material applications in the future. PMID:24921251

  16. Effect of different culture media and deswelling agents on survival of human corneal endothelial and epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Valtink, Monika; Donath, Patricia; Engelmann, Katrin; Knels, Lilla

    2016-02-01

    To examine the effects of media and deswelling agents on human corneal endothelial and epithelial cell viability using a previously developed screening system. The human corneal endothelial cell line HCEC-12 and the human corneal epithelial cell line HCE-T were cultured in four different corneal organ culture media (serum-supplemented: MEM +2 % FCS, CorneaMax®/CorneaJet®, serum-free: Human Endothelial-SFM, Stemalpha-2 and -3) with and without 6 % dextran T500 or 7 % HES 130/0.4. Standard growth media F99HCEC and DMEM/F12HCE-T served as controls. In additional controls, the stress inducers staurosporine or hydrogen peroxide were added. After 5 days in the test media, cell viability was assessed by flow cytometrically quantifying apoptotic and necrotic cells (sub-G1 DNA content, vital staining with YO-PRO-1® and propidium iodide) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The MEM-based media were unable to support HCEC-12 and HCE-T survival under stress conditions, resulting in significantly increased numbers of apoptotic and necrotic cells. HCEC-12 survival was markedly improved in SFM-based media even under staurosporine or hydrogen peroxide. Likewise, HCE-T survival was improved in SFM with or without dextran. The media CorneaMax®, CorneaJet®, and CorneaMax® with HES supported HCEC-12 survival better than MEM-based media, but less well than SFM-based media. HCE-T viability was also supported by CorneaJet®, but not by CorneaMax® with or without HES. Stemalpha-based media were not suitable for maintaining viability of HCEC-12 or HCE-T in the applied cell culture system. The use of serum-supplemented MEM-based media for corneal organ culture should be discontinued in favour of serum-free media like SFM.

  17. Plasma functionalization of polycarbonaturethane to improve endothelialization--Effect of shear stress as a critical factor for biocompatibility control.

    PubMed

    Lukas, Karin; Thomas, Ulrich; Gessner, André; Wehner, Daniel; Schmid, Thomas; Schmid, Christof; Lehle, Karla

    2016-04-01

    Medical devices made of polycarbonaturethane (PCU) combine excellent mechanical properties and little biological degradation, but restricted hemocompatibility. Modifications of PCU might reduce platelet adhesion and promote stable endothelialization. PCU was modified using gas plasma treatment, binding of hydrogels, and coupling of cell-active molecules (modified heparin, anti-thrombin III (ATIII), argatroban, fibronectin, laminin-nonapeptide, peptides with integrin-binding arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif). Biocompatibility was verified with static and dynamic cell culture techniques. Blinded analysis focused on improvement in endothelial cell (EC) adhesion/proliferation, anti-thrombogenicity, reproducible manufacturing process, and shear stress tolerance of ECs. EC adhesion and antithrombogenicity were achieved with 9/35 modifications. Additionally, 6/9 stimulated EC proliferation and 3/6 modification processes were highly reproducible for endothelialization. The latter modifications comprised immobilization of ATIII (A), polyethyleneglycole-diamine-hydrogel (E) and polyethylenimine-hydrogel connected with modified heparin (IH). Under sheer stress, only the IH modification improved EC adhesion within the graft. However, ECs did not arrange in flow direction and cell anchorage was restricted. Despite large variation in surface modification chemistry and improved EC adhesion under static culture conditions, additional introduction of shear stress foiled promising preliminary data. Therefore, biocompatibility testing required not only static tests but also usage of physiological conditions such as shear stress in the case of vascular grafts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Omega-3 supplementation improves cognition and modifies brain activation in young adults.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Isabelle; Hughes, Matthew; Rowsell, Renee; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew; Crewther, Sheila; Crewther, David

    2014-03-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich supplementations on cognitive performance and functional brain activation. A double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design, with a 30-day washout period between two supplementation periods (EPA-rich and DHA-rich) was employed. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained during performance of Stroop and Spatial Working Memory tasks prior to supplementation and after each 30-day supplementation period. Both supplementations resulted in reduced ratio of arachidonic acid to EPA levels. Following the EPA-rich supplementation, there was a reduction in functional activation in the left anterior cingulate cortex and an increase in activation in the right precentral gyrus coupled with a reduction in reaction times on the colour-word Stroop task. By contrast, the DHA-rich supplementation led to a significant increase in functional activation in the right precentral gyrus during the Stroop and Spatial Working Memory tasks, but there was no change in behavioural performance. By extending the theory of neural efficiency to the within-subject neurocognitive effects of supplementation, we concluded that following the EPA-rich supplementation, participants' brains worked 'less hard' and achieved a better cognitive performance than prior to supplementation. Conversely, the increase in functional activation and lack of improvement in time or accuracy of cognitive performance following DHA-rich supplementation may indicate that DHA-rich supplementation is less effective than EPA-rich supplementation in enhancing neurocognitive functioning after a 30-day supplementation period in the same group of individuals.

  19. l-Carnitine Supplementation in Recovery after Exercise.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Roger; Riede, Linda; Lugo, James P; Bellamine, Aouatef

    2018-03-13

    Given its pivotal role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism, l-carnitine has been investigated as ergogenic aid for enhancing exercise capacity in the healthy athletic population. Early research indicates its beneficial effects on acute physical performance, such as increased maximum oxygen consumption and higher power output. Later studies point to the positive impact of dietary supplementation with l-carnitine on the recovery process after exercise. It is demonstrated that l-carnitine alleviates muscle injury and reduces markers of cellular damage and free radical formation accompanied by attenuation of muscle soreness. The supplementation-based increase in serum and muscle l-carnitine contents is suggested to enhance blood flow and oxygen supply to the muscle tissue via improved endothelial function thereby reducing hypoxia-induced cellular and biochemical disruptions. Studies in older adults further showed that l-carnitine intake can lead to increased muscle mass accompanied by a decrease in body weight and reduced physical and mental fatigue. Based on current animal studies, a role of l-carnitine in the prevention of age-associated muscle protein degradation and regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis is suggested.

  20. Targeted overexpression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cells improves cerebrovascular reactivity in Ins2Akita-type-1 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Saurav B; Mohan, Sumathy; Ford, Bridget M; Huang, Lei; Janardhanan, Preethi; Deo, Kaiwalya S; Cong, Linlin; Muir, Eric R; Duong, Timothy Q

    2016-06-01

    Reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide due to impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity is a leading cause of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. Enhancing eNOS activity in diabetes is a potential therapeutic target. This study investigated basal cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity in wild-type mice, diabetic mice (Ins2(Akita+/-)), nondiabetic eNOS-overexpressing mice (TgeNOS), and the cross of two transgenic mice (TgeNOS-Ins2(Akita+/-)) at six months of age. The cross was aimed at improving eNOS expression in diabetic mice. The major findings were: (i) Body weights of Ins2(Akita+/-) and TgeNOS-Ins2(Akita+/-) were significantly different from wild-type and TgeNOS mice. Blood pressure of TgeNOS mice was lower than wild-type. (ii) Basal cerebral blood flow of the TgeNOS group was significantly higher than cerebral blood flow of the other three groups. (iii) The cerebrovascular reactivity in the Ins2(Akita+/-) mice was significantly lower compared with wild-type, whereas that in the TgeNOS-Ins2(Akita+/-) was significantly higher compared with the Ins2(Akita+/-) and TgeNOS groups. Overexpression of eNOS rescued cerebrovascular dysfunction in diabetic animals, resulting in improved cerebrovascular reactivity. These results underscore the possible role of eNOS in vascular dysfunction in the brain of diabetic mice and support the notion that enhancing eNOS activity in diabetes is a potential therapeutic target. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Tomato and lycopene supplementation and cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ho Ming; Koutsidis, Georgios; Lodge, John K; Ashor, Ammar; Siervo, Mario; Lara, José

    2017-02-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests an association between consumption of tomato products or lycopene and lower risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Our aim was to evaluate the state of the evidence from intervention trials on the effect of consuming tomato products and lycopene on markers of cardiovascular (CV) function. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of supplementing tomato and lycopene on CV risk factors. Three databases including Medline, Web of science, and Scopus were searched from inception to August 2016. Inclusion criteria were: intervention trials reporting effects of tomato products and lycopene supplementation on CV risk factors among adult subjects >18 years of age. The outcomes of interest included blood lipids (total-, HDL-, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, oxidised-LDL), endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation (FMD), pulse wave velocity (PWV)) and blood pressure (BP) inflammatory factors (CRP, IL-6) and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1). Random-effects models were used to determine the pooled effect sizes. Out of 1189 publications identified, 21 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were meta-analysed. Overall, interventions supplementing tomato were associated with significant reductions in LDL-cholesterol (-0.22 mmol/L; p = 0.006), IL-6 (standardised mean difference -0.25; p = 0.03), and improvements in FMD (2.53%; p = 0.01); while lycopene supplementation reduced systolic-BP (-5.66 mmHg; p = 0.002). No other outcome was significantly affected by these interventions. The available evidence on the effects of tomato products and lycopene supplementation on CV risk factors supports the view that increasing the intake of these has positive effects on blood lipids, blood pressure and endothelial function. These results support the development of promising individualised nutritional strategies involving tomatoes to tackle CVD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrogen Supplementation of Preservation Solution Improves Viability of Osteochondral Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Takuya; Onuma, Kenji; Kuzuno, Jun; Ujihira, Masanobu; Kurokawa, Ryosuke; Sakai, Rina; Takaso, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Allogenic osteochondral tissue (OCT) is used for the treatment of large cartilage defects. Typically, OCTs collected during the disease-screening period are preserved at 4°C; however, the gradual reduction in cell viability during cold preservation adversely affects transplantation outcomes. Therefore, improved storage methods that maintain the cell viability of OCTs are needed to increase the availability of high-quality OCTs and improve treatment outcomes. Here, we evaluated whether long-term hydrogen delivery to preservation solution improved the viability of rat OCTs during cold preservation. Hydrogen-supplemented Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM) and University of Wisconsin (UW) solution both significantly improved the cell viability of OCTs during preservation at 4°C for 21 days compared to nonsupplemented media. However, the long-term cold preservation of OCTs in DMEM containing hydrogen was associated with the most optimal maintenance of chondrocytes with respect to viability and morphology. Our findings demonstrate that OCTs preserved in DMEM supplemented with hydrogen are a promising material for the repair of large cartilage defects in the clinical setting. PMID:25506061

  3. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Joyce Ramalho; Rosa, Érica Patrícia Cunha; Nunes, Ivone Freires de Oliveira Costa; Carvalho, Cecilia Maria Resende Gonçalves de

    The objective of this systematic review was to analyze clinical trials carried out for the investigation of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on systemic lupus erythematosus. The research was performed from August to September 2016, without limits regarding year of publication, restriction of gender, age, and ethnicity. For the guiding question, the PICO strategy was employed. To evaluate the quality of the publications the PRISMA protocol and Jadad scale were used. The risk of bias analysis of the clinical trials was performed using the Cochrane collaboration tool. After the process of article selection and removal of duplicates, four articles were identified as eligible. The results of three studies showed a positive effect of supplementation on disease activity reduction and significant improvement in levels of inflammatory markers, fatigue, and endothelial function. Only one study showed no improvement in disease activity after supplementation. Moreover, all studies showed an increase in serum vitamin D levels. The data from this review provide evidence on the benefits of vitamin D supplementation in patients with lupus and vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. However, it is still necessary to elucidate whether vitamin D acts in the protection against this metabolic disorder, as well as the standardization of the type, dose and time of vitamin D supplementation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  4. The presence of African American race predicts improvement in coronary endothelial function after supplementary L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Jan L; Philbin, Edward F; Strogatz, David S; Torosoff, Mikhail T; Fein, Steven A; Kuhner, Patricia A; Smith, Vivienne E; Carr, Albert A

    2002-04-17

    The purpose of our study was to determine if the presence of African American ethnicity modulates improvement in coronary vascular endothelial function after supplementary L-arginine. Endothelial dysfunction is an early stage in the development of coronary atherosclerosis and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiomyopathy. Amelioration of endothelial dysfunction has been demonstrated in patients with established coronary atherosclerosis or with risk factors in response to infusion of L-arginine, the precursor of nitric oxide. Racial and gender patterns in L-arginine responsiveness have not, heretofore, been studied. Invasive testing of coronary artery and microvascular reactivity in response to graded intracoronary infusions of acetylcholine (ACh) +/- L-arginine was carried out in 33 matched pairs of African American and white subjects with no angiographic coronary artery disease. Pairs were matched for age, gender, indexed left ventricular mass, body mass index and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition to the matching parameters, there were no significant differences in peak coronary blood flow (CBF) response to intracoronary adenosine or in the peak CBF response to ACh before L-arginine infusion. However, absolute percentile improvement in CBF response to ACh infusion after L-arginine, as compared with before, was significantly greater among African Americans as a group (45 +/- 10% vs. 4 +/- 6%, p = 0.0016) and after partitioning by gender. The mechanism of this increase was mediated through further reduction in coronary microvascular resistance. L-arginine infusion also resulted in greater epicardial dilator response after ACh among African Americans. We conclude that intracoronary infusion of L-arginine provides significantly greater augmentation of endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in those of African American ethnicity when compared with matched white subjects drawn from a cohort electively referred for coronary

  5. A fish-based diet intervention improves endothelial function in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Keiko; Morino, Katsutaro; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Motoyuki; Nakao, Keiko; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Ishikado, Atsushi; Sekine, Osamu; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The beneficial effects of fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) consumption on atherosclerosis have been reported in numerous epidemiological studies. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of a fish-based diet intervention on endothelial function have not been investigated. Therefore, we studied these effects in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Twenty-three postmenopausal women with T2DM were assigned to two four-week periods of either a fish-based diet (n-3 PUFAs ≧ 3.0 g/day) or a control diet in a randomized crossover design. Endothelial function was measured with reactive hyperemia using strain-gauge plethysmography and compared with the serum levels of fatty acids and their metabolites. Endothelial function was determined with peak forearm blood flow (Peak), duration of reactive hyperemia (Duration) and flow debt repayment (FDR). A fish-based dietary intervention improved Peak by 63.7%, Duration by 27.9% and FDR by 70.7%, compared to the control diet. Serum n-3 PUFA levels increased after the fish-based diet period and decreased after the control diet, compared with the baseline (1.49 vs. 0.97 vs. 1.19 mmol/l, p < 0.0001). There was no correlation between serum n-3 PUFA levels and endothelial function. An increased ratio of epoxyeicosatrienoic acid/dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid was observed after a fish-based diet intervention, possibly due to the inhibition of the activity of soluble epoxide hydrolase. A fish-based dietary intervention improves endothelial function in postmenopausal women with T2DM. Dissociation between the serum n-3 PUFA concentration and endothelial function suggests that the other factors may contribute to this phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Engler, Mary B; Engler, Marguerite M; Chen, Chung Y; Malloy, Mary J; Browne, Amanda; Chiu, Elisa Y; Kwak, Ho-Kyung; Milbury, Paul; Paul, Steven M; Blumberg, Jeffrey; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L

    2004-06-01

    Dark chocolate derived from the plant (Theobroma cacao) is a rich source of flavonoids. Cardioprotective effects including antioxidant properties, inhibition of platelet activity, and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase have been ascribed to the cocoa flavonoids. To investigate the effects of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on endothelial function, measures of oxidative stress, blood lipids, and blood pressure in healthy adult subjects. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design conducted over a 2 week period in 21 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to daily intake of high-flavonoid (213 mg procyanidins, 46 mg epicatechin) or low-flavonoid dark chocolate bars (46 g, 1.6 oz). High-flavonoid chocolate consumption improved endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery (mean change = 1.3 +/- 0.7%) as compared to low-flavonoid chocolate consumption (mean change = -0.96 +/- 0.5%) (p = 0.024). No significant differences were noted in the resistance to LDL oxidation, total antioxidant capacity, 8-isoprostanes, blood pressure, lipid parameters, body weight or body mass index (BMI) between the two groups. Plasma epicatechin concentrations were markedly increased at 2 weeks in the high-flavonoid group (204.4 +/- 18.5 nmol/L, p < or = 0.001) but not in the low-flavonoid group (17.5 +/- 9 nmol/L, p = 0.99). Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and is associated with an increase in plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. No changes in oxidative stress measures, lipid profiles, blood pressure, body weight or BMI were seen.

  7. Zinc supplementation leads to immune modulation and improved survival in a juvenile model of murine sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ganatra, Hammad A; Varisco, Brian M; Harmon, Kelli; Lahni, Patrick; Opoka, Amy; Wong, Hector R

    2017-01-01

    Children with severe sepsis are known to have altered zinc homeostasis and decreased circulating zinc levels, suggesting a role for zinc supplementation to improve outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that zinc supplementation would improve survival in a juvenile model of polymicrobial sepsis. Juvenile (13-14-d-old) C57BL/6 mice were treated with 10 mg/kg of zinc via i.p. injections (or vehicle) for 3 d prior to induction of polymicrobial sepsis via i.p. cecal slurry injections. Survival after sepsis was followed for 3 d, and bacterial clearance, ex vivo phagocytosis, systemic inflammatory markers and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation were quantified. We found a significant survival benefit and decreased bacterial burden among zinc supplemented mice when compared with the control group. Zinc supplementation also resulted in enhanced phagocytic activity, greater neutrophil recruitment in the peritoneal cavity and NET formation, suggesting a possible mechanism for improved bacterial clearance and survival. We also noted decreased serum cytokine levels and decreased myeloperoxidase activity in lung tissue following zinc supplementation, suggesting attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response. In conclusion, zinc supplementation improves bacterial clearance, and hence survival, in juvenile mice with polymicrobial sepsis.

  8. Chromium supplementation improved post-stroke brain infarction and hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ying; Mao, Frank Chiahung; Liu, Chia-Hsin; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang; Lai, Nai-Wei; Wu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2016-04-01

    Hyperglycemia is common after acute stroke and is associated with a worse outcome of stroke. Thus, a better understanding of stress hyperglycemia is helpful to the prevention and therapeutic treatment of stroke. Chromium is an essential nutrient required for optimal insulin activity and normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Beyond its nutritional effects, dietary supplement of chromium causes beneficial outcomes against several diseases, in particular diabetes-associated complications. In this study, we investigated whether post-stroke hyperglycemia involved chromium dynamic mobilization in a rat model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia and whether dietary supplement of chromium improved post-stroke injury and alterations. Stroke rats developed brain infarction, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance. Post-stroke hyperglycemia was accompanied by elevated secretion of counter-regulatory hormones including glucagon, corticosterone, and norepinephrine, decreased insulin signaling in skeletal muscles, and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Correlation studies revealed that counter-regulatory hormone secretion showed a positive correlation with chromium loss and blood glucose increased together with chromium loss. Daily chromium supplementation increased tissue chromium levels, attenuated brain infarction, improved hyperglycemia, and decreased plasma levels of glucagon and corticosterone in stroke rats. Our findings suggest that stroke rats show disturbance of tissue chromium homeostasis with a net loss through urinary excretion and chromium mobilization and loss might be an alternative mechanism responsible for post-stroke hyperglycemia.

  9. Prevention and management of "do not return" notices: a quality improvement process for supplemental staffing nursing agencies.

    PubMed

    Ade-Oshifogun, Jochebed Bosede; Dufelmeier, Thaddeus

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a quality improvement process for "do not return" (DNR) notices for healthcare supplemental staffing agencies and healthcare facilities that use them. It is imperative that supplemental staffing agencies partner with healthcare facilities in assuring the quality of supplemental staff. Although supplemental staffing agencies attempt to ensure quality staffing, supplemental staff are sometimes subjectively evaluated by healthcare facilities as "DNR." The objective of this article is to describe a quality improvement process to prevent and manage "DNR" within healthcare organizations. We developed a curriculum and accompanying evaluation tool by adapting Rampersad's problem-solving discipline approach: (a) definition of area(s) for improvement; (b) identification of all possible causes; (c) development of an action plan; (d) implementation of the action plan; (e) evaluation for program improvement; and (f) standardization of the process. Face and content validity of the evaluation tool was ascertained by input from a panel of experienced supplemental staff and nursing faculty. This curriculum and its evaluation tool will have practical implications for supplemental staffing agencies and healthcare facilities in reducing "DNR" rates and in meeting certification/accreditation requirements. Further work is needed to translate this process into future research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mechanical Adaptability of the MMP-Responsive Film Improves the Functionality of Endothelial Cell Monolayer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mi; Chang, Hao; Zhang, He; Wang, Jing; Lei, Wen-Xi; Li, Bo-Chao; Ren, Ke-Feng; Ji, Jian

    2017-07-01

    Extracellular matrix and cells are inherent in coordinating and adapting to each other during all physiological and pathological processes. Synthetic materials, however, show rarely reciprocal and spatiotemporal responses to cells, and lacking self-adapting properties as well. Here, a mechanical adaptability based on the matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) sensitive polyelectrolyte film is reported. Poly-lysine (PLL) and methacrylated hyaluronic acid (HA-MA) nanolayers are employed to build the thin film through the layer-by-layer assembly, and it is further crosslinked using MMP sensitive peptides, which endows the films with changeable mechanical properties in response to MMPs. It is demonstrated that stiffness of the (PLL/HA-MA) films increases with the crosslinking, and then decreases in response to a treatment of enzyme. Consequently, the crosslinked (PLL/HA-MA) films reveal effective growth of endothelial cells (ECs), leading to fast formation of EC monolayer. Importantly, significantly improved endothelial function of the EC monolayer, which is characterized by integrity, biomolecules release, expression of function related gene, and antithrombotic properties, is achieved along with the decrosslinking of the film because of EC-secreted MMPs. These results suggest that mechanical adaptability of substrate in Young's modulus plays a significant role in endothelial progression, which shows great application potential in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and organ-on-a-chip. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Leucine Supplementation Improves Skeletal Muscle Regeneration after Cryolesion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Marcelo G.; Baptista, Igor L.; Carlassara, Eduardo O. C.; Moriscot, Anselmo S.; Aoki, Marcelo S.; Miyabara, Elen H.

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to provide further insight into the role of leucine supplementation in the skeletal muscle regeneration process, focusing on myofiber size and strength recovery. Young (2-month-old) rats were subjected or not to leucine supplementation (1.35 g/kg per day) started 3 days prior to cryolesion. Then, soleus muscles were cryolesioned and continued receiving leucine supplementation until 1, 3 and 10 days later. Soleus muscles from leucine-supplemented animals displayed an increase in myofiber size and a reduction in collagen type III expression on post-cryolesion day 10. Leucine was also effective in reducing FOXO3a activation and ubiquitinated protein accumulation in muscles at post-cryolesion days 3 and 10. In addition, leucine supplementation minimized the cryolesion-induced decrease in tetanic strength and increase in fatigue in regenerating muscles at post-cryolesion day 10. These beneficial effects of leucine were not accompanied by activation of any elements of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin signalling pathway in the regenerating muscles. Our results show that leucine improves myofiber size gain and strength recovery in regenerating soleus muscles through attenuation of protein ubiquitination. In addition, leucine might have therapeutic effects for muscle recovery following injury and in some muscle diseases. PMID:24416379

  12. Cinnamon supplementation does not improve glycemic control in postmenopausal type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Vanschoonbeek, Kristof; Thomassen, Bregje J W; Senden, Joan M; Wodzig, Will K W H; van Loon, Luc J C

    2006-04-01

    In vitro and in vivo animal studies have reported strong insulin-like or insulin-potentiating effects after cinnamon administration. Recently, a human intervention study showed that cinnamon supplementation (1 g/d) strongly reduced fasting blood glucose concentration (30%) and improved the blood lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cinnamon supplementation on insulin sensitivity and/or glucose tolerance and blood lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, a total of 25 postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes (aged 62.9 +/- 1.5 y, BMI 30.4 +/- 0.9 kg/m2) participated in a 6-wk intervention during which they were supplemented with either cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia, 1.5 g/d) or a placebo. Before and after 2 and 6 wk of supplementation, arterialized blood samples were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Blood lipid profiles and multiple indices of whole-body insulin sensitivity were determined. There were no time x treatment interactions for whole-body insulin sensitivity or oral glucose tolerance. The blood lipid profile of fasting subjects did not change after cinnamon supplementation. We conclude that cinnamon supplementation (1.5 g/d) does not improve whole-body insulin sensitivity or oral glucose tolerance and does not modulate blood lipid profile in postmenopausal patients with type 2 diabetes. More research on the proposed health benefits of cinnamon supplementation is warranted before health claims should be made.

  13. The acute effects of grape polyphenols supplementation on endothelial function in adults: meta-analyses of controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-Hua; Tian, Hong-Bo; Zhao, Hong-Jin; Chen, Liang-Hua; Cui, Lian-Qun

    2013-01-01

    The acute effects of grape polyphenols on endothelial function in adults are inconsistent. Here, we performed meta-analyses to determine these acute effects as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Trials were searched in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library database. Summary estimates of weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% CIs were obtained by using random-effects models. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. The protocol details of our meta-analysis have been submitted to the PROSPERO register and our registration number is CRD42013004157. Nine studies were included in the present meta-analyses. The results showed that the FMD level was significantly increased in the initial 120 min after intake of grape polyphenols as compared with controls. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed and showed that a health status was the main effect modifier of the significant heterogeneity. Subgroups indicated that intake of grape polyphenols could significantly increase FMD in healthy subjects, and the increased FMD appeared to be more obviously in subjects with high cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, the peak effect of grape polyphenols on FMD in healthy subjects was found 30 min after ingestion, which was different from the effect in subjects with high cardiovascular risk factors, in whom the peak effect was found 60 min after ingestion. Endothelial function can be significantly improved in healthy adults in the initial 2 h after intake of grape polyphenols. The acute effect of grape polyphenols on endothelial function may be more significant but the peak effect is delayed in subjects with a smoking history or coronary heart disease as compared with the healthy subjects.

  14. FY 1998 Proposed Rail Improvement Program Supplement Update - Bloomington II

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this amendment to the FY 1998 Rail Improvement Program Supplement : is to present an analysis which has been formulated, using prescribed methodology, to assist in an investment decision concerning track rehabilitation and new track co...

  15. Targeting the gut microbiota with inulin-type fructans: preclinical demonstration of a novel approach in the management of endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Catry, Emilie; Bindels, Laure B; Tailleux, Anne; Lestavel, Sophie; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Goossens, Jean-François; Lobysheva, Irina; Plovier, Hubert; Essaghir, Ahmed; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste; Bouzin, Caroline; Pachikian, Barbara D; Cani, Patrice D; Staels, Bart; Dessy, Chantal; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the beneficial role of prebiotics on endothelial dysfunction, an early key marker of cardiovascular diseases, in an original mouse model linking steatosis and endothelial dysfunction. We examined the contribution of the gut microbiota to vascular dysfunction observed in apolipoprotein E knockout (Apoe -/- ) mice fed an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-depleted diet for 12 weeks with or without inulin-type fructans (ITFs) supplementation for the last 15 days. Mesenteric and carotid arteries were isolated to evaluate endothelium-dependent relaxation ex vivo. Caecal microbiota composition (Illumina Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene) and key pathways/mediators involved in the control of vascular function, including bile acid (BA) profiling, gut and liver key gene expression, nitric oxide and gut hormones production were also assessed. ITF supplementation totally reverses endothelial dysfunction in mesenteric and carotid arteries of n-3 PUFA-depleted Apoe -/- mice via activation of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase/NO pathway. Gut microbiota changes induced by prebiotic treatment consist in increased NO-producing bacteria, replenishment of abundance in Akkermansia and decreased abundance in bacterial taxa involved in secondary BA synthesis. Changes in gut and liver gene expression also occur upon ITFs suggesting increased glucagon-like peptide 1 production and BA turnover as drivers of endothelium function preservation. We demonstrate for the first time that ITF improve endothelial dysfunction, implicating a short-term adaptation of both gut microbiota and key gut peptides. If confirmed in humans, prebiotics could be proposed as a novel approach in the prevention of metabolic disorders-related cardiovascular diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  17. Increased endothelial microparticles and oxidative stress at extreme altitude.

    PubMed

    Pichler Hefti, Jacqueline; Leichtle, Alexander; Stutz, Monika; Hefti, Urs; Geiser, Thomas; Huber, Andreas R; Merz, Tobias M

    2016-04-01

    Hypoxia and oxidative stress affect endothelial function. Endothelial microparticles (MP) are established measures of endothelial dysfunction and influence vascular reactivity. To evaluate the effects of hypoxia and antioxidant supplementation on endothelial MP profiles, a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, during a high altitude expedition was performed. 29 participants were randomly assigned to a treatment group (n = 14), receiving vitamin E, C, A, and N-acetylcysteine daily, and a control group (n = 15), receiving placebo. Blood samples were obtained at 490 m (baseline), 3530, 4590, and 6210 m. A sensitive tandem mass spectrometry method was used to measure 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α and hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids as markers of oxidative stress. Assessment of MP profiles including endothelial activation markers (CD62+MP and CD144+MP) and cell apoptosis markers (phosphatidylserine+MP and CD31+MP) was performed using a standardized flow cytometry-based protocol. 15 subjects reached all altitudes and were included in the final analysis. Oxidative stress increased significantly at altitude. No statistically significant changes were observed comparing baseline to altitude measurements of phosphatidylserine expressing MP (p = 0.1718) and CD31+MP (p = 0.1305). Compared to baseline measurements, a significant increase in CD62+MP (p = 0.0079) and of CD144+MP was detected (p = 0.0315) at high altitudes. No significant difference in any MP level or oxidative stress markers were found between the treatment and the control group. Hypobaric hypoxia is associated with increased oxidative stress and induces a significant increase in CD62+ and CD144+MP, whereas phosphatidylserine+MP and CD31+MP remain unchanged. This indicates that endothelial activation rather than an apoptosis is the primary factor of hypoxia induced endothelial dysfunction.

  18. Acetylcysteine reduces plasma homocysteine concentration and improves pulse pressure and endothelial function in patients with end-stage renal failure.

    PubMed

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rinder, Christiane; Beige, Joachim; Riezler, Reiner; Zidek, Walter; Tepel, Martin

    2004-01-27

    Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure. We investigated the metabolic and hemodynamic effects of intravenous administration of acetylcysteine, a thiol-containing antioxidant, during a hemodialysis session in a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study in 20 patients with end-stage renal failure. Under control conditions, a hemodialysis session reduced plasma homocysteine concentration to 58+/-22% predialysis (mean+/-SD), whereas in the presence of acetylcysteine, the plasma homocysteine concentration was significantly more reduced to 12+/-7% predialysis (P<0.01). The reduction of plasma homocysteine concentration was significantly correlated with a reduction of pulse pressure. A 10% decrease in plasma homocysteine concentration was associated with a decrease of pulse pressure by 2.5 mm Hg. Analysis of the second derivative of photoplethysmogram waveform showed changes of arterial wave reflectance during hemodialysis in the presence of acetylcysteine, indicating improved endothelial function. Acetylcysteine-dependent increase of homocysteine removal during a hemodialysis session improves plasma homocysteine concentration, pulse pressure, and endothelial function in patients with end-stage renal failure.

  19. Captopril improves tumor nanomedicine delivery by increasing tumor blood perfusion and enlarging endothelial gaps in tumor blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Ting; Tuo, Yanyan; Jin, Kai; Luo, Zimiao; Shi, Wei; Mei, Heng; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing; Jiang, Xinguo

    2017-12-01

    Poor tumor perfusion and unfavorable vessel permeability compromise nanomedicine drug delivery to tumors. Captopril dilates blood vessels, reducing blood pressure clinically and bradykinin, as the downstream signaling moiety of captopril, is capable of dilating blood vessels and effectively increasing vessel permeability. The hypothesis behind this study was that captopril can dilate tumor blood vessels, improving tumor perfusion and simultaneously enlarge the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels, therefore enhancing nanomedicine drug delivery for tumor therapy. Using the U87 tumor xenograft with abundant blood vessels as the tumor model, tumor perfusion experiments were carried out using laser Doppler imaging and lectin-labeling experiments. A single treatment of captopril at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly increased the percentage of functional vessels in tumor tissues and improved tumor blood perfusion. Scanning electron microscopy of tumor vessels also indicated that the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels were enlarged after captopril treatment. Immunofluorescence-staining of tumor slices demonstrated that captopril significantly increased bradykinin expression, possibly explaining tumor perfusion improvements and endothelial gap enlargement. Additionally, imaging in vivo, imaging ex vivo and nanoparticle distribution in tumor slices indicated that after a single treatment with captopril, the accumulation of 115-nm nanoparticles in tumors had increased 2.81-fold with a more homogeneous distribution pattern in comparison to non-captopril treated controls. Finally, pharmacodynamics experiments demonstrated that captopril combined with paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles resulted in the greatest tumor shrinkage and the most extensive necrosis in tumor tissues among all treatment groups. Taken together, the data from the present study suggest a novel strategy for improving tumor perfusion and enlarging blood vessel permeability simultaneously in order to improve

  20. [Improving Primary Culture of Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells of Rats].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling; Hu, Yuan-Dong; Xu, Fei-Fei; Wang, Ting-Hua

    2016-09-01

    To improve the culturing method of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMEVCs) of SD rats. The culturing processes in regard to obtaining peripheral lung tissue, attaching tissue block,preparing medium and subculturing were modified.These included an injection of heparin sodium before anesthesia, abdominal bleeding, opening of chest when breathing stopped, improvement of operational details, reduction of pollution by adding penicillin and streptomycin, discard of tissues after 48 h of primary culturing, remove of fibroblasts by a second digestion, and identification of cells using a fluorescence microscope for binding with lectin from BSI (FITC-BSI).An inverted microscope was used to observe the morphological characteristics of PMEVCs. Purified PMEVCs were obtained,which displayed a polygon or short fusiform, exhibiting a typical cobblestone-like morphology. The morphology of PMVECs turned into swirling or long fusiform following subculture or changes in culture conditions. The results of FITC-BSI assay showed that more than 90% cells were stained with green fluorescence. Purified PMEVCs with a good growth state and subculture stability can be obtained using the modified method.

  1. Febuxostat, a novel xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, improves hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Shirakura, Takashi; Nomura, Johji; Matsui, Chieko; Kobayashi, Tsunefumi; Tamura, Mizuho; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an enzyme responsible for the production of uric acid. XO produces considerable amount of oxidative stress throughout the body. To date, however, its pathophysiologic role in hypertension and endothelial dysfunction still remains controversial. To explore the possible involvement of XO-derived oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of vascular dysfunction, by use of a selective XO inhibitor, febuxostat, we investigated the impact of pharmacological inhibition of XO on hypertension and vascular endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Sixteen-week-old SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated with tap water (control) or water containing febuxostat (3 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) in febuxostat-treated SHR (220 ± 3 mmHg) was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased compared with the control SHR (236 ± 4 mmHg) while SBP in febuxostat-treated WKY was constant. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortas from febuxostat-treated SHR was significantly (P < 0.05) improved compared with the control SHR, whereas relaxation in response to sodium nitroprusside was not changed. Vascular XO activity and tissue nitrotyrosine level, a representative indicator of local oxidative stress, were considerably elevated in the control SHR compared with the control WKY, and this increment was abolished by febuxostat. Our results suggest that exaggerated XO activity and resultant increase in oxidative stress in this experimental model contribute to the hypertension and endothelial dysfunction, thereby supporting a notion that pharmacological inhibition of XO is valuable not only for hyperuricemia but also for treating hypertension and related endothelial dysfunction in human clinics.

  2. The Acute Effects of Grape Polyphenols Supplementation on Endothelial Function in Adults: Meta-Analyses of Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shao-Hua; Tian, Hong-Bo; Zhao, Hong-Jin; Chen, Liang-Hua; Cui, Lian-Qun

    2013-01-01

    Background The acute effects of grape polyphenols on endothelial function in adults are inconsistent. Here, we performed meta-analyses to determine these acute effects as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Methods Trials were searched in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library database. Summary estimates of weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% CIs were obtained by using random-effects models. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. The protocol details of our meta-analysis have been submitted to the PROSPERO register and our registration number is CRD42013004157. Results Nine studies were included in the present meta-analyses. The results showed that the FMD level was significantly increased in the initial 120 min after intake of grape polyphenols as compared with controls. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed and showed that a health status was the main effect modifier of the significant heterogeneity. Subgroups indicated that intake of grape polyphenols could significantly increase FMD in healthy subjects, and the increased FMD appeared to be more obviously in subjects with high cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, the peak effect of grape polyphenols on FMD in healthy subjects was found 30 min after ingestion, which was different from the effect in subjects with high cardiovascular risk factors, in whom the peak effect was found 60 min after ingestion. Conclusions Endothelial function can be significantly improved in healthy adults in the initial 2 h after intake of grape polyphenols. The acute effect of grape polyphenols on endothelial function may be more significant but the peak effect is delayed in subjects with a smoking history or coronary heart disease as compared with the healthy subjects. PMID:23894543

  3. Vitamin supplementation of HIV-infected women improves postnatal child growth.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Saathoff, Elmar; Bosch, Ronald J; Hertzmark, Ellen; Baylin, Ana; Manji, Karim; Msamanga, Gernard; Hunter, David J; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2005-04-01

    Linear growth retardation and wasting are common in children born to HIV-infected women. Inexpensive interventions that could improve the postnatal growth pattern of such children are needed. The objective was to examine the effect of supplementing HIV-infected women with multivitamins or vitamin A and beta-carotene, during and after pregnancy, on the growth of their children during the first 2 y of life. We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial in 886 mother-infant pairs in Tanzania. At the first prenatal visit, HIV-infected women were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 daily oral regimens in a 2 x 2 factorial fashion: multivitamins (MV: thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, niacin, vitamin B-12, vitamin C, vitamin E, and folic acid), preformed vitamin A + beta-carotene (VA/BC), MV including VA/BC, or placebo. Supplementation continued during the first 2 y postpartum and thereafter. Children were weighed and measured monthly, and all received vitamin A supplements after 6 mo of age per the standard of care. Multivitamins had a significant positive effect on attained weight (459 g; 95% CI: 35, 882; P = 0.03) and on weight-for-age (0.42; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.77; P = 0.02) and weight-for-length (0.38; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.68; P = 0.01) z scores at 24 mo. VA/BC seemed to reduce the benefits of MV on these outcomes. No significant effects were observed on length, midupper arm circumference, or head circumference. Supplementation of HIV-infected women with multivitamins (vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and vitamin E) during pregnancy and lactation is an effective intervention for improving ponderal growth in children.

  4. Endothelial Response to Glucocorticoids in Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zielińska, Karolina A.; Van Moortel, Laura; Opdenakker, Ghislain; De Bosscher, Karolien; Van den Steen, Philippe E.

    2016-01-01

    The endothelium plays a crucial role in inflammation. A balanced control of inflammation requires the action of glucocorticoids (GCs), steroidal hormones with potent cell-specific anti-inflammatory properties. Besides the classic anti-inflammatory effects of GCs on leukocytes, recent studies confirm that endothelial cells also represent an important target for GCs. GCs regulate different aspects of endothelial physiology including expression of adhesion molecules, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and maintenance of endothelial barrier integrity. However, the regulation of endothelial GC sensitivity remains incompletely understood. In this review, we specifically examine the endothelial response to GCs in various inflammatory diseases ranging from multiple sclerosis, stroke, sepsis, and vasculitis to atherosclerosis. Shedding more light on the cross talk between GCs and endothelium will help to improve existing therapeutic strategies and develop new therapies better tailored to the needs of patients. PMID:28018358

  5. l-Carnitine Supplementation in Recovery after Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Fielding, Roger; Riede, Linda; Lugo, James P.; Bellamine, Aouatef

    2018-01-01

    Given its pivotal role in fatty acid oxidation and energy metabolism, l-carnitine has been investigated as ergogenic aid for enhancing exercise capacity in the healthy athletic population. Early research indicates its beneficial effects on acute physical performance, such as increased maximum oxygen consumption and higher power output. Later studies point to the positive impact of dietary supplementation with l-carnitine on the recovery process after exercise. It is demonstrated that l-carnitine alleviates muscle injury and reduces markers of cellular damage and free radical formation accompanied by attenuation of muscle soreness. The supplementation-based increase in serum and muscle l-carnitine contents is suggested to enhance blood flow and oxygen supply to the muscle tissue via improved endothelial function thereby reducing hypoxia-induced cellular and biochemical disruptions. Studies in older adults further showed that l-carnitine intake can lead to increased muscle mass accompanied by a decrease in body weight and reduced physical and mental fatigue. Based on current animal studies, a role of l-carnitine in the prevention of age-associated muscle protein degradation and regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis is suggested. PMID:29534031

  6. Nutraceutical augmentation of circulating endothelial progenitor cells and hematopoietic stem cells in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Mikirova, Nina A; Jackson, James A; Hunninghake, Ron; Kenyon, Julian; Chan, Kyle W H; Swindlehurst, Cathy A; Minev, Boris; Patel, Amit N; Murphy, Michael P; Smith, Leonard; Ramos, Famela; Ichim, Thomas E; Riordan, Neil H

    2010-04-08

    The medical significance of circulating endothelial or hematopoietic progenitors is becoming increasing recognized. While therapeutic augmentation of circulating progenitor cells using G-CSF has resulted in promising preclinical and early clinical data for several degenerative conditions, this approach is limited by cost and inability to perform chronic administration. Stem-Kine is a food supplement that was previously reported to augment circulating EPC in a pilot study. Here we report a trial in 18 healthy volunteers administered Stem-Kine twice daily for a 2 week period. Significant increases in circulating CD133 and CD34 cells were observed at days 1, 2, 7, and 14 subsequent to initiation of administration, which correlated with increased hematopoietic progenitors as detected by the HALO assay. Augmentation of EPC numbers in circulation was detected by KDR-1/CD34 staining and colony forming assays. These data suggest Stem-Kine supplementation may be useful as a stimulator of reparative processes associated with mobilization of hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors.

  7. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Joven, Jorge; March, Isabel; Espinel, Eugenia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Aragonès, Gerard; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Rios, Lidia; Martin-Paredero, Vicente; Menendez, Javier A; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Camps, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    Polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa calices were administered to patients with metabolic syndrome (125 mg/kg/day for 4 wk, n = 31) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (125 or 60 mg/kg in a single dose or daily for 1 wk, n = 8 for each experimental group). The H. sabdariffa extract improved metabolism, displayed potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and significantly reduced blood pressure in both humans and rats. Diuresis and inhibition of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme were found to be less important mechanisms than those related to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and endothelium-dependent effects to explain the beneficial actions. Notably, polyphenols induced a favorable endothelial response that should be considered in the management of metabolic cardiovascular risks. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Magnetizable stent-grafts enable endothelial cell capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tefft, Brandon J.; Uthamaraj, Susheil; Harburn, J. Jonathan; Hlinomaz, Ota; Lerman, Amir; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan; Sandhu, Gurpreet S.

    2017-04-01

    Emerging nanotechnologies have enabled the use of magnetic forces to guide the movement of magnetically-labeled cells, drugs, and other therapeutic agents. Endothelial cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) have previously been captured on the surface of magnetizable 2205 duplex stainless steel stents in a porcine coronary implantation model. Recently, we have coated these stents with electrospun polyurethane nanofibers to fabricate prototype stent-grafts. Facilitated endothelialization may help improve the healing of arteries treated with stent-grafts, reduce the risk of thrombosis and restenosis, and enable small-caliber applications. When placed in a SPION-labeled endothelial cell suspension in the presence of an external magnetic field, magnetized stent-grafts successfully captured cells to the surface regions adjacent to the stent struts. Implantation within the coronary circulation of pigs (n=13) followed immediately by SPION-labeled autologous endothelial cell delivery resulted in widely patent devices with a thin, uniform neointima and no signs of thrombosis or inflammation at 7 days. Furthermore, the magnetized stent-grafts successfully captured and retained SPION-labeled endothelial cells to select regions adjacent to stent struts and between stent struts, whereas the non-magnetized control stent-grafts did not. Early results with these prototype devices are encouraging and further refinements will be necessary in order to achieve more uniform cell capture and complete endothelialization. Once optimized, this approach may lead to more rapid and complete healing of vascular stent-grafts with a concomitant improvement in long-term device performance.

  9. Magnetizable stent-grafts enable endothelial cell capture.

    PubMed

    Tefft, Brandon J; Uthamaraj, Susheil; Harburn, J Jonathan; Hlinomaz, Ota; Lerman, Amir; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan; Sandhu, Gurpreet S

    2017-04-01

    Emerging nanotechnologies have enabled the use of magnetic forces to guide the movement of magnetically-labeled cells, drugs, and other therapeutic agents. Endothelial cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) have previously been captured on the surface of magnetizable 2205 duplex stainless steel stents in a porcine coronary implantation model. Recently, we have coated these stents with electrospun polyurethane nanofibers to fabricate prototype stent-grafts. Facilitated endothelialization may help improve the healing of arteries treated with stent-grafts, reduce the risk of thrombosis and restenosis, and enable small-caliber applications. When placed in a SPION-labeled endothelial cell suspension in the presence of an external magnetic field, magnetized stent-grafts successfully captured cells to the surface regions adjacent to the stent struts. Implantation within the coronary circulation of pigs (n=13) followed immediately by SPION-labeled autologous endothelial cell delivery resulted in widely patent devices with a thin, uniform neointima and no signs of thrombosis or inflammation at 7 days. Furthermore, the magnetized stent-grafts successfully captured and retained SPION-labeled endothelial cells to select regions adjacent to stent struts and between stent struts, whereas the non-magnetized control stent-grafts did not. Early results with these prototype devices are encouraging and further refinements will be necessary in order to achieve more uniform cell capture and complete endothelialization. Once optimized, this approach may lead to more rapid and complete healing of vascular stent-grafts with a concomitant improvement in long-term device performance.

  10. Endothelial dysfunction in metabolic and vascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Polovina, Marija M; Potpara, Tatjana S

    2014-03-01

    Vascular endothelium has important regulatory functions in the cardiovascular system and a pivotal role in the maintenance of vascular health and metabolic homeostasis. It has long been recognized that endothelial dysfunction participates in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis from early, preclinical lesions to advanced, thrombotic complications. In addition, endothelial dysfunction has been recently implicated in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Considering that states of insulin resistance (eg, metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and T2DM) represent the most prevalent metabolic disorders and risk factors for atherosclerosis, it is of considerable scientific and clinical interest that both metabolic and vascular disorders have endothelial dysfunction as a common background. Importantly, endothelial dysfunction has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with established cardiovascular disease, and a growing body of evidence indicates that endothelial dysfunction also imparts adverse prognosis in states of insulin resistance. In this review, we discuss the association of insulin resistance and T2DM with endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease, with a focus on the underlying mechanisms and prognostic implications of the endothelial dysfunction in metabolic and vascular disorders. We also address current therapeutic strategies for the improvement of endothelial dysfunction.

  11. Dietary quercetin attenuates oxidant-induced endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice fed a high-fat diet: a critical role for heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu; Ward, Natalie C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Puddey, Ian B; Wang, Yutang; Zhang, Di; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Stocker, Roland; Croft, Kevin D

    2013-12-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that quercetin, a polyphenol derived in the diet from fruit and vegetables, contributes to cardiovascular health. We aimed to investigate the effects of dietary quercetin on endothelial function and atherosclerosis in mice fed a high-fat diet. Wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) and apolipoprotein E gene knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice were fed: (i) a high-fat diet (HFD) or (ii) a HFD supplemented with 0.05% w/w quercetin (HFD+Q), for 14 weeks. Compared with animals fed HFD, HFD+Q attenuated atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. Treatment with the HFD+Q significantly improved endothelium-dependent relaxation of aortic rings isolated from WT but not ApoE(-/-) mice and attenuated hypochlorous acid-induced endothelial dysfunction in aortic rings of both WT and ApoE(-/-) mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that HFD+Q significantly improved plasma F2-isoprostanes, 24h urinary nitrite, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, and increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression in the aortas of both WT and ApoE(-/-) mice (P<0.05). HFD+Q also resulted in small changes in plasma cholesterol (P<0.05 in WT) and plasma triacylglycerols (P<0.05 in ApoE (-/-)mice). In a separate experiment, quercetin did not protect against hypochlorite-induced endothelial dysfunction in arteries obtained from heterozygous HO-1 gene knockout mice with low expression of HO-1 protein. Quercetin protects mice fed a HFD against oxidant-induced endothelial dysfunction and ApoE(-/-) mice against atherosclerosis. These effects are associated with improvements in nitric oxide bioavailability and are critically related to arterial induction of HO-1. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Improved Starch Digestion of Sucrase-deficient Shrews Treated With Oral Glucoamylase Enzyme Supplements.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Buford L; Avery, Stephen E; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Kilani, Shadi B; Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Burrin, Douglas G; Hodges, Benjamin E; Chacko, Shaji K; Opekun, Antone R; Hindawy, Marwa El; Hamaker, Bruce R; Oda, Sen-Ichi

    2017-08-01

    Although named because of its sucrose hydrolytic activity, this mucosal enzyme plays a leading role in starch digestion because of its maltase and glucoamylase activities. Sucrase-deficient mutant shrews, Suncus murinus, were used as a model to investigate starch digestion in patients with congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.Starch digestion is much more complex than sucrose digestion. Six enzyme activities, 2 α-amylases (Amy), and 4 mucosal α-glucosidases (maltases), including maltase-glucoamylase (Mgam) and sucrase-isomaltase (Si) subunit activities, are needed to digest starch to absorbable free glucose. Amy breaks down insoluble starch to soluble dextrins; mucosal Mgam and Si can either directly digest starch to glucose or convert the post-α-amylolytic dextrins to glucose. Starch digestion is reduced because of sucrase deficiency and oral glucoamylase enzyme supplement can correct the starch maldigestion. The aim of the present study was to measure glucogenesis in suc/suc shrews after feeding of starch and improvement of glucogenesis by oral glucoamylase supplements. Sucrase mutant (suc/suc) and heterozygous (+/suc) shrews were fed with C-enriched starch diets. Glucogenesis derived from starch was measured as blood C-glucose enrichment and oral recombinant C-terminal Mgam glucoamylase (M20) was supplemented to improve starch digestion. After feedings, suc/suc and +/suc shrews had different starch digestions as shown by blood glucose enrichment and the suc/suc had lower total glucose concentrations. Oral supplements of glucoamylase increased suc/suc total blood glucose and quantitative starch digestion to glucose. Sucrase deficiency, in this model of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, reduces blood glucose response to starch feeding. Supplementing the diet with oral recombinant glucoamylase significantly improved starch digestion in the sucrase-deficient shrew.

  13. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves sprint and high-intensity intermittent running performance.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Christopher; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jell, Harry; Fulford, Jonathan; Carter, James; Nyman, Lara; Bailey, Stephen J; Jones, Andrew M

    2016-12-30

    The influence of dietary nitrate (NO 3 - ) supplementation on indices of maximal sprint and intermittent exercise performance is unclear. To investigate the effects of NO 3 - supplementation on sprint running performance, and cognitive function and exercise performance during the sport-specific Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 test (IR1). In a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, 36 male team-sport players received NO 3 - -rich (BR; 70 mL·day -1 ; 6.4 mmol of NO 3 - ), and NO 3 - -depleted (PL; 70 mL·day -1 ; 0.04 mmol NO 3 - ) beetroot juice for 5 days. On day 5 of supplementation, subjects completed a series of maximal 20-m sprints followed by the Yo-Yo IR1. Cognitive tasks were completed prior to, during and immediately following the Yo-Yo IR1. BR improved sprint split times relative to PL at 20 m (1.2%; BR 3.98 ± 0.18 vs. PL 4.03 ± 0.19 s; P < 0.05), 10 m (1.6%; BR 2.53 ± 0.12 vs. PL 2.57 ± 0.19 s; P < 0.05) and 5 m (2.3%; BR 1.73 ± 0.09 vs. PL 1.77 ± 0.09 s; P < 0.05). The distance covered in the Yo-Yo IR1 test improved by 3.9% (BR 1422 ± 502 vs. PL 1369 ± 505 m; P < 0.05). The reaction time to the cognitive tasks was shorter in BR (615 ± 98 ms) than PL (645 ± 120 ms; P < 0.05) at rest but not during the Yo-Yo IR1. There was no difference in response accuracy. Dietary NO 3 - supplementation enhances maximal sprint and high-intensity intermittent running performance in competitive team sport players. Our findings suggest that NO 3 - supplementation has the potential to improve performance in single-sprint or multiple-sprint (team) sports. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. LIM Domain Only 2 Regulates Endothelial Proliferation, Angiogenesis, and Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shu; Matrone, Gianfranco; Lv, Jie; Chen, Kaifu; Wong, Wing Tak; Cooke, John P

    2016-10-06

    LIM domain only 2 (LMO2, human gene) is a key transcription factor that regulates hematopoiesis and vascular development. However, its role in adult endothelial function has been incompletely characterized. In vitro loss- and gain-of-function studies on LMO2 were performed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells with lentiviral overexpression or short hairpin RNA knockdown (KD) of LMO2, respectively. LMO2 KD significantly impaired endothelial proliferation. LMO2 controls endothelial G1/S transition through transcriptional regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and 4 as determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blot, and chromatin immunoprecipitation, and also influences the expression of Cyclin D1 and Cyclin A1. LMO2 KD also impaired angiogenesis by reducing transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) expression, whereas supplementation of exogenous TGF-β restored defective network formation in LMO2 KD human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In a zebrafish model of caudal fin regeneration, RT-PCR revealed that the lmo2 (zebrafish gene) gene was upregulated at day 5 postresection. The KD of lmo2 by vivo-morpholino injections in adult Tg(fli1:egfp) y1 zebrafish reduced 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation in endothelial cells, impaired neoangiogenesis in the resected caudal fin, and substantially delayed fin regeneration. The transcriptional factor LMO2 regulates endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis in vitro. Furthermore, LMO2 is required for angiogenesis and tissue healing in vivo. Thus, LMO2 is a critical determinant of vascular and tissue regeneration. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  15. Heated apple juice supplemented with onion has greatly improved nutritional quality and browning index.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bonggi; Seo, Jeong Dae; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Choon Young

    2016-06-15

    Although fruit juices are very popular, enzymatic browning occurs easily. Browning of fruit juice deteriorates nutrition value and product quality due to oxidation of polyphenol compounds. Therefore, development of natural food additives that reduce browning will be beneficial for improving quality of fruit juices. Onion has been reported to be a potent natural anti-browning agent. Here, we compared unheated and heated apple juices pre-supplemented with onion with respect to browning and nutritional quality. The unheated apple juice supplemented with onion showed reduced browning as well as increased total soluble solid, total phenol concentration, radical scavenging activities, and ferric reducing and copper chelating activities without any change in flavonoid concentration. On the other hand, heated juice supplemented with onion not only showed improved values for these parameters but also markedly increased flavonoid concentration. Thus, we conclude that application of heating and onion addition together may greatly improve quality of apple juice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Concurrent generation of functional smooth muscle and endothelial cells via a vascular progenitor.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Melanie; Anderson, Erica K; Phadnis, Smruti M; Longaker, Michael T; Cooke, John P; Chen, Bertha; Reijo Pera, Renee A

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) are typically derived separately, with low efficiencies, from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). The concurrent generation of these cell types might lead to potential applications in regenerative medicine to model, elucidate, and eventually treat vascular diseases. Here we report a robust two-step protocol that can be used to simultaneously generate large numbers of functional SMCs and ECs from a common proliferative vascular progenitor population via a two-dimensional culture system. We show here that coculturing hPSCs with OP9 cells in media supplemented with vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and bone morphogenetic protein 4 yields a higher percentage of CD31(+)CD34(+) cells on day 8 of differentiation. Upon exposure to endothelial differentiation media and SM differentiation media, these vascular progenitors were able to differentiate and mature into functional endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, respectively. Furthermore, we were able to expand the intermediate population more than a billion fold to generate sufficient numbers of ECs and SMCs in parallel for potential therapeutic transplantations.

  17. Adipokine CTRP6 improves PPARγ activation to alleviate angiotensin II-induced hypertension and vascular endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chi, Liyi; Departments of Cardiology, The 451st Hospital of People's Liberation Army; Hu, Xiaojing

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is the most important component of angiotensin, which has been regarded as a major contributor to the incidence of hypertension and vascular endothelial dysfunction. The adipocytokine C1q/TNF-related protein 6 (CTRP6) was recently reported to have multiple protective effects on cardiac and cardiovascular function. However, the exact role of CTRP6 in the progression of AngII induced hypertension and vascular endothelial function remains unclear. Here, we showed that serum CTRP6 content was significantly downregulated in SHRs, accompanied by a marked increase in arterial systolic pressure and serum AngII, CRP and ET-1 content. Then, pcDNA3.1-mediated CTRP6 delivery or CTRP6 siRNAmore » was injected into SHRs. CTRP6 overexpression caused a significant decrease in AngII expression and AngII-mediated hypertension and vascular endothelial inflammation. In contrast, CTRP6 knockdown had the opposite effect to CTRP6 overexpression. Moreover, we found that CTRP6 positively regulated the activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway and the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a recently proven negative regulator of AngII, in the brain and vascular endothelium of SHRs. Finally, CTRP6 was overexpressed in endothelial cells, and caused a significant increase in PPARγ activation and suppression in AngII-mediated vascular endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis. The effect of that could be rescued by the ERK inhibitor PD98059. In contrast, silencing CTRP6 suppressed PPARγ activation and exacerbated AngII-mediated vascular endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis. In conclusion, CTRP6 improves PPARγ activation and alleviates AngII-induced hypertension and vascular endothelial dysfunction. - Highlights: • Serum CTRP6 was significantly decreased in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). • CTRP6 positively regulated the activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. • CTRP6 negatively regulates PPARγ mediated Angiotensin II

  18. Folic acid supplementation improves microvascular function in older adults through nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2015-07-01

    Older adults have reduced vascular endothelial function, evidenced by attenuated nitric oxide (NO)-dependent cutaneous vasodilatation. Folic acid and its metabolite, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), are reported to improve vessel function. We hypothesized that (i) local 5-MTHF administration and (ii) chronic folic acid supplementation would improve cutaneous microvascular function in ageing through NO-dependent mechanisms. There were two separate studies in which there were 11 young (Y: 22 ± 1 years) and 11 older (O: 71 ± 3 years) participants. In both studies, two intradermal microdialysis fibres were placed in the forearm skin for local delivery of lactated Ringer's solution with or without 5 mM 5-MTHF. Red cell flux was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry. Cutaneous vascular conductance [CVC=red cell flux/mean arterial pressure] was normalized as percentage maximum CVC (%CVCmax) (28 mM sodium nitroprusside, local temperature 43°C). In study 1 after CVC plateaued during local heating, 20 mM NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was perfused at each site to quantify NO-dependent vasodilatation. The local heating plateau (%CVCmax: O = 82 ± 3 vs Y = 96 ± 1, P = 0.002) and NO-dependent vasodilatation (%CVCmax: O = 26 ± 6% vs Y = 49 ± 5, P = 0.03) were attenuated in older participants. 5-MTHF augmented the overall (%CVCmax = 91 ± 2, P = 0.03) and NO-dependent (%CVCmax = 43 ± 9%, P = 0.04) vasodilatation in older but not young participants. In study 2 the participants ingested folic acid (5 mg/day) or placebo for 6 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. A rise in oral temperature of 1°C was induced using a water-perfused suit, body temperature was held and 20 mM L-NAME was perfused at each site. Older participants had attenuated reflex (%CVCmax: O = 31 ± 8 vs Y = 44 ± 5, P = 0.001) and NO-dependent (%CVCmax: O = 9 ± 2 vs Y = 21 ± 2, P = 0.003) vasodilatation. Folic acid increased CVC (%CVCmax = 47 ± 5%, P = 0.001) and NO

  19. Improvement in fermentation characteristics of degermed ground corn by lipid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Ganti S; Singh, Vijay; Johnston, David B; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, M E

    2006-08-01

    With rapid growth of fuel ethanol industry, and concomitant increase in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), new corn fractionation technologies that reduce DDGS volume and produce higher value coproducts in dry grind ethanol process have been developed. One of the technologies, a dry degerm, defiber (3D) process (similar to conventional corn dry milling) was used to separate germ and pericarp fiber prior to the endosperm fraction fermentation. Recovery of germ and pericarp fiber in the 3D process results in removal of lipids from the fermentation medium. Biosynthesis of lipids, which is important for cell growth and viability, cannot proceed in strictly anaerobic fermentations. The effects of ten different lipid supplements on improving fermentation rates and ethanol yields were studied and compared to the conventional dry grind process. Endosperm fraction (from the 3D process) was mixed with water and liquefied by enzymatic hydrolysis and was fermented using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The highest ethanol concentration (13.7% v/v) was achieved with conventional dry grind process. Control treatment (endosperm fraction from 3D process without lipid supplementation) produced the lowest ethanol concentration (11.2% v/v). Three lipid treatments (fatty acid ester, alkylphenol, and ethoxylated sorbitan ester 1836) were most effective in improving final ethanol concentrations. Fatty acid ester treatment produced the highest final ethanol concentration (12.3% v/v) among all lipid supplementation treatments. Mean final ethanol concentrations of alkylphenol and ethoxylated sorbitan ester 1836 supplemented samples were 12.3 and 12.0% v/v, respectively.

  20. Endothelial keratoplasty with infant donor tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Akira; Yokogawa, Hideaki; Yamazaki, Natsuko; Masaki, Toshinori; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Here we report a case of endothelial keratoplasty with infant donor tissue obtained after brain death. A 52-year-old man with endothelial dysfunction of unknown cause in the right eye underwent non-Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (nDSAEK) with tissue from an infant donor (2 years). Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Best corrected visual acuity and donor central endothelial cell density were recorded preoperatively and postoperatively. Infant donor tissue preparation with a microkeratome set at 300 μm was successful; the donor tissue was extremely elastic and soft compared with adult tissue. The central endothelial cell density of the infant donor tissue was as high as 4,291 cells/mm2. No complications were observed during donor tissue (8.0 mm in diameter) insertion with the double-glide technique (Busin glide with intraocular lens sheet glide) or any of the other procedures. Best corrected visual acuity improved from 1.7 logMAR (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution; 0.02 decimal visual acuity) preoperatively to 0.2 logMAR (0.6) after 6 months and 0.1 logMAR (0.8) after 1 year. The central endothelial cell density after 6 months was 4,098 cells/mm2 (representing a 4.5% cell loss from preoperative donor cell measurements), and the central endothelial cell density after 1 year was 4,032 cells/mm2 (6.0% decrease). Infant donor tissue may be preferably used for DSAEK/nDASEK, since it may not be suitable for penetrating keratoplasty or Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty. PMID:25246761

  1. A pilot study of ezetimibe vs. atorvastatin for improving peripheral microvascular endothelial function in stable patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Seigo; Jinnouchi, Hideaki; Hieshima, Kunio; Kurinami, Noboru; Suzuki, Tomoko; Miyamoto, Fumio; Kajiwara, Keizo; Matsui, Kunihiko; Jinnouchi, Tomio

    2015-04-23

    Elevated cholesterol in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) can cause endothelial dysfunction. An effective clinical therapy to improve endothelial dysfunction remains to be established. Different cardiovascular actions between treatments for the inhibition of cholesterol absorption and the suppression of cholesterol synthesis for achieving improvement in endothelial function are unknown in DM. Stable patients with type 2 DM and mildly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were enrolled. We evaluated peripheral microvascular endothelial function using reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) examination and calculated a natural logarithmic transformed value for the RH-PAT index (LnRHI). We randomly assigned 33 patients to each monotherapy: cholesterol synthesis suppression using atorvastatin (5 mg/day, n=16) or cholesterol absorption inhibition using ezetimibe (10 mg/day, n=17). Patients were prospectively followed for 6 months. Serum lipids and LnRHI were repeatedly examined before and after each therapy. LDL significantly decreased in both groups, but the percent changes of LDL showed a greater decrease in the atorvastatin group compared with the ezetimibe group (-34.5±7.8% vs. -21.9±9.6%, p<0.01). Serum levels of non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA) significantly decreased in the ezetimibe group but not in the atorvastatin group (ezetimibe group: 561.1±236.8 to 429.7±195.9, p<0.01; atorvastatin group: 538.8±319.5 to 520.2±227.3, p=0.75). The percent decrease in NEFA was significantly greater in the ezetimibe group compared with the atorvastatin group (-19.9±27.4% vs. 11.3±44.1%, p<0.05). LnRHI showed a significant increase in the ezetimibe group but not in the atorvastatin group (ezetimibe group: 0.471±0.157 to 0.678±0.187, p<0.01; atorvastatin group: 0.552±0.084 to 0.558±0.202, p=0.64). The percent changes in LnRHI were significantly greater in the ezetimibe group compared with the atorvastatin group (63.3±89.2% vs. 7.4±41

  2. Nutritional supplements in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Schmidl, Doreen; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2015-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause of blindness in the Western World. While with new therapies that are directed towards vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potentially efficient treatment option for the wet form of the disease has been introduced, a therapeutic regimen for dry AMD is still lacking. There is evidence from several studies that oral intake of supplements is beneficial in preventing progression of the disease. Several formulations of micronutrients are currently available. The present review focuses on the role of supplements in the treatment and prevention of AMD and sums up the current knowledge about the most frequently used micronutrients. In addition, regulatory issues are discussed, and future directions for the role of supplementation in AMD are highlighted. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Dietary probiotic supplementation improves growth and the intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M A; Batista, S; Pires, M A; Silva, A P; Pereira, L F; Saavedra, M J; Ozório, R O A; Rema, P

    2017-08-01

    Probiotic administration can be a nutritional strategy to improve the immune response and growth performance of fish. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of a probiotic blend (Bacillus sp., Pediococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp.) as a dietary supplement on growth performance, feed utilization, innate immune and oxidative stress responses and intestinal morphology in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The probiotic was incorporated into a basal diet at three concentrations: 0 g/kg (A0: control), 3 g/kg (A1: 1.0×106 colony forming unit (CFU)/g) and 6 g/kg (A2: 2.3×106 CFU/g diet). After 8 weeks of probiotic feeding, weight and specific growth rate where significantly higher in fish-fed A1 diet than in fish-fed A0. Alternative complement in plasma was significantly enhanced in fish-fed A2 when compared with A0. The hepatic antioxidant indicators were not affected by probiotic supplementation. Villi height and goblet cell counts increased significantly in the intestine of fish-fed A1 and A2 diets compared with A0. The dietary probiotic supplementation was maintained until 20 weeks of feeding. Then the selected immune parameters, digestive enzymes and apparent digestibility of diets were studied. No effect of probiotic feeding was observed after that longer period supplementation. The dietary supplementation of mixed species probiotic may constitute a valuable nutritional approach towards a sustainable tilapia aquaculture. The improvement of the immune responses and intestinal morphology play an important role in increasing growth performance, nutrient absorption and disease resistance in fish, important outcomes in such a competitive and developing aquaculture sector.

  4. Vascular function and cholecalciferol supplementation in CKD: A self-controlled case series.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Singhal, Manphool; Kumar, Vinod; Lal, Anupam; Banerjee, Debasish; Gupta, Krishan Lal; Jha, Vivekanand

    2018-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common and associated with mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the commonest cause of mortality in CKD patients. In a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial, we have recently reported favorable effects of vitamin D supplementation on vascular & endothelial function and inflammatory biomarkers in vitamin D deficient patients with non-diabetic stage 3-4 CKD (J Am Soc Nephrol 28: 3100-3108, 2017). Subjects in the placebo group who had still not received vitamin D after completion of the trial received two oral doses 300,000 IU of oral cholecalciferol at 8 weeks interval followed by flow mediated dilatation (FMD), pulse wave velocity (PWV), circulating endothelial and inflammatory markers (E-Selectin, vWF, hsCRP and IL-6), 125 (OH) 2 D, iPTH and iFGF-23 assessment at 16 weeks. 31 subjects completed this phase of the study. Last values recorded in the preceding clinical trial were taken as baseline values. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH) 2 D increased and FMD significantly improved after cholecalciferol supplementation [mean change in FMD%: 5.8% (95% CI: 4.0-7.5%, p < 0.001]. Endothelium independent nitroglycerine mediated dilatation, PWV, iPTH, iFGF-23 and IL-6 also showed favorable changes. The data further cement the findings of beneficial effects of correction of vitamin D deficiency on vascular function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Coenzyme Q(10) , endothelial function, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Littarru, Gian Paolo; Tiano, Luca; Belardinelli, Romualdo; Watts, Gerald F

    2011-01-01

    Since the time a precise role of coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10) ) in myocardial bioenergetics was established, the involvement of CoQ in the pathophysiology of heart failure was hypothesized. This provided the rationale for numerous clinical trials of CoQ(10) as adjunctive treatment for heart failure. A mild hypotensive effect of CoQ was reported in the early years of clinical use of this compound. We review early human and animal studies on the vascular effects of CoQ. We then focus on endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes and the possible impact on this condition of antioxidants and nutritional supplements, and in particular the therapeutic effects of CoQ. The effect of CoQ(10) on endothelial dysfunction in ischemic heart disease is also reviewed together with recent data highlighting that treatment with CoQ(10) increases extracellular SOD activity. Copyright © 2011 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Regular physical exercise improves endothelial function in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alice; Pleiner, Johannes; Bayerle-Eder, Michaela; Wiesinger, Günther F; Rödler, Suzanne; Quittan, Michael; Mayer, Gert; Wolzt, Michael

    2002-04-01

    Impaired endothelial function is detectable in heart transplant (HTX) recipients and regarded as risk factor for coronary artery disease. We have studied whether endothelial function can be improved in HTX patients participating in a regular physical training program as demonstrated in patients with chronic heart failure, hypertension and coronary artery disease. Male HTX patients and healthy, age-matched controls were studied. Seven HTX patients (age: 60 +/- 6 yr; 6 +/- 2 yr of HTX) participated in an outpatient training program, six HTX patients (age: 63 +/- 8 yr; 7 +/- 1 yr of HTX) maintained a sedentary lifestyle without regular physical exercise since transplantation. A healthy control group comprised six subjects (age: 62 +/- 6 yr). Vascular function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery (FMD). Systemic haemodynamic responses to intravenous infusion of the endothelium independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and to NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), an inhibitor of constitutive nitric oxide synthase, were also measured. Resting heart rate was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in healthy controls (66 +/- 13) than in the HTX training group (83 +/- 11) and in non-training HTX patients (91 +/- 9), baseline blood pressure also tended to be lower in healthy subjects and in the training HTX patients. FMD was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the control group (8.4 +/- 2.2%) and in the training group (7.1 +/- 2.4%), compared with non-training HTX patients (1.4 +/- 0.8%). The response of systolic blood pressure (p = 0.08) and heart rate (p < 0.05) to L-NMMA was reduced in sedentary HTX patients compared with healthy controls and heart rate response to SNP was also impaired in sedentary HTX patients. Regular aerobic physical training restores vascular function in HTX patients, who are at considerable risk for developing vascular complications. This effect is demonstrable in conduit and systemic resistance arteries.

  7. Maternal choline supplementation: a nutritional approach for improving offspring health?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinyin; West, Allyson A; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-05-01

    The modulatory role of choline on the fetal epigenome and the impact of in utero choline supply on fetal programming and health are of great interest. Studies in animals and/or humans suggest that maternal choline supplementation during pregnancy benefits important physiologic systems such as offspring cognitive function, response to stress, and cerebral inhibition. Because alterations in offspring phenotype frequently coincide with epigenetic modifications and changes in gene expression, maternal choline supplementation may be a nutritional strategy to improve lifelong health of the child. Future studies are warranted to elucidate further the effect of choline on the fetal epigenome and to determine the level of maternal choline intake required for optimal offspring physiologic function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Teachers' Perspectives of Ways to Improve an Elementary School's Supplemental Reading Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, JoAnn M.

    2012-01-01

    To improve students' reading abilities, an elementary school staff decided to supplement the regular curriculum with a free Internet reading program. To promote student participation in the supplemental program, the media specialist designed the Gumball Reading Program, which included student requirements and rewards. The requirements…

  9. Evaluation of a static stretching intervention on vascular endothelial function and arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Shinno, Hiromi; Kurose, Satoshi; Yamanaka, Yutaka; Higurashi, Kyoko; Fukushima, Yaeko; Tsutsumi, Hiromi; Kimura, Yutaka

    2017-06-01

    Maintenance and enhancement of vascular endothelial function contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and prolong a healthy life expectancy. Given the reversible nature of vascular endothelial function, interventions to improve this function might prevent arteriosclerosis. Accordingly, we studied the effects of a 6-month static stretching intervention on vascular endothelial function (reactive hyperaemia peripheral arterial tonometry index: RH-PAT index) and arterial stiffness (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity: baPWV) and investigated the reversibility of these effects after a 6-month detraining period following intervention completion. The study evaluated 22 healthy, non-smoking, premenopausal women aged ≥40 years. Subjects were randomly assigned to the full-intervention (n = 11; mean age: 48.6 ± 2.8 years) or a half-intervention that included a control period (n = 11; mean age: 46.9 ± 3.6 years). Body flexibility and vascular endothelial function improved significantly after 3 months of static stretching. In addition to these improvements, arterial stiffness improved significantly after a 6-month intervention. However, after a 6-month detraining period, vascular endothelial function, flexibility, and arterial stiffness all returned to preintervention conditions, demonstrating the reversibility of the obtained effects. A 3-month static stretching intervention was found to improve vascular endothelial function, and an additional 3-month intervention also improved arterial stiffness. However, these effects were reversed by detraining.

  10. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Lee J; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter; Jackman, Sarah R; Ermιdis, Georgios; Kelly, James; Black, Matthew I; Bailey, Stephen J; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested that dietary inorganic nitrate (NO₃(-)) supplementation may improve muscle efficiency and endurance exercise tolerance but possible effects during team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise have not been examined. We hypothesized that NO₃(-) supplementation would enhance high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Fourteen male recreational team-sport players were assigned in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design to consume 490 mL of concentrated, nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) and nitrate-depleted placebo juice (PL) over ~30 h preceding the completion of a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1). Resting plasma nitrite concentration ([NO₂(-)]) was ~400% greater in BR compared to PL. Plasma [NO₂(-)] declined by 20% in PL (P < 0.05) and by 54 % in BR (P < 0.05) from pre-exercise to end-exercise. Performance in the Yo-Yo IR1 was 4.2% greater (P < 0.05) with BR (1,704 ± 304 m) compared to PL (1,636 ± 288 m). Blood [lactate] was not different between BR and PL, but the mean blood [glucose] was lower (3.8 ± 0.8 vs. 4.2 ± 1.1 mM, P < 0.05) and the rise in plasma [K(+)] tended to be reduced in BR compared to PL (P = 0.08). These findings suggest that NO₃(-) supplementation may promote NO production via the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway and enhance Yo-Yo IR1 test performance, perhaps by facilitating greater muscle glucose uptake or by better maintaining muscle excitability. Dietary NO₃(-) supplementation improves performance during intense intermittent exercise and may be a useful ergogenic aid for team sports players.

  11. Cardiac rehabilitation improves coronary endothelial function in patients with heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy: A positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed

    Legallois, Damien; Belin, Annette; Nesterov, Sergey V; Milliez, Paul; Parienti, J-J; Knuuti, Juhani; Abbas, Ahmed; Tirel, Olivier; Agostini, Denis; Manrique, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is common in patients with heart failure and is associated with poor clinical outcome. Cardiac rehabilitation is able to enhance peripheral endothelial function but its impact on coronary vasomotion remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effect of cardiac rehabilitation on coronary vasomotion in patients with heart failure. We prospectively enrolled 29 clinically stable heart failure patients from non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy and without coronary risk factors. Myocardial blood flow was quantified using (15)-O water positron emission tomography at rest and during a cold pressor test, before and after 12 weeks of cardiac rehabilitation and optimization of medical therapy. Rest myocardial blood flow was significantly improved after the completion of rehabilitation compared to baseline (1.31 ± 0.38 mL/min/g vs. 1.16 ± 0.41 mL/min/g, p = 0.04). The endothelium-related change in myocardial blood flow from rest to cold pressor test and the percentage of myocardial blood flow increase during the cold pressor test were both significantly improved after cardiac rehabilitation (respectively from -0.03 ± 0.22 mL/min/g to 0.19 ± 0.22 mL/min/g, p < 0.001 and from 101.5 ± 16.5% to 118.3 ± 24.4%, p < 0.001). Left ventricular ejection fraction, plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide, maximal oxygen consumption and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire score were also significantly improved. The improvement was not related to uptitration of medical therapy. Coronary endothelial function is altered in patients with heart failure due to non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy. In these patients, cardiac rehabilitation significantly improves coronary vasomotion. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  12. Surface modification and endothelialization of biomaterials as potential scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiangkui; Feng, Yakai; Guo, Jintang; Wang, Haixia; Li, Qian; Yang, Jing; Hao, Xuefang; Lv, Juan; Ma, Nan; Li, Wenzhong

    2015-08-07

    Surface modification and endothelialization of vascular biomaterials are common approaches that are used to both resist the nonspecific adhesion of proteins and improve the hemocompatibility and long-term patency of artificial vascular grafts. Surface modification of vascular grafts using hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol), zwitterionic polymers, heparin or other bioactive molecules can efficiently enhance hemocompatibility, and consequently prevent thrombosis on artificial vascular grafts. However, these modified surfaces may be excessively hydrophilic, which limits initial vascular endothelial cell adhesion and formation of a confluent endothelial lining. Therefore, the improvement of endothelialization on these grafts by chemical modification with specific peptides and genes is now arousing more and more interest. Several active peptides, such as RGD, CAG, REDV and YIGSR, can be specifically recognized by endothelial cells. Consequently, graft surfaces that are modified by these peptides can exhibit targeting selectivity for the adhesion of endothelial cells, and genes can be delivered by targeting carriers to specific tissues to enhance the promotion and regeneration of blood vessels. These methods could effectively accelerate selective endothelial cell recruitment and functional endothelialization. In this review, recent developments in the surface modification and endothelialization of biomaterials in vascular tissue engineering are summarized. Both gene engineering and targeting ligand immobilization are promising methods to improve the clinical outcome of artificial vascular grafts.

  13. Restoration of Autophagy in Endothelial Cells from Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Improves Nitric Oxide Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fetterman, Jessica L.; Holbrook, Monica; Flint, Nir; Feng, Bihua; Bretón-Romero, Rosa; Linder, Erika A.; Berk, Brittany D.; Duess, Mai-Ann; Farb, Melissa G.; Gokce, Noyan; Shirihai, Orian S.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Vita, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Endothelial dysfunction contributes to cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. Autophagy is a multistep mechanism for removal of damaged proteins and organelles from the cell. Under diabetic conditions, inadequate autophagy promotes cellular dysfunction and insulin resistance in non-vascular tissue. We hypothesized that impaired autophagy contributes to endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Methods and Results We measured autophagy markers and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation in freshly isolated endothelial cells from diabetic subjects (n=45) and non-diabetic controls (n=41). p62 levels were higher in cells from diabetics (34.2±3.6 vs. 20.0±1.6, P=0.001), indicating reduced autophagic flux. Bafilomycin inhibited insulin-induced activation of eNOS (−21±5% vs. 64±22%, P=0.003) in cells from controls, confirming that intact autophagy is necessary for eNOS signaling. In endothelial cells from diabetics, activation of autophagy with spermidine restored eNOS activation, suggesting that impaired autophagy contributes to endothelial dysfunction (P=0.01). Indicators of autophagy initiation including the number of LC3-bound puncta and beclin 1 expression were similar in diabetics and controls, whereas an autophagy terminal phase indicator, the lysosomal protein Lamp2a, was higher in diabetics. In endothelial cells under diabetic conditions, the beneficial effect of spermidine on eNOS activation was blocked by autophagy inhibitors bafilomycin or 3-methyladenine. Blocking the terminal stage of autophagy with bafilomycin increased p62 (P=0.01) in cells from diabetics to a lesser extent than in cells from controls (P=0.04), suggesting ongoing, but inadequate autophagic clearance. Conclusion Inadequate autophagy contributes to endothelial dysfunction in patients with diabetes and may be a target for therapy of diabetic vascular disease. PMID:26926601

  14. Restoration of autophagy in endothelial cells from patients with diabetes mellitus improves nitric oxide signaling.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Jessica L; Holbrook, Monica; Flint, Nir; Feng, Bihua; Bretón-Romero, Rosa; Linder, Erika A; Berk, Brittany D; Duess, Mai-Ann; Farb, Melissa G; Gokce, Noyan; Shirihai, Orian S; Hamburg, Naomi M; Vita, Joseph A

    2016-04-01

    Endothelial dysfunction contributes to cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus. Autophagy is a multistep mechanism for the removal of damaged proteins and organelles from the cell. Under diabetic conditions, inadequate autophagy promotes cellular dysfunction and insulin resistance in non-vascular tissue. We hypothesized that impaired autophagy contributes to endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. We measured autophagy markers and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation in freshly isolated endothelial cells from diabetic subjects (n = 45) and non-diabetic controls (n = 41). p62 levels were higher in cells from diabetics (34.2 ± 3.6 vs. 20.0 ± 1.6, P = 0.001), indicating reduced autophagic flux. Bafilomycin inhibited insulin-induced activation of eNOS (64.7 ± 22% to -47.8 ± 8%, P = 0.04) in cells from controls, confirming that intact autophagy is necessary for eNOS signaling. In endothelial cells from diabetics, activation of autophagy with spermidine restored eNOS activation, suggesting that impaired autophagy contributes to endothelial dysfunction (P = 0.01). Indicators of autophagy initiation including the number of LC3-bound puncta and beclin 1 expression were similar in diabetics and controls, whereas an autophagy terminal phase indicator, the lysosomal protein Lamp2a, was higher in diabetics. In endothelial cells under diabetic conditions, the beneficial effect of spermidine on eNOS activation was blocked by autophagy inhibitors bafilomycin or 3-methyladenine. Blocking the terminal stage of autophagy with bafilomycin increased p62 (P = 0.01) in cells from diabetics to a lesser extent than in cells from controls (P = 0.04), suggesting ongoing, but inadequate autophagic clearance. Inadequate autophagy contributes to endothelial dysfunction in patients with diabetes and may be a target for therapy of diabetic vascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical activity on endothelial and erectile dysfunction: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Leoni, Luís Antônio B; Fukushima, André R; Rocha, Leandro Y; Maifrino, Laura B M M; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-09-01

    Physical inactivity, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking and obesity were associated with imbalance in oxidative stress, leading to endothelial dysfunction. Such dysfunction is present in both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and erectile dysfunction (ED). ED is the persistent inability to achieve or sustain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance and is one of the first manifestations of endothelial damage in men with CVD risk factors. The purpose of this article is to review the results of studies involving physical activity, CVD, endothelial dysfunction and ED in order to verify its applicability for improving the health and quality of life of men with such disorders. There is consistent evidence that endothelial damage is intimately linked to ED, and this manifestation seems to be associated with the appearance CVDs. On the other hand, physical activity has been pointed out as an important clinical strategy in the prevention and treatment of CVDs and ED mainly associated with improvement of endothelial function. However, further experimental and clinical prospective investigations are needed to test the role of physical exercises in the modulation of endothelial function and their implications on erectile function and the appearance of CVDs.

  16. Targeted endothelial nanomedicine for common acute pathological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shuvaev, Vladimir V.; Brenner, Jacob S.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

    2017-01-01

    Endothelium, a thin monolayer of specialized cells lining the lumen of blood vessels is the key regulatory interface between blood and tissues. Endothelial abnormalities are implicated in many diseases, including common acute conditions with high morbidity and mortality lacking therapy, in part because drugs and drug carriers have no natural endothelial affinity. Precise endothelial drug delivery may improve management of these conditions. Using ligands of molecules exposed to the bloodstream on the endothelial surface enables design of diverse targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents. Target molecules and binding epitopes must be accessible to drug carriers, carriers must be free of harmful effects, and targeting should provide desirable sub-cellular addressing of the drug cargo. The roster of current candidate target molecules for endothelial nanomedicine includes peptidases and other enzymes, cell adhesion molecules and integrins, localized in different domains of the endothelial plasmalemma and differentially distributed throughout the vasculature. Endowing carriers with an affinity to specific endothelial epitopes enables an unprecedented level of precision of control of drug delivery: binding to selected endothelial cell phenotypes, cellular addressing and duration of therapeutic effects. Features of nanocarrier design such as choice of epitope and ligand control delivery and effect of targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents. Pathological factors modulate endothelial targeting and uptake of nanocarriers. Selection of optimal binding sites and design features of nanocarriers are key controllable factors that can be iteratively engineered based on their performance from in vitro to pre-clinical in vivo experimental models. Targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents provide antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other therapeutic effects unattainable by non-targeted counterparts in animal models of common acute severe human disease conditions. The results of animal

  17. Improvement in circulation and in cardiovascular risk factors with a proprietary isotonic bioflavonoid formula OPC-3.

    PubMed

    Cesarone, Maria R; Di Renzo, Andrea; Errichi, Silvia; Schönlau, Frank; Wilmer, James L; Blumenfeld, Julian

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of isotonic bioflavonoid supplementation, OPC-3 on 61 individuals presenting with risk factors meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Subjects were supplemented with a proprietary isotonic bioflavonoid OPC-3 or placebo over 2 months. Plasma oxidative stress status was significantly lowered by 10.1% with OPC-3. All major cardiovascular risk factors were improved with blood pressure, total cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose lowered. OPC-3 significantly improved endothelial function as evaluated by increased vasorelaxation in reactive hyperemia and enhanced diastolic carotid artery flow. Cardiac ultrasound scanning revealed a significant increase of left ventricular ejection fraction. Skin microcirculation was enhanced, and better tissue perfusion led to significantly increased transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure and decreased pCO(2). With OPC-3 a dramatic and significant plasma C-reactive protein decrease by 52.1% occurred. Individuals may improve key cardiovascular risk factors by daily supplementation with the bioflavonoid OPC-3 as an important part of a healthier lifestyle.

  18. Citrulline Supplementation Improves Organ Perfusion and Arginine Availability under Conditions with Enhanced Arginase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wijnands, Karolina A.P.; Meesters, Dennis M.; van Barneveld, Kevin W.Y.; Visschers, Ruben G.J.; Briedé, Jacob J.; Vandendriessche, Benjamin; van Eijk, Hans M.H.; Bessems, Babs A.F.M.; van den Hoven, Nadine; von Wintersdorff, Christian J.H.; Brouckaert, Peter; Bouvy, Nicole D.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Cauwels, Anje; Poeze, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced arginase-induced arginine consumption is believed to play a key role in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease-induced end organ failure. Enhancement of arginine availability with l-arginine supplementation exhibited less consistent results; however, l-citrulline, the precursor of l-arginine, may be a promising alternative. In this study, we determined the effects of l-citrulline compared to l-arginine supplementation on arginine-nitric oxide (NO) metabolism, arginine availability and microcirculation in a murine model with acutely-enhanced arginase activity. The effects were measured in six groups of mice (n = 8 each) injected intraperitoneally with sterile saline or arginase (1000 IE/mouse) with or without being separately injected with l-citrulline or l-arginine 1 h prior to assessment of the microcirculation with side stream dark-field (SDF)-imaging or in vivo NO-production with electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Arginase injection caused a decrease in plasma and tissue arginine concentrations. l-arginine and l-citrulline supplementation both enhanced plasma and tissue arginine concentrations in arginase-injected mice. However, only the citrulline supplementation increased NO production and improved microcirculatory flow in arginase-injected mice. In conclusion, the present study provides for the first time in vivo experimental evidence that l-citrulline, and not l-arginine supplementation, improves the end organ microcirculation during conditions with acute arginase-induced arginine deficiency by increasing the NO concentration in tissues. PMID:26132994

  19. A small population of liver endothelial cells undergoes endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in response to chronic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Ribera, Jordi; Pauta, Montse; Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; Córdoba, Bernat; Bosch, Anna; Calvo, Maria; Rodrigo-Torres, Daniel; Sancho-Bru, Pau; Mira, Aurea; Jiménez, Wladimiro; Morales-Ruiz, Manuel

    2017-11-01

    Rising evidence points to endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) as a significant source of the mesenchymal cell population in fibrotic diseases. In this context, we hypothesized that liver endothelial cells undergo EndMT during fibrosis progression. Cirrhosis in mice was induced by CCl 4 A transgenic mouse expressing a red fluorescent protein reporter under the control of Tie2 promoter (Tie2-tdTomato) was used to trace the acquisition of EndMT. Sinusoidal vascular connectivity was evaluated by intravital microscopy and high-resolution three-dimensional confocal microscopy. A modest but significant fraction of liver endothelial cells from both cirrhotic patients and CCl 4 -treated Tie2-tdTomato mice acquired an EndMT phenotype characterized by the coexpression of CD31 and α-smooth muscle actin, compared with noncirrhotic livers. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) inhibited the acquisition of EndMT induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) treatment in cultured primary mouse liver endothelial cells from control mice. EndMT was also reduced significantly in vivo in cirrhotic Tie2-tdTomato mice treated intraperitoneally with BMP-7 compared with untreated mice (1.9 ± 0.2 vs. 3.8 ± 0.3%, respectively; P < 0.05). The decrease of EndMT in cirrhotic livers correlated with a significant decrease in liver fibrosis ( P < 0.05) and an improvement in the vascular disorganization rate ( P < 0.05). We demonstrated the acquisition of the EndMT phenotype by a subpopulation of endothelial cells from cirrhotic livers in both animal models and patients. BMP-7 treatment decreases the occurrence of the EndMT phenotype and has a positive impact on the severity of disease by reducing fibrosis and sinusoidal vascular disorganization. NEW & NOTEWORTHY A subpopulation of liver endothelial cells from cirrhotic patients and mice with liver fibrosis undergoes endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Liver endothelial cells from healthy mice could transition into a

  20. Visual acuity, refractive error, and endothelial cell density six months after Descemet stripping and automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK).

    PubMed

    Koenig, Steven B; Covert, Douglas J; Dupps, William J; Meisler, David M

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate visual acuity, refractive outcomes, and endothelial cell density 6 months after Descemet stripping and automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). We performed an institutional review board-approved prospective study of a surgical case series of 34 patients at 2 institutions undergoing DSAEK for Fuchs endothelial dystrophy, pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, or aphakic bullous keratopathy with or without simultaneous phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. Clinical outcomes, including best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), spherical equivalent refraction, and refractive astigmatism and topographic or keratometric astigmatism, were assessed at the 6-month postoperative examination and compared with preoperative values with paired Student t tests. The change in endothelial cell density from the eye bank examination to 6 months after transplantation was similarly evaluated. BSCVA averaged 20/99 preoperatively and 20/42 postoperatively (P < 0.0001). After DSAEK, 30 (88.2%) of 34 patients showed improved BSCVA, and 21 (61.8%) of the 34 patients achieved a BSCVA of 20/40 or better. For patients not undergoing simultaneous phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation, a hyperopic shift in refraction of 1.19 +/- 1.32 D was noted. Refractive astigmatism, topographic astigmatism, and keratometry showed no statistically significant change. Endothelial cell density of donor corneas averaged 2826 +/- 370 cells/mm, whereas the mean postoperative density was 1396 +/- 440 cells/mm. This finding corresponded to an average loss of 1426 cells/mm (50% loss; P = 0.0001). The first half of cases experienced an average cell loss of 1674 cells/mm (59% loss) compared with 1181 (41% loss) in the second half of cases (P = 0.005). Three (9%) of 34 grafts experienced iatrogenic graft failure and required reoperation with new donor tissue. Also, 9 (27%) of 34 grafts experienced dislocation in the early postoperative period and required repositioning

  1. Supplemental branched-chain amino acids improve performance and immune response of newly-received feedlot calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Supplemental branched-chain AA (BCAA) improved N balance of steers during a simulated pathogen challenge. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental BCAA on growth and health of newly-received feedlot steers. Steers (n = 120; initial BW = 376 ± 5 kg) were blocked by BW a...

  2. Interface Fluid Syndrome After Laser In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) Because of Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy Reversed by Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty (DMEK).

    PubMed

    Luceri, Salvatore; Baksoellah, Zainab; Ilyas, Abbas; Baydoun, Lamis; Melles, Gerrit R J

    2016-12-01

    To describe a case that developed "interface fluid syndrome" after previous laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) because of Fuchs endothelial dystrophy (FED), which was reversed by Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). A 58-year-old male patient presented with bilateral visual impairment owing to FED and visually significant cataract. Cataract surgery was carried out in both eyes followed by DMEK in his left eye. After cataract surgery, visual acuity did not improve sufficiently because corneal thickness increased and a fine cleft with interface fluid developed between the LASIK-flap and the residual stromal bed. After uneventful DMEK in his left eye, the fluid resolved within a week and visual acuity improved rapidly. This case demonstrates that "interface fluid syndrome" after LASIK caused by concomitant endothelial dysfunction may be reversed by DMEK allowing fast visual recovery.

  3. Cilostazol improves high glucose-induced impaired angiogenesis in human endothelial progenitor cells and vascular endothelial cells as well as enhances vasculoangiogenesis in hyperglycemic mice mediated by the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Shih-Ya; Chao, Ting-Hsing; Li, Yi-Heng; Liu, Ping-Yen; Lee, Cheng-Han; Cho, Chung-Lung; Wu, Hua-Lin; Chen, Jyh-Hong

    2016-04-01

    Cilostazol is an antiplatelet agent with vasodilatory effects that works by increasing intracellular concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). This study investigated the effects of cilostazol in preventing high glucose (HG)-induced impaired angiogenesis and examined the potential mechanisms involving activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Assays for colony formation, adhesion, proliferation, migration, and vascular tube formation were used to determine the effect of cilostazol in HG-treated endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Animal-based assays were performed in hyperglycemic ICR mice undergoing hind limb ischemia. An immnunoblotting assay was used to identify the expression and activation of signaling molecules in vitro and in vivo. Cilostazol treatment significantly restored endothelial function in EPCs and HUVECs through activation of AMPK/acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC)-dependent pathways and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent pathways. Recovery of blood flow in the ischemic hind limb and the population of circulating CD34(+) cells were significantly improved in cilostazol-treated mice, and these effects were abolished by local AMPK knockdown. Cilostazol increased the phosphorylation of AMPK/ACC and Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling molecules in parallel with or downstream of the cAMP/PKA-dependent signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. Cilostazol prevents HG-induced endothelial dysfunction in EPCs and HUVECs and enhances angiogenesis in hyperglycemic mice by interactions with a broad signaling network, including activation of AMPK/ACC and probably cAMP/PKA pathways. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha improves vasculogenesis-related functions of endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Kütscher, Christian; Lampert, Florian M; Kunze, Mirjam; Markfeld-Erol, Filiz; Stark, G Björn; Finkenzeller, Günter

    2016-05-01

    Postnatal vasculogenesis is mediated by mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from bone marrow and homing to ischemic tissues. This feature emphasizes this cell type for cell-based therapies aiming at the improvement of neovascularization in tissue engineering applications and regenerative medicine. In animal models, it was demonstrated that implantation of EPCs from cord blood (cbEPCs) led to the formation of a complex functional neovasculature, whereas EPCs isolated from adult peripheral blood (pbEPCs) showed a limited vasculogenic potential, which may be attributed to age-related dysfunction. Recently, it was demonstrated that activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) improves cell functions of progenitor cells of mesenchymal and endothelial origin. Thus, we hypothesized that overexpression of Hif-1α may improve the vasculogenesis-related phenotype of pbEPCs. In the present study, we overexpressed Hif-1α in pbEPCs and cbEPCs by using recombinant adenoviruses and investigated effects on stem cell- and vasculogenesis-related cell parameters. Overexpression of Hif-1α enhanced proliferation, invasion, cell survival and in vitro capillary sprout formation of both EPC populations. Migration was increased in cbEPCs upon Hif-1α overexpression, but not in pbEPCs. Cellular senescence was decreased in pbEPCs, while remained in cbEPCs, which showed, as expected, intrinsically a dramatically lower senescent phenotype in relation to pbEPCs. Similarly, the colony-formation capacity was much higher in cbEPCs in comparison to pbEPCs and was further increased by Hif-1α overexpression, whereas Hif-1α transduction exerted no significant influence on colony formation of pbEPCs. In summary, our experiments illustrated multifarious effects of Hif-1α overexpression on stem cell and vasculogenic parameters. Therefore, Hif-1α overexpression may represent a therapeutic option to improve cellular functions of adult as well as postnatal EPCs. Copyright

  5. Acute cocoa flavanol supplementation improves muscle macro- and microvascular but not anabolic responses to amino acids in older men.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Bethan E; Atherton, Philip J; Varadhan, Krishna; Limb, Marie C; Williams, John P; Smith, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    The anabolic effects of nutrition on skeletal muscle may depend on adequate skeletal muscle perfusion, which is impaired in older people. Cocoa flavanols have been shown to improve flow-mediated dilation, an established measure of endothelial function. However, their effect on muscle microvascular blood flow is currently unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore links between the consumption of cocoa flavanols, muscle microvascular blood flow, and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in response to nutrition in older men. To achieve this objective, leg blood flow (LBF), muscle microvascular blood volume (MBV), and MPS were measured under postabsorptive and postprandial (intravenous Glamin (Fresenius Kabi, Germany), dextrose to sustain glucose ∼7.5 mmol·L(-1)) conditions in 20 older men. Ten of these men were studied with no cocoa flavanol intervention and a further 10 were studied with the addition of 350 mg of cocoa flavanols at the same time that nutrition began. Leg (femoral artery) blood flow was measured by Doppler ultrasound, muscle MBV by contrast-enhanced ultrasound using Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, Mass., USA) perflutren contrast agent and MPS using [1, 2-(13)C2]leucine tracer techniques. Our results show that although older individuals do not show an increase in LBF or MBV in response to feeding, these absent responses are apparent when cocoa flavanols are given acutely with nutrition. However, this restoration in vascular responsiveness is not associated with improved MPS responses to nutrition. We conclude that acute cocoa flavanol supplementation improves muscle macro- and microvascular responses to nutrition, independently of modifying muscle protein anabolism.

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae show low levels of traversal across human endothelial barrier in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Querol, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    Background :   Saccharomyces cerevisiae is generally considered safe, and is involved in the production of many types of foods and dietary supplements. However, some isolates, which are genetically related to strains used in brewing and baking, have shown virulent traits, being able to produce infections in humans, mainly in immunodeficient patients. This can lead to systemic infections in humans. Methods : In this work, we studied S. cerevisiae isolates in an in vitro human endothelial barrier model, comparing their behaviour with that of several strains of the related pathogens Candida glabrata and Candida albicans . Results : The results showed that this food related yeast is able to cross the endothelial barrier in vitro . However, in contrast to C. glabrata and C. albicans , S. cerevisiae showed very low levels of traversal. Conclusions : We conclude that using an in vitro human endothelial barrier model with S. cerevisiae can be useful to evaluate the safety of S. cerevisiae strains isolated from foods.

  7. Influence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype, exercise and other risk factors on endothelial function in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Pullin, Catherine H; Wilson, John F; Ashfield-Watt, Pauline A L; Clark, Zoë E; Whiting, Jenny M; Lewis, Malcolm J; McDowell, Ian F W

    2002-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease has a multifactorial aetiology that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Endothelial dysfunction is a key event in the pathogenesis of vascular disease that occurs before structural vascular changes or clinical symptoms are evident. Conventional risk factors, for example hypertension and diabetes mellitus, are associated with endothelial dysfunction, but the influence of other putative risk factors is not clear. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype, a common polymorphism that induces hyperhomocysteinaemia, has been proposed as being a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A total of 126 healthy adults recruited by MTHFR C677T genotype (42 of each genotype, i.e. CC, CT and TT) underwent assessment of endothelial function. Brachial artery endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was measured using high-resolution ultrasonic vessel "wall-tracking". Using multiple regression analysis, MTHFR genotype and 21 other subject and subject-lifestyle variables were investigated as potential predictors of endothelial function. FMD was influenced positively by frequency of aerobic exercise and by hormone replacement therapy, and negatively by increases in systolic blood pressure. MTHFR C677T genotype and the associated variation in plasma homocysteine levels did not influence FMD. Additionally, other factors, including plasma cholesterol and self-supplementation with either antioxidant vitamins or cod liver oil, showed no significant relationship with FMD, although these findings are compromised by the narrow range studied for cholesterol and the small number of subjects taking supplements. These observations have implications for risk factor management in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in healthy individuals.

  8. Creatine-electrolyte supplementation improves repeated sprint cycling performance: A double blind randomized control study.

    PubMed

    Crisafulli, Daniel L; Buddhadev, Harsh H; Brilla, Lorrie R; Chalmers, Gordon R; Suprak, David N; San Juan, Jun G

    2018-01-01

    Creatine supplementation is recommended as an ergogenic aid to improve repeated sprint cycling performance. Furthermore, creatine uptake is increased in the presence of electrolytes. Prior research examining the effect of a creatine-electrolyte (CE) supplement on repeated sprint cycling performance, however, did not show post-supplementation improvement. The purpose of this double blind randomized control study was to investigate the effect of a six-week CE supplementation intervention on overall and repeated peak and mean power output during repeated cycling sprints with recovery periods of 2 min between sprints. Peak and mean power generated by 23 male recreational cyclists (CE group: n  = 12; 24.0 ± 4.2 years; placebo (P) group: n  = 11; 23.3 ± 3.1 years) were measured on a Velotron ergometer as they completed five 15-s cycling sprints, with 2 min of recovery between sprints, pre- and post-supplementation. Mixed-model ANOVAs were used for statistical analyses. A supplement-time interaction showed a 4% increase in overall peak power (pre: 734 ± 75 W; post: 765 ± 71 W; p  = 0.040; η p 2  = 0.187) and a 5% increase in overall mean power (pre: 586 ± 72 W; post: 615 ± 74 W; p  = 0.019; η p 2  = 0.234) from pre- to post-supplementation for the CE group. For the P group, no differences were observed in overall peak (pre: 768 ± 95 W; post: 772 ± 108 W; p  = 0.735) and overall mean power (pre: 638 ± 77 W; post: 643 ± 92 W; p  = 0.435) from pre- to post-testing. For repeated sprint analysis, peak (pre: 737 ± 88 W; post: 767 ± 92 W; p  = 0.002; η p 2  = 0.380) and mean (pre: 650 ± 92 W; post: 694 ± 87 W; p  < 0.001; η p 2  = 0.578) power output were significantly increased only in the first sprint effort in CE group from pre- to post-supplementation testing. For the P group, no differences were observed for repeated sprint performance. A

  9. Cross talk between primary human renal tubular cells and endothelial cells in cocultures.

    PubMed

    Tasnim, Farah; Zink, Daniele

    2012-04-15

    Interactions between renal tubular epithelial cells and adjacent endothelial cells are essential for normal renal functions but also play important roles in renal disease and repair. Here, we investigated cocultures of human primary renal proximal tubular cells (HPTC) and human primary endothelial cells to address the cross talk between these cell types. HPTC showed improved proliferation, marker gene expression, and enzyme activity in cocultures. Also, the long-term maintenance of epithelia formed by HPTC was improved, which was due to the secretion of transforming growth factor-β1 and its antagonist α2-macroglobulin. HPTC induced endothelial cells to secrete increased amounts of these factors, which balanced each other functionally and only displayed in combination the observed positive effects. In addition, in the presence of HPTC endothelial cells expressed increased amounts of hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, which have well-characterized effects on renal tubular epithelial cells as well as on endothelial cells. Together, the results showed that HPTC stimulated endothelial cells to express a functionally balanced combination of various factors, which in turn improved the performance of HPTC. The results give new insights into the cross talk between renal epithelial and endothelial cells and suggest that cocultures could be also useful models for the analysis of cellular communication in renal disease and repair. Furthermore, the characterization of defined microenvironments, which positively affect HPTC, will be helpful for improving the performance of this cell type in in vitro applications including in vitro toxicology and kidney tissue engineering.

  10. Nicotine promotes vascular endothelial growth factor secretion by human trophoblast cells under hypoxic conditions and improves the proliferation and tube formation capacity of human umbilical endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongbo; Wu, Lanxiang; Wang, Yahui; Zhou, Jiayi; Li, Ruixia; Zhou, Jiabing; Wang, Zehua; Xu, Congjian

    2017-04-01

    Pre-eclampsia, characterized as defective uteroplacental vascularization, remains the major cause of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Previous epidemiological studies demonstrated that cigarette smoking reduced the risk of pre-eclampsia. However, the molecular mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, it is demonstrated that a low dose of nicotine decreased soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFlt1) secretion in human trophoblast cells under hypoxic conditions. Nicotine was then observed to promote vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by reducing sFlt1 secretion and increasing VEGF mRNA transcription. Further data showed that nicotine enhanced hypoxia-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and HIF-1α small interfering RNA abrogated nicotine-induced VEGF secretion, indicating that HIF-1α may be responsible for nicotine-mediated VEGF transcription under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, conditioned medium from human trophoblast cells treated with nicotine under hypoxic conditions promoted the proliferation and tube formation capacity of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) by promoting VEGF secretion. These findings indicate that nicotine may promote VEGF secretion in human trophoblast cells under hypoxic conditions by reducing sFlt1 secretion and up-regulating VEGF transcription and improve the proliferation and tube formation of HUVEC cells, which may contribute to elucidate the protective effect of cigarette smoking against pre-eclampsia. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Boron supplementation improves bone health of non-obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Dessordi, Renata; Spirlandeli, Adriano Levi; Zamarioli, Ariane; Volpon, José Batista; Navarro, Anderson Marliere

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a condition that predisposes a higher risk for the development of osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of boron supplementation on bone microstructure and strength in control and non-obese diabetic mice for 30days. The animals were supplemented with 40μg/0,5ml of boron solution and controls received 0,5ml of distilled water daily. We evaluated the biochemical parameters: total calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and boron; bone analysis: bone computed microtomography, and biomechanical assay with a three point test on the femur. This study consisted of 28 animals divided into four groups: Group water control - Ctrl (n=10), Group boron control - Ctrl±B (n=8), Group diabetic water - Diab (n=5) and Group diabetic boron - Diab±B (n=5). The results showed that cortical bone volume and the trabecular bone volume fraction were higher for Diab±B and Ctrl±B compared to the Diab and Ctrl groups (p≤0,05). The trabecular specific bone surface was greater for the Diab±B group, and the trabecular thickness and structure model index had the worst values for the Diab group. The boron serum concentrations were higher for the Diab±B group compared to non-supplemented groups. The magnesium concentration was lower for Diab and Diab±B compared with controls. The biomechanical test on the femur revealed maintenance of parameters of the bone strength in animals Diab±B compared to the Diab group and controls. The results suggest that boron supplementation improves parameters related to bone strength and microstructure of cortical and trabecular bone in diabetic animals and the controls that were supplemented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. High-intensity Interval training enhances mobilization/functionality of endothelial progenitor cells and depressed shedding of vascular endothelial cells undergoing hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsing-Hua; Lin, Chin-Pu; Lin, Yi-Hui; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2016-12-01

    Exercise training improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation, whereas hypoxic stress causes vascular endothelial dysfunction. Monocyte-derived endothelial progenitor cells (Mon-EPCs) contribute to vascular repair process by differentiating into endothelial cells. This study investigates how high-intensity interval (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous (MCT) exercise training affect circulating Mon-EPC levels and EPC functionality under hypoxic condition. Sixty healthy sedentary males were randomized to engage in either HIT (3-min intervals at 40 and 80 % VO 2max for five repetitions, n = 20) or MCT (sustained 60 % VO 2max , n = 20) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks, or to a control group (CTL) that did not received exercise intervention (n = 20). Mon-EPC characteristics and EPC functionality under hypoxic exercise (HE, 100 W under 12 % O 2 ) were determined before and after HIT, MCT, and CTL. The results demonstrated that after the intervention, the HIT group exhibited larger improvements in VO 2peak , estimated peak cardiac output (Q C ), and estimated peak perfusions of frontal cerebral lobe (Q FC ) and vastus lateralis (Q VL ) than the MCT group. Furthermore, HIT (a) increased circulating CD14 ++ /CD16 - /CD34 + /KDR + (Mon-1 EPC) and CD14 ++ /CD16 + /CD34 + /KDR + (Mon-2 EPC) cell counts, (b) promoted the migration and tube formation of EPCs, (c) diminished the shedding of endothelial (CD34 - /KDR + /phosphatidylserine + ) cells, and (d) elevated plasma nitrite plus nitrate, stromal cell-derived factor-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and vascular endothelial growth factor-A concentrations at rest or following HE, compared to those of MCT. In addition, Mon-1 and -2 EPC counts were directly related to VO 2peak and estimated peak Q C , Q FC , and Q VL . HIT is superior to MCT for improving hemodynamic adaptation and Mon-EPC production. Moreover, HIT effectively enhances EPC functionality and suppresses endothelial injury undergoing hypoxia.

  13. Role of vitamin D supplementation in improving disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekara, S; Patted, Anand

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to estimate the relationship between vitamin D (vit D) deficiency and active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and the role of supplementation in improving disease activity. A randomized recruitment, consent screening, open-label interventional study was conducted in patients who fulfilled American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism 2010 criteria for diagnosing RA and on stable disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for 3 months. Serum vit D levels and Disease Activity Score of 28 joints/C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) disease activity status were estimated at the first visit. Subjects with low vit D levels and DAS28-CRP > 2.6 were supplemented with vit D for 12 weeks, and were assessed for improvement in disease activity and serum vit D levels. One hundred and fifty RA patients of mean age 49 ± 12.1 years, mean duration of illness 78 ± 63 months, and on treatment with DMARDs for 44 ± 39 months were recruited for the study. Of these, 73 (49%) subjects were found to have DAS28-CRP > 2.6 and serum vit D below 20 ng/mL. The patients received vit D supplement of 60 000 IU/week for 6 weeks, followed by 60 000 IU/month for a total duration of 3 months. Disease activity and vit D status were assessed for 59 (80.8%) patients who reported at the end of 12 weeks of treatment. Mean DAS28-CRP of these patients showed a statistically significant improvement from 3.68 ± 0.93 at baseline to 3.08 ± 1.11 after supplementation (P = 0.002). Serum vit D levels improved from 10.05 ± 5.18 to 57.21 ± 24.77 ng/mL (P < 0.001) during the period. Supplementation of vit D in RA patients with persisting disease activity and vit D deficiency contributed to significant improvement in disease activity within a short duration. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. 78 FR 31916 - Increasing Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Supplemental Agenda Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Market and Planning Efficiency Through Improved Software; Supplemental Agenda Notice Take notice that... for increasing real-time and day-ahead market efficiency through improved software. A detailed agenda..., the software industry, government, research centers and academia and is intended to build on the...

  15. An affordable method to obtain cultured endothelial cells from peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    Bueno-Betí, Carlos; Novella, Susana; Lázaro-Franco, Macarena; Pérez-Cremades, Daniel; Heras, Magda; Sanchís, Juan; Hermenegildo, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The culture of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) provides an excellent tool to research on EPC biology and vascular regeneration and vasculogenesis. The use of different protocols to obtain EPC cultures makes it difficult to obtain comparable results in different groups. This work offers a systematic comparison of the main variables of most commonly used protocols for EPC isolation, culture and functional evaluation. Peripheral blood samples from healthy individuals were recovered and mononuclear cells were cultured. Different recovery and culture conditions were tested: blood volume, blood anticoagulant, coating matrix and percentage of foetal bovine serum (FBS) in culture media. The success of culture procedure, first colonies of endothelial cells appearance time, correlation with number of circulating EPC (cEPC) and functional comparison with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were studied. The use of heparin, a minimum blood volume of 30 ml, fibronectin as a coating matrix and endothelial growing media-2 supplemented with 20% FBS increased the success of obtaining EPC cultures up to 80% of the processed samples while reducing EPC colony appearance mean time to a minimum of 13 days. Blood samples exhibiting higher cEPC numbers resulted in reduced EPC colony appearance mean time. Cells isolated by using this combination were endothelial cell-like EPCs morphological and phenotypically. Functionally, cultured EPC showed decreased growing and vasculogenic capacity when compared to HUVEC. Thus, above-mentioned conditions allow the isolation and culture of EPC with smaller blood volumes and shorter times than currently used protocols. PMID:24118735

  16. Chocolate--guilty pleasure or healthy supplement?

    PubMed

    Latham, Laura S; Hensen, Zeb K; Minor, Deborah S

    2014-02-01

    Dark chocolate and other cocoa products are popular in the population as a whole, but their overall health benefit remains controversial. Observations from the Kuna Indian population have shown an impressive cardiovascular health benefit from cocoa. For various reasons, this benefit has not been as robust as in other populations. Additionally, several mechanisms have been proposed that might confer cocoa's possible health benefit, but no consensus has been reached on cocoa's physiologic role in promoting cardiovascular health. Flavanols, as well as theobromine, may contribute to enhancements in endothelial function and subsequent improvements in various contributors to cardiovascular disease (CVD) including hypertension, platelet aggregation and adhesion, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia. While the benefits of cocoa may be altered at the various stages of growth, development, and production, it appears that for many people "healthy" dark chocolate may, indeed, provide a pleasurable role in CVD risk reduction. The objectives of this review are to discuss the associations of cocoa with decreased blood pressure and improved CVD risk, to describe the possible mechanisms for these potential benefits, and to highlight considerations for the use of cocoa as a dietary supplement.

  17. A prescribed walking regimen plus arginine supplementation improves function and quality of life for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Mary Beth; Kempf, Attie; Collins, Catherine M.; Long, Gary M.; Owens, Matthew; Gupta, Shikha; Hellman, Yaron; Wong, Vincent; Farber, Mark; Lahm, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that exercise training is beneficial in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Unfortunately, the standard supervised, hospital-based programs limit patient accessibility to this important intervention. Our proof-of-concept study aimed to provide insight into the usefulness of a prescribed walking regimen along with arginine supplementation to improve outcomes for patients with PAH. Twelve PAH patients (all women) in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class (FC) II (n = 7) or III (n = 5) and in stable condition for ≥ 3 months were enrolled. Patients performed home- and fitness-center- based walking at 65–75% heart rate (HR) reserve for 45 min, six sessions/week for 12 weeks. Concomitant L-arginine supplementation (6000 mg/day) was provided to maximize beneficial endothelial training adaptations. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing, 6-min walk testing (6MWT), echocardiography, laboratory studies, and quality of life (QoL) survey (SF-36) were performed at baseline and 12 weeks. Eleven patients completed the study (72 session adherence rate = 96 ± 3%). Objective improvement was demonstrated by the 6MWT distance (increased by 40 ± 13 m, P = 0.01), VO2max (increased by 2 ± 0.7 mL/kg/min, P = 0.02), time-to-VO2max (increased by 2.5 ± 0.6 min, P = 0.001), VO2 at anaerobic threshold (increased by 1.3 ± 0.5 mL/kg/min, P = 0.04), HR recovery (reduced by 68 ± 23% in slope, P = 0.01), and SF-36 subscales of Physical Functioning and Energy/Fatigue (increased by 70 ± 34% and 74 ± 34%, respectively, P < 0.05). No adverse events occurred, and right ventricular function and brain natriuretic peptide levels remained stable, suggesting safety of the intervention. This proof-of-concept study indicates that a simple walking regimen with arginine supplementation is a safe and efficacious intervention for clinically stable PAH patients, with gains in objective

  18. Propionyl-L-Carnitine Enhances Wound Healing and Counteracts Microvascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Lo Giudice, Pietro; Bielli, Alessandra; Tarallo, Valeria; De Rosa, Alfonso; De Falco, Sandro; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Background Impaired wound healing represents a high cost for health care systems. Endothelial dysfunction characterizes dermal microangiopathy and contributes to delayed wound healing and chronic ulcers. Endothelial dysfunction impairs cutaneous microvascular blood flow by inducing an imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction as a consequence of reduced nitric oxide (NO) production and the increase of oxidative stress and inflammation. Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) is a natural derivative of carnitine that has been reported to ameliorate post-ischemic blood flow recovery. Methods and Results We investigated the effects of PLC in rat skin flap and cutaneous wound healing. A daily oral PLC treatment improved skin flap viability and associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO up-regulation, accelerated wound healing and increased capillary density, likely favoring dermal angiogenesis by up-regulation for iNOS, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor (PlGF) and reduction of NADPH-oxidase 4 (Nox4) expression. In serum-deprived human dermal microvascular endothelial cell cultures, PLC ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by increasing iNOS, PlGF, VEGF receptors 1 and 2 expression and NO level. In addition, PLC counteracted serum deprivation-induced impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation, Nox4 and cellular adhesion molecule (CAM) expression, ROS generation and leukocyte adhesion. Moreover, dermal microvascular endothelial cell dysfunction was prevented by Nox4 inhibition. Interestingly, inhibition of β-oxidation counteracted the beneficial effects of PLC on oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. Conclusion PLC treatment improved rat skin flap viability, accelerated wound healing and dermal angiogenesis. The beneficial effects of PLC likely derived from improvement of mitochondrial β-oxidation and reduction of Nox4-mediated oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction

  19. Effect of muscadine grape seed supplementation on vascular function in subjects with or at risk for cardiovascular disease: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Mellen, Philip B; Daniel, Kurt R; Brosnihan, K Bridget; Hansen, Kim J; Herrington, David M

    2010-10-01

    Muscadine grape seeds have high concentrations of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant and other properties that would be expected to have favorable effects on endothelial function. To evaluate the effect of muscadine grape seed supplementation on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 50 adults with coronary disease or ≥1 cardiac risk factor received muscadine grape seed supplementation (1300 mg daily) and placebo for 4 weeks each, with a 4-week washout. Resting brachial diameter and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and biomarkers of inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant capacity were determined at the beginning and end of each period and compared in mixed linear models. There was no evidence of improved FMD (% change) with muscadine grape seed (muscadine grape seed: pre 5.2% ± 0.3%, post 4.6% ± 0.3%, p = 0.06; placebo: pre 5.3% ± 0.4%, post 5.2% ± 0.4%, p = 0.82; p for muscadine grape seed vs. placebo = 0.25). However, there was a significant increase in baseline diameter (mm) with muscadine grape seed supplementation (muscadine grape seed: pre 4.05 ± 0.09, post 4.23 ± 0.10, p = 0.002; placebo: pre 4.12 ± 0.11, post 4.12 ± 0.10, p = 0.93; p for muscadine grape seed vs. placebo = 0.026). All other biomarkers were not significantly altered by muscadine grape seed supplementation. Four weeks of muscadine grape seed supplementation in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk did not produce a statistically significant increase in brachial flow-mediated vasodilation or a significant change in other biomarkers of inflammation, lipid peroxidation, or antioxidant capacity. However, the muscadine grape seed supplement did result in a significant increase in resting brachial diameter. The clinical significance of the effect on resting diameter is not yet established. More research is warranted to fully

  20. Intradialytic protein supplementation reduces inflammation and improves physical function in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Tomayko, Emily J; Kistler, Brandon M; Fitschen, Peter J; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2015-05-01

    Protein malnutrition is both a cause and consequence of inflammation and related comorbidities for maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. This study sought to determine if oral supplementation with soy or whey protein during dialysis treatment reduces inflammation and improves physical function and body composition in MHD patients. The design used in the study was randomized controlled trial, and the setting used was hemodialysis clinics in Champaign and Chicago, Illinois. Patients who received treatment ≥3 days/week, were ages ≥30 years did not have congestive heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and were receiving dialysis treatment for ≥3 months were eligible for inclusion. Patients were randomized to oral supplementation with a whey protein, soy protein, or placebo beverage. Patients (WHEY, n = 11; SOY, n = 12; CON, n = 15) consumed their assigned beverage before every dialysis session for 6 months. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, physical function by gait speed and shuttle walk test, and markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein and interleukin 6) using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits before and after the 6-month intervention. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hour dietary recalls. Six months of whey or soy supplementation significantly reduced predialysis interleukin 6 levels (P < .05 for both), whereas there was a trend for a reduction in C-reactive protein when both protein groups were combined (P = .062). Gait speed and shuttle walk test performance also significantly improved in the protein groups (P < .05 for both). No changes in body composition were observed. However, alkaline phosphatase, a marker of bone turnover, was significantly reduced in the protein groups. Intradialytic protein supplementation during a 6-month intervention reduced inflammation and improved physical function and represents an affordable intervention to improve the health

  1. A Novel Concept of Amino Acid Supplementation to Improve the Growth of Young Malnourished Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Chie; Murakami, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    This study was aimed at understanding the relationship between plasma amino acids and protein malnutrition and at determining whether amino acid supplementation associated with malnutrition and growth improves linear growth in growing rats. Body length and plasma amino acids were measured in young male rats that were fed the following diet for 3 weeks, mimicking a low and imbalanced protein diets based on maize, a major staple consumed in developing countries: a 70% calorically restricted cornmeal-based diet (C), C + micronutrients (CM), CM + casein (CMC), CM + soy protein (CMS) or CMS + 0.3% lysine. A correlation analysis of linear growth and plasma amino acids indicated that lysine, tryptophan, branched-chain amino acids, methionine, and phenylalanine significantly correlated with body length. Supplementation with these 5 amino acids (AA1) significantly improved the body length in rats compared to CMC treatment whereas, nitrogen-balanced amino acid supplemented controls (AA2) did not (CM +1.2 ± 0.2, CMC +2.7 ± 0.3, CMS +2.1 ± 0.3, AA1 +2.8 ± 0.2, and AA2 +2.5 ± 0.3 cm). With securing proper amino acid balance, supplementing growth-related amino acids is more effective in improving linear growth in malnourished growing male rats. Analysis of the correlation between plasma amino acids and growth represents a powerful tool to determine candidate amino acids for supplementation to prevent malnutrition. This technology is adaptable to children in developing countries. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Garlic extract favorably modifies markers of endothelial function in obese patients -randomized double blind placebo-controlled nutritional intervention.

    PubMed

    Szulińska, Monika; Kręgielska-Narożna, Matylda; Świątek, Joanna; Styś, Paulina; Kuźnar-Kamińska, Barbara; Jakubowski, Hieronim; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Bogdański, Paweł

    2018-06-01

    Garlic exerts a range of effects relevant to human health. However, its influence on the endothelium in obese individuals remains unknown. We aimed to determine the effects of garlic extract (GE) on arterial stiffness and markers of endothelial function. Ninety-two subjects were enrolled in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to receive 400 mg of GE or placebo daily for 3 months. The arterial stiffness index (SI) and markers of endothelial function such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), cholesterol (total, LDL, HDL), triglycerides, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), as well as total antioxidant status (TAS) were quantified at baseline and the end of study. At the end of study SI (p = 0.01), hsCRP (p < 0.001, PAI-1 (p < 0.001), LDL cholesterol (p < 0.001), and TAS (p < 0.01) were reduced in the GE-supplemented group, but not in the placebo group. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial demonstrates that supplementation with GE favorably modifies endothelial biomarkers associated with cardiovascular risk and suggests that GE can be used to suppress chronic inflammation in obese individuals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Epoetin beta pegol ameliorates flow-mediated dilation with improving endothelial nitric oxide synthase coupling state in nonobese diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Serizawa, Kenichi; Yogo, Kenji; Tashiro, Yoshihito; Kawasaki, Ryohei; Endo, Koichi; Shimonaka, Yasushi; Hirata, Michinori

    2017-04-01

    Patients with diabetic nephropathy have a high cardiovascular mortality. Epoetin beta pegol (continuous erythropoietin receptor activator, C.E.R.A.) is a drug for the treatment of renal anemia. In this study, we investigated the effect of C.E.R.A. on vascular endothelial function as evaluated by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and the relationship between hematopoiesis and FMD in diabetic nephropathy rats. Male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii rats (SDT, 22 weeks old) were used. C.E.R.A. (0.6, 1.2 μg/kg) was administered subcutaneously once every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. At 1 week after last administration (31 weeks old), we assessed FMD in the femoral arteries of anesthetized rats using a high-resolution ultrasound system. FMD was also measured 1 week after single C.E.R.A. treatment (5.0 μg/kg) to examine the influence of hematopoiesis. Flow-mediated dilation was significantly decreased in SDT rats before the start of C.E.R.A. treatment (22 weeks old). Repeated administration of C.E.R.A. dose-dependently improved FMD in SDT rats (31 weeks old) without changing blood glucose, nitroglycerin-induced vasodilation, or kidney function. Long-term administration of C.E.R.A. improved the state of endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling in the femoral arteries of SDT rats, which showed a positive correlation with FMD. On the other hand, there was no correlation between FMD and Hb or Hct in SDT rats. Furthermore, at 1 week after single administration of C.E.R.A., FMD was not significantly improved although hemoglobin levels were comparable with levels following long-term C.E.R.A. Long-term treatment with C.E.R.A. improved FMD in SDT rats even after onset of endothelial dysfunction. © 2017 The Authors. Cardiovascular Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effect of streptavidin-biotin on endothelial vasoregulation and leukocyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Chan, Bernard P; Reichert, William M; Truskey, George A

    2004-08-01

    The current study examines whether the adhesion promoting arginine-glycine-aspartate-streptavidin mutant (RGD-SA) also affects two important endothelial cell (EC) functions in vitro: vasoregulation and leukocyte adhesion. EC adherent to surfaces via fibronectin (Fn) or Fn plus RGD-SA were subjected to laminar shear flow and media samples were collected over a period of 4h to measure the concentration of nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI(2)), and endothelin-1 (ET-1). Western blot analysis was used to quantify the levels of endothelial-derived nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and cyclooxygenase II (COX II). In a separate set of experiments, fluorescent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) adhesion to EC was quantified for EC with and without exposure to flow preconditioning. When cell adhesion was supplemented with the SA-biotin system, flow-induced production of NO and PGI(2) increased significantly relative to cells adherent on Fn alone. Previous exposure of EC to shear flow also significantly decreased PMN attachment to SA-biotin supplemented EC, but only after 2h of exposure to shear flow. The observed decrease in PMN-EC adhesion was negated by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an antagonist of NO synthesis, but not by indomethacin, an inhibitor to PGI(2) synthesis, indicating the induced effect of PMN-EC interaction is primarily NO-dependent. Results from this study suggest that the use of SA-biotin to supplement EC adhesion encourages vasodilation and PMN adhesion in vitro under physiological shear-stress conditions. We postulate that the presence of SA-biotin more efficiently transmits the shear-stress signal and amplifies the downstream events including the NO and PGI(2) release and leukocyte-EC inhibition. These results may have ramifications for reducing thrombus-induced vascular graft failure.

  5. Combined carbohydrate-protein supplementation improves competitive endurance exercise performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Andrew J; Murgatroyd, Scott R; McNab, Alison; Whyte, Laura J; Easton, Chris

    2011-09-01

    Laboratory-based studies have demonstrated that adding protein (PRO) to a carbohydrate (CHO) supplement can improve thermoregulatory capacity, exercise performance and recovery. However, no study has investigated these effects in a competitive sporting context. This study assessed the effects of combined CHO-PRO supplementation on physiological responses and exercise performance during 8 days of strenuous competition in a hot environment. Twenty-eight cyclists participating in the TransAlp mountain bike race were randomly assigned to fitness-matched placebo (PLA 76 g L(-1) CHO) or CHO-PRO (18 g L(-1) PRO, 72 g L(-1) CHO) groups. Participants were given enough supplements to allow ad libitum consumption. Physiological and anthropometric variables were recorded pre- and post-exercise. Body mass decreased significantly from race stage 1 to 8 in the PLA group (-0.75 ± 0.22 kg, P = 0.01) but did not change in the CHO-PRO group (0.42 ± 0.42 kg, P = 0.35). Creatine kinase concentration and muscle soreness were substantially elevated during the race, but were not different between groups (P = 0.82, P = 0.44, respectively). Urine osmolality was significantly higher in the CHO-PRO versus the PLA group (P = 0.04) and the rise in tympanic temperature from pre- to post-exercise was significantly less in CHO-PRO versus PLA (P = 0.01). The CHO-PRO group also completed the 8 stages significantly quicker than the PLA group (2,277 ± 127 vs. 2,592 ± 68 min, respectively, P = 0.02). CHO-PRO supplementation therefore appears to prevent body mass loss, enhance thermoregulatory capacity and improve competitive exercise performance despite no effect on muscle damage.

  6. Targeting Heparin to Collagen within Extracellular Matrix Significantly Reduces Thrombogenicity and Improves Endothelialization of Decellularized Tissues.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin; Suen, Rachel; Wertheim, Jason A; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2016-12-12

    Thrombosis within small-diameter vascular grafts limits the development of bioartificial, engineered vascular conduits, especially those derived from extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we describe an easy-to-implement strategy to chemically modify vascular ECM by covalently linking a collagen binding peptide (CBP) to heparin to form a heparin derivative (CBP-heparin) that selectively binds a subset of collagens. Modification of ECM with CBP-heparin leads to increased deposition of functional heparin (by ∼7.2-fold measured by glycosaminoglycan composition) and a corresponding reduction in platelet binding (>70%) and whole blood clotting (>80%) onto the ECM. Furthermore, addition of CBP-heparin to the ECM stabilizes long-term endothelial cell attachment to the lumen of ECM-derived vascular conduits, potentially through recruitment of heparin-binding growth factors that ultimately improve the durability of endothelialization in vitro. Overall, our findings provide a simple yet effective method to increase deposition of functional heparin on the surface of ECM-based vascular grafts and thereby minimize thrombogenicity of decellularized tissue, overcoming a significant challenge in tissue engineering of bioartificial vessels and vascularized organs.

  7. Protective effects of dark chocolate on endothelial function and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Claudio

    2013-11-01

    Relationship between cocoa consumption and cardiovascular disease, particularly focusing on clinical implications resulting from the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption on endothelial function and insulin resistance. This could be of clinical relevance and may suggest the mechanistic explanation for the reduced risk of cardiovascular events reported in the different studies after cocoa intake. Increasing evidence supports a protective effect of cocoa consumption against cardiovascular disease. Cocoa and flavonoids from cocoa have been described to improve endothelial function and insulin resistance. A proposed mechanism could be considered in the improvement of the endothelium-derived vasodilator nitric oxide by enhancing nitric oxide synthesis or by decreasing nitric oxide breakdown. The endothelium plays a pivotal role in the arterial homeostasis, and insulin resistance is the most important pathophysiological feature in various prediabetic and diabetic states. Reduced nitric oxide bioavailability with endothelial dysfunction is considered the earliest step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Further, insulin resistance could account, at least in part, for the endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction has been considered an important and independent predictor of future development of cardiovascular risk and events. Cocoa and flavonoids from cocoa might positively modulate these mechanisms with a putative role in cardiovascular protection.

  8. Propionyl-L-carnitine improves endothelial function, microcirculation and pain management in critical limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, S; Zecchetto, S; Rigoni, A; Prior, M; Fondrieschi, L; Scuro, A; Rulfo, F; Arosio, E

    2012-10-01

    Chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a severe condition of hypo-perfusion of lower limbs, which is associated with inflammation and a pro-coagulative state. It is a disease at high risk of amputation and cardiovascular death. Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) is efficacious in improving pain free walking distance in peripheral arterial disease with claudication; it also exerts favorable effects on the arterial wall and on endothelial function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of PLC on microcirculation, endothelial function and pain relief in patients affected by CLI not suitable for surgical intervention. We enrolled 48 patients with CLI. Patients were randomized into two groups: the first group was treated with PLC, the second was treated with saline solution. All of them underwent the following tests: laser Doppler flowmetry at the forefoot at rest and after ischemia, trans cutaneous oxygen partial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure at the forefoot at rest and after ischemia, endothelium dependent dilation of the brachial artery. All tests were repeated after treatments. Pain was assessed by visual analog pain scale. Endothelium dependent dilation increased after PLC (9.5 ± 3.2 vs 4.9 ± 1.4 %; p < 0.05). Post-ischemic peak flow with laser-Doppler flow increased after PLC. TcPO2 increased, while TcPCO2 decreased after PLC; CO2 production decreased after PLC. VAS showed a significant reduction in pain perception after active treatment. In CLI patients, PLC can improve microcirculation (post ischemic hyperemia, TcPO2 and TcPCO2 production). PLC also enhances endothelium dependent dilation and reduces analgesic consumption and pain perception.

  9. Soluble Milk Protein Supplementation with Moderate Physical Activity Improves Locomotion Function in Aging Rats.

    PubMed

    Lafoux, Aude; Baudry, Charlotte; Bonhomme, Cécile; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Huchet, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a loss of muscle mass and functional capacity. Present study was designed to compare the impact of specific dairy proteins on muscular function with or without a low-intensity physical activity program on a treadmill in an aged rat model. We investigated the effects of nutritional supplementation, five days a week over a 2-month period with a slow digestible protein, casein or fast digestible proteins, whey or soluble milk protein, on strength and locomotor parameters in sedentary or active aged Wistar RjHan rats (17-19 months of age). An extensive gait analysis was performed before and after protein supplementation. After two months of protein administration and activity program, muscle force was evaluated using a grip test, spontaneous activity using an open-field and muscular mass by specific muscle sampling. When aged rats were supplemented with proteins without exercise, only minor effects of different diets on muscle mass and locomotion were observed: higher muscle mass in the casein group and improvement of stride frequencies with soluble milk protein. By contrast, supplementation with soluble milk protein just after physical activity was more effective at improving overall skeletal muscle function in old rats compared to casein. For active old rats supplemented with soluble milk protein, an increase in locomotor activity in the open field and an enhancement of static and dynamic gait parameters compared to active groups supplemented with casein or whey were observed without any differences in muscle mass and forelimb strength. These results suggest that consumption of soluble milk protein as a bolus immediately after a low intensity physical activity may be a suitable nutritional intervention to prevent decline in locomotion in aged rats and strengthen the interest to analyze the longitudinal aspect of locomotion in aged rodents.

  10. Soluble Milk Protein Supplementation with Moderate Physical Activity Improves Locomotion Function in Aging Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lafoux, Aude; Baudry, Charlotte; Bonhomme, Cécile; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Huchet, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a loss of muscle mass and functional capacity. Present study was designed to compare the impact of specific dairy proteins on muscular function with or without a low-intensity physical activity program on a treadmill in an aged rat model. We investigated the effects of nutritional supplementation, five days a week over a 2-month period with a slow digestible protein, casein or fast digestible proteins, whey or soluble milk protein, on strength and locomotor parameters in sedentary or active aged Wistar RjHan rats (17–19 months of age). An extensive gait analysis was performed before and after protein supplementation. After two months of protein administration and activity program, muscle force was evaluated using a grip test, spontaneous activity using an open-field and muscular mass by specific muscle sampling. When aged rats were supplemented with proteins without exercise, only minor effects of different diets on muscle mass and locomotion were observed: higher muscle mass in the casein group and improvement of stride frequencies with soluble milk protein. By contrast, supplementation with soluble milk protein just after physical activity was more effective at improving overall skeletal muscle function in old rats compared to casein. For active old rats supplemented with soluble milk protein, an increase in locomotor activity in the open field and an enhancement of static and dynamic gait parameters compared to active groups supplemented with casein or whey were observed without any differences in muscle mass and forelimb strength. These results suggest that consumption of soluble milk protein as a bolus immediately after a low intensity physical activity may be a suitable nutritional intervention to prevent decline in locomotion in aged rats and strengthen the interest to analyze the longitudinal aspect of locomotion in aged rodents. PMID:27973615

  11. Calcium supplementation improves clinical outcome in intensive care unit patients: a propensity score matched analysis of a large clinical database MIMIC-II.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Chen, Kun; Ni, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies have linked hypocalcemia with adverse clinical outcome in critically ill patients. However, calcium supplementation has never been formally investigated for its beneficial effect in critically ill patients. To investigate whether calcium supplementation can improve 28-day survival in adult critically ill patients. Secondary analysis of a large clinical database consisting over 30,000 critical ill patients was performed. Multivariable analysis was performed to examine the independent association of calcium supplementation and 28-day morality. Furthermore, propensity score matching technique was employed to investigate the role of calcium supplementation in improving survival. none. Primary outcome was the 28-day mortality. 90-day mortality was used as secondary outcome. A total of 32,551 adult patients, including 28,062 survivors and 4489 non-survivors (28-day mortality rate: 13.8 %) were included. Calcium supplementation was independently associated with improved 28-day mortality after adjusting for confounding variables (hazard ratio: 0.51; 95 % CI 0.47-0.56). Propensity score matching was performed and the after-matching cohort showed well balanced covariates. The results showed that calcium supplementation was associated with improved 28- and 90-day mortality (p < 0.05 for both Log-rank test). In adult critically ill patients, calcium supplementation during their ICU stay improved 28-day survival. This finding supports the use of calcium supplementation in critically ill patients.

  12. Antihypertensive methyldopa, labetalol, hydralazine, and clonidine reversed tumour necrosis factor-α inhibited endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in endothelial-trophoblast cellular networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bei; Bobek, Gabriele; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie

    2017-03-01

    Medications used to control hypertension in pregnancy also improve trophoblast and endothelial cellular interaction in vitro. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibits trophoblast and endothelial cellular interactions and simultaneously decreases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. This study investigated whether antihypertensive medications improved these cellular interactions by modulating eNOS and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Human uterine myometrial microvascular endothelial cells (UtMVECs) were pre-incubated with (or without) low dose TNF-α (0.5 ng/mL) or TNF-α plus soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) (100 ng/mL). The endothelial cells were cultured on Matrigel. After endothelial cellular networks appeared, trophoblast derived HTR-8/SVneo cells were co-cultured in the presence of clinically relevant doses of methyldopa, labetalol, hydralazine or clonidine for 24 hours. Cells were retrieved from the Matrigel to extract mRNA and eNOS and iNOS expression were examined by quantitative PCR. Methyldopa, labetalol, hydralazine and clonidine reversed the inhibitory effect of TNF-α on eNOS mRNA expression. After pre-incubating endothelial cells with TNF-α and sFlt-1, all the medications except methyldopa lost their effect on eNOS mRNA expression. In the absence of TNF-α, antihypertensive medications did not change eNOS expression. The mRNA expression of iNOS was not affected by TNF-α or any medications. This study shows that selected antihypertensive medications used in the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy increase eNOS expression in vitro when induced by the inflammatory TNF-α. The anti-angiogenic molecule sFlt-1 may antagonise the potential benefit of these medications by interfering with the NOS pathway. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Taurine Supplementation Improves Functional Capacity, Myocardial Oxygen Consumption, and Electrical Activity in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Ashourpore, Eadeh

    2017-07-04

    Taurine is an amino acid found abundantly in the heart in very high concentrations. It is assumed that taurine contributes to several physiological functions of mammalian cells, such as osmoregulation, anti-inflammation, membrane stabilization, ion transport modulation, and regulation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial protein synthesis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of taurine supplementation on functional capacity, myocardial oxygen consumption, and electrical activity in patients with heart failure. In a double-blind and randomly designed study, 16 patients with heart failure were assigned to two groups: taurine (TG, n = 8) and placebo (PG, n = 8). TG received 500-mg taurine supplementation three times per day for two weeks. Significant decrease in the values of Q-T segments (p < 0.01) and significant increase in the values of P-R segments (p < 0.01) were detected following exercise post-supplementation in TG rather than in PG. Significantly higher values of taurine concentration, T wave, Q-T segment, physical capacities, and lower values of cardiovascular capacities were detected post-supplementation in TG as compared with PG (all p values <0.01). Taurine significantly enhanced the physical function and significantly reduced the cardiovascular function parameters following exercise. Our results also suggest that the short-term taurine supplementation is an effective strategy for improving some selected hemodynamic parameters in heart failure patients. Together, these findings support the view that taurine improves cardiac function and functional capacity in patients with heart failure. This idea warrants further study.

  14. Long-term alpha-tocopherol supplements may improve mental development in extremely low birthweight infants.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Tadahiro; Mori, Rintaro; Hirano, Shinya; Ogihara, Tohru; Fujimura, Masanori

    2015-02-01

    Methods to improve the mental development of extremely low birthweight (ELBW) children are currently lacking. We assessed the effects of long-term supplementation of alpha-tocopherol on the neurological development of 259 school-aged ELBW children. Extremely low birthweight participants were divided into three groups: group A with no alpha-tocopherol supplementation (n = 121); group B with the supplementation for <6 months (n = 104) and group C with the supplementation for more than 6 months (n = 34). We analysed the participants' data at birth and between the ages of one-and-a-half to 8 years and evaluated potential factors associated with intellectual disabilities. Children from group C had the best outcome. The groups' mean gestational weeks and mean ventilator days were as follows: 27.5 weeks, 16.1 days (group A); 25.7 weeks, 41.7 days (group B); and 25.1 weeks, 75.5 days (group C). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that the odds ratios for impaired mental development at 8 years were 1.5 in group B and 0.19 (p = 0.017) in group C, compared with 1.0 in group A. The association between the duration of alpha-tocopherol administration and performance intelligence quotient (IQ) was dose dependent (p = 0.03). Long-term supplementation of alpha-tocopherol appeared to improve mental development, in particular, performance IQ, in school-aged ELBW children. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Treating fat grafts with human endothelial progenitor cells promotes their vascularization and improves their survival in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Saher; Ben-Nun, Ohad; Egozi, Dana; Keren, Aviad; Malyarova, Nastya; Kruchevsky, Danny; Gilhar, Amos; Ullmann, Yehuda

    2012-10-01

    Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells are required for vascularization of a fat graft to form a functional microvasculature within the graft and to facilitate its integration into the surrounding tissues. Organ transplantation carries a high risk of graft loss and rejection in patients with diabetes mellitus because endothelial progenitor cell function is impaired. The authors investigated the influence of endothelial progenitor cell treatment on the phenotype and survival of human fat grafts in immunocompromised mice with experimentally induced diabetes mellitus. The authors injected 1 ml of human fat tissue into the scalps of 14 nondiabetic and 28 diabetic immunocompromised mice, and then treated some of the grafts with endothelial progenitor cells that was isolated from the blood of a human donor. The phenotype of the endothelial progenitor cell-treated fat grafts from the 14 diabetic mice was compared with that of the untreated fat grafts from 14 nondiabetic and 14 diabetic mice, 18 days and 15 weeks after fat transplantation. Determination of graft phenotype included measurements of weight and volume, vascular endothelial growth factor levels, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and caspase 3 expression levels, and histologic analysis of the extent of vascularization. The untreated grafts from the diabetic mice were fully resorbed 15 weeks after fat transplantation. The phenotype of endothelial progenitor cell-treated fat grafts from the diabetic mice was similar to that of the untreated fat grafts from the nondiabetic mice. Endothelial progenitor cell treatment of transplanted fat can increase the survival of a fat graft by inducing its vascularization and decreasing the extent of apoptosis.

  16. Improved IL-2 immunotherapy by selective stimulation of IL-2 receptors on lymphocytes and endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Carsten; Létourneau, Sven; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Boyman, Onur

    2010-01-01

    IL-2 immunotherapy is an attractive treatment option for certain metastatic cancers. However, administration of IL-2 to patients can lead, by ill-defined mechanisms, to toxic adverse effects including severe pulmonary edema. Here, we show that IL-2–induced pulmonary edema is caused by direct interaction of IL-2 with functional IL-2 receptors (IL-2R) on lung endothelial cells in vivo. Treatment of mice with high-dose IL-2 led to efficient expansion of effector immune cells expressing high levels of IL-2Rβγ, including CD8+ T cells and natural killer cells, which resulted in a considerable antitumor response against s.c. and pulmonary B16 melanoma nodules. However, high-dose IL-2 treatment also affected immune cell lineage marker-negative CD31+ pulmonary endothelial cells via binding to functional αβγ IL-2Rs, expressed at low to intermediate levels on these cells, thus causing pulmonary edema. Notably, IL-2–mediated pulmonary edema was abrogated by a blocking antibody to IL-2Rα (CD25), genetic disruption of CD25, or the use of IL-2Rβγ–directed IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complexes, thereby interfering with IL-2 binding to IL-2Rαβγ+ pulmonary endothelial cells. Moreover, IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complexes led to vigorous activation of IL-2Rβγ+ effector immune cells, which generated a dramatic antitumor response. Thus, IL-2/anti-IL-2 antibody complexes might improve current strategies of IL-2–based tumor immunotherapy. PMID:20547866

  17. Weight loss improves biomarkers endothelial function and systemic inflammation in obese postmenopausal Saudi women.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Kader, Shehab Mahmoud; Saiem Al-Dahr, Mohammed H

    2016-06-01

    Although postmenopausal associated disorders are important public health problems worldwide, to date limited studies evaluated the endothelial function and systemic inflammation response to weight loss in obese postmenopausal women. This study was done to evaluate the endothelial function and systemic inflammation response to weight loss in obese postmenopausal Saudi women. Eighty postmenopausal obese Saudi women (mean age 52.64±6.13 year) participated in two groups: Group (A) received aerobic exercise on treadmill and diet whereas, group (B) received no intervention. Markers of inflammation and endothelial function were measured before and after 3 months at the end of the study. The values of body mass index(BMI), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), inter-cellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity (PAI-1:Ac) were significantly decreased in group (A), while changes were not significant in group (B). Also, there were significant differences between mean levels of the investigated parameters in group (A) and group (B) after treatment. Weight loss ameliorates inflammatory cytokines and markers of endothelial function in obese postmenopausal Saudi women.

  18. Endothelial mineralocorticoid receptor activation mediates endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Nicola; Lohmann, Christine; Winnik, Stephan; van Tits, Lambertus J; Miranda, Melroy X; Vergopoulos, Athanasios; Ruschitzka, Frank; Nussberger, Jürg; Berger, Stefan; Lüscher, Thomas F; Verrey, François; Matter, Christian M

    2013-12-01

    Aldosterone plays a crucial role in cardiovascular disease. 'Systemic' inhibition of its mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) decreases atherosclerosis by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Obesity, an important cardiovascular risk factor, is an inflammatory disease associated with increased plasma aldosterone levels. We have investigated the role of the 'endothelial' MR in obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction, the earliest stage in atherogenesis. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a normal chow diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) alone or in combination with the MR antagonist eplerenone (200 mg/kg/day) for 14 weeks. Diet-induced obesity impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in response to acetylcholine, whereas eplerenone treatment of obese mice prevented this. Expression analyses in aortic endothelial cells isolated from these mice revealed that eplerenone attenuated expression of pro-oxidative NADPH oxidase (subunits p22phox, p40phox) and increased expression of antioxidative genes (glutathione peroxidase-1, superoxide dismutase-1 and -3) in obesity. Eplerenone did not affect obesity-induced upregulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 or prostacyclin synthase. Endothelial-specific MR deletion prevented endothelial dysfunction in obese (exhibiting high 'endogenous' aldosterone) and in 'exogenous' aldosterone-infused lean mice. Pre-incubation of aortic rings from aldosterone-treated animals with the COX-inhibitor indomethacin restored endothelial function. Exogenous aldosterone administration induced endothelial expression of p22phox in the presence, but not in the absence of the endothelial MR. Obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction depends on the 'endothelial' MR and is mediated by an imbalance of oxidative stress-modulating mechanisms. Therefore, MR antagonists may represent an attractive therapeutic strategy in the increasing population of obese patients to decrease vascular dysfunction and subsequent atherosclerotic complications.

  19. Social marketing improved the use of multivitamin and mineral supplements among resource-poor women in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Warnick, Elizabeth; Dearden, Kirk A; Slater, Sharon; Butrón, Betzabé; Lanata, Claudio F; Huffman, Sandra L

    2004-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that social marketing improves women's awareness and consumption of multivitamin and mineral supplements. Formative research and baseline and final surveys using a multistaged stratified cluster sample. Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Women 15 to 49 years old (n=1709 at baseline and n=1735 at final survey). Social marketing campaign using radio and television spots. Awareness and use of multivitamins, including VitalDía, the brand promoted as part of this social marketing campaign. Cross-tabulations to assess changes over time in awareness and use of multivitamins. Logistic regression analyses to identify determinants of multivitamin use. The campaign increased women's awareness and use of multiple supplements, including VitalDía. Awareness of multiple supplements nearly doubled among women with 6 to 8 years of schooling, tripled among women with 4 to 5 years of education, and more than quadrupled among women with less than 4 years of schooling. After 9 months of social marketing, 11% of women had taken VitalDía one or more times, 7% had taken it at least once in the last 3 months, and 4% had used it one or more times in the last month. Improvements in the use of VitalDía were evident for women of all socioeconomic and educational levels, with the greatest increases occurring in the least advantaged groups. Additionally, women who had a positive perception of the benefits of multivitamins were 1.7 times (95% confidence interval 1.2-2.3; P <.01) more likely than women who did not have a positive perception to ever use VitalDía, once the effects of social class were adjusted. Social marketing of multiple supplements reached resource-poor women and can be used to bridge gaps in access, improve awareness of supplementation as an option, and increase the likelihood that women will try supplements.

  20. Testosterone Deficiency Causes Endothelial Dysfunction via Elevation of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Oxidative Stress in Castrated Rats.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hotta, Yuji; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Kazunori

    2017-12-01

    Testosterone is believed to mediate the penile erectile response by producing adequate nitric oxide; therefore, testosterone deficiency results in erectile dysfunction through decreased nitric oxide bioavailability. However, the mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction in testosterone deficiency remain unclear. To investigate the mechanism of endothelial dysfunction in a rat model of testosterone deficiency. Rats were distributed into 3 groups: castrated (Cast), castrated and supplemented with testosterone (Cast + T), and sham (Sham). In the Cast + T group, castrated rats were treated daily with subcutaneous testosterone (3 mg/kg daily) for 4 weeks; Sham and Cast rats received only the vehicle. Erectile function using intracavernosal pressure and mean arterial pressure measurements after electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve, endothelial function using isometric tension, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, and inflammatory biomarker expression were performed 4 weeks after the operation. In the Cast group, the ratio of intracavernosal pressure to mean arterial pressure significantly decreased, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was lower, and serum ADMA, oxidative stress, and inflammation biomarker levels were significantly increased (P < .01). Testosterone injection significantly improved each of these parameters (P < .01). The present results provide scientific evidence of the effect of testosterone deficiency on erectile function and the effect of testosterone replacement therapy. This study provides evidence of the influence of testosterone deficiency on endothelial function by investigating ADMA and oxidative stress. A major limitation of this study is the lack of a direct link of increased ADMA by oxidative stress to inflammation. Testosterone deficiency increased not only ADMA levels but also oxidative stress and inflammation in castrated rats, which can cause

  1. The endothelial glycocalyx

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yimu; Schmidt, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    Once thought to be a structure of small size and uncertain significance, the endothelial glycocalyx is now known to be an important regulator of endothelial function. Studies of the systemic vasculature have demonstrated that the glycocalyx forms a substantial in vivo endothelial surface layer (ESL) critical to inflammation, barrier function and mechanotransduction. The pulmonary ESL is significantly thicker than the systemic ESL, suggesting unique physiologic function. We have recently demonstrated that the pulmonary ESL regulates exposure of endothelial surface adhesion molecules, thereby serving as a barrier to neutrophil adhesion and extravasation. While the pulmonary ESL is not a critical structural component of the endothelial barrier to fluid and protein, it serves a major role in the mechanotransduction of vascular pressure, with impact on the active regulation of endothelial permeability. It is likely that the ESL serves numerous additional functions in vascular physiology, representing a fertile area for future investigation. PMID:24073386

  2. Reduced endothelial activation after exercise is associated with improved HbA1c in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Byrkjeland, Rune; Njerve, Ida U; Arnesen, Harald; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Solheim, Svein

    2017-03-01

    We have previously reported insignificant changes in HbA 1c after exercise in patients with both type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of exercise on endothelial function and possible associations between changes in endothelial function and HbA 1c . Patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease ( n = 137) were randomised to 12 months exercise or standard follow-up. Endothelial function was assessed by circulating biomarkers (E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, von Willebrand factor, tissue plasminogen activator antigen, asymmetric dimethylarginine and L-arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine ratio). Differences between the randomised groups were analysed by analysis of covariance and correlations by Spearman's rho or Pearson's correlation. No effect of exercise on endothelial function was demonstrated. The changes in HbA 1c in the exercise group correlated with changes in E-selectin ( r = 0.56, p < 0.001), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ( r = 0.27, p = 0.052), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 ( r = 0.32, p = 0.022) and tissue plasminogen activator antigen ( r = 0.35, p =  0.011). HbA 1c decreased significantly more in patients with versus without a concomitant reduction in E-selectin ( p =  0.002), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 ( p =  0.011), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 ( p =  0.028) and tissue plasminogen activator antigen ( p =  0.009). Exercise did not affect biomarkers of endothelial function in patients with both type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. However, changes in biomarkers of endothelial activation correlated with changes in HbA 1c , and reduced endothelial activation was associated with improved HbA 1c after exercise.

  3. Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation improves protein utilization efficiency while vitamin E supplementation reduces markers of the inflammatory response in weaned pigs challenged with enterotoxigenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Cheol; Mullan, Bruce P; Black, John L; Hewitt, Robert J E; van Barneveld, Robert J; Pluske, John R

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that vitamin E (Vit E) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, will additively reduce the production of the immunosuppressive molecule prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) and hence reduce inflammatory responses in weaner pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli . The experiment was conducted in a research facility with 192 individually-housed male weaner pigs (Landrace × Large White) weighing 6.6 ± 0.04 kg (mean ± SEM). The pigs were experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli and were allocated to a 2 × 3 factorial design with the respective factors being without and with 125 ppm ASA and three levels of Vit E supplementation (50, 100 or 200 IU/kg diet, dl -α-tocopheryl acetate). Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation improved average daily gain ( P <  0.05) and tended to improve feed:gain ratio ( P <  0.10) during the first 14 d after weaning. Acetylsalicylic acid supplementation also improved ( P  < 0.001) amino acid utilization efficiency (as assessed by plasma urea level) and tended to decrease ( P  < 0.10) PGE 2 production in the liver without affecting small intestinal histology and tight junction protein mRNA expression in the jejunal epithelium. Vitamin E supplementation greater than 100 IU/kg diet sustained both the plasma Vit E concentration ( P  < 0.001) and plasma haptoglobin content ( P  < 0.001) after weaning. However, there was no additive effects of the combined supplementation of ASA and Vit E on performance, intestinal barrier function and inflammatory responses of weaned pigs. Although ASA and vitamin E improved amino acid utilization efficiency and reduced acute inflammatory responses, ASA and vitamin E did not additively reduce production of PGE 2 and inflammatory responses in weaner pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli .

  4. Human endothelial dihydrofolate reductase low activity limits vascular tetrahydrobiopterin recycling.

    PubMed

    Whitsett, Jennifer; Rangel Filho, Artur; Sethumadhavan, Savitha; Celinska, Joanna; Widlansky, Michael; Vasquez-Vivar, Jeannette

    2013-10-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH₄) is required for NO synthesis and inhibition of superoxide release from endothelial NO synthase. Clinical trials using BH₄ to treat endothelial dysfunction have produced mixed results. Poor outcomes may be explained by the rapid systemic and cellular oxidation of BH₄. One of the oxidation products of BH₄, 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (7,8-BH₂), is recycled back to BH₄ by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). This enzyme is ubiquitously distributed and shows a wide range of activity depending on species-specific factors and cell type. Information about the kinetics and efficiency of BH4 recycling in human endothelial cells receiving BH₄ treatment is lacking. To characterize this reaction, we applied a novel multielectrode coulometric HPLC method that enabled the direct quantification of 7,8-BH₂ and BH₄, which is not possible with fluorescence-based methodologies. We found that basal untreated BH₄ and 7,8-BH₂ concentrations in human endothelial cells (ECs) are lower than in bovine and murine endothelioma cells. Treatment of human ECs with BH₄ transiently increased intracellular BH₄ while accumulating the more stable 7,8-BH₂. This was different from bovine or murine ECs, which resulted in preferential BH₄ increase. Using BH₄ diastereomers, 6S-BH₄ and 6R-BH₄, the narrow contribution of enzymatic DHFR recycling to total intracellular BH₄ was demonstrated. Reduction of 7,8-BH₂ to BH₄ occurs at very slow rates in cells and needs supraphysiological levels of 7,8-BH₂, indicating this reaction is kinetically limited. Activity assays verified that human DHFR has very low affinity for 7,8-BH₂ (DHF7,8-BH₂) and folic acid inhibits 7,8-BH₂ recycling. We conclude that low activity of endothelial DHFR is an important factor limiting the benefits of BH4 therapies, which may be further aggravated by folate supplements. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Organizational behavior of human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Culture conditions that favor rapid multiplication of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUV-EC) also support long-term serial propagation of the cells. This is routinely achieved when HUV-EC are grown in Medium 199 (M-199) supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS) and endothelial cell growth factor (ECGF), on a human fibronectin (HFN) matrix. The HUV-EC can shift from a proliferative to an organized state when the in vitro conditions are changed from those favoring low density proliferation to those supporting high density survival. When ECGF and HFN are omitted, cultures fail to achieve confluence beyond the first or second passage: the preconfluent cultures organize into tubular structures after 4-6 wk. Some tubes become grossly visible and float in the culture medium, remaining tethered to the plastic dish at either end of the tube. On an ultrastructural level, the tubes consist of cells, held together by junctional complexes, arranged so as to form a lumen. The smallest lumens are formed by one cell folding over to form a junction with itself. The cells contain Weibel-Palade bodies and factor VIII-related antigen. The lumens contain granular, fibrillar and amorphous debris. Predigesting the HFN matrix with trypsin (10 min, 37 degrees C) or plasmin significantly accelerates tube formation. Thrombin and plasminogen activator had no apparent effect. Disruption of the largest tubes with trypsin/EDTA permits the cells to revert to a proliferative state if plated on HFN, in M-199, FBS, and ECGF. These observations indicate that culture conditions that do not favor proliferation permit attainment of a state of nonterminal differentiation (organization) by the endothelial cell. Furthermore, proteolytic modification of the HFN matrix may play an important role in endothelial organization. PMID:6813338

  6. Supplemental lactoferrin improves health and growth of Holstein calves during the preweaning phase.

    PubMed

    Robblee, E D; Erickson, P S; Whitehouse, N L; McLaughlin, A M; Schwab, C G; Rejman, J J; Rompala, R E

    2003-04-01

    Lactoferrin is a milk protein that exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties. Previous studies indicated that supplemental lactoferrin may alter the microbial populations in the gut of nonruminants and increase preweaning weight gains in calves. In the present study, 40 Holstein calves were used to examine the effects of supplemental lactoferrin (0, 1, 2, or 3 g/d) on health, growth, and feed intake from 3 d of age to 2 wk postweaning. Lactoferrin was mixed and fed with a nonmedicated milk replacer. Calves were housed in individual pens and offered a textured, nonmedicated starter and water for ad libitum consumption. Body weight and heart girth were measuredweekly. Intakes of milk replacer and starter were determined daily. Fecal consistency was monitored three times per week. Calves were weaned when they met certain criteria based on body weight gain and starter intake. Preweaning fecal score responded quadratically, with the group fed 1 g/d of lactoferrin having the lowest score. Overall and preweaning number of days medicated responded in the same manner as fecal score. Preweaning average daily gain and gain-to-feed ratio increased linearly with lactoferrin supplementation, whereas postweaning gain-to-feed ratio decreased linearly with lactoferrin. Overall average daily heart girth gain increased linearly with lactoferrin. Body weight, weaning age, and dry matter intake were not different among treatments. Based on the observed improved gain-to-feed ratios, increased average daily gains, improved fecal scores, and reduced morbidity in preweaned calves, it appears that lactoferrin may be a beneficial supplement in the diets of neonatal calves prior to weaning.

  7. Characterisation of hypertensive patients with improved endothelial function after dark chocolate consumption.

    PubMed

    d'El-Rei, Jenifer; Cunha, Ana Rosa; Burlá, Adriana; Burlá, Marcelo; Oigman, Wille; Neves, Mario Fritsch; Virdis, Agostino; Medeiros, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings indicate an inverse relationship between cardiovascular disease and consumption of flavonoids. We aimed to identify clinical and vascular parameters of treated hypertensive who present beneficial effects of dark chocolate for one-week period on vascular function. Twenty-one hypertensive subjects, aged 40-65 years, were included in a prospective study with measurement of blood pressure (BP), brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), peripheral arterial tonometry, and central hemodynamic parameters. These tests were repeated after seven days of eating dark chocolate 75 g/day. Patients were divided according to the response in FMD: responders (n = 12) and nonresponders (n = 9). The responder group presented lower age (54 ± 7 versus 61 ± 6 years, P = 0.037), Framingham risk score (FRS) (2.5 ± 1.8 versus 8.1 ± 5.1%, P = 0.017), values of peripheral (55 ± 9 versus 63 ± 5 mmHg, P = 0.041), and central pulse pressure (PP) (44 ± 10 versus 54 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.021). FMD response showed negative correlation with FRS (r = -0.60, P = 0.014), baseline FMD (r = -0.54, P = 0.011), baseline reactive hyperemia index (RHI; r = -0.56, P = 0.008), and central PP (r = -0.43, P = 0.05). However, after linear regression analysis, only FRS and baseline RHI were associated with FMD response. In conclusion, one-week dark chocolate intake significantly improved endothelial function and reduced BP in younger hypertensive with impaired endothelial function in spite of lower cardiovascular risk.

  8. Characterisation of Hypertensive Patients with Improved Endothelial Function after Dark Chocolate Consumption

    PubMed Central

    d'El-Rei, Jenifer; Cunha, Ana Rosa; Burlá, Adriana; Burlá, Marcelo; Oigman, Wille

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings indicate an inverse relationship between cardiovascular disease and consumption of flavonoids. We aimed to identify clinical and vascular parameters of treated hypertensive who present beneficial effects of dark chocolate for one-week period on vascular function. Twenty-one hypertensive subjects, aged 40–65 years, were included in a prospective study with measurement of blood pressure (BP), brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), peripheral arterial tonometry, and central hemodynamic parameters. These tests were repeated after seven days of eating dark chocolate 75 g/day. Patients were divided according to the response in FMD: responders (n = 12) and nonresponders (n = 9). The responder group presented lower age (54 ± 7 versus 61 ± 6 years, P = 0.037), Framingham risk score (FRS) (2.5 ± 1.8 versus 8.1 ± 5.1%, P = 0.017), values of peripheral (55 ± 9 versus 63 ± 5 mmHg, P = 0.041), and central pulse pressure (PP) (44 ± 10 versus 54 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.021). FMD response showed negative correlation with FRS (r = −0.60, P = 0.014), baseline FMD (r = −0.54, P = 0.011), baseline reactive hyperemia index (RHI; r = −0.56, P = 0.008), and central PP (r = −0.43, P = 0.05). However, after linear regression analysis, only FRS and baseline RHI were associated with FMD response. In conclusion, one-week dark chocolate intake significantly improved endothelial function and reduced BP in younger hypertensive with impaired endothelial function in spite of lower cardiovascular risk. PMID:23533716

  9. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients for breastfeeding women for improving outcomes for the mother and baby.

    PubMed

    Abe, Sarah K; Balogun, Olukunmi O; Ota, Erika; Takahashi, Kenzo; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-02-18

    out in Brazil (36 adolescent mothers) and the USA (16 women) and included women with a low socioeconomic status. A lack of information in the study reports meant that risk of bias could not be adequately assessed (unclear risk of bias for many domains). There were no quantitative data for any of this review's outcomes so meta-analysis was not possible.Neither of the studies reported on the primary outcomes of interest in this review: maternal morbidity (febrile illness, respiratory tract infection, diarrhoea), adverse effects of micronutrients within three days of receiving the supplement, infant mortality (defined as a child dying before completing the first year of age).One study reported qualitatively on maternal anaemia (a secondary outcome of this review) - the study found that multiple-micronutrient supplementation was effective for recuperating from anaemia but there were no data for inclusion in our analyses. Maternal satisfaction was not reported in the included studies. Similarly, none of this review's infant secondary outcomes were reported in the included studies: clinical micronutrient deficiency; morbidity episodes (febrile illness, respiratory tract infection, diarrhoea, other), adverse effects of micronutrients within three days of receiving the supplement. We found no evidence to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of multiple-micronutrient supplementation in improving health outcomes in mother and baby. The results of this review are limited by the small numbers of studies available, small sample sizes and the studies not reporting on the outcomes of interest in this review. There is no evidence to evaluate potential adverse effects of multiple-micronutrient supplements, particularly excess dosages.There is a need for high-quality studies to assess the effectiveness and safety of multiple-micronutrient supplementation for breastfeeding women for improving outcomes for the mother and her baby. Further research should focus on whether multiple

  10. Caloric restriction improves endothelial dysfunction during vascular aging: Effects on nitric oxide synthase isoforms and oxidative stress in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Michela; Gortan Cappellari, Gianluca; Burekovic, Ismet; Barazzoni, Rocco; Stebel, Marco; Guarnieri, Gianfranco

    2010-11-01

    Aging is characterized by activation of inducible over endothelial nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and eNOS), impaired antioxidant activity and increased oxidative stress, which reduces nitric oxide bioavailability and causes endothelial dysfunction. Caloric restriction (CR) blunts oxidative stress. We investigated whether CR impacts endothelial dysfunction in aging and the underlying mechanisms. Aortas from young (YC, 6 months of age) and old (OC, 24 months of age) rats ad-libitum fed and from old rats caloric-restricted for 3-weeks (OR, 26%) were investigated. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation was impaired in OC, associated with reduced eNOS and increased iNOS expression (P<0.05). Aortic nitrite was similar in OC and YC, but the contribution of calcium-independent NOS to total NOS activity was increased whereas that of calcium-dependent NOS was reduced (p≤0.0003). Plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were elevated in OC as well as aortic nitrotyrosine (P<0.05). Expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and total SOD activity were impaired in OC (P<0.05 vs. YC), whereas copper-zinc (CuZn) SOD expression was similar in OC and YC. CR restored endothelial dysfunction in old rats, reduced iNOS expression, total nitrite and calcium-independent NOS activity in aorta (P<0.05) without changes in eNOS expression and calcium-dependent NOS activity. Sirtuin-1 expression did not differ among groups. Plasma TBARS and aortic nitrotyrosine were reduced (P<0.05) in OR compared with OC. In OR CuZnSOD protein and SOD activity increased (P<0.05) without changes in MnSOD expression. Short-term CR improves age-related endothelial dysfunction. Reversal of altered iNOS/eNOS ratio, reduced oxidative stress and increased SOD enzyme activity rather than enhanced NO production appear to be involved in this effect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. In Vitro Endothelialization Test of Biomaterials Using Immortalized Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kono, Ken; Hiruma, Hitomi; Kobayashi, Shingo; Sato, Yoji; Tanaka, Masaru; Sawada, Rumi; Niimi, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Functionalizing biomaterials with peptides or polymers that enhance recruitment of endothelial cells (ECs) can reduce blood coagulation and thrombosis. To assess endothelialization of materials in vitro, primary ECs are generally used, although the characteristics of these cells vary among the donors and change with time in culture. Recently, primary cell lines immortalized by transduction of simian vacuolating virus 40 large T antigen or human telomerase reverse transcriptase have been developed. To determine whether immortalized ECs can substitute for primary ECs in material testing, we investigated endothelialization on biocompatible polymers using three lots of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and immortalized microvascular ECs, TIME-GFP. Attachment to and growth on polymer surfaces were comparable between cell types, but results were more consistent with TIME-GFP. Our findings indicate that TIME-GFP is more suitable for in vitro endothelialization testing of biomaterials.

  12. [The role of endothelial cells and endothelial precursor cells in angiogenesis].

    PubMed

    Poreba, Małgorzata; Usnarska-Zubkiewicz, Lidia; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz

    2006-01-01

    Endothelium plays a key role in maintenance of vascular homeostasis in human organism. According to new data endothelial cells and hematopoietic cells have a common precursor in prenatal life--a hemangioblast, which explains the fact of sharing the same determinants on the surface of both type of cells. Circulating endothelial precursors were identified in adults and this suggests that hemangioblasts may be present not only during embriogenesis. In some clinical situations the increased numbers of endothelial cells and endothelial precursors were noted, and especially in patients with neoplastic diseases, which is probably the result of increased angiogenesis. Endothelial precursors are thought to be the promice for therapeutic purposes in future--to increase local angiogenesis.

  13. Flavonoid-Rich Apple Improves Endothelial Function in Individuals at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Bondonno, Nicola P; Bondonno, Catherine P; Blekkenhorst, Lauren C; Considine, Michael J; Maghzal, Ghassan; Stocker, Roland; Woodman, Richard J; Ward, Natalie C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D

    2018-02-01

    The cardioprotective effects of apples are primarily attributed to flavonoids, found predominantly in the skin. This study aimed to determine if acute and/or chronic (4 weeks) ingestion of flavonoid-rich apples improves endothelial function, blood pressure (BP), and arterial stiffness in individuals at risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this randomized, controlled cross-over trial, acute and 4 week intake of apple with skin (high flavonoid apple, HFA) is compared to intake of apple flesh only (low flavonoid apple, LFA) in 30 participants. The primary outcome is endothelial function assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, while main secondary outcomes are 24 h ambulatory BP and arterial stiffness. Other outcomes include fasting serum glucose and lipoprotein profile, plasma heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox-1), F 2 -isoprostanes, flavonoid metabolites, and plasma and salivary nitrate (NO 3 - ) and nitrite (NO 2 - ) concentrations. Compared to LFA control, the HFA results in a significant increase in FMD acutely (0.8%, p < 0.001) and after 4 weeks chronic intake (0.5%, p < 0.001), and in plasma flavonoid metabolites (p < 0.0001). Other outcomes are not altered significantly. A lower risk of CVD with higher apple consumption could be mediated by the beneficial effect of apple skin on endothelial function, both acutely and chronically. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Central Role of eNOS in the Maintenance of Endothelial Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Kelm, Malte

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Disruption of endothelial function is considered a key event in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a central regulator of cellular function that is important to maintain endothelial homeostasis. Recent Advances: Endothelial homeostasis encompasses acute responses such as adaption of flow to tissue's demand and more sustained responses to injury such as re-endothelialization and sprouting of endothelial cells (ECs) and attraction of circulating angiogenic cells (CAC), both of which support repair of damaged endothelium. The balance and the intensity of endothelial damage and repair might be reflected by changes in circulating endothelial microparticles (EMP) and CAC. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) is a generally accepted clinical read-out of NO-dependent vasodilation, whereas EMP are upcoming prognostically validated markers of endothelial injury and CAC are reflective of the regenerative capacity with both expressing a functional eNOS. These markers can be integrated in a clinical endothelial phenotype, reflecting the net result between damage from risk factors and endogenous repair capacity with NO representing a central signaling molecule. Critical Issues: Improvements of reproducibility and observer independence of FMD measurements and definitions of relevant EMP and CAC subpopulations warrant further research. Future Directions: Endothelial homeostasis may be a clinical therapeutic target for cardiovascular health maintenance. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 1230–1242. PMID:25330054

  15. Leveraging corporate social responsibility to improve consumer safety of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Anvita; Huerto, Ryan; Roberto, Christina A; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-03-01

    The potential dangers associated with dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building are well documented and increasingly garnering the attention of the media, public, and government leaders. Public health professionals have an opportunity to improve population health in the context of dietary supplement use by translating scientific evidence into action. In this commentary, we discuss the potential to motivate corporate social responsibility (CSR) among manufacturers and retailers of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building. We examine levers available to public health professionals for generating voluntary corporate self-regulation by reviewing examples from successful CSR initiatives in other domains of public health and offering recommendations highlighting effective advocacy strategies. We encourage public health professionals to use one or multiple advocacy strategies to improve consumer protections for dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

  16. Threonine supplementation reduces dietary protein and improves lipid metabolism in Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Tang, J; Xie, M; Wen, Z G; Qiao, S Y; Hou, S S

    2017-12-01

    1. This study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of threonine (Thr) supplementation on reducing dietary crude protein (CP) content and the effects of Thr on lipid metabolism in Pekin ducks. The effects of dietary CP concentration (160, 190 and 220 g/kg) and Thr supplemental concentration (0, 0.7, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8 g/kg) on growth performance, carcass, liver lipid and plasma profiles were determined in Pekin ducks from 1-21 d of age. 2. A total of 720-d-old male Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to 1 of 15 dietary treatments with 6 replicate cages of 8 birds per cage for each treatment according to average body weight. 3. Dietary Thr supplementation improved growth performance and breast muscle percentage at all CP diets, and ducks fed Thr-supplemented diets had higher plasma concentrations of some plasma amino acids. Thr supplementation reduced the concentrations of total lipid, triglyceride, cholesterol in liver, and plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterin concentration at 160 and 190 g/kg CP, whereas it increased triglyceride concentration at 160 g/kg CP. 4. Thr requirements based on quadratic broken-line model estimation were 6.6 and 7.0 g/kg for optimal average daily gain (ADG), and 6.7 and 7.3 g/kg for breast muscle percentage of Pekin ducks from 1-21 d of age at 190 and 220 g/kg CP, respectively. The dietary Thr requirements and estimated ADG (55.18 vs. 55.86 g/d/bird) and breast muscle percentage (2.79% vs. 2.75%) of Pekin ducks did not differ between 190 and 220 g/kg CP according to the t-test results. 5. Dietary CP level could be reduced to 190 g/kg in Pekin ducks from 1-21 d of age with Thr supplementation to balance dietary amino acids, and Thr supplementation prevented excess liver lipid deposition in this instance.

  17. Activation of the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase by Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) Improves Endothelial Function In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yong; Zhang, Cheng; Dong, Yunzhou; Wang, Shuangxi; Song, Ping; Viollet, Benoit; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the cardiovascular-protective effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may be due, in part, to its ability to stimulate the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation. The role of AMPK in EPA-induced eNOS phosphorylation was investigated in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC), in mice deficient of either AMPKα1 or AMPKα2, in eNOS knockout (KO) mice, or in Apo-E/AMPKα1 dual KO mice. EPA-treatment of BAEC increased both AMPK-Thr172 phosphorylation and AMPK activity, which was accompanied by increased eNOS phosphorylation, NO release, and upregulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of AMPK abolished EPA-enhanced NO release and eNOS phosphorylation in HUVEC. This effect of EPA was absent in the aortas isolated from either eNOS KO mice or AMPKα1 KO mice fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet. EPA via upregulation of UCP-2 activates AMPKα1 resulting in increased eNOS phosphorylation and consequent improvement of endothelial function in vivo. PMID:22532857

  18. Sustained delivery of proangiogenic microRNA-132 by nanoparticle transfection improves endothelial cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Devalliere, Julie; Chang, William G.; Andrejecsk, Jillian W.; Abrahimi, Parwiz; Cheng, Christopher J.; Jane-wit, Dan; Saltzman, W. Mark; Pober, Jordan S.

    2014-01-01

    Transplantation of endothelial cells (ECs) for therapeutic vascularization or tissue engineering is a promising method for increasing tissue perfusion. Here, we report on a new approach for enhanced EC transplantation using targeted nanoparticle transfection to deliver proangiogenic microRNA-132 (miR-132) to cultured ECs before their transplantation, thereby sensitizing cells to the effects of endogenous growth factors. We synthesized biodegradable PLGA polymer nanoparticles (NPs) that were loaded with miR-132 and coated with cyclic RGD (cRGD) peptides that target integrin αvβ3 expressed on cultured human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), increasing NP uptake through clathrin-coated pits. Unlike previously reported NPs for miR delivery, these NPs slowly release RNA for several weeks. The endocytosed NPs remain in clathrin-coated vesicles from which they mediate intracellular delivery of siRNA or miRNA. Transfection of HUVECs with miR-132 enhances growth factor-induced proliferation and migration in 2D culture, producing a 1.8- and 5-fold increase, respectively. However, while the effects of conventional transfection were short-lived, NP transfection produced protein knockdown and biological effects that were significantly longer in duration (≥6 d). Transfection of HUVECs with miR-132 NP resulted in a 2-fold increase in the number of microvessels per square millimeter compared to lipid after transplantation into immunodeficient mice and led to a higher number of mural cell-invested vessels than control transfection. These data suggest that sustained delivery of miR-132 encapsulated in a targeted biodegradable polymer NP is a safe and efficient strategy to improve EC transplantation and vascularization.—Devalliere, J., Chang, W. G., Andrejecsk, J. W., Abrahimi, P., Cheng, C. J., Jane-wit, D., Saltzman, W. M., Pober, J. S. Sustained delivery of proangiogenic microRNA-132 by nanoparticle transfection improves endothelial cell transplantation. PMID:24221087

  19. Improvement of short-term memory performance in aged beagles by a nutraceutical supplement containing phosphatidylserine, Ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, and pyridoxine

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Joseph A.; Landsberg, Gary M.; Milgram, Norton W.; Miolo, Alda

    2008-01-01

    Aged dogs demonstrate cognitive decline that is linked to brain aging. The purpose of the present study was to examine if a commercially available nutraceutical supplement that may be neuroprotective and contains phosphatidylserine, Ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, and pyridoxine could improve cognitive function in aged beagles. Nine aged beagles were tested on performance on a delayed-non-matching-to-position task, which is a neuropsychological test of short-term visuospatial memory. All subjects were tested on 5 baseline sessions; then, to assess the supplement, a crossover design was used in which 1 group received the supplement and the other a control substance in the 1st phase, with treatment conditions being reversed in the 2nd phase. Performance accuracy was significantly improved in supplemented dogs compared with control dogs and the effect was long lasting. These findings suggest that the nutraceutical supplement can improve memory in aged dogs. PMID:18481547

  20. Purple grape juice improves endothelial function and reduces the susceptibility of LDL cholesterol to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Stein, J H; Keevil, J G; Wiebe, D A; Aeschlimann, S; Folts, J D

    1999-09-07

    In vitro, the flavonoid components of red wine and purple grape juice are powerful antioxidants that induce endothelium-dependent vasodilation of vascular rings derived from rat aortas and human coronary arteries. Although improved endothelial function and inhibition of LDL oxidation may be potential mechanisms by which red wine and flavonoids reduce cardiovascular risk, the in vivo effects of grape products on endothelial function and LDL oxidation have not been investigated. This study assessed the effects of ingesting purple grape juice on endothelial function and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Fifteen adults with angiographically documented CAD ingested 7.7+/-1.2 mL. kg(-1). d(-1) of purple grape juice for 14 days. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was measured using high-resolution brachial artery ultrasonography. Susceptibility of LDL particles to oxidation was determined from the rate of conjugated diene formation after exposure to copper chloride. At baseline, FMD was impaired (2.2+/-2. 9%). After ingestion of grape juice, FMD increased to 6.4+/-4.7% (P=0.003). In a linear regression model that included age, artery diameter, lipid values, and use of lipid-lowering and antioxidant therapies, the effect of grape juice on FMD remained significant (mean change 4.2+/-4.4%, P<0.001). After ingestion of grape juice, lag time increased by 34.5% (P=0.015). Short-term ingestion of purple grape juice improves FMD and reduces LDL susceptibility to oxidation in CAD patients. Improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation and prevention of LDL oxidation are potential mechanisms by which flavonoids in purple grape products may prevent cardiovascular events, independent of alcohol content.

  1. Capsaicin Supplementation Reduces Physical Fatigue and Improves Exercise Performance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yi-Ju; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Liu, Yan-Lin; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Chiu, Chun-Hui; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP) is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Female Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice from four groups (n = 8 per group) were orally administered CAP for 4 weeks at 0, 205, 410, and 1025 mg/kg/day, which were respectively designated the vehicle, CAP-1X, CAP-2X, and CAP-5X groups. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The grip strength and exhaustive swimming time of the CAP-5X group were significantly higher than other groups. CAP supplementation dose-dependently reduced serum lactate, ammonia, BUN and CK levels, and increased glucose concentration after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, CAP also increased hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise. The possible mechanism was relevant to energy homeostasis and the physiological modulations by CAP supplementation. Therefore, our results suggest that CAP supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, performance improvement and fatigue amelioration. PMID:27775591

  2. Capsaicin Supplementation Reduces Physical Fatigue and Improves Exercise Performance in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Ju; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Liu, Yan-Lin; Chiu, Wan-Chun; Chiu, Chun-Hui; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2016-10-20

    Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP) is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Female Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice from four groups ( n = 8 per group) were orally administered CAP for 4 weeks at 0, 205, 410, and 1025 mg/kg/day, which were respectively designated the vehicle, CAP-1X, CAP-2X, and CAP-5X groups. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, BUN (blood urea nitrogen) and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The grip strength and exhaustive swimming time of the CAP-5X group were significantly higher than other groups. CAP supplementation dose-dependently reduced serum lactate, ammonia, BUN and CK levels, and increased glucose concentration after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, CAP also increased hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise. The possible mechanism was relevant to energy homeostasis and the physiological modulations by CAP supplementation. Therefore, our results suggest that CAP supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, performance improvement and fatigue amelioration.

  3. Homocysteine impaired endothelial function through compromised vascular endothelial growth factor/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase signalling.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ting-Ting; Li, Qian; Zhang, Xuan-Hong; Wu, Wei-Kang; Sun, Juan; Li, Lin; Zhang, Quan; Tan, Hong-Mei

    2010-11-01

    1. Hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy) is associated with endothelial dysfunction and has been recognized as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of homocysteine (Hcy) on endothelial function in vivo and in vitro, and the underlying signalling pathways. 2. The HHcy animal model was established by intragastric administration with l-methionine in rats. Plasma Hcy and nitric oxide (NO) concentration were measured by fluorescence immunoassay or nitrate reductase method, respectively. Vasorelaxation in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were carried out on aortic rings. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with indicated concentrations of Hcy in the in vitro experiments. Intracellular NO level and NO concentration in culture medium were assayed. The alterations of possible signalling proteins were detected by western blot analysis. 3. l-methionine administration induced a significant increase in plasma Hcy and decrease in plasma NO. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of aortic rings in response to acetylcholine was impaired in l-methionine-administrated rats. The in vitro study showed that Hcy reduced both intracellular and culture medium NO levels. Furthermore, Hcy decreased phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) at serine-1177 and phosphorylation of Akt at serine-473. Hcy-induced dephosphorylation of eNOS at Ser-1177 was partially reversed by insulin (Akt activator) and GF109203X (PKC inhibitor). Furthermore, Hcy reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in a dose-dependent manner. 4. In conclusion, Hcy impaired endothelial function through compromised VEGF/Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase signalling. These findings will be beneficial for further understanding the role of Hcy in cardiovascular disease. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Vitamin E tocotrienol supplementation improves lipid profiles in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Daud, Zulfitri A Mat; Tubie, Boniface; Sheyman, Marina; Osia, Robert; Adams, Judy; Tubie, Sharon; Khosla, Pramod

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hemodialysis patients experience accelerated atherosclerosis contributed to by dyslipidemia, inflammation, and an impaired antioxidant system. Vitamin E tocotrienols possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the impact of dietary intervention with Vitamin E tocotrienols is unknown in this population. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial was conducted in 81 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Subjects were provided daily with capsules containing either vitamin E tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) (180 mg tocotrienols, 40 mg tocopherols) or placebo (0.48 mg tocotrienols, 0.88 mg tocopherols). Endpoints included measurements of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin 6), oxidative status (total antioxidant power and malondialdehyde), lipid profiles (plasma total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), as well as cholesteryl-ester transfer protein activity and apolipoprotein A1. TRF supplementation did not impact any nutritional, inflammatory, or oxidative status biomarkers over time when compared with the baseline within the group (one-way repeated measures analysis of variance) or when compared with the placebo group at a particular time point (independent t-test). However, the TRF supplemented group showed improvement in lipid profiles after 12 and 16 weeks of intervention when compared with placebo at the respective time points. Normalized plasma triacylglycerols (cf baseline) in the TRF group were reduced by 33 mg/dL (P=0.032) and 36 mg/dL (P=0.072) after 12 and 16 weeks of intervention but no significant improvement was seen in the placebo group. Similarly, normalized plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was higher (P<0.05) in the TRF group as compared with placebo at both week 12 and week 16. The changes in the TRF group at week 12 and week 16 were associated with higher plasma apolipoprotein A1 concentration (P<0.02) and lower cholesteryl

  5. Vitamin E tocotrienol supplementation improves lipid profiles in chronic hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Daud, Zulfitri A Mat; Tubie, Boniface; Sheyman, Marina; Osia, Robert; Adams, Judy; Tubie, Sharon; Khosla, Pramod

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Chronic hemodialysis patients experience accelerated atherosclerosis contributed to by dyslipidemia, inflammation, and an impaired antioxidant system. Vitamin E tocotrienols possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the impact of dietary intervention with Vitamin E tocotrienols is unknown in this population. Patients and methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial was conducted in 81 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Subjects were provided daily with capsules containing either vitamin E tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) (180 mg tocotrienols, 40 mg tocopherols) or placebo (0.48 mg tocotrienols, 0.88 mg tocopherols). Endpoints included measurements of inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin 6), oxidative status (total antioxidant power and malondialdehyde), lipid profiles (plasma total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), as well as cholesteryl-ester transfer protein activity and apolipoprotein A1. Results TRF supplementation did not impact any nutritional, inflammatory, or oxidative status biomarkers over time when compared with the baseline within the group (one-way repeated measures analysis of variance) or when compared with the placebo group at a particular time point (independent t-test). However, the TRF supplemented group showed improvement in lipid profiles after 12 and 16 weeks of intervention when compared with placebo at the respective time points. Normalized plasma triacylglycerols (cf baseline) in the TRF group were reduced by 33 mg/dL (P=0.032) and 36 mg/dL (P=0.072) after 12 and 16 weeks of intervention but no significant improvement was seen in the placebo group. Similarly, normalized plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was higher (P<0.05) in the TRF group as compared with placebo at both week 12 and week 16. The changes in the TRF group at week 12 and week 16 were associated with higher plasma apolipoprotein A1 concentration (P

  6. Dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate is safe and improves growth performance in postweaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Reza; Knabe, Darrell A; Tekwe, Carmen D; Dahanayaka, Sudath; Ficken, Martin D; Fielder, Susan E; Eide, Sarah J; Lovering, Sandra L; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-03-01

    Dietary intake of glutamate by postweaning pigs is markedly reduced due to low feed consumption. This study was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate (MSG) in postweaning pigs. Piglets were weaned at 21 days of age to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 % MSG (n = 25/group). MSG was added to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. At 42 days of age (21 days after weaning), blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from the jugular vein of 25 pigs/group at 1 and 4 h after feeding for hematological and clinical chemistry tests; thereafter, pigs (n = 6/group) were euthanized to obtain tissues for histopathological examinations. Feed intake was not affected by dietary supplementation with 0-2 % MSG and was 15 % lower in pigs supplemented with 4 % MSG compared with the 0 % MSG group. Compared with the control, dietary supplementation with 1, 2 and 4 % MSG dose-dependently increased plasma concentrations of glutamate, glutamine, and other amino acids (including lysine, methionine, phenylalanine and leucine), daily weight gain, and feed efficiency in postweaning pigs. At day 7 postweaning, dietary supplementation with 1-4 % MSG also increased jejunal villus height, DNA content, and antioxidative capacity. The MSG supplementation dose-dependently reduced the incidence of diarrhea during the first week after weaning. All variables in standard hematology and clinical chemistry tests, as well as gross and microscopic structures, did not differ among the five groups of pigs. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with up to 4 % MSG is safe and improves growth performance in postweaning pigs.

  7. Collaborative Enhancement of Endothelial Targeting of Nanocarriers by Modulating Platelet-Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/CD31 Epitope Engagement.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Ann-Marie; Han, Jingyan; Greineder, Colin F; Zern, Blaine J; Mikitsh, John L; Nayak, Madhura; Menon, Divya; Johnston, Ian H; Poncz, Mortimer; Eckmann, David M; Davies, Peter F; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2015-07-28

    Nanocarriers (NCs) coated with antibodies (Abs) to extracellular epitopes of the transmembrane glycoprotein PECAM (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1/CD31) enable targeted drug delivery to vascular endothelial cells. Recent studies revealed that paired Abs directed to adjacent, yet distinct epitopes of PECAM stimulate each other's binding to endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo ("collaborative enhancement"). This phenomenon improves targeting of therapeutic fusion proteins, yet its potential role in targeting multivalent NCs has not been addressed. Herein, we studied the effects of Ab-mediated collaborative enhancement on multivalent NC spheres coated with PECAM Abs (Ab/NC, ∼180 nm diameter). We found that PECAM Abs do mutually enhance endothelial cell binding of Ab/NC coated by paired, but not "self" Ab. In vitro, collaborative enhancement of endothelial binding of Ab/NC by paired Abs is modulated by Ab/NC avidity, epitope selection, and flow. Cell fixation, but not blocking of endocytosis, obliterated collaborative enhancement of Ab/NC binding, indicating that the effect is mediated by molecular reorganization of PECAM molecules in the endothelial plasmalemma. The collaborative enhancement of Ab/NC binding was affirmed in vivo. Intravascular injection of paired Abs enhanced targeting of Ab/NC to pulmonary vasculature in mice by an order of magnitude. This stimulatory effect greatly exceeded enhancement of Ab targeting by paired Abs, indicating that '"collaborative enhancement"' effect is even more pronounced for relatively large multivalent carriers versus free Abs, likely due to more profound consequences of positive alteration of epitope accessibility. This phenomenon provides a potential paradigm for optimizing the endothelial-targeted nanocarrier delivery of therapeutic agents.

  8. ISCHEMIC CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION IN THE ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR ERA.

    PubMed

    Tam, Emily K; Golchet, Pamela; Yung, Madeline; DeCroos, Francis C; Spirn, Marc; Lehmann-Clarke, Lydia; Ambresin, Aude; Tsui, Irena

    2018-02-01

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy has improved the prognosis for patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). However, most studies published to date exclude ischemic CRVO. The purpose of this study was to describe the outcome in eyes with ischemic CRVO treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Thirty-seven patients with ischemic CRVO from 3 centers were followed for at least 6 months. Data on patient demographic, vision status, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatments were collected. Average number of injections during the study period was 5. Younger age was associated with improved vision (P = 0.006). Patients with improved visual outcomes tended to have macular edema as the primary indication for treatment, whereas patients with worse outcomes tended to have neovascularization as the primary indication for treatment. This study highlights significant variability in the use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for ischemic CRVO and underscores that eyes with neovascularization tend to have worse visual outcomes.

  9. Combinatorial therapy of exercise-preconditioning and nanocurcumin formulation supplementation improves cardiac adaptation under hypobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Nehra, Sarita; Bhardwaj, Varun; Bansal, Anju; Saraswat, Deepika

    2017-09-26

    Chronic hypobaric hypoxia (cHH) mediated cardiac insufficiencies are associated with pathological damage. Sustained redox stress and work load are major causative agents of cardiac insufficiencies under cHH. Despite the advancements made in pharmacological (anti-oxidants, vasodilators) and non-pharmacological therapeutics (acclimatization strategies and schedules), only partial success has been achieved in improving cardiac acclimatization to cHH. This necessitates the need for potent combinatorial therapies to improve cardiac acclimatization at high altitudes. We hypothesize that a combinatorial therapy comprising preconditioning to mild aerobic treadmill exercise and supplementation with nanocurcumin formulation (NCF) consisting of nanocurcumin (NC) and pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) might improve cardiac adaptation at high altitudes. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats pre-conditioned to treadmill exercise and supplemented with NCF were exposed to cHH (7620 m altitude corresponding to pO2~8% at 28±2°C, relative humidity 55%±1%) for 3 weeks. The rat hearts were analyzed for changes in markers of oxidative stress (free radical leakage, lipid peroxidation, manganese-superoxide dismutase [MnSOD] activity), cardiac injury (circulating cardiac troponin I [TnI] and T [cTnT], myocardial creatine kinase [CK-MB]), metabolic damage (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] and acetyl-coenzyme A levels, lactate and pyruvate levels) and bio-energetic insufficiency (ATP, p-AMPKα). Significant modulations (p≤0.05) in cardiac redox status, metabolic damage, cardiac injury and bio-energetics were observed in rats receiving both NCF supplementation and treadmill exercise-preconditioning compared with rats receiving only one of the treatments. The combinatorial therapeutic strategy showed a tremendous improvement in cardiac acclimatization to cHH compared to either exercise-preconditioning or NCF supplementation alone which was evident from the effective modulation in redox, metabolic, contractile

  10. Eye-bank preparation of endothelial tissue.

    PubMed

    Boynton, Grace E; Woodward, Maria A

    2014-07-01

    Eye-bank preparation of endothelial tissue for keratoplasty continues to evolve. Although eye-bank personnel have become comfortable and competent at Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK), tissue preparation and tissue transport, optimization of preparation methods continues. Surgeons and eye-bank personnel should be up to date on the research in the field. As surgeons transit to Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK), eye banks have risen to the challenge of preparing tissue. Eye banks are refining their DMEK preparation and transport techniques. This article covers refinements to DSAEK tissue preparation, innovations to prepare DMEK tissue, and nuances to improve donor cornea tissue quality. As eye bank-supplied corneal tissue is the main source of tissue for many corneal surgeons, it is critical to stay informed about tissue handling and preparation. Ultimately, the surgeon is responsible for the transplantation, so involvement of clinicians in eye-banking practices and advocacy for pursuing meaningful research in this area will benefit clinical patient outcomes.

  11. Eye-bank Preparation of Endothelial Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Boynton, Grace E.; Woodward, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Eyebank preparation of endothelial tissue for keratoplasty continues to evolve. While eye bank personnel have become comfortable and competent at Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSAEK) tissue preparation and tissue transport, optimization of preparation methods continues. Surgeons and eye bank personnel should be up to date on the research in the field. As surgeons transition to Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty (DMEK), eye banks have risen to the challenge of preparing tissue. Eye banks are refining their DMEK preparation and transport techniques Recent findings This article covers refinements to DSAEK tissue preparation, innovations to prepare DMEK tissue, and nuances to improve donor cornea tissue quality. Summary As eye bank supplied corneal tissue is the main source of tissue for many corneal surgeons, it is critical to stay informed about tissue handling and preparation. Ultimately the surgeon is responsible for the transplantation, so involvement of clinicians in eye banking practices and advocacy for pursuing meaningful research in this area will benefit clinical patient outcomes. PMID:24837574

  12. Sympathetic Innervation Promotes Arterial Fate by Enhancing Endothelial ERK Activity.

    PubMed

    Pardanaud, Luc; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Dubrac, Alexandre; Mathivet, Thomas; English, Isabel; Brunet, Isabelle; Simons, Michael; Eichmann, Anne

    2016-08-19

    Arterial endothelial cells are morphologically, functionally, and molecularly distinct from those found in veins and lymphatic vessels. How arterial fate is acquired during development and maintained in adult vessels is incompletely understood. We set out to identify factors that promote arterial endothelial cell fate in vivo. We developed a functional assay, allowing us to monitor and manipulate arterial fate in vivo, using arteries isolated from quails that are grafted into the coelom of chick embryos. Endothelial cells migrate out from the grafted artery, and their colonization of host arteries and veins is quantified. Here we show that sympathetic innervation promotes arterial endothelial cell fate in vivo. Removal of sympathetic nerves decreases arterial fate and leads to colonization of veins, whereas exposure to sympathetic nerves or norepinephrine imposes arterial fate. Mechanistically, sympathetic nerves increase endothelial ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) activity via adrenergic α1 and α2 receptors. These findings show that sympathetic innervation promotes arterial endothelial fate and may lead to novel approaches to improve arterialization in human disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Exercise Training Prevents Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sewon; Park, Yoonjung; Zhang, Cuihua

    2011-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Exercise training (ET) is thought to have a beneficial effect on these disorders, but the basis for this effect is not fully understood. Because endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the pathological events leading to cardiovascular complications in T2D, we hypothesized that the effects of ET will be evidenced by improvements in coronary endothelial function. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of ET on vascular function of diabetic (db/db, Lepr(db)) mice by evaluating endothelial function of isolated coronary arterioles of wild-type (WT) and db/db mice with/without ET. Although dilation of vessels to the endothelial-independent vasodilator, sodium nitroprusside was not different between db/db and WT, dilation to the endothelial-dependent agonist, acetylcholine (ACh), was impaired in db/db compared to WT mice. Vasodilation to ACh was restored in db/db with ET and insulin sensitivity was improved in the db/db after ET. Exercise did not change body weight of db/db, but superoxide dismutase (SOD1 and SOD2) and phosphorylated- eNOS protein (Ser1177) expression in heart tissue was up-regulated whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) protein level was decreased by ET. Serum level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was higher in db/db mice but ET decreased IL-6. This suggests that ET may improve endothelial function by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability as well as decreasing chronic inflammation. We suggest this connection may be the basis for the benefit of ET in T2D.

  14. Vein wall re-endothelialization after deep vein thrombosis is improved with low-molecular-weight heparin.

    PubMed

    Moaveni, Daria K; Lynch, Erin M; Luke, Cathy; Sood, Vikram; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Wakefield, Thomas W; Henke, Peter K

    2008-03-01

    Vein wall endothelial turnover after stasis deep vein thrombosis (DVT) has not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to quantify re-endothelialization after DVT and determine if low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) therapy affects this process. Stasis DVT was generated in the rat by inferior vena cava ligation, with harvest at 1, 4, and 14 days. Immunohistologic quantification of vascular smooth muscle cells and luminal endothelialization was estimated by positive staining for alpha-smooth muscle actin and von Willebrand factor, respectively. In separate experiments, rats were treated either before or after DVT with subcutaneous LMWH (3 mg/kg daily) until harvesting at 4 and 14 days. The inferior vena cava was processed for histologic analysis or was processed for organ culture after the thrombus was gently removed. The vein wall was stimulated in vitro with interleukin-1beta (1 ng/mL), and the supernatant was processed at 48 hours for nitric oxide. Cells were processed by real-time polymerase chain reaction for endothelial nitric oxide synthase, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-1 and -2, and thrombomodulin at 4 and 14 days, and collagen I and III at 14 days. Comparisons were done with analysis of variance or t test. A P < .05 was significant. Thrombus size peaked at 4 days, whereas luminal re-endothelialization increased over time (1 day, 11% +/- 2%; 4 days, 23% +/- 4%; 14 days, 64% +/- 7% (+) von Willebrand factor staining; P < .01, n = 3 to 4, compared with non-DVT control). Similarly, vascular smooth muscle cell staining was lowest at day 1 and gradually returned to baseline by 14 days. Both before and after DVT, LMWH significantly increased luminal re-endothelialization, without a difference in thrombus size at 4 days, but no significant difference was noted at 14 days despite smaller thrombi with LMWH treatment. Pretreatment with LMWH was associated with increased vascular smooth muscle cell area and recovery of certain

  15. Do dietary supplements improve micronutrient sufficiency in children and adolescents?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Lentino, Cindy V; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2012-11-01

    To examine if children use supplements to fill gaps in nutritionally inadequate diets or whether supplements contribute to already adequate or excessive micronutrient intakes from foods. Data were analyzed for children (2-18 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (n = 7250). Diet was assessed using two 24-hour recalls, and dietary supplement use was assessed with a 30-day questionnaire. Prevalence of supplements use was 21% (<2 years) and 42% (2-8 years). Supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes than nonusers. Calcium and vitamin D intakes were low for all children. Inadequate intakes of phosphorus, copper, selenium, folate, and vitamins B-6 and B-12 were minimal from foods alone among 2-8 year olds. However, among 9-18 year olds, a higher prevalence of inadequate intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, C, and E were observed. Supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the upper tolerable intake level for iron, zinc, copper, selenium, folic acid, and vitamins A and C. Even with the use of supplements, more than a one-third of children failed to meet calcium and vitamin D recommendations. Children 2-8 years old had nutritionally adequate diets regardless of supplement use. However, in children older than 8 years, dietary supplements added micronutrients to diets that would have otherwise been inadequate for magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins A, C, and E. Supplement use contributed to the potential for excess intakes of some nutrients. These findings may have implications for reformulating dietary supplements for children. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  16. AFM-based detection of glycocalyx degradation and endothelial stiffening in the db/db mouse model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Targosz-Korecka, Marta; Jaglarz, Magdalena; Malek-Zietek, Katarzyna E; Gregorius, Aleksandra; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Sitek, Barbara; Rajfur, Zenon; Chlopicki, Stefan; Szymonski, Marek

    2017-11-21

    Degradation of the glycocalyx and stiffening of endothelium are important pathophysiological components of endothelial dysfunction. However, to our knowledge, these events have not been investigated in tandem in experimental diabetes. Here, the mechanical properties of the glycocalyx and endothelium in ex vivo mouse aorta were determined simultaneously in indentation experiments with an atomic force microscope (AFM) for diabetic db/db and control db/+ mice at ages of 11-19 weeks. To analyze highly heterogeneous aorta samples, we developed a tailored classification procedure of indentation data based on a bi-layer brush model supplemented with Hertz model for quantification of nanomechanics of endothelial regions with and without the glycocalyx surface. In db/db mice, marked endothelial stiffening and reduced glycocalyx coverage were present already in 11-week-old mice and persisted in older animals. In contrast, reduction of the effective glycocalyx length was progressive and was most pronounced in 19-week-old db/db mice. The reduction of the glycocalyx length correlated with an increasing level of glycated haemoglobin and decreased endothelial NO production. In conclusion, AFM nanoindentation analysis revealed that stiffening of endothelial cells and diminished glycocalyx coverage occurred in early diabetes and were followed by the reduction of the glycocalyx length that correlated with diabetes progression.

  17. The influence of biomaterials on endothelial cell thrombogenicity

    PubMed Central

    McGuigan, Alison P.; Sefton, Michael V.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, endothelial cells are being used in combination with biomaterials in a number of applications for the purpose of improving blood compatibility and host integration. Endothelialized vascular grafts are beginning to be used clinically with some success in some centers, while endothelial seeding is being explored as a means of creating a vasculature within engineered tissues. The underlying assumption of this strategy is that when cultured on artificial biomaterials, a confluent layer of endothelial cells maintain their non-thrombogenic phenotype. In this review the existing knowledge base of endothelial cell thrombogenicity cultured on a number of different biomaterials is summarized. The importance of selecting appropriate endpoint measures that are most reflective of overall surface thrombogenicity is the focus of this review. Endothelial cells inhibit thrombosis through three interconnected regulatory systems (1) the coagulation cascade (2) the cellular components of the blood such as leukocytes and platelets and (3) the complement cascade, and also through effects on fibrinolysis and vascular tone, the latter which influences blood flow. Thus, in order to demonstrate the thromobgenic benefit of seeding a biomaterial with EC, the conditions under which EC surfaces are more likely to exhibit lower thrombogenicity than unseeded biomaterial surfaces need to be consistent with the experimental context. The endpoints selected should be appropriate for the dominant thrombotic process that occurs under the given experimental conditions. PMID:17316788

  18. Endothelial actions of atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Michaela

    2012-05-01

    The cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is critically involved in the maintenance of arterial blood pressure and intravascular volume homeostasis. Its cGMP-producing GC-A receptor is densely expressed in the microvascular endothelium of the lung and systemic circulation, but the functional relevance is controversial. Some studies reported that ANP stimulates endothelial cell permeability, whereas others described that the peptide attenuates endothelial barrier dysfunction provoked by inflammatory agents such as thrombin or histamine. Many studies in vitro addressed the effects of ANP on endothelial proliferation and migration. Again, both pro- and anti-angiogenic properties were described. To unravel the role of the endothelial actions of ANP in vivo, we inactivated the murine GC-A gene selectively in endothelial cells by homologous loxP/Cre-mediated recombination. Our studies in these mice indicate that ANP, via endothelial GC-A, increases endothelial albumin permeability in the microcirculation of the skin and skeletal muscle. This effect is critically involved in the endocrine hypovolaemic, hypotensive actions of the cardiac hormone. On the other hand the homologous GC-A-activating B-type NP (BNP), which is produced by cardiac myocytes and many other cell types in response to stressors such as hypoxia, possibly exerts more paracrine than endocrine actions. For instance, within the ischaemic skeletal muscle BNP released from activated satellite cells can improve the regeneration of neighbouring endothelia. This review will focus on recent advancements in our understanding of endothelial NP/GC-A signalling in the pulmonary versus systemic circulation. It will discuss possible mechanisms accounting for the discrepant observations made for the endothelial actions of this hormone-receptor system and distinguish between (patho)physiological and pharmacological actions. Lastly it will emphasize the potential therapeutical implications derived from the

  19. [Endothelial keratoplasty: Descemet stripping (DSEK) using TAN EndoGlide™ device: case series].

    PubMed

    Pazos, Henrique Santiago Baltar; Pazos, Paula Fernanda Morais Ramalho Baltar; Nogueira Filho, Pedro Antônio; Grisolia, Ana Beatriz Diniz; Silva, André Berger Emiliano; Gomes, José Álvaro Pereira

    2011-01-01

    To report the results of Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) using the TAN EndoGlideTM device to facilitate the insertion of the endothelial membrane. Prospective clinical study that included nine patients presenting corneal edema secondary to endothelial dysfunction. Best corrected visual acuity, refraction, central corneal thickness, endothelial cell density and complications were analyzed after a six-month follow-up. There was a significant improvement in the corneal edema and visual acuity in 7 patients (77.78%). The best corrected visual acuity ranged between 20/40 and 20/200. The average density of endothelial cells in six months varied between 1,305 cells/mm² and 2,346 cells/mm² with an average loss of 33.14% cells. Detachment of part of the graft was observed in one eye (11.11%) and primary failure of the endothelial transplantation occurred in 2 eyes (22.22%). The device TAN EndoGlideTM facilitates the introduction of the graft in Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty.

  20. Intermittent iron supplementation for improving nutrition and development in children under 12 years of age

    PubMed Central

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Sylvetsky, Allison C; Dowswell, Therese

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 600 million children of preschool and school age are anaemic worldwide. It is estimated that half of the cases are due to iron deficiency. Consequences of iron deficiency anaemia during childhood include growth retardation, reduced school achievement, impaired motor and cognitive development, and increased morbidity and mortality. The provision of daily iron supplements is a widely used strategy for improving iron status in children but its effectiveness has been limited due to its side effects, which can include nausea, constipation or staining of the teeth. As a consequence, intermittent iron supplementation (one, two or three times a week on nonconsecutive days) has been proposed as an effective and safer alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the effects of intermittent iron supplementation, alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, on nutritional and developmental outcomes in children from birth to 12 years of age compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Search methods We searched the following databases on 24 May 2011: CENTRAL (2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1948 to May week 2, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 20), CINAHL (1937 to current), POPLINE (all available years) and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). On 29 June 2011 we searched all available years in the following databases: SCIELO, LILACS, IBECS and IMBIOMED. We also contacted relevant organisations (on 3 July 2011) to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with either individual or cluster randomisation. Participants were children under the age of 12 years at the time of intervention with no specific health problems. The intervention assessed was intermittent iron supplementation compared with a placebo, no intervention or daily supplementation. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies

  1. Endothelial progenitor cells--an evolving story.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jeremy D

    2010-05-01

    The first description of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in 1997 led rapidly to substantial changes in our understanding of angiogenesis, and within 5 years to the first clinical studies in humans using bone marrow derived EPC to enhance coronary neovascularisation and cardiac function after myocardial ischemia. However, to improve the success of this therapy a clearer understanding of the biology of EPC is needed. This article summarises recent data indicating that most EPC are not, in fact, endothelial progenitors but can be better described as angiogenic monocytes, and explores the implications this has for their future therapeutic use. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Virgin Olive Oils Differing in Their Bioactive Compound Contents on Metabolic Syndrome and Endothelial Functional Risk Biomarkers in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Rodriguez, Estefania; Lima-Cabello, Elena; Biel-Glesson, Sara; Fernandez-Navarro, Jose R.; Calleja, Miguel A.; Roca, Maria; Espejo-Calvo, Juan A.; Gil-Extremera, Blas; de la Torre, Rafael; Fito, Montserrat; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Alche, Juan de Dios; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio; Mesa, Maria D.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of virgin olive oils (VOOs) enriched with phenolic compounds and triterpenes on metabolic syndrome and endothelial function biomarkers in healthy adults. The trial was a three-week randomized, crossover, controlled, double-blind, intervention study involving 58 subjects supplemented with a daily dose (30 mL) of three oils: (1) a VOO (124 ppm of phenolic compounds and 86 ppm of triterpenes); (2) an optimized VOO (OVOO) (490 ppm of phenolic compounds and 86 ppm of triterpenes); and (3) a functional olive oil (FOO) high in phenolic compounds (487 ppm) and enriched with triterpenes (389 ppm). Metabolic syndrome and endothelial function biomarkers were determined in vivo and ex vivo. Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) increased after the OVOO intake. Plasma endothelin-1 levels decreased after the intake of the three olive oils, and in blood cell cultures challenged. Daily intake of VOO enriched in phenolic compounds improved plasma HDLc, although no differences were found at the end of the three interventions, while VOO with at least 124 ppm of phenolic compounds, regardless of the triterpenes content improved the systemic endothelin-1 levels in vivo and ex vivo. No effect of triterpenes was observed after three weeks of interventions. Results need to be confirmed in subjects with metabolic syndrome and impaired endothelial function (Clinical Trials number NCT02520739). PMID:29772657

  3. Effects of Virgin Olive Oils Differing in Their Bioactive Compound Contents on Metabolic Syndrome and Endothelial Functional Risk Biomarkers in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Rodriguez, Estefania; Lima-Cabello, Elena; Biel-Glesson, Sara; Fernandez-Navarro, Jose R; Calleja, Miguel A; Roca, Maria; Espejo-Calvo, Juan A; Gil-Extremera, Blas; Soria-Florido, Maria; de la Torre, Rafael; Fito, Montserrat; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Alche, Juan de Dios; Martinez de Victoria, Emilio; Gil, Angel; Mesa, Maria D

    2018-05-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of virgin olive oils (VOOs) enriched with phenolic compounds and triterpenes on metabolic syndrome and endothelial function biomarkers in healthy adults. The trial was a three-week randomized, crossover, controlled, double-blind, intervention study involving 58 subjects supplemented with a daily dose (30 mL) of three oils: (1) a VOO (124 ppm of phenolic compounds and 86 ppm of triterpenes); (2) an optimized VOO (OVOO) (490 ppm of phenolic compounds and 86 ppm of triterpenes); and (3) a functional olive oil (FOO) high in phenolic compounds (487 ppm) and enriched with triterpenes (389 ppm). Metabolic syndrome and endothelial function biomarkers were determined in vivo and ex vivo. Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) increased after the OVOO intake. Plasma endothelin-1 levels decreased after the intake of the three olive oils, and in blood cell cultures challenged. Daily intake of VOO enriched in phenolic compounds improved plasma HDLc, although no differences were found at the end of the three interventions, while VOO with at least 124 ppm of phenolic compounds, regardless of the triterpenes content improved the systemic endothelin-1 levels in vivo and ex vivo. No effect of triterpenes was observed after three weeks of interventions. Results need to be confirmed in subjects with metabolic syndrome and impaired endothelial function (Clinical Trials number NCT02520739).

  4. Ruthenium Complex Improves the Endothelial Function in Aortic Rings From Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vatanabe, Izabela Pereira; Rodrigues, Carla Nascimento dos Santos; Buzinari, Tereza Cristina; de Moraes, Thiago Francisco; da Silva, Roberto Santana; Rodrigues, Gerson Jhonatan

    2017-01-01

    Background The endothelium is a monolayer of cells that extends on the vascular inner surface, responsible for the modulation of vascular tone. By means of the release of nitric oxide (NO), the endothelium has an important protective function against cardiovascular diseases. Objective Verify if cis- [Ru(bpy)2(NO2)(NO)](PF6)2 (BPY) improves endothelial function and the sensibility of conductance (aorta) and resistance (coronary) to vascular relaxation induced by BPY. Methods Normotensive (2K) and hypertensive (2K-1C) Wistar rats were used. For vascular reactivity study, thoracic aortas were isolated, rings with intact endothelium were incubated with: BPY(0.01 to10 µM) and concentration effect curves to acetylcholine were performed. In addition, cumulative concentration curves were performed to BPY (1.0 nM to 0.1 µM) in aortic and coronary rings, with intact and denuded endothelium. Results In aorta from 2K-1C animals, the treatment with BPY 0.1µM increased the potency of acetylcholine-induced relaxation and it was able to revert the endothelial dysfunction. The presence of the endothelium did not modify the effect of BPY in inducing the relaxation in aortas from 2K and 2K-1C rats. In coronary, the endothelium potentiated the vasodilator effect of BPY in vessels from 2K and 2K-1C rats. Conclusion Our results suggest that 0.1 µM of BPY is able to normalize the relaxation endothelium dependent in hypertensive rats, and the compound BPY induces relaxation in aortic from normotensive and hypertensive rats with the same potency. The endothelium potentiate the relaxation effect induced by BPY in coronary from normotensive and hypertensive rats, with lower effect on coronary from hypertensive rats. PMID:28678930

  5. Ubiquinol-10 supplementation improves autonomic nervous function and cognitive function in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Sanae; Nojima, Junzo; Kajimoto, Osami; Yamaguti, Kouzi; Nakatomi, Yasuhito; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2016-07-08

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of oral ubiquinol-10 supplementation in CFS patients using an open-label study and a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled (RCT) study. Twenty patients with CFS were randomly enrolled in an 8-week open-label oral ubiquinol-10 (150 mg ubiquinol-10/day) study. The patients and the attending physicians were not blinded to the supplementation. Forty-three patients with CFS were randomly assigned to receive either ubiquinol-10 (150 mg/day) or placebo every day for 12 weeks. The patients and the attending physicians were blinded to the supplementation, and a total of 31 patients (N = 17 in the ubiquinol group and 14 in the placebo group) completed the study. The beneficial effects of ubiquinol-10 were observed in the open-label study we conducted prior to the RCT. The RCT results suggest that supplementation with ubiquinol-10 for 12 weeks is effective for improving several CFS symptoms. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(4):431-440, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Do dietary supplements improve micronutrient sufficiency in children and adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Regan L.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.; Lentino, Cindy V.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine if children use supplements to fill gaps in nutritionally inadequate diets or whether supplements contribute to already adequate or excessive micronutrient intakes from foods. Study design Data were analyzed for children (2–18 y) from the NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (n=7,250). Diet was assessed using two 24-hour recalls, and dietary supplement use was assessed with a 30-day questionnaire. Results Prevalence of supplements use was 21% (< 2 y) and 42% (2–8 y). Supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes than nonusers. Calcium and vitamin D intakes were low for all children. Inadequate intakes of phosphorus, copper, selenium, folate, and vitamins B-6 and B-12 were minimal from foods alone among 2–8 y olds. However, among 9–18 y olds, a higher prevalence of inadequate intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, C, and E were observed. Supplement use increased the likelihood of intakes above the Upper Tolerable Intake Level for iron, zinc, copper, selenium, folic acid, and vitamins A and C. Conclusions Even with the use of supplements, more than a one-third of children failed to meet calcium and vitamin D recommendations. Children 2–8 y had nutritionally adequate diets regardless of supplement use. However, in children older than 8 y dietary supplements added micronutrients to diets that would have otherwise been inadequate for magnesium, phosphorus, vitamins A,C, and E. Supplement use contributed to the potential for excess intakes of some nutrients. These findings may have implications for reformulating dietary supplements for children. PMID:22717218

  7. Novel vascular endothelial growth factor blocker improves cellular viability and reduces hypobaric hypoxia-induced vascular leakage and oedema in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Deepika; Nehra, Sarita; Chaudhary, Kamal; CVS, Siva Prasad

    2015-05-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important cerebral angiogenic and permeability factor under hypoxia. There is a need to find effective molecules that may ameliorate hypoxia-induced cerebral oedema. In silico identification of novel candidate molecules that block VEGF-A site were identified and validated with a Ramachandran plot. The active site residues of VEGF-A were detected by Pocketfinder, CASTp, and DogSiteScorer. Based on in silico data, three VEGF-A blocker (VAB) candidate molecules (VAB1, VAB2, and VAB3) were checked for improvement in cellular viability and regulation of VEGF levels in N2a cells under hypoxia (0.5% O2 ). Additionally, the best candidate molecule's efficacy was assessed in male Sprague-Dawley rats for its ameliorative effect on cerebral oedema and vascular leakage under hypobaric hypoxia 7260 m. All experimental results were compared with the commercially available VEGF blocker sunitinib. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A blocker 1 was found most effective in increasing cellular viability and maintaining normal VEGF levels under hypoxia (0.5% oxygen) in N2a cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A blocker 1 effectively restored VEGF levels, decreased cerebral oedema, and reduced vascular leakage under hypobaric hypoxia when compared to sunitinib-treated rats. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A blocker 1 may be a promising candidate molecule for ameliorating hypobaric hypoxia-induced vasogenic oedema by regulating VEGF levels. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Pyridostigmine prevents peripheral vascular endothelial dysfunction in rats with myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fangfang; Lu, Yi; He, Xi; Zhao, Ming; Bi, Xueyuan; Yu, Xiaojiang; Liu, Jinjun; Zang, Weijin

    2014-03-01

    1. Myocardial infarction (MI) is characterized by the withdrawal of vagal activity and increased sympathetic activity. We have shown previously that pyridostigmine (PYR), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, was able to improve vagal activity and ameliorate cardiac dysfunction following MI. However, the effect of PYR on endothelial dysfunction in peripheral arteries after MI remains unclear. 2. In the present study, MI was induced by coronary artery ligation in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were treated intragastrically with saline or PYR (approximately 31 mg/kg per day) for 2 weeks, at which time haemodynamic and parasympathetic parameters and the vascular reactivity of isolated mesenteric arteries were measured and the ultrastructure of the endothelium evaluated. 3. Compared with the MI group, PYR not only improved cardiac function, vagal nerve activity and endothelial impairment, but also reduced intravascular superoxide anion and malondialdehyde. In addition, in the PYR-treated MI group, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability was increased and attenuated endothelium-dependent relaxations were improved, whereas restored vasodilator responses were inhibited by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. 4. Based on our results, PYR is able to attenuate the impairment of peripheral endothelial function and maintain endothelial ultrastructural integrity in MI rats by inhibiting reactive oxygen species production, enhancing NO bioavailability and improving vagal activity. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Dietary arginine supplementation affects microvascular development in the small intestine of early-weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Zhenfeng; Ou, Deyuan; Piao, Xiangshu; Kim, Sung Woo; Liu, Yanhong; Wang, Junjun

    2008-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary arginine levels on microvascular development of the small intestine in early-weaned pigs. Twenty-four crossbred pigs (5.0 +/- 0.3 kg body weight) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 3 diets supplemented with 0, 0.7, and 1.2% L-arginine (8 pigs per group). Pigs consumed the diets ad libitum for 10 d. We collected blood samples on d 3, 6, and 10. On d 10, 6 pigs from each group were randomly selected and killed for tissue sample collection. Compared with control pigs, dietary supplementation with 0.7% L-arginine increased (P < 0.05) jejunal concentrations of nitrite and nitrate (stable oxidation products of nitric oxide), intestinal villus height, as well as plasma proline and arginine concentrations on d 6 and 10. Dietary supplementation with 0.7% L-arginine also increased (P < 0.05) immunoreactive expression of CD34 in duodenal submucosa, ileal mucosa and submucosa, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in duodenal submucosa, jejunal mucosa and submucosa, and ileal mucosa compared with the control and 1.2% L-arginine supplementation. Dietary supplementation with 1.2% L-arginine increased (P < 0.05) the concentration of jejunal endothelin-1 compared with the control pigs. Immunoexpression of VEGF in duodenal mucosa and plasma lysine concentrations on d 6 and 10 were lower (P < 0.05) in pigs supplemented with 1.2% L-arginine than in unsupplemented pigs. Collectively, these findings indicate that the effects of L-arginine on microvascular development are beneficial at lower levels but have adverse effects at higher intakes. Dietary supplementation with 0.7% L-arginine may be a useful method to improve microvascular development in the small intestine of early-weaned pigs.

  10. A systematic review of vascular and endothelial function: effects of fruit, vegetable and potassium intake.

    PubMed

    Blanch, N; Clifton, P M; Keogh, J B

    2015-03-01

    To review the relationships between: 1) Potassium and endothelial function; 2) Fruits and vegetables and endothelial function; 3) Potassium and other measures of vascular function; 4) Fruits and vegetables and other measures of vascular function. An electronic search for intervention trials investigating the effect of potassium, fruits and vegetables on vascular function was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Potassium appears to improve endothelial function with a dose of >40 mmol/d, however the mechanisms for this effect remain unclear. Potassium may improve measures of vascular function however this effect may be dependent on the effect of potassium on blood pressure. The effect of fruit and vegetables on endothelial function independent of confounding variables is less clear. Increased fruit and vegetable intake may improve vascular function only in high risk populations. Increasing dietary potassium appears to improve vascular function but the effect of increasing fruit and vegetable intake per se on vascular function is less clear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Diets and enteral supplements for improving outcomes in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Cano, Noël J.; Budde, Klemens; Chazot, Charles; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Mak, Robert H.; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Raj, Dominic S.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.; Stenvinkel, Peter; Ikizler, T. Alp

    2013-01-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW), which is manifested by low serum levels of albumin or prealbumin, sarcopenia and weight loss, is one of the strongest predictors of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although PEW might be engendered by non-nutritional conditions, such as inflammation or other comorbidities, the question of causality does not refute the effectiveness of dietary interventions and nutritional support in improving outcomes in patients with CKD. The literature indicates that PEW can be mitigated or corrected with an appropriate diet and enteral nutritional support that targets dietary protein intake. In-center meals or oral supplements provided during dialysis therapy are feasible and inexpensive interventions that might improve survival and quality of life in patients with CKD. Dietary requirements and enteral nutritional support must also be considered in patients with CKD and diabetes mellitus, in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, renal transplant recipients, and in children with CKD. Adjunctive pharmacological therapies, such as appetite stimulants, anabolic hormones, and antioxidative or anti-inflammatory agents, might augment dietary interventions. Intraperitoneal or intradialytic parenteral nutrition should be considered for patients with PEW whenever enteral interventions are not possible or are ineffective. Controlled trials are needed to better assess the effectiveness of in-center meals and oral supplements. PMID:21629229

  12. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in “Gran Fondo” cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress. PMID:24799948

  13. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in "Gran Fondo" cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress.

  14. Short-term therapy with relatively low-dose cerivastatin improves endothelial function independently of its lipid-lowering effect: Evaluation of brachial artery vasodilatation using B-mode ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Sakabe, Koichi; Fukuda, Nobuo; Nada, Teru; Onose, Yukiko; Soeki, Takeshi; Shinohara, Hisanori; Tamura, Yoshiyuki

    2002-12-01

    Administration of 0.4 to 0.8 mg of cerivastatin per day for 2 weeks has been reported to have pleiotropic effects and improve endothelial function. Whether low-dose cerivastatin would produce these rapid pleiotropic effects in the clinical setting remains uncertain, however. We investigated the effect of short-term therapy with relatively low-dose cerivastatin (0.15 mg/day) on endothelial function, thrombostatic parameters, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in hypercholesterolemic patients. Thirteen patients with LDL-cholesterol>160 mg/dl were treated with daily doses of 0.15 mg of cerivastatin for 2 weeks. Endothelial function, thrombostatic parameters (tissue-type plasminogen activator [t-PA], plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 [PAI-1], and CRP were estimated at baseline and again after 2 weeks of treatment. Endothelial function was measured as flow-mediated vasodilation. Flow-mediated vasodilatation was assessed by measuring the percent change in the diameter of the brachial artery in response to reactive hyperemia using high-resolution ultrasound. Endothelium-independent vasodilatation was also measured using sublingual nitroglycerin. No major complications developed after the treatment. Total cholesterol decreased significantly, from 258±32 to 211±21 mg/dl, and LDL-cholesterol also decreased from 171±15 to 133±16 mg/dl after the treatment. Flow-mediated vasodilatation increased significantly, from 4.6±1.3 percent to 8.7±3.5 percent after 2 weeks of therapy, although endothelium-independent vasodilatation was not affected (9.5±2.4% vs 8.8±3.1%). No relation was found between percent change in flow-mediated vasodilatation and improvement in levels of LDL-cholesterol after therapy (r=0.07). PAI-1, t-PA, and CRP were not significantly changed by 2 weeks of therapy. (1) Evaluating vasodilation of the brachial artery with B-mode ultrasound imaging was useful in investigating the effect of statin on endothelial function. (2) Although no effect was

  15. Daily supplementation with GrandFusion® improves memory and learning in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin; Zhu, Hong; Perry, Stephen; Taheri, Saeid; Kindy, Mark S

    2017-03-24

    Studies have shown that supplementation with extracts from various sources, including fruits and vegetables reverse the age-related changes in movement and cognition. We hypothesized that these beneficial effects result from the presence of anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds in the fruits and vegetables that contribute to reduced oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death while potentially enhancing neurogenesis. The present study was performed to determine the impact of supplementation with GrandFusion ® (GF) to aged Fisher 344 rats for 4 months to determine the impact on attenuation or reversal of the age-related deficits. When the aged rats consumed a diet enriched with the extracts the results showed an improved motor performance, and enhanced cognitive functions. In addition, the rats showed reduced oxidative stress and inflammation, and enhanced neurogenesis, Nrf2 and anti-oxidant expression. The effect of GF extracts on the augmentation of memory and learning is significant and may function through the modulation of antioxidant enzymes, signaling pathways and additional mechanisms to improve the aging process. These studies further support the recommendation of USDA for the consumption of fruits and vegetables to improve healthy aging.

  16. Outcomes of Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty in Eyes With a Previous Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty Graft.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Nir; Showail, Mahmood; Einan-Lifshitz, Adi; Boutin, Tanguy; Borovik, Armand; Kreimei, Mohammad; Rosenblatt, Amir; Chan, Clara C; Rootman, David S

    2018-06-01

    To analyze the outcomes of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) in eyes with previous Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). This retrospective interventional case series included 26 eyes (26 patients) that underwent DMEK to replace a previous DSAEK graft with at least 6 months of follow-up. The outcome measures were indications for surgery, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), endothelial cell density, rebubbling rate, rejection, and failure. Patient age was 71.9 ± 12.6 years. The average follow-up time after DMEK was 15.1 ± 10.6 months. Indications for DMEK were DSAEK graft failure (69%) and a DSAEK suboptimal visual outcome (31%). BSCVA of the entire cohort (n = 26) improved from 1.33 ± 0.78 logMAR preoperatively to 1.04 ± 0.78 and 1.06 ± 0.89 logMAR at 6 months postoperatively and at the last follow-up, respectively (P = 0.019 and P = 0.033). BSCVA among eyes without visual comorbidities (n = 13) improved from 0.84 ± 0.50 logMAR preoperatively to 0.55 ± 0.47 and 0.51 ± 0.49 logMAR at 6 months postoperatively and at final follow-up, respectively (P = 0.023 for both). Of these eyes, 84.6% had improvement in BSCVA at 6 months postoperatively and at last follow-up. In the subgroup of 8 eyes with DMEK for suboptimal visual outcomes after DSAEK, BSCVA improved from 0.81 ± 0.44 to 0.52 ± 0.35 logMAR at final follow-up (P = 0.024). When excluding eyes with visual comorbidities, BSCVA of this subgroup (n = 5) improved from 0.54 ± 0.32 to 0.36 ± 0.25 logMAR at final follow-up (P = 0.038). BSCVA of this subgroup at 6 months postoperatively was not significantly different from preoperative BSCVA, when including visual comorbidities (n = 8, 0.75 ± 0.60 logMAR, P = 0.79) and when excluding visual comorbidities (n = 5, 0.40 ± 0.28 logMAR, P = 0.621). Endothelial cell density decreased from 2753 ± 307 cells/mm to 1659 ± 655 cells/mm 6 months after surgery (39.7% loss, P = 0.005). Three eyes (11.5%) required

  17. Effect of Muscadine Grape Seed Supplementation on Vascular Function in Subjects with or at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mellen, Philip B.; Daniel, Kurt R.; Brosnihan, K. Bridget; Hansen, Kim J.; Herrington, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Muscadine grape seeds have high concentrations of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant and other properties that would be expected to have favorable effects on endothelial function. Objectives To evaluate the effect of muscadine grape seed supplementation on endothelial function and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk. Design In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 50 adults with coronary disease or ≥1 cardiac risk factor received muscadine grape seed supplementation (1300 mg daily) and placebo for 4 weeks each, with a 4-week washout. Resting brachial diameter and brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and biomarkers of inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant capacity were determined at the beginning and end of each period and compared in mixed linear models. Results There was no evidence of improved FMD (% change) with muscadine grape seed (muscadine grape seed: pre 5.2% ± 0.3%, post 4.6% ± 0.3%, p = 0.06; placebo: pre 5.3% ± 0.4%, post 5.2% ± 0.4%, p = 0.82; p for muscadine grape seed vs. placebo = 0.25). However, there was a significant increase in baseline diameter (mm) with muscadine grape seed supplementation (muscadine grape seed: pre 4.05 ± 0.09, post 4.23 ± 0.10, p = 0.002; placebo: pre 4.12 ± 0.11, post 4.12 ± 0.10, p = 0.93; p for muscadine grape seed vs. placebo = 0.026). All other biomarkers were not significantly altered by muscadine grape seed supplementation. Conclusions Four weeks of muscadine grape seed supplementation in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk did not produce a statistically significant increase in brachial flow-mediated vasodilation or a significant change in other biomarkers of inflammation, lipid peroxidation, or antioxidant capacity. However, the muscadine grape seed supplement did result in a significant increase in resting brachial diameter. The clinical significance of the effect on resting diameter is not yet established

  18. Ticagrelor protects against AngII-induced endothelial dysfunction by alleviating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Han, Xuejie; Li, Minghui; Han, Yu; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Shiqi; Li, Yue

    2018-05-16

    Ticagrelor has been reported to decrease cardiovascular mortality compared with clopidogrel. This benefit cannot be fully explained by the more efficient platelet inhibition. Many studies demonstrated that ticagrelor improved endothelial function, leaving the mechanism elusive though. The present study aims to investigate whether ticagrelor protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by angiotensinII (AngII) through alleviating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with AngII or vehicle and administrated with ticagrelor or vehicle for 14 days. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected. Aortas from normal mice were incubated with endoplasmic reticulum stress inducer tunicamycin with or without ticagrelor. Vasorecactivity was measured on wire myography. Rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) were pretreated with ticagrelor followed by AngII or tunicamycin. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation and ER stress markers were determined by western blotting. Impaired endothelial function, induction of ER stress, reduced eNOS phosphorylation and elevated ROS generation was restored by ticagrelor treatment in vivo. In addition, tunicamycin induced endothelial dysfunction was improved by ticagrelor. In vitro, the induction of ER stress and inhibited eNOS phosphorylation in REACs exposed to AngII as well as tunicamycin was reversed by co-culturing with ticagrelor. In conclusion, ticagrelor protects against AngII-induced endothelial dysfunction via alleviating ER stress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Functional and Biochemical Endothelial Profiling In Vivo in a Murine Model of Endothelial Dysfunction; Comparison of Effects of 1-Methylnicotinamide and Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Anna; Olkowicz, Mariola; Tyrankiewicz, Urszula; Kus, Edyta; Jasinski, Krzysztof; Smolenski, Ryszard T.; Skorka, Tomasz; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Although it is known that 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) displays vasoprotective activity in mice, as yet the effect of MNA on endothelial function has not been demonstrated in vivo. Here, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we profile the effects of MNA on endothelial phenotype in mice with atherosclerosis (ApoE/LDLR-/-) in vivo, in comparison to angiotensin (Ang) -converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (perindopril), with known vasoprotective activity. On a biochemical level, we analyzed whether MNA- or perindopril-induced improvement in endothelial function results in changes in ACE/Ang II-ACE2/Ang-(1–7) balance, and L-arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) ratio. Endothelial function and permeability were evaluated in the brachiocephalic artery (BCA) in 4-month-old ApoE/LDLR-/- mice that were non-treated or treated for 1 month or 2 months with either MNA (100 mg/kg/day) or perindopril (10 mg/kg/day). The 3D IntraGate®FLASH sequence was used for evaluation of BCA volume changes following acetylcholine (Ach) administration, and for relaxation time (T1) mapping around BCA to assess endothelial permeability using an intravascular contrast agent. Activity of ACE/Ang II and ACE2/Ang-(1–7) pathways as well as metabolites of L-arginine/ADMA pathway were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based methods. In non-treated 6-month-old ApoE/LDLR-/- mice, Ach induced a vasoconstriction in BCA that amounted to –7.2%. 2-month treatment with either MNA or perindopril resulted in the reversal of impaired Ach-induced response to vasodilatation (4.5 and 5.5%, respectively) and a decrease in endothelial permeability (by about 60% for MNA-, as well as perindopril-treated mice). Improvement of endothelial function by MNA and perindopril was in both cases associated with the activation of ACE2/Ang-(1–7) and the inhibition of ACE/Ang II axes as evidenced by an approximately twofold increase in Ang-(1–9) and Ang-(1–7) and a proportional decrease in Ang II

  20. Characterisation of Weibel-Palade body fusion by amperometry in endothelial cells reveals fusion pore dynamics and the effect of cholesterol on exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Cookson, Emma A; Conte, Ianina L; Dempster, John; Hannah, Matthew J; Carter, Tom

    2013-12-01

    Regulated secretion from endothelial cells is mediated by Weibel-Palade body (WPB) exocytosis. Plasma membrane cholesterol is implicated in regulating secretory granule exocytosis and fusion pore dynamics; however, its role in modulating WPB exocytosis is not clear. To address this we combined high-resolution electrochemical analysis of WPB fusion pore dynamics, by amperometry, with high-speed optical imaging of WPB exocytosis following cholesterol depletion or supplementation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We identified serotonin (5-HT) immunoreactivity in WPBs, and VMAT1 expression allowing detection of secreted 5-HT as discrete current spikes during exocytosis. A high proportion of spikes (∼75%) had pre-spike foot signals, indicating that WPB fusion proceeds via an initial narrow pore. Cholesterol depletion significantly reduced pre-spike foot signal duration and increased the rate of fusion pore expansion, whereas cholesterol supplementation had broadly the reverse effect. Cholesterol depletion slowed the onset of hormone-evoked WPB exocytosis, whereas its supplementation increased the rate of WPB exocytosis and hormone-evoked proregion secretion. Our results provide the first analysis of WPB fusion pore dynamics and highlight an important role for cholesterol in the regulation of WPB exocytosis.

  1. Can fish oil supplementation and physical training improve oxidative metabolism in aged rat hearts?

    PubMed

    da Silva Pedroza, Anderson Apolonio; Lopes, Andréia; Mendes da Silva, Rosângela F; Braz, Glauber Ruda; Nascimento, Luciana P; Ferreira, Diorginis Soares; dos Santos, Ângela Amâncio; Batista-de-Oliveira-Hornsby, Manuella; Lagranha, Claudia J

    2015-09-15

    It is well known that in the aging process a variety of physiological functions such as cardiac physiology and energy metabolism decline. Imbalance in production and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may induce oxidative stress. Research shows that oxidative stress is an important factor in the aging process. Studies suggest that ɷ-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and moderate physical exercise modulate the ROS system. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether ɷ-3 present in fish oil supplementation coupled with moderate physical training could improve antioxidant and metabolic enzymes in the hearts of adult and aged rats and, if these effects could be associated to glycemia, plasma lipid profile or murinometric parameters. Adult (weighing 315.1±9.3g) and aged rats (weighing 444.5±11.8g) exercised and receive fish oil supplementation for 4weeks. Then they were used to evaluate murinometric parameters, fasting glucose and lipid profile. After this, their hearts were collected to measure the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase-SOD, catalase-CAT, glutathione peroxidase-GPx) and oxidative metabolism marker (citrate synthase-CS activity). Fish oil supplementation increases HDL concentration and activity of CAT and CS. Moreover, physical training coupled with fish oil supplementation induces additional effects on SOD, GPx and CS activity mainly in aged rats. Our data suggest that combined treatment in aged rat hearts improves the antioxidant capacities and metabolic enzyme that can prevent the deleterious effects of aging. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Ammonia promotes endothelial cell survival via the heme oxygenase-1-mediated release of carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Ming; Peyton, Kelly J; Durante, William

    2017-01-01

    Although endothelial cells produce substantial quantities of ammonia during cell metabolism, the physiologic role of this gas in these cells is not known. In this study, we investigated if ammonia regulates the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and if this enzyme influences the biological actions of ammonia on endothelial cells. Exogenously administered ammonia, given as ammonium chloride or ammonium hydroxide, or endogenously generated ammonia stimulated HO-1 protein expression in cultured human and murine endothelial cells. Dietary supplementation of ammonia also induced HO-1 protein expression in murine arteries. The increase in HO-1 protein by ammonia in endothelial cells was first detected 4h after ammonia exposure and was associated with the induction of HO-1 mRNA, enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and increased expression and activity of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). Ammonia also activated the HO-1 promoter and this was blocked by mutating the antioxidant responsive element or by overexpressing dominant-negative Nrf2. The induction of HO-1 expression by ammonia was dependent on ROS formation and prevented by N-acetylcysteine or rotenone. Finally, prior treatment of endothelial cells with ammonia inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated cell death. However, silencing HO-1 expression abrogated the protective action of ammonia and this was reversed by the administration of carbon monoxide but not bilirubin or iron. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ammonia stimulates the expression of HO-1 in endothelial cells via the ROS-Nrf2 pathway, and that the induction of HO-1 contributes to the cytoprotective action of ammonia by generating carbon monoxide. Moreover, it identifies ammonia as a potentially important signaling gas in the vasculature that promotes endothelial cell survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Sheldon, Ray W.

    2001-01-01

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  4. Use of Dietary Supplements Improved Diet Quality But Not Cardiovascular and Nutritional Biomarkers in Socioeconomically Diverse African American and White Adults.

    PubMed

    Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Beydoun, May A; Stave Shupe, Emily; Pohlig, Ryan T; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the contribution of supplements to overall nutritional health is limited. The research objectives were to describe motivations for use of dietary supplements by African Americans and Whites examined in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study and to determine if supplements provided beneficial effects to micronutrient diet quality and nutritional and cardiovascular biomarkers. The majority of the HANDLS study population were smokers, overweight or obese, and self-reported their health as poor to good. The top two reasons for their supplement use were to supplement the diet and to improve overall health. Micronutrient intake was calculated from two 24-hour recalls and a supplement questionnaire. Diet quality was assessed by the Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR) [Maximum score = 100] derived from the Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR) for 17 micronutrients. The MAR score for nonusers was 73.12, for supplement users based on diet alone was 74.89, and for food and supplements was 86.61. Dietary supplements significantly increased each NAR score and MAR score. However, there were no significant differences between the population proportions with inadequate or excessive blood levels for any biomarkers examined. Nutrition education programs and intervention strategies addressing dietary supplement intake might lead to healthier food choices and may improve the health of this population.

  5. Use of Dietary Supplements Improved Diet Quality But Not Cardiovascular and Nutritional Biomarkers in Socioeconomically Diverse African American and White Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Beydoun, May A.; Shupe, Emily Stave; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the contribution of supplements to overall nutritional health is limited. The research objectives were to describe motivations for use of dietary supplements by African Americans and Whites examined in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study and to determine if supplements provided beneficial effects to micronutrient diet quality and nutritional and cardiovascular biomarkers. The majority of the HANDLS study population were smokers, overweight or obese, and self-reported their health as poor to good. The top two reasons for their supplement use were to supplement the diet and to improve overall health. Micronutrient intake was calculated from two 24-hour recalls and a supplement questionnaire. Diet quality was assessed by the Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR) [Maximum score = 100] derived from the Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR) for 17 micronutrients. The MAR score for nonusers was 73.12, for supplement users based on diet alone was 74.89, and for food and supplements was 86.61. Dietary supplements significantly increased each NAR score and MAR score. However, there were no significant differences between the population proportions with inadequate or excessive blood levels for any biomarkers examined. Nutrition education programs and intervention strategies addressing dietary supplement intake might lead to healthier food choices and may improve the health of this population. PMID:28339339

  6. Creatine supplementation and swim performance: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Melissa J; Graham, Kenneth; Rooney, Kieron B

    2006-03-01

    Nutritional supplements are popular among athletes participating in a wide variety of sports. Creatine is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements, as it has been shown to be beneficial in improving performance during repeated bouts of high-intensity anaerobic activity. This review examines the specific effects of creatine supplementation on swimming performance, and considers the effects of creatine supplementation on various measures of power development in this population. Research performed on the effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance indicates that whilst creatine supplementation is ineffective in improving performance during a single sprint swim, dietary creatine supplementation may benefit repeated interval swim set performance. Considering the relationship between sprint swimming performance and measurements of power, the effect of creatine supplementation on power development in swimmers has also been examined. When measured on a swim bench ergometer, power development does show some improvement following a creatine supplementation regime. How this improvement in power output transfers to performance in the pool is uncertain. Although some evidence exists to suggest a gender effect on the performance improvements seen in swimmers following creatine supplementation, the majority of research indicates that male and female swimmers respond equally to supplementation. A major limitation to previous research is the lack of consideration given to the possible stroke dependant effect of creatine supplementation on swimming performance. The majority of the research conducted to date has involved examination of the freestyle swimming stroke only. The potential for performance improvements in the breaststroke and butterfly swimming strokes is discussed, with regards to the biomechanical differences and differences in efficiency between these strokes and freestyle. Key PointsCreatine supplementation does not improve single sprint

  7. Repeated Melatonin Supplementation Improves Sleep in Hypertensive Patients Treated with Beta-Blockers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, Frank A.J.L.; Morris, Christopher J.; Garcia, Joanna I.; Smales, Carolina; Kelly, Erin E.; Marks, Jenny; Malhotra, Atul; Shea, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: In the United States alone, approximately 22 million people take beta-blockers chronically. These medications suppress endogenous nighttime melatonin secretion, which may explain a reported side effect of insomnia. Therefore, we tested whether nightly melatonin supplementation improves sleep in hypertensive patients treated with beta-blockers. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. Setting: Clinical and Translational Research Center at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston. Patients: Sixteen hypertensive patients (age 45-64 yr; 9 women) treated with the beta-blockers atenolol or metoprolol. Interventions: Two 4-day in-laboratory admissions including polysomnographically recorded sleep. After the baseline assessment during the first admission, patients were randomized to 2.5 mg melatonin or placebo (nightly for 3 weeks), after which sleep was assessed again during the second 4-day admission. Baseline-adjusted values are reported. One patient was removed from analysis because of an unstable dose of prescription medication. Measurements and Results: In comparison with placebo, 3 weeks of melatonin supplementation significantly increased total sleep time (+36 min; P = 0.046), increased sleep efficiency (+7.6%; P = 0.046), and decreased sleep onset latency to Stage 2 (-14 min; P = 0.001) as assessed by polysomnography. Compared with placebo, melatonin significantly increased Stage 2 sleep (+41 min; P = 0.037) but did not significantly change the durations of other sleep stages. The sleep onset latency remained significantly shortened on the night after discontinuation of melatonin administration (-25 min; P = 0.001), suggesting a carryover effect. Conclusion: n hypertensive patients treated with beta-blockers, 3 weeks of nightly melatonin supplementation significantly improved sleep quality, without apparent tolerance and without rebound sleep disturbance during withdrawal of melatonin supplementation (in fact, a

  8. Sulforaphane attenuates the development of atherosclerosis and improves endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Suddek, Ghada M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to explore possible protective effects of sulforaphane (SFN) against atherosclerosis development and endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Rabbits were assigned to three groups of five: group I fed normal chow diet for four weeks, group II fed 1% high cholesterol diet (HCD) and group III fed HCD + SFN (0.25 mg/kg/day). Blood samples were collected for measurement of serum triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Aortic malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total nitrite/nitrate (NOx) were measured. Vascular reactivity and intima/media (I/M) ratio were analyzed. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in aortic endothelial cells was identified immunohistochemically. HCD induced significant increases in serum TGs, TC, LDL-C, LDH, and CRP, and aortic MDA and SOD. Moreover, HCD caused significant reductions in serum HDL-C, aortic GSH and NOx. SFN administration significantly decreased HCD-induced elevations in serum TC, LDL-C, CRP, and LDH. while significantly increased HDL-C and GSH levels and normalized aortic SOD and NOx. Additionally, SFN significantly improved rabbit aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine. Moreover, SFN significantly reduced the elevation in I/M ratio. This effect was confirmed by aortic histopathologic examination. The expression of NF-κB in aortic tissue showed a marked reduction upon treatment with SFN. In conclusion, this study reveals that SFN has the ability to ameliorate HCD-induced atherosclerotic lesions progression and vascular dysfunction, possibly via its lipid-lowering and antioxidant effects and suppression of NF-κB-mediated inflammation. PMID:26490346

  9. Endothelial-regenerating cells: an expanding universe.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Martin; Nickenig, Georg; Werner, Nikos

    2010-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most common cause for cardiovascular diseases and is based on endothelial dysfunction. A growing body of evidence suggests the contribution of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells, monocytic cells, and mature endothelial cells to vessel formation and endothelial rejuvenation. To this day, various subsets of these endothelial-regenerating cells have been identified according to cellular origin, phenotype, and properties in vivo and in vitro. However, the definition and biology, especially of endothelial progenitor cells, is complex and under heavy debate. In this review, we focus on current definitions of endothelial progenitor cells, highlight the clinical relevance of endothelial-regenerating cells, and provide new insights into cell-cell interactions involved in endothelial cell rejuvenation.

  10. Modality of tumor endothelial VEGFR2 silencing-mediated improvement in intratumoral distribution of lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shoshiro; Kato, Akari; Sakurai, Yu; Hada, Tomoya; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2017-04-10

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated enhancement in vascular permeability is considered to be a major factor in tumor-targeting delivery via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. We previously reported that the silencing of the endothelial VEGF receptor (VEGFR2) by a liposomal siRNA system (RGD-MEND) resulted in an enhanced intratumoral distribution of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified liposomes (LPs) in a renal cell carcinoma, a type of hypervascularized cancer, although the inhibition of VEGF signaling would be expected to decrease the permeability of the tumor vasculature. We herein report that the enhancement in the intratumoral distribution of LPs by VEGFR2 inhibition was dependent on the vascular type of the tumor (stroma vessel type; SV and tumor vessel type; TV). In the case of TV-type tumors (renal cell carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma), inhibiting VEGFR2 improved intratumoral distribution, while no effect was found in the case of SV-type tumors (colorectal cancer). Moreover, through a comparison of the intratumoral distribution of LPs with a variety of physical properties (100nm vs 400nm, neutral vs negative vs positive), VEGFR2 inhibition was found to alter the tumor microenvironment, including heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). In addition, the results regarding the effect of the size of nanoparticles indicated that VEGFR2 inhibition improved the penetration of nanoparticles through the vessel wall, but not via permeability, suggesting the involvement of an unknown mechanism. Our findings suggest that a combination of anti-angiogenic therapy and delivery via the EPR effect would be useful in certain cases, and that altering the tumor microenvironment by VEGFR2 blockade has a drastic effect on the intratumoral distribution of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Polyphenolic compounds from red grapes acutely improve endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Lekakis, John; Rallidis, Loukianos S; Andreadou, Ioanna; Vamvakou, Georgia; Kazantzoglou, Georgios; Magiatis, Prokopios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Kremastinos, Dimitrios T

    2005-12-01

    It has been shown that acute intake of red wine improves endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. It is not clear, however, which constituents of red wine are responsible for this effect. We examined whether acute intake of a red grape polyphenol extract has a positive effect on brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation. We recruited 30 male patients with coronary heart disease. They were randomly assigned either to a red grape polyphenol extract (600 mg) dissolved in 20 ml of water (n = 15) or 20 ml of water (placebo) (n = 15). The extract of grapes contained 4.32 mg epicatechin, 2.72 mg catechin, 2.07 mg gallic acid, 0.9 mg trans-resveratrol, 0.47 mg rutin, 0.42 mg epsilon-viniferin, 0.28 mg, p-coumaric acid, 0.14 mg ferulic acid and 0.04 mg quercetin per gram. Flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery was evaluated after reactive hyperemia induced by cuff obstruction of the forearm, using high-resolution ultasonography. Particularly, flow-mediated dilatation was measured after fasting and 30, 60 and 120 min after the intake of the grape extract or placebo. Intake of the red grape polyphenol extract caused an increase in flow-mediated dilatation, peaking at 60 min, which was significantly higher than the baseline values (4.52+/-1.34 versus 2.6+/-1.5%; P < 0.001) and the corresponding values at 60 min after the intake of placebo (4.52+/-1.34 versus 2.64+/-1.8%, P < 0.001). There was no change in FMD values after the intake of placebo throughout the whole duration of the study. Polyphenolic compounds from red grapes acutely improve endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease. These results could probably, at least partly, explain the favorable effects of red wine on the cardiovascular system.

  12. Endothelial mineralocorticoid receptor activation mediates endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Nicola; Lohmann, Christine; Winnik, Stephan; van Tits, Lambertus J.; Miranda, Melroy X.; Vergopoulos, Athanasios; Ruschitzka, Frank; Nussberger, Jürg; Berger, Stefan; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Verrey, François; Matter, Christian M.

    2013-01-01

    Received 22 July 2012; revised 29 January 2013; accepted 4 March 2013 Aims Aldosterone plays a crucial role in cardiovascular disease. ‘Systemic’ inhibition of its mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) decreases atherosclerosis by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Obesity, an important cardiovascular risk factor, is an inflammatory disease associated with increased plasma aldosterone levels. We have investigated the role of the ‘endothelial’ MR in obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction, the earliest stage in atherogenesis. Methods and results C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a normal chow diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) alone or in combination with the MR antagonist eplerenone (200 mg/kg/day) for 14 weeks. Diet-induced obesity impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in response to acetylcholine, whereas eplerenone treatment of obese mice prevented this. Expression analyses in aortic endothelial cells isolated from these mice revealed that eplerenone attenuated expression of pro-oxidative NADPH oxidase (subunits p22phox, p40phox) and increased expression of antioxidative genes (glutathione peroxidase-1, superoxide dismutase-1 and -3) in obesity. Eplerenone did not affect obesity-induced upregulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 or prostacyclin synthase. Endothelial-specific MR deletion prevented endothelial dysfunction in obese (exhibiting high ‘endogenous’ aldosterone) and in ‘exogenous’ aldosterone-infused lean mice. Pre-incubation of aortic rings from aldosterone-treated animals with the COX-inhibitor indomethacin restored endothelial function. Exogenous aldosterone administration induced endothelial expression of p22phox in the presence, but not in the absence of the endothelial MR. Conclusion Obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction depends on the ‘endothelial’ MR and is mediated by an imbalance of oxidative stress-modulating mechanisms. Therefore, MR antagonists may represent an attractive therapeutic strategy in the increasing population

  13. Microfluidically supported biochip design for culture of endothelial cell layers with improved perfusion conditions.

    PubMed

    Raasch, Martin; Rennert, Knut; Jahn, Tobias; Peters, Sven; Henkel, Thomas; Huber, Otmar; Schulz, Ingo; Becker, Holger; Lorkowski, Stefan; Funke, Harald; Mosig, Alexander

    2015-03-02

    Hemodynamic forces generated by the blood flow are of central importance for the function of endothelial cells (ECs), which form a biologically active cellular monolayer in blood vessels and serve as a selective barrier for macromolecular permeability. Mechanical stimulation of the endothelial monolayer induces morphological remodeling in its cytoskeleton. For in vitro studies on EC biology culture devices are desirable that simulate conditions of flow in blood vessels and allow flow-based adhesion/permeability assays under optimal perfusion conditions. With this aim we designed a biochip comprising a perfusable membrane that serves as cell culture platform multi-organ-tissue-flow (MOTiF biochip). This biochip allows an effective supply with nutrition medium, discharge of catabolic cell metabolites and defined application of shear stress to ECs under laminar flow conditions. To characterize EC layers cultured in the MOTiF biochip we investigated cell viability, expression of EC marker proteins and cell adhesion molecules of ECs dynamically cultured under low and high shear stress, and compared them with an endothelial culture in established two-dimensionally perfused flow chambers and under static conditions. We show that ECs cultured in the MOTiF biochip form a tight EC monolayer with increased cellular density, enhanced cell layer thickness, presumably as the result of a rapid and effective adaption to shear stress by remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Moreover, endothelial layers in the MOTiF biochip express higher amounts of EC marker proteins von-Willebrand-factor and PECAM-1. EC layers were highly responsive to stimulation with TNFα as detected at the level of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression and modulation of endothelial permeability in response to TNFα/IFNγ treatment under flow conditions. Compared to static and two-dimensionally perfused cell culture condition we consider MOTiF biochips as a valuable tool for studying EC biology in vitro under

  14. Effect of combined endurance-resistance training and soy extract supplementation on expression of eNOS gene in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Ravasi, Ali Asghar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Menopause is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical exercise and soybean diets have been suggested to reduce the risk of CVD in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined resistance and endurance (RE) training and soy extract (SOY) supplementation, both known to improve endothelial function, on expression of the eNOS gene in the heart of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Material and methods Fifty female Wistar rats were divided into five groups: 1) sham (SHAM); 2) ovariectomy (OVX); 3) ovariectomy with soy extract supplementation (OVX + SOY); 4) OVX with RE training (OVX + RE); 5) and ovariectomy plus RE training with soy extract supplementation (OVX + RE + SOY). RE training and soy extract supplementation were administered alone or in combination for 6 weeks. The effects of these treatments on cardiac eNOS expression were measured using real-time PCR. Results Ovariectomy down-regulated cardiac eNOS gene expression; however, 6 weeks of SOY treatment or RE training reversed this effect (p ≤ 0.05). The combination of SOY plus RE was greater than RE or SOY alone in reversing estrogen-deficiency-caused eNOS down-regulation (p ≤ 0.05). Conclusions Our data suggest that the combinatory regimen of soy extract supplementation and regular RE training may be more beneficial to cardiovascular disease risk in a menopause rat model than either exercise or soy supplementation alone. PMID:29242848

  15. Vitamin e supplementation with rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract improves hematological indices.

    PubMed

    Isaiah, Akpanabiatu Monday; Olawale, Otitoju; Effiong, Edet Emmanuel; Idongesit, Ndem Jessie; Fidelis, Uwah Anthony; Friday, Ufot Usenobong

    2012-02-01

    Vitamin supplementation in Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract administration may interact and impact significantly on hematology of albino Wistar rats. In this investigation we studied vitamin E supplementation with Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract on the hematology of experimental animals. Forty two rats weighing 200 - 230 g were randomly selected into six groups of seven animals each. Group 1 animals serve as controls; group 2 received vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight). Groups 3 and 4 were given the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. Groups 5 and 6 were given vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight), the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. The extract and the vitamin were administered daily by oral intubation. Blood samples analyzed for hematological indices. Decrease in white blood cell count (WBC) was observed, indicating improved immunity of animals. Extract at 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight with and without vitamin E affected hemoglobin and packed cell volume. Rauwolfia vomitoria with or without vitamin E improved animal's immunity and enhances their hematology. Interaction of vitamin E with the extract affects medicinal therapeutics of this plant.

  16. Effect of Saxagliptin on Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Endothelial Function in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Chen, Jiachao; Leng, Fei; Lu, Zhiqiang; Ling, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is associated with the risk of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) are common markers of endothelial function. In this study, we aim to investigate whether the DPP-4 inhibitor saxagliptin modulate EPCs number and FMD in newly diagnosed, treatment-naive type 2 diabetic patients. This was a controlled, randomized, open-label clinical trial. Saxagliptin group and metformin group consumed either saxagliptin 5 mg per day or metformin 1 500 mg per day respectively for 12 weeks. Changes of FMD and EPCs number after 12-week intervention were the primary endpoints. 31 patients were initially enrolled and randomized to saxagliptin group (n=16) and metformin group (n=15). 27 patients completed the trial (saxagliptin group n=14 and metformin group n=13), and 4 patients dropped out during the study. FMD and EPCs number increased significantly in both saxagliptin group and metformin group, and there was no significant difference between groups. 2-h postprandial plasma glucose, HbA1c and diastolic blood pressure improved significantly in both groups, and there was no significant difference between groups. Saxagliptin and metformin had comparable beneficial effects on endothelial function. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Endothelialization of Novel Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloys with Fluoride and Collagen Coating

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Workman, Benjamin; Zhu, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) alloys are promising scaffolds for the next generation of cardiovascular stents because of their better biocompatibility and biodegradation compared to traditional metals. However, insufficient mechanical strength and high degradation rate are still the two main limitations for Mg materials. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) treatment and collagen coating were used in this research to improve the endothelialization of two rare earth-based Mg alloys. Results demonstrated that a nanoporous film structure of fluoride with thickness of ~20 μm was formed on the Mg material surface, which improved the corrosion resistance. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) had much better attachment, spreading, growth and proliferation (the process of endothelialization) on HF-treated Mg materials compared to bare- or collagen-coated ones. PMID:24670478

  18. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Improve Atherosclerosis Markers in Obese and Overweight Non-diabetic Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Patrícia Amante; Kovacs, Cristiane; Moreira, Priscila; Magnoni, Daniel; Saleh, Mohamed Hassan; Faintuch, Joel

    2017-10-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the benefits of replacing trans and saturated fats with unsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to demonstrate the effect of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat supplementation on the biochemical and endothelial markers of atherosclerotic disease in obese or overweight non-diabetic elderly patients. Seventy-nine patients were randomly divided into three groups: flaxseed oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil; patients in each group received 30 mL of oil for 90 days. Patients were subjected to anthropometric and bioimpedance assessments; biochemical and endothelial evaluations were performed through ultrasonography of the brachial artery and carotid artery for endothelium-dependent dilation and intima-media thickness assessment, respectively, before and after the intervention. The participants' usual diet remained unchanged. The flaxseed oil group had improved ultra-sensitive C-reactive protein levels (p = 0.074) and reduced carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) (p = 0.028); the olive oil group exhibited an improved apolipoprotein (Apo)B/ApoA ratio (p = 0.021), reduced CIMT (p = 0.028), and improved flow-mediated vasodilation (FMV) (p = 0.054); and similarly, the sunflower oil group showed an improved ApoB/ApoA ratio (p = 0.024), reduced CIMT (p = 0.048), and improved FMV (p = 0.001). Unsaturated fatty acid supplementation using the three vegetable oils attenuated pro-inflammatory properties and improved prothrombotic conditions. Therefore, introducing or replacing saturated and trans fat with unsaturated fatty acids is beneficial for cardiovascular risk reduction in obese or overweight non-diabetic elderly people. Further studies are needed to determine which unsaturated fat best prevents cardiovascular disease in elderly patients.

  19. Regulation of Endothelial Barrier Function by Cyclic Nucleotides: The Role of Phosphodiesterases

    PubMed Central

    Surapisitchat, James

    2014-01-01

    The endothelium plays an important role in maintaining normal vascular function. Endothelial barrier dysfunction leading to increased permeability and vascular leakage is associated with several pathological conditions such as edema and sepsis. Thus, the development of drugs that improve endothelial barrier function is an active area of research. In this chapter, the current knowledge concerning the signaling pathways regulating endothelial barrier function is discussed with a focus on cyclic nucleotide second messengers (cAMP and cGMP) and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Both cAMP and cGMP have been shown to have differential effects on endothelial permeability in part due to the various effector molecules, crosstalk, and compartmentalization of cyclic nucleotide signaling. PDEs, by controlling the amplitude, duration, and localization of cyclic nucleotides, have been shown to play a critical role in regulating endothelial barrier function. Thus, PDEs are attractive drug targets for the treatment of disease states involving endothelial barrier dysfunction. PMID:21695641

  20. Regulation of endothelial barrier function by cyclic nucleotides: the role of phosphodiesterases.

    PubMed

    Surapisitchat, James; Beavo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    The endothelium plays an important role in maintaining normal vascular function. Endothelial barrier dysfunction leading to increased permeability and vascular leakage is associated with several pathological conditions such as edema and sepsis. Thus, the development of drugs that improve endothelial barrier function is an active area of research. In this chapter, the current knowledge concerning the signaling pathways regulating endothelial barrier function is discussed with a focus on cyclic nucleotide second messengers (cAMP and cGMP) and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Both cAMP and cGMP have been shown to have differential effects on endothelial permeability in part due to the various effector molecules, crosstalk, and compartmentalization of cyclic nucleotide signaling. PDEs, by controlling the amplitude, duration, and localization of cyclic nucleotides, have been shown to play a critical role in regulating endothelial barrier function. Thus, PDEs are attractive drug targets for the treatment of disease states involving endothelial barrier dysfunction.

  1. Hemin, a heme oxygenase-1 inducer, improves aortic endothelial dysfunction in insulin resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-song; Zhu, Xu-xin; Zhao, Xiao-yun; Xing, Han-ying; Li, Yu-guang

    2008-02-05

    were measured. The expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein in aortal tissue were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. The vasoreactive tensometry was performed with thoracic aortic rings (TARs). Compared with the normal control group, the levels of SABP, BG, insulin, TC, TG, NO, iNOS and MDA were higher, while the levels of CO, TAOC, SOD and eNOS were lower in IR control rats. After treatment of IR rats for 4 weeks a more intensive expression of HO-1 mRNA and HO-1 protein were observed in hemin treated IR group compared with the normal control group. And compared with 4-week IR control rats, the levels of CO, TAOC, SOD and eNOS were increased, while the levels of SABP and iNOS activity were lower in the hemin treated IR group. Administration of hemin in IR rats appeared to improve the disordered vasorelaxation of TARs to acetylcholine (ACh). Alternatively, the reverse results of SABP, CO, TAOC, SOD, iNOS and vasorelaxation responses to ACh were observed in IR rats with administration of ZnPP-IX. The endothelial dysfunction in the aorta is present in the IR state. The protective effects of HO-1 against aortic endothelial dysfunction may be due to its antioxidation and regulative effect of vasoactive substances. It is proposed that hemin, inducer of HO-1, could be a potential therapeutic option for vascular dysfunction in IR states.

  2. Improvements to the FATOLA computer program including nosewheel steering: Supplemental instruction manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.; Mcgehee, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Modifications to a multidegree of freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program, which improved its simulation capabilities, are discussed, and supplemental instructions for use of the program are included. Sample analytical results which illustrate the capabilities of an added nosewheel steering option indicate consistent behavior of the airplane tracking, attitude, motions, and loads for the landing cases and steering situations which were investigated.

  3. Endothelial progenitor cells and rheumatic disease modifying therapy.

    PubMed

    Lo Gullo, Alberto; Aragona, Caterina Oriana; Michele, Scuruchi; Versace, Antonio Giovanni; Antonino, Saitta; Egidio, Imbalzano; Loddo, Saverio; Campo, Giuseppe Maurizio; Giuseppe, Mandraffino

    2018-05-26

    Rheumatic diseases are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying the higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease are not completely clarified, but it is likely that a pivotal role is played by vascular inflammation and consequently to altered vascular endothelium homeostasis. Also, high prevalence of traditional risk factors, proatherogenic activation and endothelial dysfunction further contribute to vascular damage. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can restore dysfunctional endothelium and protect against atherosclerotic vascular disease. However, abnormalities in number and function of these cells in patients with rheumatic condition have been extensively reported. During the last years, growing interest in the mechanisms of endothelial renewal and its potential as a therapy for CVD has been shown; in addition, pioneering studies show that EPC dysfunction might be improved with pharmacological strategies. However, how to restore EPC function, and whether achieving this aim may be effective in preventing cardiovascular complications in rheumatic disease, remain to be established. In this review we report an overview on the current stand of knowledge on the effect of pharmaceutical and lifestyle intervention in improving EPCs number and function in rheumatic disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Regular consumption of vitamin D-fortified yogurt drink (Doogh) improved endothelial biomarkers in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Endothelial dysfunction has been proposed as the underlying cause of diabetic angiopathy that eventually leads to cardiovascular disease, the major cause of death in diabetes. We recently demonstrated the ameliorating effect of regular vitamin D intake on the glycemic status of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, the effects of improvement of vitamin D status on glycemic status, lipid profile and endothelial biomarkers in T2D subjects were investigated. Methods Subjects with T2D were randomly allocated to one of the two groups to receive either plain yogurt drink (PYD; containing 170 mg calcium and no vitamin D/250 mL, n1 = 50) or vitamin D3-fortified yogurt drink (FYD; containing 170 mg calcium and 500 IU/250 mL, n2 = 50) twice a day for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measures, glycemic status, lipid profile, body fat mass (FM) and endothelial biomarkers including serum endothelin-1, E-selectin and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were evaluated at the beginning and after the 12-week intervention period. Results The intervention resulted in a significant improvement in fasting glucose, the Quantitative Insulin Check Index (QUICKI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triacylglycerols, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), endothelin-1, E-selectin and MMP-9 in FYD compared to PYD (P < 0.05, for all). Interestingly, difference in changes of endothelin-1, E-selectin and MMP-9 concentrations in FYD compared to PYD (-0.35 ± 0.63 versus -0.03 ± 0.55, P = 0.028; -3.8 ± 7.3 versus 0.95 ± 8.3, P = 0.003 and -2.3 ± 3.7 versus 0.44 ± 7.1 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.05 for all), even after controlling for changes of QUICKI, FM and waist circumference, remained significant for endothelin-1 and MMP-9 (P = 0.009 and P = 0.005, respectively) but disappeared for E-selectin (P = 0.092). On the contrary, after controlling for serum 25(OH)D, the differences disappeared for endothelin-1(P = 0.066) and MMP-9 (P = 0.277) but still remained significant for E

  5. Improvement of endothelial function in a murine model of mild cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis by mineralocorticoid antagonism.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Mario T; Schirmer, Stephan H; Baumhäkel, Magnus; Böhm, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) plays a role in endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. During treatment with RAAS-inhibitors, elevated aldosterone may sustain "aldosterone escape". We investigated the effects of treatment with the mineralocorticoid antagonist eplerenone (Ep) compared with ramipril (Rami) or the combination of both on oxidative stress, plaque formation and endothelial function, in atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E deficient mice (ApoE(-/-)-mice). ApoE(-/-)-mice were fed a cholesterol rich diet (21% fat, 19.5% casein, 1.25% cholesterol) for 8 weeks to produce mild atherosclerosis (i.e. plaque load 20-30%). ApoE(-/-)-mice (control), ApoE(-/-)-mice treated with Ep (25 mg/kg/day), Rami (2.5 mg/kg/day) and their combination were compared. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured using the tail-cuff-method. Endothelial function was measured in aortic rings and corpora cavernosal strips (CCs). Atherosclerotic plaque burden, collagen content, oxidative stress (Dihydroethidium (DHE) staining) and macrophages were determined. Treatments had no effects on HR and slightly reduced BP in ApoE(-/-)-mice treated with the combination of eplerenone and ramipril. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and CCs with carbachol was significantly improved in animals treated with Ep, Rami or their combination (p = 0.05 - p = 0.001). DHE-stained penile and aortic sections revealed a significant reduction in superoxide production in all treated groups (p = 0.035 - p = 0.001). In parallel, aortic and penile collagen content in ApoE(-/-)-mice was significantly decreased (p = 0.035 - p < 0.001) in animals treated with Ep, Rami or their combination. In agreement, there was a trend towards a reduction of aortic plaque area by treatment with Ep (-9.0 ± 3.2%) and Rami (-11.9 ± 4%). Only the treatment with the combination induced a significant reduction of the atherosclerotic plaque burden (p = 0.045). Moreover, the

  6. Red wine consumption improves in vitro migration of endothelial progenitor cells in young, healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Saher; Alshiek, Jonia; Aharon, Anat; Brenner, Benjamin; Roguin, Ariel

    2010-07-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to the maintenance of vascular endothelial function. The moderate consumption of red wine provides cardiovascular protection. We investigated the underlying molecular mechanism of EPC migration in young, healthy individuals who drank red wine. Fourteen healthy volunteers consumed 250 mL red wine daily for 21 consecutive days. Vascular endothelial function, plasma stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha (SDF1alpha) concentrations, and the number, migration, and nitric oxide production of EPCs were determined before and after the daily consumption of red wine. EPCs were glucose stressed to study the effect of red wine on EPC migration, proliferation, and senescence and to study the expressions of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and members of the Pi3K/Akt/eNOS (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/endothelial nitric oxide synthase) signaling pathway by Western blotting. Daily red wine consumption for 21 consecutive days significantly enhanced vascular endothelial function. Although plasma SDF1alpha concentrations were unchanged, EPC count and migration were significantly increased after this 21-d consumption period. Red wine increased the migration, proliferation, CXCR4 expression, and activity of the Pi3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway and decreased the extent of apoptosis in glucose-stressed EPCs. The results of the present study indicate that red wine exerts its effect through the up-regulation of CXCR4 expression and activation of the SDF1alpha/CXCR4/Pi3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway, which results in increased EPC migration and proliferation and decreased extent of apoptosis. Our findings suggest that these effects could be linked to the mechanism of cardiovascular protection that is associated with the regular consumption of red wine.

  7. Human endothelial precursor cells express tumor endothelial marker 1/endosialin/CD248.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Rebecca G; Rouleau, Cecile; St Martin, Thia; Boutin, Paula; Weber, William; Ruzek, Melanie; Honma, Nakayuki; Nacht, Mariana; Shankara, Srinivas; Kataoka, Shiro; Ishida, Isao; Roberts, Bruce L; Teicher, Beverly A

    2008-08-01

    Angiogenesis occurs during normal physiologic processes as well as under pathologic conditions such as tumor growth. Serial analysis of gene expression profiling revealed genes [tumor endothelial markers (TEM)] that are overexpressed in tumor endothelial cells compared with normal adult endothelial cells. Because blood vessel development of malignant tumors under certain conditions may include endothelial precursor cells (EPC) recruited from bone marrow, we investigated TEM expression in EPC. The expression of TEM1 or endosialin (CD248) and other TEM has been discovered in a population of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2+/CD31+/CD45-/VE-cadherin+ EPC derived from human CD133+/CD34+ cells. EPC share some properties with fully differentiated endothelial cells from normal tissue, yet reverse transcription-PCR and flow cytometry reveal that EPC express higher levels of endosialin at the molecular and protein levels. The elevated expression of endosialin in EPC versus mature endothelial cells suggests that endosialin is involved in the earlier stages of tumor angiogenesis. Anti-endosialin antibodies inhibited EPC migration and tube formation in vitro. In vivo, immunohistochemistry indicated that human EPC continued to express endosialin protein in a Matrigel plug angiogenesis assay established in nude mice. Anti-endosialin antibodies delivered systemically at 25 mg/kg were also able to inhibit circulating murine EPC in nude mice bearing s.c. SKNAS tumors. EPC and bone marrow-derived cells have been shown previously to incorporate into malignant blood vessels in some instances, yet they remain controversial in the field. The data presented here on endothelial genes that are up-regulated in tumor vasculature and in EPC support the hypothesis that the angiogenesis process in cancer can involve EPC.

  8. Mechanisms underlying the losartan treatment-induced improvement in the endothelial dysfunction seen in mesenteric arteries from type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takayuki; Ishida, Keiko; Nakayama, Naoaki; Taguchi, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Tsuneo; Kamata, Katsuo

    2010-09-01

    It is well known that type 2 diabetes mellitus is frequently associated with vascular dysfunction and an elevated systemic blood pressure, yet the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. We previously reported that in mesenteric arteries from established type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats, which exhibit endothelial dysfunction, there is an imbalance between endothelium-derived vasodilators [namely, nitric oxide (NO) and hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)] and vasoconstrictors [contracting factors (EDCFs) such as cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostanoids]. Here, we investigated whether the angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan might improve endothelial dysfunction in OLETF rats at the established stage of diabetes. In mesenteric arteries isolated from OLETF rats [vs. those from age-matched control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats]: (1) the acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation was impaired, (2) the NO- and EDHF-mediated relaxations were reduced, (3) the ACh-induced EDCF-mediated contraction and the production of prostanoids were increased, and (4) superoxide generation was increased. After such OLETF rats had received losartan (25 mg/kg/day p.o. for 4 weeks), their isolated mesenteric arteries exhibited: (1) improvements in ACh-induced NO- and EDHF-mediated relaxations, (2) reduced EDCF- and arachidonic acid-induced contractions, (3) suppressed production of prostanoids, (4) reduced PGE(2)-mediated contraction, and (5) reduced superoxide generation. Within the timescale studied here, losartan did not change the protein expressions of endothelial NO synthase, COX1, or COX2 in mesenteric arteries from either OLETF or LETO rats. Losartan thus normalizes vascular dysfunction in this type 2 diabetic model, and the above effects may contribute to the reduction of adverse cardiovascular events seen in diabetic patients treated with angiotensin II receptor blockers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Kisspeptin-10 induces endothelial cellular senescence and impaired endothelial cell growth.

    PubMed

    Usui, Sayaka; Iso, Yoshitaka; Sasai, Masahiro; Mizukami, Takuya; Mori, Hiroyoshi; Watanabe, Takuya; Shioda, Seiji; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The KPs (kisspeptins) are a family of multifunctional peptides with established roles in cancer metastasis, puberty and vasoconstriction. The effects of KPs on endothelial cells have yet to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of KP-10 on endothelial cell growth and the mechanisms underlying those effects. The administration of recombinant KP-10 into the hindlimbs of rats with ischaemia significantly impaired blood flow recovery, as shown by laser Doppler, and capillary growth, as shown using histology, compared with the controls. HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) express the KP receptor and were treated with KP-10 in culture studies. KP-10 inhibited endothelial cell tube formation and proliferation in a significant and dose-dependent manner. The HUVECs treated with KP exhibited the senescent phenotype, as determined using a senescence-associated β-galactosidase assay, cell morphology analysis, and decreased Sirt1 (sirtuin 1) expression and increased p53 expression shown by Western blot analysis. Intriguingly, a pharmacological Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, was found to increase the proliferation of HUVECs and to reduce the number of senescent phenotype cells affected by KP-10. In conclusion, KP-10 suppressed endothelial cells growth both in vivo and in vitro in the present study. The adverse effect of KP on endothelial cells was attributable, at least in part, to the induction of cellular senescence.

  10. Dobesilate enhances endothelial nitric oxide synthase-activity in macro- and microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Suschek, Christoph; Kolb, Hubert; Kolb-Bachofen, Victoria

    1997-01-01

    Dobesilate is used for normalizing vascular dysfunction in a number of diseases. In search for an effect on endothelial NO production, macrovascular endothelial cells from rat aorta, microvascular endothelial cells from rat exocrine pancreatic tissue, and capillary endothelial cells from rat islets, were cultured in the presence or absence of Mg-Dobesilate. The activity of constitutive nitric oxide synthase (ecNOS) in resident cells as well as of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cytokine-activated cells was measured indirectly by recording the citrulline concentrations in culture supernatants.In each of the different endothelial cells Mg-Dobesilate incubation (0.25–1 mM) for 24 h led to a significant and concentration-dependent increase in ecNOS-activities. With cytokine-activated endothelial cell cultures only moderate effects were seen with little or no concentration-dependency. Addition of the NOS-inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine led to a significant suppression of citrulline formation in all cultures as an evidence for the enzyme specificity of these effects.iNOS- and ecNOS-specific reverse transcription and semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) with RNA from resident or cytokine-activated endothelial cells gave no evidence for an increase in NOS-specific mRNA after Mg-Dobesilate-treatment. Furthermore, Dobesilate-mediated enhancement of NO synthesis in resting endothelial cells was not due to iNOS induction in these cells, as no iNOS-specific signal was found by RT–PCR. PMID:9421302

  11. Resveratrol Supplementation Did Not Improve Cognition in Patients with Schizophrenia: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Zortea, Karine; Franco, Viviane C; Guimarães, Paula; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo S

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with psychotic experiences and cognitive deficits. Therefore, cognitive function is one of the most critical determinants of quality of life in this pathology. Resveratrol has been related to neuroprotective action, but there are no studies evaluating resveratrol in SZ. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of resveratrol supplementation on cognition in individuals with SZ. This is a 1-month randomized, double-blind, and controlled trial (NCT 02062190), in which 19 men with diagnosis of SZ, aged 18-65 years, were assigned to a resveratrol supplementation group (200 mg) or placebo group (200 mg), with a 1-month follow-up. Applying a series of cognitive tests assessed neuropsychology performance (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale) and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale assessed psychopathology severity. There were no significant improvement in neuropsychology performance (episodic memory, working memory, attention and concentration capacity, inhibitory control, interference measures, selective attention, and mental flexibility) and psychopathology severity after 1 month of resveratrol supplementation ( P  > 0.05). In conclusion, we have shown that 1 month of a resveratrol supplementation (200 mg/day) did not improve episodic memory, working memory, attention and concentration capacity, inhibitory control, interference measures, selective attention, and mental flexibility as compared with placebo in patients with SZ.

  12. Coenzyme Q10 Protects Human Endothelial Cells from β-Amyloid Uptake and Oxidative Stress-Induced Injury

    PubMed Central

    Durán-Prado, Mario; Frontiñán, Javier; Santiago-Mora, Raquel; Peinado, Juan Ramón; Parrado-Fernández, Cristina; Gómez-Almagro, María Victoria; Moreno, María; López-Domínguez, José Alberto; Villalba, José Manuel; Alcaín, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathological symptoms of Alzheimer's disease appear in advances stages, once neuronal damage arises. Nevertheless, recent studies demonstrate that in early asymptomatic stages, ß-amyloid peptide damages the cerebral microvasculature through mechanisms that involve an increase in reactive oxygen species and calcium, which induces necrosis and apoptosis of endothelial cells, leading to cerebrovascular dysfunction. The goal of our work is to study the potential preventive effect of the lipophilic antioxidant coenzyme Q (CoQ) against ß-amyloid-induced damage on human endothelial cells. We analyzed the protective effect of CoQ against Aβ-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using fluorescence and confocal microscopy, biochemical techniques and RMN-based metabolomics. Our results show that CoQ pretreatment of HUVECs delayed Aβ incorporation into the plasma membrane and mitochondria. Moreover, CoQ reduced the influx of extracellular Ca2+, and Ca2+ release from mitochondria due to opening the mitochondrial transition pore after β-amyloid administration, in addition to decreasing O2 .− and H2O2 levels. Pretreatment with CoQ also prevented ß-amyloid-induced HUVECs necrosis and apoptosis, restored their ability to proliferate, migrate and form tube-like structures in vitro, which is mirrored by a restoration of the cell metabolic profile to control levels. CoQ protected endothelial cells from Aβ-induced injury at physiological concentrations in human plasma after oral CoQ supplementation and thus could be a promising molecule to protect endothelial cells against amyloid angiopathy. PMID:25272163

  13. Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Redox Status of the Aortic Wall in Young Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ruseva, Boryana; Atanasova, Milena; Tsvetkova, Reni; Betova, Tatyana; Mollova, Margarita; Alexandrova, Margarita; Laleva, Pavlina; Dimitrova, Aneliya

    2015-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an exogenous antioxidant that performs its function via the expression of selenoproteins. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of varying Se intake on the redox status of the aortic wall in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Sixteen male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats and nineteen male SHR, 16-week-old, were tested after being given diets with different Se content for eight weeks. They were divided into 4 groups: control groups of WKY NSe and SHR NSe on an adequate Se diet and groups of WKY HSe and SHR HSe that received Se supplementation. The Se nutritional status was assessed by measuring whole blood glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) activity. Serum concentration of lipid hydroperoxides and serum level of antibodies against advanced glycation end products (anti-AGEs abs) were determined. Expression of GPx-1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were examined in aortic wall. Se supplementation significantly increased GPx-1 activity of whole blood and in the aortas of WKY and SHR. Decreased lipid peroxidation level, eNOS-3 expression in the aortic wall, and serum level of anti-AGEs abs were found in SHR HSe compared with SHR NSe. In conclusion, Se supplementation improved the redox status of the aortic wall in young SHR. PMID:26473024

  14. Evaluation of the Effects of Different Energy Drinks and Coffee on Endothelial Function.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Janos; Somberg, John C

    2015-11-01

    Endothelial function plays an important role in circulatory physiology. There has been differing reports on the effect of energy drink on endothelial function. We set out to evaluate the effect of 3 energy drinks and coffee on endothelial function. Endothelial function was evaluated in healthy volunteers using a device that uses digital peripheral arterial tonometry measuring endothelial function as the reactive hyperemia index (RHI). Six volunteers (25 ± 7 years) received energy drink in a random order at least 2 days apart. Drinks studied were 250 ml "Red Bull" containing 80 mg caffeine, 57 ml "5-hour Energy" containing 230 mg caffeine, and a can of 355 ml "NOS" energy drink containing 120 mg caffeine. Sixteen volunteers (25 ± 5 years) received a cup of 473 ml coffee containing 240 mg caffeine. Studies were performed before drink (baseline) at 1.5 and 4 hours after drink. Two of the energy drinks (Red Bull and 5-hour Energy) significantly improved endothelial function at 4 hours after drink, whereas 1 energy drink (NOS) and coffee did not change endothelial function significantly. RHI increased by 82 ± 129% (p = 0.028) and 63 ± 37% (p = 0.027) after 5-hour Energy and Red Bull, respectively. The RHI changed after NOS by 2 ± 30% (p = 1.000) and by 7 ± 30% (p = 1.000) after coffee. In conclusion, some energy drinks appear to significantly improve endothelial function. Caffeine does not appear to be the component responsible for these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Multivitamin supplementation improves hematologic status in HIV-infected women and their children in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Fawzi, Wafaie W; Msamanga, Gernard I; Kupka, Roland; Spiegelman, Donna; Villamor, Eduardo; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Wei, Ruilan; Hunter, David

    2007-05-01

    Anemia is a frequent complication among HIV-infected persons and is associated with faster disease progression and mortality. We examined the effect of multivitamin supplementation on hemoglobin concentrations and the risk of anemia among HIV-infected pregnant women and their children. HIV-1-infected pregnant women (n = 1078) from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were enrolled in a double-blind trial and provided daily supplements of preformed vitamin A and beta-carotene, multivitamins (vitamins B, C, and E), preformed vitamin A and beta-carotene + multivitamins, or placebo. All women received iron and folate supplements only during pregnancy according to local standard of care. The median follow-up time for hemoglobin measurement for mothers was 57.3 mo [interquartile range (IQR): 28.6-66.8] and for children it was 28.0 mo (IQR: 5.3-41.7). During the whole period, hemoglobin concentrations among women who received multivitamins were 0.33 g/dL higher than among women who did not receive multivitamins (P=0.07). Compared with placebo, multivitamin supplementation resulted in a hemoglobin increase of 0.59 g/dL during the first 2 y after enrollment (P=0.0002). Compared with placebo, the children born to mothers who received multivitamins had a reduced risk of anemia. In this group, the risk of macrocytic anemia was 63% lower than in the placebo group (relative risk: 0.37: 95% CI: 0.18, 0.79; P=0.01). Multivitamin supplementation provided during pregnancy and in the postpartum period resulted in significant improvements in hematologic status among HIV-infected women and their children, which provides further support for the value of multivitamin supplementation in HIV-infected adults.

  16. Sulforaphane attenuates the development of atherosclerosis and improves endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Shehatou, George S G; Suddek, Ghada M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to explore possible protective effects of sulforaphane (SFN) against atherosclerosis development and endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Rabbits were assigned to three groups of five: group I fed normal chow diet for four weeks, group II fed 1% high cholesterol diet (HCD) and group III fed HCD + SFN (0.25 mg/kg/day). Blood samples were collected for measurement of serum triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Aortic malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total nitrite/nitrate (NOx) were measured. Vascular reactivity and intima/media (I/M) ratio were analyzed. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in aortic endothelial cells was identified immunohistochemically. HCD induced significant increases in serum TGs, TC, LDL-C, LDH, and CRP, and aortic MDA and SOD. Moreover, HCD caused significant reductions in serum HDL-C, aortic GSH and NOx. SFN administration significantly decreased HCD-induced elevations in serum TC, LDL-C, CRP, and LDH. while significantly increased HDL-C and GSH levels and normalized aortic SOD and NOx. Additionally, SFN significantly improved rabbit aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine. Moreover, SFN significantly reduced the elevation in I/M ratio. This effect was confirmed by aortic histopathologic examination. The expression of NF-κB in aortic tissue showed a marked reduction upon treatment with SFN. In conclusion, this study reveals that SFN has the ability to ameliorate HCD-induced atherosclerotic lesions progression and vascular dysfunction, possibly via its lipid-lowering and antioxidant effects and suppression of NF-κB-mediated inflammation. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  17. The role of corneal endothelial morphology in graft assessment and prediction of endothelial cell loss during organ culture of human donor corneas.

    PubMed

    Hermel, Martin; Salla, Sabine; Fuest, Matthias; Walter, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Endothelial assessment is crucial in the release of corneas for grafting. We retrospectively analysed the role of endothelial morphology parameters in predicting endothelial cell loss during organ culture. Human donor corneas were cultured in minimal essential medium with 2% fetal calf serum and antibiotics. Initial endothelial morphology was assessed microscopically using score parameters polymegethism (POL), pleomorphism (PLE), granulation (GRA), vacuolization (VAC), segmentation of cell membranes (SEG), Descemet's folds (DF), trypan blue-positive cells (TBPC) and endothelial cell-free areas (ECFA). Some corneas were primarily rejected based on endothelial assessment. Endothelial cell density (ECD) was assessed at the beginning (I-ECD) and end of culture. Corneas were then placed in dehydration medium (as above + 5% dextran 500). In a subgroup, ECD was reassessed after dehydration. Endothelial cell loss during culture (ECL@Culture) and culture+dehydration (ECL-Culture&Dehydration) were calculated. Data were given as mean ± SD and analysed using multiple linear and logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. I-ECD was 2812 ± 360/mm 2 (n = 2356). The decision to reject a cornea due to endothelial assessment was associated negatively with I-ECD (OR = 0.77/100 cells, CI 0.7-0.82) and positively with ECFA (OR = 2.7, CI 1.69-4.35), SEG (OR =1.3, CI 1.01-1.68) and donor age (OR = 1.26/decade, CI 1.33-1.41). ECL@Culture was 153 ± 201/mm 2 (n = 1277), ECL@Culture&Dehydration was 169 ± 183/mm 2 (n = 918). ECL@Culture was associated positively with donor age, I-ECD, GRA and TBPC, and negatively with PLE, and DF. ECL@Culture&Dehydration was associated positively with age, sex, initial ECD, POL, PLE, VAC and TBPC. Morphological parameters displayed associations with the exclusion of corneas from culture and with endothelial cell loss. Appropriate parameter selection for screening purposes may help improve

  18. Whole Food versus Supplement: Comparing the Clinical Evidence of Tomato Intake and Lycopene Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors12

    PubMed Central

    Burton-Freeman, Britt M.; Sesso, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. A link between diet and CVD is well established, with dietary modification a foundational component of CVD prevention and management. With the discovery of bioactive components beyond the essential nutrients of foods, a new era of nutritional, medical, botanical, physiologic, and analytical sciences has unfolded. The ability to identify, isolate, purify, and deliver single components has expanded the dietary supplement business and health opportunity for consumers. Lycopene is an example of a food component that has attracted attention from scientists as well as food, agriculture, and dietary supplement industries. A major question, however, is whether delivering lycopene through a supplement source is as effective as or more effective than consuming lycopene through whole food sources, specifically the tomato, which is the richest source of lycopene in the Western diet. In this review, we examined clinical trials comparing the efficacy of lycopene supplements with tomato products on intermediate CVD risk factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function, blood pressure, and lipid metabolism. Overall, the present review highlights the need for more targeted research; however, at present, the available clinical research supports consuming tomato-based foods as a first-line approach to cardiovascular health. With the exception of blood pressure management where lycopene supplementation was favored, tomato intake provided more favorable results on cardiovascular risk endpoints than did lycopene supplementation. Indeed, future research that is well designed, clinically focused, mechanistically revealing, and relevant to human intake will undoubtedly add to the growing body of knowledge unveiling the promise of tomatoes and/or lycopene supplementation as an integral component of a heart-healthy diet. PMID:25469376

  19. Isolation and characterization of vascular endothelial cells derived from fetal tooth buds of miniature swine.

    PubMed

    Nasu, Masanori; Nakahara, Taka; Tominaga, Noriko; Tamaki, Yuichi; Ide, Yoshiaki; Tachibana, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate endothelial cells from tooth buds (unerupted deciduous teeth) of miniature swine. Mandibular molar tooth buds harvested from swine fetuses at fetal days 90-110 were cultured in growth medium supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum in 100-mm culture dishes until the primary cells outgrown from the tooth buds reached confluence. A morphologically defined set of pavement-shaped primary cells were picked up manually with filter paper containing trypsin/ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid solution and transferred to a separate dish. A characterization of the cellular characteristics and a functional analysis of the cultured cells at passages 3 to 5 were performed using immunofluorescence, a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay, a tube formation assay, and transmission electron microscopy. The isolated cells grew in a pavement arrangement and showed the characteristics of contact inhibition upon reaching confluence. The population doubling time was ~48 h at passage 3. As shown by immunocytostaining and western blotting with specific antibodies, the cells produced the endothelial marker proteins such as vascular endothelial cadherin, von Willebrand factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. Observation with time-lapse images showed that small groups of cells aggregated and adhered to each other to form tube-like structures. Moreover, as revealed through transmission electron microscopy, these adherent cells had formed junctional complexes. These endothelial cells from the tooth buds of miniature swine are available as cell lines for studies on tube formation and use in regenerative medical science.

  20. Long-term improvements in sensory inhibition with gestational choline supplementation linked to α7 nicotinic receptors through studies in Chrna7 null mutation mice.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Karen E; Choo, Kevin S; Stitzel, Jerry A; Marks, Michael J; Adams, Catherine E

    2014-03-13

    Perinatal choline supplementation has produced several benefits in rodent models, from improved learning and memory to protection from the behavioral effects of fetal alcohol exposure. We have shown that supplemented choline through gestation and lactation produces long-term improvement in deficient sensory inhibition in DBA/2 mice which models a similar deficit in schizophrenia patients. The present study extends that research by feeding normal or supplemented choline diets to DBA/2 mice carrying the null mutation for the α7 nicotinic receptor gene (Chrna7). DBA/2 mice heterozygotic for Chrna7 were bred together. Dams were placed on supplemented (5 gm/kg diet) or normal (1.1 gm/kg diet) choline at mating and remained on the specific diet until offspring weaning. Thereafter, offspring were fed standard rodent chow. Adult offspring were assessed for sensory inhibition. Brains were obtained to ascertain hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor levels. Choline-supplemented mice heterozygotic or null-mutant for Chrna7 failed to show improvement in sensory inhibition. Only wildtype choline-supplemented mice showed improvement with the effect solely through a decrease in test amplitude. This supports the hypothesis that gestational-choline supplementation is acting through the α7 nicotinic receptor to improve sensory inhibition. Although there was a significant gene-dose-related change in hippocampal α7 receptor numbers, binding studies did not reveal any choline-dose-related change in binding in any hippocampal region, the interaction being driven by a significant genotype main effect (wildtype>heterozygote>null mutant). These data parallel a human study wherein the offspring of pregnant women receiving choline supplementation during gestation, showed better sensory inhibition than offspring of women on placebo. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Long-term improvements in sensory inhibition with gestational choline supplementation linked to α7 nicotinic receptors through studies in Chrna7 null mutation mice

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Karen E.; Choo, Kevin S.; Stitzel, Jerry A.; Marks, Michael J.; Adams, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal choline supplementation has produced several benefits in rodent models, from improved learning and memory to protection from the behavioral effects of fetal alcohol exposure. We have shown that supplemented choline through gestation and lactation produces long-term improvement in deficient sensory inhibition in DBA/2 mice which models a similar deficit in schizophrenia patients. The present study extends that research by feeding normal or supplemented choline diets to DBA/2 mice carrying the null mutation for the α7 nicotinic receptor gene (Chrna7). DBA/2 mice heterozygotic for Chrna7 were bred together. Dams were placed on supplemented (5 gm/kg diet) or normal (1.1 gm/kg diet) choline at mating and remained on the specific diet until offspring weaning. Thereafter, offspring were fed standard rodent chow. Adult offspring were assessed for sensory inhibition. Brains were obtained to ascertain hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor levels. Choline-supplemented mice heterozygotic or null-mutant for Chrna7 failed to show improvement in sensory inhibition. Only wildtype choline-supplemented mice showed improvement with the effect solely through a decrease in test amplitude. This supports the hypothesis that gestational-choline supplementation is acting through the α7 nicotinic receptor to improve sensory inhibition. Although there was a significant gene-dose-related change in hippocampal α7 receptor numbers, binding studies did not reveal any choline-dose-related change in binding in any hippocampal region, the interaction being driven by a significant genotype main effect (wildtype>heterozygote>null mutant). These data parallel a human study wherein the offspring of pregnant women receiving choline supplementation during gestation, showed better sensory inhibition than offspring of women on placebo. PMID:24462939

  2. Laminar shear stress modulates endothelial luminal surface stiffness in a tissue-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Merna, Nick; Wong, Andrew K; Barahona, Victor; Llanos, Pierre; Kunar, Balvir; Palikuqi, Brisa; Ginsberg, Michael; Rafii, Shahin; Rabbany, Sina Y

    2018-04-17

    Endothelial cells form vascular beds in all organs and are exposed to a range of mechanical forces that regulate cellular phenotype. We sought to determine the role of endothelial luminal surface stiffness in tissue-specific mechanotransduction of laminar shear stress in microvascular mouse cells and the role of arachidonic acid in mediating this response. Microvascular mouse endothelial cells were subjected to laminar shear stress at 4 dynes/cm 2 for 12 hours in parallel plate flow chambers that enabled real-time optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements of cell stiffness. Lung endothelial cells aligned parallel to flow, while cardiac endothelial cells did not. This rapid alignment was accompanied by increased cell stiffness. The addition of arachidonic acid to cardiac endothelial cells increased alignment and stiffness in response to shear stress. Inhibition of arachidonic acid in lung endothelial cells and embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells prevented cellular alignment and decreased cell stiffness. Our findings suggest that increased endothelial luminal surface stiffness in microvascular cells may facilitate mechanotransduction and alignment in response to laminar shear stress. Furthermore, the arachidonic acid pathway may mediate this tissue-specific process. An improved understanding of this response will aid in the treatment of organ-specific vascular disease. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Dietary L-glutamine supplementation improves pregnancy outcome in mice infected with type-2 porcine circovirus.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenkai; Luo, Wei; Wu, Miaomiao; Liu, Gang; Yu, Xinglong; Fang, Jun; Li, Teijun; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-09-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes reproductive failure in swine. As glutamine can enhance immune function in animals, this study was conducted with mice to test the hypothesis that dietary glutamine supplementation will improve pregnancy outcome in PCV2-infected dams. Beginning on day 0 of gestation, mice were fed a standard diet supplemented with 1.0% L-glutamine or 1.22% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control). All mice were infected with PCV2 (2000 TCID50) on day 10 of gestation. On day 17 of gestation, six mice from each group were euthanized to obtain maternal tissues and fetuses for hematology and histopathology tests. The remaining mice continued to receive their respective diets supplemented with 1.0% L-glutamine or 1.22% L-alanine through lactation. The PCV2 virus was present in maternal samples (serum and lung) of most mice in the control group but was not detected in the glutamine-supplemented mice. Dietary glutamine supplementation reduced abortion, decreased fetal deaths, and enhanced neonatal survival. The glutamine treatment also reduced concentrations of interleukin-6, while increasing concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and C-reactive protein, in the maternal serum of mice. Furthermore, glutamine supplementation attenuated microscopic lesions in maternal tissues (lung, spleen, and liver). Collectively, these results indicate that dietary glutamine supplementation is beneficial for ameliorating reproductive failure in virus-infected mice. The findings support the notion that gestating dams require adequate amounts of dietary glutamine for the optimal survival and growth of embryos, fetuses, and neonates, and have important implications for nutritional support of mammals (including swine and humans) during gestation and lactation.

  4. Endothelial microparticle-mediated transfer of MicroRNA-126 promotes vascular endothelial cell repair via SPRED1 and is abrogated in glucose-damaged endothelial microparticles.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Felix; Yang, Xiaoyan; Hoelscher, Marion; Cattelan, Arianna; Schmitz, Theresa; Proebsting, Sebastian; Wenzel, Daniela; Vosen, Sarah; Franklin, Bernardo S; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Nickenig, Georg; Werner, Nikos

    2013-10-29

    Repair of the endothelium after vascular injury is crucial for preserving endothelial integrity and preventing the development of vascular disease. The underlying mechanisms of endothelial cell repair are largely unknown. We sought to investigate whether endothelial microparticles (EMPs), released from apoptotic endothelial cells (ECs), influence EC repair. Systemic treatment of mice with EMPs after electric denudation of the endothelium accelerated reendothelialization in vivo. In vitro experiments revealed that EMP uptake in ECs promotes EC migration and proliferation, both critical steps in endothelial repair. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, Taqman microRNA array was performed, and microRNA (miR)-126 was identified as the predominantly expressed miR in EMPs. The following experiments demonstrated that miR-126 was transported into recipient human coronary artery endothelial cells by EMPs and functionally regulated the target protein sprouty-related, EVH1 domain-containing protein 1 (SPRED1). Knockdown of miR-126 in EMPs abrogated EMP-mediated effects on human coronary artery endothelial cell migration and proliferation in vitro and reendothelialization in vivo. Interestingly, after simulating diabetic conditions, EMPs derived from glucose-treated ECs contained significantly lower amounts of miR-126 and showed reduced endothelial repair capacity in vitro and in vivo. Finally, expression analysis of miR-126 in circulating microparticles from 176 patients with stable coronary artery disease with and without diabetes mellitus revealed a significantly reduced miR-126 expression in circulating microparticles from diabetic patients. Endothelial microparticles promote vascular endothelial repair by delivering functional miR-126 into recipient cells. In pathological hyperglycemic conditions, EMP-mediated miR-126-induced EC repair is altered.

  5. Resveratrol Improves Myocardial Perfusion in a Swine Model of Hypercholesterolemia and Chronic Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Robich, Michael P.; Osipov, Robert M.; Nezafat, Reza; Feng, Jun; Clements, Richard T.; Bianchi, Cesario; Boodhwani, Munir; Coady, Michael A.; Laham, Roger J.; Sellke, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Resveratrol may provide protection against coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that supplemental resveratrol will improve cardiac perfusion in the ischemic territory of swine with hypercholesterolemia and chronic myocardial ischemia. Methods and Results Yorkshire swine were fed either a normal diet (control, n=7), a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCC, n=7), or a hypercholesterolemic diet with supplemental resveratrol (100 mg/kg/day orally, HCRV, n=7). Four weeks later, an ameroid constrictor was placed on the left circumflex artery. Animals underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and coronary angiography 7 weeks later, prior to sacrifice and tissue harvest. Total cholesterol was lowered about 30% in HCRV animals (p<0.001). Regional wall motion analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in inferolateral function from baseline to 7 weeks in HCC swine (p=0.04). There was no significant change in regional function in HCRV swine from baseline to 7 weeks (p=0.32). Tissue blood flow during stress was 2.8 fold greater in HCRV swine when compared to HCC swine (p=0.04). Endothelial dependent microvascular relaxation response to Substance P was diminished in HCC swine which was rescued by resveratrol treatment (p=0.004). Capillary density (PECAM-1 staining) demonstrated fewer capillaries in both HCC and HCRV swine v. control swine (p=0.02). Immunoblot analysis demonstrated significantly greater expression in HCRV v. HCC swine of the following markers of angiogenesis: VEGF (p=0.002), peNOS(ser1177)(p=0.04), NFkB (p=0.004), and pAkt(thr308)(p=0.001). Conclusion Supplemental resveratrol attenuates regional wall motion abnormalities, improves myocardial perfusion in the collateral dependent region, preserves endothelial dependent coronary vessel function, and upregulates markers of angiogenesis associated with the VEGF signaling pathway. PMID:20837905

  6. Vitamin E Supplementation with Rauwolfia Vomitoria Root Bark Extract Improves Hematological Indices

    PubMed Central

    Isaiah, Akpanabiatu Monday; Olawale, Otitoju; Effiong, Edet Emmanuel; Idongesit, Ndem Jessie; Fidelis, Uwah Anthony; Friday, Ufot Usenobong

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vitamin supplementation in Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract administration may interact and impact significantly on hematology of albino Wistar rats. Aim: In this investigation we studied vitamin E supplementation with Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract on the hematology of experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Forty two rats weighing 200 – 230 g were randomly selected into six groups of seven animals each. Group 1 animals serve as controls; group 2 received vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight). Groups 3 and 4 were given the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. Groups 5 and 6 were given vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight), the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. The extract and the vitamin were administered daily by oral intubation. Blood samples analyzed for hematological indices. Results: Decrease in white blood cell count (WBC) was observed, indicating improved immunity of animals. Extract at 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight with and without vitamin E affected hemoglobin and packed cell volume. Conclusion: Rauwolfia vomitoria with or without vitamin E improved animal's immunity and enhances their hematology. Interaction of vitamin E with the extract affects medicinal therapeutics of this plant. PMID:22408754

  7. Improving rehabilitation after critical illness through outpatient physiotherapy classes and essential amino acid supplement: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jones, C; Eddleston, J; McCairn, A; Dowling, S; McWilliams, D; Coughlan, E; Griffiths, R D

    2015-10-01

    Patients recovering from critical illness may be left with significant muscle mass loss. This study aimed to evaluate whether a 6-week program of enhanced physiotherapy and structured exercise (PEPSE) and an essential amino acid supplement drink (glutamine and essential amino acid mixture [GEAA]) improves physical and psychological recovery. Intensive care patients aged 45 years or older, with a combined intensive care unit stay/pre-intensive care unit stay of 5 days or more were recruited to a randomized controlled trial examining the effect of PEPSE and GEAA on recovery. The 2 factors were tested in a 2 × 2 factorial design: (1) GEAA drink twice daily for 3 months and (2) 6-week PEPSE in first 3 months. Primary efficacy outcome was an improvement in the 6-minute walking test at 3 months. A total of 93 patients were randomized to the study. Patients receiving the PEPSE and GEA had the biggest gains in distance walked in 6-minute walking test (P < .0001). There were also significant reductions in rates of anxiety in study groups control supplement/PEPSE (P = .047) and GEAA supplement/PEPSE (P = .036) and for GEAA supplement/PEPSE in depression (P = .0009). Enhanced rehabilitation combined with GEAA supplement may enhance physical recovery and reduce anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Endothelial cell density to predict endothelial graft failure after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Lass, Jonathan H; Sugar, Alan; Benetz, Beth Ann; Beck, Roy W; Dontchev, Mariya; Gal, Robin L; Kollman, Craig; Gross, Robert; Heck, Ellen; Holland, Edward J; Mannis, Mark J; Raber, Irving; Stark, Walter; Stulting, R Doyle

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether preoperative and/or postoperative central endothelial cell density (ECD) and its rate of decline postoperatively are predictive of graft failure caused by endothelial decompensation following penetrating keratoplasty to treat a moderate-risk condition, principally, Fuchs dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema. In a subset of Cornea Donor Study participants, a central reading center determined preoperative and postoperative ECD from available specular images for 17 grafts that failed because of endothelial decompensation and 483 grafts that did not fail. Preoperative ECD was not predictive of graft failure caused by endothelial decompensation (P = .91). However, the 6-month ECD was predictive of subsequent failure (P < .001). Among those that had not failed within the first 6 months, the 5-year cumulative incidence (+/-95% confidence interval) of failure was 13% (+/-12%) for the 33 participants with a 6-month ECD of less than 1700 cells/mm(2) vs 2% (+/-3%) for the 137 participants with a 6-month ECD of 2500 cells/mm(2) or higher. After 5 years' follow-up, 40 of 277 participants (14%) with a clear graft had an ECD below 500 cells/mm(2). Preoperative ECD is unrelated to graft failure from endothelial decompensation, whereas there is a strong correlation of ECD at 6 months with graft failure from endothelial decompensation. A graft can remain clear after 5 years even when the ECD is below 500 cells/mm(2).

  9. Oral Supplementation with Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate, Arginine, and Glutamine Improves Lean Body Mass in Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Amy C; Hunter, Gary R; Goss, Amy M; Gower, Barbara A

    2018-04-19

    Oral intake of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), arginine, and glutamine may ameliorate muscle loss by stimulating protein synthesis and decreasing protein degradation while simultaneously decreasing inflammation. Previous studies provide evidence for improvement in body composition with dietary supplementation of these ingredients among patients with muscle-wasting diseases. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of this amino acid mixture on lean body mass, muscle volume, and physical function among healthy older adults. Thirty-one community-dwelling men and women, aged 65-89 years, were randomized to either two oral doses of the amino acid supplement (totaling 3 g HMB, 14 g arginine, 14 g glutamine) or placebo daily for six months. At baseline and month six, lean body mass was measured by air displacement plethysmography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and four-compartment model. Muscle volume of quadriceps was quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and participants performed a battery of tests to assess physical function. As compared to the placebo group, the treatment group exhibited improvement in a timed stair climb (p =.016) as well as significant increases in lean body mass by all methods of assessment (p <.05). Regional analysis by DXA revealed increased arm lean mass in the supplement group only (p =.035). However, no change was observed in MRI-derived quadriceps volume. Dietary supplementation with HMB, arginine, and glutamine improved total body lean mass among a small sample of healthy older adults. Further research is indicated to elucidate mechanisms of action and to determine whether supplementation may benefit frail elders. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov identifier no. NCT01057082.

  10. Endothelial MMP14 is required for endothelial-dependent growth support of human airway basal cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bi-Sen; Gomi, Kazunori; Rafii, Shahin; Crystal, Ronald G.; Walters, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human airway basal cells are the stem (or progenitor) population of the airway epithelium, and play a central role in anchoring the epithelium to the basement membrane. The anatomic position of basal cells allows for potential paracrine signaling between them and the underlying non-epithelial stromal cells. In support of this, we have previously demonstrated that endothelial cells support growth of basal cells during co-culture through vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)-mediated signaling. Building on these findings, we found, by RNA sequencing analysis, that basal cells expressed multiple fibroblast growth factor (FGF) ligands (FGF2, FGF5, FGF11 and FGF13) and that only FGF2 and FGF5 were capable of functioning in a paracrine manner to activate classical FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling. Antibody-mediated blocking of FGFR1 during basal-cell–endothelial-cell co-culture significantly reduced the endothelial-cell-dependent basal cell growth. Stimulation of endothelial cells with basal-cell-derived growth factors induced endothelial cell expression of matrix metallopeptidase 14 (MMP14), and short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of endothelial cell MMP14 significantly reduced the endothelial-cell-dependent growth of basal cells. Overall, these data characterize a new growth-factor-mediated reciprocal ‘crosstalk’ between human airway basal cells and endothelial cells that regulates proliferation of basal cells. PMID:26116571

  11. Ameliorating Endothelial Mitochondrial Dysfunction Restores Coronary Function via Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1-Mediated Protein Kinase A/Uncoupling Protein 2 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shiqiang; Wang, Peijian; Ma, Liqun; Gao, Peng; Gong, Liuping; Li, Li; Li, Qiang; Sun, Fang; Zhou, Xunmei; He, Hongbo; Chen, Jing; Yan, Zhencheng; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2016-02-01

    Coronary heart disease arising from atherosclerosis is a leading cause of cardiogenic death worldwide. Mitochondria are the principal source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and defective oxidative phosphorylation by the mitochondrial respiratory chain contributes to ROS generation. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), an adaptive antioxidant defense factor, protects against mitochondrial ROS-induced endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. The activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) attenuates vascular dysfunction. Therefore, whether TRPV1 activation antagonizes coronary lesions by alleviating endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction and enhancing the activity of the protein kinase A/UCP2 pathway warrants examination. ApoE(-/-), ApoE(-/-)/TRPV1(-/-), and ApoE(-/-)/UCP2(-/-) mice were fed standard chow, a high-fat diet (HFD), or the HFD plus 0.01% capsaicin. HFD intake profoundly impaired coronary vasodilatation and myocardial perfusion and shortened the survival duration of ApoE(-/-) mice. TRPV1 or UCP2 deficiency exacerbated HFD-induced coronary dysfunction and was associated with increased ROS generation and reduced nitric oxide production in the endothelium. The activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin upregulated UCP2 expression via protein kinase A phosphorylation, thereby alleviating endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibiting mitochondrial ROS generation. In vivo, dietary capsaicin supplementation enhanced coronary relaxation and prolonged the survival duration of HFD-fed ApoE(-/-) mice. These effects were not observed in ApoE(-/-) mice lacking the TRPV1 or UCP2 gene. The upregulation of protein kinase A /UCP2 via TRPV1 activation ameliorates coronary dysfunction and prolongs the lifespan of atherosclerotic mice by ameliorating endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction. Dietary capsaicin supplementation may represent a promising intervention for the primary prevention of coronary heart disease. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation in Combination with Voluntary Running Improves Body Composition in Female C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Kristen M.; Charnigo, Richard J.; Shertzer, Howard G.; Pearson, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is an inexpensive intervention that may be used to reduce obesity and its consequences. In addition, many individuals who regularly exercise utilize dietary supplements to enhance their exercise routine and to accelerate fat loss or increase lean mass. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are a popular supplement and have been shown to produce a number of beneficial effects in rodent models and humans. Therefore, we hypothesized that BCAA supplementation would protect against high fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance and obesity in mice with and without access to exercise. We subjected 80 female C57BL/6 mice to a paradigm of HFD feeding, exercise in the form of voluntary wheel running, and BCAA supplementation in the drinking water for 16 weeks (n = 10 per group). Body weight was monitored weekly, while food and water consumption were recorded twice weekly. During the 5th, 10th, and 15th weeks of treatment, glucose tolerance and body composition were analyzed. Exercise significantly improved glucose tolerance in both control-fed and HFD-fed mice. BCAA supplementation, however, did not significantly alter glucose tolerance in any treatment group. While BCAA supplements did not improve lean to fat mass ratio in sedentary mice, it significantly augmented the effects of exercise on this parameter. PMID:26716948

  13. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation in Combination with Voluntary Running Improves Body Composition in Female C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Platt, Kristen M; Charnigo, Richard J; Shertzer, Howard G; Pearson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is an inexpensive intervention that may be used to reduce obesity and its consequences. In addition, many individuals who regularly exercise utilize dietary supplements to enhance their exercise routine and to accelerate fat loss or increase lean mass. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are a popular supplement and have been shown to produce a number of beneficial effects in rodent models and humans. Therefore, we hypothesized that BCAA supplementation would protect against high fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance and obesity in mice with and without access to exercise. We subjected 80 female C57BL/6 mice to a paradigm of HFD feeding, exercise in the form of voluntary wheel running, and BCAA supplementation in the drinking water for 16 weeks (n = 10 per group). Body weight was monitored weekly, while food and water consumption were recorded twice weekly. During the 5th, 10th, and 15th weeks of treatment, glucose tolerance and body composition were analyzed. Exercise significantly improved glucose tolerance in both control-fed and HFD-fed mice. BCAA supplementation, however, did not significantly alter glucose tolerance in any treatment group. While BCAA supplements did not improve lean to fat mass ratio in sedentary mice, it significantly augmented the effects of exercise on this parameter.

  14. Human Herpesvirus-8-Transformed Endothelial Cells Have Functionally Activated Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Rizwan; Cesarman, Ethel; Smith, D. Lynne; Gill, Parkash S.; Flore, Ornella

    2002-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma is a vascular tumor commonly associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and human herpesvirus (HHV-8) also known as Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. The principal features of this tumor are abnormal proliferation of vascular structures lined with spindle-shaped endothelial cells. HHV-8 may transform a subpopulation of endothelial cells in vitro via viral and cellular gene expression. We hypothesized that among the cellular genes, vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their cognate receptors may be involved in viral-mediated transformation. We have shown that HHV-8-transformed endothelial cells (EC-HHV-8) express higher levels of VEGF, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, and PlGF in addition to VEGF receptors-1, -2, and -3. Furthermore, antibodies to VEGF receptor-2 inhibited cell proliferation and viability. Similarly, inhibition of VEGF gene expression with antisense oligonucleotides inhibited EC-HHV-8 cell proliferation/viability. The growth and viability of primary endothelial cells and a fibroblast cell line however were unaffected by either the VEGF receptor-2 antibody or the VEGF antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. VEGF and VEGF receptors are thus induced in EC-HHV-8 and participate in the transformation. Inhibitors of VEGF may thus modulate the disease process during development and progression. PMID:11786394

  15. Latent KSHV Infected Endothelial Cells Are Glutamine Addicted and Require Glutaminolysis for Survival

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Erica L.; Carroll, Patrick A.; Thalhofer, Angel B.; Lagunoff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS). KSHV establishes a predominantly latent infection in the main KS tumor cell type, the spindle cell, which is of endothelial cell origin. KSHV requires the induction of multiple metabolic pathways, including glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis, for the survival of latently infected endothelial cells. Here we demonstrate that latent KSHV infection leads to increased levels of intracellular glutamine and enhanced glutamine uptake. Depletion of glutamine from the culture media leads to a significant increase in apoptotic cell death in latently infected endothelial cells, but not in their mock-infected counterparts. In cancer cells, glutamine is often required for glutaminolysis to provide intermediates for the tri-carboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and support for the production of biosynthetic and bioenergetic precursors. In the absence of glutamine, the TCA cycle intermediates alpha-ketoglutarate (αKG) and pyruvate prevent the death of latently infected cells. Targeted drug inhibition of glutaminolysis also induces increased cell death in latently infected cells. KSHV infection of endothelial cells induces protein expression of the glutamine transporter, SLC1A5. Chemical inhibition of SLC1A5, or knockdown by siRNA, leads to similar cell death rates as glutamine deprivation and, similarly, can be rescued by αKG. KSHV also induces expression of the heterodimeric transcription factors c-Myc-Max and related heterodimer MondoA-Mlx. Knockdown of MondoA inhibits expression of both Mlx and SLC1A5 and induces a significant increase in cell death of only cells latently infected with KSHV, again, fully rescued by the supplementation of αKG. Therefore, during latent infection of endothelial cells, KSHV activates and requires the Myc/MondoA-network to upregulate the glutamine transporter, SLC1A5, leading to increased glutamine uptake for glutaminolysis. These findings expand our

  16. Soy protein preserves basement membrane integrity through a synergistic effect on nephrin, matrix metalloproteinase and vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Nallasamy; Anuradha, Carani Venkataraman

    2011-01-01

    Soy protein improves renal function and prevents albuminuria in diabetic rats. This study investigates whether the renoprotective effect of soy protein is related to sustenance of basement membrane integrity. Adult male albino rats were randomized into four groups and fed one of the following semi-synthetic diets consisting of corn starch (60%) and casein (20%; CCD), fructose (60%) and casein (20%; FCD), fructose (60%) and soy protein (20%; FSD), or corn starch (60%) and soy protein (20%; CSD). Plasma chemistry and renal changes were analyzed after 60 days. FCD rats displayed metabolic derangements and renal ultrastructural changes. FSD rats showed reduction in type IV collagen, tissue inhibitor for matrix metallo-proteinase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor and tumor necrosis factor-α expression and improved matrix metallo-proteinase expression. Renal architecture was preserved in these rats. Soy protein supplementation not only improved insulin sensitivity but also markedly attenuated renal basement membrane changes in fructose diet-fed rats. These findings provide evidence in support of the use of dietary soy protein in patients with diabetic kidney disease. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Nitride coating enhances endothelialization on biomedical NiTi shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Ion, Raluca; Luculescu, Catalin; Cimpean, Anisoara; Marx, Philippe; Gordin, Doina-Margareta; Gloriant, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Surface nitriding was demonstrated to be an effective process for improving the biocompatibility of implantable devices. In this study, we investigated the benefits of nitriding the NiTi shape memory alloy for vascular stent applications. Results from cell experiments indicated that, compared to untreated NiTi, a superficial gas nitriding treatment enhanced the adhesion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), cell spreading and proliferation. This investigation provides data to demonstrate the possibility of improving the rate of endothelialization on NiTi by means of nitride coating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pulmonary endothelial pavement patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Kibria, G; Heath, D; Smith, P; Biggar, R

    1980-01-01

    The appearance of the endothelial pavement pattern was studied in the pulmonary trunk, pulmonary veins, aorta, and inferior vena cava of the rat by means of silver staining of the cell borders. The endothelial cell in each of the four blood vessels was found to have its own distinctive shape, fusiform and pointed in the direction of blood flow in the case of the aorta and larger and more rectangular in the pulmonary trunk and pulmonary veins. Detailed quantitation of the dimensions and surface area of the endothelial cells in each blood vessel was carried out by a photographic technique. Pulmonary hypertension was induced in one group of rats by feeding them on Crotalaria spectabilis seeds. The endothelial pavement pattern in their pulmonary trunks became disrupted with many of the cells assuming a fusiform shape reminiscent of aortic endothelium. Many small, new endothelial cells formed in the pulmonary trunk suggesting division of cells to line the enlarging blood vessels. In contrast the endothelial cells of the inferior vena cava merely increased in size to cope with the dilatation of this vein. Images PMID:7385090

  19. Endothelial Function and Weight Loss: Comparison of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Mohler, Emile R.; Sibley, Alexandra A.; Stein, Richard; Davila-Roman, Victor; Wyatt, Holly; Badellino, Karen; Rader, Daniel J.; Klein, Samuel; Foster, Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of weight loss on obesity-associated endothelial dysfunction is not clear because of conflicting data, demonstrating both improvement and no change in endothelial function after weight loss in obese subjects. A two-year prospective study (n=121) was conducted to examine: 1) the effect of obesity and weight loss (either a low-carbohydrate or and low-fat diet) on flow mediated vasodilatation (FMD), a measure of endothelial function. Participants reduced body weight by 7.1±4.4%, 8.7±6.8% 7.1±7.8% and 4.1±7.7% at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months, respectively with no significant differences between the low-fat and low-carbohydrate groups. Endothelial function was inversely correlated with waist circumference, triglyceride level, and directly correlated with leptin in obese persons prior to weight loss. These weight losses did not confer any improvements in FMD. There were no differences between the low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets in FMD at any time point. At 6 months (r = 0.26, p = 0.04) and one year (r = 0.28, p = 0.03), there were positive correlations between change in FMD and change in leptin but not at two years. There was no significant improvement in endothelial function after 7.1±7.8% weight loss at one year and 4.1±7.7% at two years, achieved by either a low carbohydrate or a low fat diet. PMID:23404949

  20. Modulation of endothelial nitric oxide by plant-derived products.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Christoph A; Dirsch, Verena M

    2009-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), is recognised as a central anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic principle in the vasculature. Decreased availability of NO in the vasculature promotes the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that a growing list of natural products, as components of the daily diet or phytomedical preparations, may improve vascular function by enhancing NO bioavailability. In this article we first outline common pathways modulating endothelial NO production or bioavailability to provide a basis for subsequent mechanistic discussions. Then we comprehensively review natural products and plant extracts known to positively influence eNOS activity and/or endothelial function in vitro or in vivo. We will discuss red wine, highlighting polyphenols, oligomeric procyanidins (OPC) and resveratrol as modulators of endothelial NO production. Other dietary products and their active components known to activate eNOS include cocoa (OPC and its monomer (-)-epicatechin), pomegranates (polyphenols), black and green tea (flavanoids, especially epigallocatechin gallate), olive oil (oleic acid and polyphenols), soy (genistein), and quercetin, one of the most abundant flavonoids in plants. In addition, phytomedical preparations made from ginkgo, hawthorn and ginseng, as well as formulations used in traditional Chinese Medicine, have been shown to affect endothelial NO production. Recurring phytochemical patterns among active fractions and purified compounds are discussed. In summary, there is increasing evidence that several single natural products and plant extracts influence endothelial NO production. Identification of such compounds and characterisation of their cellular actions may increase our knowledge of the regulation of endothelial NO production and could provide valuable clues for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Extraembryonic origin of circulating endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pardanaud, Luc; Eichmann, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Circulating endothelial cells (CEC) are contained in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of adult humans and participate to the revascularization of ischemic tissues. These cells represent attractive targets for cell or gene therapy aimed at improving ischemic revascularization or inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. The embryonic origin of CEC has not been addressed previously. Here we use quail-chick chimeras to study CEC origin and participation to the developing vasculature. CEC are traced with different markers, in particular the QH1 antibody recognizing only quail endothelial cells. Using yolk-sac chimeras, where quail embryos are grafted onto chick yolk sacs and vice-versa, we show that CEC are generated in the yolk sac. These cells are mobilized during wound healing, demonstrating their participation to angiogenic repair processes. Furthermore, we found that the allantois is also able to give rise to CEC in situ. In contrast to the yolk sac and allantois, the embryo proper does not produce CEC. Our results show that CEC exclusively originate from extra-embryonic territories made with splanchnopleural mesoderm and endoderm, while definitive hematopoietic stem cells and endothelial cells are of intra-embryonic origin.

  2. Restoration of impaired nitric oxide production in MELAS syndrome with citrulline and arginine supplementation

    PubMed Central

    El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Hsu, Jean W.; Emrick, Lisa T.; Wong, Lee-Jun C.; Craigen, William J.; Jahoor, Farook; Scaglia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is one of the most common mitochondrial disorders. Although the pathogenesis of stroke-like episodes remains unclear, it has been suggested that mitochondrial proliferation may result in endothelial dysfunction and decreased nitric oxide (NO) availability leading to cerebral ischemic events. This study aimed to assess NO production in subjects with MELAS syndrome and the effect of the NO precursors arginine and citrulline. Using stable isotope infusion techniques, we assessed arginine, citrulline, and NO metabolism in control subjects and subjects with MELAS syndrome before and after arginine or citrulline supplementation. The results showed that subjects with MELAS had lower NO synthesis rate associated with reduced citrulline flux, de novo arginine synthesis rate, and plasma arginine and citrulline concentrations, and higher plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentration and arginine clearance. We conclude that the observed impaired NO production is due to multiple factors including elevated ADMA, higher arginine clearance, and, most importantly, decreased de novo arginine synthesis secondary to decreased citrulline availability. Arginine and, to a greater extent, citrulline supplementation increased the de novo arginine synthesis rate, the plasma concentrations and flux of arginine and citrulline, and NO production. De novo arginine synthesis increased markedly with citrulline supplementation, explaining the superior efficacy of citrulline in increasing NO production. The improvement in NO production with arginine or citrulline supplementation supports their use in MELAS and suggests that citrulline may have a better therapeutic effect than arginine. These findings can have a broader relevance for other disorders marked by perturbations in NO metabolism. PMID:22325939

  3. Loss of the Endothelial Glycocalyx Links Albuminuria and Vascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Joanne K.; Burford, James L.; Gevorgyan, Haykanush; Nakano, Daisuke; Harper, Steven J.; Bates, David O.; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2012-01-01

    Patients with albuminuria and CKD frequently have vascular dysfunction but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Because the endothelial surface layer, a meshwork of surface-bound and loosely adherent glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans, modulates vascular function, its loss could contribute to both renal and systemic vascular dysfunction in proteinuric CKD. Using Munich-Wistar-Fromter (MWF) rats as a model of spontaneous albuminuric CKD, multiphoton fluorescence imaging and single-vessel physiology measurements revealed that old MWF rats exhibited widespread loss of the endothelial surface layer in parallel with defects in microvascular permeability to both water and albumin, in both continuous mesenteric microvessels and fenestrated glomerular microvessels. In contrast to young MWF rats, enzymatic disruption of the endothelial surface layer in old MWF rats resulted in neither additional loss of the layer nor additional changes in permeability. Intravenous injection of wheat germ agglutinin lectin and its adsorption onto the endothelial surface layer significantly improved glomerular albumin permeability. Taken together, these results suggest that widespread loss of the endothelial surface layer links albuminuric kidney disease with systemic vascular dysfunction, providing a potential therapeutic target for proteinuric kidney disease. PMID:22797190

  4. Gentiana lutea exerts anti-atherosclerotic effects by preventing endothelial inflammation and smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, R; Chandel, S; Upadhyay, S; Bendre, R; Ganugula, R; Potunuru, U R; Giri, H; Sahu, G; Kumar, P Uday; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash; Joksic, G; Bera, A K; Dixit, Madhulika

    2016-04-01

    Studies suggest that Gentiana lutea (GL), and its component isovitexin, may exhibit anti-atherosclerotic properties. In this study we sought to investigate the protective mechanism of GL aqueous root extract and isovitexin on endothelial inflammation, smooth muscle cell migation, and on the onset and progression of atherosclerosis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our results show that both GL extract and isovitexin, block leukocyte adhesion and generation of reactive oxygen species in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), following TNF-alpha and platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) challenges respectively. Both the extract and isovitexin blocked TNF-α induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. PDGF-BB induced migration of RASMCs and phospholipase C-γ activation, were also abrogated by GL extract and isovitexin. Fura-2 based ratiometric measurements demonstrated that, both the extact, and isovitexin, inhibit PDGF-BB mediated intracellular calcium rise in RASMCs. Supplementation of regular diet with 2% GL root powder for STZ rats, reduced total cholesterol in blood. Oil Red O staining demonstrated decreased lipid accumulation in aortic wall of diabetic animals upon treatment with GL. Medial thickness and deposition of collagen in the aortic segment of diabetic rats were also reduced upon supplementation. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated reduced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) in aortic segments of diabetic rats following GL treatment. Thus, our results support that GL root extract/powder and isovitexin exhibit anti-atherosclerotic activities. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University

  5. Chlorogenic acid improves ex vivo vessel function and protects endothelial cells against HOCl-induced oxidative damage, via increased production of nitric oxide and induction of Hmox-1.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rujia; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Mas, Emilie; Croft, Kevin D; Ward, Natalie C

    2016-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are potential contributors toward improved cardiovascular health. Coffee is one of the richest sources of dietary polyphenols in a coffee-drinking population, the most abundant form being chlorogenic acid (CGA). Endothelial dysfunction is an early and major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) is a key factor in regulation of endothelial function. Heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox-1), an inducible isoform of heme oxygenase that is produced in response to stressors such as oxidative stress, may also play a role in vascular protection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CGA on endothelial function with oxidant-induced damage in isolated aortic rings from C57BL mice. We further examine the mechanism by investigating cell viability, activation of eNOS and induction of Hmox-1 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). We found that pretreatment of isolated aortic rings with 10-μM CGA-protected vessels against HOCl-induced endothelial dysfunction (P<0.05). Pretreatment of cultured HAECs with 10-μM CGA increased endothelial cell viability following exposure to HOCl (P<0.05). Moreover, CGA increased NO production in HAECs in a dose-dependent manner, peaking at 6 h (P<0.05). CGA at 5 μM and 10 μM increased eNOS dimerization at 6 h and induced Hmox-1 protein expression at 6 h and 24 h in HAECs. These results are consistent with the cardiovascular protective effects of coffee polyphenols and demonstrate that CGA can protect vessels and cultured endothelial cells against oxidant-induced damage. The mechanism behind the beneficial effect of CGA appears to be in part via increased production of NO and induction of Hmox-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ibrolipim attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells via PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guohua; Wang, Zongbao; Zeng, Huaicai; Yu, Jian; Yin, Weidong; Zhang, Sujun; Wang, Yueting; Zhang, Yali

    2011-10-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a key event in the onset and progression of atherosclerosis associated with diabetes. Increasing cell apoptosis may lead to endothelial dysfunction and contribute to vascular complications. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the possible role and mechanism of ibrolipim in preventing endothelial dysfunction induced by high glucose. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured respectively under normal glucose level (5.5mM), high glucose level (33mM), and high glucose level with ibrolipim treatment. Endothelial dysfunction was identified by the expression of ET-1 and vWF through reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). HUVECs apoptosis was assessed by fluorescent staining with Hoechst 33258. Akt activity was analyzed by western blot. High glucose condition significantly increased the rate of apoptotic cells, weakened cell viability, and decreased the expression of ET-1 and vWF. Ibrolipim treatment significantly attenuated these alterations of endothelial dysfunction. The lower concentrations (2, 4, 8 microM) of ibrolipim inhibited apoptosis of cultured HUVECs, improved cell viability, down-regulated the mRNA levels of ET-1, vWF, and attenuated the cytotoxicity; however, higher concentration (16, 32 microM) of ibrolipim aggravated the damage of HUVECs cultured under high glucose level. Meanwhile, high glucose induced a decrease of Akt activity which led to apoptosis, and ibrolipim prevented the decrease and attenuated apoptotic effect induced by high glucose. Furthermore, the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 significantly abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of ibrolipim, and decreased Akt phosphorylation. Although, the expression of Akt mRNA and total protein were not altered in cultured HUVECs. Ibrolipim at lower concentrations can inhibit high glucose-induced apoptosis in cultured HUVECs, which might be related to the alternation of Akt activity. Ibrolipim has the potential to attenuate endothelial dysfunction and lower the risk of

  7. Endothelial microparticles: Pathogenic or passive players in endothelial dysfunction in autoimmune rheumatic diseases?

    PubMed

    McCarthy, E M; Wilkinson, F L; Parker, B; Alexander, M Y

    2016-11-01

    Autoimmune rheumatic diseases are characterised by systemic inflammation and complex immunopathology, with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, initiated by endothelial dysfunction in a chronic inflammatory environment. Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are released into the circulation from activated endothelial cells and may therefore, reflect disease severity, vascular and endothelial dysfunction, that could influence disease pathogenesis via autocrine/paracrine signalling. The exact function of EMPs in rheumatic disease remains unknown, and this has initiated research to elucidate EMP composition and function, which may be determined by the mode of endothelial activation and the micro environment. To date, EMPs are thought to play a role in angiogenesis, thrombosis and inflammation by transferring specific proteins and microRNAs (miRs) to target cells. Here, we review the mechanisms underlying the generation and composition of EMPs and the clinical and experimental studies describing the involvement of EMPs in rheumatic diseases, since we have previously shown endothelial dysfunction and an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease are characteristics in systemic lupus erythematosus. We will also discuss the potential of EMPs as future biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in these diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Serum lipid profile and inflammatory markers in the aorta of cholesterol-fed rats supplemented with extra virgin olive oil, sunflower oils and oil-products.

    PubMed

    Katsarou, Ageliki I; Kaliora, Andriana C; Papalois, Apostolos; Chiou, Antonia; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Agrogiannis, George; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) major and minor component anti-inflammatory effect on aorta was evaluated; Wistar rats were fed (9 weeks) on either a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) or a HCD supplemented with oils, i.e. EVOO, sunflower oil (SO), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), or oil-products modified to their phenolic content, i.e. phenolics deprived-EVOO [EVOO(-)], SO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [SO(+)], HOSO enriched with the EVOO phenolics [HOSO(+)]. HCD induced dyslipidemia and resulted in higher aorta adhesion molecules levels at euthanasia. Groups receiving EVOO, EVOO(-), HOSO, HOSO(+) presented higher serum TC and LDL-c levels compared to cholesterol-fed rats; attenuation of aorta E-selectin levels was also observed. In EVOO/EVOO(-) groups, aorta vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was lower compared to HCD animals. SO/SO(+) diets had no effect on endothelial dysfunction amelioration. Overall, our results suggest that major and/or minor EVOO constituents improve aorta E-selectin and VCAM-1, while serum lipids do not benefit.

  9. β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid supplementation may improve recovery and muscle adaptations after resistance training: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vagner R; Belozo, Felipe L; Micheletti, Thayana O; Conrado, Marcelo; Stout, Jeffrey R; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Gonzalez, Adam M

    2017-09-01

    β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) has been suggested to accelerate the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle after high-intensity exercise and attenuate markers of skeletal muscle damage. Herein a systematic review on the use of HMB-FA supplementation as an ergogenic aid to improve measures of muscle recovery, performance, and hypertrophy after resistance training was conducted. This review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. We included randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials investigating the effects of HMB-FA supplementation in conjunction with resistance exercise in humans. The search was conducted using Medline and Google Scholar databases for the terms beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, HMB free acid, exercise, resistance exercise, strength training, and HMB supplementation. Only research articles published from 1996 to 2016 in English language were considered for the analysis. Nine studies met the criteria for inclusion in the analyses. Most studies included resistance-trained men, and the primary intervention strategy involved administration of 3g of HMB-FA per day. In conjunction with resistance training, HMB-FA supplementation may attenuate markers of muscle damage, augment acute immune and endocrine responses, and enhance training-induced muscle mass and strength. HMB-FA supplementation may also improve markers of aerobic fitness when combined with high-intensity interval training. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to determine the overall efficacy of HMB-FA supplementation as an ergogenic aid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Short-term ubiquinol supplementation reduces oxidative stress associated with strenuous exercise in healthy adults: A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Alvaro; Diaz-Castro, Javier; Pulido-Moran, Mario; Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Kajarabille, Naroa; Chirosa, Ignacio; Guisado, Isabel M; Javier Chirosa, Luis; Guisado, Rafael; Ochoa, Julio J

    2016-11-12

    Studies about Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) supplementation on strenuous exercise are scarce, especially those related with oxidative stress associated with physical activity and virtually nonexistent with the reduced form, Ubiquinol. The objective of this study was to determine, for the first time, whether a short-term supplementation with Ubiquinol can prevent oxidative stress associated to strenuous exercise. The participants (n = 100 healthy and well trained, but not on an elite level) were classified in two groups: Ubiquinol (experimental group), and placebo group (control). The protocol consisted of conducting two identical strenuous exercise tests with a rest period between tests of 24 h. Blood and urine samples were collected from the participants before supplementation (basal value) (T1), after supplementation (2 weeks) (T2), after first physical exercise test (T3), after 24 h of rest (T4), and after second physical exercise test (T5).The increase observed in the lactate, isoprostanes, DNA damage, and hydroperoxide levels reveals the severity of the oxidative damage induced by the exercise. There was a reduction in the isoprostanes, 8-OHdG, oxidized LDL, and hydroperoxydes in the supplemented Ubiquinol group, an increase in total antioxidant status, fat soluble antioxidant (both plasma and membrane), and CAT activity. Also, NO in the Ubiquinol-supplemented group was maintained within a narrow range. Oxidative stress induced by strenuous exercise is accumulative and increases transiently in subsequent sessions of physical activity. A short-term supplementation (2 weeks) with Ubiquinol (200 mg/day) before strenuous exercise, decreases oxidative stress and increases plasma NO, fact that could improve endothelial function, energetic substrate supply, and muscle recovery after strenuous exercise. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(6):612-622, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  11. Nutritional Supplement of Hatchery Eggshell Membrane Improves Poultry Performance and Provides Resistance against Endotoxin Stress.

    PubMed

    Makkar, S K; Rath, N C; Packialakshmi, B; Zhou, Z Y; Huff, G R; Donoghue, A M

    2016-01-01

    Eggshells are significant part of hatchery waste which consist of calcium carbonate crust, membranes, and proteins and peptides of embryonic origins along with other entrapped contaminants including microbes. We hypothesized that using this product as a nutritional additive in poultry diet may confer better immunity to the chickens in the paradigm of mammalian milk that enhances immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effect of hatchery eggshell membranes (HESM) as a short term feed supplement on growth performance and immunity of chickens under bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged condition. Three studies were conducted to find the effect of HESM supplement on post hatch chickens. In the first study, the chickens were fed either a control diet or diets containing 0.5% whey protein or HESM as supplement and evaluated at 5 weeks of age using growth, hematology, clinical chemistry, plasma immunoglobulins, and corticosterone as variables. The second and third studies were done to compare the effects of LPS on control and HESM fed birds at 5 weeks of age following at 4 and 24 h of treatment where the HESM was also sterilized with ethanol to deplete bacterial factors. HESM supplement caused weight gain in 2 experiments and decreased blood corticosterone concentrations. While LPS caused a significant loss in body weight at 24 h following its administration, the HESM supplemented birds showed significantly less body weight loss compared with the control fed birds. The WBC, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the levels of IgG were low in chickens fed diets with HESM supplement compared with control diet group. LPS challenge increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene IL-6 but the HESM fed birds showed its effect curtailed, also, which also, favored the up-regulation of anti-inflammatory genes compared with control diet fed chickens. Post hatch supplementation of HESM appears to improve performance, modulate immunity, and increase resistance of

  12. Exercise training improves muscle vasodilatation in individuals with T786C polymorphism of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Negrao, Marcelo V; Alves, Cleber R; Alves, Guilherme B; Pereira, Alexandre C; Dias, Rodrigo G; Laterza, Mateus C; Mota, Gloria F; Oliveira, Edilamar M; Bassaneze, Vinícius; Krieger, Jose E; Negrao, Carlos E; Rondon, Maria Urbana P B

    2010-09-01

    Allele T at promoter region of the eNOS gene has been associated with an increase in coronary disease mortality, suggesting that this allele increases susceptibility for endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, exercise training improves endothelial function. Thus, we hypothesized that: 1) Muscle vasodilatation during exercise is attenuated in individuals homozygous for allele T, and 2) Exercise training improves muscle vasodilatation in response to exercise for TT genotype individuals. From 133 preselected healthy individuals genotyped for the T786C polymorphism, 72 participated in the study: TT (n = 37; age 27 ± 1 yr) and CT+CC (n = 35; age 26 ± 1 yr). Forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) and blood pressure (oscillometric automatic cuff) were evaluated at rest and during 30% handgrip exercise. Exercise training consisted of three sessions per week for 18 wk, with intensity between anaerobic threshold and respiratory compensation point. Resting forearm vascular conductance (FVC, P = 0.17) and mean blood pressure (P = 0.70) were similar between groups. However, FVC responses during handgrip exercise were significantly lower in TT individuals compared with CT+CC individuals (0.39 ± 0.12 vs. 1.08 ± 0.27 units, P = 0.01). Exercise training significantly increased peak VO(2) in both groups, but resting FVC remained unchanged. This intervention significantly increased FVC response to handgrip exercise in TT individuals (P = 0.03), but not in CT+CC individuals (P = 0.49), leading to an equivalent FVC response between TT and CT+CC individuals (1.05 ± 0.18 vs. 1.59 ± 0.27 units, P = 0.27). In conclusion, exercise training improves muscle vasodilatation in response to exercise in TT genotype individuals, demonstrating that genetic variants influence the effects of interventions such as exercise training.

  13. Natural supplements for improving insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kouzi, Samir A; Yang, Sendra; Nuzum, Donald S; Dirks-Naylor, Amie J

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a common metabolic disorder characterized by resistance to the actions of insulin to stimulate skeletal muscle glucose disposal. In light of the staggering financial/human cost of type 2 diabetes, there is considerable need for safe and effective agents that can be used to prevent and/or adjunctively treat the disease. Available evidence suggests that a number of natural supplements, including cinnamon, biotin, fenugreek, ginseng, banaba, and alpha-lipoic acid, have the potential to reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes in the large at-risk population. The evidence also suggests that, when used adjunctively, these natural products are likely to help clinicians achieve optimal glycemic control, improve long-term prognosis, and/or minimize the need for insulin therapy in type 2 diabetics. More research, particularly well-designed, long-term human clinical trials, is certainly needed to accurately define the value and place of these supplements in diabetes prevention and management.

  14. Curcumin modulates endothelial permeability and monocyte transendothelial migration by affecting endothelial cell dynamics.

    PubMed

    Monfoulet, Laurent-Emmanuel; Mercier, Sylvie; Bayle, Dominique; Tamaian, Radu; Barber-Chamoux, Nicolas; Morand, Christine; Milenkovic, Dragan

    2017-11-01

    Curcumin is a phenolic compound that exhibits beneficial properties for cardiometabolic health. We previously showed that curcumin reduced the infiltration of immune cells into the vascular wall and prevented atherosclerosis development in mice. This study aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration (TEM) and to decipher the underlying mechanisms of these actions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to curcumin (0.5-1μM) for 3h prior to their activation by Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α). Endothelial permeability, monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration assays were conducted under static condition and shear stress that mimics blood flow. We further investigated the impact of curcumin on signaling pathways and on the expression of genes using macroarrays. Pre-exposure of endothelial cells to curcumin reduced monocyte adhesion and their transendothelial migration in both static and shear stress conditions. Curcumin also prevented changes in both endothelial permeability and the area of HUVECs when induced by TNF-α. We showed that curcumin modulated the expression of 15 genes involved in the control of cytoskeleton and endothelial junction dynamic. Finally, we showed that curcumin inhibited NF-κB signaling likely through an antagonist interplay with several kinases as suggested by molecular docking analysis. Our findings demonstrate the ability of curcumin to reduce monocyte TEM through a multimodal regulation of the endothelial cell dynamics with a potential benefit on the vascular endothelial function barrier. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. C-reactive protein induces release of both endothelial microparticles and circulating endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo: further evidence of endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Devaraj, Sridevi; Kumaresan, Pappanaicken R; Jialal, Ishwarlal

    2011-12-01

    Inflammation is pivotal in atherosclerosis. A key early event in atherosclerosis is endothelial dysfunction. C-reactive protein (CRP), the prototypic marker of inflammation in humans, is a risk marker for cardiovascular disease, and there is mounting evidence to support its role in atherothrombosis. CRP has been shown to promote endothelial dysfunction both in vitro and in vivo. Emerging biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction include circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and endothelial microparticles (EMPs). However, there is a paucity of data examining the effect of CRP on CEC and EMP production in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we treated human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) with increasing concentrations of CRP (0-50 μg/mL) or boiled CRP. We counted CECs and EMPs by flow cytometry. Although CRP treatment resulted in a significant increase in release of both CECs and EMPs, boiled CRP failed to have an effect. Pretreatment of HAECs with sepiapterin or diethylenetriamine NONOate, both of which preserve nitric oxide (NO), resulted in attenuation of CRP's effects on CECs and EMPs. CD32 and CD64 blocking antibodies but not CD16 antibody or lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor 1 small interfering RNA (LOX-1 siRNA) prevented CRP-induced production of CECs and EMPs. Furthermore, delivery of human CRP to Wistar rats compared with human serum albumin resulted in significantly increased CECs and EMPs, corroborating the in vitro findings. We provide novel data that CRP, via NO deficiency, promotes endothelial dysfunction by inducing release of CECs and EMPs, which are biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction.

  16. SIRT1 reduces endothelial activation without affecting vascular function in ApoE-/- mice

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Sokrates; Schäfer, Nicola; Breitenstein, Alexander; Besler, Christian; Winnik, Stephan; Lohmann, Christine; Heinrich, Kathrin; Brokopp, Chad E.; Handschin, Christoph; Landmesser, Ulf; Tanner, Felix C.; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Matter, Christian M.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to progression of atherosclerosis, at least in part by causing endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory activation. The class III histone deacetylase SIRT1 has been implicated in extension of lifespan. In the vasculature,SIRT1 gain-of-function using SIRT1 overexpression or activation has been shown to improve endothelial function in mice and rats via stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS). However, the effects of SIRT1 loss-of-function on the endothelium in atherosclerosis remain to be characterized. Thus, we have investigated the endothelial effects of decreased endogenous SIRT1 in hypercholesterolemic ApoE-/- mice. We observed no difference in endothelial relaxation and eNOS (Ser1177) phosphorylation between 20-week old male atherosclerotic ApoE-/- SIRT1+/- and ApoE-/- SIRT1+/+ mice. However, SIRT1 prevented endothelial superoxide production, inhibited NF-κB signaling, and diminished expression of adhesion molecules. Treatment of young hypercholesterolemic ApoE-/- SIRT1+/- mice with lipopolysaccharide to boost NF-κB signaling led to a more pronounced endothelial expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 as compared to ApoE-/- SIRT1+/+ mice. In conclusion, endogenous SIRT1 diminishes endothelial activation in ApoE-/- mice, but does not affect endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. PMID:20606253

  17. Four-month course of soluble milk proteins interacts with exercise to improve muscle strength and delay fatigue in elderly participants.

    PubMed

    Gryson, Céline; Ratel, Sébastien; Rance, Mélanie; Penando, Stéphane; Bonhomme, Cécile; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Duclos, Martine; Boirie, Yves; Walrand, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    The benefit of protein supplementation on the adaptive response of muscle to exercise training in older people is controversial. To investigate the independent and combined effects of a multicomponent exercise program with and without a milk-based nutritional supplement on muscle strength and mass, lower-extremity fatigue, and metabolic markers. A sample of 48 healthy sedentary men aged 60.8 ± 0.4 years were randomly assigned to a 16-week multicomponent exercise training program with a milk-based supplement containing, besides proteins [total milk proteins 4 or 10 g/day or soluble milk proteins rich in leucine (PRO) 10 g/day], carbohydrates and fat. Body composition, muscle mass and strength, and time to task failure, an index of muscle fatigue, were measured. Blood lipid, fibrinogen, creatine phosphokinase, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α soluble receptors, and endothelial markers were assessed. Body fat mass was reduced after the 4-month training program in groups receiving 10 g/day of protein supplementation (P < .01). The training program sustained with the daily 10 g/day PRO was associated with a significant increase in dominant fat free mass (+5.4%, P < .01) and in appendicular muscle mass (+4.5%, P < .01). Blood cholesterol was decreased in the trained group receiving 10 g/day PRO. The index of insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) and blood creatine phosphokinase were reduced in the groups receiving 10 g/day PRO, irrespective of exercise. The inflammatory and endothelial markers were not different between the groups. Training caused a significant improvement (+10.6% to 19.4%, P < .01) in the maximal oxygen uptake. Increased maximum voluntary contraction force was seen in the trained groups receiving 10 g/day of proteins (about 3%, P < .05). Time to task failure was improved in the trained participants receiving a 10 g/day supplementation with PRO (P < .01). Soluble milk proteins

  18. Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol suppresses monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells by attenuation of JNK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tsuneyoshi, Tadamitsu; Kanamori, Yuta; Matsutomo, Toshiaki; Morihara, Naoaki

    2015-09-25

    Several clinical studies have shown that the intake of aged garlic extract improves endothelial dysfunction. Lignan compounds, (+)-(2S,3R)-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DDC) and (-)-(2R,3S)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (DDDC), have been isolated as antioxidants in aged garlic extract. There is evidence showing the importance of oxidative stress in endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, we examined whether DDC and DDDC enhance endothelial cell function in vitro. Cell adhesion assay was performed using THP-1 monocyte and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) which were activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-BSA. Cellular ELISA method was used for the evaluation of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) expression on HUVECs. DDC and DDDC suppressed the adhesion of THP-1 to HUVECs which was activated by LPS or AGEs-BSA. DDC and DDDC also inhibited VCAM-1 expression induced by LPS or AGEs-BSA, but DDDC was less effective than DDC. In addition, the inhibitory effect of DDC on VCAM-1 expression involved suppressing JNK/c-Jun pathway rather than NF-κB pathway. DDC has an inhibitory effect on VCAM-1 expression via JNK pathway in endothelial cells and therefore may serve as a novel pharmacological agent to improve endothelial dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparing different maize supplementation strategies to improve resilience and resistance against gastrointestinal nematode infections in browsing goats.

    PubMed

    Gárate-Gallardo, Leslie; Torres-Acosta, Juan Felipe de Jesús; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando Jacinto; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Cámara-Sarmiento, Ramón; Canul-Ku, Hilda Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The effect of maize grain supplementation on the resilience and resistance of browsing Criollo goat kids against gastrointestinal nematodes was evaluated. Five-month-old kids (n = 42), raised worm-free, were allocated to five groups: infected + not supplemented (I-NS; n = 10), infected + maize supplement at 108 g/d (I-S108; n = 8), maize supplement at 1% of body weight (BW) (I-S1%; n = 8), maize supplement at 1.5% BW (I-S1.5%; n = 8), or infected + supplemented (maize supplement 1.5% BW) + moxidectin (0.2 mg/kg BW subcutaneously every 28 d) (T-S1.5%; n = 8). Kids browsed daily (7 h) in a tropical forest for 112 days during the rainy season. Kids were weighed weekly to adjust supplementary feeding. Hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin (Hb), and eggs per gram of feces were determined fortnightly. On day 112, five goat kids were slaughtered per group to determine worm burdens. Kids of the I-S1.5% group showed similar body-weight change, Ht and Hb, compared to kids without gastrointestinal nematodes (T-S1.5%), as well as lower eggs per gram of feces and Trichostrongylus colubriformis worm burden compared to the I-NS group (P > 0.05). Thus, among the supplement levels tested, increasing maize supplementation at 1.5% BW of kids was the best strategy to improve their resilience and resistance against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections under the conditions of forage from the tropical forest. © L. Gárate-Gallardo et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  20. Comparing different maize supplementation strategies to improve resilience and resistance against gastrointestinal nematode infections in browsing goats

    PubMed Central

    Gárate-Gallardo, Leslie; Torres-Acosta, Juan Felipe de Jesús; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando Jacinto; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Cámara-Sarmiento, Ramón; Canul-Ku, Hilda Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The effect of maize grain supplementation on the resilience and resistance of browsing Criollo goat kids against gastrointestinal nematodes was evaluated. Five-month-old kids (n = 42), raised worm-free, were allocated to five groups: infected + not supplemented (I-NS; n = 10), infected + maize supplement at 108 g/d (I-S108; n = 8), maize supplement at 1% of body weight (BW) (I-S1%; n = 8), maize supplement at 1.5% BW (I-S1.5%; n = 8), or infected + supplemented (maize supplement 1.5% BW) + moxidectin (0.2 mg/kg BW subcutaneously every 28 d) (T-S1.5%; n = 8). Kids browsed daily (7 h) in a tropical forest for 112 days during the rainy season. Kids were weighed weekly to adjust supplementary feeding. Hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin (Hb), and eggs per gram of feces were determined fortnightly. On day 112, five goat kids were slaughtered per group to determine worm burdens. Kids of the I-S1.5% group showed similar body-weight change, Ht and Hb, compared to kids without gastrointestinal nematodes (T-S1.5%), as well as lower eggs per gram of feces and Trichostrongylus colubriformis worm burden compared to the I-NS group (P > 0.05). Thus, among the supplement levels tested, increasing maize supplementation at 1.5% BW of kids was the best strategy to improve their resilience and resistance against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections under the conditions of forage from the tropical forest. PMID:26071051

  1. Intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise alleviates inflammation and improves endothelial progenitor cell count and bone density in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Liao, Min-Tser; Liu, Wen-Chih; Lin, Fu-Huang; Huang, Ching-Feng; Chen, Shao-Yuan; Liu, Chuan-Chieh; Lin, Shih-Hua; Lu, Kuo-Cheng; Wu, Chia-Chao

    2016-07-01

    Inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and mineral bone disease are critical factors contributing to morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Physical exercise alleviates inflammation and increases bone density. Here, we investigated the effects of intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise on HD patients. Forty end-stage renal disease patients undergoing HD were randomly assigned to either an exercise or control group. The patients in the exercise group performed a cycling program consisting of a 5-minute warm-up, 20 minutes of cycling at the desired workload, and a 5-minute cool down during 3 HD sessions per week for 3 months. Biochemical markers, inflammatory cytokines, nutritional status, the serum endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) count, bone mineral density, and functional capacity were analyzed. After 3 months of exercise, the patients in the exercise group showed significant improvements in serum albumin levels, the body mass index, inflammatory cytokine levels, and the number of cells positive for CD133, CD34, and kinase insert domain-conjugating receptor. Compared with the exercise group, the patients in the control group showed a loss of bone density at the femoral neck and no increases in EPCs. The patients in the exercise group also had a significantly greater 6-minute walk distance after completing the exercise program. Furthermore, the number of EPCs significantly correlated with the 6-minute walk distance both before and after the 3-month program. Intradialytic aerobic cycling exercise programs can effectively alleviate inflammation and improve nutrition, bone mineral density, and exercise tolerance in HD patients.

  2. Forearm ischemia decreases endothelial colony-forming cell angiogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Mauge, Laetitia; Sabatier, Florence; Boutouyrie, Pierre; D'Audigier, Clément; Peyrard, Séverine; Bozec, Erwan; Blanchard, Anne; Azizi, Michel; Dizier, Blandine; Dignat-George, Françoise; Gaussem, Pascale; Smadja, David M

    2014-02-01

    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells and especially endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are promising candidate cells for endothelial regenerative medicine of ischemic diseases, but the conditions for an optimal collection from adult blood must be improved. On the basis of a recently reported vascular niche of ECFCs, we hypothesized that a local ischemia could trigger ECFC mobilization from the vascular wall into peripheral blood to optimize their collection for autologous implantation in critical leg ischemia. Because the target population with critical leg ischemia is composed of elderly patients in whom a vascular impairment has been documented, we also analyzed the impact of aging on ECFC mobilization and vascular integrity. After having defined optimized ECFC culture conditions, we studied the effect of forearm ischemia on ECFC numbers and functions in 26 healthy volunteers (13 volunteers ages 20-30-years old versus 13 volunteers ages 60-70 years old). The results show that forearm ischemia induced an efficient local ischemia and a normal endothelial response but did not mobilize ECFCs regardless of the age group. Moreover, we report an alteration of angiogenic properties of ECFCs obtained after forearm ischemia, in vitro as well as in vivo in a hindlimb ischemia murine model. This impaired ECFC angiogenic potential was not associated with a quantitative modification of the circulating endothelial compartment. The procedure of local ischemia, although reulting in a preserved endothelial reactivity, did not mobilize ECFCs but altered their angiogenic potential. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Management of corneal endothelial decompensation with Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty in a patient with Ahmed glaucoma valve implant].

    PubMed

    Röck, T; Bartz-Schmidt, K-U; Röck, D; Yoeruek, E

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the main causes for developing bullous keratopathy are from problems related to intraocular surgery, trauma, infection, Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy and chronically elevated intraocular pressure. In the 1990s penetrating keratoplasty was once considered the therapy of choice for treatment of bullous keratopathy but in recent years it has been replaced by posterior lamellar keratoplasty. The Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) procedure represents the final development of posterior lamellar keratoplasty. The question now arises whether DMEK can be used in patients with bullous keratopathy and Ahmed glaucoma valve implant. A 72-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further evaluation with the diagnosis of bullous keratopathy and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. The bullous keratopathy was caused by a variety of previous operations as well as decompensation of intraocular pressure. This article describes the therapy of bullous keratopathy by DMEK with existing Ahmed glaucoma valve implant. After surgery the cornea became clear and the best-corrected visual acuity improved from hand movement to 0.2. The intraocular pressure remained normal (10-14 mmHg) without antiglaucoma medication and the endothelial cell count decreased only slightly over a follow-up of 13 months. No complications were encountered. The DMEK surgical procedure seems to be possible in patients with Ahmed glaucoma valve implant and endothelial decompensation. However, further studies with a larger number of patients should follow to validate the replacement of penetrating keratoplasty and other posterior lamellar procedures by DMEK.

  4. Endothelial Notch activity promotes angiogenesis and osteogenesis in bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasamy, Saravana K.; Kusumbe, Anjali P.; Wang, Lin; Adams, Ralf H.

    2014-03-01

    Blood vessel growth in the skeletal system and osteogenesis seem to be coupled, suggesting the existence of molecular crosstalk between endothelial and osteoblastic cells. Understanding the nature of the mechanisms linking angiogenesis and bone formation should be of great relevance for improved fracture healing or prevention of bone mass loss. Here we show that vascular growth in bone involves a specialized, tissue-specific form of angiogenesis. Notch signalling promotes endothelial cell proliferation and vessel growth in postnatal long bone, which is the opposite of the well-established function of Notch and its ligand Dll4 in the endothelium of other organs and tumours. Endothelial-cell-specific and inducible genetic disruption of Notch signalling in mice not only impaired bone vessel morphology and growth, but also led to reduced osteogenesis, shortening of long bones, chondrocyte defects, loss of trabeculae and decreased bone mass. On the basis of a series of genetic experiments, we conclude that skeletal defects in these mutants involved defective angiocrine release of Noggin from endothelial cells, which is positively regulated by Notch. Administration of recombinant Noggin, a secreted antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins, restored bone growth and mineralization, chondrocyte maturation, the formation of trabeculae and osteoprogenitor numbers in endothelial-cell-specific Notch pathway mutants. These findings establish a molecular framework coupling angiogenesis, angiocrine signals and osteogenesis, which may prove significant for the development of future therapeutic applications.

  5. A novel platelet lysate hydrogel for endothelial cell and mesenchymal stem cell-directed neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Scott T; Douglas, Alison M; Chadid, Tatiana; Kuo, Katie; Rajabalan, Ajai; Li, Haiyan; Copland, Ian B; Barker, Thomas H; Galipeau, Jacques; Brewster, Luke P

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) hold promise in promoting vascular regeneration of ischemic tissue in conditions like critical limb ischemia of the leg. However, this approach has been limited in part by poor cell retention and survival after delivery. New biomaterials offer an opportunity to localize cells to the desired tissue after delivery, but also to improve cell survival after delivery. Here we characterize the mechanical and microstructural properties of a novel hydrogel composed of pooled human platelet lysate (PL) and test its ability to promote MSC angiogenic activity using clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo models. This PL hydrogel had comparable storage and loss modulus and behaved as a viscoelastic solid similar to fibrin hydrogels despite having 1/4-1/10th the fibrin content of standard fibrin gels. Additionally, PL hydrogels enabled sustained release of endogenous PDGF-BB for up to 20days and were resistant to protease degradation. PL hydrogel stimulated pro-angiogenic activity by promoting human MSC growth and invasion in a 3D environment, and enhancing endothelial cell sprouting alone and in co-culture with MSCs. When delivered in vivo, the combination of PL and human MSCs improved local tissue perfusion after 8days compared to controls when assessed with laser Doppler perfusion imaging in a murine model of hind limb ischemia. These results support the use of a PL hydrogel as a scaffold for MSC delivery to promote vascular regeneration. Innovative strategies for improved retention and viability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are needed for cellular therapies. Human platelet lysate is a potent serum supplement that improves the expansion of MSCs. Here we characterize our novel PL hydrogel's desirable structural and biologic properties for human MSCs and endothelial cells. PL hydrogel can localize cells for retention in the desired tissue, improves cell viability, and augments MSCs' angiogenic activity. As a result of these unique traits, PL

  6. Potential of Food and Natural Products to Promote Endothelial and Vascular Health.

    PubMed

    Auger, Cyril; Said, Amissi; Nguyen, Phuong Nga; Chabert, Philippe; Idris-Khodja, Noureddine; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2016-07-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is now well established as a pivotal early event in the development of major cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. The alteration of the endothelial function is often triggered by an imbalance between the endothelial formation of vasoprotective factors including nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization, and an increased level of oxidative stress involving several prooxidant enzymes such as NADPH oxidase and, often also, the appearance of cyclooxygenase-derived vasoconstrictors. Preclinical studies have indicated that polyphenol-rich food and food-derived products such as grape-derived products, black and red berries, green and black teas and cocoa, and omega-3 fatty acids can trigger activating pathways in endothelial cells promoting an increased formation of nitric oxide and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization. Moreover, intake of such food-derived products has been associated with the prevention and/or the improvement of an established endothelial dysfunction in several experimental models of cardiovascular diseases and in humans with cardiovascular diseases. This review will discuss both experimental and clinical evidences indicating that different types of food and natural products are able to promote endothelial and vascular health, as well as the underlying mechanisms.

  7. Dietary chromium tripicolinate supplementation reduces glucose concentrations and improves glucose tolerance in normal-weight cats.

    PubMed

    Appleton, D J; Rand, J S; Sunvold, G D; Priest, J

    2002-03-01

    The effect of dietary chromium supplementation on glucose and insulin metabolism in healthy, non-obese cats was evaluated. Thirty-two cats were randomly divided into four groups and fed experimental diets consisting of a standard diet with 0 ppb (control), 150 ppb, 300 ppb, or 600 ppb added chromium as chromium tripicolinate. Intravenous glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests with minimal model analysis were performed before and after 6 weeks of feeding the test diets. During the glucose tolerance test, glucose concentrations, area under the glucose concentration-time curve, and glucose half-life (300 ppb only), were significantly lower after the trial in cats supplemented with 300 ppb and 600 ppb chromium, compared with values before the trial. Fasting glucose concentrations measured on a different day in the biochemistry profile were also significantly lower after supplementation with 600 ppb chromium. There were no significant differences in insulin concentrations or indices in either the glucose or insulin tolerance tests following chromium supplementation, nor were there any differences between groups before or after the dietary trial.Importantly, this study has shown a small but significant, dose-dependent improvement in glucose tolerance in healthy, non-obese cats supplemented with dietary chromium. Further long-term studies are warranted to determine if the addition of chromium to feline diets is advantageous. Cats most likely to benefit are those with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance from lack of exercise, obesity and old age. Healthy cats at risk of glucose intolerance and diabetes from underlying low insulin sensitivity or genetic factors may also benefit from long-term chromium supplementation. Copyright 2002 ESFM and AAFP.

  8. An l-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an l-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator ( P < 0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio ( P < 0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls ( P < 0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.

  9. Thermogenic Blend Alone or in Combination with Whey Protein Supplement Stimulates Fat Metabolism and Improves Body Composition in Mice.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Brock, Paula de Lima; Vaughan, Brent M; Vollmer, David L

    2018-01-01

    Certain food ingredients promote thermogenesis and fat loss. Similarly, whey protein improves body composition. Due to this potential synergistic effect, a blend of thermogenic food ingredients containing African mango, citrus fruit extract, Coleus forskohlii , dihydrocapsiate, and red pepper was tested alone and in combination with a whey protein supplement for its effects on body composition in sedentary mice during high-fat diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of thermogenic foods on improving body composition during consumption of an unhealthy diet. C57BL/6J young adult male mice ( n = 12) were placed on a 60% high-fat diet for 4 weeks and subsequently randomly assigned to receive daily dosing by oral gavage of vehicle, the novel blend alone or with whey protein supplement for another 4 weeks. Body composition, thermal imaging of brown adipose tissue (BAT), mitochondrial BAT uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and plasma levels of leptin were assessed. Novel blend alone and in combination with protein supplement attenuated body weight gain, fat, and increased surface BAT temperature in comparison to vehicle control and to baseline ( P < 0.5). The combination of novel blend and whey protein supplement also significantly increased UCP1 protein expression in BAT mitochondria in comparison to vehicle control and novel blend alone ( P < 0.5). These data indicate that this novel blend stimulates thermogenesis and attenuates the gain in body weight and fat in response to high-fat diet in mice and these effects were improved when administered in combination with whey protein supplement. 30 days oral administration to mice of a novel blend containing African mango seed extract, citrus fruits extract, Coleus forskohlii root extract, dihydrocapsiate and red pepper fruit extract reduced body weight and fat gain in response to high-fat diet without impairing muscle mass.The novel blend stimulated thermogenesis as shown by the increased thermal imaging

  10. Thermogenic Blend Alone or in Combination with Whey Protein Supplement Stimulates Fat Metabolism and Improves Body Composition in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vieira-Brock, Paula de Lima; Vaughan, Brent M.; Vollmer, David L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Certain food ingredients promote thermogenesis and fat loss. Similarly, whey protein improves body composition. Due to this potential synergistic effect, a blend of thermogenic food ingredients containing African mango, citrus fruit extract, Coleus forskohlii, dihydrocapsiate, and red pepper was tested alone and in combination with a whey protein supplement for its effects on body composition in sedentary mice during high-fat diet. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of thermogenic foods on improving body composition during consumption of an unhealthy diet. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J young adult male mice (n = 12) were placed on a 60% high-fat diet for 4 weeks and subsequently randomly assigned to receive daily dosing by oral gavage of vehicle, the novel blend alone or with whey protein supplement for another 4 weeks. Body composition, thermal imaging of brown adipose tissue (BAT), mitochondrial BAT uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and plasma levels of leptin were assessed. Results: Novel blend alone and in combination with protein supplement attenuated body weight gain, fat, and increased surface BAT temperature in comparison to vehicle control and to baseline (P < 0.5). The combination of novel blend and whey protein supplement also significantly increased UCP1 protein expression in BAT mitochondria in comparison to vehicle control and novel blend alone (P < 0.5). Conclusions: These data indicate that this novel blend stimulates thermogenesis and attenuates the gain in body weight and fat in response to high-fat diet in mice and these effects were improved when administered in combination with whey protein supplement. SUMMARY 30 days oral administration to mice of a novel blend containing African mango seed extract, citrus fruits extract, Coleus forskohlii root extract, dihydrocapsiate and red pepper fruit extract reduced body weight and fat gain in response to high-fat diet without impairing muscle mass.The novel

  11. Cardiovascular risk reduction by reversing endothelial dysfunction:ARBs, ACE inhibitors, or both? Expectations from The ONTARGET Trial Programme

    PubMed Central

    Ruilope, Luis Miguel; Redón, Josep; Schmieder, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is the initial pathophysiological step in a progression of vascular damage that leads to overt cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Angiotensin II, the primary agent of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), has a central role in endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, RAS blockade with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor provides a rational approach to reverse endothelial dysfunction, reduce microalbuminuria, and, thus, improves cardiovascular and renal prognosis. ARBs and ACE inhibitors act at different points in the RAS pathway and recent evidence suggests that there are differences regarding their effects on endothelial dysfunction. In addition to blood pressure lowering, studies have shown that ARBs reduce target-organ damage, including improvements in endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness, the progression of renal dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes, proteinuria, and left ventricular hypertrophy. The ONgoing Telmisartan Alone in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) Programme is expected to provide the ultimate evidence of whether improved endothelial function translates into reduced cardiovascular and renal events in high-risk patients, and to assess possible differential outcomes with telmisartan, the ACE inhibitor ramipril, or a combination of both (dual RAS blockade). Completion of ONTARGET is expected in 2008. PMID:17583170

  12. Mitochondria and Endothelial Function

    PubMed Central

    Kluge, Matthew A.; Fetterman, Jessica L.; Vita, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to their role in other cell types with higher energy demands, mitochondria in endothelial cells primarily function in signaling cellular responses to environmental cues. This article provides an overview of key aspects of mitochondrial biology in endothelial cells, including subcellular location, biogenesis, dynamics, autophagy, ROS production and signaling, calcium homeostasis, regulated cell death, and heme biosynthesis. In each section, we introduce key concepts and then review studies showing the importance of that mechanism to endothelial control of vasomotor tone, angiogenesis, and inflammatory activation. We particularly highlight the small number of clinical and translational studies that have investigated each mechanism in human subjects. Finally, we review interventions that target different aspects of mitochondrial function and their effects on endothelial function. The ultimate goal of such research is the identification of new approaches for therapy. The reviewed studies make it clear that mitochondria are important in endothelial physiology and pathophysiology. A great deal of work will be needed, however, before mitochondria-directed therapies are available for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23580773

  13. Endothelial disruptive proinflammatory effects of nicotine and e-cigarette vapor exposures.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Kelly S; Chen, Steven X; Law, Sarah; Van Demark, Mary; Poirier, Christophe; Justice, Matthew J; Hubbard, Walter C; Kim, Elena S; Lai, Xianyin; Wang, Mu; Kranz, William D; Carroll, Clinton J; Ray, Bruce D; Bittman, Robert; Goodpaster, John; Petrache, Irina

    2015-07-15

    The increased use of inhaled nicotine via e-cigarettes has unknown risks to lung health. Having previously shown that cigarette smoke (CS) extract disrupts the lung microvasculature barrier function by endothelial cell activation and cytoskeletal rearrangement, we investigated the contribution of nicotine in CS or e-cigarettes (e-Cig) to lung endothelial injury. Primary lung microvascular endothelial cells were exposed to nicotine, e-Cig solution, or condensed e-Cig vapor (1-20 mM nicotine) or to nicotine-free CS extract or e-Cig solutions. Compared with nicotine-containing extract, nicotine free-CS extract (10-20%) caused significantly less endothelial permeability as measured with electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. Nicotine exposures triggered dose-dependent loss of endothelial barrier in cultured cell monolayers and rapidly increased lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice. The <