Science.gov

Sample records for support structure modeling

  1. Rectangular Array Model Supporting Students' Spatial Structuring in Learning Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanty, Nenden Octavarulia; Wijaya, Surya

    2012-01-01

    We examine how rectangular array model can support students' spatial structuring in learning multiplication. To begin, we define what we mean by spatial structuring as the mental operation of constructing an organization or form for an object or set of objects. For that reason, the eggs problem was chosen as the starting point in which the…

  2. Experimental-based modeling of a support structure as part of a full system model

    SciTech Connect

    CARNE,THOMAS G.; DOHRMANN,CLARK R.

    2000-02-29

    Structural dynamic systems are often attached to a support structure to simulate proper boundary conditions during testing. In some cases the support structure is fairly simple and can be modeled by discrete springs and dampers. In other cases the desired test conditions necessitate the use of a support structural that introduces dynamics of its own. For such cases a more complex structural dynamic model is required to simulate the response of the full combined system. In this paper experimental frequency response functions, admittance function modeling concepts, and least squares reductions are used to develop a support structure model including both translational and rotational degrees of freedom at an attachment location. Subsequently, the modes of the support structure are estimated, and a NASTRAN model is created for attachment to the tested system.

  3. Scour around Support Structures of Scaled Model Marine Hydrokinetic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, M. A.; Beninati, M. L.; Krane, M.; Fontaine, A.

    2013-12-01

    Experiments are presented to explore scour due to flows around support structures of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. Three related studies were performed to understand how submergence, scour condition, and the presence of an MHK device impact scour around the support structure (cylinder). The first study focuses on clear-water scour conditions for a cylinder of varying submergence: surface-piercing and fully submerged. The second study centers on three separate scour conditions (clear-water, transitional and live-bed) around the fully submerged cylinder. Lastly, the third study emphasizes the impact of an MHK turbine on scour around the support structure, in live-bed conditions. Small-scale laboratory testing of model devices can be used to help predict the behavior of MHK devices at full-scale. Extensive studies have been performed on single cylinders, modeling bridge piers, though few have focused on fully submerged structures. Many of the devices being used to harness marine hydrokinetic energy are fully submerged in the flow. Additionally, scour hole dimensions and scour rates have not been addressed. Thus, these three studies address the effect of structure blockage/drag, and the ambient scour conditions on scour around the support structure. The experiments were performed in the small-scale testing platform in the hydraulic flume facility (9.8 m long, 1.2 m wide and 0.4 m deep) at Bucknell University. The support structure diameter (D = 2.54 cm) was held constant for all tests. The submerged cylinder (l/D = 5) and sediment size (d50 = 790 microns) were held constant for all three studies. The MHK device (Dturbine = 10.2 cm) is a two-bladed horizontal axis turbine and the rotating shaft is friction-loaded using a metal brush motor. For each study, bed form topology was measured after a three-hour time interval using a traversing two-dimensional bed profiler. During the experiments, scour hole depth measurements at the front face of the support structure

  4. A Conceptual Model of Structured Support in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Vanessa; Buchanan, Alice M.; Rudisill, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Schools implement Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports (PBIS) as a way of meeting students' needs in classrooms. PBIS focuses on tiered instruction. Tiered instruction is a teaching strategy in which the educator implements incremental changes that increase supports based on students' needs--academic or behavioral. Yet, tiered instruction…

  5. Ensemble modelling and structured decision-making to support Emergency Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Webb, Colleen T; Ferrari, Matthew; Lindström, Tom; Carpenter, Tim; Dürr, Salome; Garner, Graeme; Jewell, Chris; Stevenson, Mark; Ward, Michael P; Werkman, Marleen; Backer, Jantien; Tildesley, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiological models in animal health are commonly used as decision-support tools to understand the impact of various control actions on infection spread in susceptible populations. Different models contain different assumptions and parameterizations, and policy decisions might be improved by considering outputs from multiple models. However, a transparent decision-support framework to integrate outputs from multiple models is nascent in epidemiology. Ensemble modelling and structured decision-making integrate the outputs of multiple models, compare policy actions and support policy decision-making. We briefly review the epidemiological application of ensemble modelling and structured decision-making and illustrate the potential of these methods using foot and mouth disease (FMD) models. In case study one, we apply structured decision-making to compare five possible control actions across three FMD models and show which control actions and outbreak costs are robustly supported and which are impacted by model uncertainty. In case study two, we develop a methodology for weighting the outputs of different models and show how different weighting schemes may impact the choice of control action. Using these case studies, we broadly illustrate the potential of ensemble modelling and structured decision-making in epidemiology to provide better information for decision-making and outline necessary development of these methods for their further application.

  6. COMPASS: Collaborative Organizational Model to Promote Aligned Support Structures. Final Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Lisa; Philp, Joel

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, Iredell-Statesville Schools was awarded an Investing in Innovation grant (i3) from the Office of Innovation and Improvement within the Federal Department of Education. Collaborative Organizational Model to Promote Aligned Support Structures (COMPASS) is a development grant that seeks to meet the needs of students with disabilities,…

  7. The Structure of Multidimensional Perfectionism: Support for a Bifactor Model With a Dominant General Factor.

    PubMed

    Smith, Martin M; Saklofske, Donald H

    2016-08-05

    Evidence suggests perfectionism is a multidimensional construct composed of 2 higher order factors: perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. However, the substantial overlap between perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns is problematic, as are the unanswered questions regarding the structure of perfectionism following removal of common variance. This research addressed this through bifactor modeling. Three student samples (N = 742) completed Hewitt and Flett's ( 1991 ) Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Frost, Marten, Lahart, and Rosenblate's ( 1990 ) Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, and Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, and Ashby's ( 2001 ) Almost Perfect Scale-Revised. Greater support was consistently found for the bifactor model, relative to the 2-factor model. Results suggest the bifactor model best represents the structure of perfectionism and provide preliminary support for the use of a general factor score. Researchers are cautioned that removal of general variance may render the reliability of specific factors (i.e., perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns) suspect.

  8. Experimental and operational modal analysis of a laboratory scale model of a tripod support structure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luczak, M. M.; Mucchi, E.; Telega, J.

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the research is to develop a vibration-based procedure for the identification of structural failures in a laboratory scale model of a tripod supporting structure of an offshore wind turbine. In particular, this paper presents an experimental campaign on the scale model tested in two stages. Stage one encompassed the model tripod structure tested in air. The second stage was done in water. The tripod model structure allows to investigate the propagation of a circumferential representative crack of a cylindrical upper brace. The in-water test configuration included the tower with three bladed rotor. The response of the structure to the different waves loads were measured with accelerometers. Experimental and operational modal analysis was applied to identify the dynamic properties of the investigated scale model for intact and damaged state with different excitations and wave patterns. A comprehensive test matrix allows to assess the differences in estimated modal parameters due to damage or as potentially introduced by nonlinear structural response. The presented technique proves to be effective for detecting and assessing the presence of representative cracks.

  9. On velocity gradient dynamics and fine-scale structure: experiments support DNS and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, John; Dawson, James

    2015-11-01

    The fine scales of turbulence are embodied by statistics of velocity gradients. In solving exact equations for their evolution, the challenge is to specify how the pressure Hessian acts. This is determined by the footprints that ``structures'' of enstrophy and strain leave in conditional average pressure fields. We use direct and approximate conditional averaging methods to extract this structure from different turbulence datasets: a direct numerical simulation and a unique scanning tomography experiment in a ``French washing machine''. Direct comparisons between simulation and experiment show the structure and resulting dynamics are in excellent, quantitative agreement. This evidence supports existing modelling approaches and provides insights towards their refinement. Moreover, it demonstrates the dynamical significance and the reproducibility of fine-scale structure.

  10. Support effects studied on model supported catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gorte, R.J.

    1993-02-01

    Composition and structure of oxide support materials can change the catalytic behavior of metal and oxide catalysts. Model catalysts are being studied in which the active phase is deposited on flat oxide substrates, with emphasis on metals catalysis for automotive emissions control and acidity in supported oxides. Research is reported in the following areas: particle-size effects, support effects on ZnO and zirconia, support effects on ceria, supported oxides, and low energy ion scattering (no results in the latter).

  11. Testing a structural model of young driver willingness to uptake Smartphone Driver Support Systems.

    PubMed

    Kervick, Aoife A; Hogan, Michael J; O'Hora, Denis; Sarma, Kiran M

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in the potential value of using phone applications that can monitor driver behaviour (Smartphone Driver Support Systems, 'SDSSs') in mitigating risky driving by young people. However, their value in this regard will only be realised if young people are willing to use this technology. This paper reports the findings of a study in which a novel structural model of willingness to use SDSSs was tested. Grounded in the driver monitoring and Technology Acceptance (TA) research literature, the model incorporates the perceived risks and gains associated with potential SDSS usage and additional social cognitive factors, including perceived usability and social influences. A total of 333 smartphone users, aged 18-24, with full Irish driving licenses completed an online questionnaire examining willingness or Behavioural Intention (BI) to uptake a SDSS. Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation modelling indicated that perceived gains and social influence factors had significant direct effects on BI. Perceived risks and social influence also had significant indirect effects on BI, as mediated by perceived gains. Overall, this model accounted for 72.5% of the variance in willingness to uptake SDSSs. Multi-group structural models highlighted invariance of effects across gender, high and low risk drivers, and those likely or unlikely to adopt novel phone app technologies. These findings have implications for our understanding of the willingness of young drivers to adopt and use SDSSs, and highlight potential factors that could be targeted in behavioural change interventions seeking to improve usage rates.

  12. Scenario Analysis for Techno-Economic Model Development of U.S. Offshore Wind Support Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Damiani, Rick; Ning, Andrew; Maples, Ben; Smith, Aaron; Dykes, Katherine

    2016-09-22

    Challenging bathymetry and soil conditions of future US offshore wind power plants might promote the use of multimember, fixed-bottom structures (or 'jackets') in place of monopiles. Support structures affect costs associated with the balance of system and operation and maintenance. Understanding the link between these costs and the main environmental design drivers is crucial in the quest for a lower levelized cost of energy, and it is the main rationale for this work. Actual cost and engineering data are still scarce; hence, we evaluated a simplified engineering approach to tie key site and turbine parameters (e.g. water depth, wave height, tower-head mass, hub height and generator rating) to the overall support weight. A jacket-and-tower sizing tool, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's system engineering software suite, was utilized to achieve mass-optimized support structures for 81 different configurations. This tool set provides preliminary sizing of all jacket components. Results showed reasonable agreement with the available industry data, and that the jacket mass is mainly driven by water depth, but hub height and tower-head mass become more influential at greater turbine ratings. A larger sensitivity of the structural mass to wave height and target eigenfrequency was observed for the deepest water conditions (>40 m). Thus, techno-economic analyses using this model should be based on accurate estimates of actual metocean conditions and turbine parameters especially for deep waters. The relationships derived from this study will inform National Renewable Energy Laboratory's offshore balance of system cost model, and they will be used to evaluate the impact of changes in technology on offshore wind lower levelized cost of energy.

  13. Analysis of pulsed eddy current data using regression models for steam generator tube support structure inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, J. A.; Underhill, P. R.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear steam generators (SGs) are a critical component for ensuring safe and efficient operation of a reactor. Life management strategies are implemented in which SG tubes are regularly inspected by conventional eddy current testing (ECT) and ultrasonic testing (UT) technologies to size flaws, and safe operating life of SGs is predicted based on growth models. ECT, the more commonly used technique, due to the rapidity with which full SG tube wall inspection can be performed, is challenged when inspecting ferromagnetic support structure materials in the presence of magnetite sludge and multiple overlapping degradation modes. In this work, an emerging inspection method, pulsed eddy current (PEC), is being investigated to address some of these particular inspection conditions. Time-domain signals were collected by an 8 coil array PEC probe in which ferromagnetic drilled support hole diameter, depth of rectangular tube frets and 2D tube off-centering were varied. Data sets were analyzed with a modified principal components analysis (MPCA) to extract dominant signal features. Multiple linear regression models were applied to MPCA scores to size hole diameter as well as size rectangular outer diameter tube frets. Models were improved through exploratory factor analysis, which was applied to MPCA scores to refine selection for regression models inputs by removing nonessential information.

  14. Air-Supported Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto. School Planning and Building Research Section.

    This study has been prepared to set out some of the benefits and the problems involved in the use of air-supported structures. Also indicated are the types of inquiries that should be made when the use of such structures is being considered. Technical and engineering details, such as the properties of various fabrics, are not included. (Author)

  15. Vessel structural support system

    DOEpatents

    Jenko, James X.; Ott, Howard L.; Wilson, Robert M.; Wepfer, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of "flat" attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator.

  16. Integrated support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruneau, Stephen D.; Campbell, John T.; Struven, Christopher A.

    1990-01-01

    This Major Qualifying Project is part of the Advanced Space Design Program at WPI. The goal is to design a support structure for a NASA GetAway Special experimental canister. The payload integration, weight, volume, and structural integrity of the canister as specified by NASA guidelines were studied. The end result is a complete set of design drawings with interface drawings and data to specify the design and leave a base on which the next group can concentrate.

  17. Black box modeling of PIDs implemented in PLCs without structural information: a support vector regression approach.

    PubMed

    Salat, Robert; Awtoniuk, Michal

    In this report, the parameters identification of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) algorithm implemented in a programmable logic controller (PLC) using support vector regression (SVR) is presented. This report focuses on a black box model of the PID with additional functions and modifications provided by the manufacturers and without information on the exact structure. The process of feature selection and its impact on the training and testing abilities are emphasized. The method was tested on a real PLC (Siemens and General Electric) with the implemented PID. The results show that the SVR maps the function of the PID algorithms and the modifications introduced by the manufacturer of the PLC with high accuracy. With this approach, the simulation results can be directly used to tune the PID algorithms in the PLC. The method is sufficiently universal in that it can be applied to any PI or PID algorithm implemented in the PLC with additional functions and modifications that were previously considered to be trade secrets. This method can also be an alternative for engineers who need to tune the PID and do not have any such information on the structure and cannot use the default settings for the known structures.

  18. Structuring a life support program using evidence-based practice and the Magnet model for successful patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Krugman, Mary; Paston, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Integrating life support activities into an acute care academic hospital structure using evidence-based practice and the Magnet Model framework provides program operations and outcomes that are cost effective, link quality to life support professional development, and demonstrate excellence patient safety outcomes.

  19. The Self-Esteem, Perceived Social Support and Hopelessness in Adolescents: The Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savi Cakar, Firdevs; Karatas, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a developed model to explain a causal relationship between adolescent's self-esteem, perceived social support and hopelessness is tested. The purpose of the study is to explore the relationship between self-esteem, perceived social support and hopelessness in adolescents. A total of 257 adolescents, including 143 female and 114…

  20. Thermally conductive support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzl, Alfred (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A structure for supporting and at least transferring heat energy away from at least a first heat source interconnected thereto is disclosed. In one embodiment, the structure includes a deck member having a plurality of layers of thermally conductive fibers packed within a matrix material. Fibers of at least a first layer are orientable to transfer heat energy toward at least a first sidewall of the deck member, and fibers of at least a second layer are orientable about .+-.45.degree. relative to the fibers of the first layer to enhance the structural strength of the deck member. In another embodiment, fibers of at least a first layer of thermally conductive fibers of the deck member are orientable to transfer heat energy from a first heat source to a second, cooler heat source, both of which are interconnectable to the deck member, such that the first and second heat sources operate at substantially uniform temperatures. In this embodiment, fibers of at least a second layer of thermally conductive fibers are orientable about .+-.45.degree. relative to the fibers of the first layer to enhance the structural strength of the deck member. Fibers of at least a third layer of thermally conductive fibers are orientable substantially orthogonally relative to the fibers of the first layer to transfer heat energy away from at least the first heat source to at least a first sidewall of the deck member.

  1. Supporting Students in Learning with Multiple Representation to Improve Student Mental Models on Atomic Structure Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunyono; Yuanita, L.; Ibrahim, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is identify the effectiveness of a multiple representation-based learning model, which builds a mental model within the concept of atomic structure. The research sample of 108 students in 3 classes is obtained randomly from among students of Mathematics and Science Education Studies using a stratified random sampling…

  2. Providing mentorship support to general surgery residents: a model for structured group facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Caitlin; Bennett, Sean; Carver, David; El Tawil, Karim; Fabbro, Sarah; Howatt, Neil; Noei, Farahnaz; Rae, Rachel; Haggar, Fatima; Arnaout, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mentorship is foundational to surgical training, with recognized benefits for both mentees and mentors. The University of Ottawa General Surgery Mentorship Program was developed as a module-based group facilitation program to support inclusive personal and professional development of junior general surgery residents. The group format provided an opportunity for both vertical and horizontal mentorship relationships between staff mentors and resident mentees. Perceived benefits of program participants were evaluated at the conclusion of the first year of the program. The program was well-received by staff and resident participants and may provide a time-efficient and inclusive mentorship structure with the additional benefit of peer support. We review the development and implementation of the program to date and share our mentorship experience to encourage the growth of formal mentorship opportunities within general surgery training programs. PMID:26424687

  3. Partial-Payload Support Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R.; Freeman, M.

    1984-01-01

    Partial-payload support structure (PPSS) is modular, bridge like structure supporting experiments weighing up to 2 tons. PPSS handles such experiments more economically than standard Spacelab pallet system.

  4. Modeling of Global BEAM Structure for Evaluation of MMOD Impacts to Support Development of a Health Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyle, Karen H.; Vassilakos, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the initial modeling of the global response of the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) to micrometeorite and orbital debris(MMOD) impacts using a structural, nonlinear, transient dynamic, finite element code. These models complement the on-orbit deployment of the Distributed Impact Detection System (DIDS) to support structural health monitoring studies. Two global models were developed. The first focused exclusively on impacts on the soft-goods (fabric-envelop) portion of BEAM. The second incorporates the bulkhead to support understanding of bulkhead impacts. These models were exercised for random impact locations and responses monitored at the on-orbit sensor locations. The report concludes with areas for future study.

  5. Modeling of Local BEAM Structure for Evaluation of MMOD Impacts to Support Development of a Health Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyle, Karen H.; Vassilakos, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes initial modeling of the local response of the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) to micrometeorite and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts using a structural, non-linear, transient dynamic finite element code. Complementary test results for a local BEAM structure are presented for both hammer and projectile impacts. Review of these data provided guidance for the transient dynamic model development. The local model is intended to support predictions using the global BEAM model, described in a companion report. Two types of local models were developed. One mimics the simplified Soft-Goods (fabric envelop) part of the BEAM NASTRAN model delivered by the project. The second investigates through-the-thickness modeling challenges for MMOD-type impacts. Both the testing and the analysis summaries contain lessons learned and areas for future efforts.

  6. Structural geology and geophysics as a support to build a hydrogeologic model of granite rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Landa, Lurdes; Carrera, Jesús; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Gómez, Paloma; Bajos, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    A method developed for low-permeability fractured media was applied to understand the hydrogeology of a mine excavated in a granitic pluton. This method includes (1) identifying the main groundwater-conducting features of the medium, such as the mine, dykes, and large fractures, (2) implementing this factors as discrete elements into a three-dimensional numerical model, and (3) calibrating these factors against hydraulic data . A key question is how to identify preferential flow paths in the first step. Here, we propose a combination of several techniques. Structural geology, together with borehole sampling, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry, and local hydraulic tests aided in locating all structures. Integration of these data yielded a conceptual model of the site. A preliminary calibration of the model was performed against short-term (< 1 day) pumping tests, which facilitated the characterization of some of the fractures. The hydraulic properties were then used for other fractures that, according to geophysics and structural geology, belonged to the same families. Model validity was tested by blind prediction of a long-term (4 months) large-scale (1 km) pumping test from the mine, which yielded excellent agreement with the observations. Model results confirmed the sparsely fractured nature of the pluton, which has not been subjected to glacial loading-unloading cycles and whose waters are of Na-HCO3 type.

  7. Data Collection Handbook to Support Modeling Impacts of Radioactive Material in Soil and Building Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Charley; Kamboj, Sunita; Wang, Cheng; Cheng, Jing-Jy

    2015-09-01

    This handbook is an update of the 1993 version of the Data Collection Handbook and the Radionuclide Transfer Factors Report to support modeling the impact of radioactive material in soil. Many new parameters have been added to the RESRAD Family of Codes, and new measurement methodologies are available. A detailed review of available parameter databases was conducted in preparation of this new handbook. This handbook is a companion document to the user manuals when using the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It can also be used for RESRAD-BUILD code because some of the building-related parameters are included in this handbook. The RESRAD (onsite) has been developed for implementing U.S. Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), crops and livestock, human intake, source characteristic, and building characteristic parameters are used in the RESRAD (onsite) code. The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code and can also model the transport of radionuclides to locations outside the footprint of the primary contamination. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, and measurement methodologies. It also provides references for sources of additional information. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD Family of Codes, the discussions and values are valid for use of other pathway analysis models and codes.

  8. Structural Dynamics Modeling of HIRENASD in Support of the Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieseman, Carol; Chwalowski, Pawel; Heeg, Jennifer; Boucke, Alexander; Castro, Jack

    2013-01-01

    An Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop (AePW) was held in April 2012 using three aeroelasticity case study wind tunnel tests for assessing the capabilities of various codes in making aeroelasticity predictions. One of these case studies was known as the HIRENASD model that was tested in the European Transonic Wind Tunnel (ETW). This paper summarizes the development of a standardized enhanced analytical HIRENASD structural model for use in the AePW effort. The modifications to the HIRENASD finite element model were validated by comparing modal frequencies, evaluating modal assurance criteria, comparing leading edge, trailing edge and twist of the wing with experiment and by performing steady and unsteady CFD analyses for one of the test conditions on the same grid, and identical processing of results.

  9. Genetic structure and bio-climatic modeling support allopatric over parapatric speciation along a latitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Four of the five species of Telopea (Proteaceae) are distributed in a latitudinal replacement pattern on the south-eastern Australian mainland. In similar circumstances, a simple allopatric speciation model that identifies the origins of genetic isolation within temporal geographic separation is considered as the default model. However, secondary contact between differentiated lineages can result in similar distributional patterns to those arising from a process of parapatric speciation (where gene flow between lineages remains uninterrupted during differentiation). Our aim was to use the characteristic distributional patterns in Telopea to test whether it reflected the evolutionary models of allopatric or parapatric speciation. Using a combination of genetic evidence and environmental niche modelling, we focused on three main questions: do currently described geographic borders coincide with genetic and environmental boundaries; are there hybrid zones in areas of secondary contact between closely related species; did species distributions contract during the last glacial maximum resulting in distributional gaps even where overlap and hybridisation currently occur? Results Total genomic DNA was extracted from 619 individuals sampled from 36 populations representing the four species. Seven nuclear microsatellites (nSSR) and six chloroplast microsatellites (cpSSR) were amplified across all populations. Genetic structure and the signature of admixture in overlap zones was described using the Bayesian clustering methods implemented in STUCTURE and NewHybrids respectively. Relationships between chlorotypes were reconstructed as a median-joining network. Environmental niche models were produced for all species using environmental parameters from both the present day and the last glacial maximum (LGM). The nSSR loci amplified a total of 154 alleles, while data for the cpSSR loci produced a network of six chlorotypes. STRUCTURE revealed an optimum number of five

  10. Regulatory mutations in Sin recombinase support a structure-based model of the synaptosome

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Sally-J; Boocock, Martin R; McPherson, Arlene L; Mouw, Kent W; Rice, Phoebe A; Stark, W Marshall

    2009-01-01

    The resolvase Sin regulates DNA strand exchange by assembling an elaborate interwound synaptosome containing catalytic and regulatory Sin tetramers, and an architectural DNA-bending protein. The crystal structure of the regulatory tetramer was recently solved, providing new insights into the structural basis for regulation. Here we describe the selection and characterization of two classes of Sin mutations that, respectively, bypass or disrupt the functions of the regulatory tetramer. Activating mutations, which allow the catalytic tetramer to assemble and function independently at site I (the crossover site), were found at ∼20% of residues in the N-terminal domain. The most strongly activating mutation (Q115R) stabilized a catalytically active synaptic tetramer in vitro. The positions of these mutations suggest that they act by destabilizing the conformation of the ground-state site I-bound dimers, or by stabilizing the altered conformation of the active catalytic tetramer. Mutations that block activation by the regulatory tetramer mapped to just two residues, F52 and R54, supporting a functional role for a previously reported crystallographic dimer–dimer interface. We suggest how F52/R54 contacts between regulatory and catalytic subunits might promote assembly of the active catalytic tetramer within the synaptosome. PMID:19508283

  11. Bound Substrate in the Structure of Cyanobacterial Branching Enzyme Supports a New Mechanistic Model.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Mari; Suzuki, Ryuichiro; Colleoni, Christophe; Ball, Steven G; Fujita, Naoko; Suzuki, Eiji

    2017-03-31

    Branching enzyme (BE) catalyzes the formation of α-1,6-glucosidic linkages in amylopectin and glycogen. The reaction products are variable, depending on the organism sources, and the mechanistic basis for these different outcomes is unclear. Although most cyanobacteria have only one BE isoform belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 13, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 has three isoforms (BE1, BE2, and BE3) with distinct enzymatic properties, suggesting that investigations of these enzymes might provide unique insights into this system. Here, we report the crystal structure of ligand-free wild-type BE1 (residues 5-759 of 1-773) at 1.85 Å resolution. The enzyme consists of four domains, including domain N, carbohydrate-binding module family 48 (CBM48), domain A containing the catalytic site, and domain C. The central domain A displays a (β/α)8-barrel fold, whereas the other domains adopt β-sandwich folds. Domain N was found in a new location at the back of the protein, forming hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with CBM48 and domain A. Site-directed mutational analysis identified a mutant (W610N) that bound maltoheptaose with sufficient affinity to enable structure determination at 2.30 Å resolution. In this structure, maltoheptaose was bound in the active site cleft, allowing us to assign subsites -7 to -1. Moreover, seven oligosaccharide-binding sites were identified on the protein surface, and we postulated that two of these in domain A served as the entrance and exit of the donor/acceptor glucan chains, respectively. Based on these structures, we propose a substrate binding model explaining the mechanism of glycosylation/deglycosylation reactions catalyzed by BE.

  12. Cryogenic structural support

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, Ralph C.; Mataya, Karl F.; Gonczy, John D.

    1982-01-01

    A tensile support member is provided for use in a cryogenic environment. The member is in the form of a link formed of an epoxy glass laminate with at least one ply of the laminate having its fibers aligned circumferentially about the link.

  13. Social Support and Well-Being among Lesbian and Heterosexual Women: A Structural Modeling Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayment, Heidi A.; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    1995-01-01

    Examines the types of social support that lesbian and heterosexual women receive from their social networks and the link between support and psychological well-being. Results indicate that both groups reported receiving equivalent overall amounts of support from their social networks, and that coupled women reported greater well-being than single…

  14. GAIA - a generalizable, extensible structure for integrating games, models and social networking to support decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, L. J.; Schaefer, R. K.; Nix, M.; Fountain, G. H.; Weiss, M.; Swartz, W. H.; Parker, C. L.; MacDonald, L.; Ihde, A. G.; Simpkins, S.; GAIA Team

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we describe the application of a proven methodology for modeling the complex social and economic interactions embodied in real-world decision making to water scarcity and water resources. We have developed a generalizable, extensible facility we call "GAIA" - Global Assimilation of Information for Action - and applied it to different problem sets. We describe the use of the "Green Country Model" and other gaming/simulation tools to address the impacts of climate and climate disruption issues at the intersection of science, economics, policy, and society. There is a long history in the Defense community of using what are known as strategic simulations or "wargames" to model the complex interactions between the environment, people, resources, infrastructure and the economy in a competitive environment. We describe in this paper, work that we have done on understanding how this heritage can be repurposed to help us explore how the complex interplay between climate disruption and our socio/political and economic structures will affect our future. Our focus here is on a fundamental and growing issue - water and water availability. We consider water and the role of "virtual water" in the system. Various "actors" are included in the simulations. While these simulations cannot definitively predict what will happen, they do illuminate non-linear feedbacks between, for example, treaty agreement, the environment, the economy, and the government. These simulations can be focused on the global, regional, or local environment. We note that these simulations are not "zero sum" games - there need not be a winner and a loser. They are, however, competitive influence games: they represent the tools that a nation, state, faction or group has at its disposal to influence policy (diplomacy), finances, industry (economy), infrastructure, information, etc to achieve their particular goals. As in the real world the problem is competitive - not everyone shares the same

  15. Dimensional structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress symptoms: support for a hybrid Anhedonia and Externalizing Behaviors model.

    PubMed

    Armour, Cherie; Tsai, Jack; Durham, Tory A; Charak, Ruby; Biehn, Tracey L; Elhai, Jon D; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2015-02-01

    Several revisions to the symptom clusters of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been made in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Central to the focus of this study was the revision of PTSD's tripartite structure in DSM-IV into four symptom clusters in DSM-5. Emerging confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) studies have suggested that DSM-5 PTSD symptoms may be best represented by one of two 6-factor models: (1) an Externalizing Behaviors model characterized by a factor which combines the irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behavior items; and (2) an Anhedonia model characterized by items of loss of interest, detachment, and restricted affect. The current study conducted CFAs of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms assessed using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) in two independent and diverse trauma-exposed samples of a nationally representative sample of 1484 U.S. veterans and a sample of 497 Midwestern U.S. university undergraduate students. Relative fits of the DSM-5 model, the DSM-5 Dysphoria model, the DSM-5 Dysphoric Arousal model, the two 6-factor models, and a newly proposed 7-factor Hybrid model, which consolidates the two 6-factor models, were evaluated. Results revealed that, in both samples, both 6-factor models provided significantly better fit than the 4-factor DSM-5 model, the DSM-5 Dysphoria model and the DSM-5 Dysphoric Arousal model. Further, the 7-factor Hybrid model, which incorporates key features of both 6-factor models and is comprised of re-experiencing, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, and anxious and dysphoric arousal symptom clusters, provided superior fit to the data in both samples. Results are discussed in light of theoretical and empirical support for the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms.

  16. Frequency Domain Decomposition performed on the strain data obtained from the aluminium model of an offshore support structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieloszyk, M.; Opoka, S.; Ostachowicz, W.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an application of Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of offshore wind energy support structure model. The analysed structure is a tripod equipped with 16 FBG sensors. From a wide variety of Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) methods Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) technique is used in this paper under assumption that the input loading is similar to a white noise excitation. The FDD method can be applied using different sets of sensors, i.e. the one which contains all FBG sensors and the other set of sensors localised only on a particular tripod's leg. The cases considered during investigation were as follows: damaged and undamaged scenarios, different support conditions. The damage was simulated as an dismantled flange on an upper brace in one of the tripod legs. First the model was fixed to an antishaker table and investigated in the air under impulse excitations. Next the tripod was submerged into water basin in order to check the quality of the measurement set-up in different environmental condition. In this case the model was excited by regular waves.

  17. Peers' Perceived Support, Student Engagement in Academic Activities and Life Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakimzadeh, Rezvan; Besharat, Mohammad-Ali; Khaleghinezhad, Seyed Ali; Ghorban Jahromi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among peers' perceived support, life satisfaction, and student engagement in academic activities. Three hundred and fifteen Iranian students (172 boys and 143 girls) who were studying in one suburb of Tehran participated in this study. All participants were asked to complete Peers' Perceived Support scale…

  18. Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Social Support on Violence against Pregnant Women: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antônio

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have used structural equation modeling to analyze the effects of variables on violence against women. The present study analyzed the effects of socioeconomic status and social support on violence against pregnant women who used prenatal services. This was a cross-sectional study based on data from the Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís birth cohort studies (BRISA). The sample of the municipality of São Luís (Maranhão/Brazil) consisted of 1,446 pregnant women interviewed in 2010 and 2011. In the proposed model, socioeconomic status was the most distal predictor, followed by social support that determined general violence, psychological violence or physical/sexual violence, which were analyzed as latent variables. Violence was measured by the World Health Organization Violence against Women (WHO VAW) instrument. The São Luis model was estimated using structural equation modeling and validated with 1,378 pregnant women from Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo/Brazil). The proposed model showed good fit for general, psychological and physical/sexual violence for the São Luís sample. Socioeconomic status had no effect on general or psychological violence (p>0.05), but pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status reported more episodes of physical/sexual violence (standardized coefficient, SC = -0.136; p = 0.021). This effect of socioeconomic status was indirect and mediated by low social support (SC = -0.075; p<0.001). Low social support was associated with more episodes of general, psychological and physical/sexual violence (p<0.001). General and psychological violence indistinctly affected pregnant women of different socioeconomic status. Physical/sexual violence was more common for pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status and lower social support. Better social support contributed to reduction of all types of violence. Results were nearly the same for the validation sample of Ribeirão Preto except that SES was not associated with physical

  19. Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Social Support on Violence against Pregnant Women: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto E; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antônio

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have used structural equation modeling to analyze the effects of variables on violence against women. The present study analyzed the effects of socioeconomic status and social support on violence against pregnant women who used prenatal services. This was a cross-sectional study based on data from the Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís birth cohort studies (BRISA). The sample of the municipality of São Luís (Maranhão/Brazil) consisted of 1,446 pregnant women interviewed in 2010 and 2011. In the proposed model, socioeconomic status was the most distal predictor, followed by social support that determined general violence, psychological violence or physical/sexual violence, which were analyzed as latent variables. Violence was measured by the World Health Organization Violence against Women (WHO VAW) instrument. The São Luis model was estimated using structural equation modeling and validated with 1,378 pregnant women from Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo/Brazil). The proposed model showed good fit for general, psychological and physical/sexual violence for the São Luís sample. Socioeconomic status had no effect on general or psychological violence (p>0.05), but pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status reported more episodes of physical/sexual violence (standardized coefficient, SC = -0.136; p = 0.021). This effect of socioeconomic status was indirect and mediated by low social support (SC = -0.075; p<0.001). Low social support was associated with more episodes of general, psychological and physical/sexual violence (p<0.001). General and psychological violence indistinctly affected pregnant women of different socioeconomic status. Physical/sexual violence was more common for pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status and lower social support. Better social support contributed to reduction of all types of violence. Results were nearly the same for the validation sample of Ribeirão Preto except that SES was not associated with physical

  20. Aeroelastic Modeling of Offshore Turbines and Support Structures in Hurricane-Prone Regions (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Damiani, R.

    2014-03-01

    US offshore wind turbines (OWTs) will likely have to contend with hurricanes and the associated loading conditions. Current industry standards do not account for these design load cases (DLCs), thus a new approach is required to guarantee that the OWTs achieve an appropriate level of reliability. In this study, a sequentially coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic modeling technique was used to address two design approaches: 1.) The ABS (American Bureau of Shipping) approach; and 2.) The Hazard Curve or API (American Petroleum Institute) approach. The former employs IEC partial load factors (PSFs) and 100-yr return-period (RP) metocean events. The latter allows setting PSFs and RP to a prescribed level of system reliability. The 500-yr RP robustness check (appearing in [2] and [3] upcoming editions) is a good indicator of the target reliability for L2 structures. CAE tools such as NREL's FAST and Bentley's' SACS (offshore analysis and design software) can be efficiently coupled to simulate system loads under hurricane DLCs. For this task, we augmented the latest FAST version (v. 8) to include tower aerodynamic drag that cannot be ignored in hurricane DLCs. In this project, a 6 MW turbine was simulated on a typical 4-legged jacket for a mid-Atlantic site. FAST-calculated tower base loads were fed to SACS at the interface level (transition piece); SACS added hydrodynamic and wind loads on the exposed substructure, and calculated mudline overturning moments, and member and joint utilization. Results show that CAE tools can be effectively used to compare design approaches for the design of OWTs in hurricane regions and to achieve a well-balanced design, where reliability levels and costs are optimized.

  1. Inspection Frequency Criteria Models for Timber, Steel, and Concrete Pile Supported Waterfront Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    crustaceans and mollusks. Although timber piles are usually coated with a heavy layer of coal-tar creosote solution, the protection is not permanent and...Corporation. Technical Support for Development of Inspection Sampling Criteria. Ventura, California, August, 1983. 7. VSE Corporation. Sampling Plan Synopsis

  2. Support effects studied on model supported catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gorte, R.G.

    1991-11-01

    We are studying model catalysts in which the active phase is deposited onto flat oxide substrates in order to understand how a catalyst is affected by its support. We have examined the following growth and stability of titania overlayers which had been vapor deposited onto a Rh foil; the growth of Pt films on ZnO(0001)Zn and O(0001)O and compared the results to those obtained for Pt on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001). Samples were prepared by vapor deposition of Pt onto flat substrates in ultra high vacuum, and metal coverages were measured using a quartz-crystal, film thickness monitor; the structure and CO adsorption properties of Pt films vapor deposited onto a ZrO{sub 2}(100) crystal; the deposition of Rh on a ZrO{sub 2}(100) crystal; The absorption of NO on Pt particles supported on CeO{sub 2}, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001), and the Zn- and O-polar surfaces of ZnO(0001). We have investigated supported oxides in order to understand the acidic properties that have been reported for monolayer oxides. Our first studies were of amorphous, silicalumina catalysts. Finally, we have also begun to prepare model supported oxides in order to be able to used spectroscopic methods to characterize the sites formed on these materials. Our first studies were of niobia deposition on oxidized Al films and on an {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) crystal.

  3. A comparison and integration of structural models of depression and anxiety in a clinical sample: Support for and validation of the tri-level model.

    PubMed

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Prenoveau, Jason M; Brown, Timothy A; Zinbarg, Richard E

    2016-10-01

    Prominent structural models of depression and anxiety arise from 2 traditions: (a) the tripartite/integrative hierarchical model based on symptom dimensions, and (b) the fear/anxious-misery model based on diagnostic comorbidity data. The tri-level model of depression and anxiety was developed to synthesize these structural models, postulating that narrow (disorder-specific), intermediate (fear and anxious-misery), and broad (general distress) structural factors are needed to most fully account for covariation among these symptoms. Although this model has received preliminary support (Prenoveau et al., 2010), the current study compares it with the above established models and seeks to validate the best-fitting structure. We evaluated the tri-level model and alternative structural models in a large clinical sample (N = 1,000) using bifactor analysis. In exploratory and confirmatory subsamples, the tri-level model provided a good fit to the data and each of the 3 levels (narrow, intermediate, and broad) accounted for substantial variance; this model provided a superior fit relative to more parsimonious competing structural models. Furthermore, impairment was independently associated with all 3 levels of the tri-level model, comorbidity was most closely linked to the broad tri-level dimensions, and the factors generally showed the expected convergent/discriminant associations with diagnoses. Results suggested several revisions to prior research: (a) worry may be best modeled at the broadest structural level, rather than as an indicator of anxious-misery or fear; (b) social interaction anxiety may belong with anxious-misery, rather than fear; and (c) obsessive-compulsive disorder is generally associated with fear disorders, but hoarding is associated with both fear and anxious-misery. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Modeling of water absorption induced cracks in resin-based composite supported ceramic layer structures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Thompson, V P; Rekow, E D; Soboyejo, W O

    2008-01-01

    Cracking patterns in the top ceramic layers of the modeled dental multilayers with polymer foundation are observed when they are immersed in water. This article developed a model to understand this cracking mechanism. When water diffuses into the polymer foundation of dental restorations, the foundation will expand; as a result, the stress will build up in the top ceramic layer because of the bending and stretching. A finite element model based on this mechanism is built to predict the stress build-up and the slow crack growth in the top ceramic layers during the water absorption. Our simulations show that the stress build-up by this mechanism is high enough to cause the cracking in the top ceramic layers and the cracking patterns predicted by our model are well consistent with those observed in experiments on glass/epoxy/polymer multilayers. The model is then used to discuss the life prediction of different dental ceramics.

  5. Structural Modeling of Variables Related to Parental Support in Mexican Children's Perfomance on Reading and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazan-Ramirez, Aldo; Castellanos-Simons, Doris; Lopez-Valenzuela, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at analysing the structural relationships among some latent and observed variables related to the assessment of written language performance in 139 fourth grade students of Elementary School selected from nine public schools of the northwest of Mexico. Questionnaires were also applied to the children's parents and teachers. The…

  6. Support effects studied on model supported catalysts. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gorte, R.J.

    1993-02-01

    Composition and structure of oxide support materials can change the catalytic behavior of metal and oxide catalysts. Model catalysts are being studied in which the active phase is deposited on flat oxide substrates, with emphasis on metals catalysis for automotive emissions control and acidity in supported oxides. Research is reported in the following areas: particle-size effects, support effects on ZnO and zirconia, support effects on ceria, supported oxides, and low energy ion scattering (no results in the latter).

  7. DNDC Model Calibration, Validation and Quantification of Structural Uncertainty to Support Rice Methane Offset Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, W.; Ducey, M. J.; Li, C.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture represents an important near-term option for GHG offsets. Currently, the most widely accepted low-cost approaches to quantify N2O and CH4 emissions are based on emission factors. Given that N2O and CH4 emissions from agricultural practices exhibit high spatial and temporal variability, emission factors are not very sensitive to estimate this variability in emissions at the farm level, even when the emission factors are regional. It is clear that if agricultural offset projects are going to include N2O and CH4 reductions, then process-based biogeochemical models are potentially important tools to quantify emission reductions within offset protocols. The question remains how good a model's performance is with respect to emission reductions. As PBM, are integrated into protocols for agricultural GHG offsets, comprehensive and systematic validation is needed to statistically quantify uncertainties in model-based estimates of GHG emission reductions that are obtained by standardized approach to parameterization and calibration that can be applied across a whole region. The DNDC model was validated against 88 datasets of rice methane emissions. Data were collected at sites in California and MidSouth. In addition to examining the magnitude of the measured versus modeled emissions, we analyzed model performance for estimating the changes in emissions associated with a change in management practices (e.g. dry versus wet seeded rice, different fertilizer rates, etc.). We analyzed 100 pairs of modeled and measured emission reductions. DNDC model performance and uncertainty was quantified using a suite of statistical measures. First, we examined how well the modeled emissions differences match the field-measured differences on a case-by-case basis and also on average, using a combination of Monte Carlo approaches and equivalence testing. Although modeled emissions for individual fields show a slight bias, emissions reductions for baseline:treatment pairs fall close

  8. ITER CS Intermodule Support Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Myatt, R.; Freudenberg, Kevin D

    2011-01-01

    With five independently driven, bi-polarity power supplies, the modules of the ITER central solenoid (CS) can be energized in aligned or opposing field directions. This sets up the possibility for repelling modules, which indeed occurs, particularly between CS2L and CS3L around the End of Burn (EOB) time point. Light interface compression between these two modules at EOB and wide variations in these coil currents throughout the pulse produce a tendency for relative motion or slip. Ideally, the slip is purely radial as the modules breathe without any accumulative translational motion. In reality, however, asymmetries such as nonuniformity in intermodule friction, lateral loads from a plasma Vertical Disruption Event (VDE), magnetic forces from manufacturing and assembly tolerances, and earthquakes can all contribute to a combination of radial and lateral module motion. This paper presents 2D and 3D, nonlinear, ANSYS models which simulate these various asymmetries and determine the lateral forces which must be carried by the intermodule structure. Summing all of these asymmetric force contributions leads to a design-basis lateral load which is used in the design of various support concepts: the CS-CDR centering rings and a variation, the 2001 FDR baseline radial keys, and interlocking castles structures. Radial key-type intermodule structure interface slip and stresses are tracked through multiple 15 MA scenario current pulses to demonstrate stable motion following the first few cycles. Detractions and benefits of each candidate intermodule structure are discussed, leading to the simplest and most robust configuration which meets the design requirements: match-drilled radial holes and pin-shaped keys.

  9. Administrative support team. A structural innovation.

    PubMed

    Eichelberger, K M; Bebl, S; Lees, M L; Peterson, S L; Taylor, A N

    1994-11-01

    In response to societal, organization, and leadership changes, an innovative nursing structure was implemented and evaluated. An administrative support team was developed to provide specialized internal consultation and support to a flattened and decentralized nursing division. The four administrative support team roles provided an organization perspective that ensured constancy of purpose throughout the division. This structural innovation proved to be congruent with nursing shared governance and total quality management initiatives occurring in the organization. Evaluation studies indicated that the model has effectively supported 5 years of continuing organizational change.

  10. Structural Modeling of a Five-Meter Thin Film Inflatable Antenna/Concentrator With Rigidized Support Struts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Kurt B.; Tinker, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Dynamic characterization of a non-rigidized thin film inflatable antenna/solar concentrator structure with rigidized composite support struts is described in detail. A two-step finite element modeling approach in MSC/NASTRAN is utilized, consisting of: (1) a nonlinear static pressurization procedure used to obtain the updated stiffness matrix, and (2) a modal "restart" eigen solution that uses the modified stiffness matrix. Unique problems encountered in modeling of this large 5-m lightweight inflatable are identified, including considerable difficulty in obtaining convergence in the nonlinear pressurization solution. It was found that the extremely thin polyimide film material (.001 in or I mil) presents tremendous problems in obtaining a converged solution when internal pressure loading is applied. It was concluded that the ratios of film thickness to other geometric dimensions such as torus cross-sectional and ring diameter and lenticular diameter are the critical parameters for convergence of the pressurization procedure. Comparison of finite element predictions for frequency and mode shapes with experimental results indicated reasonable agreement considering the complexity of the structure, the film-to-air interaction, and the nonlinear material properties of the film. It was also concluded that analysis should be done using different finite element to codes to determine if a more robust and stable solution can be obtained.

  11. DNA attachment to support structures

    DOEpatents

    Balhorn, Rodney L.; Barry, Christopher H.

    2002-01-01

    Microscopic beads or other structures are attached to nucleic acids (DNA) using a terminal transferase. The transferase adds labeled dideoxy nucleotide bases to the ends of linear strands of DNA. The labels, such as the antigens digoxigenin and biotin, bind to the antibody compounds or other appropriate complementary ligands, which are bound to the microscopic beads or other support structures. The method does not require the synthesis of a synthetic oligonucleotide probe. The method can be used to tag or label DNA even when the DNA has an unknown sequence, has blunt ends, or is a very large fragment (e.g., >500 kilobase pairs).

  12. Optimisation and evaluation of pre-design models for offshore wind turbines with jacket support structures and their influence on integrated load simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafhirt, S.; Kaufer, D.; Cheng, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years many advanced load simulation tools, allowing an aero-servo-hydroelastic analyses of an entire offshore wind turbine, have been developed and verified. Nowadays, even an offshore wind turbine with a complex support structure such as a jacket can be analysed. However, the computational effort rises significantly with an increasing level of details. This counts especially for offshore wind turbines with lattice support structures, since those models do naturally have a higher number of nodes and elements than simpler monopile structures. During the design process multiple load simulations are demanded to obtain an optimal solution. In the view of pre-design tasks it is crucial to apply load simulations which keep the simulation quality and the computational effort in balance. The paper will introduce a reference wind turbine model consisting of the REpower5M wind turbine and a jacket support structure with a high level of detail. In total twelve variations of this reference model are derived and presented. Main focus is to simplify the models of the support structure and the foundation. The reference model and the simplified models are simulated with the coupled simulation tool Flex5-Poseidon and analysed regarding frequencies, fatigue loads, and ultimate loads. A model has been found which reaches an adequate increase of simulation speed while holding the results in an acceptable range compared to the reference results.

  13. ITER Central Solenoid support structure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Freudenberg, Kevin D; Myatt, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ITER Central Solenoid (CS) is comprised of six independent coils held together by a pre-compression support structure. This structure must provide enough preload to maintain sufficient coil-to-coil contact and interface load throughout the current pulse. End of burn (EOB) represents one of the most extreme time-points doing the reference scenario when the currents in the CS3 coils oppose those of CS1 & CS2. The CS structure is performance limited by the room temperature static yield requirements needed to support the roughly 180 MN preload to resist coil separation during operation. This preload is applied by inner and external tie plates along the length of the coil stack by mechanical fastening methods utilizing Superbolt technology. The preloading structure satisfies the magnet structural design criteria of ITER and will be verified during mockup studies. The solenoid is supported from the bottom of the toroidal field (TF) coil casing in both the vertical radial directions. The upper support of the CS coil structure maintains radial registration with the TF coil in the event of vertical disruptions (VDE) loads and earthquakes. All of these structure systems are analyzed via a global finite element analysis (FEA). The model includes a complete sector of the TF coil and the CS coil/structure in one self-consistent analysis. The corresponding results and design descriptions are described in this report.

  14. A Semi-Structured MODFLOW-USG Model to Evaluate Local Water Sources to Wells for Decision Support.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Daniel T; Fienen, Michael N; Reeves, Howard W; Langevin, Christian D

    2016-07-01

    In order to better represent the configuration of the stream network and simulate local groundwater-surface water interactions, a version of MODFLOW with refined spacing in the topmost layer was applied to a Lake Michigan Basin (LMB) regional groundwater-flow model developed by the U.S. Geological. Regional MODFLOW models commonly use coarse grids over large areas; this coarse spacing precludes model application to local management issues (e.g., surface-water depletion by wells) without recourse to labor-intensive inset models. Implementation of an unstructured formulation within the MODFLOW framework (MODFLOW-USG) allows application of regional models to address local problems. A "semi-structured" approach (uniform lateral spacing within layers, different lateral spacing among layers) was tested using the LMB regional model. The parent 20-layer model with uniform 5000-foot (1524-m) lateral spacing was converted to 4 layers with 500-foot (152-m) spacing in the top glacial (Quaternary) layer, where surface water features are located, overlying coarser resolution layers representing deeper deposits. This semi-structured version of the LMB model reproduces regional flow conditions, whereas the finer resolution in the top layer improves the accuracy of the simulated response of surface water to shallow wells. One application of the semi-structured LMB model is to provide statistical measures of the correlation between modeled inputs and the simulated amount of water that wells derive from local surface water. The relations identified in this paper serve as the basis for metamodels to predict (with uncertainty) surface-water depletion in response to shallow pumping within and potentially beyond the modeled area, see Fienen et al. (2015a).

  15. A semi-structured MODFLOW-USG model to evaluate local water sources to wells for decision support

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feinstein, Daniel T.; Fienen, Michael N.; Reeves, Howard W.; Langevin, Christian D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to better represent the configuration of the stream network and simulate local groundwater-surface water interactions, a version of MODFLOW with refined spacing in the topmost layer was applied to a Lake Michigan Basin (LMB) regional groundwater-flow model developed by the U.S. Geological. Regional MODFLOW models commonly use coarse grids over large areas; this coarse spacing precludes model application to local management issues (e.g., surface-water depletion by wells) without recourse to labor-intensive inset models. Implementation of an unstructured formulation within the MODFLOW framework (MODFLOW-USG) allows application of regional models to address local problems. A “semi-structured” approach (uniform lateral spacing within layers, different lateral spacing among layers) was tested using the LMB regional model. The parent 20-layer model with uniform 5000-foot (1524-m) lateral spacing was converted to 4 layers with 500-foot (152-m) spacing in the top glacial (Quaternary) layer, where surface water features are located, overlying coarser resolution layers representing deeper deposits. This semi-structured version of the LMB model reproduces regional flow conditions, whereas the finer resolution in the top layer improves the accuracy of the simulated response of surface water to shallow wells. One application of the semi-structured LMB model is to provide statistical measures of the correlation between modeled inputs and the simulated amount of water that wells derive from local surface water. The relations identified in this paper serve as the basis for metamodels to predict (with uncertainty) surface-water depletion in response to shallow pumping within and potentially beyond the modeled area, see Fienen et al. (2015a).

  16. Community-oriented support and research structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attig, Norbert; Eickermann, Thomas; Gibbon, Paul; Lippert, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Coordinated by the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) Europe is restructuring and strengthening its high-performance computing infrastructure with the aim to create a model HPC ecosystem. At the tip of the pyramid, up to six centres are envisaged that will operate systems of the highest performance class. The HPC Research Infrastructure (HPC-RI) will comprise European, national and regional centres. Science communities are integral partners, strong links will include Grid and Cloud users. The HPC-RI strives at providing scientists all over Europe, on the one hand, with unlimited and independent access to state-of-the-art computer resources in all performance classes and, on the other hand, with a world-class pan-European competence and support network. While the hardware-oriented buildup of the infrastructure is making progress, high-quality user support and software development in the upcoming era of unprecedented parallelism and exascale on the horizon have become the imminent challenges. This has been clearly recognized by the European Commission, who will issue calls for proposals to fund petascale software development in summer 2009. Although traditional support structures are well established in Europe's major supercomputing centres, it is questionable if these structures are able to meet the challenges of the future: in general, support structures are based on cross-disciplinary computer science and mathematics teams; disciplinary computational science support usually is given in an ad-hoc, project-oriented manner. In this paper, we describe our approach to establish a suitable support structure-Simulation Laboratories (SL). SLs are currently being established at the Jülich Supercomputing Centre of the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) and at the Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) of the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) in Germany. While SLs are community-oriented, i.e. each SL focusses on a specific community, they are structured

  17. Foil support structure for large electron guns

    SciTech Connect

    Brucker, J.P.; Rose, E.A.

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes a novel support structure for a vacuum diode used to pump a gaseous laser with an electron beam. Conventional support structures are designed to hold a foil flat and rigid. This new structure takes advantage of the significantly greater strength of metals in pure tension, utilizing curved shapes for both foil and support structure. The shape of the foil is comparable to the skin of a balloon, and the shape of the support structures is comparable to the cables of a suspension bridge. This design allows a significant reduction in foil thickness and support structure mass, resulting in a lower electron-beam loss between diode and laser gas. In addition, the foil is pre-formed in the support structure at pressures higher than operating pressure. Therefore, the foil is operated far from the yield point. Increased reliability is anticipated.

  18. Globin gene structure in a reptile supports the transpositional model for amniote α- and β-globin gene evolution.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vidushi S; Ezaz, Tariq; Deakin, Janine E; Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2010-12-01

    The haemoglobin protein, required for oxygen transportation in the body, is encoded by α- and β-globin genes that are arranged in clusters. The transpositional model for the evolution of distinct α-globin and β-globin clusters in amniotes is much simpler than the previously proposed whole genome duplication model. According to this model, all jawed vertebrates share one ancient region containing α- and β-globin genes and several flanking genes in the order MPG-C16orf35-(α-β)-GBY-LUC7L that has been conserved for more than 410 million years, whereas amniotes evolved a distinct β-globin cluster by insertion of a transposed β-globin gene from this ancient region into a cluster of olfactory receptors flanked by CCKBR and RRM1. It could not be determined whether this organisation is conserved in all amniotes because of the paucity of information from non-avian reptiles. To fill in this gap, we examined globin gene organisation in a squamate reptile, the Australian bearded dragon lizard, Pogona vitticeps (Agamidae). We report here that the α-globin cluster (HBK, HBA) is flanked by C16orf35 and GBY and is located on a pair of microchromosomes, whereas the β-globin cluster is flanked by RRM1 on the 3' end and is located on the long arm of chromosome 3. However, the CCKBR gene that flanks the β-globin cluster on the 5' end in other amniotes is located on the short arm of chromosome 5 in P. vitticeps, indicating that a chromosomal break between the β-globin cluster and CCKBR occurred at least in the agamid lineage. Our data from a reptile species provide further evidence to support the transpositional model for the evolution of β-globin gene cluster in amniotes.

  19. Support structure for mudline suspension wellhead

    SciTech Connect

    Remson, D.R.

    1983-08-30

    A support structure is disclosed for supporting the freestanding portion of a mudline suspension wellhead and includes first and second support arms attached to and extending from an offshore drilling platform. The structure is aligned below a cantilevered type drilling derrick. A gantry is supported by and slidable relative to these arms. A cradle structure is mounted for lateral movement on the gantry. Structure is provided for positioning the gantry along the longitudinal length of the arms and for positioning the cradle along the longitudinal length of the gantry. Movement of the cradle structure relative to the gantry and of the gantry relative to the support arms defines a zone between the support arms and between the drilling platform and the outermost point of travel of the gantry in which the cradle may be selectively positioned. The gantry and cradle are aligned relative to the wellhead, and structure associated with the cradle is provided for clamping the wellhead thereto.

  20. Predictive Models Based on Support Vector Machines: Whole-Brain versus Regional Analysis of Structural MRI in the Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Retico, Alessandra; Bosco, Paolo; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Fiorina, Elisa; Chincarini, Andrea; Fantacci, Maria Evelina

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making systems trained on structural magnetic resonance imaging data of subjects affected by the Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy controls (CTRL) are becoming widespread prognostic tools for subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study compares the performances of three classification methods based on support vector machines (SVMs), using as initial sets of brain voxels (ie, features): (1) the segmented grey matter (GM); (2) regions of interest (ROIs) by voxel-wise t-test filtering; (3) parceled ROIs, according to prior knowledge. The recursive feature elimination (RFE) is applied in all cases to investigate whether feature reduction improves the classification accuracy. We analyzed more than 600 AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) subjects, training the SVMs on the AD/CTRL dataset, and evaluating them on a trial MCI dataset. The classification performance, evaluated as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), reaches AUC = (88.9 ± .5)% in 20-fold cross-validation on the AD/CTRL dataset, when the GM is classified as a whole. The highest discrimination accuracy between MCI converters and nonconverters is achieved when the SVM-RFE is applied to the whole GM: with AUC reaching (70.7 ± .9)%, it outperforms both ROI-based approaches in predicting the AD conversion.

  1. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Support Professional. Edition II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful evaluation and support system for support professionals will help improve student outcomes. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Support Professional Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all support professionals do their best work…

  2. Effects of Co-Worker and Supervisor Support on Job Stress and Presenteeism in an Aging Workforce: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tianan; Shen, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Mingjing; Liu, Yuanling; Deng, Jianwei; Chen, Qian; See, Lai-Chu

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of co-worker and supervisor support on job stress and presenteeism in an aging workforce. Structural equation modelling was used to evaluate data from the 2010 wave of the Health and Retirement Survey in the United States (n = 1649). The level of presenteeism was low and the level of job stress was moderate among aging US workers. SEM revealed that co-worker support and supervisor support were strongly correlated (β = 0.67; p < 0.001). Job stress had a significant direct positive effect on presenteeism (β = 0.30; p < 0.001). Co-worker support had a significant direct negative effect on job stress (β = −0.10; p < 0.001) and presenteeism (β = −0.11; p < 0.001). Supervisor support had a significant direct negative effect on job stress (β = −0.40; p < 0.001) but not presenteeism. The findings suggest that presenteeism is reduced by increased respect and concern for employee stress at the workplace, by necessary support at work from colleagues and employers, and by the presence of comfortable interpersonal relationships among colleagues and between employers and employees. PMID:26703705

  3. Dynamic structural disorder in supported nanoscale catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehr, J. J.; Vila, F. D.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the origin and physical effects of "dynamic structural disorder" (DSD) in supported nano-scale catalysts. DSD refers to the intrinsic fluctuating, inhomogeneous structure of such nano-scale systems. In contrast to bulk materials, nano-scale systems exhibit substantial fluctuations in structure, charge, temperature, and other quantities, as well as large surface effects. The DSD is driven largely by the stochastic librational motion of the center of mass and fluxional bonding at the nanoparticle surface due to thermal coupling with the substrate. Our approach for calculating and understanding DSD is based on a combination of real-time density functional theory/molecular dynamics simulations, transient coupled-oscillator models, and statistical mechanics. This approach treats thermal and dynamic effects over multiple time-scales, and includes bond-stretching and -bending vibrations, and transient tethering to the substrate at longer ps time-scales. Potential effects on the catalytic properties of these clusters are briefly explored. Model calculations of molecule-cluster interactions and molecular dissociation reaction paths are presented in which the reactant molecules are adsorbed on the surface of dynamically sampled clusters. This model suggests that DSD can affect both the prefactors and distribution of energy barriers in reaction rates, and thus can significantly affect catalytic activity at the nano-scale.

  4. Dynamic structural disorder in supported nanoscale catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Rehr, J. J.; Vila, F. D.

    2014-04-07

    We investigate the origin and physical effects of “dynamic structural disorder” (DSD) in supported nano-scale catalysts. DSD refers to the intrinsic fluctuating, inhomogeneous structure of such nano-scale systems. In contrast to bulk materials, nano-scale systems exhibit substantial fluctuations in structure, charge, temperature, and other quantities, as well as large surface effects. The DSD is driven largely by the stochastic librational motion of the center of mass and fluxional bonding at the nanoparticle surface due to thermal coupling with the substrate. Our approach for calculating and understanding DSD is based on a combination of real-time density functional theory/molecular dynamics simulations, transient coupled-oscillator models, and statistical mechanics. This approach treats thermal and dynamic effects over multiple time-scales, and includes bond-stretching and -bending vibrations, and transient tethering to the substrate at longer ps time-scales. Potential effects on the catalytic properties of these clusters are briefly explored. Model calculations of molecule-cluster interactions and molecular dissociation reaction paths are presented in which the reactant molecules are adsorbed on the surface of dynamically sampled clusters. This model suggests that DSD can affect both the prefactors and distribution of energy barriers in reaction rates, and thus can significantly affect catalytic activity at the nano-scale.

  5. Influence of backup bearings and support structure dynamics on the behavior of rotors with active supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, George T.

    1995-02-01

    This semiannual status report lists specific accomplishments made on the research of the influence of backup bearings and support structure dynamics on the behavior of rotors with active supports. Papers have been presented representing work done on the T-501 engine model; an experimental/simulation study of auxiliary bearing rotordynamics; and a description of a rotordynamical model for a magnetic bearing supported rotor system, including auxiliary bearing effects. A finite element model for a foil bearing has been developed. Additional studies of rotor/bearing/housing dynamics are currently being performed as are studies of the effects of sideloading on auxiliary bearing rotordynamics using the magnetic bearing supported rotor model.

  6. Influence of backup bearings and support structure dynamics on the behavior of rotors with active supports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, George T.

    1995-01-01

    This semiannual status report lists specific accomplishments made on the research of the influence of backup bearings and support structure dynamics on the behavior of rotors with active supports. Papers have been presented representing work done on the T-501 engine model; an experimental/simulation study of auxiliary bearing rotordynamics; and a description of a rotordynamical model for a magnetic bearing supported rotor system, including auxiliary bearing effects. A finite element model for a foil bearing has been developed. Additional studies of rotor/bearing/housing dynamics are currently being performed as are studies of the effects of sideloading on auxiliary bearing rotordynamics using the magnetic bearing supported rotor model.

  7. Pactruss support structure for precision segmented reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, John M.

    1989-01-01

    The application of the Pactruss deployable structure to the support of large paraboloidal reflectors of very high precision was studied. The Pactruss concept, originally conceived for the Space Station truss, is shown to be suitable for use in a triangular arrangement to support a reflector surface composed of hexagonal reflector panels. A hybrid of Pactruss structural and deployable single-fold beams is shown to accommodate a center body. A minor alteration in the geometry is in order to avoid lockup during deployment. To assess the capability of the hybrid Pactruss structure, an example truss supporting a full-scale (20 meter diameter) infrared telescope was analyzed for static and dynamic performance. A truss structure weighing 800 kilograms gave adequate support to a reflector surface weighing 3,000 kilograms.

  8. Structural support bracket for gas flow path

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-02

    A structural support system is provided in a can annular gas turbine engine having an arrangement including a plurality of integrated exit pieces (IEPs) forming an annular chamber for delivering gases from a plurality of combustors to a first row of turbine blades. A bracket structure is connected between an IEP and an inner support structure on the engine. The bracket structure includes an axial bracket member attached to an IEP and extending axially in a forward direction. A transverse bracket member has an end attached to the inner support structure and extends circumferentially to a connection with a forward end of the axial bracket member. The transverse bracket member provides a fixed radial position for the forward end of the axial bracket member and is flexible in the axial direction to permit axial movement of the axial bracket member.

  9. Modeling Advance Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Marvin; Sager, John; Loader, Coleen; Drysdale, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Activities this summer consisted of two projects that involved computer simulation of bioregenerative life support systems for space habitats. Students in the Space Life Science Training Program (SLSTP) used the simulation, space station, to learn about relationships between humans, fish, plants, and microorganisms in a closed environment. One student complete a six week project to modify the simulation by converting the microbes from anaerobic to aerobic, and then balancing the simulation's life support system. A detailed computer simulation of a closed lunar station using bioregenerative life support was attempted, but there was not enough known about system restraints and constants in plant growth, bioreactor design for space habitats and food preparation to develop an integrated model with any confidence. Instead of a completed detailed model with broad assumptions concerning the unknown system parameters, a framework for an integrated model was outlined and work begun on plant and bioreactor simulations. The NASA sponsors and the summer Fell were satisfied with the progress made during the 10 weeks, and we have planned future cooperative work.

  10. Federal and State Structures to Support Financing Utility-Scale Solar Projects and the Business Models Designed to Utilize Them

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.

    2012-04-01

    Utility-scale solar projects have grown rapidly in number and size over the last few years, driven in part by strong renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and federal incentives designed to stimulate investment in renewable energy technologies. This report provides an overview of such policies, as well as the project financial structures they enable, based on industry literature, publicly available data, and questionnaires conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  11. Organizational Structures that Support Internal Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambur, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter explores how the structure of large complex organizations such as Cooperative Extension affects their ability to support internal evaluation of their programs and activities. Following a literature review of organizational structure and its relation to internal evaluation capacity, the chapter presents the results of interviews with…

  12. A case of strong metal-support interactions: combining advanced microscopy and model systems to elucidate the atomic structure of interfaces.

    PubMed

    Willinger, Marc G; Zhang, Wei; Bondarchuk, Oleksandr; Shaikhutdinov, Shamil; Freund, Hans-Joachim; Schlögl, Robert

    2014-06-02

    A symbiosis of advanced scanning probe and electron microscopy and a well-defined model system may provide a detailed picture of interfaces on nanostructured catalytic systems. This was demonstrated for Pt nanoparticles supported on iron oxide thin films which undergo encapsulation by supporting oxide as a result of strong metal-support interactions.

  13. Turbine nozzle/nozzle support structure

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.; Shaffer, James E.

    1997-01-01

    An axial flow turbine's nozzle/nozzle support structure having a cantilevered nozzle outer structure including an outer shroud and airfoil vanes extending radially inwardly therefrom, an inner shroud radially adjacent the inner end of the airfoil vanes and cooperatively disposed relative to the outer shroud to provide an annular fluid flow path, an inner and an outer support ring respectively arranged radially inside the inner shroud and axially adjacent a portion of the outer shroud, and pins extending through such portion and into the outer support ring. The inner support ring or inner shroud has a groove therein bounded by end walls for receiving and being axially abuttable with a locating projection from the adjacent airfoil vane, inner shroud, or inner support ring. The nozzle outer structure may comprise segments each of which has a single protrusion which is axially engageable with the outer support ring or, alternatively, a first and second protrusion which are arcuately and axially separated and which include axial openings therein whereby first and second protrusions on respective, arcuately adjacent nozzle segments have axial openings therein which are alignable with connector openings in the outer support ring and within each of such aligned openings a pin is receivable. The inner shroud may, likewise, comprise segments which, when assembled in operating configuration, have a 360 degree expanse.

  14. Turbine nozzle/nozzle support structure

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.; Shaffer, James E.

    1996-01-01

    An axial flow turbine's nozzle/nozzle support structure having a cantilevered nozzle outer structure including an outer shroud and airfoil vanes extending radially inwardly therefrom, an inner shroud radially adjacent the inner end of the airfoil vanes and cooperatively disposed relative to the outer shroud to provide an annular fluid flow path, an inner and an outer support ring respectively arranged radially inside the inner shroud and axially adjacent a portion of the outer shroud, and pins extending through such portion and into the outer support ring. The inner support ring or inner shroud has a groove therein bounded by end walls for receiving and being axially abuttable with a locating projection from the adjacent airfoil vane, inner shroud, or inner support ring. The nozzle outer structure may comprise segments each of which has a single protrusion which is axially engageable with the outer support ring or, alternatively, a first and second protrusion which are arcuately and axially separated and which include axial openings therein whereby first and second protrusions on respective, arcuately adjacent nozzle segments have axial openings therein which are alignable with connector openings in the outer support ring and within each of such aligned openings a pin is receivable. The inner shroud may, likewise, comprise segments which, when assembled in operating configuration, have a 360 degree expanse.

  15. Turbine nozzle/nozzle support structure

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.L.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-08-15

    An axial flow turbine`s nozzle/nozzle support structure is described having a cantilevered nozzle outer structure including an outer shroud and airfoil vanes extending radially inwardly therefrom, an inner shroud radially adjacent the inner end of the airfoil vanes and cooperatively disposed relative to the outer shroud to provide an annular fluid flow path, an inner and an outer support ring respectively arranged radially inside the inner shroud and axially adjacent a portion of the outer shroud, and pins extending through such portion and into the outer support ring. The inner support ring or inner shroud has a groove therein bounded by end walls for receiving and being axially abuttable with a locating projection from the adjacent airfoil vane, inner shroud, or inner support ring. The nozzle outer structure may comprise segments each of which has a single protrusion which is axially engageable with the outer support ring or, alternatively, a first and second protrusion which are arcuately and axially separated and which include axial openings therein whereby first and second protrusions on respective, arcuately adjacent nozzle segments have axial openings therein which are alignable with connector openings in the outer support ring and within each of such aligned openings a pin is receivable. The inner shroud may, likewise, comprise segments which, when assembled in operating configuration, have a 360 degree expanse. 6 figs.

  16. Turbine nozzle/nozzle support structure

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.L.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1996-09-10

    An axial flow turbine`s nozzle/nozzle support structure is described having a cantilevered nozzle outer structure including an outer shroud and airfoil vanes extending radially inwardly therefrom, an inner shroud radially adjacent the inner end of the airfoil vanes and cooperatively disposed relative to the outer shroud to provide an annular fluid flow path, an inner and an outer support ring respectively arranged radially inside the inner shroud and axially adjacent a portion of the outer shroud, and pins extending through such portion and into the outer support ring. The inner support ring or inner shroud has a groove therein bounded by end walls for receiving and being axially abuttable with a locating projection from the adjacent airfoil vane, inner shroud, or inner support ring. The nozzle outer structure may comprise segments each of which has a single protrusion which is axially engageable with the outer support ring or, alternatively, a first and second protrusion which are arcuately and axially separated and which include axial openings therein whereby first and second protrusions on respective, arcuately adjacent nozzle segments have axial openings therein which are alignable with connector openings in the outer support ring and within each of such aligned openings a pin is receivable. The inner shroud may, likewise, comprise segments which, when assembled in operating configuration, have a 360 degree expanse. 6 figs.

  17. Turbine nozzle/nozzle support structure

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.L.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1997-01-07

    An axial flow turbine`s nozzle/nozzle support structure is described having a cantilevered nozzle outer structure including an outer shroud and airfoil vanes extending radially inwardly therefrom, an inner shroud radially adjacent the inner end of the airfoil vanes and cooperatively disposed relative to the outer shroud to provide an annular fluid flow path, an inner and an outer support ring respectively arranged radially inside the inner shroud and axially adjacent a portion of the outer shroud, and pins extending through such portion and into the outer support ring. The inner support ring or inner shroud has a groove therein bounded by end walls for receiving and being axially abuttable with a locating projection from the adjacent airfoil vane, inner shroud, or inner support ring. The nozzle outer structure may comprise segments each of which has a single protrusion which is axially engageable with the outer support ring or, alternatively, a first and second protrusion which are arcuately and axially separated and which include axial openings therein whereby first and second protrusions on respective, arcuately adjacent nozzle segments have axial openings therein which are alignable with connector openings in the outer support ring and within each of such aligned openings a pin is receivable. The inner shroud may, likewise, comprise segments which, when assembled in operating configuration, have a 360 degree expanse. 6 figs.

  18. Turbine nozzle/nozzle support structure

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary L.; Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    An axial flow turbine's nozzle/nozzle support structure having a cantilevered nozzle outer structure including an outer shroud and airfoil vanes extending radially inwardly therefrom, an inner shroud radially adjacent the inner end of the airfoil vanes and cooperatively disposed relative to the outer shroud to provide an annular fluid flow path, an inner and an outer support ring respectively arranged radially inside the inner shroud and axially adjacent a portion of the outer shroud, and pins extending through such portion and into the outer support ring. The inner support ring or inner shroud has a groove therein bounded by end walls for receiving and being axially abuttable with a locating projection from the adjacent airfoil vane, inner shroud, or inner support ring. The nozzle outer structure may comprise segments each of which has a single protrusion which is axially engageable with the outer support ring or, alternatively, a first and second protrusion which are arcuately and axially separated and which include axial openings therein whereby first and second protrusions on respective, arcuately adjacent nozzle segments have axial openings therein which are alignable with connector openings in the outer support ring and within each of such aligned openings a pin is receivable. The inner shroud may, likewise, comprise segments which, when assembled in operating configuration, have a 360 degree expanse.

  19. Oscillating water column structural model

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, Guild; Bull, Diana L; Jepsen, Richard Alan; Gordon, Margaret Ellen

    2014-09-01

    An oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter is a structure with an opening to the ocean below the free surface, i.e. a structure with a moonpool. Two structural models for a non-axisymmetric terminator design OWC, the Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) are discussed in this report. The results of this structural model design study are intended to inform experiments and modeling underway in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated Reference Model Project (RMP). A detailed design developed by Re Vision Consulting used stiffeners and girders to stabilize the structure against the hydrostatic loads experienced by a BBDB device. Additional support plates were added to this structure to account for loads arising from the mooring line attachment points. A simplified structure was designed in a modular fashion. This simplified design allows easy alterations to the buoyancy chambers and uncomplicated analysis of resulting changes in buoyancy.

  20. Microwave limb sounder, graphite epoxy support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pynchon, G.

    1980-01-01

    The manufacturing and processing procedures which were used to fabricate a precision graphite/epoxy support structure for a spherical microwave reflecting surface are described. The structure was made fromm GY-70/930 ultra high modulus graphite prepreg, laminated to achieve an isotropic in plane thermal expansion of less than + or - 0.1 PPM/F. The structure was hand assembled to match the interface of the reflective surface, which was an array of 18 flexure supported, aluminum, spherically contoured tiles. Structural adhesives were used in the final assembly to bond the elements into their final configuration. A eutectic metal coating was applied to the composite surface to reduce dimensional instabilities arising from changes in the composite epoxy moisture content due to environmental effects. Basic materials properties data are reported and the results of a finite element structural analysis are referenced.

  1. Support structure of differential gear unit

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, Y.; Suganuma, T.

    1989-04-18

    A support structure is described of a differential gear unit assembled in a trans-axle casing having a pair of axially spaced carrier portions and an open end closed by a removable cover member secured thereto, an outer case of the gear unit having a pair of side journals rotatable supported by a pair of tapered roller bearings which are removably coupled within respective cylindrical bores in the carrier portions of the trans-axle casing.

  2. Nonresonant support facilitates vibration testing of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    An essentially frictionless four-point support system which utilizes bearings and pistons allows for determination of vibration frequencies of large structures. Retardation of vertical or horizontal motion is due to the viscous damping by the hydrostatic pressure of the oil or by adjustment of the gas volume in the accumulator.

  3. Support structures for large infrared telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    An infrared telescope requires an accuracy of its reflecting surfaces of less than a micrometer. Future missions may require such accuracy from telescopes that are 20 meters or larger in diameter. The structure for supporting such a telescope will most probably take the form of a deep truss. Various approaches for constructing the primary mirror in space are illustrated. One that employs automated deployment of interconnected reflector-structure modules was described in detail. Estimates were made of the precision obtainable with properly configured truss structures and the required ability of active control systems for achieving the desired accuracy.

  4. Integrated support structure for GASCAN 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The focus of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) Advanced Space Design Program was the preliminary design of the Integrated Support Structure for GASCAN II, a Get Away Special canister donated by the MITRE Corporation. Two teams of three students each worked on the support structure. There was a structural design team and a thermal design team. The structure will carry three experiments also undergoing preliminary design this year, the mu-gravity Ignition Experiment, the Rotational Flow in Low Gravity Experiment, and the Ionospheric Properties and Propagation Experiment. The structural design team was responsible for the layout of the GASCAN and the preliminary design of the structure itself. They produced the physical interface specifications defining the baseline weights and volumes for the equipment and produced layout drawings of the system. The team produced static and modal finite element analysis of the structure using ANSYS. The thermal design team was responsible for the power and timing requirements of the payload and for the identification and preliminary analysis of potential thermal problems. The team produced the power, timing, and energy interface specifications and assisted in the development of the specification of the battery pack. The thermal parameters of each experiment were cataloged and the experiments were subjected to worst case heat transfer scenarios.

  5. Integrated Multidisciplinary Constrained Optimization of Offshore Support Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghi, Rad; Ashuri, Turaj; van der Valk, Paul L. C.; Molenaar, David P.

    2014-12-01

    In the current offshore wind turbine support structure design method, the tower and foundation, which form the support structure are designed separately by the turbine and foundation designer. This method yields a suboptimal design and it results in a heavy, overdesigned and expensive support structure. This paper presents an integrated multidisciplinary approach to design the tower and foundation simultaneously. Aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, structure and soil mechanics are the modeled disciplines to capture the full dynamic behavior of the foundation and tower under different environmental conditions. The objective function to be minimized is the mass of the support structure. The model includes various design constraints: local and global buckling, modal frequencies, and fatigue damage along different stations of the structure. To show the usefulness of the method, an existing SWT-3.6-107 offshore wind turbine where its tower and foundation are designed separately is used as a case study. The result of the integrated multidisciplinary design optimization shows 12.1% reduction in the mass of the support structure, while satisfying all the design constraints.

  6. Group decision support using Toulmin argument structures

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, T. |; Sage, A.P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses the need for sound science, technology, and management assessment relative to environmental policy decision making through an approach that involves a logical structure for evidence, a framed decision-making process, and an environment that encourages group participation. Toulmin-based logic possesses these characteristics and is used as the basis for development of a group decision support system. This system can support several user groups, such as pesticide policy-making experts, who can use the support system to state arguments for or against an important policy issue, and pest management experts, who can use the system to assist in identifying and evaluating alternatives for controlling pests on agricultural commodities. The resulting decision support system assists in improving the clarity of the lines of reasoning used in specific situations; the warrants, grounds, and backings that are used to support claims and specific lines of reasoning; and the contradictions, rebuttals, and arguments surrounding each step in the reasoning process associated with evaluating a claim or counterclaim. Experts and decisions makers with differing views can better understand each other`s thought processes. The net effect is enhanced communications and understanding of the whole picture and, in many cases, consensus on decisions to be taken.

  7. Regularized Structural Equation Modeling.

    PubMed

    Jacobucci, Ross; Grimm, Kevin J; McArdle, John J

    A new method is proposed that extends the use of regularization in both lasso and ridge regression to structural equation models. The method is termed regularized structural equation modeling (RegSEM). RegSEM penalizes specific parameters in structural equation models, with the goal of creating easier to understand and simpler models. Although regularization has gained wide adoption in regression, very little has transferred to models with latent variables. By adding penalties to specific parameters in a structural equation model, researchers have a high level of flexibility in reducing model complexity, overcoming poor fitting models, and the creation of models that are more likely to generalize to new samples. The proposed method was evaluated through a simulation study, two illustrative examples involving a measurement model, and one empirical example involving the structural part of the model to demonstrate RegSEM's utility.

  8. Liquid metal systems development: reactor vessel support structure evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    McEdwards, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Results of an evaluation of support structures for the reactor vessel are reported. The U ring, box ring, integral ring, tee ring and tangential beam supports were investigated. The U ring is the recommended vessel support structure configuration.

  9. Caregiver role overload and network support in a sample of predominantly low-income, African-American caregivers of persons living with HIV/AIDS: a structural equation modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mary M; Knowlton, Amy

    2012-02-01

    While informal caregivers play an important role in improving the health of disadvantaged persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) in the United States, caregiver role overload has the potential for distress. We used latent profile analysis (LPA) to classify caregivers based on their perceived level of support and structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the relationships among role overload, perceived support, caregiver demographic characteristics, and social network members' characteristics in a sample of 215 predominantly low-income, African-American informal caregivers. The LPA resulted in two classes of caregivers with higher and lower perceived support. The SEM results indicated that caregiver role overload was associated with being in the less supported class, younger age, and limited physical functioning, while social support class was associated with being female and being HIV seropositive in addition to support network characteristics. Interventions should address the support needs of HIV caregivers to reduce their potential for distress.

  10. Mathematical Model Development and Simulation Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Ronald C.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in support of the Contact Dynamics 6DOF Facility and the Flight Robotics Lab at NASA/ MSFC in the areas of Mathematical Model Development and Simulation Support.

  11. Planetary gear train ring gear and support structure investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valco, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    Most helicopter transmissions utilize a planetary gear train as the final speed reduction stage. Due to weight constraints these transmissions have high power-to-weight ratios and relatively flexible structures. This investigation addresses the analysis of planetary gear trains with the ring gear mounted on a flexible support structure. The approach utilizes recent advances in automated contact methods for nonlinear finite element analysis. Rather than using a line of action spring to model gear pair mesh stiffness, finite element models of complete gears are developed, and the elastic gear members are engaged and rolled through mesh. The procedure includes detailed gear tooth geometry with profile modifications. A nonlinear approach is required due to large displacements associated with gear rotation and nonlinear boundary conditions associated with the gear tooth surface contact. The updated Lagrangian formulation and the MARC K-4.1 automated contact features are applied in the analysis. The ring gear support structure is modeled by an elastic foundation linking the ring gear to a rigid support. Calculation of gear pair deflections, stresses, transmission error, and mesh stiffness through the gear meshing cycle are demonstrated for external and internal spur gear pairs and a planetary gear train. Issues relating to the accuracy of the nonlinear finite element contact method, gear mesh stiffness, transmission error, and the planetary gear train elastic support structure are discussed.

  12. (Synthesis of model polymers and related structures in support of vinyl monomer grafting studies): Progress report, 7/1/86-6/30/87

    SciTech Connect

    Hogen-Esch, T.E.

    1987-03-25

    The objectives of the present program include the synthesis, structural characterization and properties, of cellulose-based water-soluble graft copolymers capable of effectively enhancing the viscosity of their aqueous solutions. In support of this program we plan the synthesis of a number of water-soluble well defined block- or star block copolymers capable of effectively viscosifying their aqueous solutions through reversible crosslinking. In order to understand the effects on rheology of branching or cyclization in the above systems, we also plan the synthesis of water-soluble cyclic- and star polymers.

  13. Physics modeling support contract: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-30

    This document is the final report for the Physics Modeling Support contract between TRW, Inc. and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for fiscal year 1987. It consists of following projects: TIBER physics modeling and systems code development; advanced blanket modeling task; time dependent modeling; and free electron maser for TIBER II.

  14. SPAR Model Structural Efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    John Schroeder; Dan Henry

    2013-04-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) are supporting initiatives aimed at improving the quality of probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Included in these initiatives are the resolution of key technical issues that are have been judged to have the most significant influence on the baseline core damage frequency of the NRC’s Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models and licensee PRA models. Previous work addressed issues associated with support system initiating event analysis and loss of off-site power/station blackout analysis. The key technical issues were: • Development of a standard methodology and implementation of support system initiating events • Treatment of loss of offsite power • Development of standard approach for emergency core cooling following containment failure Some of the related issues were not fully resolved. This project continues the effort to resolve outstanding issues. The work scope was intended to include substantial collaboration with EPRI; however, EPRI has had other higher priority initiatives to support. Therefore this project has addressed SPAR modeling issues. The issues addressed are • SPAR model transparency • Common cause failure modeling deficiencies and approaches • Ac and dc modeling deficiencies and approaches • Instrumentation and control system modeling deficiencies and approaches

  15. Mathematical Modeling Of Life-Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, Panchalam K.; Ganapathi, Balasubramanian; Jan, Darrell L.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1994-01-01

    Generic hierarchical model of life-support system developed to facilitate comparisons of options in design of system. Model represents combinations of interdependent subsystems supporting microbes, plants, fish, and land animals (including humans). Generic model enables rapid configuration of variety of specific life support component models for tradeoff studies culminating in single system design. Enables rapid evaluation of effects of substituting alternate technologies and even entire groups of technologies and subsystems. Used to synthesize and analyze life-support systems ranging from relatively simple, nonregenerative units like aquariums to complex closed-loop systems aboard submarines or spacecraft. Model, called Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS), coded in such chemical-process-simulation languages as Aspen Plus and expressed as three-dimensional spreadsheet.

  16. Structural model integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallerstein, D. V.; Lahey, R. S.; Haggenmacher, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    Many of the practical aspects and problems of ensuring the integrity of a structural model are discussed, as well as the steps which have been taken in the NASTRAN system to assure that these checks can be routinely performed. Model integrity as used applies not only to the structural model but also to the loads applied to the model. Emphasis is also placed on the fact that when dealing with substructure analysis, all of the checking procedures discussed should be applied at the lowest level of substructure prior to any coupling.

  17. Regolith-structure modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Hon-Yim; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    shielding for habitation and workspace. The habitat module is treated as a rigid cylindrical tube with a smooth exterior. By making the cylinder rigid, a complex interaction problem is reduced to a situation where we can consider the support regolith and the shielding regolith as behaving independently of the structural properties of the cylindrical structure. Medium-dense lunar simulant was placed around a scaled model of the habitat module to provide a radiation shield. This embankment-type shield was constructed in relatively thin but fine layers by compacting, by mechanical vibratory means, layer upon layer of simulant placed adjacent to the horizontally-aligned cylinder. The slope angles were constructed at 55 degrees. The model described above was studied in a geotechnical centrifuge, which allows for the scaling of model dimensions to prototype dimensions by increasing the acceleration of gravity on the model. The deformation response can be scaled up to prototype dimensions to provide an assessment of the deformation patterns of the lunar structure. The actual process of local and/or global growth of instabilities or skip planes can also be observed.

  18. Optimized Heat Interception for Cryogen Tank Support Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canavan, E. R.; Miller, F. K.

    2007-01-01

    We consider means for using the cooling available in boil-off gas to intercept heat conducted through the support structure of a cryogen tank. A one-dimensional model of the structure coupled to a gas stream gives an analytical expression for heat leak in terms of flow rate for temperature independent properties and laminar flow. A numerical model has been developed for heat transfer on a thin cylindrical tube with an attached vent line. The model is used to determine the vent path layout that will minimize heat flow into the cryogen tank. The results are useful for a number of applications, but the one of interest in this study is the minimization of the boil-off in large cryopropellant tanks in low Earth and low lunar orbit.

  19. Structural Equation Model Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  20. Spring structure for a thermionic converter emitter support arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Daniel T.

    1992-01-01

    A support is provided for use in a thermionic converter to support an end of an emitter to keep it out of contact with a surrounding collector while allowing the emitter end to move axially as its temperature changes. The emitter end (34) is supported by a spring structure (44) that includes a pair of Belleville springs, and the spring structure is supported by a support structure (42) fixed to the housing that includes the collector. The support structure is in the form of a sandwich with a small metal spring-engaging element (74) at the front end, a larger metal main support (76) at the rear end that is attached to the housing, and with a ceramic layer (80) between them that is bonded by hot isostatic pressing to the metal element and metal main support. The spring structure can include a loose wafer (120) captured between the Belleville springs.

  1. Spring structure for a thermionic converter emitter support arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Allen, D.T.

    1992-03-17

    A support is provided for use in a thermionic converter to support an end of an emitter to keep it out of contact with a surrounding collector while allowing the emitter end to move axially as its temperature changes. The emitter end is supported by a spring structure that includes a pair of Belleville springs, and the spring structure is supported by a support structure fixed to the housing that includes the collector. The support structure is in the form of a sandwich with a small metal spring-engaging element at the front end, a larger metal main support at the rear end that is attached to the housing, and with a ceramic layer between them that is bonded by hot isostatic pressing to the metal element and metal main support. The spring structure can include a loose wafer captured between the Belleville springs. 7 figs.

  2. The Structure and Validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Patrick H.; Richardson, George B.

    2012-01-01

    The factor structure and concurrent validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire, a brief measure of perceived social support for use with adolescents, was examined. Findings suggest that four dimensions of perceived social support may yield more information than assessments of the unitary construct of support. (Contains 8 tables…

  3. Supporting Structures for Flat Solar-Cell Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    Strong supporting structures for flat solar photovoltaic arrays built with such commonly available materials as wood and galvanized steel sheet. Structures resist expected static loads from snow and ice as well as dynamic loads from winds and even Earthquake vibrations. Supporting structure uses inexpensive materials. Parts prefabricated to minimize assembly work in field.

  4. Mission Peculiar Equipment Support Structure: A platform for space construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The Space Shuttle requires carriers to support payloads in the cargo bay. As a result, the Mission Peculiar Equipment Support Structure (MPESS) was designed to carry partial payloads aboard the shuttle. The efforts to customize the MPESS for the Experimental Assembly of Structure in EVA (EASE) and Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure (ACCESS) experiments are summarized.

  5. Operations and support cost modeling of conceptual space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebeling, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The University of Dayton is pleased to submit this annual report to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center which documents the development of an operations and support (O&S) cost model as part of a larger life cycle cost (LCC) structure. It is intended for use during the conceptual design of new launch vehicles and spacecraft. This research is being conducted under NASA Research Grant NAG-1-1327. This research effort changes the focus from that of the first two years in which a reliability and maintainability model was developed to the initial development of an operations and support life cycle cost model. Cost categories were initially patterned after NASA's three axis work breakdown structure consisting of a configuration axis (vehicle), a function axis, and a cost axis. A revised cost element structure (CES), which is currently under study by NASA, was used to established the basic cost elements used in the model. While the focus of the effort was on operations and maintenance costs and other recurring costs, the computerized model allowed for other cost categories such as RDT&E and production costs to be addressed. Secondary tasks performed concurrent with the development of the costing model included support and upgrades to the reliability and maintainability (R&M) model. The primary result of the current research has been a methodology and a computer implementation of the methodology to provide for timely operations and support cost analysis during the conceptual design activities.

  6. Generalized Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Skrondal, Anders; Pickles, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    A unifying framework for generalized multilevel structural equation modeling is introduced. The models in the framework, called generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM), combine features of generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) and structural equation models (SEM) and consist of a response model and a structural model for the latent…

  7. ESF GROUND SUPPORT - STRUCTURAL STEEL ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    T. Misiak

    1996-06-26

    The purpose and objective of this analysis are to expand the level of detail and confirm member sizes for steel sets included in the Ground Support Design Analysis, Reference 5.20. This analysis also provides bounding values and details and defines critical design attributes for alternative configurations of the steel set. One possible configuration for the steel set is presented. This analysis covers the steel set design for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) entire Main Loop 25-foot diameter tunnel.

  8. Design of internal support structures for an inflatable lunar habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Elizabeth A.; Duston, John A.; Lee, David D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA has a long range goal of constructing a fully equipped, manned lunar outpost on the near side of the moon by the year 2015. The proposed outpost includes an inflatable lunar habitat to support crews during missions longer that 12 months. A design for the internal support structures of the inflatable habitat is presented. The design solution includes material selection, substructure design, assembly plan development, and concept scale model construction. Alternate designs and design solutions for each component of the design are discussed. Alternate materials include aluminum, titanium, and reinforced polymers. Vertical support alternates include column systems, truss systems, suspension systems, and lunar lander supports. Horizontal alternates include beams, trusses, floor/truss systems, and expandable trusses. Feasibility studies on each alternate showed that truss systems and expandable trusses were the most feasible candidates for conceptual design. The team based the designs on the properties of 7075 T73 aluminum. The substructure assembly plan, minimizes assembly time and allows crews to construct the habitat without the use of EVA suits. In addition to the design solutions, the report gives conclusions and recommendations for further study of the inflatable habitat design.

  9. Analysis and Test Support for Phillips Laboratory Precision Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-11-01

    Air Force Research Laboratory ( AFRL ), Phillips Research Site . Task objectives centered...around analysis and structural dynamic test support on experiments within the Space Vehicles Directorate at Kirtland Air Force Base. These efforts help...support for Phillips Laboratory Precision Structures." Mr. James Goodding of CSA Engineering was the principal investigator for this task. Mr.

  10. Decoupling a Reflecting Layer From Its Support Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Mounting decouples thermal distortions of reflective surface so not transmitted to support structure. Reflecting layer consists of aluminum reflecting tiles attached to support structure by flexural mounting bend and twist to accommodate thermal expansion of tiles. Technique useful in microwave-antenna reflectors.

  11. Modeling solar magnetic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, B. C.

    1985-01-01

    Some ideas in the theoretical study of force-free magnetic fields and magnetostatic fields, which are relevant to the effort of using magnetograph data as inputs to model the quasi-static, large-scale magnetic structures in the solar atmosphere are discussed. Basic physical principles will be emphasized. An attempt will be made to assess what we may learn, physically, from the models based on these ideas. There is prospect for learning useful physics and this ought to be an incentive for intensifying the efforts to improve vector magnetograph technology and to solve the basic radiative-transfer problems encountered in the interpretation of magnetograph raw data.

  12. Which Process Model Practices Support Project Success?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepmets, Marion

    In this research the relevance of the guidance of software process models to industry was studied - more precisely, how relevant are the basic project management practices to the industry projects and to the success of these projects. The focus of the research is on project management and its related practices - the processes that support the achievement of capability levels 1 and 2 in CMMI and ISO/IEC 15504. These project management practices can also be viewed as best practices, the application of which can lead to project success. We aimed to discover whether the implementation of basic project management practices supports project success. There is evidence that higher process capability supports increased project performance. The question remains about the significance of basic project management practices to project performance.

  13. Weight minimization of a support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kluberdanz, Donald J.; Segalman, Helaine J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the weight minimization of a circular plate-like structure which resulted in a 26 percent weight reduction. The optimization was performed numerically with the COPES/ADS program using the modified method of feasible directions. Design parameters were the inner thickness and outer thickness of the plate with constraints on maximum yield stress and maximum transverse displacement. Also, constraints were specified for the upper and lower bounds of the fundamental frequency and plate thicknesses. The MSC/NASTRAN finite element program was used for the evaluation of response variables. Original and final designs of the plate were tested using an Instron tension-compression machine to compare finite element results to measured strain data. The difference between finite element strain components and measured strain data was within engineering accuracy.

  14. Reviewing model application to support animal health decision making.

    PubMed

    Singer, Alexander; Salman, Mo; Thulke, Hans-Hermann

    2011-04-01

    Animal health is of societal importance as it affects human welfare, and anthropogenic interests shape decision making to assure animal health. Scientific advice to support decision making is manifold. Modelling, as one piece of the scientific toolbox, is appreciated for its ability to describe and structure data, to give insight in complex processes and to predict future outcome. In this paper we study the application of scientific modelling to support practical animal health decisions. We reviewed the 35 animal health related scientific opinions adopted by the Animal Health and Animal Welfare Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Thirteen of these documents were based on the application of models. The review took two viewpoints, the decision maker's need and the modeller's approach. In the reviewed material three types of modelling questions were addressed by four specific model types. The correspondence between tasks and models underpinned the importance of the modelling question in triggering the modelling approach. End point quantifications were the dominating request from decision makers, implying that prediction of risk is a major need. However, due to knowledge gaps corresponding modelling studies often shed away from providing exact numbers. Instead, comparative scenario analyses were performed, furthering the understanding of the decision problem and effects of alternative management options. In conclusion, the most adequate scientific support for decision making - including available modelling capacity - might be expected if the required advice is clearly stated.

  15. The Role of Parental Support, Parental Monitoring, and Time Spent with Parents in Adolescent Academic Achievement in Iceland: A Structural Model of Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between parental support, parental monitoring, and time spent with parents and academic achievement among adolescent girls and boys in Iceland, a high-income per-capita Nordic country. The indirect role of school effort is also examined. Data of 7430 9th and 10th graders is analyzed in the study. Structural…

  16. The Coastal Modeling System: A System of Numerical Models and Support Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    via the Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ). The CMS is a software package aimed at organizing CERC’s larger numerical models and their supporting software...reduced because of user familiarity with the system structure. COMPONENTS: The CMS is a supercomputer-based system of models and supporting software...elevations from tidal constituent input. Generally, CMS users are not required to learn the JCL of the host computer system . Most of the job’control commands

  17. Transonic Cascade Measurements to Support Analytical Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    RECEIVED JUL 0 12005 FINAL REPORT FOR: AFOSR GRANT F49260-02-1-0284 TRANSONIC CASCADE MEASUREMENTS TO SUPPORT ANALYTICAL MODELING Paul A. Durbin ...PAD); 650-723-1971 (JKE) durbin @vk.stanford.edu; eaton@vk.stanford.edu submitted to: Attn: Dr. John Schmisseur Air Force Office of Scientific Research...both spline and control points for subsequent wall shape definitions. An algebraic grid generator was used to generate the grid for the blade-wall

  18. Personnel Service Support (PSS) in Army Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-20

    UNCLASSIFIED N ACN 73765 PERSONNEL SERVICE SUPPORT (PSS) IN ARMY MODELS FINAL REPORT DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES ARMY TRAINING...Analysis 4-7 A-6 10 Theater Strategic Operational (TSO) Depths B-3 11 Constructing Interval Scales from Ordinal Data E-4 vii GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS ACN Army...Control Number AI Artificial Intelligence AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ALB Airland Battle AMSAA Army Materiel Systems Analysis Agency ANSI

  19. Prioritization of engineering support requests and advanced technology projects using decision support and industrial engineering models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavana, Madjid

    1995-01-01

    The evaluation and prioritization of Engineering Support Requests (ESR's) is a particularly difficult task at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) -- Shuttle Project Engineering Office. This difficulty is due to the complexities inherent in the evaluation process and the lack of structured information. The evaluation process must consider a multitude of relevant pieces of information concerning Safety, Supportability, O&M Cost Savings, Process Enhancement, Reliability, and Implementation. Various analytical and normative models developed over the past have helped decision makers at KSC utilize large volumes of information in the evaluation of ESR's. The purpose of this project is to build on the existing methodologies and develop a multiple criteria decision support system that captures the decision maker's beliefs through a series of sequential, rational, and analytical processes. The model utilizes the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), subjective probabilities, the entropy concept, and Maximize Agreement Heuristic (MAH) to enhance the decision maker's intuition in evaluating a set of ESR's.

  20. Microsatellite data support subpopulation structuring among Basques.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Miranda, Ana M; Alfonso-Sánchez, Miguel A; Kalantar, Arif; García-Obregón, Susana; de Pancorbo, Marian M; Peña, José A; Herrera, Rene J

    2005-01-01

    Genomic diversity based on 13 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D3S1358, vWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, TH01, TPOX, and CSF1PO) is reported for the first time in Basques from the provinces of Guipúzcoa and Navarre (Spain). STR data from previous studies on Basques from Alava and Vizcaya provinces were also examined using hierarchal analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and genetic admixture estimations to ascertain whether the Basques are genetically heterogeneous. To assess the genetic position of Basques in a broader geographic context, we conducted phylogenetic analyses based on F(ST) genetic distances [neighbor-joining trees and multidimensional scaling (MDS)] using data compiled in previous publications. The genetic profile of the Basque groups revealed distinctive regional partitioning of short tandem repeat (STR) diversity. Consistent with the above, native Basques clearly segregated from other populations from Europe (including Spain), North Africa, and the Middle East. The main line of genetic discontinuity inferred from the spatial variability of the microsatellite diversity in Basques significantly overlapped the geographic distribution of the Basque language. The genetic heterogeneity among native Basque groups correlates with the peculiar geography of peopling and marital structure in rural Basque zones and with language boundaries resulting from the uneven impact of Romance languages in the different Basque territories.

  1. Flight accommodations using a special structure. [space shuttle payloads support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noblitt, B. G.; Mcannally, R.

    1982-01-01

    A special payload carrier structure has been developed in order to provide Space Shuttle flight accommodations for an exceptionally heavy instrument package requiring no subsystems support. This Mission Peculiar Equipment Support Structure (MPESS) will support the OSTA-2 payload for a materials processing mission. The modular design of the MPESS offers a payload support capability at multiple locations within the Space Shuttle cargo bay. The MPESS is also scheduled for use with earth observation instruments to be carried by the OSTA-3 mission in late 1984.

  2. Structural system identification: Structural dynamics model validation

    SciTech Connect

    Red-Horse, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    Structural system identification is concerned with the development of systematic procedures and tools for developing predictive analytical models based on a physical structure`s dynamic response characteristics. It is a multidisciplinary process that involves the ability (1) to define high fidelity physics-based analysis models, (2) to acquire accurate test-derived information for physical specimens using diagnostic experiments, (3) to validate the numerical simulation model by reconciling differences that inevitably exist between the analysis model and the experimental data, and (4) to quantify uncertainties in the final system models and subsequent numerical simulations. The goal of this project was to develop structural system identification techniques and software suitable for both research and production applications in code and model validation.

  3. Strong Metal-Support Interactions (smsi) in Model Titania-Supported Rhodium Catalysts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Hassan Roger

    Model catalysts consisting of rhodium particles supported on well characterized, single crystal rutile substrates were used to study the nature of strong metal -support interactions (SMSI) in supported catalyst systems. The use of single crystal supports eliminates many of the complications inherent with powder supported catalysts and greatly simplifies the interpretation of experimental data. A variety of surface sensitive electron spectroscopic techniques, including ultraviolet and x-ray photoemission (UPS and XPS), electron energy loss (ELS) and Auger spectroscopies, low energy electron diffraction (LEED), combined with chemisorption measurements were applied to rhodium on titania model catalysts in order to separate the various phenomena that contribute to SMSI. The properties of the clean titania supports have been determined, including the dynamics of oxidation of reduced surfaces. Model catalysts were then prepared by thermal evaporation of rhodium onto these supports. The high temperature reduction procedures that produce the SMSI state on powder supported catalysts have been used on the model catalysts, and Auger sputter profiles indicate that during high temperature reduction (HTR) a suboxide of titanium migrates onto the rhodium particles, thus blocking carbon monoxide chemisorption. Removal of the suboxide layer by ion bombardment restores the normal chemisorption properties of the catalyst. Model rhodium on titania catalysts fabricated on both fully oxidized and on partially reduced single crystal supports have also been used. In this way it is possible to observe support-to-metal charge transfer in the absence of the encapsulation that accompanies HTR. The experimental results show that reduced titania species and rhodium interact with each other through a partially ionic bond, with electronic charge transferred from the reduced titanium cations to the rhodium. This bonding interaction is part of the driving force that leads to encapsulation of the

  4. A prototype computer-aided modelling tool for life-support system models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preisig, H. A.; Lee, Tae-Yeong; Little, Frank

    1990-01-01

    Based on the canonical decomposition of physical-chemical-biological systems, a prototype kernel has been developed to efficiently model alternative life-support systems. It supports (1) the work in an interdisciplinary group through an easy-to-use mostly graphical interface, (2) modularized object-oriented model representation, (3) reuse of models, (4) inheritance of structures from model object to model object, and (5) model data base. The kernel is implemented in Modula-II and presently operates on an IBM PC.

  5. View of hydrodynamic support cylinders, removed from structure and relocated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of hydrodynamic support cylinders, removed from structure and relocated for reconditioning to return them to service. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  6. INTERIOR OF HANGAR SPACE, LOOKING TOWARD ROOF SUPPORT STRUCTURE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF HANGAR SPACE, LOOKING TOWARD ROOF SUPPORT STRUCTURE FROM HANGAR FLOOR. view TO NORTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Maintenance Hangar, Arizona Avenue between California & Connecticut Streets, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  7. View of possible sluice gate support structure, north center of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of possible sluice gate support structure, north center of the Merry Generator House, looking south - Arthur Holmes Merry Generator House, Signal Lake North of Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  8. 17. UPPER DECK, VIEW OF SUPPORTING STRUCTURE AND ROOF OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. UPPER DECK, VIEW OF SUPPORTING STRUCTURE AND ROOF OF FERRY SHED. LOOKING WEST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad & Ferry Terminal, Ferry Slips & Bridges, Bounded by Observer, Newark & River Streets, Hudson River, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  9. INTERIOR OF HANGAR SPACE, LOOKING TOWARD ROOF SUPPORT STRUCTURE FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF HANGAR SPACE, LOOKING TOWARD ROOF SUPPORT STRUCTURE FROM MEZZANINE. VIEW TO WEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Maintenance Hangar, Arizona Avenue between California & Connecticut Streets, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  10. 6. VAL LAUNCHER BRIDGE, CARRIAGE SUPPORT, CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VAL LAUNCHER BRIDGE, CARRIAGE SUPPORT, CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE AND CAMERA TOWER LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. Detail of the wharf support structure with four pipes running ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of the wharf support structure with four pipes running across - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Railway No. 2, Crane Wharf, Near intersection of Avenue G & Third Street , Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. HREM study of structure of supported Pt catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ming-Hui; Smith, David J.; Kalakkad, Dinesh; Datye, Abhaya K.

    1993-03-01

    The surface structure and morphology of Pt catalysts supported on various oxides were studied by HREM profile imaging. An unstable Ti oxide overlayer and a stable crystalline monolayer on TiO2 supported Pt particles were observed after HTR at 923K. The overlayers could explain the SMSI in Pt/TiO2.

  13. Teacher Support, School Goal Structures, and Teenage Mothers' School Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how perceptions of teacher support and achievement goal structures in the school environment correlate with school engagement, and whether depressive symptoms mediate or moderate this association, among 64 low-income teenage mothers. Controlling for prior grades, perceptions of teacher support correlate with higher levels…

  14. Promoting Student Success in College Science through Structure and Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronson, Richard; Kaufman, Judith

    1993-01-01

    Describes the SOS (Support Our Students) program at Fairleigh Dickinson University that sought to help students in introductory science courses. The program uses a multidimensional approach addressing the instructional needs and also the structure and supports required of first-year college students. (PR)

  15. Theory and Modeling in Support of Tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. L.; Bergeron, G.; Drobot, A. D.; Papadopoulos, K.; Riyopoulos, S.; Szuszczewicz, E.

    1999-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work performed by SAIC's Applied Physics Operation on the modeling and support of Tethered Satellite System missions (TSS-1 and TSS-1R). The SAIC team, known to be Theory and Modeling in Support of Tether (TMST) investigation, was one of the original twelve teams selected in July, 1985 for the first TSS mission. The accomplishments described in this report cover the period December 19, 1985 to September 31, 1999 and are the result of a continuous effort aimed at supporting the TSS missions in the following major areas. During the contract period, the SAIC's TMST investigation acted to: Participate in the planning and the execution on both of the TSS missions; Provide scientific understanding on the issues involved in the electrodynamic tether system operation prior to the TSS missions; Predict ionospheric conditions encountered during the re-flight mission (TSS-lR) based on realtime global ionosounde data; Perform post mission analyses to enhance our understanding on the TSS results. Specifically, we have 1) constructed and improved current collection models and enhanced our understanding on the current-voltage data; 2) investigated the effects of neutral gas in the current collection processes; 3) conducted laboratory experiments to study the discharge phenomena during and after tether-break; and 4) perform numerical simulations to understand data collected by plasma instruments SPES onboard the TSS satellite; Design and produce multi-media CD that highlights TSS mission achievements and convey the knowledge of the tether technology to the general public. Along with discussions of this work, a list of publications and presentations derived from the TMST investigation spanning the reporting period is compiled.

  16. Metallic and Non-Metallic Materials for the Primary Support Structure

    SciTech Connect

    RA Wolf; RP Corson

    2006-02-21

    The primary support structure (PSS) is required for mechanical support of reactor module (RM) components and mounting of the RM to the spacecraft. The PSS would provide support and accept all loads associated with dynamic (e. g., launch and maneuvering) or thermally induced loading. Prior to termination of NRPCT involvement in Project Prometheus, the NRPCT Mechanical Systems team developed preliminary finite element models to gain a basic understanding of the behavior of the structure, but optimization of the models, specification of the final design, and materials selection were not completed. The Space Plant Materials team had evaluated several materials for potential use in the primary support structure, namely titanium alloys, beryllium, aluminum alloys and carbon-carbon composites. The feasibility of application of each material system was compared based on mass, stiffness, thermal expansion, and ease of fabrication. Due to insufficient data on environmental factors, such as temperatures and radiation, and limited modeling support, a final materials selection was not made.

  17. National Transonic Facility model and model support vibration problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Popernack, Thomas G., Jr.; Gloss, Blair B.

    1990-01-01

    Vibrations of models and model support system were encountered during testing in the National Transonic Facility. Model support system yaw plane vibrations have resulted in model strain gage balance design load limits being reached. These high levels of vibrations resulted in limited aerodynamic testing for several wind tunnel models. The yaw vibration problem was the subject of an intensive experimental and analytical investigation which identified the primary source of the yaw excitation and resulted in attenuation of the yaw oscillations to acceptable levels. This paper presents the principal results of analyses and experimental investigation of the yaw plane vibration problems. Also, an overview of plans for development and installation of a permanent model system dynamic and aeroelastic response measurement and monitoring system for the National Transonic Facility is presented.

  18. Design and Analysis of Muon Beam Stop Support Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Okafor, Udenna

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to design and analyze support structures to be used in the installation, test and final positioning of the MBS throughout the life of the Mu2e experiment. There several requirements for the MBS imposed by both the scope of the experiment and, other components within the DS bore. The functions of the MBS are: 1. To limit the induced rates in the Tracker, the Calorimeter and the Cosmic Ray Veto due to backsplash-and-secondary interactions, and 2. To reduce radiation levels external to the Detector solenoid. The structures used in supporting the MBS will also adhere to requirements imposed by its functions. These requirements are critical to the support structures and affect design decisions. Other requirements critical to the design are imposed by the weight, positional tolerance and assembly procedure of the MBS, and also, the magnetic field and vacuum dose rate of the DS bore. A detailed breakdown of how each requirement affects the structural design can be found in chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes the design of each support structure and its attachment to the MBS while chapter 4 describes the results from structural analysis of the support structures. Chapter 5 describes evaluation for the design through testing and calculations while the conclusion in chapter 6 reports the current status at the time of this thesis submission with a plan for future work to be completed until final design and installation.

  19. Graphite fiber reinforced structure for supporting machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Knight, Jr., Charles E.; Kovach, Louis; Hurst, John S.

    1978-01-01

    Machine tools utilized in precision machine operations require tool support structures which exhibit minimal deflection, thermal expansion and vibration characteristics. The tool support structure of the present invention is a graphite fiber reinforced composite in which layers of the graphite fibers or yarn are disposed in a 0/90.degree. pattern and bonded together with an epoxy resin. The finished composite possesses a low coefficient of thermal expansion and a substantially greater elastic modulus, stiffness-to-weight ratio, and damping factor than a conventional steel tool support utilized in similar machining operations.

  20. Structure for common access and support of fuel cell stacks

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, Michael M.

    2000-01-01

    A structure provides common support and access to multiple fuel cells externally mounted thereto. The structure has openings leading to passages defined therein for providing the access. Various other fuel cell power system components are connected at the openings, such as reactant and coolant sources.

  1. Development and support structures for high-power solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, K.

    1984-01-01

    A number of structurally efficient configurations for wing-type solar arrays are developed by a combination of deepening the planform of the blanket and structure and by partitioning the blanket with battens and frequent attachments to the support structure. This technique reduces the tension required to avoid a low natural frequency for the blanket, and the load reduction results in a lighter structure. The use of three different structures are investigated: the Astromast, the Extendible Support Structure (ESS), and a new beam called the STACBEAM (Stacking Triangular Articulated Compact Beam) and their relative performances are compared. The investigation of the STACBEAM is emphasized because its sequential deployment is more reliable for very long systems, and its linear deployment facilitates local attachments to the blanket and the development of a low mass deployer.

  2. Influence of backup bearings and support structure dynamics on the behavior of rotors with active supports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, George T.

    1995-01-01

    Progress made in the current year is listed, and the following papers are included in the appendix: Steady-State Dynamic Behavior of an Auxiliary Bearing Supported Rotor System; Dynamic Behavior of a Magnetic Bearing Supported Jet Engine Rotor with Auxiliary Bearings; Dynamic Modelling and Response Characteristics of a Magnetic Bearing Rotor System with Auxiliary Bearings; and Synchronous Dynamics of a Coupled Shaft/Bearing/Housing System with Auxiliary Support from a Clearance Bearing: Analysis and Experiment.

  3. The geometry of the 37-tile microwave antenna support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    The geometry of the support structure for a proposed parabolic shaped microwave antenna is examined. The surface of the antenna is comprised of 37 hexagonal shaped tiles, each connected to a truss module. The units are joined together to form a rigidized, faceted, concave parabolic surface. The geometry specifications are described through an explanation of the structural components which make up the antenna, a description of the coordinate system devised to identify the structure, and a presentation of the nondimensional results.

  4. Nonlinear Dynamic Models in Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    To facilitate analysis, ALS systems are often assumed to be linear and time invariant, but they usually have important nonlinear and dynamic aspects. Nonlinear dynamic behavior can be caused by time varying inputs, changes in system parameters, nonlinear system functions, closed loop feedback delays, and limits on buffer storage or processing rates. Dynamic models are usually cataloged according to the number of state variables. The simplest dynamic models are linear, using only integration, multiplication, addition, and subtraction of the state variables. A general linear model with only two state variables can produce all the possible dynamic behavior of linear systems with many state variables, including stability, oscillation, or exponential growth and decay. Linear systems can be described using mathematical analysis. Nonlinear dynamics can be fully explored only by computer simulations of models. Unexpected behavior is produced by simple models having only two or three state variables with simple mathematical relations between them. Closed loop feedback delays are a major source of system instability. Exceeding limits on buffer storage or processing rates forces systems to change operating mode. Different equilibrium points may be reached from different initial conditions. Instead of one stable equilibrium point, the system may have several equilibrium points, oscillate at different frequencies, or even behave chaotically, depending on the system inputs and initial conditions. The frequency spectrum of an output oscillation may contain harmonics and the sums and differences of input frequencies, but it may also contain a stable limit cycle oscillation not related to input frequencies. We must investigate the nonlinear dynamic aspects of advanced life support systems to understand and counter undesirable behavior.

  5. Global Urbanization Modeling Supported by Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Smith, S.; Zhao, K.; Imhoff, M. L.; Thomson, A. M.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Elvidge, C.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization, one of the major human induced land cover and land use change, has profound impacts on the Earth system, and plays important roles in a variety of processes such as biodiversity loss, water and carbon cycle, and climate change. Accurate information on urban areas and their spatial distribution at the regional and global scales is important in both scientific and policy-making communities. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime stable light data (NTL) provide a potential way to map urban area and its dynamics economically and timely. In this study, we developed a cluster-based method to estimate the optimal thresholds and map urban extents from the DMSP/OLS NTL data. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates the robustness of the derived optimal thresholds and the reliability of the cluster-based method. Compared to existing threshold techniques, our method reduces the over- and under-estimation issue, when mapping urban extent over a large area. Using this cluster-based method, we built new global maps of 1-km urban extent from the NTL data (Figure 1) and evaluated its temporal dynamics from 1992 to 2013. Supported by the derived global urban maps and socio-economic drivers, we developed an integrated modeling framework by integrating a top-down macro-scale statistical model with a bottom-up urban growth model and projected future urban expansion.

  6. Structural model of uramarsite

    SciTech Connect

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Sidorenko, G. A.; Ivanova, A. G.; Chukanov, N. V.

    2008-09-15

    The structural model of uramarsite, a new mineral of the uran-mica family from the Bota-Burum deposit (South Kazakhstan), is determined using a single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The parameters of the triclinic unit cell are as follows: a = 7.173(2) A, b = 7.167(5) A, c = 9.30(1) A, {alpha} = 90.13(7){sup o}, {beta} = 90.09(4){sup o}, {gamma} = 89.96(4){sup o}, and space group P1. The crystal chemical formula of uramarsite is: (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[AsO{sub 4}][PO{sub 4},AsO{sub 4}][NH{sub 4}][H{sub 3}O] . 6H{sub 2}O (Z = 1). Uramarsite is the second ammonium-containing mineral of uranium and an arsenate analogue of uramphite. In the case of uramarsite, the lowering of the symmetry from tetragonal to triclinic, which is accompanied by a triclinic distortion of the tetragonal unit cell, is apparently caused by the ordering of the As and P atoms and the NH{sub 4}, H{sub 3}O, and H{sub 2}O groups.

  7. Structural model of uramarsite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Sidorenko, G. A.; Ivanova, A. G.; Chukanov, N. V.

    2008-09-01

    The structural model of uramarsite, a new mineral of the uran-mica family from the Bota-Burum deposit (South Kazakhstan), is determined using a single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The parameters of the triclinic unit cell are as follows: a = 7.173(2) Å, b = 7.167(5) Å, c = 9.30(1) Å, α = 90.13(7)°, β = 90.09(4)°, γ = 89.96(4)°, and space group P1. The crystal chemical formula of uramarsite is: (UO2)2[AsO4][PO4,AsO4][NH4][H3O] · 6H2O ( Z = 1). Uramarsite is the second ammonium-containing mineral of uranium and an arsenate analogue of uramphite. In the case of uramarsite, the lowering of the symmetry from tetragonal to triclinic, which is accompanied by a triclinic distortion of the tetragonal unit cell, is apparently caused by the ordering of the As and P atoms and the NH4, H3O, and H2O groups.

  8. The Structural Strategies Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    I UaNesar and Didai 6? Week aeinbe) 1.Subject matter structure Content sequencing Organization of content Synthesizing of content Structural...SUMMARY Problem Marked differences may be observed in the way subject matter is organized and presented, even within similar technical content areas...the content of a subject by identifying its major elements or structures and for guiding the development of content around these structures are

  9. Support for an expanded tripartite influence model with gay men.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Andorka, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether an expanded tripartite influence model would represent gay men's experiences. This model was extended by adding partners and gay community involvement as sources of social influence and considering dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to muscularity enhancement and disordered eating behaviors. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses upheld this model for 346 gay men. Dual body image pathways to body change behaviors were supported, although three unanticipated interrelationships emerged, suggesting that muscularity and body fat concerns and behaviors may be more integrated for gay men. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, appearance comparison, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction were key mediators in the model. Of the sources of social influence, friend and media pressure to be lean, gay community involvement, and partner, friend, media, and family pressures to be muscular made incremental contributions. Unexpectedly, certain sources were directly connected to body change behaviors.

  10. Medial canthal support structures: the medial retinaculum: a review.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyera; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Takashi; Asamoto, Ken; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

    2015-04-01

    The medial canthus is supported by several structures with a complicated 3-dimensional arrangement in a narrow space. Although the medial canthal tendon occupies a major portion of the area, the medial canthal support structures include the following entities: Horner's muscle, the medial rectus capsulopalpebral fascia including the medial check ligament, the medial horn of the levator aponeurosis, the medial horn supporting ligament, the medial horn of the lower eyelid retractors, the preseptal part of the orbicularis oculi muscle, and 3 variations of the Lockwood's ligament. We named the composite of these structures the "medial retinaculum," which is similar to the "lateral retinaculum" of the lateral canthus. Profound comprehension and consideration of the medial retinaculum warrants safe and effective surgery in the medial canthal region.

  11. Integrated Layout and Support Structure Optimization for Offshore Wind Farm Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashuri, T.; Ponnurangam, C.; Zhang, J.; Rotea, M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper develops a multidisciplinary design optimization framework for integrated design optimization of offshore wind farm layout and support structure. A computational model is developed to characterize the physics of the wind farm wake, aerodynamic and hydrodynamic loads, response of the support structure to these loads, soil- structure interaction, as well as different cost elements. Levelized cost of energy is introduced as the objective function. The design constraints are the farm external boundary, and support structure buckling, first modal-frequency, fatigue damage and ultimate stresses. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, four optimization scenarios are considered: a feasible baseline design, optimization of layout only, optimization of support structure only, and integrated design of the layout and support structure. Compared to the baseline design, the optimization results show that the isolated support structure design reduces the levelized cost of energy by 0.6%, the isolated layout design reduces the levelized cost of energy by 2.0%, and the integrated layout and support structure design reduces the levelized cost of energy by 2.6%.

  12. Tantalum clusters supported on silica-alumina: influence of support composition and chemistry on cluster structure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junming; Chi, Miaofang; Lobo-Lapidus, Rodrigo J; Mehraeen, Shareghe; Browning, Nigel D; Gates, Bruce C

    2009-09-15

    Small cationic tantalum clusters were prepared on the surfaces of SiO2, silica-aluminas, and gamma-Al2O3 supports by treating physisorbed pentabenzyltantalum at 523 K for 24 h in flowing H2. The rate of decomposition and the products formed in the decomposition of pentabenzyltantalum are dependent on the support composition. When the support was SiO2, the evolved products were mainly biphenyl and a small amount of toluene, indicating that the Ta-C bond in pentabenzyltantalum was activated. As the alumina content of the support increased, diphenylmethane, benzene, and ethylene were increasingly formed, and these products show that the activation of the C-C bonds linking the C atoms of methyl groups to the aromatic rings of the benzyl ligands was facilitated. Infrared spectra of the surface species and mass spectra of the effluents formed during the treatment show that the composition of the support had significant influence on the decomposition of pentabenzyltantalum, and the chemistry is inferred to be related to the electron-donor properties of the supports. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra recorded at the Ta LIII edge indicate the formation of clusters with a Ta-Ta first-shell coordination number of approximately 3, and images obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) confirm the presence of such small clusters. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) data indicate that the formal oxidation state of the tantalum in the clusters decreased from approximately 3.0 to approximately 2.6 as the support was changed from SiO2 to silica-aluminas to gamma-Al2O3. The data suggest that the tantalum clusters were anchored to the supports via bridging O atoms. The EXAFS data show that the support composition had little influence on the cluster structure.

  13. The Importance of Model Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Mick; Shepherd, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Argues that conventional dynamic modeling techniques divert attention from the importance of model structure and discusses various methods of system representation that are suitable for the analysis and improvement of model structure. (Available from IPC (America) Inc., 205 East 42 Street, New York, NY 10017; $46.80 annually.) (Author/JG)

  14. Supporting undergraduate nursing students through structured personal tutoring: Some reflections.

    PubMed

    Watts, Tessa E

    2011-02-01

    Support is imperative for nursing students worldwide as they face the many challenges associated with learning and working. Moreover enhancing student retention is an increasing concern for institutions across the globe. The personal tutor is a frequently hidden yet potentially significant figure in many students' experience of higher education. This paper offers some critical reflections on a structured approach to personal tutoring within an undergraduate nursing programme in a research focused Welsh university. Structured personal tutoring can provide an organised, coherent and proactive support system throughout students' educational programmes. However the approach changes the shape of personal tutoring and has the potential to increase academics' workloads and with it costs.

  15. Spatial Cognition Support for Exploring the Design Mechanics of Building Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Margit; Hauck, Richard

    2008-01-01

    A web-based tool for visualizing the simulated structural behavior of building models was developed to support the teaching of structural design to architecture and engineering students by activating their spatial cognition capabilities. The main didactic issues involved establishing a consistent and complete three-dimensional vocabulary (3D)…

  16. Diagnostic tests for model structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Hilary; Clark, Martyn; Woods, Ross; Bowden, Breck

    2010-05-01

    It is common knowledge that hydrological models based on inappropriate conceptualisations of the catchment can still be calibrated to give good performance in reproducing discharge records. Calibrated models of this type are unsuitable for many of their intended uses. To improve model conceptualisations and allow models to be tailored for individual applications and catchments, modellers need a toolbox of diagnostic tests for model structure. These tests would use a range of field measurements to allow hydrological modellers to test hypotheses about different aspects of model structure. This presentation demonstrates how multiple datasets (rain, flow, soil moisture, tracer studies) can be used to develop perceptual and conceptual models; using a case study in the intensively monitored Mahurangi catchment in New Zealand. Our emphasis is on the use of field data to target individual modelling decisions, and hence to draw conclusions relevant to model building at the catchment scale. The goal is to "bridge the gap" between experimental studies and larger-scale model simulations. The model building decisions are then tested using the FUSE multi-model framework. The framework allows independent control of model choices in representing a range of storages and fluxes. We compare structural diagnostics from field data, realistic and unrealistic model structures, with the aim of untangling the effects of model structure and parameterisation.

  17. Superconducting magnetic energy storage apparatus structural support system

    DOEpatents

    Withers, Gregory J.; Meier, Stephen W.; Walter, Robert J.; Child, Michael D.; DeGraaf, Douglas W.

    1992-01-01

    A superconducting magnetic energy storage apparatus comprising a cylindrical superconducting coil; a cylindrical coil containment vessel enclosing the coil and adapted to hold a liquid, such as liquefied helium; and a cylindrical vacuum vessel enclosing the coil containment vessel and located in a restraining structure having inner and outer circumferential walls and a floor; the apparatus being provided with horizontal compression members between (1) the coil and the coil containment vessel and (2) between the coil containment vessel and the vacuum vessel, compression bearing members between the vacuum vessel and the restraining structure inner and outer walls, vertical support members (1) between the coil bottom and the coil containment vessel bottom and (2) between the coil containment vessel bottom and the vacuum vessel bottom, and external supports between the vacuum vessel bottom and the restraining structure floor, whereby the loads developed by thermal and magnetic energy changes in the apparatus can be accommodated and the structural integrity of the apparatus be maintained.

  18. Mutual Support: A Model of Participatory Support by and for People with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Sarah E.; Brandon, Toby

    2012-01-01

    Mutual Support, a model of peer support by and for people with learning difficulties, was constructed through a participatory research process. The research focussed on individual narratives from people with learning difficulties. These narratives were then brought together to form a collective model of support. This paper outlines the detailed…

  19. PORFLOW Modeling Supporting The H-Tank Farm Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J. M.; Flach, G. P.; Westbrook, M. L.

    2012-08-31

    Numerical simulations of groundwater flow and contaminant transport in the vadose and saturated zones have been conducted using the PORFLOW code in support of an overall Performance Assessment (PA) of the H-Tank Farm. This report provides technical detail on selected aspects of PORFLOW model development and describes the structure of the associated electronic files. The PORFLOW models for the H-Tank Farm PA, Rev. 1 were updated with grout, solubility, and inventory changes. The aquifer model was refined. In addition, a set of flow sensitivity runs were performed to allow flow to be varied in the related probabilistic GoldSim models. The final PORFLOW concentration values are used as input into a GoldSim dose calculator.

  20. Structural Support of High-Performance Athletes' Education: Supporting Dual Careers in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlidis, George; Gargalianos, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how the current Greek sport-education context seems to offer relatively poor dual-career support in comparison to other available structures in the world. This results in additional obstacles for Greek athletes who wish to educate themselves and an ambiguous prospect for their future. Consequently, the Greek…

  1. 82. VIEW OF AGITATORS FROM EAST. DRIVE AND STRUCTURAL SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. VIEW OF AGITATORS FROM EAST. DRIVE AND STRUCTURAL SUPPORT OF AGITATOR No. 1 IN FOREGROUND. HORIZONTAL AIR LINE PARALLELS AGITATORS IN RIGHT HALF OF VIEW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  2. Building No. 391, interior showing roof support structure, horizontal tank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 391, interior showing roof support structure, horizontal tank on dolly, view facing west - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Railway No. 1 Accessories House & Apprentice Welding School, Additions, Intersection of Avenue B & Sixth Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 35. DETAIL VIEW OF THE UNDERSIDE AND SUPPORT STRUCTURE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. DETAIL VIEW OF THE UNDERSIDE AND SUPPORT STRUCTURE OF THE ORE BINS. VIEW WAS TAKEN FROM THE STAIR LANDING BETWEEN THE BREAKER LEVEL AND THE STAMP LEVEL. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  4. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Novice Teacher Support Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warsame, Kitty B.

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are leaving their profession at alarming rates. As a result, retaining novice teachers has become a major concern for policy makers, school districts, administrators, and teaching staff throughout the United States. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of novice teacher induction support structures in a southwestern…

  5. The Gemini MCAO infrastructure: laser service enclosure and support structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavedoni, Charles P.; Bombino, S.; Sheehan, M.; Karewicz, S.; Hardash, S.; Perez, G.; Collins, P.; d'Orgeville, C.; Boccas, M.; Maltes, D.; Gausachs, G.; Rogers, R.

    2008-07-01

    The Laser Service Enclosure (LSE) is an environmentally controlled ISO 7 clean room designed to house, protect and provide environmental control for the Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics laser system. The LSE is 8.0 meters long, 2.5 meters wide and 2.5 meters high with a mass of approximately 5,100 kg. The LSE shall reside on a new telescope Nasmyth platform named the Support Structure (SS). The SS is a three-dimensional beam and frame structure designed to support the LSE and laser system under all loading conditions. This paper will review the system requirements and describe the system hardware including optical, environmental, structural and operational issues as well as the anticipated impact the system will have on the current telescope performance.

  6. Control and modeling of a CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auslander, D. M.; Spear, R. C.; Babcock, P. S.; Nadel, M.

    1983-01-01

    Research topics that arise from the conceptualization of control for closed life support systems which are life support systems in which all or most of the mass is recycled are discussed. Modeling and control of uncertain and poorly defined systems, resource allocation in closed life support systems, and control structures or systems with delay and closure are emphasized.

  7. Engaging Students in Learning Activities: It Is Not Autonomy Support or Structure but Autonomy Support and Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Hyungshim; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Deci, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated 2 engagement-fostering aspects of teachers' instructional styles--autonomy support and structure--and hypothesized that students' engagement would be highest when teachers provided high levels of both. Trained observers rated teachers' instructional styles and students' behavioral engagement in 133 public high school classrooms in…

  8. Force Structure Valuation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    PTS,. Legena 6 ra 328X0 Force Structure pr.Jdotl- V.alu. Notes (After 2th "OSSoo re tent Ion c Mance i o 11th Year Retentton Chang e. _- 32SX0 Suo...Defense-Office of the Secretary of Defense. (1984). Military retirees’ and seoarates ’ post-service earnings (Fifth QRMC - Appendix Q). Flamholtz, E. G

  9. Structural Modeling Using "Scanning and Mapping" Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, Courtney L.; Dash, Gerald S.; Shen, J. Y.; Ferguson, Frederick; Noga, Donald F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Supported by NASA Glenn Center, we are in the process developing a structural damage diagnostic and monitoring system for rocket engines, which consists of five modules: Structural Modeling, Measurement Data Pre-Processor, Structural System Identification, Damage Detection Criterion, and Computer Visualization. The function of the system is to detect damage as it is incurred by the engine structures. The scientific principle to identify damage is to utilize the changes in the vibrational properties between the pre-damaged and post-damaged structures. The vibrational properties of the pre-damaged structure can be obtained based on an analytic computer model of the structure. Thus, as the first stage of the whole research plan, we currently focus on the first module - Structural Modeling. Three computer software packages are selected, and will be integrated for this purpose. They are PhotoModeler-Pro, AutoCAD-R14, and MSC/NASTRAN. AutoCAD is the most popular PC-CAD system currently available in the market. For our purpose, it plays like an interface to generate structural models of any particular engine parts or assembly, which is then passed to MSC/NASTRAN for extracting structural dynamic properties. Although AutoCAD is a powerful structural modeling tool, the complexity of engine components requires a further improvement in structural modeling techniques. We are working on a so-called "scanning and mapping" technique, which is a relatively new technique. The basic idea is to producing a full and accurate 3D structural model by tracing on multiple overlapping photographs taken from different angles. There is no need to input point positions, angles, distances or axes. Photographs can be taken by any types of cameras with different lenses. With the integration of such a modeling technique, the capability of structural modeling will be enhanced. The prototypes of any complex structural components will be produced by PhotoModeler first based on existing similar

  10. An Application of the Social Support Deterioration Deterrence Model to Rescue Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of social support in promoting quality of life in the aftermath of critical incidents involvement. Participants were a sample of 586 Italian rescue workers. Structural equation modelling was used to test the social support deterioration deterrence model. Results showed that the impact of critical incident involvement…

  11. Integrated models to support multiobjective ecological restoration decisions.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Hannah; Rumpff, Libby; Yen, Jian D L; Robinson, Doug; Wintle, Brendan A

    2017-03-24

    Many objectives motivate ecological restoration including improving vegetation condition, increasing the range and abundance of threatened species, and improving aggregate measures of biodiversity such as richness and diversity. While ecological models have been used to examine the outcomes of ecological restoration, there are few attempts to develop models to account for multiple, potentially competing objectives. We develop the first predictive model that integrates a vegetation-focused state-and-transition model with species distribution models for birds. We demonstrate how this integrated model can be used to identify effective restoration options for vegetation and bird species under a constrained budget. For example, using a typical agricultural land management scenario from south-eastern Australia, we demonstrate how the optimal management actions for promoting the occurrence of the Brown Treecreeper, an iconic threatened species, may be suboptimal for meeting vegetation condition objectives. This highlights that any 'preferred' management decision depends on the value assigned to the different objectives. An exploration of sensitivity to value weightings highlighted that 'no management' or 'weed control' were most likely to be the best management options to meet multiple objectives in the scenario we explored. We thus illustrate an approach to using the model outputs to explore trade-offs between bird and vegetation objectives. Our approach to exploring management outcomes and trade-offs using integrated modelling and structured decision support approaches has wide application for conservation management problems in which trade-offs exist between competing objectives. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Support effects studied on model supported catalysts. Progress report, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gorte, R.G.

    1991-11-01

    We are studying model catalysts in which the active phase is deposited onto flat oxide substrates in order to understand how a catalyst is affected by its support. We have examined the following growth and stability of titania overlayers which had been vapor deposited onto a Rh foil; the growth of Pt films on ZnO(0001)Zn and O(0001)O and compared the results to those obtained for Pt on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001). Samples were prepared by vapor deposition of Pt onto flat substrates in ultra high vacuum, and metal coverages were measured using a quartz-crystal, film thickness monitor; the structure and CO adsorption properties of Pt films vapor deposited onto a ZrO{sub 2}(100) crystal; the deposition of Rh on a ZrO{sub 2}(100) crystal; The absorption of NO on Pt particles supported on CeO{sub 2}, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001), and the Zn- and O-polar surfaces of ZnO(0001). We have investigated supported oxides in order to understand the acidic properties that have been reported for monolayer oxides. Our first studies were of amorphous, silicalumina catalysts. Finally, we have also begun to prepare model supported oxides in order to be able to used spectroscopic methods to characterize the sites formed on these materials. Our first studies were of niobia deposition on oxidized Al films and on an {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) crystal.

  13. Design integration of favorable geometry, structural support and containment

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, J.A.; McGehee, G.A.

    1991-07-01

    In designs for fissile processes at Savannah River site, different approaches have been used to provide engineered margins of safety for criticality with containment and seismic resistance as additional requirements. These requirements are frequently at odds in engineered systems. This paper proposes a plan to take advantage of vessels with favorable geometry to provide seismic resistance and to support a glovebox for containment. Thin slab tanks, small diameter pencil tanks, annular tanks, and other novel designs have been used for criticality safety. The requirement for DBE seismic resistance and rigid control of dimensions leads the designer to consider annular tanks for meeting these requirements. The high strength of annular tanks may logically be used to support secondary containment. Hands-on access to all instruments, piping etc. within containment can be provided through gloveports, thus a specialized glovebox. This paper examines the advantages of using an annular tank design to provide favorable geometry, structural support and containment.

  14. NIRCam mechanical support structure: from concept to qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammini, Paul V.

    2009-08-01

    Two optical modules, mounted back to back, comprise JWSTs NIRCam (Near Infrared Camera) instrument. Each module contains a short wavelength (SW) and long wavelength (LW) path. The instrument will be mounted to the ISIM (Integrated Science Instrument Module) of the spacecraft via a mechanical support structure. Within a fourteen month timeframe this aerospace structure was conceived, designed, analyzed, manufactured, integrated, tested and qualified for flight. This paper describes the technical product and its fast, affordable, and successful evolution from concept design to flight qualification, including critical decision points and lessons learned.

  15. Structural models of psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Hare, Robert D; Neumann, Craig S

    2005-03-01

    Psychopathy traditionally is defined by a cluster of inferred personality traits and socially deviant behaviors. The accepted standard for the reliable and valid assessment of psychopathy is the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Because of its importance in basic and applied research, and in the mental health and criminal justice systems, the PCL-R has been subjected to intense scrutiny by researchers and clinicians. In this article we discuss issues surrounding its structural properties and those of its derivatives. Using factor analysis, item response theory, and multidimensional scaling, we propose that the PCL-R and its derivatives are underpinned by at least four correlated factors: Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial. We argue that attempts to characterize antisocial behaviors as merely "downstream" manifestations of more central traits are inconsistent with the structural properties of the PCL-R and with evidence that the development of traits and actions are interactive and reciprocal. We also report new evidence that psychopathy and its factors are dimensional in nature, perhaps extreme variants of normal personality traits and behaviors.

  16. Dynamical mass modeling of dispersion-supported dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joseph

    The currently favored cold dark matter cosmology (LCDM) has had much success in reproducing the large scale structure of the universe. However, on smaller scales there are some possible discrepancies when attempting to match galactic observations with properties of halos in dissipationless LCDM simulations. One advantageous method to test small scale simulations with observations is through dynamical mass modeling of nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). The stellar tracers of dSphs are dispersion-supported, which poses a significant challenge in accurately deriving mass profiles. Unlike rotationally-supported galaxies, the dynamics of which can be well-approximated by one-dimensional physics, modeling dispersion-supported systems given only line-of-sight data results in a well-known degeneracy between the mass profile and the velocity dispersion anisotropy. The core of this dissertation is rooted in a new advancement which we have discovered: the range of solutions allowed by the mass-anisotropy degeneracy varies as a function of radius, with a considerable minimal near the deprojected half-light radius of almost all observed dispersion-supported galaxies. This finding allows for a wide range of applications in galaxy formation scenarios to be explored in an attempt to address, amongst other hypotheses, whether the LCDM framework needs to be modified in order to reproduce observations on the small scale. This thesis is comprised of both the derivation of this finding, and its applicability to all dispersion-supported systems, ranging from dwarfs galaxies consisting of a few hundred stars to systems of 'intracluster light', containing over a trillion stars. Rarely does one have the privilege of working with systems that span such a large range in luminosity (or any intrinsic property) in a short graduate career. Although the large applicability of this scale-free finding allows for discussion in many subfields, this thesis will mainly focus on one topic: dwarf

  17. Job Demands-Control-Support model and employee safety performance.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nick; Stride, Chris B; Carter, Angela J; McCaughey, Deirdre; Carroll, Anthony E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether work characteristics (job demands, job control, social support) comprising Karasek and Theorell's (1990) Job Demands-Control-Support framework predict employee safety performance (safety compliance and safety participation; Neal and Griffin, 2006). We used cross-sectional data of self-reported work characteristics and employee safety performance from 280 healthcare staff (doctors, nurses, and administrative staff) from Emergency Departments of seven hospitals in the United Kingdom. We analyzed these data using a structural equation model that simultaneously regressed safety compliance and safety participation on the main effects of each of the aforementioned work characteristics, their two-way interactions, and the three-way interaction among them, while controlling for demographic, occupational, and organizational characteristics. Social support was positively related to safety compliance, and both job control and the two-way interaction between job control and social support were positively related to safety participation. How work design is related to employee safety performance remains an important area for research and provides insight into how organizations can improve workplace safety. The current findings emphasize the importance of the co-worker in promoting both safety compliance and safety participation.

  18. Ecosystem structure and function modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Humphries, H.C.; Baron, J.S.; Jensen, M.E.; Bourgeron, P.

    2001-01-01

    An important component of ecological assessments is the ability to predict and display changes in ecosystem structure and function over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. These changes can occur over short (less than 1 year) or long time frames (over 100 years). Models may emphasize structural responses (changes in species composition, growth forms, canopy height, amount of old growth, etc.) or functional responses (cycling of carbon, nutrients, and water). Both are needed to display changes in ecosystem components for use in robust ecological assessments. Structure and function models vary in the ecosystem components included, algorithms employed, level of detail, and spatial and temporal scales incorporated. They range from models that track individual organisms to models of broad-scale landscape changes. This chapter describes models appropriate for ecological assessments. The models selected for inclusion can be implemented in a spatial framework and for the most part have been run in more than one system.

  19. Support Center for Regulatory Atmospheric Modeling (SCRAM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This technical site provides access to air quality models (including computer code, input data, and model processors) and other mathematical simulation techniques used in assessing air emissions control strategies and source impacts.

  20. Supporting Students' Knowledge Transfer in Modeling Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piksööt, Jaanika; Sarapuu, Tago

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates ways to enhance secondary school students' knowledge transfer in complex science domains by implementing question prompts. Two samples of students applied two web-based models to study molecular genetics--the model of genetic code (n = 258) and translation (n = 245). For each model, the samples were randomly divided into…

  1. Structural Benchmark Tests of Composite Combustion Chamber Support Completed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, David L.; Thesken, John C.; Shin, E. Eugene; Sutter, James K.

    2005-01-01

    A series of mechanical load tests was completed on several novel design concepts for extremely lightweight combustion chamber support structures at the NASA Glenn Research Center (http://www.nasa.gov/glenn/). The tests included compliance evaluation, preliminary proof loadings, high-strain cyclic testing, and finally residual strength testing of each design (see the photograph on the left). Loads were applied with single rollers (see the photograph on the right) or pressure plates (not shown) located midspan on each side to minimize the influence of contact stresses on corner deformation measurements. Where rollers alone were used, a more severe structural loading was produced than the corresponding equal-force pressure loading: the maximum transverse shear force existed over the entire length of each side, and the corner bending moments were greater than for a distributed (pressure) loading. Failure modes initiating at the corner only provided a qualitative indication of the performance limitations since the stress state was not identical to internal pressure. Configurations were tested at both room and elevated temperatures. Experimental results were used to evaluate analytical prediction tools and finite-element methodologies for future work, and they were essential to provide insight into the deformation at the corners. The tests also were used to assess fabrication and bonding details for the complicated structures. They will be used to further optimize the design of the support structures for weight performance and the efficacy of corner reinforcement.

  2. Modeling uncertainty in requirements engineering decision support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Maynard-Zhang, Pedrito; Kiper, James D.

    2005-01-01

    One inherent characteristic of requrements engineering is a lack of certainty during this early phase of a project. Nevertheless, decisions about requirements must be made in spite of this uncertainty. Here we describe the context in which we are exploring this, and some initial work to support elicitation of uncertain requirements, and to deal with the combination of such information from multiple stakeholders.

  3. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Teacher. Edition III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful educator evaluation and support system will help improve teaching and learning. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Teacher Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all teachers improve. Through the Model, the goal is to help create a…

  4. Enhancing reuse of structured eligibility criteria and supporting their relaxation.

    PubMed

    Milian, Krystyna; Hoekstra, Rinke; Bucur, Anca; Ten Teije, Annette; van Harmelen, Frank; Paulissen, John

    2015-08-01

    Patient recruitment is one of the most important barriers to successful completion of clinical trials and thus to obtaining evidence about new methods for prevention, diagnostics and treatment. The reason is that recruitment is effort consuming. It requires the identification of candidate patients for the trial (the population under study), and verifying for each patient whether the eligibility criteria are met. The work we describe in this paper aims to support the comparison of population under study in different trials, and the design of eligibility criteria for new trials. We do this by introducing structured eligibility criteria, that enhance reuse of criteria across trials. We developed a method that allows for automated structuring of criteria from text. Additionally, structured eligibility criteria allow us to propose suggestions for relaxation of criteria to remove potentially unnecessarily restrictive conditions. We thereby increase the recruitment potential and generalizability of a trial. Our method for automated structuring of criteria enables us to identify related conditions and to compare their restrictiveness. The comparison is based on the general meaning of criteria, comprised of commonly occurring contextual patterns, medical concepts and constraining values. These are automatically identified using our pattern detection algorithm, state of the art ontology annotators and semantic taggers. The comparison uses predefined relations between the patterns, concept equivalences defined in medical ontologies, and threshold values. The result is a library of structured eligibility criteria which can be browsed using fine grained queries. Furthermore, we developed visualizations for the library that enable intuitive navigation of relations between trials, criteria and concepts. These visualizations expose interesting co-occurrences and correlations, potentially enhancing meta-research. The method for criteria structuring processes only certain types of

  5. Making Plant-Support Structures From Waste Plant Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Robert C.; < oscjmocl. < attjew K/; {ertzbprm. A,amda; Ej (e. Cjad); Hunt, John

    2006-01-01

    Environmentally benign, biodegradable structures for supporting growing plants can be made in a process based on recycling of such waste plant fiber materials as wheat straw or of such derivative materials as paper and cardboard. Examples of structures that can be made in this way include plant plugs, pots, planter-lining mats, plant fences, and root and shoot barriers. No chemical binders are used in the process. First, the plant material is chopped into smaller particles. The particles are leached with water or steam to remove material that can inhibit plant growth, yielding a fibrous slurry. If the desired structures are plugs or sheets, then the slurry is formed into the desired shapes in a pulp molding subprocess. If the desired structures are root and shoot barriers, pots, or fences, then the slurry is compression-molded to the desired shapes in a heated press. The processed materials in these structures have properties similar to those of commercial pressboard, but unlike pressboard, these materials contain no additives. These structures have been found to withstand one growth cycle, even when wet

  6. Concepts to Support HRP Integration Using Publications and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mindock, J.; Lumpkins, S.; Shelhamer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Initial efforts are underway to enhance the Human Research Program (HRP)'s identification and support of potential cross-disciplinary scientific collaborations. To increase the emphasis on integration in HRP's science portfolio management, concepts are being explored through the development of a set of tools. These tools are intended to enable modeling, analysis, and visualization of the state of the human system in the spaceflight environment; HRP's current understanding of that state with an indication of uncertainties; and how that state changes due to HRP programmatic progress and design reference mission definitions. In this talk, we will discuss proof-of-concept work performed using a subset of publications captured in the HRP publications database. The publications were tagged in the database with words representing factors influencing health and performance in spaceflight, as well as with words representing the risks HRP research is reducing. Analysis was performed on the publication tag data to identify relationships between factors and between risks. Network representations were then created as one type of visualization of these relationships. This enables future analyses of the structure of the networks based on results from network theory. Such analyses can provide insights into HRP's current human system knowledge state as informed by the publication data. The network structure analyses can also elucidate potential improvements by identifying network connections to establish or strengthen for maximized information flow. The relationships identified in the publication data were subsequently used as inputs to a model captured in the Systems Modeling Language (SysML), which functions as a repository for relationship information to be gleaned from multiple sources. Example network visualization outputs from a simple SysML model were then also created to compare to the visualizations based on the publication data only. We will also discuss ideas for

  7. Structural cost optimization of photovoltaic central power station modules and support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, P. D.; Stolte, W. J.; Marsh, R. O.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of photovoltaic module structural support concepts for photovoltaic central power stations and their associated costs are presented. The objective of the study has been the identification of structural cost drivers. Parametric structural design and cost analyses of complete array systems consisting of modules, primary support structures, and foundations were performed. Area related module cost was found to be constant with design, size, and loading. A curved glass module concept was evaluated and found to have the potential to significantly reduce panel structural costs. Conclusions of the study are: array costs do not vary greatly among the designs evaluated; panel and array costs are strongly dependent on design loading; and the best support configuration is load dependent

  8. Summer Support of the Advanced Structures and Measurements Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuber, Alexander Lee

    2010-01-01

    This presentation is my exit presentation summarizing the work that I did this summer during my 10 week summer internship. It is primarily focused on tensile testing of composite coupons including the use of the ARAMIS optical strain measurement system, but it also includes some discussion of other support that I provided for the Dryden composites working group effort. My main efforts in that area were focused on T-joint design for an upcoming hands-on-workshop as well as design of a fixture to test joint coupons. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the other small projects that I worked on, including support of structurally integrated thermal protection system (STIPS) research and the Global Observer wing loads test.

  9. STS-49 Astronaut By Mission Peculiar Equipment Support Structure (MPESS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49, the first flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, lifted off from launch pad 39B on May 7, 1992 at 6:40 pm CDT. The STS-49 mission was the first U.S. orbital flight to feature 4 extravehicular activities (EVAs), and the first flight to involve 3 crew members working simultaneously outside of the spacecraft. The primary objective was the capture and redeployment of the INTELSAT VI (F-3), a communication satellite for the International Telecommunication Satellite organization, which was stranded in an unusable orbit since its launch aboard the Titan rocket in March 1990. In this onboard photo, astronaut Thomas Akers is positioned near the Mission Peculiar Equipment Support Structure (MPESS) in the cargo bay. The MPESS, developed by Marshall Space Flight Center, was used to support experiments.

  10. Organizational Structures and Processes to Support and Sustain Effective Technical Assistance in a State-Wide Multi-Tiered System of Support Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Julie Q.; Russell, Christine; Dyer, Stephanie; Metcalf, Terri; Rahschulte, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the national proliferation of technical assistance as a driver for school reform and as a model for embedded and sustained professional development, very little is known about the organizational structures and processes needed to support technical assistance. The purpose of this paper is to describe a structured needs assessment process…

  11. Business models for health care decision support.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Phil

    2003-01-01

    CareScience, Inc. is a public company (NASDAQ: CARE) that originated ten years ago to commercialize risk adjustment and complication predictions developed by the Wharton School of Business and the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. Over the past decade, the company has grown to approximately 200 clients and 150 employees. Among the "firsts" recorded by the company, CareScience was the first to offer a clinical decision support system as an Application Service Provider (ASP), the first to offer peer-to-peer clinical data sharing among health care provider organizations and practitioners (Santa Barbara Care Data Exchange), and the first to provide a care management outsourcing arrangement.

  12. Predictive analytics can support the ACO model.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Predictive analytics can be used to rapidly spot hard-to-identify opportunities to better manage care--a key tool in accountable care. When considering analytics models, healthcare providers should: Make value-based care a priority and act on information from analytics models. Create a road map that includes achievable steps, rather than major endeavors. Set long-term expectations and recognize that the effectiveness of an analytics program takes time, unlike revenue cycle initiatives that may show a quick return.

  13. Supporting shared data structures on distributed memory architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koelbel, Charles; Mehrotra, Piyush; Vanrosendale, John

    1990-01-01

    Programming nonshared memory systems is more difficult than programming shared memory systems, since there is no support for shared data structures. Current programming languages for distributed memory architectures force the user to decompose all data structures into separate pieces, with each piece owned by one of the processors in the machine, and with all communication explicitly specified by low-level message-passing primitives. A new programming environment is presented for distributed memory architectures, providing a global name space and allowing direct access to remote parts of data values. The analysis and program transformations required to implement this environment are described, and the efficiency of the resulting code on the NCUBE/7 and IPSC/2 hypercubes are described.

  14. Airborne SAR imagery to support hydraulic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castiglioni, S.

    2009-04-01

    Satellite images and airborne SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery are increasingly widespread and they are effective tools for measuring the size of flood events and for assessment of damage. The Hurricane Katrina disaster and the tsunami catastrophe in Indian Ocean countries are two recent and sadly famous examples. Moreover, as well known, the inundation maps can be used as tools to calibrate and validate hydraulic model (e.g. Horritt et al., Hydrological Processes, 2007). We carry out an application of a 1D hydraulic model coupled with a high resolution DTM for predicting the flood inundation processes. The study area is a 16 km reach of the River Severn, in west-central England, for which, four maps of inundated areas, obtained through airborne SAR images, and hydrometric data are available. The inundation maps are used for the calibration/validation of a 1D hydraulic model through a comparison between airborne SAR images and the results of hydraulic simulations. The results confirm the usefulness of inundation maps as hydraulic modelling tools and, moreover, show that 1D hydraulic model can be effectively used when coupled with high resolution topographic information.

  15. Network model with structured nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisco, Pierluigi

    2011-08-01

    We present a network model in which words over a specific alphabet, called structures, are associated to each node and undirected edges are added depending on some distance measure between different structures. This model shifts the underlying principle of network generation from a purely mathematical one to an information-based one. It is shown how this model differs from the Barábasi-Albert and duplication models and how it can generate networks with topological features similar to biological networks: power law degree distribution, low average path length, clustering coefficient independent from the network size, etc. Two biological networks: S. cerevisiae gene network and E. coli protein-protein interaction network, are replicated using this model.

  16. Ecological footprint model using the support vector machine technique.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haibo; Chang, Wenjuan; Cui, Guangbai

    2012-01-01

    The per capita ecological footprint (EF) is one of the most widely recognized measures of environmental sustainability. It aims to quantify the Earth's biological resources required to support human activity. In this paper, we summarize relevant previous literature, and present five factors that influence per capita EF. These factors are: National gross domestic product (GDP), urbanization (independent of economic development), distribution of income (measured by the Gini coefficient), export dependence (measured by the percentage of exports to total GDP), and service intensity (measured by the percentage of service to total GDP). A new ecological footprint model based on a support vector machine (SVM), which is a machine-learning method based on the structural risk minimization principle from statistical learning theory was conducted to calculate the per capita EF of 24 nations using data from 123 nations. The calculation accuracy was measured by average absolute error and average relative error. They were 0.004883 and 0.351078% respectively. Our results demonstrate that the EF model based on SVM has good calculation performance.

  17. Ecological Footprint Model Using the Support Vector Machine Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Haibo; Chang, Wenjuan; Cui, Guangbai

    2012-01-01

    The per capita ecological footprint (EF) is one of the most widely recognized measures of environmental sustainability. It aims to quantify the Earth's biological resources required to support human activity. In this paper, we summarize relevant previous literature, and present five factors that influence per capita EF. These factors are: National gross domestic product (GDP), urbanization (independent of economic development), distribution of income (measured by the Gini coefficient), export dependence (measured by the percentage of exports to total GDP), and service intensity (measured by the percentage of service to total GDP). A new ecological footprint model based on a support vector machine (SVM), which is a machine-learning method based on the structural risk minimization principle from statistical learning theory was conducted to calculate the per capita EF of 24 nations using data from 123 nations. The calculation accuracy was measured by average absolute error and average relative error. They were 0.004883 and 0.351078% respectively. Our results demonstrate that the EF model based on SVM has good calculation performance. PMID:22291949

  18. Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drysdale, Alan; Thomas, Mark; Fresa, Mark; Wheeler, Ray

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to CELSS, a critical technology for the Space Exploration Initiative. OCAM (object-oriented CELSS analysis and modeling) models carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen recycling. Multiple crops and plant types can be simulated. Resource recovery options from inedible biomass include leaching, enzyme treatment, aerobic digestion, and mushroom and fish growth. The benefit of using many small crops overlapping in time, instead of a single large crop, is demonstrated. Unanticipated results include startup transients which reduce the benefit of multiple small crops. The relative contributions of mass, energy, and manpower to system cost are analyzed in order to determine appropriate research directions.

  19. Key Elements of the Tutorial Support Management Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Grace; Paasuke, Philip

    2011-01-01

    In response to an exponential growth in enrolments the "Tutorial Support Management" (TSM) model has been adopted by Open Universities Australia (OUA) after a two-year project on the provision of online tutor support in first year, online undergraduate units. The essential focus of the TSM model was the development of a systemic approach…

  20. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Building Administrator. Edition III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful educator evaluation and support system will help improve teaching, learning, and school leadership. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Building Administrator Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all building administrators improve.…

  1. The Qartaba Structure (Mount Lebanon): structural study and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmar, Chloé; Grasemann, Bernhard; Tari, Gabor

    2014-05-01

    The prominent Qartaba Anticline is located on the western side of the northern Mount Lebanon, one of the major physiographic elements in Lebanon. The studied part of this anticline (~20 km long, ~5 km wide) represents a large-scale box-fold structure bounded by two SW- and NE-vergent monoclines. The aim of the structural study on the Qartaba Anticline was to get a better understanding on the poorly known mechanism and timing of folding of the structure. The main data elements used in this study included vintage geologic maps, very high-resolution satellite images, a satellite-based Digital Elevation Model and numerous field measurements taken during several field trips in the Mount Lebanon area. The database was incorporated into an ArcGis platform in order to carry out quantitative remote sensing analysis to have a better three-dimensional understanding of the geometry of the Qartaba structure and to model it. Using the Three-Point-Method that was developed on a MatLab platform and adapted into an ArcGis toolbox, it was possible to determine dip and dip direction of the folded strata of the Qartaba Structure in order to build additional input data points besides the field observations. The results from the ArcGis Model show that the eastern and western flanks of the anticline represent oppositely verging monoclines with average dip values increasing from about 15° at the outer limits of the structure to 30° closer to the center area and reaching values up to almost 90° at the steepest part of the eastern flank. The strata become more or less horizontal on the top of the structure, just a few hundred meters away from the limbs of the anticline. Therefore, the whole structure resembles a large scale box-fold. The structural model of the Qartaba Anticline presents new constraints on the timing and the mechanism of deformation of the structure. This new model has important implications for the tectonic evolution of Lebanon, for example, the footprint of the Syrian

  2. Structure of androcam supports specialized interactions with myosin VI

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mehul K.; Moran, Sean; Beckingham, Kathleen M.; MacKenzie, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    Androcam replaces calmodulin as a tissue-specific myosin VI light chain on the actin cones that mediate D. melanogaster spermatid individualization. We show that the androcam structure and its binding to the myosin VI structural (Insert 2) and regulatory (IQ) light chain sites are distinct from those of calmodulin and provide a basis for specialized myosin VI function. The androcam N lobe noncanonically binds a single Ca2+ and is locked in a “closed” conformation, causing androcam to contact the Insert 2 site with its C lobe only. Androcam replacing calmodulin at Insert 2 will increase myosin VI lever arm flexibility, which may favor the compact monomeric form of myosin VI that functions on the actin cones by facilitating the collapse of the C-terminal region onto the motor domain. The tethered androcam N lobe could stabilize the monomer through contacts with C-terminal portions of the motor or recruit other components to the actin cones. Androcam binds the IQ site at all calcium levels, constitutively mimicking a conformation adopted by calmodulin only at intermediate calcium levels. Thus, androcam replacing calmodulin at IQ will abolish a Ca2+-regulated, calmodulin-mediated myosin VI structural change. We propose that the N lobe prevents androcam from interfering with other calmodulin-mediated Ca2+ signaling events. We discuss how gene duplication and mutations that selectively stabilize one of the many conformations available to calmodulin support the molecular evolution of structurally and functionally distinct calmodulin-like proteins. PMID:22851764

  3. Structured sparse models for classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castrodad, Alexey

    The main focus of this thesis is the modeling and classification of high dimensional data using structured sparsity. Sparse models, where data is assumed to be well represented as a linear combination of a few elements from a dictionary, have gained considerable attention in recent years, and its use has led to state-of-the-art results in many signal and image processing tasks. The success of sparse modeling is highly due to its ability to efficiently use the redundancy of the data and find its underlying structure. On a classification setting, we capitalize on this advantage to properly model and separate the structure of the classes. We design and validate modeling solutions to challenging problems arising in computer vision and remote sensing. We propose both supervised and unsupervised schemes for the modeling of human actions from motion imagery under a wide variety of acquisition condi- tions. In the supervised case, the main goal is to classify the human actions in the video given a predefined set of actions to learn from. In the unsupervised case, the main goal is to an- alyze the spatio-temporal dynamics of the individuals in the scene without having any prior information on the actions themselves. We also propose a model for remotely sensed hysper- spectral imagery, where the main goal is to perform automatic spectral source separation and mapping at the subpixel level. Finally, we present a sparse model for sensor fusion to exploit the common structure and enforce collaboration of hyperspectral with LiDAR data for better mapping capabilities. In all these scenarios, we demonstrate that these data can be expressed as a combination of atoms from a class-structured dictionary. These data representation becomes essentially a "mixture of classes," and by directly exploiting the sparse codes, one can attain highly accurate classification performance with relatively unsophisticated classifiers.

  4. Strategies to Support Students' Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Hyunyi

    2015-01-01

    An important question for mathematics teachers is this: "How can we help students learn mathematics to solve everyday problems, rather than teaching them only to memorize rules and practice mathematical procedures?" Teaching students using modeling activities can help them learn mathematics in real-world problem-solving situations that…

  5. Using Covariation Reasoning to Support Mathematical Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    For many students, making connections between mathematical ideas and the real world is one of the most intriguing and rewarding aspects of the study of mathematics. In the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010), mathematical modeling is highlighted as a mathematical practice standard for all grades. To engage in mathematical…

  6. Decision Support System for Resource Allocation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    by Presutti and Trepp in their paper "Much Ado about EOQ." [2) The constraints used in the stock fund model are total stock fund dollars and limits on...Jersey, 1963. 2. Presutti, Victor J., Jr. and Trepp , Richard C., More Ado About Economic Order Ouantities (EOO), Operations Analysis Office

  7. Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) in ground support structure at TRW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) is positioned in a support structure in TRW's assembly room for checkout and processing prior to shipment to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). GRO is the heaviest NASA science satellite ever to be deployed by the Space Shuttle into low Earth orbit. GRO's trunnions are locked into the support structure. From left to right are three of the four GRO instruments including the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE), the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL), and the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) equipment is located on GRO's corners. GRO, which weighs just over 35,000 pounds (15,876 kilograms), is a space-based observatory scheduled to be put into space by Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, next year. GRO is designed to study the universe in an invisible, high-energy form of light known as gamma rays. Gamma rays, which cannot penetrate the Earth's atmosphere, are of interest to

  8. Model catalytic oxidation studies using supported monometallic and heterobimetallic oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ekerdt, J.G.

    1992-02-03

    This research program is directed toward a more fundamental understanding of the effects of catalyst composition and structure on the catalytic properties of metal oxides. Metal oxide catalysts play an important role in many reactions bearing on the chemical aspects of energy processes. Metal oxides are the catalysts for water-gas shift reactions, methanol and higher alcohol synthesis, isosynthesis, selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxides, and oxidation of hydrocarbons. A key limitation to developing insight into how oxides function in catalytic reactions is in not having precise information of the surface composition under reaction conditions. To address this problem we have prepared oxide systems that can be used to study cation-cation effects and the role of bridging (-O-) and/or terminal (=O) surface oxygen anion ligands in a systematic fashion. Since many oxide catalyst systems involve mixtures of oxides, we selected a model system that would permit us to examine the role of each cation separately and in pairwise combinations. Organometallic molybdenum and tungsten complexes were proposed for use, to prepare model systems consisting of isolated monomeric cations, isolated monometallic dimers and isolated bimetallic dimers supported on silica and alumina. The monometallic and bimetallic dimers were to be used as models of more complex mixed- oxide catalysts. Our current program was to develop the systems and use them in model oxidation reactions.

  9. Modelling structured data with Probabilistic Graphical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, F.

    2016-05-01

    Most clustering and classification methods are based on the assumption that the objects to be clustered are independent. However, in more and more modern applications, data are structured in a way that makes this assumption not realistic and potentially misleading. A typical example that can be viewed as a clustering task is image segmentation where the objects are the pixels on a regular grid and depend on neighbouring pixels on this grid. Also, when data are geographically located, it is of interest to cluster data with an underlying dependence structure accounting for some spatial localisation. These spatial interactions can be naturally encoded via a graph not necessarily regular as a grid. Data sets can then be modelled via Markov random fields and mixture models (e.g. the so-called MRF and Hidden MRF). More generally, probabilistic graphical models are tools that can be used to represent and manipulate data in a structured way while modeling uncertainty. This chapter introduces the basic concepts. The two main classes of probabilistic graphical models are considered: Bayesian networks and Markov networks. The key concept of conditional independence and its link to Markov properties is presented. The main problems that can be solved with such tools are described. Some illustrations are given associated with some practical work.

  10. The concurrent evolution of cooperation and the population structures that support it.

    PubMed

    Powers, Simon T; Penn, Alexandra S; Watson, Richard A

    2011-06-01

    The evolution of cooperation often depends upon population structure, yet nearly all models of cooperation implicitly assume that this structure remains static. This is a simplifying assumption, because most organisms possess genetic traits that affect their population structure to some degree. These traits, such as a group size preference, affect the relatedness of interacting individuals and hence the opportunity for kin or group selection. We argue that models that do not explicitly consider their evolution cannot provide a satisfactory account of the origin of cooperation, because they cannot explain how the prerequisite population structures arise. Here, we consider the concurrent evolution of genetic traits that affect population structure, with those that affect social behavior. We show that not only does population structure drive social evolution, as in previous models, but that the opportunity for cooperation can in turn drive the creation of population structures that support it. This occurs through the generation of linkage disequilibrium between socio-behavioral and population-structuring traits, such that direct kin selection on social behavior creates indirect selection pressure on population structure. We illustrate our argument with a model of the concurrent evolution of group size preference and social behavior.

  11. Experimental investigation of wave slamming on an open structure supported elastically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Bing; Liu, Ming; Li, Xue-lin; Wang, Yong-xue

    2016-12-01

    The superstructures of marine structures supported by the elastic legs and located in the splash zone will subject to violent wave slamming and vibrate consequently during storms. A series of model tests are carried out to investigate the wave impacting on the open structures supported elastically. Three kinds of models with different natural frequencies are designed. The characteristics of the wave pressures on the three models are compared. The durations of the uplift forces and the corresponding accelerations of the structure during wave impact are analyzed simultaneously. The distributions of the peak impact pressures on the subfaces of the plates with different supporting stiffness are given. The relationship between the uplift force on the three models and the relative clearance are obtained. The spectral properties of the slamming loads on the three different structures are compared. The experimental results indicate that the behaviors of the impact pressures, the uplift forces and accelerations of the plates with small natural frequencies are obviously different from those of the plates with larger natural frequencies within the range of the experimental parameters.

  12. Light scattering measurements supporting helical structures for chromatin in solution.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A M; Cotter, R I; Pardon, J F

    1978-05-01

    Laser light scattering measurements have been made on a series of polynucleosomes containing from 50 to 150 nucleosomes. Radii of gyration have been determined as a function of polynucleosome length for different ionic strength solutions. The results suggest that at low ionic strength the chromatin adopts a loosely helical structure rather than a random coil. The helix becomes more regular on increasing the ionic strength, the dimension resembling those proposed by Finch and Klug for their solenoid model.

  13. Georeferenced model simulations efficiently support targeted monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlekamp, Jürgen; Klasmeier, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) demands the good ecological and chemical status of surface waters. To meet the definition of good chemical status of the WFD surface water concentrations of priority pollutants must not exceed established environmental quality standards (EQS). Surveillance of the concentrations of numerous chemical pollutants in whole river basins by monitoring is laborious and time-consuming. Moreover, measured data do often not allow for immediate source apportionment which is a prerequisite for defining promising reduction strategies to be implemented within the programme of measures. In this context, spatially explicit model approaches are highly advantageous because they provide a direct link between local point emissions (e.g. treated wastewater) or diffuse non-point emissions (e.g. agricultural runoff) and resulting surface water concentrations. Scenario analyses with such models allow for a priori investigation of potential positive effects of reduction measures such as optimization of wastewater treatment. The geo-referenced model GREAT-ER (Geography-referenced Regional Exposure Assessment Tool for European Rivers) has been designed to calculate spatially resolved averaged concentrations for different flow conditions (e.g. mean or low flow) based on emission estimations for local point source emissions such as treated effluents from wastewater treatment plants. The methodology was applied to selected pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, sotalol, metoprolol, carbamazepin) in the Main river basin in Germany (approx. 27,290 km²). Average concentrations of the compounds were calculated for each river reach in the whole catchment. Simulation results were evaluated by comparison with available data from orienting monitoring and used to develop an optimal monitoring strategy for the assessment of water quality regarding micropollutants at the catchment scale.

  14. Knowledge Modelling to Support Inquiry Learning Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Annika; Mulholland, Paul; Zdrahal, Zdenek; Blasko, Miroslav

    In this paper we describe the SILVER toolkit, which is designed for tasks in which a user learns by analysing and interpreting a set of resources. The user categorises each resource according to the set of properties that they identify as being applicable to it. Due to the large amount of data generated by this type of task, the user may find it hard to identify patterns in their classification and tagging, to recognise their own inconsistencies or make comparisons between themselves and others. In the first SILVER task described, the ID3 decision tree algorithm is applied to the user's data to identify patterns and generate different types of feedback. Principles of spatial hypertext are used to produce an interactive visualization of the summarized data. As the user interacts with the resources, they can see their progress and changing perspective on the task. In the second SILVER task described, a conceptual model is used to provide explanations of the model underlying the user's classification of resources.

  15. Creating Shareable Clinical Decision Support Rules for a Pharmacogenomics Clinical Guideline Using Structured Knowledge Representation.

    PubMed

    Linan, Margaret K; Sottara, Davide; Freimuth, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) guidelines contain drug-gene relationships, therapeutic and clinical recommendations from which clinical decision support (CDS) rules can be extracted, rendered and then delivered through clinical decision support systems (CDSS) to provide clinicians with just-in-time information at the point of care. Several tools exist that can be used to generate CDS rules that are based on computer interpretable guidelines (CIG), but none have been previously applied to the PGx domain. We utilized the Unified Modeling Language (UML), the Health Level 7 virtual medical record (HL7 vMR) model, and standard terminologies to represent the semantics and decision logic derived from a PGx guideline, which were then mapped to the Health eDecisions (HeD) schema. The modeling and extraction processes developed here demonstrate how structured knowledge representations can be used to support the creation of shareable CDS rules from PGx guidelines.

  16. Creating Shareable Clinical Decision Support Rules for a Pharmacogenomics Clinical Guideline Using Structured Knowledge Representation

    PubMed Central

    Linan, Margaret K.; Sottara, Davide; Freimuth, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) guidelines contain drug-gene relationships, therapeutic and clinical recommendations from which clinical decision support (CDS) rules can be extracted, rendered and then delivered through clinical decision support systems (CDSS) to provide clinicians with just-in-time information at the point of care. Several tools exist that can be used to generate CDS rules that are based on computer interpretable guidelines (CIG), but none have been previously applied to the PGx domain. We utilized the Unified Modeling Language (UML), the Health Level 7 virtual medical record (HL7 vMR) model, and standard terminologies to represent the semantics and decision logic derived from a PGx guideline, which were then mapped to the Health eDecisions (HeD) schema. The modeling and extraction processes developed here demonstrate how structured knowledge representations can be used to support the creation of shareable CDS rules from PGx guidelines. PMID:26958298

  17. On the structure of vanadia supported on ceria nanoshapes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zili; Li, Meijun; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H

    2012-01-01

    Vanadia supported on ceria nanocrystals with defined surface planes, i.e., ceria nanoshapes including rods, cubes and octahedra were successfully synthesized. The effect of surface structure of these ceria nanoshapes on the structure of surface vanadia species as well as the formation of CeVO4 was investigated in details via in situ visible and UV Raman spectroscopy. The surface vanadia species on ceria nanoshapes evolve from monomeric vanadia to dimeric, trimeric, polymeric vanadia, and eventually crystalline V2O5 and CeVO4 as a function of vanadia loading. As expected, the nanoshaped ceria provides a rather homogeneous platform for anchoring vanadia, especially at low vanadia loading leading to only monomeric species, in contrast to the co-existence of different vanadia species on polycrystalline ceria even at extremely low vanadia loading. The formation of CeVO4 from the reaction between surface vanadia species and ceria was compared on the three ceria nanoshapes with similar surface vanadia density. It was found that both the surface structure and amount of defect sites of the ceria nanoshapes play major roles in the production of CeVO4. The easiest formation of CeVO4 on ceria rods is attributed to the lowest surface oxygen vacancy formation energy and the largest amount of defect sites available on the rods surface.

  18. Cable dynamics under non-ideal support excitations: Nonlinear dynamic interactions and asymptotic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tieding; Kang, Houjun; Wang, Lianhua; Zhao, Yueyu

    2016-12-01

    Cable dynamics under ideal longitudinal support motions/excitations assumes that the support's mass, stiffness and mechanical energy are infinite. However, for many long/slender support structures, their finite mass and stiffness should be taken into account and the cable-support dynamic interactions should be modelled and evaluated. These moving supports are non-ideal support excitations, deserving a proper coupling analysis. For systems with a large support/cable mass ratio, using the multiple scale method and asymptotic approximations, a cable-support coupled reduced model, with both cable's geometric nonlinearity and cable-support coupling nonlinearity included, is established asymptotically and validated numerically in this paper. Based upon the reduced model, cable's nonlinear responses under non-ideal support excitations(and also the coupled responses) are found, with stability and bifurcation characteristics determined. By finding the modifications caused by the support/cable mass ratio, boundary damping, and internal detuning, full investigations into coupling-induced dynamic effects on the cable are conducted. Finally, the approximate analytical results based on the reduced model are verified by numerical results from the original full model.

  19. A model for effective planning of SME support services.

    PubMed

    Rakićević, Zoran; Omerbegović-Bijelović, Jasmina; Lečić-Cvetković, Danica

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a model for effective planning of support services for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The idea is to scrutinize and measure the suitability of support services in order to give recommendations for the improvement of a support planning process. We examined the applied support services and matched them with the problems and needs of SMEs, based on the survey conducted in 2013 on a sample of 336 SMEs in Serbia. We defined and analysed the five research questions that refer to support services, their consistency with the SMEs' problems and needs, and the relation between the given support and SMEs' success. The survey results have shown a statistically significant connection between them. Based on this result, we proposed an eight-phase model as a method for the improvement of support service planning for SMEs. This model helps SMEs to plan better their requirements in terms of support; government and administration bodies at all levels and organizations that provide support services to understand better SMEs' problems and needs for support.

  20. Modeling of chemisorption on copper oxide supported on alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Y. G.; Cooper, B. R.

    1994-06-01

    Transition metals supported on alumina are widely used as catalysts, and over the last few decades a large amount of experimental work has been done to characterize such systems. While it is generally believed that the catalytic reactions occur on and near the surface, knowledge of the reactions and the adsorption sites on the surface and related energetics is seriously lacking, especially at the atomic structure level. We have used a combination of the film linearized muffin-tin orbital (FLMTO) method and an ab initio molecular quantum cluster method to model the use of the system of CuO/-γ-Al 2O 3 as a regenerable adsorbent of SO 2 (of interest for flue-gas cleanup). The modeling and calculations with the FLMTO method show that the copper atoms are adsorbed at the surface octahedral vacant sites of the alumina. The modeling and calculations with the ab initio cluster method rule out the adsorption of the SO 2 molecule with sulfur-copper bonding and indicate that the SO 2 molecule is adsorbed via oxygen-copper bonding; and accordingly we investigate some pertinent geometrical configurations including "bridge" arrangements providing bonding between the oxygen atoms of the SO 2 molecule and the surface copper or aluminum atoms.

  1. Variability of Protein Structure Models from Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Lyman; Terashi, Genki; Kihara, Daisuke

    2017-03-02

    An increasing number of biomolecular structures are solved by electron microscopy (EM). However, the quality of structure models determined from EM maps vary substantially. To understand to what extent structure models are supported by information embedded in EM maps, we used two computational structure refinement methods to examine how much structures can be refined using a dataset of 49 maps with accompanying structure models. The extent of structure modification as well as the disagreement between refinement models produced by the two computational methods scaled inversely with the global and the local map resolutions. A general quantitative estimation of deviations of structures for particular map resolutions are provided. Our results indicate that the observed discrepancy between the deposited map and the refined models is due to the lack of structural information present in EM maps and thus these annotations must be used with caution for further applications.

  2. Design and analysis of supporting structure between the primary mirror and the secondary mirror on a space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenjie; Chai, Wenyi; Feng, Liangjie; Yang, Wengang; Wang, Wei; Fan, Xuewu

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical stability is a significant segment for an on-axis space telescope to assure its assembly accuracy as well as the image quality in the rigorous space environment, supporting structure between the primary mirror and the secondary mirror as a main structure of the on-axis space telescope must be designed reasonably to meet the mission requirements of the space telescope. Meanwhile, in view of the limitation of the satellite launching cost, it is necessary to reduce the weight and power compensation during the supporting structure design based on the satisfaction of telescope performance. Two types of supporting structure for a space telescope are designed, one is three-tripod structure which has three tripods located on the optical bench to support the secondary mirror assemblies and keep the distance between the primary mirror and the secondary mirror, the other is barrel supporting structure which includes a tube and a secondary mirror support with four spider struts. To compare the mechanical performance and launching cost of the two kinds of supporting structure, both structural and thermal analysis model are established. The analysis results indicates that the three-tripod support is lighter, has better mechanical performance and needs less power compensation than the barrel support.

  3. Supporting and structuring "contributing student pedagogy" in Computer Science curricula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkner, Katrina; Falkner, Nickolas J. G.

    2012-12-01

    Contributing student pedagogy (CSP) builds upon social constructivist and community-based learning principles to create engaging and productive learning experiences. What makes CSP different from other, related, learning approaches is that it involves students both learning from and also explicitly valuing the contributions of other students. The creation of such a learning community builds upon established educational psychology that encourages deep learning, reflection and engagement. Our school has recently completed a review and update of its curriculum, incorporating student content-creation and collaboration into the design of key courses across the curriculum. Our experiences, based on several years of experimentation and development, support CSP-based curriculum design to reinforce the value of the student perspective, the clear description of their own transformative pathway to knowledge and the importance of establishing student-to-student networks in which students are active and willing participants. In this paper, we discuss the tools and approaches that we have employed to guide, support and structure student collaboration across a range of courses and year levels. By providing an account of our intentions, our approaches and tools, we hope to provide useful and transferrable knowledge that can be readily used by other academics who are considering this approach.

  4. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans support an assortment of planarian rhabdite structures.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Matthew J

    2017-03-16

    Planaria are soft-bodied, bilateral flatworms of the phylum Playhelminthes. They are covered in cilia and use ciliary-gliding to traverse the substratum while hunting. Their body surface is covered in a layer of viscous slime primarily derived from specialised secretory granules known as rhabdites. The slime must somehow stay associated with the surface of the animal in aqueous environments whilst also lubricating the interface of the animal and the surfaces over which the animal moves. The slime prevents damage to the animal's soft body and also contributes to adhesion to the substratum. In order to gain insight into how it might achieve these diverse functions, we performed electron microscopic examination of the slime's structure. Analysis of two freshwater flatworms from the UK Schmidtea polychroa (Schmidt, 1861) and Polycelis tenuis (Ijima, 1884) revealed a high level of organisation of the slime layer and a variety of ejected slime structures. We show that these structures are rich in sulphated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs). Most of these (269 of 285 examined) appear to be topologically-closed spheroids that we name ball-GAGs Another class appears to burst to release flower- and star-like clusters which adhere to motile cilia. We also observe fibrous nets that are associated with entrapped bacteria. Examination of the structure of rhabdites ejected onto a porous surface suggests a mechanism by which their structure allows them to both bind to the porous surface and provide a smooth layer over which the animal could glide. Such sGAG-based structures might provide models for the design of artificial biomimetic replacements for tears, saliva, bio-compatible lubricants or drug-delivery vehicles.

  5. The Impact of Geophysical Measurement Support in Quantifying the Correlation Structure of Anisotropic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, V.; Gulati, J.; Knight, R.

    2009-04-01

    One of the challenges in developing catchment-scale models of hydrologic processes is accurately representing the spatial variation of subsurface properties. There is growing interest in the application of surface-based or borehole geophysical methods to obtain information about the correlation structure of hydrogeologic systems. It is well known, for all forms of measurement, that the support of the measurement impacts the derived estimates of correlation structure. Of interest in our work is the effect of the support of geophysical measurements on estimated correlation lengths. We define the support of a geophysical measurement as the presumed-homogeneous volume of the subsurface to which we can assign, given the methods of data acquisition and inversion, a single property. Accounting for the effect of the support becomes particularly important when integrating geophysical measurements of properties with other hydrologic measurements. The merged data sets are derived from measurements on scales that are rarely coincident with each other or the scale at which the properties are applied in hydrologic models. A number of previous studies have examined the impact of measurement scale on the estimated apparent correlation length for isotropic property fields. Most hydrologic property fields, however, are anisotropic at the catchment-scale. A further complicating factor is that geophysical measurements commonly have directionally-varying support dimensions. In this study we numerically generate both isotropic and anisotropic property fields and allow the orthogonal dimensions defining the measurement support to vary independently. When creating the anisotropic fields we define maximum and minimum correlation lengths, referred to as the underlying correlation lengths; these lengths are the same in the isotropic case. We initially estimate the apparent correlation length when the measurement support is equal to the grid size on which the field is defined. The increase in

  6. Roberts syndrome: New evidence supporting an altered metaphase chromatin structure

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, X.M.; Schultz, E.L.; Tonk, V.

    1994-09-01

    Roberts syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease clinically manifested in the newborn by mental and growth retardation, tetraphocomelia, and a variety of craniofacial abnormalities. Cell lines derived from RS patients exhibit subtle mutagen hypersensitivity and cytogenetic abnormalities which include random chromosome loss and the splaying of heterochromatic chromosomal regions. The latter, typically detected on C-banded metaphases, has been used prenatally for the diagnosis of RS. To gain further insights into the RS defect, we have examined a number of parameters related to metaphase chromatin structure, with observations as follows. (1) The heterochromatic splaying associated with RS was found to be visible on G- as well as C-banded metaphases. (2) Quantitative evaluations using fluorescence image analysis revealed that RS metaphase chromosomes bind DAPI less efficiently than chromosomes from normal cells. (3) Denaturation of chromosomal DNA with either a C-banding procedure or 70% formamide at 70{degree}C each produced an aberrant hybridization pattern on RS chromosomes in FISH experiments employing biotinylated total human DNA as probe. (4) RS cells exhibited a >3-fold increase in sensitivity to VM-26, a potent inhibitor of topoisomerase II. Collectively, the aforementioned data support the notion that the primary defect in RS results in an altered metaphase chromatin structure.

  7. Track structure in biological models.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S B

    1986-01-01

    High-energy heavy ions in the galactic cosmic radiation (HZE particles) may pose a special risk during long term manned space flights outside the sheltering confines of the earth's geomagnetic field. These particles are highly ionizing, and they and their nuclear secondaries can penetrate many centimeters of body tissue. The three dimensional patterns of ionizations they create as they lose energy are referred to as their track structure. Several models of biological action on mammalian cells attempt to treat track structure or related quantities in their formulation. The methods by which they do this are reviewed. The proximity function is introduced in connection with the theory of Dual Radiation Action (DRA). The ion-gamma kill (IGK) model introduces the radial energy-density distribution, which is a smooth function characterizing both the magnitude and extension of a charged particle track. The lethal, potentially lethal (LPL) model introduces lambda, the mean distance between relevant ion clusters or biochemical species along the track. Since very localized energy depositions (within approximately 10 nm) are emphasized, the proximity function as defined in the DRA model is not of utility in characterizing track structure in the LPL formulation.

  8. Object-oriented structures supporting remote sensing databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichmann, Keith; Cromp, Robert F.

    1995-01-01

    Object-oriented databases show promise for modeling the complex interrelationships pervasive in scientific domains. To examine the utility of this approach, we have developed an Intelligent Information Fusion System based on this technology, and applied it to the problem of managing an active repository of remotely-sensed satellite scenes. The design and implementation of the system is compared and contrasted with conventional relational database techniques, followed by a presentation of the underlying object-oriented data structures used to enable fast indexing into the data holdings.

  9. Structural dynamic and thermal stress analysis of nuclear reactor vessel support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi-Diango, J.

    1972-01-01

    A nuclear reactor vessel is supported by a Z-ring and a box ring girder. The two proposed structural configurations to transmit the loads from the Z-ring and the box ring girder to the foundation are shown. The cantilever concrete ledge transmitting the load from the Z-ring and the box girder via the cavity wall to the foundation is shown, along with the loads being transmitted through one of the six steel columns. Both of these two supporting systems were analyzed by using rigid format 9 of NASTRAN for dynamic loads, and the thermal stresses were analyzed by AXISOL. The six column configuration was modeled by a combination of plate and bar elements, and the concrete cantilever ledge configuration was modeled by plate elements. Both configurations were found structurally satisfactory; however, nonstructural considerations favored the concrete cantilever ledge.

  10. Data publication with the structural biology data grid supports live analysis.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Peter A; Socias, Stephanie; Key, Jason; Ransey, Elizabeth; Tjon, Emily C; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Lei, Ming; Botka, Chris; Withrow, James; Neau, David; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Anderson, Karen S; Baxter, Richard H; Blacklow, Stephen C; Boggon, Titus J; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Borek, Dominika; Brett, Tom J; Caflisch, Amedeo; Chang, Chung-I; Chazin, Walter J; Corbett, Kevin D; Cosgrove, Michael S; Crosson, Sean; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Di Cera, Enrico; Drennan, Catherine L; Eck, Michael J; Eichman, Brandt F; Fan, Qing R; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R; Fromme, J Christopher; Garcia, K Christopher; Gaudet, Rachelle; Gong, Peng; Harrison, Stephen C; Heldwein, Ekaterina E; Jia, Zongchao; Keenan, Robert J; Kruse, Andrew C; Kvansakul, Marc; McLellan, Jason S; Modis, Yorgo; Nam, Yunsun; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Pai, Emil F; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa; Petosa, Carlo; Raman, C S; Rapoport, Tom A; Roll-Mecak, Antonina; Rosen, Michael K; Rudenko, Gabby; Schlessinger, Joseph; Schwartz, Thomas U; Shamoo, Yousif; Sondermann, Holger; Tao, Yizhi J; Tolia, Niraj H; Tsodikov, Oleg V; Westover, Kenneth D; Wu, Hao; Foster, Ian; Fraser, James S; Maia, Filipe R N C; Gonen, Tamir; Kirchhausen, Tom; Diederichs, Kay; Crosas, Mercè; Sliz, Piotr

    2016-03-07

    Access to experimental X-ray diffraction image data is fundamental for validation and reproduction of macromolecular models and indispensable for development of structural biology processing methods. Here, we established a diffraction data publication and dissemination system, Structural Biology Data Grid (SBDG; data.sbgrid.org), to preserve primary experimental data sets that support scientific publications. Data sets are accessible to researchers through a community driven data grid, which facilitates global data access. Our analysis of a pilot collection of crystallographic data sets demonstrates that the information archived by SBDG is sufficient to reprocess data to statistics that meet or exceed the quality of the original published structures. SBDG has extended its services to the entire community and is used to develop support for other types of biomedical data sets. It is anticipated that access to the experimental data sets will enhance the paradigm shift in the community towards a much more dynamic body of continuously improving data analysis.

  11. Data publication with the structural biology data grid supports live analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Peter A.; Socias, Stephanie; Key, Jason; Ransey, Elizabeth; Tjon, Emily C.; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Lei, Ming; Botka, Chris; Withrow, James; Neau, David; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Anderson, Karen S.; Baxter, Richard H.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Boggon, Titus J.; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.; Borek, Dominika; Brett, Tom J.; Caflisch, Amedeo; Chang, Chung-I; Chazin, Walter J.; Corbett, Kevin D.; Cosgrove, Michael S.; Crosson, Sean; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Di Cera, Enrico; Drennan, Catherine L.; Eck, Michael J.; Eichman, Brandt F.; Fan, Qing R.; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R.; Christopher Fromme, J.; Garcia, K. Christopher; Gaudet, Rachelle; Gong, Peng; Harrison, Stephen C.; Heldwein, Ekaterina E.; Jia, Zongchao; Keenan, Robert J.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kvansakul, Marc; McLellan, Jason S.; Modis, Yorgo; Nam, Yunsun; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Pai, Emil F.; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa; Petosa, Carlo; Raman, C. S.; Rapoport, Tom A.; Roll-Mecak, Antonina; Rosen, Michael K.; Rudenko, Gabby; Schlessinger, Joseph; Schwartz, Thomas U.; Shamoo, Yousif; Sondermann, Holger; Tao, Yizhi J.; Tolia, Niraj H.; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Westover, Kenneth D.; Wu, Hao; Foster, Ian; Fraser, James S.; Maia, Filipe R. N C.; Gonen, Tamir; Kirchhausen, Tom; Diederichs, Kay; Crosas, Mercè; Sliz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Access to experimental X-ray diffraction image data is fundamental for validation and reproduction of macromolecular models and indispensable for development of structural biology processing methods. Here, we established a diffraction data publication and dissemination system, Structural Biology Data Grid (SBDG; data.sbgrid.org), to preserve primary experimental data sets that support scientific publications. Data sets are accessible to researchers through a community driven data grid, which facilitates global data access. Our analysis of a pilot collection of crystallographic data sets demonstrates that the information archived by SBDG is sufficient to reprocess data to statistics that meet or exceed the quality of the original published structures. SBDG has extended its services to the entire community and is used to develop support for other types of biomedical data sets. It is anticipated that access to the experimental data sets will enhance the paradigm shift in the community towards a much more dynamic body of continuously improving data analysis. PMID:26947396

  12. Data publication with the structural biology data grid supports live analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Peter A.; Socias, Stephanie; Key, Jason; Ransey, Elizabeth; Tjon, Emily C.; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Lei, Ming; Botka, Chris; Withrow, James; Neau, David; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Anderson, Karen S.; Baxter, Richard H.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Boggon, Titus J.; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.; Borek, Dominika; Brett, Tom J.; Caflisch, Amedeo; Chang, Chung-I; Chazin, Walter J.; Corbett, Kevin D.; Cosgrove, Michael S.; Crosson, Sean; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Di Cera, Enrico; Drennan, Catherine L.; Eck, Michael J.; Eichman, Brandt F.; Fan, Qing R.; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R.; Christopher Fromme, J.; Garcia, K. Christopher; Gaudet, Rachelle; Gong, Peng; Harrison, Stephen C.; Heldwein, Ekaterina E.; Jia, Zongchao; Keenan, Robert J.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kvansakul, Marc; McLellan, Jason S.; Modis, Yorgo; Nam, Yunsun; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Pai, Emil F.; Petosa, Carlo; Rapoport, Tom A.; Roll-Mecak, Antonina; Rosen, Michael K.; Rudenko, Gabby; Schlessinger, Joseph; Schwartz, Thomas U.; Shamoo, Yousif; Sondermann, Holger; Tao, Yizhi J.; Tolia, Niraj H.; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Westover, Kenneth D.; Wu, Hao; Foster, Ian; Fraser, James S.; Maia, Filipe R. N. C.; Gonen, Tamir; Kirchhausen, Tom; Diederichs, Kay; Crosas, Mercè; Sliz, Piotr

    2016-03-07

    Access to experimental X-ray diffraction image data is fundamental for validation and reproduction of macromolecular models and indispensable for development of structural biology processing methods. Here, we established a diffraction data publication and dissemination system, Structural Biology Data Grid (SBDG; data.sbgrid.org), to preserve primary experimental data sets that support scientific publications. Data sets are accessible to researchers through a community driven data grid, which facilitates global data access. Our analysis of a pilot collection of crystallographic data sets demonstrates that the information archived by SBDG is sufficient to reprocess data to statistics that meet or exceed the quality of the original published structures. SBDG has extended its services to the entire community and is used to develop support for other types of biomedical data sets. In conclusion, it is anticipated that access to the experimental data sets will enhance the paradigm shift in the community towards a much more dynamic body of continuously improving data analysis.

  13. Structure and modeling of turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, E.A.

    1995-12-31

    The {open_quotes}vortex strings{close_quotes} scale l{sub s} {approximately} LRe{sup -3/10} (L-external scale, Re - Reynolds number) is suggested as a grid scale for the large-eddy simulation. Various aspects of the structure of turbulence and subgrid modeling are described in terms of conditional averaging, Markov processes with dependent increments and infinitely divisible distributions. The major request from the energy, naval, aerospace and environmental engineering communities to the theory of turbulence is to reduce the enormous number of degrees of freedom in turbulent flows to a level manageable by computer simulations. The vast majority of these degrees of freedom is in the small-scale motion. The study of the structure of turbulence provides a basis for subgrid-scale (SGS) models, which are necessary for the large-eddy simulations (LES).

  14. A Framework and Model for Evaluating Clinical Decision Support Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a four-phase model for evaluating architectures for clinical decision support that focuses on: defining a set of desirable features for a decision support architecture; building a proof-of-concept prototype; demonstrating that the architecture is useful by showing that it can be integrated with existing decision support systems and comparing its coverage to that of other architectures. We apply this framework to several well-known decision support architectures, including Arden Syntax, GLIF, SEBASTIAN and SAGE PMID:18462999

  15. Atomic Resolution of the Structure of a Metal Support Interface: Triosmium Clusters on MgO (110)

    SciTech Connect

    Browning, Nigel D.; Chi, Miaofang; Gates, Bruce C.; kulkarni, Apoorva; Ortalan, Volkan

    2010-01-01

    Aberration-corrected STEM images of MgO-supported triosmium clusters show that the osmium atoms reside atop magnesium atoms. On the basis of the results, structural models of the clusters that include the metal-support interaction are derived.

  16. Application of a Process Model to a Management Support System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The concept of a process model is developed and used as a basis for data organization for use in a Management Support System (MSS). The data...organization is proposed as being useful for historical records that constitute the bulk of the information stored in an MSS. The concept of a process model , and...manager. Other uses of the proposed data organization are also considered. Extensions of the process model are considered by combining the model with

  17. Support System Effects on the NASA Common Research Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, S. Melissa B.; Hunter, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the NASA Common Research Model was conducted in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility and NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel Facility for use in the Drag Prediction Workshop. As data from the experimental investigations was collected, a large difference in moment values was seen between the experimental and the computational data from the 4th Drag Prediction Workshop. This difference led to the present work. In this study, a computational assessment has been undertaken to investigate model support system interference effects on the Common Research Model. The configurations computed during this investigation were the wing/body/tail=0deg without the support system and the wing/body/tail=0deg with the support system. The results from this investigation confirm that the addition of the support system to the computational cases does shift the pitching moment in the direction of the experimental results.

  18. Temporal Structure of Support Surface Translations Drive the Temporal Structure of Postural Control During Standing

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Troy J.; Myers, Sara A.; Kyvelidou, Anastasia; Mukherjee, Mukul

    2015-01-01

    A healthy biological system is characterized by a temporal structure that exhibits fractal properties and is highly complex. Unhealthy systems demonstrate lowered complexity and either greater or less predictability in the temporal structure of a time series. The purpose of this research was to determine if support surface translations with different temporal structures would affect the temporal structure of the center of pressure (COP) signal. Eight healthy young participants stood on a force platform that was translated in the anteroposterior direction for input conditions of varying complexity: white noise, pink noise, brown noise, and sine wave. Detrended fluctuation analysis was used to characterize the long-range correlations of the COP time series in the AP direction. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed differences among conditions (P < .001). The less complex support surface translations resulted in a less complex COP compared to normal standing. A quadratic trend analysis demonstrated an inverted-u shape across an increasing order of predictability of the conditions (P < .001). The ability to influence the complexity of postural control through support surface translations can have important implications for rehabilitation. PMID:25994281

  19. Human Exposure Modeling - Databases to Support Exposure Modeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Human exposure modeling relates pollutant concentrations in the larger environmental media to pollutant concentrations in the immediate exposure media. The models described here are available on other EPA websites.

  20. ARE TORNADO-LIKE MAGNETIC STRUCTURES ABLE TO SUPPORT SOLAR PROMINENCE PLASMA?

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Priest, E.

    2015-07-20

    Recent high-resolution and high-cadence observations have surprisingly suggested that prominence barbs exhibit apparent rotating motions suggestive of a tornado-like structure. Additional evidence has been provided by Doppler measurements. The observations reveal opposite velocities for both hot and cool plasma on the two sides of a prominence barb. This motion is persistent for several hours and has been interpreted in terms of rotational motion of prominence feet. Several authors suggest that such barb motions are rotating helical structures around a vertical axis similar to tornadoes on Earth. One of the difficulties of such a proposal is how to support cool prominence plasma in almost-vertical structures against gravity. In this work we model analytically a tornado-like structure and try to determine possible mechanisms to support the prominence plasma. We have found that the Lorentz force can indeed support the barb plasma provided the magnetic structure is sufficiently twisted and/or significant poloidal flows are present.

  1. Snow Micro-Structure Model

    SciTech Connect

    Micah Johnson, Andrew Slaughter

    2014-06-25

    PIKA is a MOOSE-based application for modeling micro-structure evolution of seasonal snow. The model will be useful for environmental, atmospheric, and climate scientists. Possible applications include application to energy balance models, ice sheet modeling, and avalanche forecasting. The model implements physics from published, peer-reviewed articles. The main purpose is to foster university and laboratory collaboration to build a larger multi-scale snow model using MOOSE. The main feature of the code is that it is implemented using the MOOSE framework, thus making features such as multiphysics coupling, adaptive mesh refinement, and parallel scalability native to the application. PIKA implements three equations: the phase-field equation for tracking the evolution of the ice-air interface within seasonal snow at the grain-scale; the heat equation for computing the temperature of both the ice and air within the snow; and the mass transport equation for monitoring the diffusion of water vapor in the pore space of the snow.

  2. Using support vector machines to improve elemental ion identification in macromolecular crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Morshed, Nader; Echols, Nathaniel; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-05-01

    A method to automatically identify possible elemental ions in X-ray crystal structures has been extended to use support vector machine (SVM) classifiers trained on selected structures in the PDB, with significantly improved sensitivity over manually encoded heuristics. In the process of macromolecular model building, crystallographers must examine electron density for isolated atoms and differentiate sites containing structured solvent molecules from those containing elemental ions. This task requires specific knowledge of metal-binding chemistry and scattering properties and is prone to error. A method has previously been described to identify ions based on manually chosen criteria for a number of elements. Here, the use of support vector machines (SVMs) to automatically classify isolated atoms as either solvent or one of various ions is described. Two data sets of protein crystal structures, one containing manually curated structures deposited with anomalous diffraction data and another with automatically filtered, high-resolution structures, were constructed. On the manually curated data set, an SVM classifier was able to distinguish calcium from manganese, zinc, iron and nickel, as well as all five of these ions from water molecules, with a high degree of accuracy. Additionally, SVMs trained on the automatically curated set of high-resolution structures were able to successfully classify most common elemental ions in an independent validation test set. This method is readily extensible to other elemental ions and can also be used in conjunction with previous methods based on a priori expectations of the chemical environment and X-ray scattering.

  3. Fast loop modeling for protein structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiong; Nguyen, Son; Shang, Yi; Xu, Dong; Kosztin, Ioan

    2015-03-01

    X-ray crystallography is the main method for determining 3D protein structures. In many cases, however, flexible loop regions of proteins cannot be resolved by this approach. This leads to incomplete structures in the protein data bank, preventing further computational study and analysis of these proteins. For instance, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of structure-function relationship require complete protein structures. To address this shortcoming, we have developed and implemented an efficient computational method for building missing protein loops. The method is database driven and uses deep learning and multi-dimensional scaling algorithms. We have implemented the method as a simple stand-alone program, which can also be used as a plugin in existing molecular modeling software, e.g., VMD. The quality and stability of the generated structures are assessed and tested via energy scoring functions and by equilibrium MD simulations. The proposed method can also be used in template-based protein structure prediction. Work supported by the National Institutes of Health [R01 GM100701]. Computer time was provided by the University of Missouri Bioinformatics Consortium.

  4. Engineering Analyses of NCSX Modular Coil and Its Supporting Structure for EM Loads

    SciTech Connect

    H.M. Fan; D. Williamson

    2003-10-30

    NCSX modular coil is a major parts of the NCSX coil systems that surround the highly shaped plasma and vacuum vessel. The flexible copper cable conductors are used to form modular coil on both sides of the ''tee'' beam, which is cast inside the supporting shell structure. The Engineering analyses comprise sequentially coupled-field analyses that include an electromagnetic analysis to calculate the magnetic fields and EM forces, and a structural analysis to evaluate the structural responses. In the sequential EM-structural analysis, nodal forces obtained from the EM analysis were applied as ''nodal force'' loads in the subsequent stress analysis using the identical nodal points and elements. The shell model was imported directly from Pro/ENGINEER files in order to obtain an accurate structural representation. The Boolean operations provided by the ANSYS preprocessor were then applied to subdivide the solid model for more desirable finite element meshing. Material properties of the modular coil were based on test results. Analyses using the ANSYS program to evaluate structural responses of the complicated modular coil systems provided a clear understanding of the structural behaviors and the directions for improving the structural design.

  5. Interrogative Model of Inquiry and Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Kai; Sintonen, Matti

    2002-01-01

    Examines how the Interrogative Model of Inquiry (I-Model), developed for the purposes of epistemology and philosophy of science, could be applied to analyze elementary school students' process of inquiry in computer-supported learning. Suggests that the interrogative approach to inquiry can be productively applied for conceptualizing inquiry in…

  6. Modeling branching pore structures in membrane filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanaei, Pejman; Cummings, Linda J.

    2016-11-01

    Membrane filters are in widespread industrial use, and mathematical models to predict their efficacy are potentially very useful, as such models can suggest design modifications to improve filter performance and lifetime. Many models have been proposed to describe particle capture by membrane filters and the associated fluid dynamics, but most such models are based on a very simple structure in which the pores of the membrane are assumed to be simple circularly-cylindrical tubes spanning the depth of the membrane. Real membranes used in applications usually have much more complex geometry, with interconnected pores which may branch and bifurcate. Pores are also typically larger on the upstream side of the membrane than on the downstream side. We present an idealized mathematical model, in which a membrane consists of a series of bifurcating pores, which decrease in size as the membrane is traversed. Feed solution is forced through the membrane by applied pressure, and particles are removed from the feed either by sieving, or by particle adsorption within pores (which shrinks them). Thus the membrane's permeability decreases as the filtration progresses, ultimately falling to zero. We discuss how filtration efficiency depends on the characteristics of the branching structure. Partial support from NSF DMS 1261596 is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Structure and order in cobalt/platinum-type nanoalloys: from thin films to supported clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreazza, Pascal; Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique; Tournus, Florent; Andreazza-Vignolle, Caroline; Dupuis, Véronique

    2015-06-01

    Among nanoalloys, Co-Pt type (CoPt or FePt) supported nanostructures are very interesting systems due to the direct link between atom arrangement and magnetic behavior. In addition, these alloys become model systems in the field of nanoalloys, due to the diversity of atom arrangements either present in the bulk state or specific to the nanoscale (chemically ordered L10, L12, or disordered fcc structures, core-shell, five-fold structures - icosahedral or decahedral, etc.). The synergy between experimental and modeling efforts has allowed the emergence of an overview of the structural, morphological and chemical behaviors of CoPt-based supported nanoparticles in terms of phase diagrams (temperature, composition, size effect), kinetic behavior (growth, annealing, ordering), and also in terms of environment effects (substrate, capping, matrix, gas) and of magnetic properties. All aspects of this complexity are reviewed: synthesis strategies (physical deposition, cluster beam deposition and wet chemical methods), magnetic behavior (atomic magnetic moment, magnetic anisotropy energy), structural transitions (non-crystalline/crystalline structures, order/disorder, surface/interface segregation), etc. In this field, the investigation techniques, such as electron microscopy and X-ray scattering or absorption techniques, are generally used at their ultimate limit due the small size of the studied objects. Finally, several aspects of the annealing process, which is a key phenomenon to achieve the chemical order, have been discussed in both thermodynamic and kinetic points of view (size effect, critical temperature, annealing time, twinning, coalescence, etc.).

  8. A Generic Modeling Process to Support Functional Fault Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Hemminger, Joseph A.; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Bis, Rachael A.

    2016-01-01

    Functional fault models (FFMs) are qualitative representations of a system's failure space that are used to provide a diagnostic of the modeled system. An FFM simulates the failure effect propagation paths within a system between failure modes and observation points. These models contain a significant amount of information about the system including the design, operation and off nominal behavior. The development and verification of the models can be costly in both time and resources. In addition, models depicting similar components can be distinct, both in appearance and function, when created individually, because there are numerous ways of representing the failure space within each component. Generic application of FFMs has the advantages of software code reuse: reduction of time and resources in both development and verification, and a standard set of component models from which future system models can be generated with common appearance and diagnostic performance. This paper outlines the motivation to develop a generic modeling process for FFMs at the component level and the effort to implement that process through modeling conventions and a software tool. The implementation of this generic modeling process within a fault isolation demonstration for NASA's Advanced Ground System Maintenance (AGSM) Integrated Health Management (IHM) project is presented and the impact discussed.

  9. Automated web service composition supporting conditional branch structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengwei; Ding, Zhijun; Jiang, Changjun; Zhou, Mengchu

    2014-01-01

    The creation of value-added services by automatic composition of existing ones is gaining a significant momentum as the potential silver bullet in service-oriented architecture. However, service composition faces two aspects of difficulties. First, users' needs present such characteristics as diversity, uncertainty and personalisation; second, the existing services run in a real-world environment that is highly complex and dynamically changing. These difficulties may cause the emergence of nondeterministic choices in the process of service composition, which has gone beyond what the existing automated service composition techniques can handle. According to most of the existing methods, the process model of composite service includes sequence constructs only. This article presents a method to introduce conditional branch structures into the process model of composite service when needed, in order to satisfy users' diverse and personalised needs and adapt to the dynamic changes of real-world environment. UML activity diagrams are used to represent dependencies in composite service. Two types of user preferences are considered in this article, which have been ignored by the previous work and a simple programming language style expression is adopted to describe them. Two different algorithms are presented to deal with different situations. A real-life case is provided to illustrate the proposed concepts and methods.

  10. Molecular modeling of nucleic acid structure

    PubMed Central

    Galindo-Murillo, Rodrigo; Bergonzo, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This unit is the first in a series of four units covering the analysis of nucleic acid structure by molecular modeling. This unit provides an overview of computer simulation of nucleic acids. Topics include the static structure model, computational graphics and energy models, generation of an initial model, and characterization of the overall three-dimensional structure. PMID:18428873

  11. Structure and thermodynamics of Fe55 , Co55 , and Ni55 clusters supported on a surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, U.; Blundell, S. A.

    2009-03-01

    We study the structure and thermodynamics of Fe55 , Co55 , and Ni55 clusters supported on a surface. The metallic bonding is described by a Gupta potential, and the surface is modeled by an idealized smooth plane coupled to the cluster by a Lennard-Jones interaction, with a variable parameter to describe the strength of the cluster-surface interaction. Optimum (lowest-energy) structures are determined by regular quenches, and the caloric curve of the clusters is extracted via a microcanonical multihistogram fit as a function of the cluster-surface interaction strength. The optimum structures are icosahedral for the free clusters and go through a series of transformations as the cluster-surface interaction strengthens, becoming successively flatter. The melting temperatures of the cluster correspondingly go through a series of steps with each change in optimum structure, but with an average trend toward higher melting temperatures as the cluster-surface interaction increases.

  12. Support for an Evolutionary Model of AGN Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dultzin, D.

    2015-09-01

    I will present our recent results (2013-2015) on the role of the environment in the nuclear activity of interacting Galaxies, all of which support an evolutionary sequence in the nuclear activity. We studied close galactic pairs of similar mass in the local Universe. We analyzed 385 spectra of S S, E E, and E S pairs, and try to disentangle the role of morphology on induced activity . We compare with our own sample of bona fide isolated galaxies containing a statistically significant number of all morphological types. Our main results are in conflict with the simplest version of the so called Unified Model (UM), and suggest that high accretion rates are essential to form the Broad Line Region in active galaxies. We also investigated the structure of the dusty torus surrounding Syfert 1 and 2 nuclei, both in pairs and isolated. The results also lead to a disagreement with the UM. Finally, we present our results on the Nuclear Activity in the context of the evolution of Compact Groups of galaxies over the past 3 Gyrs. Our analysis is based on the largest multiwavelength compact group sample to-date, and the results are also in conflict with an orientation obscuration effect alone.

  13. Test of a Mediation Model of Perceived Organizational Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhen Xiong; Aryee, Samuel; Lee, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the mediating influence of trust in organization (TIO) and organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) on the relationship between perceived organization support (POS) and its work outcomes. Data were obtained from employee-supervisor dyads from multiple organizations located in a major city in southern China. Structural equation…

  14. Model Comparison of Bayesian Semiparametric and Parametric Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Xin-Yuan; Xia, Ye-Mao; Pan, Jun-Hao; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2011-01-01

    Structural equation models have wide applications. One of the most important issues in analyzing structural equation models is model comparison. This article proposes a Bayesian model comparison statistic, namely the "L[subscript nu]"-measure for both semiparametric and parametric structural equation models. For illustration purposes, we consider…

  15. Energy Absorption Structure of Laser Supported Detonation Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Hatai, Keigo; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2010-05-01

    In Repetitive Pulsed (RP) laser propulsion, when the high energy laser beam is focused in the thruster, Laser Supported Detonation (LSD) wave is generated. This LSD wave converts the laser energy to the enthalpy of the blast wave, which will then apply impulse to the wall of the thruster. Therefore, the energy absorption structure and sustaining condition of LSD wave are important to be understood, which was still not clear though some visualized experiments have been conducted by Ushio et al. before. In this paper, 2-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometry is brought to investigate the electron density distribution of LSD area. At the same time, the temperature of the laser induced plasma is measured by an emission spectroscopy experiment, and calculated based on the assumption of local thermal equilibrium. The results show that in LSD, the electron density has a peak (as high as 2×1024[m-3]) behind the shock wave. The irradiated laser can be entirely absorbed before reaching the position of this peak. As a result, a new peak is always generating in front of the old one and this propagating has the same velocity as that of the blast wave. In this way, high heating ratio is sustained right after the shock front. However, as the laser pulse energy becomes lower, the propagating peak cannot catch up with the blast wave anymore, which leads to a termination of the LSD wave. From this study, it is found that for sustaining the LSD wave, a sufficiently thin laser absorption layer is necessary.

  16. Modelling the structure of sludge aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Smoczyński, Lech; Ratnaweera, Harsha; Kosobucka, Marta; Smoczyński, Michał; Kalinowski, Sławomir; Kvaal, Knut

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The structure of sludge is closely associated with the process of wastewater treatment. Synthetic dyestuff wastewater and sewage were coagulated using the PAX and PIX methods, and electro-coagulated on aluminium electrodes. The processes of wastewater treatment were supported with an organic polymer. The images of surface structures of the investigated sludge were obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The software image analysis permitted obtaining plots log A vs. log P, wherein A is the surface area and P is the perimeter of the object, for individual objects comprised in the structure of the sludge. The resulting database confirmed the ‘self-similarity’ of the structural objects in the studied groups of sludge, which enabled calculating their fractal dimension and proposing models for these objects. A quantitative description of the sludge aggregates permitted proposing a mechanism of the processes responsible for their formation. In the paper, also, the impact of the structure of the investigated sludge on the process of sedimentation, and dehydration of the thickened sludge after sedimentation, was discussed. PMID:26549812

  17. Modelling the structure of sludge aggregates.

    PubMed

    Smoczyński, Lech; Ratnaweera, Harsha; Kosobucka, Marta; Smoczyński, Michał; Kalinowski, Sławomir; Kvaal, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The structure of sludge is closely associated with the process of wastewater treatment. Synthetic dyestuff wastewater and sewage were coagulated using the PAX and PIX methods, and electro-coagulated on aluminium electrodes. The processes of wastewater treatment were supported with an organic polymer. The images of surface structures of the investigated sludge were obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The software image analysis permitted obtaining plots log A vs. log P, wherein A is the surface area and P is the perimeter of the object, for individual objects comprised in the structure of the sludge. The resulting database confirmed the 'self-similarity' of the structural objects in the studied groups of sludge, which enabled calculating their fractal dimension and proposing models for these objects. A quantitative description of the sludge aggregates permitted proposing a mechanism of the processes responsible for their formation. In the paper, also, the impact of the structure of the investigated sludge on the process of sedimentation, and dehydration of the thickened sludge after sedimentation, was discussed.

  18. SDU 6 MODELING STUDY TO SUPPORT DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.

    2012-05-02

    In response to Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-SSF-TTR-2012-0017 (1), SRNL performed modeling studies to evaluate alternative design features for the 32 million gallon Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) referred to as SDU 6. This initial modeling study was intended to assess the performance of major components of the structure that are most significant to the PA. Information provided by the modeling will support the development of a SDU 6 Preliminary Design Model and Recommendation Report to be written by SRR Closure and Waste Disposal Authority. Key inputs and assumptions for the modeling were provided to SRNL in SRR-SPT-2011-00113 (2). A table reiterates the base case and four sensitivity case studies requested in this reference. In general, as shown in Table 4, when compared to Vault 2 Case A, the Base Case SDU 6 design produced higher peak fluxes to the water table during the 10,000 year period of analysis but lower peak fluxes within a 15,000 to 20,000 time frame. SDU 6 will contain approximately ten times the inventory of a single Vault 2 and the SDU 6 footprint is comparable to that of a group of four Vault 2 disposal units. Therefore, the radionuclide flux from SDU 6 and that from a single Vault 2 are not directly comparable. A more direct comparison would be to compare the maximum dose obtained at the 100 m boundary from the seven SDU's that will replace the 64 FDC's analyzed in the 2009 PA. This analysis will be performed in the next set of calculations planned for SDU design evaluation. Aquifer transport and dose calculations were not intended to be part of this initial scoping study. However, results from this study do indicate that replacement of the FDC design with SDU would not yield significantly higher peak doses. If the thickness of the SDU 6 floor is increased, peak doses would not occur during the 10,000 year period of analysis.

  19. Effective Team Support: From Modeling to Software Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger W. (Technical Monitor); John, Bonnie; Sycara, Katia

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research contract was to perform multidisciplinary research between CMU psychologists, computer scientists and engineers and NASA researchers to design a next generation collaborative system to support a team of human experts and intelligent agents. To achieve robust performance enhancement of such a system, we had proposed to perform task and cognitive modeling to thoroughly understand the impact technology makes on the organization and on key individual personnel. Guided by cognitively-inspired requirements, we would then develop software agents that support the human team in decision making, information filtering, information distribution and integration to enhance team situational awareness. During the period covered by this final report, we made substantial progress in modeling infrastructure and task infrastructure. Work is continuing under a different contract to complete empirical data collection, cognitive modeling, and the building of software agents to support the teams task.

  20. TMT telescope structure thermal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Sadjadpour, Amir; Roberts, Scott

    2014-08-01

    The thermal behavior of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Telescope Structure (STR) and the STR mounted subsystems depends on the heat load of the System, the thermal properties of component materials and the environment as well as their interactions through convection, conduction and radiation. In this paper the thermal environment is described and the latest three-dimensional Computational Solid Dynamics (CSD) model is presented. The model tracks the diurnal temperature variation of the STR and the corresponding deformations. The resulting displacements are fed into the TMT Merit Function Routine (MFR), which converts them into translations and rotations of the optical surfaces. They, in turn, are multiplied by the TMT optical sensitivity matrix that delivers the corresponding pointing error. Thus the thermal performance of the structure can be assessed for requirement compliance, thermal drift correction strategies and look-up tables can be developed and design guidance can be provided. Results for a representative diurnal cycle based on measured temperature data from the TMT site on Mauna Kea and CFD simulations are presented and conclusions are drawn.

  1. Design Approaches to Support Preservice Teachers in Scientific Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Lisa; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Hug, Barbara

    2011-02-01

    Engaging children in scientific practices is hard for beginning teachers. One such scientific practice with which beginning teachers may have limited experience is scientific modeling. We have iteratively designed preservice teacher learning experiences and materials intended to help teachers achieve learning goals associated with scientific modeling. Our work has taken place across multiple years at three university sites, with preservice teachers focused on early childhood, elementary, and middle school teaching. Based on results from our empirical studies supporting these design decisions, we discuss design features of our modeling instruction in each iteration. Our results suggest some successes in supporting preservice teachers in engaging students in modeling practice. We propose design principles that can guide science teacher educators in incorporating modeling in teacher education.

  2. SVAT modelling in support to flood risk assessment in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyanova, Julia S.; Georgiev, Christo G.

    2013-04-01

    This study explores the benefit that can be drawn from incorporating the diagnosis of initial soil moisture of the top vegetation/soil layer and its anomalies as parameters in support of operational weather forecasting. For that purpose, a 1D vertical numerical land surface scheme, referred to as Soil Vegetation Transfer Model (‘SVAT_bg’) has been developed to simulate the soil-vegetation-atmosphere mass and energy transfer, accounting for local soil/climate features. The model is run daily for estimating soil moisture content and on this basis, a biogeophysical index designating Soil Moisture Availability Index (SMAI) to vegetation land cover is derived. SMAI is introduced as a measure of the proportion between the energy and water balances and their anomalies at different weather/climate conditions through a 6-level threshold scheme of land surface moistening. To facilitate the use of SMAI as a diagnostic tool for operational forecasting purposes, it is generated on a daily basis and visualised by colour-coded maps, covering the main administrative regions of Bulgaria in combination with a numerical part, which indicates the required flood-producing rainfall quantities (specific for each region). In case of overmoistening conditions, the numerical part denotes the rainfall excess above the soil saturation moisture content. The utility of this approach is illustrated in two case studies of severe weather produced by deep convection and a rapid cyclogenesis developed at initial ‘dry’/‘wet’ soil moisture anomalies, respectively. The thermodynamic conditions and space-time structure of the rainfall are analysed by NWP output fields and satellite information. The study contributes to a better definition of the role of vegetation-soil moistening in flood risk forecasting within strong synoptic scale forcing regimes. The utility of the results comes also from the recognition of soil moisture as a meteorological forcing factor, which may affect both severity

  3. MODELING THE ACCRETION STRUCTURE OF AU Mon

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood-Stone, Corwin; Miller, Brendan P.; Richards, Mercedes T.; Budaj, Jan; Peters, Geraldine J. E-mail: mbrendan@umich.edu E-mail: budaj@ta3.sk

    2012-12-01

    AU Mon is a long-period (11.113 days) Algol-type binary system with a persistent accretion disk that is apparent as double-peaked H{alpha} emission. We present previously unpublished optical spectra of AU Mon which were obtained over 20 years from 1991-2011 with dense orbital phase coverage. We utilize these data, along with archival UV spectra, to model the temperature and structure of the accretion disk and the gas stream. Synthetic spectral profiles for lines including H{alpha}, H{beta}, and the Al III and Si IV doublets were computed with the Shellspec program. The best match between the model spectra and the observations is obtained for an accretion disk of inner/outer radius 5.1/23 R {sub Sun }, thickness of 5.2 R {sub Sun }, density of 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -13} g cm{sup -3}, and maximum temperature of 14,000 K, along with a gas stream at a temperature of {approx}8000 K transferring {approx}2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We show H{alpha} Doppler tomograms of the velocity structure of the gas, constructed from difference profiles calculated through sequentially subtracting contributions from the stars and accretion structures. The tomograms provide independent support for the Shellspec modeling, while also illustrating that residual emission at sub-Keplerian velocities persists even after subtracting the disk and stream emission. Spectral variability in the H{alpha} profile beyond that expected from either the orbital or the long-period cycle is present on both multi-week and multi-year timescales, and may reflect quasi-random changes in the mass transfer rate or the disk structure. Finally, a transient UV spectral absorption feature may be modeled as an occasional outflow launched from the vicinity of the disk-stream interaction region.

  4. Orthotropic deflection model for corner-supported plates with segmented in-plane actuators.

    SciTech Connect

    Sumali, Hartono; Washington, Gregory N.; Massad, Jordan Elias

    2005-02-01

    The shape control of thin, flexible structures has been studied primarily for edge-supported thin plates. For applications involving reconfigurable apertures such as membrane optics and active RF surfaces, corner-supported configurations may prove more applicable. Corner-supported adaptive structures allow for parabolic geometries, greater flexibility, and larger achievable deflections when compared to edge-supported geometries under similar actuation conditions. Preliminary models have been developed for corner-supported thin plates actuated by isotropic piezoelectric actuators. However, typical piezoelectric materials are known to be orthotropic. This paper extends a previously-developed isotropic model for a corner-supported, thin, rectangular bimorph to a more general orthotropic model for a bimorph actuated by a two-dimensional array of segmented PVDF laminates. First, a model determining the deflected shape of an orthotropic laminate for a given distribution of voltages over the actuator array is derived. Second, symmetric actuation of a bimorph consisting of orthotropic material is simulated using orthogonally-oriented laminae. Finally, the results of the model are shown to agree well with layered-shell finite element simulations for simple and complex voltage distributions.

  5. Supporting Teachers in Structuring Mathematics Lessons Involving Challenging Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Peter; Askew, Mike; Cheeseman, Jill; Clarke, Doug; Mornane, Angela; Roche, Anne; Walker, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    The following is a report on an investigation into ways of supporting teachers in converting challenging mathematics tasks into classroom lessons and supporting students in engaging with those tasks. Groups of primary and secondary teachers, respectively, were provided with documentation of ten lessons built around challenging tasks. Teachers…

  6. Organizational analysis of three community support program models.

    PubMed

    Reinke, B; Greenley, J R

    1986-06-01

    Little attention has been paid to the organizational and administrative characteristics of effective community support programs for the chronic mentally ill. The authors analyzed three successful support programs in Wisconsin that employ three different models of service delivery: one provides services through caseworkers who carry specialized caseloads, another through local nonprofessionals who work with a centrally located program coordinator, and the third through a team of various mental health workers. Each program has tailored its organizational process to suit the types of clients it sees, the size of its catchment area, and the availability of other professional resources. The interrelated strengths and weaknesses of each model are discussed.

  7. A New Look at the Big Five Factor Structure through Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Ludtke, Oliver; Muthen, Bengt; Asparouhov, Tihomir; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    NEO instruments are widely used to assess Big Five personality factors, but confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) conducted at the item level do not support their a priori structure due, in part, to the overly restrictive CFA assumptions. We demonstrate that exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), an integration of CFA and exploratory…

  8. Communication competence, social support, and depression among college students: a model of facebook and face-to-face support network influence.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin B; Rosenberg, Jenny; Egbert, Nicole; Ploeger, Nicole A; Bernard, Daniel R; King, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of the social networking site Facebook and face-to-face support networks on depression among (N = 361) college students. The authors used the Relational Health Communication Competence Model as a framework for examining the influence of communication competence on social support network satisfaction and depression. Moreover, they examined the influence of interpersonal and social integrative motives as exogenous variables. On the basis of previous work, the authors propose and test a theoretical model using structural equation modeling. The results indicated empirical support for the model, with interpersonal motives predicting increased face-to-face and computer-mediated competence, increased social support satisfaction with face-to-face and Facebook support, and lower depression scores. The implications of the findings for theory, key limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.

  9. A numerical cloud model for the support of laboratory experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    A numerical cloud model is presented which can describe the evolution of a cloud starting from moist aerosol-laden air through the diffusional growth regime. The model is designed for the direct support of cloud chamber laboratory experimentation, i.e., experiment preparation, real-time control and data analysis. In the model the thermodynamics is uncoupled from the droplet growth processes. Analytic solutions for the cloud droplet growth equations are developed which can be applied in most laboratory situations. The model is applied to a variety of representative experiments.

  10. Seismic analysis of offshore wind turbines on bottom-fixed support structures.

    PubMed

    Alati, Natale; Failla, Giuseppe; Arena, Felice

    2015-02-28

    This study investigates the seismic response of a horizontal axis wind turbine on two bottom-fixed support structures for transitional water depths (30-60 m), a tripod and a jacket, both resting on pile foundations. Fully coupled, nonlinear time-domain simulations on full system models are carried out under combined wind-wave-earthquake loadings, for different load cases, considering fixed and flexible foundation models. It is shown that earthquake loading may cause a significant increase of stress resultant demands, even for moderate peak ground accelerations, and that fully coupled nonlinear time-domain simulations on full system models are essential to capture relevant information on the moment demand in the rotor blades, which cannot be predicted by analyses on simplified models allowed by existing standards. A comparison with some typical design load cases substantiates the need for an accurate seismic assessment in sites at risk from earthquakes.

  11. Army Aviation Force Structure in Support of Counter Insurgency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Battalion (30 UH - 60L Blackhawks), General Support Aviation Battalion (mix of 8 UH - 60L , 12 CH-47D Chinooks, and 15 HH- 60A MEDEVAC aircraft), Aviation...the city which mitigated their limited fuel endurance and slower airspeed when compared to the AH-64D Apache. The Air Assault Troop ( UH - 60L ...the BCT and supported Special Operations Forces. When combined with AH-64Ds or OH-58Ds the UH - 60Ls were critical to vehicular interdiction

  12. The Structure of Social Exchange in Self-Help Support Groups: Development of a Measure

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louis D.; Tang, Xiaohui; Hollman, Ruth L.

    2014-01-01

    Self-help support groups are indigenous community resources designed to help people manage a variety of personal challenges, from alcohol abuse to xeroderma pigmentosum. The social exchanges that occur during group meetings are central to understanding how people benefit from participation. This paper examines the different types of social exchange behaviors that occur during meetings, using two studies to develop empirically distinct scales that reliably measure theoretically important types of exchange. Resource theory informed the initial measurement development efforts. Exploratory factor analyses from the first study led to revisions in the factor structure of the social exchange scales. The revised measure captured the exchange of emotional support, experiential information, humor, unwanted behaviors, and exchanges outside meetings. Confirmatory factor analyses from a follow-up study with a different sample of self-help support groups provided good model fit, suggesting the revised structure accurately represented the data. Further, the scales demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity with related constructs. Future research can use the scales to identify aspects of social exchange that are most important in improving health outcomes among self-help support group participants. Groups can use the scales in practice to celebrate strengths and address weaknesses in their social exchange dynamics. PMID:24398622

  13. Training of Existing Workers: Issues, Incentives and Models. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawer, Giselle; Jackson, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report, "Training of Existing Workers: Issues, Incentives and Models," (ED495138) and is an added resource for further information. This support document is divided into the following sections: (1) The Retail Industry--A Snapshot; (2) Case Studies--Hardware, Retail…

  14. Modeling actions and operations to support mission preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Ryan, D. P.; Schreckenghost, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes two linked technology development projects to support Space Shuttle ground operations personnel, both during mission preparation analysis and related analyses in missions. The Space Propulsion Robust Analysis Tool (SPRAT) will provide intelligent support and automation for mission analysis setup, interpretation, reporting and documentation. SPRAT models the actions taken by flight support personnel during mission preparation and uses this model to generate an action plan. CONFIG will provide intelligent automation for procedure analyses and failure impact analyses, by simulating the interactions between operations and systems with embedded failures. CONFIG models the actions taken by crew during space vehicle malfunctions and simulates how the planned action sequences in procedures affect a device model. Jointly the SPRAT and CONFIG projects provide an opportunity to investigate how the nature of a task affects the representation of actions, and to determine a more general action representation supporting a broad range of tasks. This paper describes the problems in representing actions for mission preparation and their relation to planning and scheduling.

  15. Educating All Learners: Refocusing the Comprehensive Support Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiakor, Festus E., Ed.; Grant, Patrick A., Ed.; Dooley, Elizabeth A., Ed.

    This collection of papers addresses the importance of maximizing the fullest potential of all students and leaving no child behind. The 14 papers are: (1) "The Comprehensive Support Model for All Learners: Conceptualization and Meaning" (Festus E. Obiakor, Pauline Harris-Obiakor, and Ramel L. Smith); (2) "The Power of the `Self' in Education"…

  16. MSW Time to Tumor Model and Supporting Documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The multistage Weibull (MSW) time-to-tumor model and related documentation were developed principally (but not exclusively) for conducting time-to-tumor analyses to support risk assessments under the IRIS program. These programs and related docum...

  17. A Formal Model for the Study of Communication Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holsapple, Clyde W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Documents the lack of conceptual frameworks for integrating research on organizational computer-based communications technologies. Formalizes an integrated model for studying computer communication support phenomena in organizations using a knowledge management perspective and set-theoretic notation. Defines two types of communications support…

  18. Transition to Operations Support at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a multi-agency partnership, which aims at the creation of next generation space weather models. The goal of the CCMC is to support the research and developmental work necessary to substantially increase the present-day modeling capability for space weather purposes, and to provide models for transition to the rapid prototyping centers at the space weather forecast centers. This goal requires close collaborations with and substantial involvement of the research community. The physical regions to be addressed by CCMC-related activities range from the solar atmosphere to the Earth's upper atmosphere. The CCMC is an integral part of the National Space Weather Program Implementation Plan, of NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative, and of the Department of Defense Space Weather Transition Plan. CCMC includes a facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, as well as distributed computing facilities provided by the US Air Force. CCMC also provides, to the research community, access to state-of-the-art space research models. This paper will focus on a status report on CCMC activities in support of model transition to operations at US space weather forecasting centers. In particular, an update will be given on past and present transition activities, on developments that address operational needs, and on future opportunities for transition-to-operations support.

  19. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (CR&D) Delivery Order 0059: Molecular Dynamics Modeling Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Ohio from 10 August 2006 through 10 December 2007. This task performed molecular dynamics modeling research in support of thermosetting composites as...well as nano-tailored composites for improving composite properties. The report focuses on the crosslinking procedure to build the crosslinked...network or epoxy based composites . The crosslinked network is characterized with respect to various thermodynamic properties. The structure development

  20. A new model describing the metal-support interaction in noble metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Mojet, B.L.; Koningsberger, D.C.; Miller, J.T.; Ramaker, D.E.

    1999-09-10

    The catalytic activity and spectroscopic properties of supported noble metal catalysts are strongly influenced by the acidity/alkalinity of the support but are relatively independent of the metal (Pd or Pt) or the type of support (zeolite LTL or SiO{sub 2}). As the alkalinity of the support increases, the TOF of the metal particles for neopentane hydrogenolysis decreases. At the same time, there is a decrease in the XPS binding energy and a shift from linear to bridge bonded CO in the IR spectra. Analysis of the shape resonance in XANES spectra indicates that in the presence of chemisorbed hydrogen the difference in energy between the Pt-H antibonding orbital and the Fermi level decreases as the alkalinity of the support increases. Based on the results from the IR, XPS, and shape resonance data a new model is proposed in which the interaction between the metal and support leads to a shift in the energy of the metal valence orbitals. The EXAFS structural analysis indicates that the small metal particles are in contact only with the oxide ions of the support. Finally, a new spectroscopic characterization, Atomic XAFS, is presented which provides new insights into the origin of the electronic changes in the metal. As the alkalinity of the support increases, there is decrease in the metal ionization potential. The primary interaction is a Coulomb attraction between metal particle and support oxygen ions, which affects the metal interatomic potential. This model for the metal-support interaction explicitly excludes the need for electron transfer, and it can account for all observed changes in the catalytic, electronic, and structural properties of the supported metal particles induced by support acidity ranging from acidic to neutral to alkaline.

  1. Automatically updating predictive modeling workflows support decision-making in drug design.

    PubMed

    Muegge, Ingo; Bentzien, Jörg; Mukherjee, Prasenjit; Hughes, Robert O

    2016-09-01

    Using predictive models for early decision-making in drug discovery has become standard practice. We suggest that model building needs to be automated with minimum input and low technical maintenance requirements. Models perform best when tailored to answering specific compound optimization related questions. If qualitative answers are required, 2-bin classification models are preferred. Integrating predictive modeling results with structural information stimulates better decision making. For in silico models supporting rapid structure-activity relationship cycles the performance deteriorates within weeks. Frequent automated updates of predictive models ensure best predictions. Consensus between multiple modeling approaches increases the prediction confidence. Combining qualified and nonqualified data optimally uses all available information. Dose predictions provide a holistic alternative to multiple individual property predictions for reaching complex decisions.

  2. Online model-based diagnosis to support autonomous operation of an advanced life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Gautam; Manders, Eric-Jan; Ramirez, John; Mahadevan, Nagabhusan; Abdelwahed, Sherif

    2004-01-01

    This article describes methods for online model-based diagnosis of subsystems of the advanced life support system (ALS). The diagnosis methodology is tailored to detect, isolate, and identify faults in components of the system quickly so that fault-adaptive control techniques can be applied to maintain system operation without interruption. We describe the components of our hybrid modeling scheme and the diagnosis methodology, and then demonstrate the effectiveness of this methodology by building a detailed model of the reverse osmosis (RO) system of the water recovery system (WRS) of the ALS. This model is validated with real data collected from an experimental testbed at NASA JSC. A number of diagnosis experiments run on simulated faulty data are presented and the results are discussed.

  3. Paleoclassical Model of Pedestal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callen, J. D.

    2010-11-01

    Predictions are developed for the structure of plasma parameter profiles of H-mode pedestals in transport quasi-equilibrium in tokamak plasmas. They are based on assuming paleoclassical radial plasma transport processes dominate throughout the pedestal. The natural level of paleoclassical density transport is large in the pedestal compared to edge fueling due to neutral recycling. Thus, in this model the pedestal density profile is determined not by edge source fueling but rather by the density profile needed for the outward paleoclassical diffusive flux to be nearly balanced by the inward paleoclassical pinch flow. Specific predictions are given for the electron temperature and density gradients, profiles and magnitudes in the pedestal. The transition into ETG-driven anomalous radial electron heat transport in the core plasma determines the height of the electron pressure pedestal. Also, the profile of the toroidal plasma rotation in the pedestal is predicted. Model predictions are found to agree quantitatively (within a factor of 2) with the interpretive transport results obtained for the 98889 DIII-D pedestal [1]. 6pt[1] J.D. Callen et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 064004 (2010).

  4. Supporting universal prevention programs: a two-phased coaching model.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kimberly D; Darney, Dana; Domitrovich, Celene; Keperling, Jennifer Pitchford; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2013-06-01

    Schools are adopting evidence-based programs designed to enhance students' emotional and behavioral competencies at increasing rates (Hemmeter et al. in Early Child Res Q 26:96-109, 2011). At the same time, teachers express the need for increased support surrounding implementation of these evidence-based programs (Carter and Van Norman in Early Child Educ 38:279-288, 2010). Ongoing professional development in the form of coaching may enhance teacher skills and implementation (Noell et al. in School Psychol Rev 34:87-106, 2005; Stormont et al. 2012). There exists a need for a coaching model that can be applied to a variety of teacher skill levels and one that guides coach decision-making about how best to support teachers. This article provides a detailed account of a two-phased coaching model with empirical support developed and tested with coaches and teachers in urban schools (Becker et al. 2013). In the initial universal coaching phase, all teachers receive the same coaching elements regardless of their skill level. Then, in the tailored coaching phase, coaching varies according to the strengths and needs of each teacher. Specifically, more intensive coaching strategies are used only with teachers who need additional coaching supports, whereas other teachers receive just enough support to consolidate and maintain their strong implementation. Examples of how coaches used the two-phased coaching model when working with teachers who were implementing two universal prevention programs (i.e., the PATHS curriculum and PAX Good Behavior Game [PAX GBG]) provide illustrations of the application of this model. The potential reach of this coaching model extends to other school-based programs as well as other settings in which coaches partner with interventionists to implement evidence-based programs.

  5. Supporting Universal Prevention Programs: A Two-Phased Coaching Model

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Darney, Dana; Domitrovich, Celene; Keperling, Jennifer Pitchford; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Schools are adopting evidence-based programs designed to enhance students’ emotional and behavioral competencies at increasing rates (Hemmeter, Snyder, & Artman, 2011). At the same time, teachers express the need for increased support surrounding implementation of these evidence-based programs (Carter & Van Norman, 2010). Ongoing professional development in the form of coaching may enhance teacher skills and implementation (Noell et al., 2005; Stormont, Reinke, Newcomer, Darney, & Lewis, 2012). There exists a need for a coaching model that can be applied to a variety of teacher skill levels and one that guides coach decision-making about how best to support teachers. This article provides a detailed account of a two-phased coaching model with empirical support developed and tested with coaches and teachers in urban schools (Becker, Bradshaw, Domitrovich, & Ialongo, 2013). In the initial universal coaching phase, all teachers receive the same coaching elements regardless of their skill level. Then, in the tailored coaching phase, coaching varies according to the strengths and needs of each teacher. Specifically, more intensive coaching strategies are used only with teachers who need additional coaching supports whereas other teachers receive just enough support to consolidate and maintain their strong implementation. Examples of how coaches used the two-phased coaching model when working with teachers who were implementing two universal prevention programs (i.e., the PATHS® curriculum and PAX Good Behavior Game [PAX GBG]) provide illustrations of the application of this model. The potential reach of this coaching model extends to other school-based programs as well as other settings in which coaches partner with interventionists to implement evidence-based programs. PMID:23660973

  6. Educational Support for Low-Performing Students in Mathematics: The Three-Tier Support Model in Finnish Lower Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstam, Ulrika; Linnanmäki, Karin; Aunio, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, there was a legislative reform regarding educational support in Finland, with a focus on early identification, differentiation and flexible arrangement of support using a multi-professional approach, the three-tier support model. The main aim of this study was to investigate what educational support practices are used with low-performing…

  7. Influence of the supporting die structures on the fracture strength of all-ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Munir Tolga; Yondem, Isa; Aykent, Filiz; Eraslan, Oğuz

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of the elastic modulus of supporting dies on the fracture strengths of all-ceramic materials used in dental crowns. Four different types of supporting die materials (dentin, epoxy resin, brass, and stainless steel) (24 per group) were prepared using a milling machine to simulate a mandibular molar all-ceramic core preparation. A total number of 96 zirconia cores were fabricated using a CAD/CAM system. The specimens were divided into two groups. In the first group, cores were cemented to substructures using a dual-cure resin cement. In the second group, cores were not cemented to the supporting dies. The specimens were loaded using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture occurred. Data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests (α = 0.05). The geometric models of cores and supporting die materials were developed using finite element method to obtain the stress distribution of the forces. Cemented groups showed statistically higher fracture strength values than non-cemented groups. While ceramic cores on stainless steel dies showed the highest fracture strength values, ceramic cores on dentin dies showed the lowest fracture strength values among the groups. The elastic modulus of the supporting die structure is a significant factor in determining the fracture resistance of all-ceramic crowns. Using supporting die structures that have a low elastic modulus may be suitable for fracture strength tests, in order to accurately reflect clinical conditions.

  8. Influence of backup bearings and support structure dynamics on the behavior of rotors with active supports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, George T.

    1994-01-01

    Progress over the past year includes the following: A simplified rotor model with a flexible shaft and backup bearings has been developed. A simple rotor model which includes a flexible disk and bearings with clearance has been developed and the dynamics of the model investigated. A rotor model based upon the T-501 engine has been developed which includes backup bearing effects. Parallel simulation runs are being conducted using an ANSYS based finite element model of the T-501. The magnetic bearing test rig is currently floating and dynamics/control tests are being conducted. A paper has been written that documents the work using the T-501 engine model. Work has continued with the simplified model. The finite element model is currently being modified to include the effects of foundation dynamics. A literature search for material on foil bearings has been conducted. A finite element model is being developed for a magnetic bearing in series with a foil backup bearing.

  9. Influence of backup bearings and support structure dynamics on the behavior of rotors with active supports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, George T.

    1994-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made toward the goals of this research effort in the past six months. A simplified rotor model with a flexible shaft and backup bearings has been developed. The model is based upon the work of Ishii and Kirk. Parameter studies of the behavior of this model are currently being conducted. A simple rotor model which includes a flexible disk and bearings with clearance has been developed and the dynamics of the model investigated. The study consists of simulation work coupled with experimental verification. The work is documented in the attached paper. A rotor model based upon the T-501 engine has been developed which includes backup bearing effects. The dynamics of this model are currently being studied with the objective of verifying the conclusions obtained from the simpler models. Parallel simulation runs are being conducted using an ANSYS based finite element model of the T-501.

  10. Groundwater modelling in decision support: reflections on a unified conceptual framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, John; Simmons, Craig T.

    2013-11-01

    Groundwater models are commonly used as basis for environmental decision-making. There has been discussion and debate in recent times regarding the issue of model simplicity and complexity. This paper contributes to this ongoing discourse. The selection of an appropriate level of model structural and parameterization complexity is not a simple matter. Although the metrics on which such selection should be based are simple, there are many competing, and often unquantifiable, considerations which must be taken into account as these metrics are applied. A unified conceptual framework is introduced and described which is intended to underpin groundwater modelling in decision support with a direct focus on matters regarding model simplicity and complexity.

  11. The Specific Analysis of Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Roderick P.

    2004-01-01

    Conventional structural equation modeling fits a covariance structure implied by the equations of the model. This treatment of the model often gives misleading results because overall goodness of fit tests do not focus on the specific constraints implied by the model. An alternative treatment arising from Pearl's directed acyclic graph theory…

  12. Melting and freezing characteristics and structural properties of supported and unsupported gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chin-Lung; Clancy, Paulette

    2005-07-21

    Molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with MEAM potential models have been used to study the melting and freezing behavior and structural properties of both supported and unsupported Au nanoclusters within a size range of 2 to 5 nm. In contrast to results from previous simulations regarding the melting of free Au nanoclusters, we observed a structural transformation from the initial FCC configuration to an icosahedral structure at elevated temperatures followed by a transition to a quasimolten state in the vicinity of the melting point. During the freezing of Au liquid clusters, the quasimolten state reappeared in the vicinity of the freezing point, playing the role of a transitional region between the liquid and solid phases. In essence, the melting and freezing processes involved the same structural changes which may suggest that the formation of icosahedral structures at high temperatures is intrinsic to the thermodynamics of the clusters, rather than reflecting a kinetic phenomenon. When Au nanoclusters were deposited on a silica surface, they transformed into icosahedral structures at high temperatures, slightly deformed due to stress arising from the Au-silica interface. Unlike free Au nanoclusters, an icosahedral solid-liquid coexistence state was found in the vicinity of the melting point, where the cluster consisted of coexisting solid and liquid fractions but retained an icosahedral shape at all times. These results demonstrated that the structural stability in the structures of small Au nanoclusters can be enhanced through interaction with the substrate. Supported Au nanoclusters demonstrated a structural transformation from decahedral to icosahedral motifs during Au island growth, in contrast to the predictions of the minimum-energy growth sequence: icosahedral structures appear first at very small cluster sizes, followed by decahedral structures, and finally FCC structures recovered at very large cluster sizes. The simulations also showed that

  13. Manpower Cost Analysis of a Distributed En Route Support Structure versus a Consolidated En Route Support Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    challenging. An already complex task interwoven into a complex environment can have serious impact on an organization , in this case, those men and women...Type Code(s) would suffice for the distributed en route support system cost comparison? The rest of this document is organized as follows. Chapter...delineation between airlift only personnel and non -airlift personnel. The support personnel, for example 22 finance, medical, and law, would all

  14. Preliminary shuttle structural dynamics modeling design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and development of a structural dynamics model of the space shuttle are discussed. The model provides for early study of structural dynamics problems, permits evaluation of the accuracy of the structural and hydroelastic analysis methods used on test vehicles, and provides for efficiently evaluating potential cost savings in structural dynamic testing techniques. The discussion is developed around the modes in which major input forces and responses occur and the significant structural details in these modes.

  15. Anchoring Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support in Structural School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailor, Wayne; Zuna, Nina; Choi, Jeong-Hoon; Thomas, Jamie; McCart, Amy; Roger, Blair

    2006-01-01

    Schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) exemplifies a longitudinal research program originating in the fields of special education and school psychology that has produced an extensive national database encompassing an evidence-based set of practices applicable to general education as well as special education students including those with…

  16. Mathematical Modeling in Support of Military Operational Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Small plate Left Lung Liver Spleen Diaphragm Kidneys Bone Structure Heart Right Lung Guts K1 C1 M1 M2 M27 K27 K28 C27 C28 M28 Contact...finite element models for simulation analyses. Left Lung Liver Spleen Diaphragm Kidneys Bone Structure Heart Right Lung Guts Large...responses, such as rib maximum normal stress, normalized lung and heart energy density, liver normal stress, skin energy density and some other

  17. Data and Models Needed to Support Civil Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onsager, Terrance; Biesecker, D. A.; Berger, Thomas; Rutledge, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The effective utilization of existing data and models is an important element in advancing the goals of the COSPAR/ILWS space weather roadmap. This is recommended to be done through innovative approaches to data utilization, including data driving, data assimilation, and ensemble modeling. This presentation will focus on observations and models needed to support space weather services for civil aviation and commercial space transportation. The service needs for aviation will be discussed, and an overview will be given of some of the existing data and models that can provide these services. Efforts underway to define the requirements for real-time data and to assess current modeling capabilities will be described. Recommendations will be offered for internationally coordinated activities that could identify priorities and further the roadmap goals.

  18. A recurrent support vector regression model in rainfall forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Ping-Feng; Hong, Wei-Chiang

    2007-03-01

    To minimize potential loss of life and property caused by rainfall during typhoon seasons, precise rainfall forecasts have been one of the key subjects in hydrological research. However, rainfall forecast is made difficult by some very complicated and unforeseen physical factors associated with rainfall. Recently, support vector regression (SVR) models and recurrent SVR (RSVR) models have been successfully employed to solve time-series problems in some fields. Nevertheless, the use of RSVR models in rainfall forecasting has not been investigated widely. This study attempts to improve the forecasting accuracy of rainfall by taking advantage of the unique strength of the SVR model, genetic algorithms, and the recurrent network architecture. The performance of genetic algorithms with different mutation rates and crossover rates in SVR parameter selection is examined. Simulation results identify the RSVR with genetic algorithms model as being an effective means of forecasting rainfall amount. Copyright

  19. Modeling Insurgent Network Structure and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbay, Michael; Thirkill-Mackelprang, Ashley

    2010-03-01

    We present a methodology for mapping insurgent network structure based on their public rhetoric. Indicators of cooperative links between insurgent groups at both the leadership and rank-and-file levels are used, such as joint policy statements or joint operations claims. In addition, a targeting policy measure is constructed on the basis of insurgent targeting claims. Network diagrams which integrate these measures of insurgent cooperation and ideology are generated for different periods of the Iraqi and Afghan insurgencies. The network diagrams exhibit meaningful changes which track the evolution of the strategic environment faced by insurgent groups. Correlations between targeting policy and network structure indicate that insurgent targeting claims are aimed at establishing a group identity among the spectrum of rank-and-file insurgency supporters. A dynamical systems model of insurgent alliance formation and factionalism is presented which evolves the relationship between insurgent group dyads as a function of their ideological differences and their current relationships. The ability of the model to qualitatively and quantitatively capture insurgent network dynamics observed in the data is discussed.

  20. Caring for our own: the role of institutionalized support structures in Native American nursing student success.

    PubMed

    Cech, Erin A; Metz, Anneke M; Babcock, Tracy; Smith, Jessi L

    2011-09-01

    In this project, the authors asked 19 Native American baccalaureate nursing students to discuss their experiences with a formal institutionalized student support program called "Caring for Our Own: A Reservation/University Partnership Program." The authors investigated the importance of different types of support structures within this program, as viewed by Native American nursing students. They distinguished between four institutionalized support structures: tangible, informational, emotional, and belonging. The authors found that students consider tangible support (such as stipends) to be comparatively less important than other types of support, particularly emotional and belonging support. Responses also revealed the importance of a fifth type of institutionalized support-motivational. The authors further discuss how these institutionalized support structures might lead to successful outcomes for Native American nursing students.

  1. Porflow modeling supporting the FY14 salstone special analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.; Taylor, G.

    2014-04-01

    PORFLOW related analyses supporting the Saltstone FY14 Special Analysis (SA) described herein are based on prior modeling supporting the Saltstone FY13 SA. Notable changes to the previous round of simulations include: a) consideration of Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) design type 6 under “Nominal” and “Margin” conditions, b) omission of the clean cap fill from the nominal SDU 2 and 6 modeling cases as a reasonable approximation of greater waste grout fill heights, c) minor updates to the cementitious materials degradation analysis, d) use of updated I-129 sorption coefficient (Kd) values in soils, e) assignment of the pH/Eh environment of saltstone to the underlying floor concrete, considering down flow through an SDU, and f) implementation of an improved sub-model for Tc release in an oxidizing environment. These new model developments are discussed and followed by a cursory presentation of simulation results. The new Tc release sub-model produced significantly improved (smoother) flux results compared to the FY13 SA. Further discussion of PORFLOW model setup and simulation results will be presented in the FY14 SA, including dose results.

  2. A modular BLSS simulation model. [Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.; Volk, Tyler

    1987-01-01

    The coordination of material flows in earth's biosphere is largely made possible by the buffering effect of huge material reservoirs. Without similarly-sized buffers, a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for extraterrestrial use will be faced with coordination problems more acute than those in any ecosystem found on earth. A related problem in BLSS design is providing an interface between the various life-support processors, one that will allow for their coordination while still allowing for system expansion. A modular model is presented of a BLSS that interfaces system processors only with the material storage reservoirs, allowing those reservoirs to act as the principal buffers in the system and thus minimizing difficulties with processor coordination. The modular nature of the model allows independent development of the detailed submodels that exist within the model framework. Using this model, BLSS dynamics were investigated under normal conditions and under various failure modes. Partial and complete failures of various components, such as the waste processor or the plants themselves, drive transient responses in the model system, allowing examination of the effectiveness of the system reservoirs as buffers. The results from simulations of this sort will help to determine control strategies and BLSS design requirements. An evolved version of this model could be used as an interactive control aid in a future BLSS.

  3. Engineering Structurally Configurable Models with Model Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-15

    model in the case of Simulink, and a dataflow model in the case of LabVIEW). Research modeling tools such as Ptolemy II [14], ForSyDe [21], SPEX [30...functionality of our model transformation tool built in the Ptolemy II framework, and its application to large models of distributed and parallel embedded...in Ptolemy II, the same idea can be applied to other modeling tools such as Simulink, LabVIEW, ForSyDe, SPEX and ModHel’X. Moreover, the recent OMG

  4. Information Model Translation to Support a Wider Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, John S.; Crichton, Daniel; Ritschel, Bernd; Hardman, Sean; Joyner, Ronald

    2014-05-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS), NASA's long-term archive for solar system exploration data, has just released PDS4, a modernization of the PDS architecture, data standards, and technical infrastructure. This next generation system positions the PDS to meet the demands of the coming decade, including big data, international cooperation, distributed nodes, and multiple ways of analysing and interpreting data. It also addresses three fundamental project goals: providing more efficient data delivery by data providers to the PDS, enabling a stable, long-term usable planetary science data archive, and enabling services for the data consumer to find, access, and use the data they require in contemporary data formats. The PDS4 information architecture is used to describe all PDS data using a common model. Captured in an ontology modeling tool it supports a hierarchy of data dictionaries built to the ISO/IEC 11179 standard and is designed to increase flexibility, enable complex searches at the product level, and to promote interoperability that facilitates data sharing both nationally and internationally. A PDS4 information architecture design requirement stipulates that the content of the information model must be translatable to external data definition languages such as XML Schema, XMI/XML, and RDF/XML. To support the semantic Web standards we are now in the process of mapping the contents into RDF/XML to support SPARQL capable databases. We are also building a terminological ontology to support virtually unified data retrieval and access. This paper will provide an overview of the PDS4 information architecture focusing on its domain information model and how the translation and mapping are being accomplished.

  5. SAR in support of geological investigations of the Sudbury structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhroy, V.; Mussakowski, R.; Dressler, B. O.; Trowell, N. F.; Grieve, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Imaging radar is an important contributing source of information for a range of geological problems and environments. Airborne SAR and ERS-1 data integrated with other geoscience datasets are being used in an attempt to characterize the crustal fracturing associated with the Sudbury structure. This presentation highlights examples of integrated and composite images aimed at facilitating the interpretation of the Sudbury structure. This work is the result of an ongoing cooperative multidisciplinary SAR study of the basin carried out by the Canada Center for Remote Sensing, Ontario's provincial Remote Sensing Office, the Ontario Geological Survey, and the Geological Survey of Canada.

  6. Supported lipid bilayers as models for studying membrane domains.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Volker; Yang, Sung-Tae; Tamm, Lukas K

    2015-01-01

    Supported lipid bilayers have been in use for over 30 years. They have been employed to study the structure, composition, and dynamics of lipid bilayer phases, the binding and distribution of soluble, integral, and lipidated proteins in membranes, membrane fusion, and interactions of membranes with elements of the cytoskeleton. This review focuses on the unique ability of supported lipid bilayers to study liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains in membranes. We highlight methods to produce asymmetric lipid bilayers with lipid compositions that mimic those of the extracellular and cytoplasmic leaflets of cell membranes and the functional reconstitution of membrane proteins into such systems. Questions related to interleaflet domain coupling and membrane protein activation have been addressed and answered using advanced reconstitution and imaging procedures in symmetric and asymmetric supported membranes with and without coexisting lipid phase domains. Previously controversial topics regarding anomalous and anisotropic diffusion in membranes have been resolved by using supported membrane approaches showing that the propensity of certain lipid compositions to form "rafts" are important but overlaid with "picket-fence" interactions that are imposed by a subtended cytoskeletal network.

  7. A confidant support and problem solving model of divorced fathers' parenting.

    PubMed

    Degarmo, David S; Forgatch, Marion S

    2012-03-01

    This study tested a hypothesized social interaction learning (SIL) model of confidant support and paternal parenting. The latent growth curve analysis employed 230 recently divorced fathers, of which 177 enrolled support confidants, to test confidant support as a predictor of problem solving outcomes and problem solving outcomes as predictors of change in fathers' parenting. Fathers' parenting was hypothesized to predict growth in child behavior. Observational measures of support behaviors and problem solving outcomes were obtained from structured discussions of personal and parenting issues faced by the fathers. Findings replicated and extended prior cross-sectional studies with divorced mothers and their confidants. Confidant support predicted better problem solving outcomes, problem solving predicted more effective parenting, and parenting in turn predicted growth in children's reduced total problem behavior T scores over 18 months. Supporting a homophily perspective, fathers' antisociality was associated with confidant antisociality but only fathers' antisociality influenced the support process model. Intervention implications are discussed regarding SIL parent training and social support.

  8. Experimental support for KrF laser modeling. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-19

    This paper is the final report for a project to do characterization studies on the KrF laser system. The project did experimental work on KrF lasers in support of modeling studies, with the objective being to see if this technology could be competitive for use in the ICF program. This program has provided LANL with data critical for their model development. Section 2 describes the laser extraction experiments together with the calibration of the diagnostics and the re-examination of the analysis procedure. Section 3 discusses the gain and transient absorption measurements, and Section 4 gives the conclusion for this program.

  9. The Specific Analysis of Structural Equation Models.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Roderick P

    2004-10-01

    Conventional structural equation modeling fits a covariance structure implied by the equations of the model. This treatment of the model often gives misleading results because overall goodness of fit tests do not focus on the specific constraints implied by the model. An alternative treatment arising from Pearl's directed acyclic graph theory checks identifiability and lists and tests the implied constraints. This approach is complete for Markov models, but has remained incomplete for models with correlated disturbances. Some new algebraic results overcome the limitations of DAG theory and give a specific form of structural equation analysis that checks identifiability, tests the implied constraints, equation by equation, and gives consistent estimators of the parameters in closed form from the equations. At present the method is limited to recursive models subject to exclusion conditions. With further work, specific structural equation modeling may yield a complete alternative to the present, rather unsatisfactory, global covariance structure analysis.

  10. Influence of Back-Up Bearings and Support Structure Dynamics on the Behavior of Rotors With Active Supports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, George T.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a synopsis of the research work. Specific accomplishments are itemized below: (1) Experimental facilities have been developed. This includes a magnetic bearing test rig and an auxiliary bearing test rig. In addition, components have been designed, constructed, and tested for use with a rotordynamics test rig located at NASA Lewis Research Center. (2) A study of the rotordynamics of an auxiliary bearing supported T-501 engine model was performed. (3) An experimental/simulation study of auxiliary bearing rotordynamics has been performed. (4) A rotordynamical model for a magnetic bearing supported rotor system, including auxiliary bearing effects has been developed and simulation studies performed.(5) A finite element model for a foil bearing has been developed and studies of a rotor supported by foil bearings have been performed. (6) Two students affiliated with this project have graduated with M.S. degrees.

  11. Structural Equation Modeling with Heavy Tailed Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Bentler, Peter M.; Chan, Wai

    2004-01-01

    Data in social and behavioral sciences typically possess heavy tails. Structural equation modeling is commonly used in analyzing interrelations among variables of such data. Classical methods for structural equation modeling fit a proposed model to the sample covariance matrix, which can lead to very inefficient parameter estimates. By fitting a…

  12. Technology as Support for School Structure and School Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denis

    1992-01-01

    Educational technology can be a catalyst for creating new learning structures. For the past six years, Central Harlem's Earth Lab project has been designing, implementing, and observing effects of a local area network system intended to facilitate collaborative work in elementary earth science. System coordinates small groups, promotes teacher…

  13. Content Consumption and Hierarchical Structures of Web-Supported Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkovitz, Arnon; Hardof-Jaffe, Sharon; Nachmias, Rafi

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an empirical investigation of the relationship between the hierarchical structure of content delivered to students within a Learning Management System (LMS) and its actual consumption. To this end, campus-wide data relating to 1,203 courses were collected from the LMS' servers and were subsequently analyzed using data mining…

  14. A Model of Computer-Mediated Social Support Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Nahm, Eun Shim; Resnick, Barbara; Mills, Mary Etta

    2003-01-01

    Internet use has been growing exponentially, and older adults are one of the fastest growing online user groups. Due to the various physiological and psychosocial changes associated with aging, older adults are prone to social isolation. The Internet and e-mail may serve as a new source of support for older adults by connecting them with friends and family members, as well as providing useful information. In this study, based on prior research findings in sociology, communications, and informatics, A Model of Computer-Mediated Social Support Among Older Adults that explains relationships among a computer-mediated social network (CMSN), perceived functional social support from that network, and psychological well-being of community dwelling older adults was proposed. The primary purpose of this study was to test this model using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).

  15. A structural analysis model for clay caps

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tsu-te; Yau, Wen Foo

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents a structural analysis model for clay caps used in the landfill of low-level nuclear waste to minimize the migration of fluid through the soil. The clay cap resting on the soil foundation is treated as an axially symmetric elastic plate supported by an elastic foundation. A circular hole (concentric with the plate) in the elastic foundation represents an underlying cavity formed in the landfill due to waste decomposition and volume reduction. Unlike the models that commonly represent the soil foundation with equivalent springs, this model treats the foundation as a semi-infinite space and accounts for the work done by both compression and shear stresses in the foundation. The governing equation of the plate is based upon the classical theory of plate bending, whereas the governing equation derived by using Vlasov`s general variational method describes the soil foundation. The solutions are expressed in terms of Basset functions. A FORTRAN program was written to carry out the numerical calculations.

  16. A Chemical Properties Simulator to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Users of Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems are responsible for defining individual chemicals and their properties, a process that is time-consuming at best and overwhelming at worst, especially for new chemicals with new structures. A software tool is needed to allo...

  17. A Chemical Properties Simulator to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling (proceeding)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Users of Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems are responsible for defining individual chemicals and their properties, a process that is time-consuming at best and overwhelming at worst, especially for new chemicals with new structures. A software tool is needed to allo...

  18. Outer planet probe engineering model structural tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smittkamp, J. A.; Gustin, W. H.; Griffin, M. W.

    1977-01-01

    A series of proof of concept structural tests was performed on an engineering model of the Outer Planets Atmospheric Entry Probe. The tests consisted of pyrotechnic shock, dynamic and static loadings. The tests partially verified the structural concept.

  19. A Model of the Effects of Perceived Parent and Peer Support on Adolescent False Self Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Susan; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Hypothesized a model linking three perceived support variables--level of support, quality of support, and hope about future support--to false self-behaviors (not the "real me"). The best fitting model for the parent and peer data revealed that perceived quality and level of parental support predicted hope about future parental support,…

  20. RADIATION PRESSURE-SUPPORTED ACCRETION DISKS: VERTICAL STRUCTURE, ENERGY ADVECTION, AND CONVECTIVE STABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Weimin

    2012-07-10

    By taking into account the local energy balance per unit volume between the viscous heating and the advective cooling plus the radiative cooling, we investigate the vertical structure of radiation pressure-supported accretion disks in spherical coordinates. Our solutions show that the photosphere of the disk is close to the polar axis and therefore the disk seems to be extremely thick. However, the density profile implies that most of the accreted matter exists in a moderate range around the equatorial plane. We show that the well-known polytropic relation between the pressure and the density is unsuitable for describing the vertical structure of radiation pressure-supported disks. More importantly, we find that the energy advection is significant even for slightly sub-Eddington accretion disks. We argue that the non-negligible advection may help us understand why the standard thin disk model is likely to be inaccurate above {approx}0.3 Eddington luminosity, which was found by some works on black hole spin measurement. Furthermore, the solutions satisfy the Solberg-Hoiland conditions, which indicate the disk to be convectively stable. In addition, we discuss the possible link between our disk model and ultraluminous X-ray sources.

  1. Data publication with the structural biology data grid supports live analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Meyer, Peter A.; Socias, Stephanie; Key, Jason; ...

    2016-03-07

    Access to experimental X-ray diffraction image data is fundamental for validation and reproduction of macromolecular models and indispensable for development of structural biology processing methods. Here, we established a diffraction data publication and dissemination system, Structural Biology Data Grid (SBDG; data.sbgrid.org), to preserve primary experimental data sets that support scientific publications. Data sets are accessible to researchers through a community driven data grid, which facilitates global data access. Our analysis of a pilot collection of crystallographic data sets demonstrates that the information archived by SBDG is sufficient to reprocess data to statistics that meet or exceed the quality of themore » original published structures. SBDG has extended its services to the entire community and is used to develop support for other types of biomedical data sets. In conclusion, it is anticipated that access to the experimental data sets will enhance the paradigm shift in the community towards a much more dynamic body of continuously improving data analysis.« less

  2. 3LGM(2)-Modelling to Support Management of Health Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Winter, Alfred; Brigl, Birgit; Funkat, Gert; Häber, Anke; Heller, Oliver; Wendt, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Both regional health information systems and hospital information systems need systematic information management. Due to their complexity information management needs a thorough description or model of the managed HIS. The three layer graph based meta model (3LGM(2)) and the 3LGM(2) tool provide means for effectively modeling HIS. The 3LGM(2) tool has been used to build a model of the health information system of the German federal state Saxony. The model is not only used to support the further development of the Saxonian health information system but also for supporting strategic information management planning in the medical center of Leipzig University. Acceptance of the method depends strictly on its integration in management structures on the institutional, regional, national or even European level.

  3. Fabrication of stable lightweight Be-38Al optics and optical support structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardesty, Robert; Parker, Kelsey

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes recent aerospace applications where Be-38Al (AlBeMet) has been successfully applied to produce optics and stable support structures. The information presented touches on historical uses of beryllium and beryllium-aluminum in satellite optical systems, and then presents recent uses and developments of Be-38Al and its application to optical substrates and stable support structures.

  4. The Effects of Procedural Structure and Computer Support Upon Selecting a Tactical Course of Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    ones not judged critical by the expert panel Critical Events Unspecified Structured Computer - (n =1) (n=5) supported (n-=-4) Penetrate enemy 1st...war gaming factors Objective Factors 1COA Experts Structured Computer - Supported North 341 130 (75) 104 (73) Friendly n--5_ n----3 Equipment South 327

  5. A flexible and efficient multi-model framework in support of water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfs, Vincent; Tran Quoc, Quan; Willems, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Flexible, fast and accurate water quantity models are essential tools in support of water management. Adjustable levels of model detail and the ability to handle varying spatial and temporal resolutions are requisite model characteristics to ensure that such models can be employed efficiently in various applications. This paper uses a newly developed flexible modelling framework that aims to generate such models. The framework incorporates several approaches to model catchment hydrology, rivers and floodplains, and the urban drainage system by lumping processes on different levels. To illustrate this framework, a case study of integrated hydrological-hydraulic modelling is elaborated for the Grote Nete catchment in Belgium. Three conceptual rainfall-runoff models (NAM, PDM and VHM) were implemented in a generalized model structure, allowing flexibility in the spatial resolution by means of an innovative disaggregation/aggregation procedure. They were linked to conceptual hydraulic models of the rivers in the catchment, which were developed by means of an advanced model structure identification and calibration procedure. The conceptual models manage to emulate the simulation results of a detailed full hydrodynamic model accurately. The models configured using the approaches of this framework are well-suited for many applications in water management due to their very short calculation time, interfacing possibilities and adjustable level of detail.

  6. Bayesian Data-Model Fit Assessment for Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Bayesian approaches to modeling are receiving an increasing amount of attention in the areas of model construction and estimation in factor analysis, structural equation modeling (SEM), and related latent variable models. However, model diagnostics and model criticism remain relatively understudied aspects of Bayesian SEM. This article describes…

  7. Structural and Functional Support in the Prediction of Smoking Cessation in Caregivers of Children with Asthma.

    PubMed

    Tooley, Erin M; Busch, Andrew; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Borrelli, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Caregivers of children with asthma smoke at rates similar to the general population. Research on the relative importance of structural or functional social support in smoking cessation has been mixed. Participants were smokers (N = 154) who were caregivers of children with asthma. Both functional (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List) and structural social support (living with another smoker, partner status, and the proportion of smoking friends) were measured at baseline. Participants received an asthma-education and smoking cessation intervention based on Motivational Interviewing. Biochemically-verified abstinence was assessed at six months post treatment. Results indicated that functional support predicted smoking abstinence even when controlling for relevant covariates and structural support (OR = .896, p = .025). Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was driven primarily by the self-esteem ISEL subscale. Smoking cessation that focuses on building general functional support, particularly self-esteem support, may be beneficial for smoking cessation in caregivers of children with asthma.

  8. Social Support and Psychological Adjustment Among Latinas With Arthritis: A Test of a Theoretical Model

    PubMed Central

    Abraído-Lanza, Ana F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Among people coping with chronic illness, tangible social support sometimes has unintended negative consequences on the recipient’s psychological health. Identity processes may help explain these effects. Individuals derive self-worth and a sense of competence by enacting social roles that are central to the self-concept. Purpose This study tested a model drawing from some of these theoretical propositions. The central hypothesis was that tangible support in fulfilling a highly valued role undermines self-esteem and a sense of self-efficacy, which, in turn, affect psychological adjustment Methods Structured interviews were conducted with 98 Latina women with arthritis who rated the homemaker identity as being of central importance to the self-concept. Results A path analysis indicated that, contrary to predictions, tangible housework support was related to less psychological distress. Emotional support predicted greater psychological well-being. These relationships were not mediated by self-esteem or self-efficacy. Qualitative data revealed that half of the sample expressed either ambivalent or negative feelings about receiving housework support Conclusions Results may reflect social and cultural norms concerning the types of support that are helpful and appropriate from specific support providers. Future research should consider the cultural meaning and normative context of the support transaction. This study contributes to scarce literatures on the mechanisms that mediate the relationship between social support and adjustment, as well as illness and psychosocial adaptation among Latina women with chronic illness. PMID:15184092

  9. Torque sensor having a spoked sensor element support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Boris J. (Inventor); Schier, J. Alan (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Piezoelectric sensor devices are attached across pairs of circularly arranged spokes arrayed on the periphery of an annular ring. The sensor devices each include a preloaded steel ball mounting arrangement for mounting a piezoelectric sensor element. A first circular interface plate on one side of the sensor structure attaches to alternate one of the spokes, and a circular interface plate on the opposite side of the same diameter as the first interface plate attaches to the remaining spokes.

  10. Using support vector machines to improve elemental ion identification in macromolecular crystal structures

    DOE PAGES

    Morshed, Nader; Echols, Nathaniel; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-04-25

    In the process of macromolecular model building, crystallographers must examine electron density for isolated atoms and differentiate sites containing structured solvent molecules from those containing elemental ions. This task requires specific knowledge of metal-binding chemistry and scattering properties and is prone to error. A method has previously been described to identify ions based on manually chosen criteria for a number of elements. Here, the use of support vector machines (SVMs) to automatically classify isolated atoms as either solvent or one of various ions is described. Two data sets of protein crystal structures, one containing manually curated structures deposited with anomalousmore » diffraction data and another with automatically filtered, high-resolution structures, were constructed. On the manually curated data set, an SVM classifier was able to distinguish calcium from manganese, zinc, iron and nickel, as well as all five of these ions from water molecules, with a high degree of accuracy. Additionally, SVMs trained on the automatically curated set of high-resolution structures were able to successfully classify most common elemental ions in an independent validation test set. This method is readily extensible to other elemental ions and can also be used in conjunction with previous methods based on a priori expectations of the chemical environment and X-ray scattering.« less

  11. Using support vector machines to improve elemental ion identification in macromolecular crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Morshed, Nader; Echols, Nathaniel; Adams, Paul D.

    2015-04-25

    In the process of macromolecular model building, crystallographers must examine electron density for isolated atoms and differentiate sites containing structured solvent molecules from those containing elemental ions. This task requires specific knowledge of metal-binding chemistry and scattering properties and is prone to error. A method has previously been described to identify ions based on manually chosen criteria for a number of elements. Here, the use of support vector machines (SVMs) to automatically classify isolated atoms as either solvent or one of various ions is described. Two data sets of protein crystal structures, one containing manually curated structures deposited with anomalous diffraction data and another with automatically filtered, high-resolution structures, were constructed. On the manually curated data set, an SVM classifier was able to distinguish calcium from manganese, zinc, iron and nickel, as well as all five of these ions from water molecules, with a high degree of accuracy. Additionally, SVMs trained on the automatically curated set of high-resolution structures were able to successfully classify most common elemental ions in an independent validation test set. This method is readily extensible to other elemental ions and can also be used in conjunction with previous methods based on a priori expectations of the chemical environment and X-ray scattering.

  12. Using support vector machines to improve elemental ion identification in macromolecular crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Nader; Echols, Nathaniel; Adams, Paul D

    2015-05-01

    In the process of macromolecular model building, crystallographers must examine electron density for isolated atoms and differentiate sites containing structured solvent molecules from those containing elemental ions. This task requires specific knowledge of metal-binding chemistry and scattering properties and is prone to error. A method has previously been described to identify ions based on manually chosen criteria for a number of elements. Here, the use of support vector machines (SVMs) to automatically classify isolated atoms as either solvent or one of various ions is described. Two data sets of protein crystal structures, one containing manually curated structures deposited with anomalous diffraction data and another with automatically filtered, high-resolution structures, were constructed. On the manually curated data set, an SVM classifier was able to distinguish calcium from manganese, zinc, iron and nickel, as well as all five of these ions from water molecules, with a high degree of accuracy. Additionally, SVMs trained on the automatically curated set of high-resolution structures were able to successfully classify most common elemental ions in an independent validation test set. This method is readily extensible to other elemental ions and can also be used in conjunction with previous methods based on a priori expectations of the chemical environment and X-ray scattering.

  13. [Preparation and structural analysis of diatomite-supported SPFS flocculant].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huai-li; Fang, Hui-li; Jiang, Shao-jie; Yang, Chun; Ma, Jiang-ya; Zhang, Zhao-qing

    2011-07-01

    In the presetn study, polymerized ferric sulphate (PFS) flocculant was prepared and tested. In the preparation of PFS flocculant, industrial by-product ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (FeSO4.7H2O) was reused as the main material. By composition with diatomite and drying up at certain temperature in vacuum drying oven, solid PFS flocculant was produced. Structural characteristics of the new flocculant product were examined through infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed that by compositing with diatomite, new group bridging emerged in the structure of PFS, which made the bond of groups stronger. In addition, part of the metalic contents in diatomite was polymerized with PFS, the product of which was polymerized ferric complex. Furthermore, the absorbing and agglomerating capacity of the diatomite carrier was significant. Considering the factors listed above, the new solid polymerized ferric sulphate (SPFS) flocculant was characterized with a larger molecule structure and enhanced absorbing, bridging and rolling sweep capacities. Through orthogonal experiment, optimum conditions of synthesis were as follows: the ratio of FeSO4.7H2O/diatomite in weight was 43/1, the reaction time is 1 h and the reaction temperature is 55 degrees C. By wastewater treatment experiment, it was found that the synthetic products showed good flocculation performance in the treatment of domestic sewage, the removal of COD was 80.00% and the removal of turbidity was 99.98%.

  14. Modeling, Analysis, and Optimization Issues for Large Space Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinson, L. D. (Compiler); Amos, A. K. (Compiler); Venkayya, V. B. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Topics concerning the modeling, analysis, and optimization of large space structures are discussed including structure-control interaction, structural and structural dynamics modeling, thermal analysis, testing, and design.

  15. Multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy study of supported vanadia catalysts: Structure identification and quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zili

    2014-10-20

    Revealing the structure of supported metal oxide catalysts is a prerequisite for establishing the structure - catalysis relationship. Among a variety of characterization techniques, multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy, combining resonance Raman and non-resonance Raman with different excitation wavelengths, has recently emerged as a particularly powerful tool in not only identifying but also quantifying the structure of supported metal oxide clusters. In our review, we make use of two supported vanadia systems, VOx/SiO2 and VOx/CeO2, as examples to showcase how one can employ this technique to investigate the heterogeneous structure of active oxide clusters and to understand the complex interaction between the oxide clusters and the support. Moreover, the qualitative and quantitative structural information gained from the multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy can be utilized to provide fundamental insights for designing more efficient supported metal oxide catalysts.

  16. Multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy study of supported vanadia catalysts: Structure identification and quantification

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Zili

    2014-10-20

    Revealing the structure of supported metal oxide catalysts is a prerequisite for establishing the structure - catalysis relationship. Among a variety of characterization techniques, multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy, combining resonance Raman and non-resonance Raman with different excitation wavelengths, has recently emerged as a particularly powerful tool in not only identifying but also quantifying the structure of supported metal oxide clusters. In our review, we make use of two supported vanadia systems, VOx/SiO2 and VOx/CeO2, as examples to showcase how one can employ this technique to investigate the heterogeneous structure of active oxide clusters and to understand the complex interaction between themore » oxide clusters and the support. Moreover, the qualitative and quantitative structural information gained from the multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy can be utilized to provide fundamental insights for designing more efficient supported metal oxide catalysts.« less

  17. The Structural Relationships of Social Support, Mother's Psychological Status, and Maternal Sensitivity to Attachment Security in Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Byeong Seok

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how social support, mother's psychological status, and maternal sensitivity affected attachment security in children with disabilities by using the structural equation model (SEM). Subjects were 141 pairs of children with disabilities and theirs mothers. Empirical data was obtained through a series of…

  18. Two Models of Magnetic Support for Photoevaporated Molecular Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D; Kane, J; Mizuta, A; Pound, M; Remington, B

    2004-05-05

    The thermal pressure inside molecular clouds is insufficient for maintaining the pressure balance at an ablation front at the cloud surface illuminated by nearby UV stars. Most probably, the required stiffness is provided by the magnetic pressure. After surveying existing models of this type, we concentrate on two of them: the model of a quasi-homogeneous magnetic field and the recently proposed model of a ''magnetostatic turbulence''. We discuss observational consequences of the two models, in particular, the structure and the strength of the magnetic field inside the cloud and in the ionized outflow. We comment on the possible role of reconnection events and their observational signatures. We mention laboratory experiments where the most significant features of the models can be tested.

  19. Overview of Climate Services Structures in Support of Societal Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, T.

    2008-12-01

    Clear, timely, and accurate climate data and information that frame the influence of climate variability and change are in strong demand by many sectors and user groups. Yet the practices and tools required to meet this demand are fragmented across many entities. This session overview will lay out current and evolving organizational models of climate services developed to meet user needs in a systematic fashion. Such models generally adhere to thematic and/or sectoral emphases, with attention to climate information delivery and assessments directed at mitigation and adaptation responses.

  20. Operations and support cost modeling using Markov chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit

    1989-01-01

    Systems for future missions will be selected with life cycle costs (LCC) as a primary evaluation criterion. This reflects the current realization that only systems which are considered affordable will be built in the future due to the national budget constaints. Such an environment calls for innovative cost modeling techniques which address all of the phases a space system goes through during its life cycle, namely: design and development, fabrication, operations and support; and retirement. A significant portion of the LCC for reusable systems are generated during the operations and support phase (OS). Typically, OS costs can account for 60 to 80 percent of the total LCC. Clearly, OS costs are wholly determined or at least strongly influenced by decisions made during the design and development phases of the project. As a result OS costs need to be considered and estimated early in the conceptual phase. To be effective, an OS cost estimating model needs to account for actual instead of ideal processes by associating cost elements with probabilities. One approach that may be suitable for OS cost modeling is the use of the Markov Chain Process. Markov chains are an important method of probabilistic analysis for operations research analysts but they are rarely used for life cycle cost analysis. This research effort evaluates the use of Markov Chains in LCC analysis by developing OS cost model for a hypothetical reusable space transportation vehicle (HSTV) and suggests further uses of the Markov Chain process as a design-aid tool.

  1. A scheme for supporting distributed data structures on multicomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiranandani, Seema; Saltz, Joel; Berryman, Harry; Mehrotra, Piyush

    1990-01-01

    A data migration mechanism is proposed that allows an explicit and controlled mapping of data to memory. While read or write copies of each data element can be assigned to any processor's memory, longer term storage of each data element is assigned to a specific location in the memory of a particular processor. The proposed integration of a data migration scheme with a compiler is able to eliminate the migration of unneeded data that can occur in multiprocessor paging or caching. The overhead of adjudicating multiple concurrent writes to the same page or cache line is also eliminated. Data is presented that suggests that the scheme may be a pratical method for efficiently supporting data migration.

  2. A genetic algorithm for first principles global structure optimization of supported nano structures

    SciTech Connect

    Vilhelmsen, Lasse B.; Hammer, Bjørk

    2014-07-28

    We present a newly developed publicly available genetic algorithm (GA) for global structure optimisation within atomic scale modeling. The GA is focused on optimizations using first principles calculations, but it works equally well with empirical potentials. The implementation is described and benchmarked through a detailed statistical analysis employing averages across many independent runs of the GA. This analysis focuses on the practical use of GA’s with a description of optimal parameters to use. New results for the adsorption of M{sub 8} clusters (M = Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Pt, Au) on the stoichiometric rutile TiO{sub 2}(110) surface are presented showing the power of automated structure prediction and highlighting the diversity of metal cluster geometries at the atomic scale.

  3. Intrinsic bioremediation modeling to support Superfund site closure

    SciTech Connect

    Bedard, A.H.; Day, M.J.; Johnson, R.H.; Ritter, K.J.; Stancel, S.G.; Thomson, J.A.M.

    1997-09-01

    Closure of the groundwater component of a major Superfund site has been accomplished by a combination of source control, engineered in-situ bioremediation, and subsequent long-term intrinsic bioremediation. Engineered bioremediation outside the source control area resulted in very significant contaminant mass removal. This allowed intrinsic bioremediation to be considered as a passive remedial management method of achieving cleanup objectives after active remediation needed. Modeling demonstrated that intrinsic bioremediation would achieve cleanup objectives (for this site, Federal drinking water standards) within ten years of shutdown of the active bioremediation system. Modeling showed that residual electron acceptors and nutrients distributed in the aquifer during engineered bioremediation greatly enhance the intrinsic bioremediation process. The results of the modeling effort led to the active system being shut down a year ahead of schedule, allowing the project to move into a low-maintenance intrinsic bioremediation and long-term monitoring phase. The modeling demonstration coupled Visual MODFLOW{copyright} and BioTrans{copyright} to simulate groundwater flow, solute transport, and oxygen-limited, multi-species biodegradation. Regional flow evaluation, detailed model sensitivity analyses, and subarea modeling were employed to provide support to model predictions. Predictions will be tested by subsequent progress and compliance monitoring. Site closure began in early 1996.

  4. Bridging groundwater models and decision support with a Bayesian network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Masterson, John P.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Thieler, E. Robert

    2013-01-01

    Resource managers need to make decisions to plan for future environmental conditions, particularly sea level rise, in the face of substantial uncertainty. Many interacting processes factor in to the decisions they face. Advances in process models and the quantification of uncertainty have made models a valuable tool for this purpose. Long-simulation runtimes and, often, numerical instability make linking process models impractical in many cases. A method for emulating the important connections between model input and forecasts, while propagating uncertainty, has the potential to provide a bridge between complicated numerical process models and the efficiency and stability needed for decision making. We explore this using a Bayesian network (BN) to emulate a groundwater flow model. We expand on previous approaches to validating a BN by calculating forecasting skill using cross validation of a groundwater model of Assateague Island in Virginia and Maryland, USA. This BN emulation was shown to capture the important groundwater-flow characteristics and uncertainty of the groundwater system because of its connection to island morphology and sea level. Forecast power metrics associated with the validation of multiple alternative BN designs guided the selection of an optimal level of BN complexity. Assateague island is an ideal test case for exploring a forecasting tool based on current conditions because the unique hydrogeomorphological variability of the island includes a range of settings indicative of past, current, and future conditions. The resulting BN is a valuable tool for exploring the response of groundwater conditions to sea level rise in decision support.

  5. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model.

  6. SSME structural dynamic model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, M. J.; Tilley, D. M.; Welch, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) as a complete assembly, with detailed emphasis on LOX and High Fuel Turbopumps is developed. The advantages of both complete engine dynamics, and high fidelity modeling are incorporated. Development of this model, some results, and projected applications are discussed.

  7. [Age-related characteristics of structural support for ovarian function].

    PubMed

    Koval'skiĭ, G B

    1984-12-01

    Histoenzymological assay was used to investigate various structures of the ovaries of rats of two groups aged 3-4 and 12-14 months during estral cycle. The activity of 3 beta-, 17 beta- and 20 alpha-steroid dehydrogenases, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD and NADP-diaphorases, esterase, acid and alkaline phosphatases was studied. It has been shown that transport alterations in the microcirculation including the hematofollicular barrier play, the leading part in age-dependent depression of reproductive and endocrine functions. Ageing rats demonstrated no linkage between endothelial, thecal and granular cells, which points to the injury of the histophysiological mechanisms of the follicular system integration.

  8. Structural and Functional Support in the Prediction of Smoking Cessation in Caregivers of Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Andrew; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Borrelli, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    Caregivers of children with asthma smoke at a rate similar to the general population. Research on the relative importance of structural or functional social support in smoking cessation has been mixed. Participants were smokers (N=154) who were caregivers of children with asthma. Both functional (perception of social support measured by the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List) and structural social support (living with another smoker, partner status, and the proportion of smoking friends) were measured at baseline. Participants received an asthma-education and smoking cessation intervention based on Motivational Interviewing. Biochemically-verified abstinence was assessed at 6-months post treatment. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses indicated that functional support predicted smoking abstinence even when controlling for relevant covariates and structural support (OR = .896, p=.025). Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was driven primarily by the self-esteem ISEL subscale. Structural support (lower proportion of smoking friends), but not functional support, predicted making a 24-hour quit attempt (OR = 1.476, p=.031) but this effect became non-significant when the effect of functional support was accounted for. Smoking cessation that focuses on building general functional support, particularly self-esteem support, may be beneficial for smoking cessation in caregivers of children with asthma. PMID:24911559

  9. T:XML: A Tool Supporting User Interface Model Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Jaquero, Víctor; Montero, Francisco; González, Pascual

    Model driven development of user interfaces is based on the transformation of an abstract specification into the final user interface the user will interact with. The design of transformation rules to carry out this transformation process is a key issue in any model-driven user interface development approach. In this paper, we introduce T:XML, an integrated development environment for managing, creating and previewing transformation rules. The tool supports the specification of transformation rules by using a graphical notation that works on the basis of the transformation of the input model into a graph-based representation. T:XML allows the design and execution of transformation rules in an integrated development environment. Furthermore, the designer can also preview how the generated user interface looks like after the transformations have been applied. These previewing capabilities can be used to quickly create prototypes to discuss with the users in user-centered design methods.

  10. General KBE model with inheritance and multi CAD support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiuca, T. L.; Rusu, C.; Noveanu, S.; Mandru, D.

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge-Based Engineering (KBE) is a research field that studies methodologies and technologies for capture and re-use engineering knowledge. The primary objective of KBE is to reduce time and cost of product research processes and/or product development, which is primarily achieved through automation of repetitive design tasks while capturing, retaining and re-using engineering knowledge. Every CAD System includes KBE Tools. The power of these tools is incremented by the use of external high level programming language. The model presented in this paper has the aim to reduce times and costs of particular KBE Models development, by programming inheritance concepts and also the multi CAD Support. The model is implemented through a C# application that is also presented.

  11. Land Surface Emission Modeling to Support Physical Precipitation Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters-Lidard, Christina D.; Harrison, Kenneth; Kumar, Sujay; Ferraro, Ralph; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Land surface modeling and data assimilation can provide dynamic land surface state variables necessary to support physical precipitation retrieval algorithms over land. It is well-known that surface emission, particularly over the range of frequencies to be included in the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM), is sensitive to land surface states, including soil properties, vegetation type and greenness, soil moisture, surface temperature, and snow cover, density, and grain size. In order to investigate the robustness of both the land surface model states and the microwave emissivity and forward radiative transfer models, we have undertaken a multi-site investigation as part of the NASA Precipitation Measurement Missions (PMM) Land Surface Characterization. Working Group.

  12. FBST for covariance structures of generalized Gompertz models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maranhão, Viviane Teles de Lucca; Lauretto, Marcelo De Souza; Stern, Julio Michael

    2012-10-01

    The Gompertz distribution is commonly used in biology for modeling fatigue and mortality. This paper studies a class of models proposed by Adham and Walker, featuring a Gompertz type distribution where the dependence structure is modeled by a lognormal distribution, and develops a new multivariate formulation that facilitates several numerical and computational aspects. This paper also implements the FBST, the Full Bayesian Significance Test for pertinent sharp (precise) hypotheses on the lognormal covariance structure. The FBST's e-value, ev(H), gives the epistemic value of hypothesis, H, or the value of evidence in the observed in support of H.

  13. Sliding weight supports for W7-X magnet system: structural aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, V.; Fellinger, J.; Egorov, K.; Schauer, F.; Köppen, M.; Jenzsch, H.

    2015-05-01

    The Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator is presently under commissioning at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Greifswald. The coil system consisting of 70 superconducting coils of seven different types is supported by a massive central support structure (CSS), and thermally protected by the cryostat. The magnet system weight is borne by supports which are bolted to the cold CSS. These ten so-called cryo-legs penetrate through the cryostat wall to the warm machine base. The design of the cryo-legs incorporates glass-reinforced plastic tubes to guarantee relatively small thermal conductivity. In order to ensure free thermal shrinkage of the magnet system and to reduce stresses in the cryo-legs, sliding and rotating bearings are used as interfaces to the machine base. Tie-rods between the machine base and the warm ends of the cryo-legs prevent toroidal rotation of the magnet system, as well as any other horizontal shifts due to asymmetric loads. The assembly of the magnet system introduced some vertical imperfections in the cryo-leg positions causing considerable additional internal stresses which were not considered during the design stage. In addition, originally not planned trim coils induce unsymmetrical cyclic loads. Therefore, the previously used method to analyse one magnet system module with periodical boundary conditions is not applicable. Consequently, a model of the complete magnet system, including all five modules, was created and analysed. Fatigue analyses of the cryo-legs under the new cyclic loads, applied on top of the approximately 100 t static weight, have been performed in order to evaluate the lifetime. The paper presents the progress in structural analyses of the W7-X magnet system under the as-built conditions, loads due to the trim coil operation, and results of the weight support fatigue analysis.

  14. Emulation Modeling with Bayesian Networks for Efficient Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienen, M. N.; Masterson, J.; Plant, N. G.; Gutierrez, B. T.; Thieler, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    Bayesian decision networks (BDN) have long been used to provide decision support in systems that require explicit consideration of uncertainty; applications range from ecology to medical diagnostics and terrorism threat assessments. Until recently, however, few studies have applied BDNs to the study of groundwater systems. BDNs are particularly useful for representing real-world system variability by synthesizing a range of hydrogeologic situations within a single simulation. Because BDN output is cast in terms of probability—an output desired by decision makers—they explicitly incorporate the uncertainty of a system. BDNs can thus serve as a more efficient alternative to other uncertainty characterization methods such as computationally demanding Monte Carlo analyses and others methods restricted to linear model analyses. We present a unique application of a BDN to a groundwater modeling analysis of the hydrologic response of Assateague Island, Maryland to sea-level rise. Using both input and output variables of the modeled groundwater response to different sea-level (SLR) rise scenarios, the BDN predicts the probability of changes in the depth to fresh water, which exerts an important influence on physical and biological island evolution. Input variables included barrier-island width, maximum island elevation, and aquifer recharge. The variability of these inputs and their corresponding outputs are sampled along cross sections in a single model run to form an ensemble of input/output pairs. The BDN outputs, which are the posterior distributions of water table conditions for the sea-level rise scenarios, are evaluated through error analysis and cross-validation to assess both fit to training data and predictive power. The key benefit for using BDNs in groundwater modeling analyses is that they provide a method for distilling complex model results into predictions with associated uncertainty, which is useful to decision makers. Future efforts incorporate

  15. Structure formation in the quasispherical Szekeres model

    SciTech Connect

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2006-06-15

    Structure formation in the Szekeres model is investigated. Since the Szekeres model is an inhomogeneous model with no symmetries, it is possible to examine the interaction of neighboring structures and its impact on the growth of a density contrast. It has been found that the mass flow from voids to clusters enhances the growth of the density contrast. In the model presented here, the growth of the density contrast is almost 8 times faster than in the linear approach.

  16. Spatiotemporal Organization of Spin-Coated Supported Model Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    All cells of living organisms are separated from their surroundings and organized internally by means of flexible lipid membranes. In fact, there is consensus that the minimal requirements for self-replicating life processes include the following three features: (1) information carriers (DNA, RNA), (2) a metabolic system, and (3) encapsulation in a container structure [1]. Therefore, encapsulation can be regarded as an essential part of life itself. In nature, membranes are highly diverse interfacial structures that compartmentalize cells [2]. While prokaryotic cells only have an outer plasma membrane and a less-well-developed internal membrane structure, eukaryotic cells have a number of internal membranes associated with the organelles and the nucleus. Many of these membrane structures, including the plasma membrane, are complex layered systems, but with the basic structure of a lipid bilayer. Biomembranes contain hundreds of different lipid species in addition to embedded or peripherally associated membrane proteins and connections to scaffolds such as the cytoskeleton. In vitro, lipid bilayers are spontaneously self-organized structures formed by a large group of amphiphilic lipid molecules in aqueous suspensions. Bilayer formation is driven by the entropic properties of the hydrogen bond network in water in combination with the amphiphilic nature of the lipids. The molecular shapes of the lipid constituents play a crucial role in bilayer formation, and only lipids with approximately cylindrical shapes are able to form extended bilayers. The bilayer structure of biomembranes was discovered by Gorter and Grendel in 1925 [3] using monolayer studies of lipid extracts from red blood cells. Later, a number of conceptual models were developed to rationalize the organization of lipids and proteins in biological membranes. One of the most celebrated is the fluid-mosaic model by Singer and Nicolson (1972) [4]. According to this model, the lipid bilayer component of

  17. Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds for Ground Support Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery Eliza L.; Calle, Luz, Marina; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The need to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. CPCs are used as temporary protective coatings and must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different oily film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing. The results for the fifteen CPC systems are presented in this paper.

  18. Distributed Hydrologic Modeling Apps for Decision Support in the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, N. R.; Latu, K.; Christiensen, S.; Jones, N.; Nelson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Advances in computation resources and greater availability of water resources data represent an untapped resource for addressing hydrologic uncertainties in water resources decision-making. The current practice of water authorities relies on empirical, lumped hydrologic models to estimate watershed response. These models are not capable of taking advantage of many of the spatial datasets that are now available. Physically-based, distributed hydrologic models are capable of using these data resources and providing better predictions through stochastic analysis. However, there exists a digital divide that discourages many science-minded decision makers from using distributed models. This divide can be spanned using a combination of existing web technologies. The purpose of this presentation is to present a cloud-based environment that will offer hydrologic modeling tools or 'apps' for decision support and the web technologies that have been selected to aid in its implementation. Compared to the more commonly used lumped-parameter models, distributed models, while being more intuitive, are still data intensive, computationally expensive, and difficult to modify for scenario exploration. However, web technologies such as web GIS, web services, and cloud computing have made the data more accessible, provided an inexpensive means of high-performance computing, and created an environment for developing user-friendly apps for distributed modeling. Since many water authorities are primarily interested in the scenario exploration exercises with hydrologic models, we are creating a toolkit that facilitates the development of a series of apps for manipulating existing distributed models. There are a number of hurdles that cloud-based hydrologic modeling developers face. One of these is how to work with the geospatial data inherent with this class of models in a web environment. Supporting geospatial data in a website is beyond the capabilities of standard web frameworks and it

  19. Adhesion and Atomic Structures of Gold on Ceria Nanostructures: The Role of Surface Structure and Oxidation State of Ceria Supports.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuyuan; Wu, Zili; Wen, Jianguo; Ding, Kunlun; Yang, Xiaoyun; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R; Marks, Laurence D

    2015-08-12

    We report an aberration-corrected electron microscopy analysis of the adhesion and atomic structures of gold nanoparticle catalysts supported on ceria nanocubes and nanorods. Under oxidative conditions, the as-prepared gold nanoparticles on the ceria nanocubes have extended atom layers at the metal-support interface. In contrast, regular gold nanoparticles and rafts are present on the ceria nanorod supports. Under the reducing conditions of water-gas shift reaction, the extended gold atom layers and rafts vanish. In addition, the gold particles on the nanocubes change in morphology and increase in size while those on the nanorods are almost unchanged. The size, morphology, and atomic interface structures of gold strongly depend on the surface structures of ceria supports ((100) surface versus (111) surface) and the reaction environment (reductive versus oxidative). These findings provide insights into the deactivation mechanisms and the shape-dependent catalysis of oxide supported metal catalysts.

  20. A Navigation Safety Support Model for the Strait of Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazici, M. Anil; Otay, Emre N.

    In this study, a real time maritime traffic support model is developed for safe navigation in the Strait of Istanbul, also known as the Bosporus. The present model simulates vessel trajectories corresponding to possible headings, using channel geometry, counter traffic, and surface currents as input. A new MATLAB code is developed for the simulation and the Marine GNC Toolbox (Fossen and Perez, 2004) is used for the vessel hydrodynamics and the auto-pilot model. After computing the trajectory tree of the vessel by forward-mapping its position distribution with respect to the initial position vector, the casualty probabilities of each trajectory are found. Within certain restrictions on vessel geometry, the proposed model predicts the safest possible intended course for the transit vessels based on the navigational parameters including position, speed, and course of the vessel. The model is tested for the Strait of Istanbul for validation. Without loss of generality, the model can be used for any narrow channel with a vessel traffic system providing the necessary input.

  1. Modeling snail breeding in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..

    It is known that snail meat is a high quality food that is rich in protein. Hence, heliciculture or land snail farming spreads worldwide because it is a profitable business. The possibility to use the snails of Helix pomatia in Biological Life Support System (BLSS) was studied by Japanese Researches. In that study land snails were considered to be producers of animal protein. Also, snail breeding was an important part of waste processing, because snails were capable to eat the inedible plant biomass. As opposed to the agricultural snail farming, heliciculture in BLSS should be more carefully planned. The purpose of our work was to develop a model for snail breeding in BLSS that can predict mass flow rates in and out of snail facility. There are three linked parts in the model called “Stoichiometry”, “Population” and “Mass balance”, which are used in turn. Snail population is divided into 12 age groups from oviposition to one year. In the submodel “Stoichiometry” the individual snail growth and metabolism in each of 12 age groups are described with stoichiometry equations. Reactants are written on the left side of the equations, while products are written on the right side. Stoichiometry formulas of reactants and products consist of four chemical elements: C, H, O, N. The reactants are feed and oxygen, products are carbon dioxide, metabolic water, snail meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs. If formulas of substances in the stoichiometry equations are substituted with their molar masses, then stoichiometry equations are transformed to the equations of molar mass balance. To get the real mass balance of individual snail growth and metabolism one should multiply the value of each molar mass in the equations on the scale parameter, which is the ratio between mass of monthly consumed feed and molar mass of feed. Mass of monthly consumed feed and stoichiometry coefficients of formulas of meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs should be determined experimentally

  2. Quantifying Parsimony in Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2006-01-01

    Fitting propensity (FP) is defined as a model's average ability to fit diverse data patterns, all else being equal. The relevance of FP to model selection is examined in the context of structural equation modeling (SEM). In SEM it is well known that the number of free model parameters influences FP, but other facets of FP are routinely excluded…

  3. Archetype based patient data modeling to support treatment of pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Chalopin, Claire; Lindner, Dirk; Kropf, Stefan; Denecke, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of patients with pituitary adenoma requires the assessment of various patient data by the clinician. Because of their heterogeneity, they are stored in different sub-information systems, limiting a fast and easy access. The objective of this paper is to apply and test the tools provided by the openEHR Foundation to model the patient data relevant for diagnosis and treatment of the disease with the future intention to implement a centralised standard-based information platform. This platform should support the clinician in the treatment of the disease and improve the information exchange with other healthcare institutions. Some results of the domain modeling, so far obtained, are presented, and the advantages of openEHR emphasized. The free tools and the large database of existing structured and standard archetypes facilitated the modeling task. The separation of the domain modeling from the application development will support the next step of development of the information platform.

  4. The European ALMA Regional Centre Network: A Geographically Distributed User Support Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatziminaoglou, E.; Zwaan, M.; Andreani, P.; Barta, M.; Bertoldi, F.; Brand, J.; Gueth, F.; Hogerheijde, M.; Maercker, M.; Massardi, M.; Muehle, S.; Muxlow, Th.; Richards, A.; Schilke, P.; Tilanus, R.; Vlemmings, W.; Afonso, J.; Messias, H.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years there has been a paradigm shift from centralised to geographically distributed resources. Individual entities are no longer able to host or afford the necessary expertise in-house, and, as a consequence, society increasingly relies on widespread collaborations. Although such collaborations are now the norm for scientific projects, more technical structures providing support to a distributed scientific community without direct financial or other material benefits are scarce. The network of European ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) nodes is an example of such an internationally distributed user support network. It is an organised effort to provide the European ALMA user community with uniform expert support to enable optimal usage and scientific output of the ALMA facility. The network model for the European ARC nodes is described in terms of its organisation, communication strategies and user support.

  5. Supporting SBML as a model exchange format in software applications.

    PubMed

    Keating, Sarah M; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) from its origins. It describes the rationale behind and importance of having a common language when it comes to representing models. This chapter mentions the development of SBML and outlines the structure of an SBML model. It provides a section on libSBML, a useful application programming interface (API) library for reading, writing, manipulating and validating content expressed in the SBML format. Finally the chapter also provides a description of the SBML Toolbox which provides a means of facilitating the import and export of SBML from both MATLAB and Octave ( http://www.gnu.org/software/octave/) environments.

  6. Mass balances for a biological life support system simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler; Rumel, John D.

    1987-01-01

    Design decisions to aid the development of future space-based biological life support systems (BLSS) can be made with simulation models. Here the biochemical stoichiometry is developed for: (1) protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber, and lignin production in the edible and inedible parts of plants; (2) food consumption and production of organic solids in urine, feces, and wash water by the humans; and (3) operation of the waste processor. Flux values for all components are derived for a steady-state system with wheat as the sole food source.

  7. Computational Science Research in Support of Petascale Electromagnetic Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.-Q.; Akcelik, V; Ge, L; Chen, S; Schussman, G; Candel, A; Li, Z; Xiao, L; Kabel, A; Uplenchwar, R; Ng, C; Ko, K; /SLAC

    2008-06-20

    Computational science research components were vital parts of the SciDAC-1 accelerator project and are continuing to play a critical role in newly-funded SciDAC-2 accelerator project, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS). Recent advances and achievements in the area of computational science research in support of petascale electromagnetic modeling for accelerator design analysis are presented, which include shape determination of superconducting RF cavities, mesh-based multilevel preconditioner in solving highly-indefinite linear systems, moving window using h- or p- refinement for time-domain short-range wakefield calculations, and improved scalable application I/O.

  8. Advancing LGBT Elder Policy and Support Services: The Massachusetts Model.

    PubMed

    Krinsky, Lisa; Cahill, Sean

    2017-04-04

    The Massachusetts-based LGBT Aging Project has trained elder service providers in affirming and culturally competent care for LGBT older adults, supported development of LGBT-friendly meal programs, and advanced LGBT equality under aging policy. Working across sectors, this innovative model launched the country's first statewide Legislative Commission on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Aging. Advocates are working with policymakers to implement key recommendations, including cultural competency training and data collection in statewide networks of elder services. The LGBT Aging Project's success provides a template for improving services and policy for LGBT older adults throughout the country.

  9. [On hi-tech cardiologic care model in medical support of train operation safety].

    PubMed

    Pfaf, V F; Gorokhova, S G; Kotenko, V A

    2015-01-01

    The article covers hi-tech cardiologic care model in system of medical support of train operation safety, with definition of structure blocks in this model. Discussion covers peculiarities of the model functioning in comparison with the governmental system of hi-tech medical care, including its closed cycle principle characteristics, wide patients selection among railway workers, continuous and close cooperation between various medical speicalities, with active involvement of occupational fitness specialists (medical examination committees of various levels, including Central Medical Examination Committee), major extent of interventional rentgenosurgical technologies applied in diseases without significant functional failure.

  10. A teaching model for truss structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigoni, Davide; Dal Corso, Francesco; Misseroni, Diego; Tommasini, Mirko

    2012-09-01

    A classroom demonstration model has been designed, machined and successfully tested in different learning environments to facilitate understanding of the mechanics of truss structures, in which struts are subject to purely axial load and deformation. Gaining confidence with these structures is crucial for the development of lattice models, which occur in many fields of physics and engineering.

  11. A Teaching Model for Truss Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigoni, Davide; Dal Corso, Francesco; Misseroni, Diego; Tommasini, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    A classroom demonstration model has been designed, machined and successfully tested in different learning environments to facilitate understanding of the mechanics of truss structures, in which struts are subject to purely axial load and deformation. Gaining confidence with these structures is crucial for the development of lattice models, which…

  12. Toward an Integrated Competence-Based System Supporting Lifelong Learning and Employability: Concepts, Model, and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yongwu; van der Klink, Marcel; Boon, Jo; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    Efficient and effective lifelong learning requires that people can make informed decisions about their continuous personal development in the different stages of their life. In this paper we state that lifelong learners need to be characterized as decision-makers. In order to improve the quality of their decisions, we propose the development of an integrated lifelong learning and employment support system, which traces learners’ competence development and provides a decision support environment. An abstract conceptual model has been developed and the main design ideas have been documented using Z notation. Moreover, we analyzed the main technical challenges for the realization of the target system: competence information fusion, decision analysis models, spatial indexing structures and browsing structures and visualization of competence-related information objects.

  13. Mathematical Modeling: A Structured Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anhalt, Cynthia Oropesa; Cortez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling, in which students use mathematics to explain or interpret physical, social, or scientific phenomena, is an essential component of the high school curriculum. The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) classify modeling as a K-12 standard for mathematical practice and as a conceptual category for high school…

  14. Structural models of FeSex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurmaev, E. Z.; Mc Leod, J. A.; Skorikov, N. A.; Finkelstein, L. D.; Moewes, A.; Korotin, M. A.; Izyumov, Yu A.; Xie, Y. L.; Wu, G.; Chen, X. H.

    2009-10-01

    Two different structural models for non-stoichiometric FeSex are examined and compared with soft x-ray spectroscopy findings for FeSex (x = 0.85, 0.50). A structural model of tetragonal FeSe with excess interstitial Fe gives better agreement with experiment than a structural model of tetragonal FeSe with Se vacancies. This interstitial Fe increases the number of 3d states at the Fermi level. We find evidence that large non-stoichiometric ratios of Fe:Se, such as that of FeSe0.50, yield clusters of pure Fe in the crystal structure.

  15. Making Risk Models Operational for Situational Awareness and Decision Support

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R.; Coles, Garill A.; Shoemaker, Steven V.

    2012-06-12

    Modernization of nuclear power operations control systems, in particular the move to digital control systems, creates an opportunity to modernize existing legacy infrastructure and extend plant life. We describe here decision support tools that allow the assessment of different facets of risk and support the optimization of available resources to reduce risk as plants are upgraded and maintained. This methodology could become an integrated part of the design review process and a part of the operations management systems. The methodology can be applied to the design of new reactors such as small nuclear reactors (SMR), and be helpful in assessing the risks of different configurations of the reactors. Our tool provides a low cost evaluation of alternative configurations and provides an expanded safety analysis by considering scenarios while early in the implementation cycle where cost impacts can be minimized. The effects of failures can be modeled and thoroughly vetted to understand their potential impact on risk. The process and tools presented here allow for an integrated assessment of risk by supporting traditional defense in depth approaches while taking into consideration the insertion of new digital instrument and control systems.

  16. Modelling and control of a rotor supported by magnetic bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurumoorthy, R.; Pradeep, A. K.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we develop a dynamical model of a rotor and the active magnetic bearings used to support the rotor. We use this model to develop a stable state feedback control of the magnetic bearing system. We present the development of a rigid body model of the rotor, utilizing both Rotation Matrices (Euler Angles) and Euler Parameters (Quaternions). In the latter half of the paper we develop a stable state feedback control of the actively controlled magnetic bearing to control the rotor position under inbalances. The control law developed takes into account the variation of the model with rotational speed. We show stability over the whole operating range of speeds for the magnetic bearing system. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the closed loop system performance. We develop the model of the magnetic bearing, and present two schemes for the excitation of the poles of the actively controlled magnetic bearing. We also present a scheme for averaging multiple sensor measurements and splitting the actuation forces amongst redundant actuators.

  17. Adolescent adjustment in the context of life change: the supportive role of parental structure provision.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Elizabeth S; Grolnick, Wendy S

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the associations among disruptive life events, supportive parenting practices, adolescent self-perceptions, and emotional outcomes. One-hundred and three 7th graders (68% minority, 32% European American) and their parents completed recent negative life events checklists. Parents also reported the total number of major transitions (changes in residences, schools, parent's romantic partners) that adolescents experienced since birth. Life events were related to lower adolescent-reported perceptions of competence and control, higher adolescent-reported depression and behavior problems, and higher parent-reported conduct problems. Regression analyses supported a mediational model in which competence and control perceptions explained relations between adolescent life events and symptomatology. Parental structure-the provision of clear, consistent and predictable rules and expectations-was associated with more adaptive adolescent functioning, especially among girls. Regressions indicated that structure related to higher perceptions of competence and control and fewer behavioral problems, even after accounting for the risk associated with negative life events and transitions.

  18. Mathematical modelling to support traceable dynamic calibration of pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, C.; Pennecchi, F.; Eichstädt, S.; Malengo, A.; Esward, T.; Smith, I.; Elster, C.; Knott, A.; Arrhén, F.; Lakka, A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper focuses on the mathematical modelling required to support the development of new primary standard systems for traceable calibration of dynamic pressure sensors. We address two fundamentally different approaches to realizing primary standards, specifically the shock tube method and the drop-weight method. Focusing on the shock tube method, the paper presents first results of system identification and discusses future experimental work that is required to improve the mathematical and statistical models. We use simulations to identify differences between the shock tube and drop-weight methods, to investigate sources of uncertainty in the system identification process and to assist experimentalists in designing the required measuring systems. We demonstrate the identification method on experimental results and draw conclusions.

  19. Evaluation of an Individual Placement and Support model (IPS) program.

    PubMed

    Lucca, Anna M; Henry, Alexis D; Banks, Steven; Simon, Lorna; Page, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    While randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have helped to establish Individual Placement and Support (IPS) programs as an evidence-based practice, it is important to evaluate whether "real world" IPS programs can be implemented with fidelity and achieve outcomes comparable to programs evaluated in RCTs. The current evaluation examined retrospectively employment outcomes for go participants from an IPS-model Services for Employment and Education (SEE) program in Massachusetts over a 4.5-year period. Evaluators accessed demographic, functioning, and employment data from three sources--SEE program records/database, clinical records, and the Massachusetts Department of Mental Health Client Tracking system. Results indicate that the SEE program maintained high IPS fidelity and achieved employment outcomes comparable or superior to other SE and IPS model programs described in the literature.

  20. Mass balances for a biological life support system simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler; Rummel, John D.

    1987-01-01

    Design decisions to aid the development of future space based biological life support systems (BLSS) can be made with simulation models. The biochemistry stoichiometry was developed for: (1) protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber, and lignin production in the edible and inedible parts of plants; (2) food consumption and production of organic solids in urine, feces, and wash water by the humans; and (3) operation of the waste processor. Flux values for all components are derived for a steady state system with wheat as the sole food source. The large scale dynamics of a materially closed (BLSS) computer model is described in a companion paper. An extension of this methodology can explore multifood systems and more complex biochemical dynamics while maintaining whole system closure as a focus.

  1. Combining decision support and image processing: a PROforma model.

    PubMed

    Sordo, M; Fox, J; Blum, C; Taylor, P; Lee, R; Alberdi, E

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses two important problems in medical image interpretation:(1) integration of numeric and symbolic information, (2) access to external sources of medical knowledge. We have developed a prototype in which image processing algorithms are combined with symbolic representations for reasoning, decision making and task management in an integrated, platform-independent system for the differential diagnosis of abnormalities in mammograms. The prototype is based on PROforma, a generic technology for building decision support systems based on clinical guidelines. The PROforma language defines a set of tasks, one of which, the enquiry, is used as means of interaction with the outside world. However, the current enquiry model has proved to be too limited for our purposes. In this paper we outline a more general model, which can be used as an interface between symbolic functions and image or other signal data.

  2. Advanced development of atmospheric models. [SEASAT Program support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesel, P. G.; Langland, R. A.; Stephens, P. L.; Welleck, R. E.; Wolff, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    A set of atmospheric analysis and prediction models was developed in support of the SEASAT Program existing objective analysis models which utilize a 125x125 polar stereographic grid of the Northern Hemisphere, which were modified in order to incorporate and assess the impact of (real or simulated) satellite data in the analysis of a two-day meteorological scenario in January 1979. Program/procedural changes included: (1) a provision to utilize winds in the sea level pressure and multi-level height analyses (1000-100 MBS); (2) The capability to perform a pre-analysis at two control levels (1000 MBS and 250 MBS); (3) a greater degree of wind- and mass-field coupling, especially at these controls levels; (4) an improved facility to bogus the analyses based on results of the preanalysis; and (5) a provision to utilize (SIRS) satellite thickness values and cloud motion vectors in the multi-level height analysis.

  3. An Interactive Design Space Supporting Development of Vehicle Architecture Concept Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-17

    ponents that are not designed to carry structural loads in the assembly, such as seats and other trim items. However, these inertial items have an...Denver, Colorado, USA IMECE2011-64510 AN INTERACTIVE DESIGN SPACE SUPPORTING DEVELOPMENT OF VEHICLE ARCHITECTURE CONCEPT MODELS Gary Osborne...early in the development cycle. Optimization taking place later in the cycle usually occurs at the detail design level, and tends to result in

  4. Three Dimensional Response Spectrum Soil Structure Modeling Versus Conceptual Understanding To Illustrate Seismic Response Of Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Touqan, Abdul Razzaq

    2008-07-08

    Present methods of analysis and mathematical modeling contain so many assumptions that separate them from reality and thus represent a defect in design which makes it difficult to analyze reasons of failure. Three dimensional (3D) modeling is so superior to 1D or 2D modeling, static analysis deviates from the true nature of earthquake load which is 'a dynamic punch', and conflicting assumptions exist between structural engineers (who assume flexible structures on rigid block foundations) and geotechnical engineers (who assume flexible foundations supporting rigid structures). Thus a 3D dynamic soil-structure interaction is a step that removes many of the assumptions and thus clears reality to a greater extent. However such a model cannot be analytically analyzed. We need to anatomize and analogize it. The paper will represent a conceptual (analogical) 1D model for soil structure interaction and clarifies it by comparing its outcome with 3D dynamic soil-structure finite element analysis of two structures. The aim is to focus on how to calculate the period of the structure and to investigate effect of variation of stiffness on soil-structure interaction.

  5. Modelling Vague Knowledge for Decision Support in Planning Archaeological Prospections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boos, S.; Hornung, S.; Müller, H.

    2012-07-01

    Most archaeological predictive models lack significance because fuzziness of data and uncertainty in knowledge about human behaviour and natural processes are hardly ever considered. One possibility to cope with such uncertainties is utilization of probability based approaches like Bayes Theorem or Dempster-Shafer-Theory. We analyzed an area of 50 km2 in Rhineland Palatinate (Germany) near a Celtic oppidum by use of Dempster-Shafer's theory of evidence for predicting spatial probability distribution of archaeological sites. This technique incorporates uncertainty by assigning various weights of evidence to defined variables, in that way estimating the probability for supporting a specific hypothesis (in our case the hypothesis presence or absence of a site). Selection of variables for our model relied both on assumptions about settlement patterns and on statistically tested relationships between known archaeological sites and environmental factors. The modelling process was conducted in a Geographic Information System (GIS) by generating raster-based likelihood surfaces. The corresponding likelihood surfaces were aggregated to a final weight of evidence surface, which resulted in a likelihood value for every single cell of being a site or a non-site. Finally the result was tested against a database of known archaeological sites for evaluating the gain of the model. For the purpose of enhancing the gain of our model and sharpening our criteria we used a two-step approach to improve the modelling of former settlement strategies in our study area. Applying the developed model finally yielded a 100 percent success rate of known archaeological sites located in predicted high potential areas.

  6. Breaking wave impact forces on truss support structures for offshore wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieślikiewicz, Witold; Gudmestad, Ove T.; Podrażka, Olga

    2014-05-01

    Due to depletion of the conventional energy sources, wind energy is becoming more popular these days. Wind energy is being produced mostly from onshore farms, but there is a clear tendency to transfer wind farms to the sea. The foundations of offshore wind turbines may be truss structures and might be located in shallow water, where are subjected to highly varying hydrodynamic loads, particularly from plunging breaking waves. There are models for impact forces prediction on monopiles. Typically the total wave force on slender pile from breaking waves is a superposition of slowly varying quasi-static force, calculated from the Morison equation and additional dynamical, short duration force due to the impact of the breaker front or breaker tongue. There is not much research done on the truss structures of wind turbines and there are still uncertainties on slamming wave forces, due to plunging breaking waves on those structures. Within the WaveSlam (Wave slamming forces on truss structures in shallow water) project the large scale tests were carried out in 2013 at the Large Wave Flume in Forschungszentrum Küste (FZK) in Hannover, Germany. The following institutions participated in this initiative: the University of Stavanger and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (project management), University of Gdańsk, Poland, Hamburg University of Technology and the University of Rostock, Germany and Reinertsen AS, Norway. This work was supported by the EU 7th Framework Programme through the grant to the budget of the Integrating Activity HYDRALAB IV. The main aim of the experiment was to investigate the wave slamming forces on truss structures, development of new and improvement of existing methods to calculate forces from the plunging breakers. The majority of the measurements were carried out for regular waves with specified frequencies and wave heights as well as for the irregular waves based on JONSWAP spectrum. The truss structure was equipped with both

  7. Model verification of large structural systems. [space shuttle model response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. T.; Hasselman, T. K.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program for the application of parameter identification on the structural dynamic models of space shuttle and other large models with hundreds of degrees of freedom is described. Finite element, dynamic, analytic, and modal models are used to represent the structural system. The interface with math models is such that output from any structural analysis program applied to any structural configuration can be used directly. Processed data from either sine-sweep tests or resonant dwell tests are directly usable. The program uses measured modal data to condition the prior analystic model so as to improve the frequency match between model and test. A Bayesian estimator generates an improved analytical model and a linear estimator is used in an iterative fashion on highly nonlinear equations. Mass and stiffness scaling parameters are generated for an improved finite element model, and the optimum set of parameters is obtained in one step.

  8. Tree-Structured Digital Organisms Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Teruhiko; Nobesawa, Shiho; Tahara, Ikuo

    Tierra and Avida are well-known models of digital organisms. They describe a life process as a sequence of computation codes. A linear sequence model may not be the only way to describe a digital organism, though it is very simple for a computer-based model. Thus we propose a new digital organism model based on a tree structure, which is rather similar to the generic programming. With our model, a life process is a combination of various functions, as if life in the real world is. This implies that our model can easily describe the hierarchical structure of life, and it can simulate evolutionary computation through mutual interaction of functions. We verified our model by simulations that our model can be regarded as a digital organism model according to its definitions. Our model even succeeded in creating species such as viruses and parasites.

  9. Internal structure of laser supported detonation waves by two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamura, Kohei; Kawamura, Koichi; Fukuda, Akio; Wang Bin; Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Hatai, Keigo; Fukui, Akihiro; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2011-04-15

    Characteristics of the internal structure of the laser supported detonation (LSD) waves, such as the electron density n{sub e} and the electron temperature T{sub e} profiles behind the shock wave were measured using a two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer along with emission spectroscopy. A TEA CO{sub 2} laser with energy of 10 J/pulse produced explosive laser heating in atmospheric air. Results show that the peak values of n{sub e} and T{sub e} were, respectively, about 2 x 10{sup 24} m{sup -3} and 30 000 K, during the LSD regime. The temporal variation of the laser absorption coefficient profile estimated from the measured properties reveals that the laser energy was absorbed perfectly in a thin layer behind the shock wave during the LSD regime, as predicted by Raizer's LSD model. However, the absorption layer was much thinner than a plasma layer, the situation of which was not considered in Raizer's model. The measured n{sub e} at the shock front was not zero while the LSD was supported, which implies that the precursor electrons exist ahead of the shock wave.

  10. An across-the-bay flight support structure designed specifically for the Spartan program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rast, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    The preliminary design of an across-the-bay Flight Support Structure optimized to the specific requirements of the Spartan program has been completed. Although approximately 15 percent heavier than the initial goal, preliminary analysis indicate very low stress levels and significant reduction in weight should be possible in the final design. This structure is capable of supporting two Spartan 200-class spacecraft or attached payloads of equivalent total weight. The inherent structural efficiency of monocoque type construction is utilized. The minimization of fabrication and assembly costs and provision for simple and versatile payload interfacing where given significant considerations. Modularity of this structure allows it to be readily adapted for use as the primary structure of an Aries-class Spartan free-flyer utilizing the Orbit trunning latch mechanisms, thus eliminating the need for a flight support structure.

  11. Modeling decision support rule interactions in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Sordo, Margarita; Rocha, Beatriz H; Morales, Alfredo A; Maviglia, Saverio M; Oglio, Elisa Dell'Oglio; Fairbanks, Amanda; Aroy, Teal; Dubois, David; Bouyer-Ferullo, Sharon; Rocha, Roberto A

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, rule interactions are handled at implementation time through rule task properties that control the order in which rules are executed. By doing so, knowledge about the behavior and interactions of decision rules is not captured at modeling time. We argue that this is important knowledge that should be integrated in the modeling phase. In this project, we build upon current work on a conceptual schema to represent clinical knowledge for decision support in the form of if then rules. This schema currently captures provenance of the clinical content, context where such content is actionable (i.e. constraints) and the logic of the rule itself. For this project, we borrowed concepts from both the Semantic Web (i.e., Ontologies) and Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS), to explore a conceptual approach for modeling rule interactions in an enterprise-wide clinical setting. We expect that a more comprehensive modeling will facilitate knowledge authoring, editing and update; foster consistency in rules implementation and maintenance; and develop authoritative knowledge repositories to promote quality, safety and efficacy of healthcare.

  12. Modeling Global Urbanization Supported by Nighttime Light Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization, a major driver of global change, profoundly impacts our physical and social world, for example, altering carbon cycling and climate. Understanding these consequences for better scientific insights and effective decision-making unarguably requires accurate information on urban extent and its spatial distributions. In this study, we developed a cluster-based method to estimate the optimal thresholds and map urban extents from the nighttime light remote sensing data, extended this method to the global domain by developing a computational method (parameterization) to estimate the key parameters in the cluster-based method, and built a consistent 20-year global urban map series to evaluate the time-reactive nature of global urbanization (e.g. 2000 in Fig. 1). Supported by urban maps derived from nightlights remote sensing data and socio-economic drivers, we developed an integrated modeling framework to project future urban expansion by integrating a top-down macro-scale statistical model with a bottom-up urban growth model. With the models calibrated and validated using historical data, we explored urban growth at the grid level (1-km) over the next two decades under a number of socio-economic scenarios. The derived spatiotemporal information of historical and potential future urbanization will be of great value with practical implications for developing adaptation and risk management measures for urban infrastructure, transportation, energy, and water systems when considered together with other factors such as climate variability and change, and high impact weather events.

  13. Agricultural Model for the Nile Basin Decision Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Bolt, Frank; Seid, Abdulkarim

    2014-05-01

    To analyze options for increasing food supply in the Nile basin the Nile Agricultural Model (AM) was developed. The AM includes state-of-the-art descriptions of biophysical, hydrological and economic processes and realizes a coherent and consistent integration of hydrology, agronomy and economics. The AM covers both the agro-ecological domain (water, crop productivity) and the economic domain (food supply, demand, and trade) and allows to evaluate the macro-economic and hydrological impacts of scenarios for agricultural development. Starting with the hydrological information from the NileBasin-DSS the AM calculates the available water for agriculture, the crop production and irrigation requirements with the FAO-model AquaCrop. With the global commodity trade model MAGNET scenarios for land development and conversion are evaluated. The AM predicts consequences for trade, food security and development based on soil and water availability, crop allocation, food demand and food policy. The model will be used as a decision support tool to contribute to more productive and sustainable agriculture in individual Nile countries and the whole region.

  14. Supporting user-defined granularities in a spatiotemporal conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khatri, V.; Ram, S.; Snodgrass, R.T.; O'Brien, G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Granularities are integral to spatial and temporal data. A large number of applications require storage of facts along with their temporal and spatial context, which needs to be expressed in terms of appropriate granularities. For many real-world applications, a single granularity in the database is insufficient. In order to support any type of spatial or temporal reasoning, the semantics related to granularities needs to be embedded in the database. Specifying granularities related to facts is an important part of conceptual database design because under-specifying the granularity can restrict an application, affect the relative ordering of events and impact the topological relationships. Closely related to granularities is indeterminacy, i.e., an occurrence time or location associated with a fact that is not known exactly. In this paper, we present an ontology for spatial granularities that is a natural analog of temporal granularities. We propose an upward-compatible, annotation-based spatiotemporal conceptual model that can comprehensively capture the semantics related to spatial and temporal granularities, and indeterminacy without requiring new spatiotemporal constructs. We specify the formal semantics of this spatiotemporal conceptual model via translation to a conventional conceptual model. To underscore the practical focus of our approach, we describe an on-going case study. We apply our approach to a hydrogeologic application at the United States Geologic Survey and demonstrate that our proposed granularity-based spatiotemporal conceptual model is straightforward to use and is comprehensive.

  15. Active load path adaption in a simple kinematic load-bearing structure due to stiffness change in the structure's supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehb, C. M.; Platz, R.; Melz, T.

    2016-09-01

    Load-bearing structures with kinematic functions enable and disable degrees of freedom and are part of many mechanical engineering applications. The relative movement between a wheel and the body of a car or a landing gear and an aircraft fuselage are examples for load-bearing systems with defined kinematics. In most cases, the load is transmitted through a predetermined load path to the structural support interfaces. However, unexpected load peaks or varying health condition of the system's supports, which means for example varying damping and stiffness characteristics, may require an active adjustment of the load path. However, load paths transmitted through damaged or weakened supports can be the reason for reduced comfort or even failure. In this paper a simplified 2D two mass oscillator with two supports is used to numerically investigate the potential of controlled adaptive auxiliary kinematic guidance elements in a load-bearing structure to adapt the load path depending on the stiffness change, representing damage of the supports. The aim is to provide additional forces in the auxiliary kinematic guidance elements for two reasons. On the one hand, one of the two supports that may become weaker through stiffness change will be relieved from higher loading. On the other hand, tilting due to different compliance in the supports will be minimized. Therefore, shifting load between the supports during operation could be an effective option.

  16. Urban modeling over Houston in support of SIMMER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlage, M. J.; Monaghan, A. J.; Feddema, J. J.; Oleson, K. W.; Brunsell, N. A.; Wilhelmi, O.

    2011-12-01

    Extreme heat is a leading cause of weather-related human mortality in the United States. As global warming patterns continue, researchers anticipate increases in the severity, frequency and duration of extreme heat events, especially in the southern and western U.S. Many cities in these regions may have amplified vulnerability due to their rapidly evolving socioeconomic fabric (for example, growing elderly populations). This raises a series of questions about the increased health risks of urban residents to extreme heat, and about effective means of mitigation and adaptation in present and future climates. We will introduce a NASA-funded project aimed at addressing these questions via the System for Integrated Modeling of Metropolitan Extreme Heat Risk (SIMMER). Through SIMMER, we hope to advance methodology for assessing current and future urban vulnerabilities from the heat waves through the refinement and integration of physical and social science models, and to build local capacity for heat hazard mitigation and climate change adaptation in the public health sector. We will also present results from a series of sensitivity studies over Houston and surrounding area employing a recently-implemented multi-layer urban canopy model (UCM) within the Noah Land Surface Model. The UCM has multiple layers in the atmosphere to explicitly resolve the effects of buildings, and has an indoor-outdoor exchange model that directly interacts with the atmospheric boundary layer. The goal of this work, which supports the physical science component of SIMMER, is to characterize the ill-defined and uncertain parameter space, including building characteristics and spatial organization, in the new multi-layer UCM for Houston, and to assess whether and how this parameter space is sensitive to the choice of urban morphology datasets. Results focus on the seasonal and inter-annual range of both the modeled urban heat island effect and the magnitude of surface energy components and

  17. Geobrowser based simulation models for land degradation policy support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nature is complex and is complicated further by the gaps in our knowledge of it. Whereas scientists often quote lack of data and the need for more research from our seat on the fence, those making policy and attempting to manage nature and our interactions with it need to make decisions on what to do and how to do it. Increasingly reductionist science has led to deeper understanding of isolated process but only recently have advances in systems analysis, environmental modelling and computing enabled the construction of integrated models from these slices of science. Such integrated (assessment) models (IAMs) attempt to simulate landscapes and the biophysical and socio-economic processes occurring within them over space and time. IAMs provide a testbed in which policy can be tested in silico before being implemented in vivo. They are often used to assess the potential implications of implementing particular policy options in the face of background scenarios of change such as population growth and climate variability or change. In this paper I will show an example of an IAM for fine scale land degradation processes in the Mediterranean. The model, which incorporates many of the hydrological, plant growth and soil degradation processes acting in these environments, was developed as part of the EC funded DESURVEY project. It is fundamentally built on data, process knowledge and training developed within the MEDALUS series of projects, led by John Thornes. The DESURVEY fine scale model is implemented as a web-service and integrated with geobrowsers like Google Earth and Google Maps whilst drawing on terabytes of environmental data hosted at www.kcl.ac.uk/geodata and grid based dynamic models for surface and subsurface processes. This IAM is aimed at quantifying and visualising interactively the interaction between climate, land cover and land degradation, for policy support.

  18. Structured statistical models of inductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Charles; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2009-01-01

    Everyday inductive inferences are often guided by rich background knowledge. Formal models of induction should aim to incorporate this knowledge and should explain how different kinds of knowledge lead to the distinctive patterns of reasoning found in different inductive contexts. This article presents a Bayesian framework that attempts to meet both goals and describes [corrected] 4 applications of the framework: a taxonomic model, a spatial model, a threshold model, and a causal model. Each model makes probabilistic inferences about the extensions of novel properties, but the priors for the 4 models are defined over different kinds of structures that capture different relationships between the categories in a domain. The framework therefore shows how statistical inference can operate over structured background knowledge, and the authors argue that this interaction between structure and statistics is critical for explaining the power and flexibility of human reasoning.

  19. Quantitative structure - mesothelioma potency model ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Cancer potencies of mineral and synthetic elongated particle (EP) mixtures, including asbestos fibers, are influenced by changes in fiber dose composition, bioavailability, and biodurability in combination with relevant cytotoxic dose-response relationships. A unique and comprehensive rat intra-pleural (IP) dose characterization data set with a wide variety of EP size, shape, crystallographic, chemical, and bio-durability properties facilitated extensive statistical analyses of 50 rat IP exposure test results for evaluation of alternative dose pleural mesothelioma response models. Utilizing logistic regression, maximum likelihood evaluations of thousands of alternative dose metrics based on hundreds of individual EP dimensional variations within each test sample, four major findings emerged: (1) data for simulations of short-term EP dose changes in vivo (mild acid leaching) provide superior predictions of tumor incidence compared to non-acid leached data; (2) sum of the EP surface areas (ÓSA) from these mildly acid-leached samples provides the optimum holistic dose response model; (3) progressive removal of dose associated with very short and/or thin EPs significantly degrades resultant ÓEP or ÓSA dose-based predictive model fits, as judged by Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC); and (4) alternative, biologically plausible model adjustments provide evidence for reduced potency of EPs with length/width (aspect) ratios 80 µm. Regar

  20. Multiplicity Control in Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbie, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers conducting structural equation modeling analyses rarely, if ever, control for the inflated probability of Type I errors when evaluating the statistical significance of multiple parameters in a model. In this study, the Type I error control, power and true model rates of famsilywise and false discovery rate controlling procedures were…

  1. Asymmetric actuating structure generates negligible influence on the supporting base for high performance scanning probe microscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi Yan, Gang; Bin Liu, Yong; Hua Feng, Zhi

    2014-02-01

    An asymmetric actuating structure generating negligible influence on the supporting base for high performance scanning probe microscopies is proposed in this paper. The actuator structure consists of two piezostacks, one is used for actuating while the other is for counterbalancing. In contrast with balanced structure, the two piezostacks are installed at the same side of the supporting base. The effectiveness of the structure is proved by some experiments with the actuators fixed to the free end of a cantilever. Experimental results show that almost all of the vibration modes of the cantilever are suppressed effectively at a wide frequency range of 90 Hz-10 kHz.

  2. Nurse manager support: what is it? Structures and practices that promote it.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Marlene; Maguire, Patricia; Schmalenberg, Claudia; Brewer, Barbara; Burke, Rebecca; Chmielewski, Linda; Cox, Karen; Kishner, Janice; Krugman, Mary; Meeks-Sjostrom, Diana; Waldo, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Professional nursing organizations identify nurse manager (NM) support of staff nurses as an essential component of a productive, healthy work environment. Role behaviors that constitute this support must be identified by staff nurses. In this mixed-method study, supportive role behaviors were identified by 2382 staff nurses who completed the investigator-developed Nurse Manager Support Scale. In addition, semistructured interviews were conducted with 446 staff nurses, managers, and physicians from 101 clinical units in 8 Magnet hospitals in which staff nurses had previously confirmed excellent nurse manager support. Through individual and focus group interviews with NM and chief nurse executives in the 8 participating hospitals, the organizational structures and practices that enabled NM to be supportive to staff were determined. The 9 most supportive role behaviors cited by interviewees were as follows: is approachable and safe, cares, "walks the talk," motivates development of self-confidence, gives genuine feedback, provides adequate and competent staffing, "watches our back," promotes group cohesion and teamwork, and resolves conflicts constructively. Supporting structures and programs identified by managers and leaders include the following: "support from the top," peer group support, educational programs and training sessions, a "lived" culture, secretarial or administrative assistant support, private office space, and computer classes and seminars.

  3. System Dynamics Approach for Critical Infrastructure and Decision Support. A Model for a Potable Water System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, D.; Witkowski, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Protection / Decision Support System (CIP/DSS) project, supported by the Science and Technology Office, has been developing a risk-informed Decision Support System that provides insights for making critical infrastructure protection decisions. The system considers seventeen different Department of Homeland Security defined Critical Infrastructures (potable water system, telecommunications, public health, economics, etc.) and their primary interdependencies. These infrastructures have been modeling in one model called CIP/DSS Metropolitan Model. The modeling approach used is a system dynamics modeling approach. System dynamics modeling combines control theory and the nonlinear dynamics theory, which is defined by a set of coupled differential equations, which seeks to explain how the structure of a given system determines its behavior. In this poster we present a system dynamics model for one of the seventeen critical infrastructures, a generic metropolitan potable water system (MPWS). Three are the goals: 1) to gain a better understanding of the MPWS infrastructure; 2) to identify improvements that would help protect MPWS; and 3) to understand the consequences, interdependencies, and impacts, when perturbations occur to the system. The model represents raw water sources, the metropolitan water treatment process, storage of treated water, damage and repair to the MPWS, distribution of water, and end user demand, but does not explicitly represent the detailed network topology of an actual MPWS. The MPWS model is dependent upon inputs from the metropolitan population, energy, telecommunication, public health, and transportation models as well as the national water and transportation models. We present modeling results and sensitivity analysis indicating critical choke points, negative and positive feedback loops in the system. A general scenario is also analyzed where the potable water system responds to a generic disruption.

  4. Intelligent-based Structural Damage Detection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Yu, K.F.

    2010-05-21

    This paper presents the application of a novel Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for the diagnosis of structural damage. The ANN model, denoted as the GRNNFA, is a hybrid model combining the General Regression Neural Network Model (GRNN) and the Fuzzy ART (FA) model. It not only retains the important features of the GRNN and FA models (i.e. fast and stable network training and incremental growth of network structure) but also facilitates the removal of the noise embedded in the training samples. Structural damage alters the stiffness distribution of the structure and so as to change the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system. The measured modal parameter changes due to a particular damage are treated as patterns for that damage. The proposed GRNNFA model was trained to learn those patterns in order to detect the possible damage location of the structure. Simulated data is employed to verify and illustrate the procedures of the proposed ANN-based damage diagnosis methodology. The results of this study have demonstrated the feasibility of applying the GRNNFA model to structural damage diagnosis even when the training samples were noise contaminated.

  5. Design and analysis of supporting structure with smart struts for active vibration isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byeongil; Washington, Gregory N.; Singh, Rajendra

    2010-04-01

    This research investigates a supporting structure with smart struts under a vibratory load. In the case of most rotorcraft, structure-borne noise and vibration transmitted from the gearbox contains multiple spectral elements and higher frequencies, which include gear mesh frequencies and their side bands. In order to manage this issue, significant research have been devoted to active smart struts which have tunable stiffness such that a higher level of attenuation is possible. However, present techniques on active control are restricted mostly to the control of single or multiple sinusoids and thus these are not applicable to manage modulated and multi-spectral signals. Therefore, enhanced control algorithms are required in order to achieve simultaneous attenuation of gear mesh frequencies and their side bands. Proposed algorithms employing two nonlinear methods and one model-based technique are examined in this study. Their performance is verified by comparing with conventional algorithms. Moreover, these algorithms are implemented to exhibit whether they are feasible to narrowband or broadband control through experiments with a single smart strut. Novel methodologies are expected to be applied to several active vibration and noise control practices such as vehicles and other engineering structures.

  6. Effects of shaft supporting structure on performance test of axial flow fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, R.; Liu, S. L.; Li, M. X.; Zheng, S. Y.

    2016-05-01

    CFD numerical simulation combined with theoretical analysis are used to research and discuss the obstructing effect, caused by the supporting structure of torsion meter and connecting shaft, on the outlet airflow of axial-flow fan in type-C ducted inlet device. The relations between axial flow fan's total pressure efficiency and flow rate are studied when the distance between supporting structure and outlet section is different, which may provide a reference for the proper design of the performance test device.

  7. Modeling of Human Joint Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Radial Lateral " epicondyle Olecranon Radius Ulna Figure 3. Lateral aspect of the right elbow joint. -17- Annular Ligament This strong band encircles... elbow joint, knee joint, human joints, shoulder joint, ankle joint, joint models, hip joint, ligaments. 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If...ligaments. -A rather extended discussion of the articulations and anatomical descriptions of the elbow , shoulder, hip, knee and ankle joints are

  8. An Individual-Oriented Model on the Emergence of Support in Fights, Its Reciprocation and Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.; Puga-Gonzalez, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Complex social behaviour of primates has usually been attributed to the operation of complex cognition. Recently, models have shown that constraints imposed by the socio-spatial structuring of individuals in a group may result in an unexpectedly high number of patterns of complex social behaviour, resembling the dominance styles of egalitarian and despotic species of macaques and the differences between them. This includes affiliative patterns, such as reciprocation of grooming, grooming up the hierarchy, and reconciliation. In the present study, we show that the distribution of support in fights, which is the social behaviour that is potentially most sophisticated in terms of cognitive processes, may emerge in the same way. The model represents the spatial grouping of individuals and their social behaviour, such as their avoidance of risks during attacks, the self-reinforcing effects of winning and losing their fights, their tendency to join in fights of others that are close by (social facilitation), their tendency to groom when they are anxious, the reduction of their anxiety by grooming, and the increase of anxiety when involved in aggression. Further, we represent the difference in intensity of aggression apparent in egalitarian and despotic macaques. The model reproduces many aspects of support in fights, such as its different types, namely, conservative, bridging and revolutionary, patterns of choice of coalition partners attributed to triadic awareness, those of reciprocation of support and ‘spiteful acts’ and of exchange between support and grooming. This work is important because it suggests that behaviour that seems to result from sophisticated cognition may be a side-effect of spatial structure and dominance interactions and it shows that partial correlations fail to completely omit these effects of spatial structure. Further, the model is falsifiable, since it results in many patterns that can easily be tested in real primates by means of existing

  9. Nurturing educational research at Dartmouth Medical School: the synergy among innovative ideas, support faculty, and administrative structures.

    PubMed

    Nierenberg, David W; Carney, Patricia A

    2004-10-01

    In recent years, Dartmouth Medical School has increased its commitment to educational research within the school, and in collaboration with other schools across the country. Passionate faculty members with ideas and expertise in particular curricular areas are one critical component needed for a successful educational research program. Other components include an atmosphere that fosters research collaborations and mentoring, and various types of institutional support structures. This same model has effectively supported basic science and clinical research for decades. Because of the complexities involved in studying medical education, Dartmouth Medical School has invested in support structures for educational grant and manuscript development, financial support for pilot projects and partial salary support for investigators and key staff members, and other support targeted toward specific research projects. Ultimately, the goal is to use the results of the school's educational research projects to improve the curriculum through cycles of hypothesis development and testing, providing evidence for subsequent curricular change. When some research findings are relevant and applicable for use in other medical schools, that is an additional benefit of the educational research process. In this report, the authors describe the development of Dartmouth Medical School's infrastructure for supporting educational research, which has helped to accelerate the educational research productivity teaching faculty now enjoy. The authors also address some of the challenges that they anticipate in the near future.

  10. Modeling structural influences on soil water retention

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A new model quantities the effect of soil structure, considered as the arrangement of particles in the soil, on soil water retention. The model partitions the pore space into texture-related and structure-related components, the textural component being what can be deduced to exist if the arrangement of the particles were random, and the structural component being the remainder. An existing model, based on particle-size distributions, represents the textural component, and a new model, based on aggregate-size distributions, represents the structural component. This new model makes use of generalized properties that vary little from one medium to another, thereby eliminating any need for empirically tilted parameters. It postulates a particular character of the structural pore space that in same ways resembles texture-related pore space, but with pore shape related to the breadth of the aggregate-size distribution. To predict a soil water retention curve, this model requires the soil's porosity and particle- and aggregate-size distributions. Tested with measurements for 17 samples from two sources, it fits the data much better than does a model based on texture alone. Goodness of fit indicated by correlation coefficients ranged from 0.908 to 0.998 for the new model, compared with a range of 0.686 in 0.955 for the texture-based model.

  11. Inspection of ferromagnetic support structures from within alloy 800 steam generator tubes using pulsed eddy current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Jeremy Andrew

    Nondestructive testing is a critical aspect of component lifetime management. Nuclear steam generator (SG) tubes are the thinnest barrier between irradiated primary heat transport system and the secondary heat transport system, whose components are not rated for large radiation fields. Conventional eddy current testing (ECT) and ultrasonic testing are currently employed for inspecting SG tubes, with the former doing most inspections due to speed and reliability based on an understanding of how flaws affect coil impedance parameters when conductors are subjected to harmonically induced currents. However, when multiple degradation modes are present simultaneously near ferromagnetic materials, such as tube fretting, support structure corrosion, and magnetite fouling, ECT reliability decreases. Pulsed eddy current (PEC), which induces transient eddy currents via square wave excitation, has been considered in this thesis to simultaneously examine SG tube and support structure conditions. An array probe consisting of a central driver, coaxial with the tube, and an array of 8 sensing coils, was used in this thesis to perform laboratory measurements. The probe was delivered from the inner diameter (ID) of the SG tube, where support hole diameter, tube frets, and 2D off-centering were varied. When considering two variables simultaneously, scores obtained from a modified principal components analysis (MPCA) were sufficient for parameter extraction. In the case of hole ID variation with two dimensional tube off-centering (three parameters), multiple linear regression (MLR) of the MPCA scores provided good estimates of parameters. However, once a fourth variable, outer diameter tube frets, was introduced, MLR proved insufficient. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were investigated in order to perform pattern recognition on the MPCA scores to simultaneously extract the four measurement parameters from the data. All models throughout this thesis were created and validated using

  12. Information Integration to Support Model-Based Policy Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Eubank, Stephen; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Pan, Zhengzheng; Swarup, Samarth

    2011-01-01

    The complexities of social and technological policy domains, such as the economy, the environment, and public health present challenges that require a new approach to modeling and decision making. The information required for effective policy and decision making in these complex domains is massive in scale, fine-grained in resolution, and distributed over many data sources. Thus, one of the key challenges in building systems to support policy informatics is information integration. We describe our approach to this problem, and how we are building a multi-theory, multi-actor, multi-perspective system that supports continual data uptake, state assessment, decision analysis, and action assignment based on large-scale high-performance computing infrastructures. Our simulation-based approach allows rapid course-of-action analysis to bound variances in outcomes of policy interventions, which in turn allows the short time-scale planning required in response to emergencies such as epidemic outbreaks. We present the rationale and design of our methodology and discuss several areas of actual and potential application. PMID:22337756

  13. Progressor: social navigation support through open social student modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, I.-Han; Bakalov, Fedor; Brusilovsky, Peter; König-Ries, Birgitta

    2013-06-01

    The increased volumes of online learning content have produced two problems: how to help students to find the most appropriate resources and how to engage them in using these resources. Personalized and social learning have been suggested as potential ways to address these problems. Our work presented in this paper combines the ideas of personalized and social learning in the context of educational hypermedia. We introduce Progressor, an innovative Web-based tool based on the concepts of social navigation and open student modeling that helps students to find the most relevant resources in a large collection of parameterized self-assessment questions on Java programming. We have evaluated Progressor in a semester-long classroom study, the results of which are presented in this paper. The study confirmed the impact of personalized social navigation support provided by the system in the target context. The interface encouraged students to explore more topics attempting more questions and achieving higher success rates in answering them. A deeper analysis of the social navigation support mechanism revealed that the top students successfully led the way to discovering most relevant resources by creating clear pathways for weaker students.

  14. Aggregation of Environmental Model Data for Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    model output offering access to probability and calibrating information for real time decision making. The aggregation content server reports over ensemble component and forecast time in addition to the other data dimensions of vertical layer and position for each variable. The unpacking, organization and reading of many binary packed files is accomplished most efficiently on the server while weather element event probability calculations, the thresholds for more accurate decision support, or display remain for the client. Our goal is to reduce uncertainty for variables of interest, e.g, agricultural importance. The weather service operational GFS model ensemble and short range ensemble forecasts can make skillful probability forecasts to alert users if and when their selected weather events will occur. A description of how this framework operates and how it can be implemented using existing NOMADS content services and applications is described.

  15. Modeling snail breeding in a bioregenerative life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, V. S.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Kolmakova, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    The discrete-time model of snail breeding consists of two sequentially linked submodels: "Stoichiometry" and "Population". In both submodels, a snail population is split up into twelve age groups within one year of age. The first submodel is used to simulate the metabolism of a single snail in each age group via the stoichiometric equation; the second submodel is used to optimize the age structure and the size of the snail population. Daily intake of snail meat by crewmen is a guideline which specifies the population productivity. The mass exchange of the snail unit inhabited by land snails of Achatina fulica is given as an outcome of step-by-step modeling. All simulations are performed using Solver Add-In of Excel 2007.

  16. Some advances in experimentation supporting development of viscoplastic constitutive models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. R.; Robinson, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a biaxial extensometer capable of measuring axial, torsion, and diametral strains to near-microstrain resolution at elevated temperatures is discussed. An instrument with this capability was needed to provide experimental support to the development of viscoplastic constitutive models. The advantages gained when torsional loading is used to investigate inelastic material response at elevated temperatures are highlighted. The development of the biaxial extensometer was conducted in two stages. The first involved a series of bench calibration experiments performed at room temperature. The second stage involved a series of in-place calibration experiments performed at room temperature. A review of the calibration data indicated that all performance requirements regarding resolution, range, stability, and crosstalk had been met by the subject instrument over the temperature range of interest, 21 C to 651 C. The scope of the in-placed calibration experiments was expanded to investigate the feasibility of generating stress relaxation data under torsional loading.

  17. Some advances in experimentation supporting development of viscoplastic constitutive models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. R.; Robinson, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a biaxial extensometer capable of measuring axial, torsion, and diametral strains to near-microstrain resolution at elevated temperatures is discussed. An instrument with this capability was needed to provide experimental support to the development of viscoplastic constitutive models. The advantages gained when torsional loading is used to investigate inelastic material response at elevated temperatures are highlighted. The development of the biaxial extensometer was conducted in two stages. The first involved a series of bench calibration experiments performed at room temperature. The second stage involved a series of in-place calibration experiments conducted at room and elevated temperature. A review of the calibration data indicated that all performance requirements regarding resolution, range, stability, and crosstalk had been met by the subject instrument over the temperature range of interest, 21 C to 651 C. The scope of the in-place calibration experiments was expanded to investigate the feasibility of generating stress relaxation data under torsional loading.

  18. Improved techniques for thermomechanical testing in support of deformation modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Michael G.; Ellis, John R.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of generating precise thermomechanical deformation data to support constitutive model development was investigated. Here, the requirement is for experimental data that is free from anomalies caused by less than ideal equipment and procedures. A series of exploratory tests conducted on Hastelloy X showed that generally accepted techniques for strain controlled tests were lacking in at least three areas. Specifically, problems were encountered with specimen stability, thermal strain compensation, and temperature/mechanical strain phasing. The source of these difficulties was identified and improved thermomechanical testing techniques to correct them were developed. These goals were achieved by developing improved procedures for measuring and controlling thermal gradients and by designing a specimen specifically for thermomechanical testing. In addition, innovative control strategies were developed to correctly proportion and phase the thermal and mechanical components of strain. Subsequently, the improved techniques were used to generate deformation data for Hastelloy X over the temperature range, 200 to 1000 C.

  19. The picture superiority effect: support for the distinctiveness model.

    PubMed

    Mintzer, M Z; Snodgrass, J G

    1999-01-01

    The form change paradigm was used to explore the basis for the picture superiority effect. Recognition memory for studied pictures and words was tested in their study form or the alternate form. Form change cost was defined as the difference between recognition performance for same and different form items. Based on the results of Experiment 1 and previous studies, it was difficult to determine the relative cost for studied pictures and words due to a reversal of the mirror effect. We hypothesized that the reversed mirror effect results from subjects' basing their recognition decisions on their assumptions about the study form. Experiments 2 and 3 confirmed this hypothesis and generated a method for evaluating the relative cost for pictures and words despite the reversed mirror effect. More cost was observed for pictures than words, supporting the distinctiveness model of the picture superiority effect.

  20. Forebay Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling for The Dalles Dam to Support Behavior Guidance System Siting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Johnson, Gary E.

    2005-03-10

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were developed to support the siting and design of a behavioral guidance system (BGS) structure in The Dalles Dam (TDA) forebay on the Columbia River. The work was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (CENWP). The CFD results were an invaluable tool for the analysis, both from a Regional and Agency perspective (for the fish passage evaluation) and a CENWP perspective (supporting the BGS design and location). The new CFD model (TDA forebay model) included the latest bathymetry (surveyed in 1999) and a detailed representation of the engineered structures (spillway, powerhouse main, fish, and service units). The TDA forebay model was designed and developed in a way that future studies could easily modify or, to a large extent, reuse large portions of the existing mesh. This study resulted in these key findings: (1) The TDA forebay model matched well with field-measured velocity data. (2) The TDA forebay model matched observations made at the 1:80 general physical model of the TDA forebay. (3) During the course of this study, the methodology typically used by CENWP to contour topographic data was shown to be inaccurate when applied to widely-spaced transect data. Contouring methodologies need to be revisited--especially before such things as modifying the bathymetry in the 1:80 general physical model are undertaken. Future alignments can be evaluated with the model staying largely intact. The next round of analysis will need to address fish passage demands and navigation concerns. CFD models can be used to identify the most promising locations and to provide quantified metrics for biological, hydraulic, and navigation criteria. The most promising locations should then be further evaluated in the 1:80 general physical model.

  1. Formal representation of 3D structural geological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Yang, Hongjun; Du, Qunle

    2016-05-01

    The development and widespread application of geological modeling methods has increased demands for the integration and sharing services of three dimensional (3D) geological data. However, theoretical research in the field of geological information sciences is limited despite the widespread use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in geology. In particular, fundamental research on the formal representations and standardized spatial descriptions of 3D structural models is required. This is necessary for accurate understanding and further applications of geological data in 3D space. In this paper, we propose a formal representation method for 3D structural models using the theory of point set topology, which produces a mathematical definition for the major types of geological objects. The spatial relationships between geologic boundaries, structures, and units are explained in detail using the 9-intersection model. Reasonable conditions for describing the topological space of 3D structural models are also provided. The results from this study can be used as potential support for the standardized representation and spatial quality evaluation of 3D structural models, as well as for specific needs related to model-based management, query, and analysis.

  2. The Adventure Model: A Replication Study To Determine if Different Adventure Skills Support the Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbertson, Ken; Ewert, Alan

    First developed and tested in 1989, the Adventure Model suggests that as adventure participants become more skilled and specialized, they experience predictable changes in several participation behaviors. While previous studies supported the model, they were carried out with college students having similar skill and motivational characteristics.…

  3. Developing a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model Knowledgebase in Support of Provisional Model Construction - poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building new physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models requires a lot data, such as the chemical-specific parameters and in vivo pharmacokinetic data. Previously-developed, well-parameterized, and thoroughly-vetted models can be great resource for supporting the constr...

  4. Learning structurally consistent undirected probabilistic graphical models.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sushmita; Lane, Terran; Werner-Washburne, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    In many real-world domains, undirected graphical models such as Markov random fields provide a more natural representation of the statistical dependency structure than directed graphical models. Unfortunately, structure learning of undirected graphs using likelihood-based scores remains difficult because of the intractability of computing the partition function. We describe a new Markov random field structure learning algorithm, motivated by canonical parameterization of Abbeel et al. We provide computational improvements on their parameterization by learning per-variable canonical factors, which makes our algorithm suitable for domains with hundreds of nodes. We compare our algorithm against several algorithms for learning undirected and directed models on simulated and real datasets from biology. Our algorithm frequently outperforms existing algorithms, producing higher-quality structures, suggesting that enforcing consistency during structure learning is beneficial for learning undirected graphs.

  5. Graduating to Postdoc: Information-Sharing in Support of Organizational Structures and Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.; Lucas, Paul J.; Compton, Michael M.; Stewart, Helen J.; Baya, Vinod; DelAlto, Martha

    1999-01-01

    The deployment of information-sharing systems in large organizations can significantly impact existing policies and procedures with regard to authority and control over information. Unless information-sharing systems explicitly support organizational structures and needs, these systems will be rejected summarily. The Postdoc system is a deployed Web-based information-sharing system created specifically to address organizational needs. Postdoc contains various organizational support features including a shared, globally navigable document space, as well as specialized access control, distributed administration, and mailing list features built around the key notion of hierarchical group structures. We review successes and difficulties in supporting organizational needs with Postdoc

  6. SSME structural dynamic model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    The high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) is a major component of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) powerhead. The device is a three stage centrifugal pump that is directly driven by a two stage hot gas turbine. The purpose of the pump is to deliver fuel (liquid hydrogen) from the low pressure fuel turbopump (LPFTP) through the main fuel valve (MFV) to the thrust chamber coolant circuits. In doing so, the pump pressurizes the fuel from an inlet pressure of approximately 178 psi to a discharge pressure of over 6000 psi. At full power level (FPL), the pump rotates at a speed of over 37,000 rpm while generating approximately 77,000 horsepower. Obviously, a pump failure at these speeds and power levels could jeopardize the mission. Results are summarized for work in which the solutions obtained from analytical models of the fuel turbopump impellers are compared with the results obtained from dynamic tests.

  7. Automated modeling of RNA 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Rother, Kristian; Rother, Magdalena; Skiba, Pawel; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview over the current methods for automated modeling of RNA structures, with emphasis on template-based methods. The currently used approaches to RNA modeling are presented with a side view on the protein world, where many similar ideas have been used. Two main programs for automated template-based modeling are presented: ModeRNA assembling structures from fragments and MacroMoleculeBuilder performing a simulation to satisfy spatial restraints. Both approaches have in common that they require an alignment of the target sequence to a known RNA structure that is used as a modeling template. As a way to find promising template structures and to align the target and template sequences, we propose a pipeline combining the ParAlign and Infernal programs on RNA family data from Rfam. We also briefly summarize template-free methods for RNA 3D structure prediction. Typically, RNA structures generated by automated modeling methods require local or global optimization. Thus, we also discuss methods that can be used for local or global refinement of RNA structures.

  8. Instructional support and implementation structure during elementary teachers' science education simulation use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonczi, Amanda L.; Chiu, Jennifer L.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.

    2016-07-01

    This investigation sought to identify patterns in elementary science teachers' computer simulation use, particularly implementation structures and instructional supports commonly employed by teachers. Data included video-recorded science lessons of 96 elementary teachers who used computer simulations in one or more science lessons. Results indicated teachers used a one-to-one student-to-computer ratio most often either during class-wide individual computer use or during a rotating station structure. Worksheets, general support, and peer collaboration were the most common forms of instructional support. The least common instructional support forms included lesson pacing, initial play, and a closure discussion. Students' simulation use was supported in the fewest ways during a rotating station structure. Results suggest that simulation professional development with elementary teachers needs to explicitly focus on implementation structures and instructional support to enhance participants' pedagogical knowledge and improve instructional simulation use. In addition, research is needed to provide theoretical explanations for the observed patterns that should subsequently be addressed in supporting teachers' instructional simulation use during professional development or in teacher preparation programs.

  9. Direct and Indirect Effects of Parental Influence upon Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Mi; Neff, James Alan

    2010-01-01

    A model incorporating the direct and indirect effects of parental monitoring on adolescent alcohol use was evaluated by applying structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques to data on 4,765 tenth-graders in the 2001 Monitoring the Future Study. Analyses indicated good fit of hypothesized measurement and structural models. Analyses supported both…

  10. Hierarchically triangular prism structured Co3O4: Self-supported fabrication and photocatalytic property

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation of ammonium cobalt (II) phosphate was utilized to synthesize unprecedented 3D structures of Co3O4, triangular prisms and trunk-like structures, via a self-supported and organics-free method. The length of a triangular side of the prepared 3D triangular prisms is ~1...

  11. Concepts and analysis for precision segmented reflector and feed support structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard K.; Thomson, Mark W.; Hedgepeth, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Several issues surrounding the design of a large (20-meter diameter) Precision Segmented Reflector are investigated. The concerns include development of a reflector support truss geometry that will permit deployment into the required doubly-curved shape without significant member strains. For deployable and erectable reflector support trusses, the reduction of structural redundancy was analyzed to achieve reduced weight and complexity for the designs. The stiffness and accuracy of such reduced member trusses, however, were found to be affected to a degree that is unexpected. The Precision Segmented Reflector designs were developed with performance requirements that represent the Reflector application. A novel deployable sunshade concept was developed, and a detailed parametric study of various feed support structural concepts was performed. The results of the detailed study reveal what may be the most desirable feed support structure geometry for Precision Segmented Reflector/Large Deployable Reflector applications.

  12. Integrating Cache Performance Modeling and Tuning Support in Parallelization Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    With the resurgence of distributed shared memory (DSM) systems based on cache-coherent Non Uniform Memory Access (ccNUMA) architectures and increasing disparity between memory and processors speeds, data locality overheads are becoming the greatest bottlenecks in the way of realizing potential high performance of these systems. While parallelization tools and compilers facilitate the users in porting their sequential applications to a DSM system, a lot of time and effort is needed to tune the memory performance of these applications to achieve reasonable speedup. In this paper, we show that integrating cache performance modeling and tuning support within a parallelization environment can alleviate this problem. The Cache Performance Modeling and Prediction Tool (CPMP), employs trace-driven simulation techniques without the overhead of generating and managing detailed address traces. CPMP predicts the cache performance impact of source code level "what-if" modifications in a program to assist a user in the tuning process. CPMP is built on top of a customized version of the Computer Aided Parallelization Tools (CAPTools) environment. Finally, we demonstrate how CPMP can be applied to tune a real Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) application.

  13. Structural Identifiability of Dynamic Systems Biology Models

    PubMed Central

    Villaverde, Alejandro F.

    2016-01-01

    A powerful way of gaining insight into biological systems is by creating a nonlinear differential equation model, which usually contains many unknown parameters. Such a model is called structurally identifiable if it is possible to determine the values of its parameters from measurements of the model outputs. Structural identifiability is a prerequisite for parameter estimation, and should be assessed before exploiting a model. However, this analysis is seldom performed due to the high computational cost involved in the necessary symbolic calculations, which quickly becomes prohibitive as the problem size increases. In this paper we show how to analyse the structural identifiability of a very general class of nonlinear models by extending methods originally developed for studying observability. We present results about models whose identifiability had not been previously determined, report unidentifiabilities that had not been found before, and show how to modify those unidentifiable models to make them identifiable. This method helps prevent problems caused by lack of identifiability analysis, which can compromise the success of tasks such as experiment design, parameter estimation, and model-based optimization. The procedure is called STRIKE-GOLDD (STRuctural Identifiability taKen as Extended-Generalized Observability with Lie Derivatives and Decomposition), and it is implemented in a MATLAB toolbox which is available as open source software. The broad applicability of this approach facilitates the analysis of the increasingly complex models used in systems biology and other areas. PMID:27792726

  14. Hierarchical Bayesian model updating for structural identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behmanesh, Iman; Moaveni, Babak; Lombaert, Geert; Papadimitriou, Costas

    2015-12-01

    A new probabilistic finite element (FE) model updating technique based on Hierarchical Bayesian modeling is proposed for identification of civil structural systems under changing ambient/environmental conditions. The performance of the proposed technique is investigated for (1) uncertainty quantification of model updating parameters, and (2) probabilistic damage identification of the structural systems. Accurate estimation of the uncertainty in modeling parameters such as mass or stiffness is a challenging task. Several Bayesian model updating frameworks have been proposed in the literature that can successfully provide the "parameter estimation uncertainty" of model parameters with the assumption that there is no underlying inherent variability in the updating parameters. However, this assumption may not be valid for civil structures where structural mass and stiffness have inherent variability due to different sources of uncertainty such as changing ambient temperature, temperature gradient, wind speed, and traffic loads. Hierarchical Bayesian model updating is capable of predicting the overall uncertainty/variability of updating parameters by assuming time-variability of the underlying linear system. A general solution based on Gibbs Sampler is proposed to estimate the joint probability distributions of the updating parameters. The performance of the proposed Hierarchical approach is evaluated numerically for uncertainty quantification and damage identification of a 3-story shear building model. Effects of modeling errors and incomplete modal data are considered in the numerical study.

  15. Support for 5-HT2C receptor functional selectivity in vivo utilizing structurally diverse, selective 5-HT2C receptor ligands and the 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine elicited head-twitch response model.

    PubMed

    Canal, Clinton E; Booth, Raymond G; Morgan, Drake

    2013-07-01

    There are seemingly conflicting data in the literature regarding the role of serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C receptors in the mouse head-twitch response (HTR) elicited by the hallucinogenic 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI). Namely, both 5-HT2C receptor agonists and antagonists, regarding 5-HT2C receptor-mediated Gq-phospholipase C (PLC) signaling, reportedly attenuate the HTR response. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that both classes of 5-HT2C receptor compounds could attenuate the DOI-elicited-HTR in a single strain of mice, C57Bl/6J. The expected results were considered in accordance with ligand functional selectivity. Commercially-available 5-HT2C agonists (CP 809101, Ro 60-0175, WAY 161503, mCPP, and 1-methylpsilocin), novel 4-phenyl-2-N,N-dimethyl-aminotetralin (PAT)-type 5-HT2C agonists (with 5-HT2A/2B antagonist activity), and antagonists selective for 5-HT2A (M100907), 5-HT2C (SB-242084), and 5-HT2B/2C (SB-206553) receptors attenuated the DOI-elicited-HTR. In contrast, there were differential effects on locomotion across classes of compounds. The 5-HT2C agonists and M100907 decreased locomotion, SB-242084 increased locomotion, SB-206553 resulted in dose-dependent biphasic effects on locomotion, and the PATs did not alter locomotion. In vitro molecular pharmacology studies showed that 5-HT2C agonists potent for attenuating the DOI-elicited-HTR also reduced the efficacy of DOI to activate mouse 5-HT2C receptor-mediated PLC signaling in HEK cells. Although there were differences in affinities of a few compounds at mouse compared to human 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors, all compounds tested retained their selectivity for either receptor, regardless of receptor species. Results indicate that 5-HT2C receptor agonists and antagonists attenuate the DOI-elicited-HTR in C57Bl/6J mice, and suggest that structurally diverse 5-HT2C ligands result in different 5-HT2C receptor signaling outcomes compared to DOI.

  16. Evaluation and Reduction of Machine Difference in Press Working with Utilization of Dedicated Die Support Structure and Numerical Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Takahiro

    2011-05-01

    In this study, support structures of a die for press working are discussed to solve the machine difference problems amongst presses. The developed multi-point die support structures are not only utilized for adjusting elastic deformation of a die, but also for in-process sensing of the behavior of a die. The structures have multiple support cells between a die and the slide of a press machine. The cell, known as `a support unit,' has the strain gauges attached on its side, and works in both ways as a kind of spring and a load and displacement sensor. The cell contacts on the die with a ball-contact, therefore it transmits only the vertical force at each support point. The isolation of a momentum and horizontal load at each support point contributes for a simple numerical model; it helps us to know the practical boundary condition at the points under an actual production. In addition, the momentum and horizontal forces at the points are useless for press working; the isolation of these forces contributes to reduce a jolt and related machine differences. The horizontal distribution of support units is changed to reduce elastic deformation of a die; it contributes to reduce a jolt, alignment errors of a die and geometrical errors of a product. The validity of those adjustments are confirmed with evaluating a product shape of a deep drawing and measuring jolts between upper and lower stamping dies. Furthermore, die deformation in a process is analyzed with using elastic FE analysis with actual bearing loads compiled from each support unit.

  17. Fabrication of experimental three-meter space telescope primary and secondary mirror support structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishler, H. W.

    1974-01-01

    The fabrication of prototype titanium alloy primary and secondary mirror support structures for a proposed experimental three-meter space telescope is discussed. The structure was fabricated entirely of Ti-6Al-4V tubing and plate. Fabrication included the development of procedures including welding, forming, and machining. Most of the structures was fabricated by gas-shielding tungsten-arc (GTA) welding with several major components fabricated by high frequency resistance (HFR) welding.

  18. Analysis and design of on-grade reinforced concrete track support structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, F. G.; Williams, R. D.; Greening, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    For the improvement of rail service, the Department of Transportation, Federal Rail Administration, is sponsoring a test track on the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway. The test track will contain nine separate rail support structures, including one conventional section for control and three reinforced concrete structures on grade, one slab and two beam sections. The analysis and design of these latter structures was accomplished by means of the finite element method, NASTRAN, and is presented.

  19. Structural Dynamics Model of a Cartesian Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    validate the model in two ways: for fixed -configuration the mode shapes and natural frequencies are examined, and then for changing configuration the...to validate the model in two ways: for fixed -configuration the mode shapes and natural frequencies are examined, and then for changing configuration...Also to Ing. Angel Zamudio Poistan, Director of the Instituto Tecnol6gico de Veracruz, and Ing. Josug Nieto Metzger, Subdirector, for their support

  20. Supporting Technology Integration in Adult Education: Critical Issues and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalakrishnan, Ajit

    2006-01-01

    What types of personal support are critical in helping teachers to integrate technology? How can adult education programs provide this support and who is best equipped to provide it? What organizational implications should program administrators consider when institutionalizing this personal support infrastructure? The experiences of eight adult…

  1. Developing an Information Technology Support Model for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, Richard M.

    1997-01-01

    Babson College (Massachusetts) responded to expanded campus computer use and resulting demand for support services by developing service delivery tailored to user groups' needs. Resources devoted to this effort have grown dramatically, and include help desk and dispatch support, program of technology specialists, evening support to residence…

  2. A Brief Guide to Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Rebecca; Gore, Paul A., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    To complement recent articles in this journal on structural equation modeling (SEM) practice and principles by Martens and by Quintana and Maxwell, respectively, the authors offer a consumer's guide to SEM. Using an example derived from theory and research on vocational psychology, the authors outline six steps in SEM: model specification,…

  3. Structural Equation Modeling with Interchangeable Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Joseph A.; Kenny, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) can be adapted in a relatively straightforward fashion to analyze data from interchangeable dyads (i.e., dyads in which the 2 members cannot be differentiated). The authors describe a general strategy for SEM model estimation, comparison, and fit assessment that can be used with either dyad-level or pairwise…

  4. Oxidation-induced structural changes in sub-nanometer platinum supported on alumina

    DOE PAGES

    DeBusk, Melanie Moses; Allard, Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Blom, Douglas Allen; ...

    2015-06-26

    Platinum supported on alumina is an essential component of emission treatment catalysts used in transportation. Theoretical, experimental, and mechanistic aspects of platinum particles supported on a variety of supports have been extensively studied; however, available experimental information on the behavior of single vs. sub-nanometer platinum is extremely limited. To bridge the knowledge gap between single supported platinum and well-formed supported platinum nanoparticles, we have carried out synthesis, characterization, and CO and NO oxidation studies of sub-nanometer platinum supported on α, θ, and γ-Al2O3 and monitored changes in structure upon exposure to CO and NO oxidation conditions. Furthermore, we find thatmore » sub-nanometer Pt is highly effective for CO oxidation due to high platinum dispersion but is not very efficient as NO oxidation catalyst. Lastly, sub-nanometer platinum agglomerates rapidly under CO or NO oxidation conditions to form nanoparticles.« less

  5. Oxidation-induced structural changes in sub-nanometer platinum supported on alumina

    SciTech Connect

    DeBusk, Melanie Moses; Allard, Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Blom, Douglas Allen; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar

    2015-06-26

    Platinum supported on alumina is an essential component of emission treatment catalysts used in transportation. Theoretical, experimental, and mechanistic aspects of platinum particles supported on a variety of supports have been extensively studied; however, available experimental information on the behavior of single vs. sub-nanometer platinum is extremely limited. To bridge the knowledge gap between single supported platinum and well-formed supported platinum nanoparticles, we have carried out synthesis, characterization, and CO and NO oxidation studies of sub-nanometer platinum supported on α, θ, and γ-Al2O3 and monitored changes in structure upon exposure to CO and NO oxidation conditions. Furthermore, we find that sub-nanometer Pt is highly effective for CO oxidation due to high platinum dispersion but is not very efficient as NO oxidation catalyst. Lastly, sub-nanometer platinum agglomerates rapidly under CO or NO oxidation conditions to form nanoparticles.

  6. Improving knowledge management through the support of image examination and data annotation using DICOM structured reporting.

    PubMed

    Torres, José Salavert; Damian Segrelles Quilis, J; Espert, Ignacio Blanquer; García, Vicente Hernandez

    2012-12-01

    An important effort has been invested on improving the image diagnosis process in different medical areas using information technologies. The field of medical imaging involves two main data types: medical imaging and reports. Developments based on the DICOM standard have demonstrated to be a convenient and widespread solution among the medical community. The main objective of this work is to design a Web application prototype that will be able to improve diagnosis and follow-on of breast cancer patients. It is based on TRENCADIS middleware, which provides a knowledge-oriented storage model composed by federated repositories of DICOM image studies and DICOM-SR medical reports. The full structure and contents of the diagnosis reports are used as metadata for indexing images. The TRENCADIS infrastructure takes full advantage of Grid technologies by deploying multi-resource grid services that enable multiple views (reports schemes) of the knowledge database. The paper presents a real deployment of such Web application prototype in the Dr. Peset Hospital providing radiologists with a tool to create, store and search diagnostic reports based on breast cancer explorations (mammography, magnetic resonance, ultrasound, pre-surgery biopsy and post-surgery biopsy), improving support for diagnostics decisions. A technical details for use cases (outlining enhanced multi-resource grid services communication and processing steps) and interactions between actors and the deployed prototype are described. As a result, information is more structured, the logic is clearer, network messages have been reduced and, in general, the system is more resistant to failures.

  7. Is there a need for hydrological modelling in decision support systems for nuclear emergencies.

    PubMed

    Raskob, W; Heling, R; Zheleznyak, M

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of hydrological modelling in decision support systems for nuclear emergencies. In particular, most recent developments such as, the radionuclide transport models integrated in to the decision support system RODOS will be explored. Recent progress in the implementation of physically-based distributed hydrological models for operational forecasting in national and supranational centres, may support a closer cooperation between national hydrological services and therefore, strengthen the use of hydrological and radiological models implemented in decision support systems.

  8. Structured building model reduction toward parallel simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, Justin R.; Hencey, Brondon M.

    2013-08-26

    Building energy model reduction exchanges accuracy for improved simulation speed by reducing the number of dynamical equations. Parallel computing aims to improve simulation times without loss of accuracy but is poorly utilized by contemporary simulators and is inherently limited by inter-processor communication. This paper bridges these disparate techniques to implement efficient parallel building thermal simulation. We begin with a survey of three structured reduction approaches that compares their performance to a leading unstructured method. We then use structured model reduction to find thermal clusters in the building energy model and allocate processing resources. Experimental results demonstrate faster simulation and low error without any interprocessor communication.

  9. Emulating a flexible space structure: Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waites, H. B.; Rice, S. C.; Jones, V. L.

    1988-01-01

    Control Dynamics, in conjunction with Marshall Space Flight Center, has participated in the modeling and testing of Flexible Space Structures. Through the series of configurations tested and the many techniques used for collecting, analyzing, and modeling the data, many valuable insights have been gained and important lessons learned. This paper discusses the background of the Large Space Structure program, Control Dynamics' involvement in testing and modeling of the configurations (especially the Active Control Technique Evaluation for Spacecraft (ACES) configuration), the results from these two processes, and insights gained from this work.

  10. Modeling Symmetric Macromolecular Structures in Rosetta3

    PubMed Central

    DiMaio, Frank; Leaver-Fay, Andrew; Bradley, Phil; Baker, David; André, Ingemar

    2011-01-01

    Symmetric protein assemblies play important roles in many biochemical processes. However, the large size of such systems is challenging for traditional structure modeling methods. This paper describes the implementation of a general framework for modeling arbitrary symmetric systems in Rosetta3. We describe the various types of symmetries relevant to the study of protein structure that may be modeled using Rosetta's symmetric framework. We then describe how this symmetric framework is efficiently implemented within Rosetta, which restricts the conformational search space by sampling only symmetric degrees of freedom, and explicitly simulates only a subset of the interacting monomers. Finally, we describe structure prediction and design applications that utilize the Rosetta3 symmetric modeling capabilities, and provide a guide to running simulations on symmetric systems. PMID:21731614

  11. Feature Extraction for Structural Dynamics Model Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, Charles; Nishio, Mayuko; Hemez, Francois; Stull, Chris; Park, Gyuhae; Cornwell, Phil; Figueiredo, Eloi; Luscher, D. J.; Worden, Keith

    2016-01-13

    As structural dynamics becomes increasingly non-modal, stochastic and nonlinear, finite element model-updating technology must adopt the broader notions of model validation and uncertainty quantification. For example, particular re-sampling procedures must be implemented to propagate uncertainty through a forward calculation, and non-modal features must be defined to analyze nonlinear data sets. The latter topic is the focus of this report, but first, some more general comments regarding the concept of model validation will be discussed.

  12. Space Technology Experiment Platform (STEP). A Shuttle-borne support facility for structures, structural dynamics, and control technology flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. E.; Pinson, L. D.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Transportation System (STS) is used for technology experiments in space. The Space Technology Experiment Platform (STEP) is a Shuttle-borne experiment support facility for use by structures, structural dynamics, and controls technology flight experiments. STEP represents a key element in the commitment to STS utilization. The STEP concept and definition process is discussed, and the results obtained to date on the configuration and function capability are summarized, and preliminary schedule information is presented.

  13. Conditional graphical models for protein structural motif recognition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Carbonell, Jaime; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi; Weigele, Peter

    2009-05-01

    Determining protein structures is crucial to understanding the mechanisms of infection and designing drugs. However, the elucidation of protein folds by crystallographic experiments can be a bottleneck in the development process. In this article, we present a probabilistic graphical model framework, conditional graphical models, for predicting protein structural motifs. It represents the structure characteristics of a structural motif using a graph, where the nodes denote the secondary structure elements, and the edges indicate the side-chain interactions between the components either within one protein chain or between chains. Then the model defines the optimal segmentation of a protein sequence against the graph by maximizing its "conditional" probability so that it can take advantages of the discriminative training approach. Efficient approximate inference algorithms using reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm are developed to handle the resulting complex graphical models. We test our algorithm on four important structural motifs, and our method outperforms other state-of-art algorithms for motif recognition. We also hypothesize potential membership proteins of target folds from Swiss-Prot, which further supports the evolutionary hypothesis about viral folds.

  14. Integrated developmental model of life-support capabilities in wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darnell, R. L.; Obrien, C. O.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a model for CO2, O2, H2O, and nitrogen use during the life cycle of wheat. Spreadsheets and accompanying graphs were developed to illustrate plant population reactions to environmental parameters established in the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program at Kennedy Space Center, Fl. The spreadsheets and graphs were produced using validated biomass production chamber (BPC) data from BWT931. Conditions of the BPC during the 83 day plant growth period were as follows: The BPC area is 27.8 m(exp 2), volume is 113 m(exp 3). Temperatures during the 83 day plant growth period ranged from 16.3 to 24.8 C during the light cycle (except for day 69, when the minimum and maximum temperatures were 7.7 C and 7.9 C, respectively) and 14.5 C and 23.6 C during the dark cycle (except for day 49, when the minimum and maximum temperatures were 11.1 C and 11.3 C, respectively). Relative humidity was 85 percent for the first seven days of plant growth, and 70 percent thereafter. The plant leaf canopy area was 10 m(exp 2). Presented is a list and explanation of each spreadsheet and accompanying graph(s), conditions under which the data were collected, and formulas used to obtain each result.

  15. A method for independent modelling in support of regulatory review of dose assessments.

    PubMed

    Dverstorp, Björn; Xu, Shulan

    2017-03-22

    Several countries consider geological disposal facilities as the preferred option for spent nuclear fuel due to their potential to provide isolation from the surface environment on very long timescales. In 2011 the Swedish Nuclear Fuel & Waste Management Co. (SKB) submitted a license application for construction of a spent nuclear fuel repository. The disposal method involves disposing spent fuel in copper canisters with a cast iron insert at about 500 m depth in crystalline basement rock, and each canister is surrounded by a buffer of swelling bentonite clay. SKB's license application is supported by a post-closure safety assessment, SR-Site. SR-Site has been reviewed by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) for five years. The main method for review of SKB's license application is document review, which is carried out by SSM's staff and supported by SSM's external experts. The review has proven a challenging task due to its broad scope, complexity and multidisciplinary nature. SSM and its predecessors have, for several decades, been developing independent models to support regulatory reviews of post-closure safety assessments for geological repositories. For the review of SR-Site, SSM has developed a modelling approach with a structured application of independent modelling activities, including replication modelling, use of alternative conceptual models and bounding calculations, to complement the traditional document review. This paper describes this scheme and its application to biosphere and dose assessment modelling. SSM's independent modelling has provided important insights regarding quality and reasonableness of SKB's rather complex biosphere modelling and has helped quantifying conservatisms and highlighting conceptual uncertainty.

  16. A Mathematical Model for Interpretable Clinical Decision Support with Applications in Gynecology

    PubMed Central

    Van Belle, Vanya M. C. A.; Van Calster, Ben; Timmerman, Dirk; Bourne, Tom; Bottomley, Cecilia; Valentin, Lil; Neven, Patrick; Van Huffel, Sabine; Suykens, Johan A. K.; Boyd, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Background Over time, methods for the development of clinical decision support (CDS) systems have evolved from interpretable and easy-to-use scoring systems to very complex and non-interpretable mathematical models. In order to accomplish effective decision support, CDS systems should provide information on how the model arrives at a certain decision. To address the issue of incompatibility between performance, interpretability and applicability of CDS systems, this paper proposes an innovative model structure, automatically leading to interpretable and easily applicable models. The resulting models can be used to guide clinicians when deciding upon the appropriate treatment, estimating patient-specific risks and to improve communication with patients. Methods and Findings We propose the interval coded scoring (ICS) system, which imposes that the effect of each variable on the estimated risk is constant within consecutive intervals. The number and position of the intervals are automatically obtained by solving an optimization problem, which additionally performs variable selection. The resulting model can be visualised by means of appealing scoring tables and color bars. ICS models can be used within software packages, in smartphone applications, or on paper, which is particularly useful for bedside medicine and home-monitoring. The ICS approach is illustrated on two gynecological problems: diagnosis of malignancy of ovarian tumors using a dataset containing 3,511 patients, and prediction of first trimester viability of pregnancies using a dataset of 1,435 women. Comparison of the performance of the ICS approach with a range of prediction models proposed in the literature illustrates the ability of ICS to combine optimal performance with the interpretability of simple scoring systems. Conclusions The ICS approach can improve patient-clinician communication and will provide additional insights in the importance and influence of available variables. Future challenges

  17. Design of a molecular support for cryo-EM structure determination

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Thomas G.; Bharat, Tanmay A. M.; Joerger, Andreas C.; Bai, Xiao-chen; Praetorius, Florian; Fersht, Alan R.; Dietz, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent rapid progress in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), there still exist ample opportunities for improvement in sample preparation. Macromolecular complexes may disassociate or adopt nonrandom orientations against the extended air–water interface that exists for a short time before the sample is frozen. We designed a hollow support structure using 3D DNA origami to protect complexes from the detrimental effects of cryo-EM sample preparation. For a first proof-of-principle, we concentrated on the transcription factor p53, which binds to specific DNA sequences on double-stranded DNA. The support structures spontaneously form monolayers of preoriented particles in a thin film of water, and offer advantages in particle picking and sorting. By controlling the position of the binding sequence on a single helix that spans the hollow support structure, we also sought to control the orientation of individual p53 complexes. Although the latter did not yet yield the desired results, the support structures did provide partial information about the relative orientations of individual p53 complexes. We used this information to calculate a tomographic 3D reconstruction, and refined this structure to a final resolution of ∼15 Å. This structure settles an ongoing debate about the symmetry of the p53 tetramer bound to DNA. PMID:27821763

  18. Stochastic Time Models of Syllable Structure

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Jason A.; Gafos, Adamantios I.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on phonology research within the generative linguistics tradition, stochastic methods, and notions from complex systems, we develop a modelling paradigm linking phonological structure, expressed in terms of syllables, to speech movement data acquired with 3D electromagnetic articulography and X-ray microbeam methods. The essential variable in the models is syllable structure. When mapped to discrete coordination topologies, syllabic organization imposes systematic patterns of variability on the temporal dynamics of speech articulation. We simulated these dynamics under different syllabic parses and evaluated simulations against experimental data from Arabic and English, two languages claimed to parse similar strings of segments into different syllabic structures. Model simulations replicated several key experimental results, including the fallibility of past phonetic heuristics for syllable structure, and exposed the range of conditions under which such heuristics remain valid. More importantly, the modelling approach consistently diagnosed syllable structure proving resilient to multiple sources of variability in experimental data including measurement variability, speaker variability, and contextual variability. Prospects for extensions of our modelling paradigm to acoustic data are also discussed. PMID:25996153

  19. Structural equation modeling in environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Buncher, C R; Succop, P A; Dietrich, K N

    1991-01-01

    Environmental epidemiology requires effective models that take individual observations of environmental factors and connect them into meaningful patterns. Single-factor relationships have given way to multivariable analyses; simple additive models have been augmented by multiplicative (logistic) models. Each of these steps has produced greater enlightenment and understanding. Models that allow for factors causing outputs that can affect later outputs with putative causation working at several different time points (e.g., linkage) are not commonly used in the environmental literature. Structural equation models are a class of covariance structure models that have been used extensively in economics/business and social science but are still little used in the realm of biostatistics. Path analysis in genetic studies is one simplified form of this class of models. We have been using these models in a study of the health and development of infants who have been exposed to lead in utero and in the postnatal home environment. These models require as input the directionality of the relationship and then produce fitted models for multiple inputs causing each factor and the opportunity to have outputs serve as input variables into the next phase of the simultaneously fitted model. Some examples of these models from our research are presented to increase familiarity with this class of models. Use of these models can provide insight into the effect of changing an environmental factor when assessing risk. The usual cautions concerning believing a model, believing causation has been proven, and the assumptions that are required for each model are operative. PMID:2050063

  20. Fundamental Bulk/Surface Structure Photoactivity Relationships of Supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN Photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Phivilay, Somphonh; Roberts, Charles; Puretzky, Alexander A; Domen, Kazunari Domen; Wachs, Israel

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN photocatalyst was examined as a model nitride photocatalyst system to assist in the development of fundamental structure photoactivity relationships for UV activated water splitting. Surface characterization of the outermost surface layers by High Sensitivity-LEIS and High Resolution-XPS revealed for the first time that the GaN support consists of a GaOx outermost surface layer and a thin film of GaOxNy in the surface region. HR-XPS also demonstrates that the supported (Rh2-yCryO3) mixed oxide nanoparticles (NPs) exclusively consist of Cr+3 and Rh+3 cations and are surface enriched for the supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN photocatalyst. Bulk analysis by Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy show that the bulk molecular and electronic structures, respectively, of the GaN support are not perturbed by the deposition of the (Rh2-yCryO3) mixed oxide NPs. The function of the GaN bulk lattice is to generate photoexcited electrons/holes, with the electrons harnessed by the surface Rh+3 sites for evolution of H2 and the holes trapped at the Ga oxide/oxynitride surface sites for splitting of water and evolving O2. These new structure-photoactivity relationships for supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN also extend to the best performing visible light activated supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/(Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) photocatalyst.

  1. Leading virtual teams: hierarchical leadership, structural supports, and shared team leadership.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Julia E; Kozlowski, Steve W J

    2014-05-01

    Using a field sample of 101 virtual teams, this research empirically evaluates the impact of traditional hierarchical leadership, structural supports, and shared team leadership on team performance. Building on Bell and Kozlowski's (2002) work, we expected structural supports and shared team leadership to be more, and hierarchical leadership to be less, strongly related to team performance when teams were more virtual in nature. As predicted, results from moderation analyses indicated that the extent to which teams were more virtual attenuated relations between hierarchical leadership and team performance but strengthened relations for structural supports and team performance. However, shared team leadership was significantly related to team performance regardless of the degree of virtuality. Results are discussed in terms of needed research extensions for understanding leadership processes in virtual teams and practical implications for leading virtual teams.

  2. Aeroelastic Model Structure Computation for Envelope Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.

    2007-01-01

    Structure detection is a procedure for selecting a subset of candidate terms, from a full model description, that best describes the observed output. This is a necessary procedure to compute an efficient system description which may afford greater insight into the functionality of the system or a simpler controller design. Structure computation as a tool for black-box modeling may be of critical importance in the development of robust, parsimonious models for the flight-test community. Moreover, this approach may lead to efficient strategies for rapid envelope expansion that may save significant development time and costs. In this study, a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) technique is investigated for computing efficient model descriptions of non-linear aeroelastic systems. The LASSO minimises the residual sum of squares with the addition of an l(Sub 1) penalty term on the parameter vector of the traditional l(sub 2) minimisation problem. Its use for structure detection is a natural extension of this constrained minimisation approach to pseudo-linear regression problems which produces some model parameters that are exactly zero and, therefore, yields a parsimonious system description. Applicability of this technique for model structure computation for the F/A-18 (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) Active Aeroelastic Wing project using flight test data is shown for several flight conditions (Mach numbers) by identifying a parsimonious system description with a high percent fit for cross-validated data.

  3. Preliminary results of Physiological plant growth modelling for human life support in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Hezard, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    Human life support is fundamental and crucial in any kind of space explorations. MELiSSA project of European Space Agency aims at developing a closed, artificial ecological life support system involving human, plants and micro organisms. Consuming carbon dioxide and water from the life support system, plants grow in one of the chambers and convert it into food and oxygen along with potable water. The environmental conditions, nutrient availability and its consumption of plants should be studied and necessarily modeled to predict the amount of food, oxygen and water with respect to the environmental changes and limitations. The reliability of a completely closed system mainly depends on the control laws and strategies used. An efficient control can occur, only if the system to control is itself well known, described and ideally if the responses of the system to environmental changes are predictable. In this aspect, the general structure of plant growth model has been designed together with physiological modelling.The physiological model consists of metabolic models of leaves, stem and roots, of which concern specific metabolisms of the associated plant parts. On the basis of the carbon source transport (eg. sucrose) through stem, the metabolic models (leaf and root) can be interconnected to each other and finally coupled to obtain the entire plant model. For the first step, leaf metabolic model network was built using stoichiometric, mass and energy balanced metabolic equations under steady state approach considering all necessary plant pathways for growth and maintenance of leaves. As the experimental data for lettuce plants grown in closed and controlled environmental chambers were available, the leaf metabolic model has been established for lettuce leaves. The constructed metabolic network is analyzed using known stoichiometric metabolic technique called metabolic flux analysis (MFA). Though, the leaf metabolic model alone is not sufficient to achieve the

  4. Modeling Fission Product Sorption in Graphite Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane; Allen, Todd

    2013-04-08

    The goal of this project is to determine changes in adsorption and desorption of fission products to/from nuclear-grade graphite in response to a changing chemical environment. First, the project team will employ principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis to predict stability of fission products on graphite in the presence of structural defects commonly observed in very high- temperature reactor (VHTR) graphites. Desorption rates will be determined as a function of partial pressure of oxygen and iodine, relative humidity, and temperature. They will then carry out experimental characterization to determine the statistical distribution of structural features. This structural information will yield distributions of binding sites to be used as an input for a sorption model. Sorption isotherms calculated under this project will contribute to understanding of the physical bases of the source terms that are used in higher-level codes that model fission product transport and retention in graphite. The project will include the following tasks: Perform structural characterization of the VHTR graphite to determine crystallographic phases, defect structures and their distribution, volume fraction of coke, and amount of sp2 versus sp3 bonding. This information will be used as guidance for ab initio modeling and as input for sorptivity models; Perform ab initio calculations of binding energies to determine stability of fission products on the different sorption sites present in nuclear graphite microstructures. The project will use density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate binding energies in vacuum and in oxidizing environments. The team will also calculate stability of iodine complexes with fission products on graphite sorption sites; Model graphite sorption isotherms to quantify concentration of fission products in graphite. The binding energies will be combined with a Langmuir isotherm statistical model to predict the sorbed concentration of fission

  5. Connecting Biochemical Photosynthesis Models with Crop Models to Support Crop Improvement.

    PubMed

    Wu, Alex; Song, Youhong; van Oosterom, Erik J; Hammer, Graeme L

    2016-01-01

    The next advance in field crop productivity will likely need to come from improving crop use efficiency of resources (e.g., light, water, and nitrogen), aspects of which are closely linked with overall crop photosynthetic efficiency. Progress in genetic manipulation of photosynthesis is confounded by uncertainties of consequences at crop level because of difficulties connecting across scales. Crop growth and development simulation models that integrate across biological levels of organization and use a gene-to-phenotype modeling approach may present a way forward. There has been a long history of development of crop models capable of simulating dynamics of crop physiological attributes. Many crop models incorporate canopy photosynthesis (source) as a key driver for crop growth, while others derive crop growth from the balance between source- and sink-limitations. Modeling leaf photosynthesis has progressed from empirical modeling via light response curves to a more mechanistic basis, having clearer links to the underlying biochemical processes of photosynthesis. Cross-scale modeling that connects models at the biochemical and crop levels and utilizes developments in upscaling leaf-level models to canopy models has the potential to bridge the gap between photosynthetic manipulation at the biochemical level and its consequences on crop productivity. Here we review approaches to this emerging cross-scale modeling framework and reinforce the need for connections across levels of modeling. Further, we propose strategies for connecting biochemical models of photosynthesis into the cross-scale modeling framework to support crop improvement through photosynthetic manipulation.

  6. Connecting Biochemical Photosynthesis Models with Crop Models to Support Crop Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Alex; Song, Youhong; van Oosterom, Erik J.; Hammer, Graeme L.

    2016-01-01

    The next advance in field crop productivity will likely need to come from improving crop use efficiency of resources (e.g., light, water, and nitrogen), aspects of which are closely linked with overall crop photosynthetic efficiency. Progress in genetic manipulation of photosynthesis is confounded by uncertainties of consequences at crop level because of difficulties connecting across scales. Crop growth and development simulation models that integrate across biological levels of organization and use a gene-to-phenotype modeling approach may present a way forward. There has been a long history of development of crop models capable of simulating dynamics of crop physiological attributes. Many crop models incorporate canopy photosynthesis (source) as a key driver for crop growth, while others derive crop growth from the balance between source- and sink-limitations. Modeling leaf photosynthesis has progressed from empirical modeling via light response curves to a more mechanistic basis, having clearer links to the underlying biochemical processes of photosynthesis. Cross-scale modeling that connects models at the biochemical and crop levels and utilizes developments in upscaling leaf-level models to canopy models has the potential to bridge the gap between photosynthetic manipulation at the biochemical level and its consequences on crop productivity. Here we review approaches to this emerging cross-scale modeling framework and reinforce the need for connections across levels of modeling. Further, we propose strategies for connecting biochemical models of photosynthesis into the cross-scale modeling framework to support crop improvement through photosynthetic manipulation. PMID:27790232

  7. Distributed parameter modeling of repeated truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Han-Ching

    1994-01-01

    A new approach to find homogeneous models for beam-like repeated flexible structures is proposed which conceptually involves two steps. The first step involves the approximation of 3-D non-homogeneous model by a 1-D periodic beam model. The structure is modeled as a 3-D non-homogeneous continuum. The displacement field is approximated by Taylor series expansion. Then, the cross sectional mass and stiffness matrices are obtained by energy equivalence using their additive properties. Due to the repeated nature of the flexible bodies, the mass, and stiffness matrices are also periodic. This procedure is systematic and requires less dynamics detail. The first step involves the homogenization from a 1-D periodic beam model to a 1-D homogeneous beam model. The periodic beam model is homogenized into an equivalent homogeneous beam model using the additive property of compliance along the generic axis. The major departure from previous approaches in literature is using compliance instead of stiffness in homogenization. An obvious justification is that the stiffness is additive at each cross section but not along the generic axis. The homogenized model preserves many properties of the original periodic model.

  8. A Java chemical structure editor supporting the Modular Chemical Descriptor Language (MCDL).

    PubMed

    Trepalin, Sergei V; Yarkov, Alexander V; Pletnev, Igor V; Gakh, Andrei A

    2006-03-29

    A compact Modular Chemical Descriptor Language (MCDL) chemical structure editor (Java applet) is described. The small size (approximately 200 KB) of the applet allows its use to display and edit chemical structures in various Internet applications. The editor supports the MCDL format, in which structures are presented in compact canonical form and is capable of restoring bond orders as well as of managing atom and bond drawing overlap. A small database of cage and large cyclic fragment is used for optimal representation of difficult-to-draw molecules. The improved algorithm of the structure diagram generation can be used for other chemical notations that lack atomic coordinates (SMILES, InChI).

  9. MICADO: the camera support structure at the E-ELT Nasmyth focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicklas, Harald E.; Anwand-Heerwart, Heiko; Schubert, Josef; Rhode, Petra

    2016-08-01

    MICADO is one of the first light instruments at the E-ELT and is designed to work with the MCAO system MAORY. The ability to operate in a stand-alone mode without MAORY includes an additional SCAO wavefront sensing system. Therefore, the instrument support structure has to fulfil two purposes, a) the positioning of the camera in its stand-alone mode and b) when it will be mounted downstream of the MCAO facility MAORY. The instrument support structure of MICADO is addressed regarding its basic functionalities such as passive and possible active positioning of the instrument. Very first FEA results will be given as well as other performance assessments.

  10. Cause and Event: Supporting Causal Claims through Logistic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Ann A.; Gray, DeLeon L.

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to identify and support credible causal claims have received intense interest in the research community, particularly over the past few decades. In this paper, we focus on the use of statistical procedures designed to support causal claims for a treatment or intervention when the response variable of interest is dichotomous. We identify…

  11. Forebay Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling for The Dalles Dam to Support Vortex Suppress Device Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.

    2006-12-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used in an investigation into the suppression of a surface vortex that forms and the south-most spilling bay at The Dalles Project. The CFD work complemented work at the prototype and the reduced-scale physical models. The CFD model was based on a model developed for other work in the forebay but had additional resolution added near the spillway. Vortex suppression devices (VSDs) were to placed between pier noses and/or in the bulkhead slot of the spillway bays. The simulations in this study showed that placing VSD structures or a combination of structures to suppress the vortex would still result in near-surface flows to be entrained in a vortex near the downstream spillwall. These results were supported by physical model and prototype studies. However, there was a consensus of the fish biologists at the physical model that the fish would most likely move north and if the fish went under the VSD it would immediately exit the forebay through the tainter gate and not get trapped between VSDs or the VSDs and the tainter gate if the VSDs were deep enough.

  12. Longitudinal Mediation Modeling of Unhealthy Behaviors as Mediators between Workplace Demands/Support and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Peristera, Paraskevi; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Westerlund, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle has been regarded as a key pathway through which adverse psychosocial working characteristics can give rise to long-term health problems. The purpose of this study was to estimate the indirect/mediated effect of health behaviors in the longitudinal work characteristics-depression relationship. The analyses were based on the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, including 3706 working participants with repeat survey measures on four occasions (2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014). Psychosocial work characteristics including demands and social support were analyzed in relation to depressive symptoms. Autoregressive longitudinal mediation models using structural equation modeling were used to estimate the intermediate effects of unhealthy behaviors including current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Both workplace demands and social support were related to later depressive symptoms. In bivariate models we found no significant paths from workplace demands to health behaviors, but two out of three significant time-specific paths from workplace support to excessive drinking and from excessive drinking to depressive symptoms. Social support was also associated with subsequent unhealthy diet, and one path from unhealthy diet to depressive symptoms was found. However, despite indications of certain longitudinal relationships between psychosocial working conditions and health behaviors as well as between health behaviors and depressive symptoms, no significant intermediate effects were found (p>0.05). We conclude that changes in unhealthy behaviors over a period of two years are unlikely to act as strong intermediaries in the longitudinal relationship between job demands and depressive symptoms and between social support and depressive symptoms. PMID:28036376

  13. Computational model for supporting SHM systems design: Damage identification via numerical analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartorato, Murilo; de Medeiros, Ricardo; Vandepitte, Dirk; Tita, Volnei

    2017-02-01

    This work presents a computational model to simulate thin structures monitored by piezoelectric sensors in order to support the design of SHM systems, which use vibration based methods. Thus, a new shell finite element model was proposed and implemented via a User ELement subroutine (UEL) into the commercial package ABAQUS™. This model was based on a modified First Order Shear Theory (FOST) for piezoelectric composite laminates. After that, damaged cantilever beams with two piezoelectric sensors in different positions were investigated by using experimental analyses and the proposed computational model. A maximum difference in the magnitude of the FRFs between numerical and experimental analyses of 7.45% was found near the resonance regions. For damage identification, different levels of damage severity were evaluated by seven damage metrics, including one proposed by the present authors. Numerical and experimental damage metrics values were compared, showing a good correlation in terms of tendency. Finally, based on comparisons of numerical and experimental results, it is shown a discussion about the potentials and limitations of the proposed computational model to be used for supporting SHM systems design.

  14. Image Modeling and Enhancement via Structured Sparse Model Selection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    signal estimation is then calculated with the selected model. The model selection leads to a guaranteed near optimal denoising estimator. The degree...are adapted to the image of interest and are computed with a simple and fast procedure. State-of-the-art results are shown in image denoising ...deblurring, and inpainting. Index Terms— Model selection, structured sparsity, best basis, denoising , deblurring, inpainting 1. INTRODUCTION Image enhancement

  15. Forest structure and support availability influence orangutan locomotion in Sumatra and Borneo.

    PubMed

    Manduell, Kirsten L; Harrison, Mark E; Thorpe, Susannah K S

    2012-12-01

    The influence of habitat structure and support availability on support use is an important aspect of understanding locomotor behavior in arboreal primates. We compared habitat structure and support availability in three orangutan study sites-two on Sumatra (Pongo abelii) in the dry-lowland forest of Ketambe and peat swamp forest of Suaq Balimbing, and one on Borneo (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) in the disturbed peat swamp forest of Sabangau-to better understand orangutan habitat use. Our analysis revealed vast differences in tree and liana density between the three sites. Sabangau had a much higher overall tree density, although both Sumatran sites had a higher density of larger trees. The two peat swamp forests were more similar to each other than to Ketambe, particularly with regard to support availability. Ketambe had a wider variety of supports of different sizes and types, and a higher density of larger lianas than the two peat swamps. Orangutans in all three sites did not differ substantially in terms of their preferred supports, although Sumatran orangutans had a strong tendency to use lianas, not observed in Sabangau. Differences in observed frequencies of locomotor behavior suggest the homogeneous structure of Sabangau limits the locomotor repertoire of orangutans, with high frequencies of fewer behaviors, whereas the wider range of supports in Ketambe appears to have facilitated a more varied locomotor repertoire. There were no differences among age-sex classes in the use of arboreal pathways in Suaq Balimbing, where orangutans selected larger trees than were typically available. This was less apparent in Sabangau, where orangutans generally used trees in relation to their environmental abundance, reflecting the homogeneous nature of disturbed peat swamp forest. These results demonstrate that forest architecture has an important influence on orangutan locomotion, which may become increasingly important as the structure of orangutan habitat continues to be

  16. An NFC Transceiver with Dual Antenna Structure to Support RF-Powered Transponder Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Junghyun; Kim, Jikon; Kim, Shiho

    A single chip NFC transceiver with Dual Antenna structure supporting not only NFC active and passive mode but also 13.56MHz RFID reader and tag mode is designed and fabricated. The proposed NFC transceiver can operate as a RFID tag even without external power supply thanks to a dual antenna structure for initiator and target. The area increment due to additional target antenna is negligible because the target antenna is constructed by using a shielding layer of the initiator antenna.

  17. High-Temperature Superconductors as Electromagnetic Deployment and Support Structures in Spacecraft. [NASA NIAC Phase I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getliffe, Gwendolyn V.; Inamdar, Niraj K.; Masterson, Rebecca; Miller, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This report, concluding a one-year NIAC Phase I study, describes a new structural and mechanical technique aimed at reducing the mass and increasing the deployed-to-stowed length and volume ratios of spacecraft systems. This technique uses the magnetic fields generated by electrical current passing through coils of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to support spacecraft structures and deploy them to operational configurations from their stowed positions inside a launch vehicle fairing.

  18. Photoreceptor Cells With Profound Structural Deficits Can Support Useful Vision in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Stewart; Blodi, Frederick R.; Lee, Swan; Welder, Chris R.; Mullins, Robert F.; Tucker, Budd A.; Stasheff, Steven F.; Stone, Edwin M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. In animal models of degenerative photoreceptor disease, there has been some success in restoring photoreception by transplanting stem cell–derived photoreceptor cells into the subretinal space. However, only a small proportion of transplanted cells develop extended outer segments, considered critical for photoreceptor cell function. The purpose of this study was to determine whether photoreceptor cells that lack a fully formed outer segment could usefully contribute to vision. Methods. Retinal and visual function was tested in wild-type and Rds mice at 90 days of age (RdsP90). Photoreceptor cells of mice homozygous for the Rds mutation in peripherin 2 never develop a fully formed outer segment. The electroretinogram and multielectrode recording of retinal ganglion cells were used to test retinal responses to light. Three distinct visual behaviors were used to assess visual capabilities: the optokinetic tracking response, the discrimination-based visual water task, and a measure of the effect of vision on wheel running. Results. RdsP90 mice had reduced but measurable electroretinogram responses to light, and exhibited light-evoked responses in multiple types of retinal ganglion cells, the output neurons of the retina. In optokinetic and discrimination-based tests, acuity was measurable but reduced, most notably when contrast was decreased. The wheel running test showed that RdsP90 mice needed 3 log units brighter luminance than wild type to support useful vision (10 cd/m2). Conclusions. Photoreceptors that lack fully formed outer segments can support useful vision. This challenges the idea that normal cellular structure needs to be completely reproduced for transplanted cells to contribute to useful vision. PMID:24569582

  19. Understanding tuberculosis epidemiology using structured statistical models.

    PubMed

    Getoor, Lise; Rhee, Jeanne T; Koller, Daphne; Small, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Molecular epidemiological studies can provide novel insights into the transmission of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. Typically, risk factors for transmission are identified using traditional hypothesis-driven statistical methods such as logistic regression. However, limitations become apparent in these approaches as the scope of these studies expand to include additional epidemiological and bacterial genomic data. Here we examine the use of Bayesian models to analyze tuberculosis epidemiology. We begin by exploring the use of Bayesian networks (BNs) to identify the distribution of tuberculosis patient attributes (including demographic and clinical attributes). Using existing algorithms for constructing BNs from observational data, we learned a BN from data about tuberculosis patients collected in San Francisco from 1991 to 1999. We verified that the resulting probabilistic models did in fact capture known statistical relationships. Next, we examine the use of newly introduced methods for representing and automatically constructing probabilistic models in structured domains. We use statistical relational models (SRMs) to model distributions over relational domains. SRMs are ideally suited to richly structured epidemiological data. We use a data-driven method to construct a statistical relational model directly from data stored in a relational database. The resulting model reveals the relationships between variables in the data and describes their distribution. We applied this procedure to the data on tuberculosis patients in San Francisco from 1991 to 1999, their Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, and data on contact investigations. The resulting statistical relational model corroborated previously reported findings and revealed several novel associations. These models illustrate the potential for this approach to reveal relationships within richly structured data that may not be apparent using conventional statistical approaches. We show that Bayesian

  20. DTFM Modeling and Analysis Method for Gossamer Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Hou-Fei; Lou, Michael; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Gossamer systems are mostly composed of support structures formed by highly flexible, long tubular elements and pre-tensioned thin-film membranes. These systems offer order-of-magnitude reductions in mass and launch volume and will revolutionize the architecture and design of space flight systems that require large in-orbit configurations and apertures. A great interest has been generated in recent years to fly gossamer systems on near-term and future space missions. Modeling and analysis requirements for gossamer structures are unique. Simulation of in-space performance issues of gossamer structures, such as inflation deployment of flexible booms, formation and effects of wrinkle in tensioned membranes, synthesis of tubular and membrane elements into a complete structural system, usually cannot be accomplished by using the general-purpose finite-element structural analysis codes. This has led to the need of structural modeling and analysis capabilities specifically suitable for gossamer structures. The Distributed Transfer Function Method (DTFM) can potentially meet this urgent need. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Evaluating an Integrated Support Model for Increasing Treatment Plan Implementation Following Consultation in Schools.

    PubMed

    Noell, George H; Volz, Jennifer R; Henderson, Marie Y; Williams, Kashunda L

    2017-02-20

    This study examined the percentage of steps implemented from treatment plans following consultation with teachers. Interventions were implemented for 39 elementary school students referred for consultation and treatment for challenging behavior or academic deficits. An integrated support model that included antecedent social influence and planning combined with follow-up performance feedback was compared to weekly structured follow-up interviews. Participating teacher-student dyads were randomly assigned to conditions. Integrated support produced superior treatment implementation and child outcomes compared to weekly follow-up meetings. In contrast, teachers' ratings of consultants' effectiveness, treatment acceptability, and treatment implementation were undifferentiated across conditions. Treatment plan implementation and child behavioral outcomes were statistically significantly correlated. Treatment acceptability and implementation were not correlated at a statistically significant level. The implications of these findings for consultation and treatment research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Au and Pt nanoparticle supported catalysts tailored for H-2 production: From models to powder catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    T. D. Nguyen-Phan; Baber, A. E.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Senanayake, S. D.

    2015-12-10

    The use of metal nanoparticles (NPs), including Au and Pt, supported over oxides has been pivotal, and is ever increasing in enabling catalytic reactions which target the production of hydrogen. We review here the most recent works pertaining to the fundamental understanding of the structure, morphology, growth, characterization, and intrinsic phenomenological properties of Au– and Pt– based catalysts that influence the reactivity and selectivity to target hydrogen production. We draw on surface science and theoretical methods of model and powder catalysts using high resolution imaging, spectroscopy, scattering experiments, and theoretical studies. Based on these insights we identify key aspects of studies of supported metal nanoparticle (NP) catalysts for several reactions. The main focus of this review is on the intersection of catalytic chemistry related to the water-gas shift (WGS), oxygenate steam reforming (OSR), and solarassisted reactions (SAR).

  3. Au and Pt nanoparticle supported catalysts tailored for H-2 production: From models to powder catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    T. D. Nguyen-Phan; Baber, A. E.; Rodriguez, J. A.; ...

    2015-12-10

    The use of metal nanoparticles (NPs), including Au and Pt, supported over oxides has been pivotal, and is ever increasing in enabling catalytic reactions which target the production of hydrogen. We review here the most recent works pertaining to the fundamental understanding of the structure, morphology, growth, characterization, and intrinsic phenomenological properties of Au– and Pt– based catalysts that influence the reactivity and selectivity to target hydrogen production. We draw on surface science and theoretical methods of model and powder catalysts using high resolution imaging, spectroscopy, scattering experiments, and theoretical studies. Based on these insights we identify key aspects ofmore » studies of supported metal nanoparticle (NP) catalysts for several reactions. The main focus of this review is on the intersection of catalytic chemistry related to the water-gas shift (WGS), oxygenate steam reforming (OSR), and solarassisted reactions (SAR).« less

  4. The Relationship between Social Anxiety and Social Support in Adolescents: A Test of Competing Causal Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calsyn, Robert J.; Winter, Joel P.; Burger, Gary K.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the strength of competing causal models in explaining the relationship between perceived support, enacted support, and social anxiety in adolescents. The social causation hypothesis postulates that social support causes social anxiety, whereas the social selection hypothesis postulates that social anxiety causes social support.…

  5. The Effects of the Coordination Support on Shared Mental Models and Coordinated Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunsong; Kim, Dongsik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of coordination support (tool support and tutor support) on the development of shared mental models (SMMs) and coordinated action in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment. Eighteen students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions, including the tool condition, the…

  6. Thermal Effects Modeling Developed for Smart Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun

    1998-01-01

    Applying smart materials in aeropropulsion systems may improve the performance of aircraft engines through a variety of vibration, noise, and shape-control applications. To facilitate the experimental characterization of these smart structures, researchers have been focusing on developing analytical models to account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response of these materials. One focus of current research efforts has been directed toward incorporating a comprehensive thermal analysis modeling capability. Typically, temperature affects the behavior of smart materials by three distinct mechanisms: Induction of thermal strains because of coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch 1. Pyroelectric effects on the piezoelectric elements; 2. Temperature-dependent changes in material properties; and 3. Previous analytical models only investigated the first two thermal effects mechanisms. However, since the material properties of piezoelectric materials generally vary greatly with temperature (see the graph), incorporating temperature-dependent material properties will significantly affect the structural deflections, sensory voltages, and stresses. Thus, the current analytical model captures thermal effects arising from all three mechanisms through thermopiezoelectric constitutive equations. These constitutive equations were incorporated into a layerwise laminate theory with the inherent capability to model both the active and sensory response of smart structures in thermal environments. Corresponding finite element equations were formulated and implemented for both the beam and plate elements to provide a comprehensive thermal effects modeling capability.

  7. Feature extraction for structural dynamics model validation

    SciTech Connect

    Hemez, Francois; Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae; Nishio, Mayuko; Worden, Keith; Takeda, Nobuo

    2010-11-08

    This study focuses on defining and comparing response features that can be used for structural dynamics model validation studies. Features extracted from dynamic responses obtained analytically or experimentally, such as basic signal statistics, frequency spectra, and estimated time-series models, can be used to compare characteristics of structural system dynamics. By comparing those response features extracted from experimental data and numerical outputs, validation and uncertainty quantification of numerical model containing uncertain parameters can be realized. In this study, the applicability of some response features to model validation is first discussed using measured data from a simple test-bed structure and the associated numerical simulations of these experiments. issues that must be considered were sensitivity, dimensionality, type of response, and presence or absence of measurement noise in the response. Furthermore, we illustrate a comparison method of multivariate feature vectors for statistical model validation. Results show that the outlier detection technique using the Mahalanobis distance metric can be used as an effective and quantifiable technique for selecting appropriate model parameters. However, in this process, one must not only consider the sensitivity of the features being used, but also correlation of the parameters being compared.

  8. Model-guided labeling of coronary structure.

    PubMed

    Ezquerra, N; Capell, S; Klein, L; Duijves, P

    1998-06-01

    Assigning anatomic labels to coronary arteries in X-ray angiograms is an important task in medical imaging, motivated by the desire to standardize the assessment of coronary artery disease and to facilitate the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction and visualization of the coronary vasculature. However, automatic labeling poses a number of significant challenges, including the presence of noise, artifacts, competing structures, misleading visual cues, and other difficulties associated with a dynamic and inherently complex structure. We have developed a model-guided approach that addresses these challenges and automatically labels the vascular structure in coronary angiographic images. The approach consists of two models: 1) a symbolic model, represented through a directed acyclic graph, that captures vascular tree hierarchies and branch interrelationships and 2) a generalized 3-D model that captures spatial and geometric relationships. Importantly, the approach detects ambiguities (such as vessel overlaps) that may be found in a frame of a ciné sequence, and resolves these ambiguities by considering the information derived from other (unambiguous) frames in the temporal sequence, employing dynamic programming methods to match the image features found in the different (ambiguous and unambiguous) frames. This paper presents this model-guided labeling algorithm and discusses the experimental results obtained from implementing and applying the resulting labeling system to a variety of clinical images. The results indicate the feasibility of achieving robust and consistently accurate image labeling through this model-guided, temporal disambiguation method.

  9. Beware of high stresses in ``A`` frame supported two-level bus structures

    SciTech Connect

    Thaik, A.

    1995-10-01

    Rigid-bus structures in many low profile, high voltage transmission substations consist of two-level bus assemblies of tubular conductors with one bus assembly supporting the other bus assembly with rigid tubular ``A`` frames at the crossover points. The lower-level bus is normally supported by a single porcelain post insulator under the ``A`` frame. Rigid ``A`` frames not only support the upper-level bus assembly, but also make the electrical connections between the two buses. This paper addresses the stress problem in the lower-level bus of the two-level bus structure. It presents the results of the structural analysis of a sample two-level bus structure using a simple structural method based on the Three Moment Theorem and equilibrium equations. A spreadsheet template is used to perform the mathematical calculations. The spreadsheet first calculates the maximum allowable bus span length in accordance with the IEEE Standard 605 and then determines the internal stress on the upper and lower-level bus conductors in the two-level rigid bus structures.

  10. Data Model for Multi Hazard Risk Assessment Spatial Support Decision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrejchenko, Vera; Bakker, Wim; van Westen, Cees

    2014-05-01

    The goal of the CHANGES Spatial Decision Support System is to support end-users in making decisions related to risk reduction measures for areas at risk from multiple hydro-meteorological hazards. The crucial parts in the design of the system are the user requirements, the data model, the data storage and management, and the relationships between the objects in the system. The implementation of the data model is carried out entirely with an open source database management system with a spatial extension. The web application is implemented using open source geospatial technologies with PostGIS as the database, Python for scripting, and Geoserver and javascript libraries for visualization and the client-side user-interface. The model can handle information from different study areas (currently, study areas from France, Romania, Italia and Poland are considered). Furthermore, the data model handles information about administrative units, projects accessible by different types of users, user-defined hazard types (floods, snow avalanches, debris flows, etc.), hazard intensity maps of different return periods, spatial probability maps, elements at risk maps (buildings, land parcels, linear features etc.), economic and population vulnerability information dependent on the hazard type and the type of the element at risk, in the form of vulnerability curves. The system has an inbuilt database of vulnerability curves, but users can also add their own ones. Included in the model is the management of a combination of different scenarios (e.g. related to climate change, land use change or population change) and alternatives (possible risk-reduction measures), as well as data-structures for saving the calculated economic or population loss or exposure per element at risk, aggregation of the loss and exposure using the administrative unit maps, and finally, producing the risk maps. The risk data can be used for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE). The

  11. Modeling of variable speed refrigerated display cabinets based on adaptive support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhikun; Han, Hua; Gu, Bo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the adaptive support vector machine (ASVM) method is introduced to the field of intelligent modeling of refrigerated display cabinets and used to construct a highly precise mathematical model of their performance. A model for a variable speed open vertical display cabinet was constructed using preprocessing techniques for measured data, including the elimination of outlying data points by the use of an exponential weighted moving average (EWMA). Using dynamic loss coefficient adjustment, the adaptation of the SVM for use in this application was achieved. From there, the object function for energy use per unit of display area total energy consumption (TEC)/total display area (TDA) was constructed and solved using the ASVM method. When compared to the results achieved using a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) model, the ASVM model for the refrigerated display cabinet was characterized by its simple structure, fast convergence speed and high prediction accuracy. The ASVM model also has better noise rejection properties than that of original SVM model. It was revealed by the theoretical analysis and experimental results presented in this paper that it is feasible to model of the display cabinet built using the ASVM method.

  12. Logic Models as a Way to Support Online Students and Their Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strycker, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    As online enrollment continues to grow, students may need additional pedagogical supports to increase their likelihood of success in online environments that don't offer the same supports as those found in face to face classrooms. Logic models are a way to provide such support to students by helping to model project expectations, allowing students…

  13. Case Residuals in Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinale, John

    2011-01-01

    From the beginning, lead methodologists in psychometrics and quantitative psychology have been well aware of the problems of fitting structural and confirmatory factor models. The question we approach in our research is how to best detect this misfit and how to identify specific sources of misfit by scrutinizing the data at the case level. Since…

  14. Structural Equation Modeling in Rehabilitation Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Fong; Lee, Gloria K.; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Kubota, Coleen; Allen, Chase A.

    2007-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) has become increasingly popular in counseling, psychology, and rehabilitation research. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the basic concepts and applications of SEM in rehabilitation counseling research using the AMOS statistical software program.

  15. Transient thermal stress recovery for structural models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, William

    1992-01-01

    A method for computing transient thermal stress vectors from temperature vectors is described. The three step procedure involves the use of NASTRAN to generate an influence coefficient matrix which relates temperatures to stresses in the structural model. The transient thermal stresses are then recovered and sorted for maximum and minimum values. Verification data for the procedure is also provided.

  16. Structural modeling of amorphous conducting carbon film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Pati, Swapan K.; Subramanyam, S. V.

    1998-04-01

    Amorphous conducting carbon films are prepared using plasma assisted polymerization process. SEM and TEM shows random aggregate of globular clusters of micron size inside the samples. Electrical measurements indicate a near metallic nature. A tendency of saturation of resistivity at low temperature is observed. From spectroscopic analysis we find some unusual features. Based on these observations a structural model of this carbon is proposed.

  17. Teaching a Model for Writing Lewis Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Juan Quilez

    1989-01-01

    Presents a didactic model to improve the teaching/learning process in the representation of Lewis structures. Places special emphasis on the calculation and reduction of formal charges, and in the representation of molecules in which the central atom has expanded its valence shell. (MVL)

  18. Mechanical Model Development for Composite Structural Supercapacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Trenton M.; Lacy, Thomas E., Jr.; Santiago, Diana; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2016-01-01

    Novel composite structural supercapacitor concepts have recently been developed as a means both to store electrical charge and to provide modest mechanical load carrying capability. Double-layer composite supercapacitors are often fabricated by impregnating a woven carbon fiber fabric, which serves as the electrodes, with a structural polymer electrolyte. Polypropylene or a glass fabric is often used as the separator material. Recent research has been primarily limited to evaluating these composites experimentally. In this study, mechanical models based on the Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells (MSGMC) were developed and used to calculate the shear and tensile properties and response of two composite structural supercapacitors from the literature. The modeling approach was first validated against traditional composite laminate data. MSGMC models for composite supercapacitors were developed, and accurate elastic shear/tensile properties were obtained. It is envisioned that further development of the models presented in this work will facilitate the design of composite components for aerospace and automotive applications and can be used to screen candidate constituent materials for inclusion in future composite structural supercapacitor concepts.

  19. Youth Activity Involvement, Neighborhood Adult Support, Individual Decision Making Skills, and Early Adolescent Delinquent Behaviors: Testing a Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crean, Hugh F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines a cross-sectional structural equation model of participation in youth activities, neighborhood adult support, individual decision making skills, and delinquent behavior in urban middle school youths (n = 2611). Results indicate extracurricular activity participation had both direct and indirect associations with delinquent…

  20. Gender-Specific Models of Work-Bound Korean Adolescents' Social Supports and Career Adaptability on Subsequent Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hyojung; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2015-01-01

    A Korean national database, the High School Graduates Occupational Mobility Survey, was used to examine the influence of perceived social supports (family and school) and career adaptability on the subsequent job satisfaction of work-bound adolescents 4 months after their transition from high school to work. Structural equation modeling analysis…