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Sample records for supraglottic airway devices

  1. Supraglottic airway devices in children

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, S; Jayanthi, R

    2011-01-01

    Modern anaesthesia practice in children was made possible by the invention of the endotracheal tube (ET), which made lengthy and complex surgical procedures feasible without the disastrous complications of airway obstruction, aspiration of gastric contents or asphyxia. For decades, endotracheal intubation or bag-and-mask ventilation were the mainstays of airway management. In 1983, this changed with the invention of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA), the first supraglottic airway device that blended features of the facemask with those of the ET, providing ease of placement and hands-free maintenance along with a relatively secure airway. The invention and development of the LMA by Dr. Archie Brain has had a significant impact on the practice of anaesthesia, management of the difficult airway and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children and neonates. This review article will be a brief about the clinical applications of supraglottic airways in children. PMID:22174464

  2. Unrecognized failed airway management using a supraglottic airway device.

    PubMed

    Vithalani, Veer D; Vlk, Sabrina; Davis, Steven Q; Richmond, Neal J

    2017-10-01

    911 Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems utilize supraglottic devices for either primary advanced airway management, or for airway rescue following failed attempts at direct laryngoscopy endotracheal intubation. There is, however, limited data on objective confirmation of supraglottic airway placement in the prehospital environment. Furthermore, the ability of EMS field providers to recognize a misplaced airway is unknown. Retrospective review of patients who underwent airway management using the King LTS-D supraglottic airway in a large urban EMS system, between 3/1/15-9/30/2015. Subjective success was defined as documentation of successful airway placement by the EMS provider. Objective success was confirmed by review of waveform capnography, with the presence of a 4-phase waveform greater than 5mmHg. Sensitivity and specificity of the field provider's assessment of success were then calculated. A total of 344 supraglottic airway attempts were reviewed. No patients met obvious death criteria. 269 attempts (85.1%) met criteria for both subjective and objective success. 19 attempts (5.6%) were recognized failures by the EMS provider. 47 (13.8%) airways were misplaced but unrecognized by the EMS provider. 4 attempts (1.2%) were correctly placed but misidentified as failures, leading to the unnecessary removal and replacement of the airway. Sensitivity of the provider's assessment was 98.5%; specificity was 28.7%. The use of supraglottic airway devices results in unrecognized failed placement. Appropriate utilization and review of waveform capnography may remedy a potential blind-spot in patient safety, and systemic monitoring/feedback processes may therefore be used to prevent unrecognized misplaced airways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Repair of damaged supraglottic airway devices: A novel method

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Damage of laryngeal mask airway and other supraglottic airway devices has always been a matter of concern. Although manufacturer recommends maximum 40 uses of LMA (and its congeners) but damage before 40 uses needs to be evaluated. We hereby, describe a novel method of repair of supraglottic devices when damage occurs at mask inflation line or pilot balloon valve assembly. PMID:20565731

  4. Essentials of airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation: part 2: advanced airway devices: supraglottic airways.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M B; Phero, J C; Becker, D E

    2014-01-01

    Offices and outpatient dental facilities must be properly equipped with devices for airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation. Part 1 in this series on emergency airway management focused on basic and fundamental considerations for supplying supplemental oxygen to the spontaneously breathing patient and utilizing a bag-valve-mask system including nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airways to deliver oxygen under positive pressure to the apneic patient. This article will review the evolution and use of advanced airway devices, specifically supraglottic airways, with the emphasis on the laryngeal mask airway, as the next intervention in difficult airway and ventilation management. The final part of the series (part 3) will address airway evaluation, equipment and devices for tracheal intubation, and invasive airway procedures.

  5. Essentials of Airway Management, Oxygenation, and Ventilation: Part 2: Advanced Airway Devices: Supraglottic Airways

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, M. B; Phero, J. C; Becker, D. E

    2014-01-01

    Offices and outpatient dental facilities must be properly equipped with devices for airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation. Part 1 in this series on emergency airway management focused on basic and fundamental considerations for supplying supplemental oxygen to the spontaneously breathing patient and utilizing a bag-valve-mask system including nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airways to deliver oxygen under positive pressure to the apneic patient. This article will review the evolution and use of advanced airway devices, specifically supraglottic airways, with the emphasis on the laryngeal mask airway, as the next intervention in difficult airway and ventilation management. The final part of the series (part 3) will address airway evaluation, equipment and devices for tracheal intubation, and invasive airway procedures. PMID:25191986

  6. A comparison of various supraglottic airway devices for fiberoptical guided tracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Metterlein, Thomas; Dintenfelder, Anna; Plank, Christoph; Graf, Bernhard; Roth, Gabriel

    Fiberoptical assisted intubation via placed supraglottic airway devices has been described as safe and easy procedure to manage difficult airways. However visualization of the glottis aperture is essential for fiberoptical assisted intubation. Various different supraglottic airway devices are commercially available and might offer different conditions for fiberoptical assisted intubation. The aim of this study was to compare the best obtainable view of the glottic aperture using different supraglottic airway devices. With approval of the local ethics committee 52 adult patients undergoing elective anesthesia were randomly assigned to a supraglottic airway device (Laryngeal Tube, Laryngeal Mask Airway I-Gel, Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique, Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme, Laryngeal Mask Airway Aura-once). After standardized induction of anesthesia the supraglottic airway device was placed according to the manufacturers recommendations. After successful ventilation the position of the supraglottic airway device in regard to the glottic opening was examined with a flexible fiberscope. A fully or partially visible glottic aperture was considered as suitable for fiberoptical assisted intubation. Suitability for fiberoptical assisted intubation was compared between the groups (H-test, U-test; p<0.05). Demographic data was not different between the groups. Placement of the supraglottic airway device and adequate ventilation was successful in all attempts. Glottic view suitable for fiberoptical assisted intubation differed between the devices ranging from 40% for the laringeal tube (LT), 66% for the laryngeal mask airway Supreme, 70% for the Laryngeal Mask Airway I-Gel and 90% for both the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique and the Laryngeal Mask Airway Aura-once. None of the used supraglottic airway devices offered a full or partial glottic view in all cases. However the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique and the Laryngeal Mask Airway Aura-once seem to be more suitable for fiberoptical

  7. [A comparison of various supraglottic airway devices for fiberoptical guided tracheal intubation].

    PubMed

    Metterlein, Thomas; Dintenfelder, Anna; Plank, Christoph; Graf, Bernhard; Roth, Gabriel

    Fiberoptical assisted intubation via placed supraglottic airway devices has been described as safe and easy procedure to manage difficult airways. However visualization of the glottis aperture is essential for fiberoptical assisted intubation. Various different supraglottic airway devices are commercially available and might offer different conditions for fiberoptical assisted intubation. The aim of this study was to compare the best obtainable view of the glottic aperture using different supraglottic airway devices. With approval of the local ethics committee 52 adult patients undergoing elective anesthesia were randomly assigned to a supraglottic airway device (Laryngeal Tube, Laryngeal Mask Airway I-Gel, Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique, Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme, Laryngeal Mask Airway Aura-once). After standardized induction of anaesthesia the supraglottic airway device was placed according to the manufacturers recommendations. After successful ventilation the position of the supraglottic airway device in regard to the glottic opening was examined with a flexible fiberscope. A fully or partially visible glottic aperture was considered as suitable for fiberoptical assisted intubation. Suitability for fiberoptical assisted intubation was compared between the groups (H-test, U-test; p<0.05). Demographic data was not different between the groups. Placement of the supraglottic airway device and adequate ventilation was successful in all attempts. Glottic view suitable for fiberoptical assisted intubation differed between the devices ranging from 40% for the laringeal tube (LT), 66% for the laryngeal mask airway Supreme, 70% for the Laryngeal Mask Airway I-Gel and 90% for both the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique and the Laryngeal Mask Airway Aura-once. None of the used supraglottic airway devices offered a full or partial glottic view in all cases. However the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique and the Laryngeal Mask Airway Aura-once seem to be more suitable for fiberoptical

  8. Air-Q intubating laryngeal airway: A study of the second generation supraglottic airway device

    PubMed Central

    Attarde, Viren Bhaskar; Kotekar, Nalini; Shetty, Sarika M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Air-Q intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILA) is used as a supraglottic airway device and as a conduit for endotracheal intubation. This study aims to assess the efficacy of the Air-Q ILA regarding ease of insertion, adequacy of ventilation, rate of successful intubation, haemodynamic response and airway morbidity. Methods: Sixty patients presenting for elective surgery at our Medical College Hospital were selected. Following adequate premedication, baseline vital parameters, pulse rate and blood pressure were recorded. Air-Q size 3.5 for patients 50-70 kg and size 4.5 for 70-100 kg was selected. After achieving adequate intubating conditions, Air-Q ILA was introduced. Confirming adequate ventilation, appropriate sized endotracheal tube was advanced through the Air-Q blindly to intubate the trachea. Placement of the endotracheal tube in trachea was confirmed. Results: Air-Q ILA was successfully inserted in 88.3% of patients in first attempt and 11.7% patients in second attempt. Ventilation was adequate in 100% of patients. Intubation was successful in 76.7% of patients with Air-Q ILA. 23.3% of patients were intubated by direct laryngoscopy following failure with two attempts using Air-Q ILA. Post-intubation the change in heart rate was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). 10% of patients were noted to have a sore throat and 5% of patients had mild airway trauma. Conclusion: Air-Q ILA is a reliable device as a supraglottic airway ensuring adequate ventilation as well as a conduit for endotracheal intubation. It benefits the patient by avoiding the stress of direct laryngoscopy and is also superior alternative device for use in a difficult airway. PMID:27212722

  9. Standard versus Rotation Technique for Insertion of Supraglottic Airway Devices: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Ha; Lee, Jong Seok; Nam, Sang Beom; Ju, Jin Wu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Supraglottic airway devices have been widely utilized as an alternative to tracheal intubation in various clinical situations. The rotation technique has been proposed to improve the insertion success rate of supraglottic airways. However, the clinical efficacy of this technique remains uncertain as previous results have been inconsistent, depending on the variable evaluated. Materials and Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in April 2015 for randomized controlled trials that compared the rotation and standard techniques for inserting supraglottic airways. Results Thirteen randomized controlled trials (1505 patients, 753 with the rotation technique) were included. The success rate at the first attempt was significantly higher with the rotation technique than with the standard technique [relative risk (RR): 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05 to 1.23; p=0.002]. The rotation technique provided significantly higher overall success rates (RR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.09; p<0.001). Device insertion was completed faster with the rotation technique (mean difference: -4.6 seconds; 95% CI: -7.37 to -1.74; p=0.002). The incidence of blood staining on the removed device (RR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.47; p<0.001) was significantly lower with the rotation technique. Conclusion The rotation technique provided higher first-attempt and overall success rates, faster insertion, and a lower incidence of blood on the removed device, reflecting less mucosal trauma. Thus, it may be considered as an alternative to the standard technique when predicting or encountering difficulty in inserting supraglottic airways. PMID:27189296

  10. Standard versus Rotation Technique for Insertion of Supraglottic Airway Devices: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Ha; Lee, Jong Seok; Nam, Sang Beom; Ju, Jin Wu; Kim, Min Soo

    2016-07-01

    Supraglottic airway devices have been widely utilized as an alternative to tracheal intubation in various clinical situations. The rotation technique has been proposed to improve the insertion success rate of supraglottic airways. However, the clinical efficacy of this technique remains uncertain as previous results have been inconsistent, depending on the variable evaluated. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in April 2015 for randomized controlled trials that compared the rotation and standard techniques for inserting supraglottic airways. Thirteen randomized controlled trials (1505 patients, 753 with the rotation technique) were included. The success rate at the first attempt was significantly higher with the rotation technique than with the standard technique [relative risk (RR): 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05 to 1.23; p=0.002]. The rotation technique provided significantly higher overall success rates (RR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.09; p<0.001). Device insertion was completed faster with the rotation technique (mean difference: -4.6 seconds; 95% CI: -7.37 to -1.74; p=0.002). The incidence of blood staining on the removed device (RR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.47; p<0.001) was significantly lower with the rotation technique. The rotation technique provided higher first-attempt and overall success rates, faster insertion, and a lower incidence of blood on the removed device, reflecting less mucosal trauma. Thus, it may be considered as an alternative to the standard technique when predicting or encountering difficulty in inserting supraglottic airways.

  11. Airway management using a supraglottic airway device without endotracheal intubation for positive ventilation of anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Cheong, S H; Lee, J H; Kim, M H; Cho, K R; Lim, S H; Lee, K M; Park, M Y; Yang, Y I; Kim, D K; Choi, C S

    2013-04-01

    Endotracheal intubation is often necessary for positive pressure ventilation of rats during open thoracic surgery. Since endotracheal intubation in rats is technically difficult and is associated with numerous complications, many techniques using various devices have been described in the scientific literature. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of airway management of a home-made supraglottic airway device (SAD), which is cheap to fabricate and easy to place with that of an endotracheal intubation tube in enflurane-anaesthetized rats. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-300 g) were randomly assigned to two equal groups for positive pressure mechanical ventilation using either the SAD or an endotracheal intubation tube. The carotid artery of each rat was cannulated for continuous blood pressure measurements and obtaining blood samples for determination of oxygen tension, carbon dioxide tension, and blood acidity before, during and after SAD placement or endotracheal intubation. Proper placement of the SAD was confirmed by observing chest wall movements that coincided with the operation of the mechanical ventilator. No complications and adverse events were encountered in the rats in which the SAD was placed, during SAD placement and immediate removal, during their mechanical ventilation through the SAD, and one week after SAD removal. From the results of blood gas analyses, we conclude that anaesthetized rats can be successfully ventilated using an SAD for open thoracic surgery.

  12. Laypersons can successfully place supraglottic airways with 3 minutes of training. A comparison of four different devices in the manikin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Supraglottic airway devices have frequently been shown to facilitate airway management and are implemented in the ILCOR resuscitation algorithm. Limited data exists concerning laypersons without any medical or paramedical background. We hypothesized that even laymen would be able to operate supraglottic airway devices after a brief training session. Methods Four different supraglottic airway devices: Laryngeal Mask Classic (LMA), Laryngeal Tube (LT), Intubating Laryngeal Mask (FT) and CobraPLA (Cobra) were tested in 141 volunteers recruited in a technical university cafeteria and in a shopping mall. All volunteers received a brief standardized training session. Primary endpoint was the time required to definitive insertion. In a short questionnaire applicants were asked to assess the devices and to answer some general questions about BLS. Results The longest time to insertion was observed for Cobra (31.9 ± 27.9 s, range: 9-120, p < 0.0001; all means ± standard deviation). There was no significant difference between the insertion times of the other three devices. Fewest insertion attempts were needed for the FT (1.07 ± 0.26), followed by the LMA (1.23 ± 0.52, p > 0.05), the LT (1.36 ± 0.61, p < 0.05) and the Cobra (1.45 ± 0.7, p < 0.0001). Ventilation was achieved on the first attempt significantly more often with the FT (p < 0.001) compared to the other devices. Nearly 90% of the participants were in favor of implementing supraglottic airway devices in first aid algorithms and classes. Conclusion Laypersons are able to operate supraglottic airway devices in manikin with minimal instruction. Ventilation was achieved with all devices tested after a reasonable time and with a high success rate of > 95%. The use of supraglottic airway devices in first aid and BLS algorithms should be considered. PMID:22024311

  13. I-gel versus laryngeal mask airway-Proseal: Comparison of two supraglottic airway devices in short surgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Poonam A; Dalvi, Naina P; Tendolkar, Bharati A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Supraglottic airway devices have been established in clinical anesthesia practice and have been previously shown to be safe and efficient. The objective of this prospective, randomized trial was to compare I-Gel with LMA-Proseal in anesthetized spontaneously breathing patients. Material and Methods: Sixty patients undergoing short surgical procedures were randomly assigned to I-gel (Group I) or LMA- Proseal (Group P). Anesthesia was induced with standard doses of propofol and the supraglottic airway device was inserted. We compared the ease and time required for insertion, airway sealing pressure and adverse events. Results: There were no significant differences in demographic and hemodynamic data. I-gel was significantly easier to insert than LMA-Proseal (P < 0.05) (Chi-square test). The mean time for insertion was more with Group P (41 + 09.41 secs) than with Group I (29.53 + 08.23 secs) (P < 0.05). Although the airway sealing pressure was significantly higher with Group P (25.73 + 02.21 cm of H2O), the airway sealing pressure of Group I (20.07 + 02.94 cm of H2O) was very well within normal limit (Student's t test). The success rate of first attempt insertion was more with Group I (P < 0.05). There was no evidence of airway trauma, regurgitation and aspiration. Sore throat was significantly more evident in Group P. Conclusion: I-Gel is a innovative supraglottic device with acceptable airway sealing pressure, easier to insert, less traumatic with lower incidence of sore throat. Hence I-Gel can be a good alternative to LMA-Proseal. PMID:25948905

  14. Assessment of v-gel supraglottic airway device placement in cats performed by inexperienced veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Barletta, M; Kleine, S A; Quandt, J E

    2015-11-21

    Endotracheal intubation has been associated with several complications in cats. The v-gel supraglottic airway device (SGAD) has been developed to adapt to the unique oropharynx of the cat and to overcome these complications. Thirty-three cats were randomly assigned to receive an endotracheal tube (ETT group) or a v-gel SGAD (v-gel group) after induction of general anaesthesia. Third year veterinary students without previous clinical experience placed these devices under direct supervision of an anaesthesiologist. Amount of propofol, number of attempts, time required to secure the airway, leakage around the device, signs of upper airway discomfort and food consumption were compared between the two groups. The v-gel group required less propofol (P=0.03), less time (P<0.01) and fewer attempts (P<0.01) to secure the cats' airway. The incidence of leakage was lower for the v-gel group immediately after placement of the device (P<0.01) and 60 minutes after induction of general anaesthesia (P=0.04). Cats that received the v-gel SGAD presented a lower incidence of upper airway discomfort immediately after the device was removed (P=0.03) and recorded a higher food consumption score (P=0.03). The v-gel SGAD is a feasible way to secure the airway of healthy cats when performed by inexperienced personnel.

  15. Complications Associated with the Use of Supraglottic Airway Devices in Perioperative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, William; Vobrubova, Eliska; Hakl, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Supraglottic airway devices are routinely used for airway maintenance in elective surgical procedures where aspiration is not a significant risk and also as rescue devices in difficult airway management. Some devices now have features mitigating risk of aspiration, such as drain tubes or compartments to manage regurgitated content. Despite this, the use of these device may be associated with various complications including aspiration. This review highlights the types and incidence of these complications. They include regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents, compression of vascular structures, trauma, and nerve injury. The incidence of such complications is quite low, but as some carry with them a significant degree of morbidity the need to follow manufacturers' advice is underlined. The incidence of gastric content aspiration associated with the devices is estimated to be as low as 0.02% with perioperative regurgitation being significantly higher but underreported. Other serious, but extremely rare, complications include pharyngeal rupture, pneumomediastinum, mediastinitis, or arytenoid dislocation. Mild short-lasting adverse effects of the devices have significantly higher incidence than serious complications and involve postoperative sore throat, dysphagia, pain on swallowing, or hoarseness. Devices may have deleterious effect on cervical mucosa or vasculature depending on their cuff volume and pressure. PMID:26783527

  16. Comparison of Five 2nd-Generation Supraglottic Airway Devices for Airway Management Performed by Novice Military Operators

    PubMed Central

    Henlin, Tomas; Sotak, Michal; Kovaricek, Petr; Balcarek, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Five different second-generation supraglottic airway devices, ProSeal LMA, Supreme LMA, i-gel, SLIPA, and Laryngeal Tube Suction-D, were studied. Operators were inexperienced users with a military background, combat lifesavers, nurses, and physicians. Methods. This was a prospective, randomized, single-blinded study. Devices were inserted in the operating room in low light conditions after induction of general anesthesia. Primary outcome was successful insertion on the first attempt while secondary aims were insertion time, number of attempts, oropharyngeal seal pressure, ease of insertion, fibre optic position of device, efficacy of ventilation, and intraoperative trauma or regurgitation of gastric contents. Results. In total, 505 patients were studied. First-attempt insertion success rate was higher in the Supreme LMA (96%), i-gel (87.9%), and ProSeal LMA (85.9%) groups than in the Laryngeal Tube Suction-D (80.6%) and SLIPA (69.4%) groups. Insertion time was shortest in the Supreme LMA (70.4 ± 32.5 s) and i-gel (74.4 ± 41.1 s) groups (p < 0.001). Oropharyngeal seal pressures were higher in the Laryngeal Tube Suction-D and ProSeal LMA groups than in other three devices. Conclusions. Most study parameters for the Supreme LMA and i-gel were found to be superior to the other three tested supraglottic airway devices when inserted by novice military operators. PMID:26495289

  17. Comparison of three supraglottic airway devices for airway rescue in the prone position: A manikin-based study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Babita; Gupta, Surender; Hijam, Bijaya; Shende, Pallavi; Rewari, Vimi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accidental extubation during surgery in prone position can be life-threatening. Supraglottic airway devices (SAD) have been used successfully in such situations to rescue the airway. However, which SAD would be most appropriate in this setting has not been described in the literature. Aims: The aim of our study was to determine the most appropriate SAD for securing airway in a prone position during accidental extubation. Materials and Methods: In the study, Airway Trainer (Laerdal) manikin was used for studying insertion of three SADs; I-gel, Laryngeal Mask Airway ProSeal™ (PLMA) and LMA Classic™ (CLMA) in the prone position. Forty anesthesia resident doctors participated in this study. The time taken for insertion; ease of insertion and ventilation; bronchoscopic view; and insertion score were compared among the three groups. Results: The time taken for I-gel insertion was significantly lesser (12.89 ± 3.94 seconds) as compared to CLMA (17.07 ± 3.5 seconds) and PLMA (25 + 4.78 seconds). Least resistance was encountered in the insertion of I-gel, while maximum resistance was experienced in PLMA group (22.5% vs. 90%). The maneuver required for optimal positioning was observed in 27.5% of PLMA insertion, 2.5% in CLMA while no maneuver was required in any of the I-gel insertion. Ease of ventilation was comparable in all three SADs. The bronchoscopic view and insertion score were significantly higher with I-gel as compared to CLMA and PLMA. Conclusion: All three SADs were successful as rescue devices during accidental extubation in the prone position. However, the ease of insertion was maximum with I-gel, followed by CLMA and PLMA. PMID:26604523

  18. A new laryngeal mask supraglottic airway device with integrated balloon line: a descriptive and comparative bench study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, YingHai; Jew, Korinne

    2016-01-01

    Laryngeal masks are invasive devices for airway management placed in the supraglottic position. The Shiley™ laryngeal mask (Shiley™ LM) features an integrated inflation tube and airway shaft to facilitate product insertion and reduce the chance of tube occlusion when patients bite down. This study compared the Shiley LM to two other disposable laryngeal mask devices, the Ambu(®) AuraStraight™ and the LMA Unique™. Overall device design, tensile strength, flexibility of various structures, and sealing performance were measured. The Shiley LM is structurally stronger and its shaft is more resistant to compression than the other devices. The Shiley LM is generally less flexible than the other devices, but this relationship varies with device size. Sealing performance of the devices was similar in a bench assay. The results of this bench study demonstrate that the new Shiley LM resembles other commercially available laryngeal mask devices, though it exhibits greater tensile strength and lower flexibility.

  19. A new laryngeal mask supraglottic airway device with integrated balloon line: a descriptive and comparative bench study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, YingHai; Jew, Korinne

    2016-01-01

    Laryngeal masks are invasive devices for airway management placed in the supraglottic position. The Shiley™ laryngeal mask (Shiley™ LM) features an integrated inflation tube and airway shaft to facilitate product insertion and reduce the chance of tube occlusion when patients bite down. This study compared the Shiley LM to two other disposable laryngeal mask devices, the Ambu® AuraStraight™ and the LMA Unique™. Overall device design, tensile strength, flexibility of various structures, and sealing performance were measured. The Shiley LM is structurally stronger and its shaft is more resistant to compression than the other devices. The Shiley LM is generally less flexible than the other devices, but this relationship varies with device size. Sealing performance of the devices was similar in a bench assay. The results of this bench study demonstrate that the new Shiley LM resembles other commercially available laryngeal mask devices, though it exhibits greater tensile strength and lower flexibility. PMID:27843359

  20. Sore throat following three adult supraglottic airway devices: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    L'Hermite, Joël; Dubout, Elisabeth; Bouvet, Sophie; Bracoud, Laure-Hélène; Cuvillon, Philippe; Coussaye, Jean-Emmanuel de La; Ripart, Jacques

    2017-07-01

    Sore throat is a common complaint after surgery. It affects patient satisfaction and can affect activity after discharge. The supraglottic airway device (SAD) offers an alternative to traditional tracheal intubation with potential benefit in preventing sore throat. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of sore throat following three different SADs, the laryngeal mask airway Unique (LMA-U) and the more recent LMA Supreme (LMA-S) and the I-gel. A randomised single-blind controlled three parallel-group trial. University Hospital of Nîmes, Division of Anaesthesia Intensive Care Pain and Emergency, Nîmes, France, from April 2009 to September 2012. A total of 546 patients scheduled to undergo elective surgery of less than 2 h under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated to receive the LMA-U, the LMA-S or the I-gel. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and sufentanil and maintained with propofol or with sevoflurane in air-oxygen. After airway device insertion, intra-cuff pressure was adjusted to less than 60 mmHg (LMA-U, LMA-S) and pressure-controlled ventilation initiated. The primary study endpoint was to compare incidence of sore throat 24 h postoperatively (H+24) following placement of the LMA-U, LMA-S and the I-gel. Secondary endpoints were clinical performance (airway leak pressure, dynamic airway compliance, complications during maintenance), ease of use (device insertion time, success on first attempt, ease of insertion and removal) and other adverse events (neck or jaw pain, dysphonia, dysphagia, nausea and vomiting). The authors analysed 177, 174 and 173 patients who received LMA-U, the LMA-S and the I-gel, respectively. The primary endpoint was assessed in 436 patients. In total, 104 patients (23.9%) patients reported a H+24 sore throat, with no difference between groups (P = 0.34). H+24 dysphagia with liquids was higher (P = 0.0065) with the LMA-S (12.1%) compared with LMA-U (5.3%) and I-gel (2.9%). Airway leak pressure (cmH2

  1. [Interdisciplinary consensus statement on alternative airway management with supraglottic airway devices in pediatric emergency medicine: Laryngeal mask is state of the art].

    PubMed

    Keil, J; Jung, P; Schiele, A; Urban, B; Parsch, A; Matsche, B; Eich, C; Becke, K; Landsleitner, B; Russo, S G; Bernhard, M; Nicolai, T; Hoffmann, F

    2016-01-01

    Airway management with supraglottic airway devices (SGA) in life-threatening emergencies involving children is becoming increasingly more important. The laryngeal mask (LM) and the laryngeal tube (LT) are devices commonly used for this purpose. This article presents a literature review and consensus statement by various societies on the use of SGA in pediatric emergency medicine. Literature search in the database PubMed and classification of studies according to the criteria of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine levels of evidence. The evidence for successful application of the various types of LM is significantly higher than for LT application. Reports of smaller series of successful applications of LT are currently limited to selected research groups and centers. Insufficient evidence currently exists for the successful application of the LT especially for children below 10 kg body weight and, therefore, its routine use cannot currently be recommended. SGAs used for emergencies should have a possibility for gastric drainage. Considering the scientific data and the large clinical experience with the LM in medical routine and emergency situations in children, currently only the LM can be recommended for alternative (i.e. non-intubation) airway management in children. If alternative airway management is part of a local emergency strategy, the LM should be provided in all pediatric sizes (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4 and 5) for prehospital and in-hospital emergency use and all users should be regularly trained in its application.

  2. Introduction of the I-gel supraglottic airway device for prehospital airway management in a UK ambulance service.

    PubMed

    Duckett, Jay; Fell, P; Han, K; Kimber, C; Taylor, C

    2014-06-01

    To clinically review the use of basic and advanced airway management techniques within the North East Ambulance Service National Health Service Foundation Trust (NEAS) for cardiac arrests following the introduction of the i-gel. Two retrospective clinical audits were carried out over a monthly period (May 2011 and January 2012) using electronic and paper NEAS patient records. This audit confirmed that a range of basic and/or advanced airway management techniques are being successfully used to manage the airways of cardiac arrest patients. I-gel is emerging as a popular choice for maintaining and securing the airway during prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Success rates for i-gel insertion are higher (94%, 92%) than endotracheal (ET) tube insertion (90%, 86%). Documentation of the airway management method was poor in 11% of the records. The Quality Improvement Officers addressed this by providing individual feedback. I-gel shows a higher success rate in cardiac arrest patients compared to the ET tube. Staff who chose to use methods other than i-gel indicated this was a confidence issue when using new equipment. The re-audit indicated an upward trend in the popularity of i-gel; insertion is faster with a higher success rate, which allows the crew to progress with the other resuscitation measures more promptly. Airway soiling and aspiration beforehand have been reasons staff resort to ET intubation. It is anticipated by the authors that i-gel will emerge as the first choice of airway management device in prehospital cardiac arrests. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Comparison of Second-Generation Supraglottic Airway Devices (i-gel versus LMA ProSeal) During Elective Surgery in Children.

    PubMed

    Sanket, Bhargavi; Ramavakoda, Chandrika Yabagodu; Nishtala, Madhavi Ravindra; Ravishankar, Chandrakala Kunigal; Ganigara, Anuradha

    2015-08-01

    Second-generation supraglottic airway devices i-gel (Intersurgical Ltd) and LMA ProSeal (Teleflex Inc) are designed for a superior airway seal with a high success rate in adults. This study compared the efficacy of i-gel and LMA ProSeal (sizes 1, 1.5, and 2) as an airway device in a pediatric population, especially infants. The study included 163 ASA class 1 and 2 children, aged up to 10 years and weighing 2 to 25 kg, undergoing elective surgeries lasting less than 1 hour under general anesthesia on spontaneous respiration. Participants were randomly assigned to 2 groups: i-gel and LMA ProSeal. With each device, the ease of insertion, time of insertion, manipulations required for placement of the device, and oropharyngeal leak pressure were recorded. A lubricated gastric tube of the recommended size was passed through each device, and ease of insertion was noted. At the end of surgery, the device was removed and complications were noted, including laryngospasm, breath holding, and blood-stains. Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 tests were used to compare collected data. Both devices were found to be comparable in effectively securing the airway in children, even in infants. The insertion time was significantly faster with i-gel.

  4. Exchange of supraglottic airways for endotracheal tube using the Eschmann Introducer during simulated child resuscitation: A randomized study comparing 4 devices.

    PubMed

    Szarpak, Lukasz; Truszewski, Zenon; Vitale, Joseph; Glosser, Logan; Ruetzler, Kurt; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the application of the Eschmann tracheal tube introducer (ETTI) with 4 types of supraglottic airway devices (SADs) using a child-manikin. A total of 79 paramedics were asked to exchange the 4 SADs for an endotracheal tube with the ETTI in 3 different scenarios using a randomized crossover study format: normal airway without chest compression; normal airway with uninterrupted chest compression; and difficult airway with uninterrupted chest compression. The primary outcome was time to SAD exchange, with the secondary outcome measuring the success of SAD exchange. Each attempt was assessed by a trained assistant. The mean exchange times for LMA, Cobra PLA, Air-Q, and SALT were as follows: 21, 23, 21, and 18, respectively for Scenario A; 23, 27, 22.5, and 21 for Scenario B; and 23, 28, 23, and 23 for Scenario C. The percent efficacy of SADs exchange with LMA, Cobra PLA, Air-Q and SALT were 98.7%, 94.9%, 100%, and 100% for scenario A; 98.7%, 88.6%, 98.7%, and 97.5% for scenario B; and 93.7%, 87.3%, 94.9%, and 93.7% for scenario C. In this model of pediatric resuscitation, the SAD exchange using an ETTI has (LMA, Cobra PLA, Air-Q and SALT) proved to be effective in paramedics with no previous experience. Furthermore, experimental findings indicated that SAD exchange can be achieved without interrupting chest compression.

  5. Current UK practice of pediatric supraglottic airway devices - a survey of members of the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Anthony E D; White, Michelle C; Engelhardt, Thomas; Bayley, Guy; Beringer, Richard M

    2013-11-01

    Over half of general anesthetics in the UK involve supraglottic airway devices (SADs). The National Audit Project 4 undertaken by the Royal College of Anaesthetists demonstrated that aspiration was the most frequent complication relating to SAD use. SADs designed to reduce this risk (second-generation devices) are increasingly recommended in both adults and children. As well as routine use, SADs are recommended for use in cases of 'difficult airway'. This survey assessed current usage of SADs in routine practice and difficult airways. Sixteen questions, approved by the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland (APAGBI) survey committee, were distributed to all its members. Two hundred and forty-four members responded. Eighty-eight percent preferentially use first-generation rather than second-generation devices. The most important design feature was the availability of a complete range of sizes (84%). Seventy-seven percent felt that randomized controlled trials assessing SAD safety in children are needed. In cases of failed intubation, classically shaped SADs are preferred (79%). Three percent of responders intubate via an SAD routinely. Eighteen percent have employed this technique in an emergency. Thirty-six percent of responders have found an SAD to function poorly. Pediatric anesthesiologists appear slow to embrace second-generation SADs. The role of SADs in the management of difficult airways is widely accepted. Research currently has little influence over the choice of which SAD to use, which is more likely determined by personal choice and departmental preference. There is a risk that some SADs are unsafe. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Blind Intubation through Self-pressurized, Disposable Supraglottic Airway Laryngeal Intubation Masks: An International, Multicenter, Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ruetzler, Kurt; Guzzella, Sandra Esther; Tscholl, David Werner; Restin, Tanja; Cribari, Marco; Turan, Alparslan; You, Jing; Sessler, Daniel I; Seifert, Burkhardt; Gaszynski, Tomasz; Ganter, Michael T; Spahn, Donat R

    2017-08-01

    Supraglottic airway devices commonly are used for securing the airway during general anesthesia. Occasionally, intubation with an endotracheal tube through a supraglottic airway is indicated. Reported success rates for blind intubation range from 15 to 97%. The authors thus investigated as their primary outcome the fraction of patients who could be intubated blindly with an Air-Qsp supraglottic airway device (Mercury Medical, USA). Second, the authors investigated the influence of muscle relaxation on air leakage pressure, predictors for failed blind intubation, and associated complications of using the supraglottic airway device. The authors enrolled 1,000 adults having elective surgery with endotracheal intubation. After routine induction of general anesthesia, a supraglottic airway device was inserted and patients were ventilated intermittently. Air leak pressure was measured before and after full muscle relaxation. Up to two blind intubation attempts were performed. The supraglottic airway provided adequate ventilation and oxygenation in 99% of cases. Blind intubation succeeded in 78% of all patients (95% CI, 75 to 81%). However, the success rate was inconsistent among the three centers (P < 0.001): 80% (95% CI, 75 to 85%) at the Institute of Anesthesia and Pain Therapy, Kantonsspital Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland; 41% (95% CI, 29 to 53%) at the Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland; and 84% (95% CI, 80 to 88%) at the Institute of Anesthesiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Leak pressure before relaxation correlated reasonably well with air leak pressure after relaxation. The supraglottic airway device reliably provided a good airway and allowed blind intubation in nearly 80% of patients. It is thus a reasonable initial approach to airway control. Muscle relaxation can be used safely when unparalyzed leak pressure is adequate.

  7. Comparison of Four Different Supraglottic Airway Devices in Terms of Efficacy, Intra-ocular Pressure and Haemodynamic Parameters in Children Undergoing Ophthalmic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Peker, Gökhan; Takmaz, Suna Akın; Baltacı, Bülent; Başar, Hülya; Kotanoğlu, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare insertion parameters of four different types of supraglottic airway devices (SGAD) (Classic LMA, I-gel LMA, Proseal LMA, Cobra PLA) in children undergoing ophthalmic surgery and to determine the effect on intra-ocular pressure (IOP) and haemodynamic responses during insertion. Methods Sixty American society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I–II children aged 1–10 years undergoing extra-ocular ophthalmic surgery were randomly divided into four groups (Group LMA, Group I-gel LMA, Group PLMA and Group CPLA) in this prospective, randomised study. Anaesthesia was induced with decreasing sevoflurane concentrations (8%–2%) in a mixture of 50% N2O-O2. All SGADs were inserted under deep anaesthesia. The characteristics of insertion (number of attempts, ease and time), oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP) and complications were recorded. IOP in both eyes, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and EtCO2 were measured before and 2 and 5 min after insertion of the SGADs. Results There was no difference between the groups in terms of the characteristics of insertion. The mean IOP did not increase significantly in all groups. MAP and HR changes were similar among the groups during follow-up. In all groups, HR increased 2 min after insertion (statistically insignificant) and returned to the baseline value 5 min after insertion. A statistically significant correlation was seen between HR increase and IOP values before and after insertion of the SGADs (p=0.006, correlation coefficient=0.352). Desaturation was seen in one patient in Groups LMA, PLMA and CPLA, and laryngospasm was seen in two patients in Group CPLA and in one patient in Group LMA. Conclusion It was seen that during insertion of Classic LMA, I-gel LMA, Proseal LMA and Cobra PLA, IOP did not increase and haemodynamic stability was maintained in children undergoing extra-ocular ophthalmic surgery. PMID:27366519

  8. Comparison of the Supraglottic Airway Devices Classic, Fastrach and Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway: A Prospective Randomised Clinical Trial of Efficacy, Safety and Complications.

    PubMed

    Kömür, Erdal; Bakan, Nurten; Tomruk, Şenay Göksu; Karaören, Gülşah; Doğan, Zelin Topaç

    2015-12-01

    This prospective randomised study was designed to compare the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) Classic, LMA Fastrach and LMA Supreme regarding ease of insertion and insertion time as primary outcomes and reposition, success rate of trials, effects on haemodynamic parameters, provision of an adequate and safe airway, amount of leakage and oropharyngeal and systemic complications as secondary outcomes. In this clinical trial, 90 patients aged 18-70 years of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) group I-II were randomised into three groups as providing airway via LMA Classic, LMA Fastrach or LMA Supreme instead of tracheal intubation. No muscle relaxant was used. The allocated LMA was inserted by the same anaesthetist; bispectral index (BIS) was between 40% and 60%. There was no statistical difference among the groups regarding the ease of insertion and insertion time as primary outcomes; the incidence of repositioning during placement was significantly higher in the LMA Classic group than that in other groups (p<0.05) and the rates of bloodstain on the device as well as oropharyngeal mucosal oedema were higher in the LMA Fastrach group than those in other groups (p<0.05) as secondary outcomes. We suggest that LMA Classic, LMA Supreme and LMA Fastrach had similar effectiveness regarding efficiency and airway safety. However, LMA Supreme seems to be more advantageous as it is more appropriate for fewer oropharyngeal complications and there was no repositioning.

  9. Comparison of the Supraglottic Airway Devices Classic, Fastrach and Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway: A Prospective Randomised Clinical Trial of Efficacy, Safety and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Kömür, Erdal; Bakan, Nurten; Tomruk, Şenay Göksu; Karaören, Gülşah; Doğan, Zelin Topaç

    2015-01-01

    Objective This prospective randomised study was designed to compare the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) Classic, LMA Fastrach and LMA Supreme regarding ease of insertion and insertion time as primary outcomes and reposition, success rate of trials, effects on haemodynamic parameters, provision of an adequate and safe airway, amount of leakage and oropharyngeal and systemic complications as secondary outcomes. Methods In this clinical trial, 90 patients aged 18–70 years of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) group I–II were randomised into three groups as providing airway via LMA Classic, LMA Fastrach or LMA Supreme instead of tracheal intubation. No muscle relaxant was used. The allocated LMA was inserted by the same anaesthetist; bispectral index (BIS) was between 40% and 60%. Results There was no statistical difference among the groups regarding the ease of insertion and insertion time as primary outcomes; the incidence of repositioning during placement was significantly higher in the LMA Classic group than that in other groups (p<0.05) and the rates of bloodstain on the device as well as oropharyngeal mucosal oedema were higher in the LMA Fastrach group than those in other groups (p<0.05) as secondary outcomes. Conclusion We suggest that LMA Classic, LMA Supreme and LMA Fastrach had similar effectiveness regarding efficiency and airway safety. However, LMA Supreme seems to be more advantageous as it is more appropriate for fewer oropharyngeal complications and there was no repositioning. PMID:27366537

  10. Small is the new big: An overview of newer supraglottic airways for children

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Rakhee

    2015-01-01

    Almost all supraglottic airways (SGAs) are now available in pediatric sizes. The availability of these smaller sizes, especially in the last five years has brought a marked change in the whole approach to airway management in children. SGAs are now used for laparoscopic surgeries, head and neck surgeries, remote anesthesia; and for ventilation during resuscitation. A large number of reports have described the use of SGAs in difficult airway situations, either as a primary or a rescue airway. Despite this expanded usage, there remains little evidence to support its usage in prolonged surgeries and in the intensive care unit. This article presents an overview of the current options available, suitability of one over the other and reviews the published data relating to each device. In this review, the author also addresses some of the general concerns regarding the use of SGAs and explores newer roles of their use in children. PMID:26702197

  11. Design and implementation of the AIRWAYS-2 trial: A multi-centre cluster randomised controlled trial of the clinical and cost effectiveness of the i-gel supraglottic airway device versus tracheal intubation in the initial airway management of out of hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jodi; Black, Sarah; J Brett, Stephen; Kirby, Kim; Nolan, Jerry P; Reeves, Barnaby C; Robinson, Maria; Rogers, Chris A; Scott, Lauren J; South, Adrian; Stokes, Elizabeth A; Thomas, Matthew; Voss, Sarah; Wordsworth, Sarah; Benger, Jonathan R

    2016-12-01

    Health outcomes after out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) are extremely poor, with only 7-9% of patients in the United Kingdom (UK) surviving to hospital discharge. Currently emergency medical services (EMS) use either tracheal intubation or newer supraglottic airway devices (SGAs) to provide advanced airway management during OHCA. Equipoise between the two techniques has led to calls for a well-designed randomised controlled trial. The primary objective of the AIRWAYS-2 trial is to assess whether the clinical effectiveness of the i-gel, a second-generation SGA, is superior to tracheal intubation in the initial airway management of OHCA patients in the UK. Paramedics recruited to the AIRWAYS-2 trial are randomised to use either tracheal intubation or i-gel as their first advanced airway intervention. Adults who have had a non-traumatic OHCA and are attended by an AIRWAYS-2 paramedic are retrospectively assessed against eligibility criteria for inclusion. The primary outcome is the modified Rankin Scale score at hospital discharge. Secondary objectives are to: (i) estimate differences between groups in outcome measures relating to airway management, hospital stay and recovery at 3 and 6 months; (ii) estimate the cost effectiveness of the i-gel compared to tracheal intubation. Because OHCA patient needs immediate treatment there are several unusual features and challenges to the design and implementation of this trial; these include level of randomisation, the automatic enrolment model, enrolment of patients that lack capacity and minimisation of bias. Patient enrolment began in June 2015. The trial will enrol 9070 patients over two years. The results are expected to influence future resuscitation guidelines. Trial Registration ISRCTN: 08256118. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative Assessment of Three Approaches of Teaching Nonmedically Trained Persons in the Handling of Supraglottic Airways: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Mario; Schmidbauer, Willi; Benker, Michael; Schmieder, Paula; Kerner, Thoralf

    2017-03-01

    a supraglottic airway immediately following minimal instruction and after 3 months as well. Study participants achieved the best results after practical training followed by video presentation and finally lecture regardless of the airway device used. There are two possible reasons why practical training is the superior method. Firstly, the success is tied to more time spent with the learners. Secondly, practical training seems to be the best teaching method for various types of learners such as visual, auditory, reading/writing, and kinesthetic type. In addition the results of our study show that the LT-D is an ideal supraglottic airway in the hands of people inexperienced in airway management. In conclusion, our results show that practical training is the superior instruction method compared to theoretical lecture and presentation of an instruction video. Nevertheless, the presentation of an instruction video is a promising approach of teaching a maximum number of laypersons with minimal effort to correctly place supraglottic airways. To optimize the success rate of such a concept LT-Ds instead of LMAs should be used for airway management. The presented concepts hold promise for combat as well as for civilian emergency medicine. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. A retropharyngeal–mediastinal hematoma with supraglottic and tracheal obstruction: The role of multidisciplinary airway management

    PubMed Central

    Birkholz, Torsten; Kröber, Stefanie; Knorr, Christian; Schiele, Albert; Bumm, Klaus; Schmidt, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    A 77-year-old man suffered hypoxemic cardiac arrest by supraglottic and tracheal airway obstruction in the emergency department. A previously unknown cervical fracture had caused a traumatic retropharyngeal–mediastinal hematoma. A lifesaving surgical emergency tracheostomy succeeded. Supraglottic and tracheal obstruction by a retropharyngeal–mediastinal hematoma with successful resuscitation via emergency tracheostomy after hypoxemic cardiac arrest has never been reported in a context of trauma. This clinically demanding case outlines the need for multidisciplinary airway management systems with continuous training and well-implemented guidelines. Only multidisciplinary staff preparedness and readily available equipments for the unanticipated difficult airway solved the catastrophic clinical situation. PMID:21063569

  14. Supraglottic Atomization of Surfactant in Spontaneously Breathing Lambs Receiving Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    PubMed

    Milesi, Ilaria; Tingay, David G; Lavizzari, Anna; Bianco, Federico; Zannin, Emanuela; Tagliabue, Paolo; Mosca, Fabio; Ventura, Maria Luisa; Rajapaksa, Anushi; Perkins, Elizabeth J; Black, Don; Di Castri, Marco; Sourial, Magdy; Pohlmann, Gerhard; Dellaca', Raffaele L

    2017-09-01

    To determine the short-term tolerance, efficacy, and lung deposition of supraglottic atomized surfactant in spontaneously breathing lambs receiving continuous positive airway pressure. Prospective, randomized animal study. Animal research laboratory. Twenty-two preterm lambs on continuous positive airway pressure (132 ± 1 d gestational age). Animals receiving continuous positive airway pressure via binasal prongs at 8 cm H2O were randomized to receive atomized surfactant at approximately 60-minute of life (atom; n = 15) or not (control; n = 7). The atom group received 200 mg/kg of poractant alfa (Curosurf; Chiesi Farmaceutici SpA, Parma, Italy) over 45 minutes via a novel atomizer located in the upper pharynx that synchronized surfactant delivery with the inspiratory phase. Arterial blood gas, regional distribution of tidal ventilation (electrical impedance tomography), and carotid blood flow were recorded every 15 minutes until 90 minutes after stabilizing on continuous positive airway pressure. Gas exchange, respiratory rate, and hemodynamic variables, including carotid blood flow, remained stable during surfactant treatment. There was a significant improvement in arterial alveolar ratio after surfactant delivery in the atom group (p < 0.05; Sidak posttests), while there was no difference in PaCO2. Electrical impedance tomography data showed a more uniform pattern of ventilation in the atom group. In the atom group, the median (interquartile range) deposition of surfactant in the lung was 32% (22-43%) of the delivered dose, with an even distribution between the right and the left lungs. In our model of spontaneously breathing lambs receiving CPAP, supraglottic atomization of Curosurf via a novel device was safe, improved oxygenation and ventilation homogeneity compared with CPAP only, and provided a relatively large lung deposition suggesting clinical utility.

  15. High frequency jet ventilation through a supraglottic airway device: a case series of patients undergoing extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Canty, D J; Dhara, S S

    2009-12-01

    High frequency jet ventilation has been shown to be beneficial during extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy as it reduces urinary calculus movement which increases lithotripsy efficiency with better utilisation of shockwave energy and less patient exposure to tissue trauma. In all reports, sub-glottic high frequency jet ventilation was delivered through a tracheal tube or a jet catheter requiring paralysis and direct laryngoscopy. In this study, a simple method using supraglottic jet ventilation through a laryngeal mask attached to a circle absorber anaesthetic breathing system is described. The technique avoids the need for dense neuromuscular blockade for laryngoscopy and the potential complications associated with sub-glottic instrumentation and sub-glottic jet ventilation. The technique was successfully employed in a series of patients undergoing lithotripsy under general anaesthesia as an outpatient procedure.

  16. Comparison of the i-gel and other supraglottic airways in adult manikin studies

    PubMed Central

    An, Jiwon; Nam, Sang Beom; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Jinae; Yoo, Hanna; Lee, Hye Mi; Kim, Min-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The i-gel has a gel-like cuff composed of thermoplastic elastomer that does not require cuff inflation. As the elimination of cuff inflation may shorten insertion time, the i-gel might be a useful tool in emergency situations requiring prompt airway care. This systematic review and meta-analysis of previous adult manikin studies for inexperienced personnel was performed to compare the i-gel with other supraglottic airways. Methods: We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before June 2015, including with a crossover design, using the following search terms: “i-gel,” “igel,” “simulation,” “manikin,” “manikins,” “mannequin,” and “mannequins.” The primary outcomes of this review were device insertion time and the first-attempt success rate of insertion. Results: A total of 14 RCTs were included. At the initial assessment without difficult circumstances, the i-gel had a significantly shorter insertion time than the LMA Classic, LMA Fastrach, LMA Proseal, LMA Unique, laryngeal tube, Combitube, and EasyTube. However, a faster insertion time of the i-gel was not observed in comparisons with the LMA Supreme, aura-i, and air-Q. In addition, the i-gel did not show the better results for the insertion success rate when compared to other devices. Conclusion: The findings of this meta-analysis indicated that inexperienced volunteers placed the i-gel more rapidly than other supraglottic airways with the exception of the LMA Supreme, aura-i, and air-Q in manikin studies. However, the quicker insertion time is clinically not relevant. The unapparent advantage regarding the insertion success rate and the inherent limitations of the simulation setting indicated that additional evidence is necessary to confirm these advantages of the i-gel in an emergency setting. PMID:28072732

  17. Endotracheal intubation versus supraglottic airway insertion in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest☆

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Henry E.; Szydlo, Daniel; Stouffer, John A.; Lin, Steve; Carlson, Jestin N.; Vaillancourt, Christian; Sears, Gena; Verbeek, Richard P.; Fowler, Raymond; Idris, Ahamed H.; Koenig, Karl; Christenson, James; Minokadeh, Anushirvan; Brandt, Joseph; Rea, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objective To simplify airway management and minimize cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) chest compression interruptions, some emergency medical services (EMS) practitioners utilize supraglottic airway (SGA) devices instead of endotracheal intubation (ETI) as the primary airway adjunct in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We compared the outcomes of patients receiving ETI with those receiving SGA following OHCA. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of data from the multicenter Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) PRIMED trial. We studied adult non-traumatic OHCA receiving successful SGA insertion (King Laryngeal Tube, Combitube, and Laryngeal Mask Airway) or successful ETI. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge with satisfactory functional status (Modified Rankin Scale ≤3). Secondary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), 24-h survival, major airway or pulmonary complications (pulmonary edema, internal thoracic or abdominal injuries, acute lung injury, sepsis, and pneumonia). Using multivariable logistic regression, we studied the association between out-of- hospital airway management method (ETI vs. SGA) and OHCA outcomes, adjusting for confounders. Results Of 10,455 adult OHCA, 8487 (81.2%) received ETI and 1968 (18.8%) received SGA. Survival to hospital discharge with satisfactory functional status was: ETI 4.7%, SGA 3.9%. Compared with successful SGA, successful ETI was associated with increased survival to hospital discharge (adjusted OR 1.40; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.89), ROSC (adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI: 1.54, 2.04) and 24-h survival (adjusted OR 1.74; 95% CI: 1.49, 2.04). ETI was not associated with secondary airway or pulmonary complications (adjusted OR 0.84; 95% CI: 0.61, 1.16). Conclusions In this secondary analysis of data from the multicenter ROC PRIMED trial, ETI was associated with improved outcomes over SGA insertion after OHCA. PMID:22664746

  18. Comparison of blind intubation through supraglottic devices and direct laryngoscopy by novices: a simulation manikin study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Yong; Kang, Gu Hyun; Kim, Won Hee; Choi, Hyun Young; Jang, Yong Soo; Lee, Young Jae; Kim, Jae Guk; Kim, Hyeongtae; Kim, Gyoung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare intubation performance between blind intubation through supraglottic airway devices and direct laryngoscopy by novices under manikin simulation. We hypothesized that the intubation time by novices using supraglottic airway devices was superior to that with the Macintosh laryngoscope (MCL). Methods A prospective, randomized crossover study was conducted with 95 participants, to evaluate i-gel, air-Q, LMA Fastrach, and MCL devices. Primary outcomes were the intubation time and the success rate for intubation. Results The i-gel showed the shortest insertion and tube passing time among the four devices; the i-gel and air-Q also showed the shortest total intubation time (all P<0.0083; i-gel vs. air-Q, P=0.03). The i-gel and MCL showed the highest cumulative success rate (all P<0.0083; i-gel vs. MCL, P=0.12). Conclusion Blind intubation through the i-gel showed almost equal intubation performance compared to direct laryngoscopy. PMID:27752621

  19. The Supraglottic Effect of a Reduction in Expiratory Mask Pressure During Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Masdeu, Maria J.; Patel, Amit V.; Seelall, Vijay; Rapoport, David M.; Ayappa, Indu

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea may have difficulty exhaling against positive pressure, hence limiting their acceptance of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). C-Flex is designed to improve comfort by reducing pressure in the mask during expiration proportionally to expiratory airflow (3 settings correspond to increasing pressure changes). When patients use CPAP, nasal resistance determines how much higher supraglottic pressure is than mask pressure. We hypothesized that increased nasal resistance results in increased expiratory supraglottic pressure swings that could be mitigated by the effects of C-Flex on mask pressure. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Sleep center. Participants: Seventeen patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome and a mechanical model of the upper airway. Interventions: In patients on fixed CPAP, CPAP with different C-Flex levels was applied multiple times during the night. In the model, 2 different respiratory patterns and resistances were tested. Measurements and Results: Airflow, expiratory mask, and supraglottic pressures were measured on CPAP and on C-Flex. Swings in pressure during expiration were determined. On CPAP, higher nasal resistance produced greater expiratory pressure swings in the supraglottis in the patients and in the model, as expected. C-Flex 3 produced expiratory drops in mask pressure (range −0.03 to −2.49 cm H2O) but mitigated the expira-tory pressure rise in the supraglottis only during a sinusoidal respiratory pattern in the model. Conclusions: Expiratory changes in mask pressure induced by C-Flex did not uniformly transmit to the supraglottis in either patients with obstructive sleep apnea on CPAP or in a mechanical model of the upper airway with fixed resistance. Data suggest that the observed lack of expiratory drop in supraglottic pressure swings is related to dynamics of the C-Flex algorithm. Citation: Masdeu MJ; Patel AV; Seelall V; Rapoport DM; Ayappa I. The

  20. Comparison of supraglottic airway versus endotracheal intubation for the pre-hospital treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Both supraglottic airway devices (SGA) and endotracheal intubation (ETI) have been used by emergency life-saving technicians (ELST) in Japan to treat out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). Despite traditional emphasis on airway management during cardiac arrest, its impact on survival from OHCA and time dependent effectiveness remains unclear. Methods All adults with witnessed, non-traumatic OHCA, from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2008, treated by the emergency medical services (EMS) with an advanced airway in Osaka, Japan were studied in a prospective Utstein-style population cohort database. The primary outcome measure was one-month survival with neurologically favorable outcome. The association between type of advanced airway (ETI/SGA), timing of device placement and neurological outcome was assessed by multiple logistic regression. Results Of 7,517 witnessed non-traumatic OHCAs, 5,377 cases were treated with advanced airways. Of these, 1,679 were ETI while 3,698 were SGA. Favorable neurological outcome was similar between ETI and SGA (3.6% versus 3.6%, P = 0.95). The time interval from collapse to ETI placement was significantly longer than for SGA (17.2 minutes versus 15.8 minutes, P < 0.001). From multivariate analysis, early placement of an advanced airway was significantly associated with better neurological outcome (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) for one minute delay, 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 0.95). ETI was not a significant predictor (AOR 0.71, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.30) but the presence of an ETI certified ELST (AOR, 1.86, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.34) was a significant predictor for favorable neurological outcome. Conclusions There was no difference in neurologically favorable outcome from witnessed OHCA for ETI versus SGA. Early airway management with advanced airway regardless of type and rhythm was associated with improved outcomes. PMID:21985431

  1. Comparison of the i-gel and other supraglottic airways in adult manikin studies: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    An, Jiwon; Nam, Sang Beom; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Jinae; Yoo, Hanna; Lee, Hye Mi; Kim, Min-Soo

    2017-01-01

    The i-gel has a gel-like cuff composed of thermoplastic elastomer that does not require cuff inflation. As the elimination of cuff inflation may shorten insertion time, the i-gel might be a useful tool in emergency situations requiring prompt airway care. This systematic review and meta-analysis of previous adult manikin studies for inexperienced personnel was performed to compare the i-gel with other supraglottic airways. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before June 2015, including with a crossover design, using the following search terms: "i-gel," "igel," "simulation," "manikin," "manikins," "mannequin," and "mannequins." The primary outcomes of this review were device insertion time and the first-attempt success rate of insertion. A total of 14 RCTs were included. At the initial assessment without difficult circumstances, the i-gel had a significantly shorter insertion time than the LMA Classic, LMA Fastrach, LMA Proseal, LMA Unique, laryngeal tube, Combitube, and EasyTube. However, a faster insertion time of the i-gel was not observed in comparisons with the LMA Supreme, aura-i, and air-Q. In addition, the i-gel did not show the better results for the insertion success rate when compared to other devices. The findings of this meta-analysis indicated that inexperienced volunteers placed the i-gel more rapidly than other supraglottic airways with the exception of the LMA Supreme, aura-i, and air-Q in manikin studies. However, the quicker insertion time is clinically not relevant. The unapparent advantage regarding the insertion success rate and the inherent limitations of the simulation setting indicated that additional evidence is necessary to confirm these advantages of the i-gel in an emergency setting.

  2. Lateral Oropharyngeal Wall and Supraglottic Airway Collapse Associated With Failure in Sleep Apnea Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Danny; Sinawe, Hadeer; Folbe, Adam J.; Yoo, George; Badr, Safwan; Rowley, James A.; Lin, Ho-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis To identify patterns of airway collapse during preoperative drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) as predictors of surgical failure following multilevel airway surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Study Design Retrospective clinical chart review. Methods Medical records of patients who underwent site-specific surgical modification of the upper airway for treatment of OSHAS were reviewed. Patients were included in this study if they had a preoperative airway evaluation with DISE as well as preoperative and postoperative polysomnography. Airway obstruction on DISE was described according to airway level, severity, and axis of collapse. Severe airway obstruction was defined as >75% collapse on endoscopy. Surgical success was described as a postoperative apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of <20 and a >50% decrease in preoperative AHI. Results A total of 34 patients were included in this study. The overall surgical success rate was 56%. Surgical success (n = 19) and surgical failure (n = 15) patients were similar with regard to age, gender, body mass index, preoperative AHI, Friedman stage, adenotonsillar grades, and surgical management. DISE findings in the surgical failure group demonstrated greater incidence of severe lateral oropharyngeal wall collapse (73.3% vs. 36.8%, P = .037) and severe supraglottic collapse (93.3% vs. 63.2%, P = .046) as compared to the surgical success group. Conclusions The presence of severe lateral pharyngeal wall and/or supraglottic collapse on preoperative DISE is associated with OSAHS surgical failure. The identification of this failure-prone collapse pattern may be useful in preoperative patient counseling as well as in directing an individualized and customized approach to the treatment of OSHAS. PMID:22253047

  3. Retrospective cohort investigation of perioperative upper respiratory events in children undergoing general anesthesia via a supraglottic airway

    PubMed Central

    No, Hyun-Joung; Koo, Bon-Wook; Oh, Ah-Young; Seo, Kwang-Suk; Na, Hyo-Seok; Ryu, Jung-Hee; Lee, Soo-Won

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Desflurane is the most pungent of the currently used volatile anesthetics. We assessed whether the incidence of perioperative upper respiratory events in children undergoing general anesthesia via a supraglottic airway is higher with desflurane than with sevoflurane as maintenance anesthetic. We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed the electronic medical records of consecutive children 1 to 15 years of age who underwent general anesthesia via a supraglottic airway at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between June 2013 and June 2015. The patients were assigned to the sevoflurane or desflurane group according to the anesthetic used. The characteristics of the patients were compared. The primary outcome variable was the incidence of upper respiratory events. The incidence of upper respiratory events in the 3439 evaluated patients was 0.43% (12/2777) in the sevoflurane group and 0.30% (2/662) in the desflurane group (P = 0.75; odds ratio = 0.69 [95% confidence interval = 0.16–3.13]). The difference between the 2 groups was not significant. Compared with sevoflurane, desflurane does not increase the risk of perioperative upper respiratory events in children receiving general anesthesia via a supraglottic airway. PMID:27428242

  4. The i-gel Supraglottic Airway as a Conduit for Fibreoptic Tracheal Intubation - A Randomized Comparison with the Single-use Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway and CTrach Laryngeal Mask in Patients with Predicted Difficult Laryngoscopy.

    PubMed

    Michálek, Pavel; Donaldson, Will; McAleavey, Francis; Abraham, Alexander; Mathers, Rachel J; Telford, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Fibreoptic intubation through a supraglottic airway is an alternative plan for airway management in difficult or failed laryngoscopy. The aim of this study was to compare three supraglottic airways as conduits in patients with at least one predictor for difficult laryngoscopy. The i-gel was compared with the single-use intubating laryngeal mask airway (sILMA) and CTrach laryngeal mask in 120 adult patients scheduled for elective surgeries under general anaesthesia using a prospective, randomized and single-blinded design. Primary outcome was success rate of tracheal intubation through the device, while secondary outcomes were times required for device insertion and tracheal tube placement, fibreoptic scores and the incidence of perioperative complications and postoperative complaints. The success rates showed no statistical difference between devices (i-gel 100%, CTrach 97.5%, ILMA 95%). Insertion time was shortest for the i-gel (12.4 s) compared with ILMA (19.3 s) and CTrach (24.4 s). Intubation time was shorter in the i-gel group (29.4 s) in comparison with the CTrach (39.8 s, p<0.05) and sILMA (51.9 s, p<0.001) groups. Best fibreoptic scores were observed also in the i-gel group. In total, 24 patients (20%) presented with difficult laryngoscopy. The i-gel showed significantly shorter times for insertion and fibreoptic intubation than the other two devices in this group. No difference was observed in the incidence of postoperative complaints. The i-gel is a suitable alternative to the sILMA and CTrach for fibrescope-guided tracheal intubation. Shorter insertion and intubation times with the i-gel may provide advantage in case of difficult oxygenation.

  5. i-gel: a new supraglottic device for effective resuscitation of a very low birthweight infant with Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Galderisi, Alfonso; De Bernardo, Giuseppe; Lorenzon, Eleonora; Trevisanuto, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) has been indicated as an effective device for airway management when face-mask ventilation and intubation have both failed in infants weighing >2000 g or delivered ≥34 weeks of gestation. All previous studies used a classic LMA. The current report describes the first case of a very low birthweight infant (1470 g, <3rd centile; 36+3gestational weeks) with micrognathia and palate cleft with Cornelia De Lange syndrome, resuscitated at birth with a new supraglottic airway device, i-gel size-1, positioned by a trainee paediatrician at first attempt. The procedure allowed reaching prompt effective ventilation and oxygenation of the patient, who was stabilised and intubated through i-gel. PMID:25809435

  6. A comparison of the I-Gel supraglottic device with endotracheal intubation for bronchoscopic lung volume reduction coil treatment.

    PubMed

    Arevalo-Ludeña, Julian; Arcas-Bellas, Jose Juan; Alvarez-Rementería, Rafael; Flandes, Javier; Morís, Laura; Muñoz Alameda, Luis E

    2016-06-01

    To compare the use of the I-gel airway with orotracheal intubation (OTI) for bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) coil treatment in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with heterogeneous emphysema, since it has been proved that supraglottic airways have lower incidence of postoperative respiratory complaints compared to OTI. A comparative, prospective observational study was designed to assess the use of the I-gel airway compared with the OTI. Bronchoscopy room at the University Hospital Fundación Jimenez Diaz, Madrid. Tertiary care center. Thirty-three procedures were carried out in 22 patients diagnosed with COPD with severe heterogeneous emphysema undergoing BLVR coil treatment under general anaesthesia. Seventeen procedures were carried out with I-gel and 16 with endotracheal tube. Airway device choice was left to the attendant anesthesiologist. Tidal volume, peak pressure, and the presence of gas leaks were compared. Adverse events during the procedure and within the first 3 hours later were also recorded. Ventilation parameters obtained showed no significant differences. Mean tidal volume was 466.6 ± 28.2 mL and 478.7 ± 34.0 mL (P > .05), mean peak pressure was 17.9 ± 2.5 cmH2O and 19.4 ± 2.4 cmH2O (P > .05) and mean gas leaks was 71 ± 17.6 mL and 79 ± 15.5 mL (P > .05) for I-gel group (IgelG) and endotracheal tube group respectively. No serious complications were reported. One case of pneumothorax was reported in the endotracheal tube group, which was resolved with a chest drainage tube without further complications. The I-gel airway ensures appropriate ventilation and makes the use of the flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope quite easy. Therefore, we consider that the I-gel device is an effective and safe alternative to classical OTI for airway management in COPD patients with severe heterogeneous emphysema undergoing BLVR coil treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. New supraglottic airway with built-in pressure indicator decreases postoperative pharyngolaryngeal symptoms: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wong, David T; Tam, Amanda D; Mehta, Vanita; Raveendran, Raviraj; Riad, Waleed; Chung, Frances F

    2013-12-01

    Excessive supraglottic airway cuff pressure increases postoperative pharyngolaryngeal symptoms such as sore throat, dysphonia, and dysphagia. A new supraglottic airway, AES Ultra CPV™ (CPV), has a built-in intracuff pressure indicator. We hypothesized that using the CPV would reduce postoperative symptoms when compared with the LMA Classic™ (LMA) without intracuff pressure guidance. Ambulatory patients undergoing general anesthesia were randomized to either CPV or LMA. A size 3/4/5 was inserted according to manufacturer guidelines. Nitrous oxide was not used. In the LMA Group, the cuff was inflated according to manufacturer's guidelines. In the CPV Group, a CPV was inserted and the cuff inflated until the indicator was in the green zone (30-44 mmHg). Intracuff pressures were measured at five minutes and 20 min post-insertion in both groups. The primary outcome was the incidence of pharyngolaryngeal symptoms, defined as sore throat, dysphonia, and/or dysphagia at one, two, and/or 24 hr postoperatively. Continuous data were compared using Student's t test and categorical data were analyzed using Chi square analysis. The study included 170 patients, 85 per group. The mean (SD) intracuff pressure in the CPV group was significantly lower [44 (4) mmHg] than in the LMA Group [87 (37) mmHg]; P < 0.001. The incidence of pharyngolaryngeal symptoms was significantly lower in the CPV Group than in the LMA Group (26% vs 49%; P = 0.002). The absolute risk reduction was 24%, and the number-needed-to-treat was 4.3. The incidence of postoperative pharyngolaryngeal symptoms in the CPV Group with a cuff pressure-guided strategy was significantly lower than in the LMA Group with standard practice. ( NCT01800344).

  8. Extraglottic airway devices: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bimla; Sahai, Chand; Sood, Jayashree

    2017-01-01

    Extraglottic airway devices (EADs) have revolutionized the field of airway management. The invention of the laryngeal mask airway was a game changer, and since then, there have been several innovations to improve the EADs in design, functionality, safety and construction material. These have ranged from changes in the shape of the mask, number of cuffs and material used, like rubber, polyvinylchloride and latex. Phthalates, which were added to the construction material in order to increase device flexibility, were later omitted when this chemical was found to have serious adverse reproductive outcomes. The various designs brought out by numerous companies manufacturing EADs resulted in the addition of several devices to the airway market. These airway devices were put to use, many of them with inadequate or no evidence base regarding their efficacy and safety. To reduce the possibility of compromising the safety of the patient, the Difficult Airway Society (DAS) formed the Airway Device Evaluation Project Team (ADEPT) to strengthen the evidence base for airway equipment and vet the new extraglottic devices. A preuse careful analysis of the design and structure may help in better understanding of the functionality of a particular device. In the meantime, the search for the ideal EAD continues. PMID:28860875

  9. Essentials of airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation: part 1: basic equipment and devices.

    PubMed

    Becker, Daniel E; Rosenberg, Morton B; Phero, James C

    2014-01-01

    Offices and outpatient dental facilities must be properly equipped with devices for airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation. Optimizing patient safety using crisis resource management (CRM) involves the entire dental office team being familiar with airway rescue equipment. Basic equipment for oxygenation, ventilation, and airway management is mandated in the majority of US dental offices per state regulations. The immediate availability of this equipment is especially important during the administration of sedation and anesthesia as well as the treatment of medical urgencies/emergencies. This article reviews basic equipment and devices essential in any dental practice whether providing local anesthesia alone or in combination with procedural sedation. Part 2 of this series will address advanced airway devices, including supraglottic airways and armamentarium for tracheal intubation and invasive airway procedures.

  10. Essentials of Airway Management, Oxygenation, and Ventilation: Part 1: Basic Equipment and Devices

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel E.; Rosenberg, Morton B.; Phero, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Offices and outpatient dental facilities must be properly equipped with devices for airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation. Optimizing patient safety using crisis resource management (CRM) involves the entire dental office team being familiar with airway rescue equipment. Basic equipment for oxygenation, ventilation, and airway management is mandated in the majority of US dental offices per state regulations. The immediate availability of this equipment is especially important during the administration of sedation and anesthesia as well as the treatment of medical urgencies/emergencies. This article reviews basic equipment and devices essential in any dental practice whether providing local anesthesia alone or in combination with procedural sedation. Part 2 of this series will address advanced airway devices, including supraglottic airways and armamentarium for tracheal intubation and invasive airway procedures. PMID:24932982

  11. Extraglottic airway devices: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ramaiah, Ramesh; Das, Debasmita; Bhananker, Sanjay M; Joffe, Aaron M

    2014-01-01

    Extraglottic airway devices (EAD) have become an integral part of anesthetic care since their introduction into clinical practice 25 years ago and have been used safely hundreds of millions of times, worldwide. They are an important first option for difficult ventilation during both in-hospital and out-of-hospital difficult airway management and can be utilized as a conduit for tracheal intubation either blindly or assisted by another technology (fiberoptic endoscopy, lightwand). Thus, the EAD may be the most versatile single airway technique in the airway management toolbox. However, despite their utility, knowledge regarding specific devices and the supporting data for their use is of paramount importance to patient's safety. In this review, number of commercially available EADs are discussed and the reported benefits and potential pitfalls are highlighted. PMID:24741502

  12. [Classic laryngeal mask airway vs COBRA-PLA device for airway maintenance during minor urological procedures].

    PubMed

    Wrońska-Sewruk, Agnieszka; Nestorowicz, Andrzej; Kowalczyk, Michał

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, different supraglottic airway devices became popular and new constructions have been proposed. We compared a classic laryngeal mask airway (LMA-classic) with the COBRA-PLA device (a LMA of different design). Fifty adult ASA 1 and 2 adult patients, scheduled for minor urological interventions were randomly allocated to receive the LMA-Classic or the COBRA-PLA. Time to secure airway was shorter for the LMA-Classic (16.8+/- 5 sec vs 33.0 +/- 19.6 sec; p<0.0001). The leak pressure was higher in the COBRA group (29.0+/- 7.5 vs 22.2 +/- 3.5 cm H2O; p=0.001). The cuff pressure, necessary for obtaining adequate seal, was higher for the LMA (83.6 +/- 14.1 vs 60.2 +/- 16.4 cm H2O; p<0.0001). We did not observe statistically significant differences in heart rate, arterial blood pressure, pulse oximetry and frequency of sore throat. The LMA-classic was easier to insert but the COBRA device had more effective seal. These differences were not clinically important; both devices were found equally effective.

  13. Comparative Efficacy of the Air-Q Intubating Laryngeal Airway during General Anesthesia in Pediatric Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Eun Jin; Choi, Geun Joo; Kang, Hyun; Baek, Chong Wha; Jung, Yong Hun; Woo, Young Cheol; Bang, Si Ra

    2016-01-01

    Air-Q® (air-Q) is a supraglottic airway device which can be used as a guidance of intubation in pediatric as well as in adult patients. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of air-Q compared to other airway devices during general anesthesia in pediatric patients by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. A total of 10 studies including 789 patients were included in the final analysis. Compared with other supraglottic airway devices, air-Q showed no evidence for a difference in leakage pressure and insertion time. The ease of insertion was significantly lower than other supraglottic airway devices. The success rate of intubation was significantly lower than other airway devices. However, fiberoptic view was better through the air-Q than other supraglottic airway devices. Therefore, air-Q could be a safe substitute for other airway devices and may provide better fiberoptic bronchoscopic view. PMID:27419134

  14. Lingual nerve neuropraxia following use of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme.

    PubMed

    Thiruvenkatarajan, Venkatesan; Van Wijk, Roelof M A W; Elhalawani, Islam; Barnes, Ann-Maree

    2014-02-01

    Cranial nerve injury is a rare complication with the use of supraglottic airway devices. A case of lingual nerve injury following the use of a Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme in a 45 year old woman is presented. A review of the literature regarding lingual nerve injury as a complication of the supraglottic airway is also presented. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Development and Application of Airway Devices in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiangdong; Ma, Wuhua; Liu, Renyu; Yao, Shanglong

    2017-01-01

    Airway management is one of the most important tasks for anesthesiologists. Anesthesiologists are experts in airway management and have made tremendous contribution to the development of the airway devices. Chinese anesthesiologists have made significant contribution in introducing advanced airway management and developing innovative techniques and devices for airway management in China. This article overviews the development and application of airway devices in China as well as the dedication and contribution of Chinese experts in the development of novel airway devices. With the development of science and technology accompanied by the advanced knowledge in airway management, more effective and safe artificial airways will be developed for clinical practice. The authors believe that Chinese experts will continue their outstanding contribution to the development of innovative airway devices, systems and knowledge. PMID:28191485

  16. Surgical Management of Supraglottic Stenosis Using Intubationless Optiflow.

    PubMed

    Tam, Kenric; Jeffery, Caroline; Sung, C Kwang

    2017-09-01

    Airway management during endoscopic surgical treatment of supraglottic and pharyngeal stenosis is often challenging and can be accomplished by various means, including tracheostomy, jet ventilation, or direct laryngoscopy. We describe CO2 laser excision of supraglottic-pharyngeal stenosis using intubationless Optiflow high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). A 55-year-old male presented with dyspnea and dysphagia secondary to severe supraglottic-pharyngeal stenosis in the setting of previous chemoradiation for a T0N2aM0 squamous cell carcinoma. Laryngoscopy revealed severe supraglottic-pharyngeal stenosis with tethering of the epiglottis to the lateral pharyngeal walls. Optiflow HFNC was used to deliver 70 L/min of oxygen. After anesthetic induction, CO2 laser microlaryngoscopy was utilized to release scar tissue along the lateral epiglottic border, opening up the supraglottic airway sufficiently for endotracheal intubation and further laser resection. Airway management with Optiflow HFNC allowed initial endoscopic surgical access, partial stenotic release, and intubation. From anesthetic induction to intubation, the patient remained apneic for 26 minutes. The patient's stenosis was successfully addressed, and 10-month follow-up demonstrated stable patency of the airway. Optiflow is an important new tool in the management of severe supraglottic stenosis. It provides sufficient oxygenation to perform extended apneic surgery and improves endoscopic surgical access in a limited airway.

  17. Paediatric airway management: What is new?

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, S; Jayanthi, R; Archana, SR

    2012-01-01

    Airway management plays a pivotal role in Paediatric Anaesthesia. Over the last two decades many improvements in this area have helped us to overcome this final frontier. From an era where intubation with a conventional laryngoscope or blind nasal intubation was the only tool for airway management, we have come a long way. Today supraglottic airway devices have pride of place in the Operating Room and are becoming important airway devices used in routine procedures. Direct and indirect fibreoptic laryngoscopes and transtracheal devices help us overcome difficult and previously impossible airway situations. These developments mean that we need to update our knowledge on these devices. Also much of our basic understanding of the physiology and anatomy of the paediatric airway has changed. This article attempts to shed light on some of the most important advances/opinions in paediatric airway management like, cuffed endotracheal tubes, supraglottic airway devices, video laryngoscopes, rapid sequence intubation, the newly proposed algorithm for difficult airway management and the role of Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment (EXIT) procedure in the management of the neonatal airway. PMID:23293383

  18. Comparison of a Supraglottic Gel Device and an Endotracheal Tube in Keratoplasty Performed Under General Anesthesia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Guerrier, Gilles; Boutboul, David; Rondet, Sylvie; Hallal, Dalila; Levy, Jacques; Sjögren, Lea; Legeais, Jean-Marc; Nicolau, Romain; Mehanna, Chadi; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Samama, Charles Marc

    2016-01-01

    To assess the safety of a laryngeal mask (i-gel) in keratoplasty performed under general anesthesia. Patients with indications for keratoplasty (n = 110) were enrolled in a prospective study and randomly assigned to the i-gel (n = 55; 30 lamellar keratoplasty and 25 penetrating keratoplasty) or tracheal tube group (n = 55; 29 lamellar keratoplasty and 26 penetrating keratoplasty). Perioperative complications and the recovery time were compared between the 2 groups using the t test or χ(2) test. Contraindications to elective use of the laryngeal mask airway (esophageal reflux, extreme obesity, oropharyngeal pathology, or expected difficult intubation) and expected difficult intubation were excluded. No surgical perioperative complications were reported in either group. There was a significantly greater incidence of coughing at extubation and/or after extubation in the tracheal group (40/55; 73%) than in the laryngeal mask group (3/55; 5%) (P < 0.001). The recovery time was shorter in the i-gel group (80 minutes; 95% confidence interval, 75-86) compared with that in the tracheal tube group (88 minutes; 95% confidence interval, 82-95) (P = 0.03). There were no significant differences in the incidence of sore throat and hoarseness between both devices. The use of i-gel for keratoplasty under general anesthesia appears to be safe, reduces the risk of potential ocular hypertension during recovery, and saves recovery time.

  19. Airway Clearance Devices for Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The purpose of this evidence-based analysis is to examine the safety and efficacy of airway clearance devices (ACDs) for cystic fibrosis and attempt to differentiate between devices, where possible, on grounds of clinical efficacy, quality of life, safety and/or patient preference. Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common, inherited, life-limiting disease that affects multiple systems of the human body. Respiratory dysfunction is the primary complication and leading cause of death due to CF. CF causes abnormal mucus secretion in the airways, leading to airway obstruction and mucus plugging, which in turn can lead to bacterial infection and further mucous production. Over time, this almost cyclical process contributes to severe airway damage and loss of respiratory function. Removal of airway secretions, termed airway clearance, is thus an integral component of the management of CF. A variety of methods are available for airway clearance, some requiring mechanical devices, others physical manipulation of the body (e.g. physiotherapy). Conventional chest physiotherapy (CCPT), through the assistance of a caregiver, is the current standard of care for achieving airway clearance, particularly in young patients up to the ages of six or seven. CF patients are, however, living much longer now than in decades past. The median age of survival in Canada has risen to 37.0 years for the period of 1998-2002 (5-year window), up from 22.8 years for the 5-year window ending in 1977. The prevalence has also risen accordingly, last recorded as 3,453 in Canada in 2002, up from 1,630 in 1977. With individuals living longer, there is a greater need for independent methods of airway clearance. Airway Clearance Devices There are at least three classes of airway clearance devices: positive expiratory pressure devices (PEP), airway oscillating devices (AOD; either handheld or stationary) and high frequency chest compression (HFCC)/mechanical percussion (MP

  20. New techniques and devices for difficult airway management.

    PubMed

    Shirgoska, Biljana; Netkovski, Jane

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to compare old conventional techniques and devices for difficult airway management and new sophisticated techniques and devices. Recent techniques and devices are defined as the American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) practice guidelines for the management of difficult airway, published in 1992, reviewed in 1993 and updated in 2003. According to ASA, the techniques for difficult airway management are divided into techniques for difficult intubation and techniques for difficult ventilation. Awake fiberoptic intubation is the technique of choice for difficult airway management prescribed by the World Health Organization document for patient safety in the operating theater. Conventional techniques for intubation used direct visualization. The new generation of devices does not require direct visualization of the vocal cords for endotracheal tube placement. They allow better glottis view and successful endotracheal placement of the tube with indirect laryngoscopy. New intubation devices such as video laryngoscopes facilitate endotracheal intubation by indirect visualization of glottis structures without aligning the oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal axes in patients with cervical spine abnormality. Video laryngoscopes such as V-Mac and C-Mac, Glide scope, McGrath, Airway Scope, Airtraq, Bonfils and Bullard laryngoscope are widely available at the market. Airway gadgets are lighted stylets and endotracheal tube guides. The principal conclusion of this review is that utilization of these devices can be easily learned. The technique of indirect laryngoscopy is currently used for managing difficult airway in the operating room as well as for securing the airway in daily anesthesia routine.

  1. Detection of upper airway status and respiratory events by a current generation positive airway pressure device.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing Yun; Berry, Richard B; Goetting, Mark G; Staley, Bethany; Soto-Calderon, Haideliza; Tsai, Sheila C; Jasko, Jeffrey G; Pack, Allan I; Kuna, Samuel T

    2015-04-01

    To compare a positive airway pressure (PAP) device's detection of respiratory events and airway status during device-detected apneas with events scored on simultaneous polysomnography (PSG). Prospective PSGs of patients with sleep apnea using a new-generation PAP device. Four clinical and academic sleep centers. Forty-five patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and complex sleep apnea (Comp SA) performed a PSG on PAP levels adjusted to induce respiratory events. None. PAP device data identifying the type of respiratory event and whether the airway during a device-detected apnea was open or obstructed were compared to time-synced, manually scored respiratory events on simultaneous PSG recording. Intraclass correlation coefficients between device-detected and PSG scored events were 0.854 for apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), 0.783 for apnea index, 0.252 for hypopnea index, and 0.098 for respiratory event-related arousals index. At a device AHI (AHIFlow) of 10 events/h, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.98, with sensitivity 0.92 and specificity 0.84. AHIFlow tended to overestimate AHI on PSG at values less than 10 events/h. The device detected that the airway was obstructed in 87.4% of manually scored obstructive apneas. Of the device-detected apneas with clear airway, a minority (15.8%) were manually scored as obstructive apneas. A device-detected apnea-hypopnea index (AHIFlow) < 10 events/h on a positive airway pressure device is strong evidence of good treatment efficacy. Device-detected airway status agrees closely with the presumed airway status during polysomnography scored events, but should not be equated with a specific type of respiratory event. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Detection of Upper Airway Status and Respiratory Events by a Current Generation Positive Airway Pressure Device

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing Yun; Berry, Richard B.; Goetting, Mark G.; Staley, Bethany; Soto-Calderon, Haideliza; Tsai, Sheila C.; Jasko, Jeffrey G.; Pack, Allan I.; Kuna, Samuel T.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare a positive airway pressure (PAP) device's detection of respiratory events and airway status during device-detected apneas with events scored on simultaneous polysomnography (PSG). Design: Prospective PSGs of patients with sleep apnea using a new-generation PAP device. Settings: Four clinical and academic sleep centers. Patients: Forty-five patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and complex sleep apnea (Comp SA) performed a PSG on PAP levels adjusted to induce respiratory events. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: PAP device data identifying the type of respiratory event and whether the airway during a device-detected apnea was open or obstructed were compared to time-synced, manually scored respiratory events on simultaneous PSG recording. Intraclass correlation coefficients between device-detected and PSG scored events were 0.854 for apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), 0.783 for apnea index, 0.252 for hypopnea index, and 0.098 for respiratory event-related arousals index. At a device AHI (AHIFlow) of 10 events/h, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.98, with sensitivity 0.92 and specificity 0.84. AHIFlow tended to overestimate AHI on PSG at values less than 10 events/h. The device detected that the airway was obstructed in 87.4% of manually scored obstructive apneas. Of the device-detected apneas with clear airway, a minority (15.8%) were manually scored as obstructive apneas. Conclusions: A device-detected apnea-hypopnea index (AHIFlow) < 10 events/h on a positive airway pressure device is strong evidence of good treatment efficacy. Device-detected airway status agrees closely with the presumed airway status during polysomnography scored events, but should not be equated with a specific type of respiratory event. Citation: Li QY, Berry RB, Goetting MG, Staley B, Soto-Calderon H, Tsai SC, Jasko JG, Pack AI, Kuna ST. Detection of upper airway status and respiratory events by a current generation positive

  3. Airway management during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Michael; Benger, Jonathan R

    2015-06-01

    This article evaluates the latest scientific evidence regarding airway management during in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In the in-hospital setting, observational research suggested that the quality of CPR using 'no flow ratio' as a surrogate marker was improved when advanced airway techniques were used. A registry study demonstrated that an initial failed intubation attempt was associated with an average delay of 3 min in time to return of spontaneous circulation. A prospective observational study showed that the Glide Scope videolaryngoscope was associated with a first-pass success rate of 93%, with no differences between less and more experienced physicians. In the out-of-hospital setting, a registry study suggested that intubation leads to a better outcome compared with supraglottic airway devices. However, no advanced airway devices showed a better outcome than basic airway techniques. An observational study reported that the i-gel supraglottic airway device offers a first-pass insertion success rate of 90%, and was easier to establish than the Portex Soft Seal laryngeal mask airway. Other out-of-hospital observational studies showed that the laryngeal tube offers a lower first-pass insertion success rate than expected, and complications of this device may influence later definitive airway management and the outcome as a whole. Recent studies of airway management during CPR rely mostly on registry and observational designs. Prospective randomized trials are needed to determine the optimal approach to airway management during cardiac arrest, but have not yet been completed.

  4. Difficult Airway Society 2015 guidelines for management of unanticipated difficult intubation in adults.

    PubMed

    Frerk, C; Mitchell, V S; McNarry, A F; Mendonca, C; Bhagrath, R; Patel, A; O'Sullivan, E P; Woodall, N M; Ahmad, I

    2015-12-01

    These guidelines provide a strategy to manage unanticipated difficulty with tracheal intubation. They are founded on published evidence. Where evidence is lacking, they have been directed by feedback from members of the Difficult Airway Society and based on expert opinion. These guidelines have been informed by advances in the understanding of crisis management; they emphasize the recognition and declaration of difficulty during airway management. A simplified, single algorithm now covers unanticipated difficulties in both routine intubation and rapid sequence induction. Planning for failed intubation should form part of the pre-induction briefing, particularly for urgent surgery. Emphasis is placed on assessment, preparation, positioning, preoxygenation, maintenance of oxygenation, and minimizing trauma from airway interventions. It is recommended that the number of airway interventions are limited, and blind techniques using a bougie or through supraglottic airway devices have been superseded by video- or fibre-optically guided intubation. If tracheal intubation fails, supraglottic airway devices are recommended to provide a route for oxygenation while reviewing how to proceed. Second-generation devices have advantages and are recommended. When both tracheal intubation and supraglottic airway device insertion have failed, waking the patient is the default option. If at this stage, face-mask oxygenation is impossible in the presence of muscle relaxation, cricothyroidotomy should follow immediately. Scalpel cricothyroidotomy is recommended as the preferred rescue technique and should be practised by all anaesthetists. The plans outlined are designed to be simple and easy to follow. They should be regularly rehearsed and made familiar to the whole theatre team.

  5. Comparison of airway management techniques for different access in a simulated motor vehicle entrapment scenario.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Daniel; Ahne, Thomas; Heringhaus, Christian; Goebel, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    Emergency airway management can be particularly challenging in patients entrapped in crashed cars because of limited access. The aim of this study was to analyse the feasibility of four different airway devices in various standardized settings utilized by paramedics and emergency physicians. Twenty-five paramedics and 25 emergency physicians were asked to perform advanced airway management in a manikin entrapped in a car's left front seat, with access to the patient through the opened driver's door or access from the back seat. Available airway devices included Macintosh and Airtraq laryngoscopes, as well as laryngeal mask airway (LMA) Supreme and the Laryngeal Tube. The primary endpoints were successful placement, along with attempts needed to do so, and time for successful placement. The secondary endpoints included Cormack-Lehane grades and rating of the difficulty of the technique with the different devices. The overall intubation and placement success rates were equal for the Macintosh and Airtraq laryngoscopes as well as the LMA Supreme and Laryngeal Tube, with access from the back seat being superior in terms of placement time and ease of use. Supraglottic airway devices required half of the placement time and were easier to use compared with endotracheal tubes (with placement times almost >30 s). Paramedics and emergency physicians achieved equal overall successful placement rates for all devices. Both scenarios of securing the airway seem suitable in this manikin study, with access from the back seat being superior. Although all airway devices were applicable by both groups, paramedics and emergency physicians, supraglottic device placement was faster and always possible at the first attempt. Therefore, the LMA Supreme and the Laryngeal Tube are attractive alternatives for airway management in this context if endotracheal tube placement fails. Furthermore, supraglottic device placement, while the patient is still in the vehicle, followed by a definitive

  6. Airway management evolution - in a search for an ideal extraglottic airway device.

    PubMed

    Michálek, Pavel; Miller, Donald M

    2014-01-01

    Extraglottic airway devices (EADs) are commonly used equipment for airway maintenance during elective procedures under general anaesthesia. They may be used also in other indications such as conduit for tracheal intubation or rescue airway device in prehospital medicine. Current classifications of the EADs lack systematic approach and therefore classification according to the sealing sites and sealing mechanisms is suggested in this review article. Modern EADs are disposable, latex-free devices made of plastic materials most commonly from polyvinylchloride (PVC). The bowl of uncuffed sealers is manufactured from different materials such as thermoplastic elastomers or ethylene-vinyl-acetate co-polymer. EADs create various physical forces exerted on the adjacent tissues which may contribute to different sealing characteristic of particular device or to variable incidence of postoperative complications. Desired features of an ideal EAD involve easy insertion, high insertion success rate even by inexperienced users, protection against aspiration of gastric contents and low incidence of postoperative complications such as sore throat, hoarseness, cough or swallowing difficulties.

  7. Prehospital airway management on rescue helicopters in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Schmid, M; Mang, H; Ey, K; Schüttler, J

    2009-06-01

    Adequate equipment is one prerequisite for advanced, out of hospital, airway management. There are no data on current availability of airway equipment on UK rescue helicopters. An internet search revealed all UK rescue helicopters, and a questionnaire was sent to the bases asking for available airway management items. We identified 27 helicopter bases and 26 (96%) sent the questionnaire back. Twenty-four bases (92%) had at least one supraglottic airway device; 16 (62%) helicopters had material for establishing a surgical airway (e.g. a cricothyroidotomy set); 88% of the helicopters had CO(2) detection; 25 (96%) helicopters carried automatic ventilators; among these, four (15%) had sophisticated ventilators and seven (27%) helicopters carried special face masks suitable for non-invasive ventilation. We found a wide variation in the advanced airway management equipment that was carried routinely on air ambulances. Current guidelines for airway management are not met by all UK air ambulances.

  8. A Case Report: Establishing a Definitive Airway in a Trauma Patient With a King Laryngeal Tube In Situ in the Presence of a Closed Head Injury and Difficult Airway: "Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea".

    PubMed

    Koumpan, Yuri; Murdoch, John; Beyea, Jason A; Kahn, Michael; Colbeck, Jaime

    2017-03-15

    Airway management in trauma is a crucial skill, because patients are at risk of aspiration, hypoxia, and hypoventilation, all of which may be fatal in the setting of increased intracranial pressure. The King Laryngeal Tube reusable supraglottic airway (King Systems, Noblesville, IN) allows for temporary management of a difficult airway but poses a challenge when an attempt is made to exchange the device for an endotracheal tube, often managed by emergency tracheostomy. We describe a novel fiberoptic, video laryngoscope-assisted approach to intubation in a difficult trauma airway with an in situ King Laryngeal Tube.

  9. The Difficult Airway Society 'ADEPT' guidance on selecting airway devices: the basis of a strategy for equipment evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Popat, M T; Cook, T M; Wilkes, A R; Groom, P; Cooke, H; Kapila, A; O'Sullivan, E

    2011-08-01

    Faced with the concern that an increasing number of airway management devices were being introduced into clinical practice with little or no prior evidence of their clinical efficacy or safety, the Difficult Airway Society formed a working party (Airway Device Evaluation Project Team) to establish a process by which the airway management community within the profession could itself lead a process of formal device/equipment evaluation. Although there are several national and international regulations governing which products can come on to the market and be legitimately sold, there has hitherto been no formal professional guidance relating to how products should be selected (i.e. purchased). The Airway Device Evaluation Project Team's first task was to formulate such advice, emphasising evidence-based principles. Team discussions led to a definition of the minimum level of evidence needed to make a pragmatic decision about the purchase or selection of an airway device. The Team concluded that this definition should form the basis of a professional standard, guiding those with responsibility for selecting airway devices. We describe how widespread adoption of this professional standard can act as a driver to create an infrastructure in which the required evidence can be obtained. Essential elements are that: (i) the Difficult Airway Society facilitates a coherent national network of research-active units; and (ii) individual anaesthetists in hospital trusts play a more active role in local purchasing decisions, applying the relevant evidence and communicating their purchasing decisions to the Difficult Airway Society. © 2011 The Authors. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Airway management in simulated restricted access to a patient - can manikin-based studies provide relevant data?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alternatives to endotracheal intubation (ETI) are required when access to the cranial end of the patient is restricted. In this study, the success rate and time duration of standard intubation techniques were compared with two different supraglottic devices. Two different manikins were used for the study, and the training effect was studied when the same manikin was repeatedly used. Methods Twenty anaesthesiologists from the Air Ambulance Department used iGEL™, laryngeal tube LTSII™ and Macintosh laryngoscopes in two scenarios with either unrestricted (scenario A) or restricted (scenario B) access to the cranial end of the manikin. Different manikins were used for ETI and placement of the supraglottic devices. The technique selected by the physicians, the success rates and the times to completion were the primary outcomes measured. A secondary outcome of the study was an evaluation of the learning effect of using the same manikin or device several times. Results In scenario A, all anaesthesiologists secured an airway using each device within the maximum time limit of 60 seconds. In scenario B, all physicians secured the airway on the first attempt with the supraglottic devices and 16 (80%) successfully performed an ETI with either the Macintosh laryngoscope (n = 13, 65%) or with digital technique (n = 3, 15%). It took significantly longer to perform ETI (mean time 28.0 sec +/- 13.0) than to secure an airway with the supraglottic devices (iGel™: mean 12.3 sec +/- 3.6, LTSII™: mean 10.6 sec +/- 3.2). When comparing the mean time required for the two scenarios for each supraglottic device, there was a reduction in time for scenario B (significant for LTSII™: 12.1 versus 10.6 seconds, p = 0.014). This may be due to a training effect using same manikin and device several times. Conclusions The amount of time used to secure an airway with supraglottic devices was low for both scenarios, while classic ETI was time consuming and had a low success rate

  11. Medullary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a supraglottic mass.

    PubMed

    White, Jeremy; Mohyeldin, Ahmed; Schwartz, Arnold; Bielamowicz, Steven

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of medullary thyroid carcinoma that presented as a metastasis to the supraglottic larynx. A 92-year-old man with a 3-month history of voice change and airway obstruction was diagnosed with medullary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the supraglottis. Excision of the mass, total thyroidectomy, and elective neck dissection were recommended, but the patient declined because of his advanced age. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland is a rare neuroendocrine tumor with a poor prognosis when associated with a distant metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a medullary carcinoma of the thyroid presenting as a supraglottic mass. Total thyroidectomy, neck dissection, and surgical excision of the entire tumor comprise the treatment of choice.

  12. Oscillating devices for airway clearance in people with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Lisa; Agnew, Jennifer

    2014-07-20

    Chest physiotherapy is widely prescribed to assist the clearance of airway secretions in people with cystic fibrosis. Oscillating devices generate intra- or extra-thoracic oscillations orally or external to the chest wall. Internally they create variable resistances within the airways, generating controlled oscillating positive pressure which mobilises mucus. Extra-thoracic oscillations are generated by forces outside the respiratory system, e.g. high frequency chest wall oscillation. To identify whether oscillatory devices, oral or chest wall, are effective for mucociliary clearance and whether they are equivalent or superior to other forms of airway clearance in the successful management of secretions in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and hand searches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Latest search of the Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 13 January 2014. Randomised controlled studies and controlled clinical studies of oscillating devices compared with any other form of physiotherapy in people with cystic fibrosis. Single-treatment interventions (therapy technique used only once in the comparison) were excluded. Two authors independently applied the inclusion criteria to publications and assessed the quality of the included studies. The searches identified 68 studies with a total of 288 references; 35 studies (total of 1050 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Studies varied in duration from up to one week to one year; 20 of the studies were cross-over in design. The studies also varied in type of intervention and the outcomes measured, furthermore data were not published in sufficient detail in most of these studies, so meta-analysis was limited. Few studies were considered to have a low risk of bias in any domain. It is not possible to blind participants and

  13. Oscillating devices for airway clearance in people with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Lisa; Agnew, Jennifer

    2009-01-21

    Chest physiotherapy is widely prescribed to assist the clearance of airway secretions in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Oscillating devices generate intra- or extra-thoracic oscillations orally or external to the chest wall. Internally they create variable resistances within the airways, generating controlled oscillating positive pressure which mobilises mucus. Extra-thoracic oscillations are generated by forces outside the respiratory system, e.g. high frequency chest wall oscillation. To determine the effectiveness and acceptability of oscillating devices compared to other forms of physiotherapy to improve respiratory function, mucus clearance and other outcomes in people with CF. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and hand searches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Most recent search of the Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: November 2008. Randomised controlled studies and controlled clinical studies of oscillating devices compared with any other form of physiotherapy in people with CF. Two authors independently applied the inclusion criteria to publications and assessed the quality of the included studies. Two hundred and sixty-five studies were identified; thirty studies (total of 708 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Single treatment interventions (therapy technique used only once in the comparison) were excluded. Studies varied in duration from up to one week to one year in duration. Nineteen of the studies were cross-over in design. Data were not published in sufficient detail in most of these studies to perform meta-analysis.Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) was the most frequently measured outcome. Results did not show significant difference in effect between oscillating devices and other methods of airway clearance on FEV(1) or other lung function parameters. Where there

  14. [Comparison of the i-gel™ and the Laryngeal Mask Airway Classic™ in terms of clinical performance].

    PubMed

    Polat, Reyhan; Aydin, Gözde Bumin; Ergil, Jülide; Sayin, Murat; Kokulu, Tuğba; Öztürk, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    The i-gel™ is one of the second generation supraglottic airway devices. Our study was designed to compare the i-gel and the Laryngeal Mask Airway Classic™ with respect to the clinical performance. We compared the performance of the i-gel with that of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Classic in 120 patients undergoing urologic surgery during general anesthesia without muscle relaxant with respect to the number of attempts for successful insertion, insertion time, peak airway pressure, incidence of regurgitation, fiberoptic glottic view and postoperative complications. Second generation supraglottic airway devices were inserted by the same anesthesiologist, experienced in use of both devices (>200 uses and first time failure rate <5%). Methylene blue method was used to detect gastric regurgitation. There was no statistical difference between the two groups regarding the success of insertion of second generation supraglottic airway device (p=0.951). The laryngeal mask insertion time for the i-gel group was significantly shorter than that for the Laryngeal Mask Airway Classic group (11.6±2.4s versus 13.1±1.8s [p=0.001]). The fiberoptic glottic view scores for the i-gel group was significantly better than that for the ones for the Laryngeal Mask Airway Classic group (p=0.001). On fiberoptic view, there was no sign of methylene blue dye at any time point in either group. In addition, there was no difference between the groups in patient response regarding the presence of a sore throat when questioned 24h after the procedure (p=0.752). Both devices had good performance with low postoperative complications and without occurrence of regurgitation. The i-gel provided a shorter insertion time and a better fiberoptic view than the Laryngeal Mask Airway Classic. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of the i-gel™ and the Laryngeal Mask Airway Classic™ in terms of clinical performance.

    PubMed

    Polat, Reyhan; Aydin, Gözde Bumin; Ergil, Jülide; Sayin, Murat; Kokulu, Tuğba; Öztürk, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    The i-gel™ is one of the second generation supraglottic airway devices. Our study was designed to compare the i-gel and the Laryngeal Mask Airway Classic™ with respect to the clinical performance. We compared the performance of the i-gel with that of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Classic in 120 patients undergoing urologic surgery during general anesthesia without muscle relaxant with respect to the number of attempts for successful insertion, insertion time, peak airway pressure, incidence of regurgitation, fiberoptic glottic view and postoperative complications. Second generation supraglottic airway devices were inserted by the same anesthesiologist, experienced in use of both devices (>200 uses and first time failure rate <5%). Methylene blue method was used to detect gastric regurgitation. There was no statistical difference between the two groups regarding the success of insertion of second generation supraglottic airway device (p=0.951). The laryngeal mask insertion time for the i-gel group was significantly shorter than that for the Laryngeal Mask Airway Classic group (11.6±2.4s versus 13.1±1.8s [p=0.001]). The fiberoptic glottic view scores for the i-gel group was significantly better than that for the ones for the Laryngeal Mask Airway Classic group (p=0.001). On fiberoptic view, there was no sign of methylene blue dye at any time point in either group. In addition, there was no difference between the groups in patient response regarding the presence of a sore throat when questioned 24h after the procedure (p=0.752). Both devices had good performance with low postoperative complications and without occurrence of regurgitation. The i-gel provided a shorter insertion time and a better fiberoptic view than the Laryngeal Mask Airway Classic. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Respiratory Event Detection by a Positive Airway Pressure Device

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Richard B.; Kushida, Clete A.; Kryger, Meir H.; Soto-Calderon, Haideliza; Staley, Bethany; Kuna, Samuel T.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Compare automatic event detection (AED) of respiratory events using a positive airway pressure (PAP) device with manual scoring of polysomnography (PSG) during PAP treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design: Prospective PSGs of patients using a PAP device. Setting: Six academic and private sleep disorders centers. Patients: A total of 148 PSGs from 115 participants with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15 events/hr) were analyzed. Interventions: A signal generated by the PAP device identifying the AED of respiratory events based on airflow was recorded during PSG. Measurements and Results: The PSGs were manually scored without visualization of the AED signal and scoring of a hypopnea required a ≥ 4% oxygen desaturation. The apnea index (AI), hypopnea index (HI), and AHI by manual score and PAP AED were compared. A customized computer program compared individual events by manual scoring and AED to determine the true positive, false positive, false negative, or true negative events and found a sensitivity of 0.58 and a specificity of 0.98. The AHI, AI, and HI by the two methods were highly correlated. Bland-Altman analysis showed better agreement for AI than HI. Using a manually scored AHI of ≥ 10 events/hr to denote inadequate treatment, an AED AHI ≥ 10 events/hr had a sensitivity of 0.58 and a specificity of 0.94. Conclusions: An AHI < 10 events/hr by PAP AED is usually associated with good treatment efficacy. Differences between manually scored and AED events were primarily due to different criteria for hypopnea detection. Citation: Berry RB; Kushida CA; Kryger MH; Soto-Calderon H; Staley B; Kuna ST. Respiratory event detection by a positive airway pressure device. SLEEP 2012;35(3):361-367. PMID:22379242

  17. Association of advanced airway device with chest compression fraction during out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest.

    PubMed

    Kurz, Michael Christopher; Prince, David K; Christenson, James; Carlson, Jestin; Stub, Dion; Cheskes, Sheldon; Lin, Steve; Aziz, Michael; Austin, Michael; Vaillancourt, Christian; Colvin, Justin; Wang, Henry E

    2016-01-01

    Select Emergency Medical Services (EMS) practitioners substitute endotracheal intubation (ETI) with supraglottic airway (SGA) insertion to minimize CPR chest compression interruptions, but the resulting effects upon chest compression fraction (CCF) are unknown. We sought to determine the differences in CCF between adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) receiving ETI and those receiving SGA. We studied adult, non-traumatic OHCA patients enrolled in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) Prehospital Resuscitation using an Impedance valve and an Early vs. Delayed analysis (PRIMED) trial. Chest compressions were measured using compression or thoracic impedance sensors. We limited the analysis to those receiving ETI or SGA (Combitube, King Laryngeal Tube, or Laryngeal Mask Airway) and >2min of chest compression data before and after airway insertion. We compared CCF between ETI and SGA before and after airway insertion, adjusting for age, sex, witnessed arrest, bystander CPR, shockable initial rhythm, public location, PRIMED trial arm, and regional ROC center. We also compared the change in CCF for each airway technique. Of 14,955 patients enrolled in the ROC PRIMED trial, we analyzed 2767 cases, including 2051 ETI, 671 SGA, and 45 both. Among subjects in this investigation the mean age was 66.4 years with a male predominace, 46% with witnessed event, 37% receiving bystander CPR, and 22% presenting with an initially shockable rhythm. Pre- and post-airway CCF was higher for SGA than ETI (SGA pre-airway CCF 73.2% [95%CI: 71.6-74.7%] vs. ETI 70.6% [95%CI: 69.7-71.5%]; post-airway 76.7% [95%CI: 75.2-78.1%] vs. 72.4% [95%CI: 71.5-73.3%]). After adjusting for potential confounders, these significant changes persisted (pre-airway difference 2.2% favoring SGA, p-value=0.046; post-airway 3.4% favoring SGA, p=0.001). In patients with OHCA, we detected a slightly higher rate of CCF in patients for whom a SGA was inserted, both before and after insertion. However, the

  18. Oscillating devices for airway clearance in people with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Lisa; Innes, Stephanie

    2017-05-04

    Chest physiotherapy is widely prescribed to assist the clearance of airway secretions in people with cystic fibrosis. Oscillating devices generate intra- or extra-thoracic oscillations orally or external to the chest wall. Internally they create variable resistances within the airways, generating controlled oscillating positive pressure which mobilises mucus. Extra-thoracic oscillations are generated by forces outside the respiratory system, e.g. high frequency chest wall oscillation. This is an update of a previously published review. To identify whether oscillatory devices, oral or chest wall, are effective for mucociliary clearance and whether they are equivalent or superior to other forms of airway clearance in the successful management of secretions in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and hand searches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Latest search of the Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 27 April 2017.In addition we searched the trials databases ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Latest search of trials databases: 26 April 2017. Randomised controlled studies and controlled clinical studies of oscillating devices compared with any other form of physiotherapy in people with cystic fibrosis. Single-treatment interventions (therapy technique used only once in the comparison) were excluded. Two authors independently applied the inclusion criteria to publications and assessed the quality of the included studies. The searches identified 76 studies (302 references); 35 studies (total of 1138 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Studies varied in duration from up to one week to one year; 20 of the studies were cross-over in design. The studies also varied in type of intervention and the outcomes measured, data were not

  19. A meta-analysis of prehospital airway control techniques part II: alternative airway devices and cricothyrotomy success rates.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Michael W; Wilfong, Denise A; Brown, Lawrence H; Hertelendy, Attila; Benner, Randall W

    2010-01-01

    Airway management is a key component of prehospital care for seriously ill and injured patients. Oral endotracheal intubation (OETI) is the definitive airway of choice in most emergency medical services (EMS) systems. However, OETI may not be an approved skill for some clinicians or may prove problematic in certain patients because of anatomic abnormalities, trauma, or inadequate relaxation. In these situations alternative airways are frequently employed. However, the reported success rates for these devices vary widely, and established benchmarks are lacking. We sought to determine pooled estimates of the success rates of alternative airway devices (AADs) and needle cricothyrotomy (NCRIC) and surgical cricothyrotomy (SCRIC) placement through a meta-analysis of the literature. We performed a systematic literature search for all English-language articles reporting success rates for AADs, SCRIC, and NCRIC. Studies of field procedures performed by prehospital personnel from any nation were included. All titles were reviewed independently by two authors using prespecified inclusion criteria. Pooled estimates of success rates for each airway technique were calculated using a random-effects meta-analysis model. Of 2,005 prehospital airway titles identified, 35 unique studies were retained for analysis of AAD success rates, encompassing a total of 10,172 prehospital patients. The success rates for SCRIC and NCRIC were analyzed across an additional 21 studies totaling 512 patients. The pooled estimates (and 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for intervention success across all clinicians and patients were as follows: esophageal obturator airway-esophageal gastric tube airway (EOA-EGTA) 92.6% (90.1%-94.5%); pharyngeotracheal lumen airway (PTLA) 82.1% (74.0%-88.0%); esophageal-tracheal Combitube (ETC) 85.4% (77.3%-91.0%); laryngeal mask airway (LMA) 87.4% (79.0%-92.8%); King Laryngeal Tube airway (King LT) 96.5% (71.2%-99.7%); NCRIC 65.8% (42.3%-83.59%); and SCRIC 90.5% (84

  20. 21 CFR 868.5115 - Device to relieve acute upper airway obstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device to relieve acute upper airway obstruction. 868.5115 Section 868.5115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5115 Device...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5115 - Device to relieve acute upper airway obstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Device to relieve acute upper airway obstruction. 868.5115 Section 868.5115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5115 Device to...

  2. Difficult Airway Society 2015 guidelines for management of unanticipated difficult intubation in adults†

    PubMed Central

    Frerk, C.; Mitchell, V. S.; McNarry, A. F.; Mendonca, C.; Bhagrath, R.; Patel, A.; O'Sullivan, E. P.; Woodall, N. M.; Ahmad, I.

    2015-01-01

    These guidelines provide a strategy to manage unanticipated difficulty with tracheal intubation. They are founded on published evidence. Where evidence is lacking, they have been directed by feedback from members of the Difficult Airway Society and based on expert opinion. These guidelines have been informed by advances in the understanding of crisis management; they emphasize the recognition and declaration of difficulty during airway management. A simplified, single algorithm now covers unanticipated difficulties in both routine intubation and rapid sequence induction. Planning for failed intubation should form part of the pre-induction briefing, particularly for urgent surgery. Emphasis is placed on assessment, preparation, positioning, preoxygenation, maintenance of oxygenation, and minimizing trauma from airway interventions. It is recommended that the number of airway interventions are limited, and blind techniques using a bougie or through supraglottic airway devices have been superseded by video- or fibre-optically guided intubation. If tracheal intubation fails, supraglottic airway devices are recommended to provide a route for oxygenation while reviewing how to proceed. Second-generation devices have advantages and are recommended. When both tracheal intubation and supraglottic airway device insertion have failed, waking the patient is the default option. If at this stage, face-mask oxygenation is impossible in the presence of muscle relaxation, cricothyroidotomy should follow immediately. Scalpel cricothyroidotomy is recommended as the preferred rescue technique and should be practised by all anaesthetists. The plans outlined are designed to be simple and easy to follow. They should be regularly rehearsed and made familiar to the whole theatre team. PMID:26556848

  3. Evaluation of four airway training manikins as patient simulators for the insertion of single use laryngeal mask airways.

    PubMed

    Cook, T M; Green, C; McGrath, J; Srivastava, R

    2007-07-01

    We evaluated the performance of four manikins: Airsim(trade mark), Bill 1, Airway Management Trainer and Airway Trainer, as simulators for insertion of single-use laryngeal mask airways and the reusable LMA Classic. Sixteen volunteer anaesthetists inserted each laryngeal mask airway into each manikin twice. Insertions were scored for ease of insertion, clinical and fibreoptic position, and lung ventilation (maximum score 10). Scores < 7 were classified 'poor' and < 5 'failure'. We analysed manikin and laryngeal mask airway performance. Poor insertion rate was 15% (range 9-21%) and was lowest for the VBM manikin (p = 0.02). Insertion failure rate was 2.6% and did not differ significantly between manikins (p = 0.2). Overall manikin performance was significantly different (p < 0.0001). The VBM manikin scored best, with all other manikins equivalent. The VBM manikin performed significantly better for three individual laryngeal mask airways. Overall performance differences of laryngeal mask airways were statistically significant (p < 0.001) but individual comparisons were not. Silicone devices performed better than PVC devices (p < 0.05) Devices with and without grilles performed similarly. All manikins were adequate. The VBM manikin performed best overall and for several individual laryngeal mask airways. The methodology is useful for future evaluations of devices, both manikins and supraglottic airways. Further human clinical research is required.

  4. Targeting drugs to the airways: The role of spacer devices.

    PubMed

    Lavorini, Federico; Fontana, Giovanni A

    2009-01-01

    Spacer devices are inhalation aids of varying dimension and complexity, specifically designed to overcome problems with the use of pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). The aim of this review is to examine the current understanding about these inhalation devices and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. The pertinent literature concerning the characteristics and effects of spacers on delivery and lung deposition of inhaled medications, as well as their clinical efficacy in patients with reversible airway obstruction, is examined. Spacers minimise problems of poor inhalation technique with pMDI, reduce oropharyngeal deposition and increase lung deposition. Spacers improve the clinical effect of inhaled medications, especially in patients unable to use a pMDI properly. Compared to both pMDIs and dry-powder inhalers, spacers may increase the response to beta-adrenergic bronchodilators, even in patients with correct inhalation technique. A pMDI plus spacer has proven to be viable lower cost alternative to the use of a nebuliser for delivering large bronchodilator doses in patients with severe acute asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The use of large-volume spacers is recommended for delivering high doses of inhaled corticosteroids, and may permit a lower maintenance dose to be used. pMDIs may be routinely fitted with a spacer, especially in situations where correct pMDI use is unlikely.

  5. Association of prehospital advanced airway management with neurologic outcome and survival in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Hiraide, Atsushi; Chang, Yuchiao; Brown, David F M

    2013-01-16

    It is unclear whether advanced airway management such as endotracheal intubation or use of supraglottic airway devices in the prehospital setting improves outcomes following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) compared with conventional bag-valve-mask ventilation. To test the hypothesis that prehospital advanced airway management is associated with favorable outcome after adult OHCA. Prospective, nationwide, population-based study (All-Japan Utstein Registry) involving 649,654 consecutive adult patients in Japan who had an OHCA and in whom resuscitation was attempted by emergency responders with subsequent transport to medical institutions from January 2005 through December 2010. Favorable neurological outcome 1 month after an OHCA, defined as cerebral performance category 1 or 2. Of the eligible 649,359 patients with OHCA, 367,837 (57%) underwent bag-valve-mask ventilation and 281,522 (43%) advanced airway management, including 41,972 (6%) with endotracheal intubation and 239,550 (37%) with use of supraglottic airways. In the full cohort, the advanced airway group incurred a lower rate of favorable neurological outcome compared with the bag-valve-mask group (1.1% vs 2.9%; odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% CI, 0.36-0.39). In multivariable logistic regression, advanced airway management had an OR for favorable neurological outcome of 0.38 (95% CI, 0.37-0.40) after adjusting for age, sex, etiology of arrest, first documented rhythm, witnessed status, type of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, use of public access automated external defibrillator, epinephrine administration, and time intervals. Similarly, the odds of neurologically favorable survival were significantly lower both for endotracheal intubation (adjusted OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.37-0.45) and for supraglottic airways (adjusted OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.36-0.40). In a propensity score-matched cohort (357,228 patients), the adjusted odds of neurologically favorable survival were significantly lower both for

  6. Respiratory event detection by a positive airway pressure device.

    PubMed

    Berry, Richard B; Kushida, Clete A; Kryger, Meir H; Soto-Calderon, Haideliza; Staley, Bethany; Kuna, Samuel T

    2012-03-01

    Compare automatic event detection (AED) of respiratory events using a positive airway pressure (PAP) device with manual scoring of polysomnography (PSG) during PAP treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Prospective PSGs of patients using a PAP device. Six academic and private sleep disorders centers. A total of 148 PSGs from 115 participants with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15 events/hr) were analyzed. A signal generated by the PAP device identifying the AED of respiratory events based on airflow was recorded during PSG. The PSGs were manually scored without visualization of the AED signal and scoring of a hypopnea required a ≥ 4% oxygen desaturation. The apnea index (AI), hypopnea index (HI), and AHI by manual score and PAP AED were compared. A customized computer program compared individual events by manual scoring and AED to determine the true positive, false positive, false negative, or true negative events and found a sensitivity of 0.58 and a specificity of 0.98. The AHI, AI, and HI by the two methods were highly correlated. Bland-Altman analysis showed better agreement for AI than HI. Using a manually scored AHI of ≥ 10 events/hr to denote inadequate treatment, an AED AHI ≥ 10 events/hr had a sensitivity of 0.58 and a specificity of 0.94. An AHI < 10 events/hr by PAP AED is usually associated with good treatment efficacy. Differences between manually scored and AED events were primarily due to different criteria for hypopnea detection.

  7. [Rare problem with the insertion of a Supreme™ laryngeal mask airway device. Case of the trimester].

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    A breast tumor was resected under general anesthesia. After induction, the airway was managed with a Supreme™ laryngeal mask airway device. The insertion of the laryngeal mask airway device, the insertion of the orogastric tube through the drain tube, as well as the mechanical ventilation, were very difficult from the beginning. On removing the laryngeal mask airway device to solve the problem, it was observed that the drain tube was broken, and the orogastric tube had passed into the anterior, laryngeal part of the device through the split. It was later found out that the laryngeal mask airway device, as well as the whole manufacturing batch, had suffered a design modification: the cuff was constructed with a softer material without reinforcement in the tip, and the drain tube had a heat-sealing defect that facilitated the break. The incident was reported to the local supplier and the manufacturer, and the defective batch of laryngeal mask airway devices was recalled. The incident was also reported to other hospitals via SENSAR, to warn other users of the potential dangers of the design modification in the Supreme™ laryngeal mask airway. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of vortical flow structures on the glottal jet location in the supraglottal region.

    PubMed

    Kniesburges, Stefan; Hesselmann, Christina; Becker, Stefan; Schlücker, Eberhard; Döllinger, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Within the fully coupled multiphysics phonation process, the fluid flow plays an important role for sound production. This study addresses phenomena in the flow downstream of synthetic self-oscillating vocal folds. An experimental setup consisting of devices for producing and conditioning the flow including the main test channel was applied. The supraglottal channel was designed to prevent an acoustic coupling to the vocal folds. Hence, the oscillations were aerodynamically driven. The cross-section of the supraglottal channel was systematically varied by increasing the distance between the lateral channel walls. The vocal folds consisted of silicone rubber of homogenous material distribution generating self-sustained oscillations. The airflow was visualized in the immediate supraglottal region using a laser-sheet technique and a digital high-speed camera. Furthermore, the flow was studied by measuring the static pressure distributions on both lateral supraglottal channel walls. The results clearly showed different flow characteristics depending on the supraglottal configuration. In all cases with supraglottal channel, the jet was located asymmetrical and bent in medial-lateral direction. Furthermore, the side to which the jet was deflected changed in between the consecutive cycles showing a bifurcational behavior. Previously, this phenomenon was explained by the Coanda effect. However, the present data suggest that the deflection of the jet was mainly caused by large air vortices in the supraglottal channel produced by the flow field of previous oscillations. In contrast, for the case without supraglottal channel, the air jet was found totally symmetrical stabilized by the constant pressure in the ambient region. The emitted sound signal showed additional subharmonic tonal peaks for the asymmetric flow cases, which are characteristics for diplophonia.

  9. A review of pre-admission advanced airway management in combat casualties, Helmand Province 2013.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Harry E J; LeClerc, S; Mclennan, J

    2015-06-01

    Airway compromise is the third leading cause of potentially preventable combat death. Pre-hospital airway management has lower success rates than in hospital. This study reviewed advanced airway management focusing on cricothyroidotomies and supraglottic airway devices in combat casualties prior to admission to a Role 3 Hospital in Afghanistan. This was a retrospective review of all casualties who required advanced airway management prior to arrival at the Role 3 Hospital, Bastion, Helmand Province over a 30-week period identified by the US Joint Theatre Trauma Registry. The notes and relevant X-rays were analysed. The opinions of US and UK clinical Subject Matter Experts (SME) were then sought. Fifty-seven advanced airway interventions were identified. 45 casualties had attempted intubations, 37 (82%) were successful and of those who had failed intubations, one had a King LT Airway (supraglottic device) and seven had a rescue cricothyroidotomy. The other initial advanced airway interventions were five attempted King LT airways and seven attempted cricothyroidotomies. In total, 14 cricothyroidotomies were performed; in this group, there were nine complications/significant events. The SMEs suggested that dedicated surgical airway kits should be used and students in training should be taught to secure the cricothyroidotomy tube as well as how to insert it. This review re-emphasises the need to 'ensure the right person, with the right equipment and the right training, is present at the right time if we are to improve the survival of patients with airway compromise on the battlefield'. The audit reference number is RCDM/Res/Audit/1036/12/0368. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Intubation Performance of Advanced Airway Devices in a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service Setting.

    PubMed

    Hafner, John W; Perkins, Blake W; Korosac, Joshua D; Bucher, Alayna K; Aldag, Jean C; Cox, Kelly L

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to determine if newer indirect laryngoscopes or intubating devices are superior to a standard laryngoscope for intubation success among helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) personnel. Flight nurses and paramedics intubated standardized mannequins with a normal airway, a trauma airway, and a difficult airway using a standard laryngoscope, a gum elastic bougie, the Airtraq laryngoscope (King System Corp, Noblesville, IN), the Glidescope Ranger laryngoscope (Verathon Inc, Bothell, WA), and the S.A.L.T. device (Microtek Medical, Inc, Lehmberg, IN) in grounded helicopters wearing helmets and flight gear. Participant demographics, time to glottic view, the modified Cormack-Lehane score, total intubation time, number of attempts, and overall successful intubation were recorded for each type of airway. Two-hundred thirty-six subjects were initially enrolled across 107 bases in 15 states, and 177 completed the study. First-attempt success rates did not vary by device for the normal airway (P = .203), but the Airtraq laryngoscope and the S.A.L.T. device were highest in the difficult airway (82.0% and 85.0%, respectively; P < .0001). The time to first-attempt success in the difficult airway was lowest for the S.A.L.T. device and the Airtraq laryngoscope (mean = 9.72 seconds and 19.70 seconds, respectively; P < .0001). Using HEMS providers, the Airtraq laryngoscope and the S.A.L.T. device showed the fastest and highest intubation success on the first attempt in difficult simulated HEMS airway scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Educating the Educator: Teaching Airway Adjunct Techniques in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David C.; Seitz, S. Robert

    2011-01-01

    The 5th edition of the "Athletic Training Education Competencies" ("Competencies") now requires athletic training educators (ATEs) to introduce into the curriculum various types of airway adjuncts including: (1) oropharyngeal airways (OPA), (2) nasopharyngeal airways (NPA), (3) supraglottic airways (SGA), and (4) suction. The addition of these…

  12. Educating the Educator: Teaching Airway Adjunct Techniques in Athletic Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David C.; Seitz, S. Robert

    2011-01-01

    The 5th edition of the "Athletic Training Education Competencies" ("Competencies") now requires athletic training educators (ATEs) to introduce into the curriculum various types of airway adjuncts including: (1) oropharyngeal airways (OPA), (2) nasopharyngeal airways (NPA), (3) supraglottic airways (SGA), and (4) suction. The addition of these…

  13. Evaluation of airway management associated hands-off time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomised manikin follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Airway management is an important component of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Recent guidelines recommend keeping any interruptions of chest compressions as short as possible and not lasting more than 10 seconds. Endotracheal intubation seems to be the ideal method for establishing a secure airway by experienced providers, but emergency medical technicians (EMT) often lack training and practice. For the EMTs supraglottic devices might serve as alternatives. Methods 40 EMTs were trained in a 1-hour standardised audio-visual lesson to handle six different airway devices including endotracheal intubation, Combitube, EasyTube, I-Gel, Laryngeal Mask Airway and Laryngeal tube. EMTs performances were evaluated immediately after a brief practical demonstration, as well as after 1 and 3 months without any practice in between, in a randomised order. Hands-off time was pair-wise compared between airway devices using a repeated-measures mixed-effects model. Results Overall mean hands-off time was significantly (p<0.01) lower for Laryngeal tube (6.1s; confidence interval 5.2-6.9s), Combitube (7.9s; 95% CI 6.9-9.0s), EasyTube (8.8s; CI 7.3-10.3s), LMA (10.2s; CI 8.6-11.7s), and I-Gel (11.9s; CI 10.2-13.7s) compared to endotracheal intubation (39.4s; CI 34.0-44.9s). Hands-off time was within the recommended limit of 10s for Combitube, EasyTube and Laryngeal tube after 1 month and for all supraglottic devices after 3 months without any training, but far beyond recommended limits in all three evaluations for endotracheal intubation. Conclusion Using supraglottic airway devices, EMTs achieved a hands-off time within the recommended time limit of 10s, even after three months without any training or practice. Supraglottic airway devices are recommended tools for EMTs with lack of experience in advanced airway management. PMID:23433462

  14. How do paramedics manage the airway during out of hospital cardiac arrest?

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Sarah; Rhys, Megan; Coates, David; Greenwood, Rosemary; Nolan, Jerry P.; Thomas, Matthew; Benger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Aim The best method of initial airway management during resuscitation for out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is unknown. The airway management techniques used currently by UK paramedics during resuscitation for OHCA are not well documented. This study describes the airway management techniques used in the usual practice arm of the REVIVE-Airways feasibility study, and documents the pathway of interventions to secure and sustain ventilation during OHCA. Method Data were collected from OHCAs attended by paramedics participating in the REVIVE-Airways trial between March 2012 and February 2013. Patients were included if they were enrolled in the usual practice arm of the study, fulfilled the main study eligibility criteria and did not receive either of the intervention supraglottic airway devices during the resuscitation attempt. Results Data from 196 attempted resuscitations were included in the analysis. The initial approach to airway management was bag-mask for 108 (55%), a supraglottic airway device (SAD) for 39 (20%) and tracheal intubation for 49 (25%). Paramedics made further airway interventions in 64% of resuscitations. When intubation was the initial approach, there was no further intervention in 76% of cases; this compares to 16% and 44% with bag-mask and SAD respectively. The most common reason cited by paramedics for changing from bag-mask was to carry out advanced life support, followed by regurgitation and inadequate ventilation. Inadequate ventilation was the commonest reason cited for removing a SAD. Conclusion Paramedics use a range of techniques to manage the airway during OHCA, and as the resuscitation evolves. It is therefore desirable to ensure that a range of techniques and equipment, supported by effective training, are available to paramedics who attend OHCA. PMID:25260723

  15. Comparison of Efficacy and Tolerance of Automatic Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Devices With the Optimum Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    PubMed

    Tommi, George; Aronow, Wilbert S; Sheehan, John C; McCleay, Matthew T; Meyers, Patrick G

    Patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome were randomly placed on automatic continuous positive airway pressure (ACPAP) for 2 hours followed by manual titration for the rest of the night. One hundred sixty-one patients entered the study, with at least 50 patients titrated with each of 3 ACPAP devices. The optimum continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was defined as the lowest pressure with an apnea-hypoxia index of ≤5/hr, which ranged from 4 cm to 18 cm. Success with ACPAP was approximately 60%-80% when the optimum CPAP was 4-6 cm but fell to below 30% if the optimum CPAP was ≥8 cm (P = 0.001). Average ACPAP ranged from 2 to 10 cm below the optimum level if the optimum CPAP was ≥8 cm. Patients who responded to a low CPAP but deteriorated on higher pressures failed to respond to any of the automatic devices. We recommend that CPAP titration be performed manually before initiation of ACPAP in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The basal pressure for ACPAP should be the optimum pressure obtained by manual titration. Limits on the upper level of ACPAP may be necessary for patients who deteriorate on higher positive pressures.

  16. A randomised trial to compare i-gel and ProSeal™ laryngeal mask airway for airway management in paediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Nirupa, R; Gombar, Satinder; Ahuja, Vanita; Sharma, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: i-gel™ is a newer supraglottic airway device with a unique non-inflatable cuff. We aimed to compare i-gel™ with ProSeal™ laryngeal mask airway (PLMA™) in children scheduled for surgery under general anaesthesia (GA) with controlled ventilation. Methods: This prospective, randomised controlled study was conducted in 100 surgical patients, aged 2–6 years of American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I–II scheduled under GA. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either size 2 i-gel™ or PLMA™ as an airway device. The primary aim was oropharyngeal leak pressure assessed at 5 min following correct placement of the device. Secondary outcomes measured included number of attempts, ease of insertion, time of insertion, quality of initial airway, fibre-optic grading and effects on pulmonary mechanics. Statistical analysis was done using paired t-test and Chi-square test. Results: The demographic data were similar in both the groups. The oropharyngeal leak pressure in the i-gel™ group was 29.5 ± 2.5 cmH2 O as compared to 26.1 ± 3.8 cmH2 O in PLMA™ group (P = 0.002). The time taken for successful insertion in PLMA™ was longer as compared to i-gel (12.4 ± 2.7 vs. 10.2 ± 1.9 s, P = 0.007). The quality of initial airway was superior with i-gel™. The number of attempts, ease of insertion of supraglottic device, insertion of orogastric tube and pulmonary mechanics were similar in both the groups. Conclusion: Size 2 i-gel™ exhibited superior oropharyngeal leak pressure and quality of airway in paediatric patients with controlled ventilation as compared to PLMA™ although the pulmonary mechanics were similar. PMID:27761035

  17. A Supraglottic Pseudotumor in an Immunocompromised Patient with Nephrotic Syndrome, Herpes Zoster, and a Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Akimoto, Tetsu; Yamazaki, Tomoyuki; Saito, Osamu; Muto, Shigeaki; Kusano, Eiji; Nagata, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Several viral infections may occasionally induce supraglottic mass lesions, resulting in an obstructive airway emergency. We herein report one such case in a 63-year-old male immunocompromised patient with nephrotic syndrome due to membranous nephropathy who also had ophthalmic herpes zoster with a laryngeal mass, which required urgent intubation and mechanical ventilation. The patient was initially treated with acyclovir; however, because a serological analysis revealed a concurrent cytomegalovirus infection, we discontinued the administration of acyclovir and gave priority to the simultaneous treatment of the cytomegalovirus and varicella-zoster virus infections with ganciclovir. The clinical course was favorable, and he was weaned from the ventilator 10 days later when a serial imaging analysis revealed no signs of the supraglottic mass, leading us to conclude that these two viral infections could have additively or synergistically contributed to the development of the local pseudotumor. The diagnostic and therapeutic concerns arising in the current case are also discussed. PMID:27547043

  18. Pre-hospital airway management: guidelines from a task force from the Scandinavian Society for Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine.

    PubMed

    Berlac, P; Hyldmo, P K; Kongstad, P; Kurola, J; Nakstad, A R; Sandberg, M

    2008-08-01

    This article is intended as a generic guide to evidence-based airway management for all categories of pre-hospital personnel. It is based on a review of relevant literature but the majority of the studies have not been performed under realistic, pre-hospital conditions and the recommendations are therefore based on a low level of evidence (D). The advice given depends on the qualifications of the personnel available in a given emergency medical service (EMS). Anaesthetic training and routine in anaesthesia and neuromuscular blockade is necessary for the use of most techniques in the treatment of patients with airway reflexes. For anaesthesiologists, the Task Force commissioned by the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine recommends endotracheal intubation (ETI) following rapid sequence induction when securing the pre-hospital airway, although repeated unsuccessful intubation attempts should be avoided independent of formal qualifications. Other physicians, as well as paramedics and other EMS personnel, are recommended the lateral trauma recovery position as a basic intervention combined with assisted mask-ventilation in trauma patients. When performing advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation, we recommend that non-anaesthesiologists primarily use a supraglottic airway device. A supraglottic device such as the laryngeal tube or the intubation laryngeal mask should also be available as a backup device for anaesthesiologists in failed ETI.

  19. Treatment of sleep-disordered breathing with positive airway pressure devices: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Karin Gardner; Johnson, Douglas Clark

    2015-01-01

    Many types of positive airway pressure (PAP) devices are used to treat sleep-disordered breathing including obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea, and sleep-related hypoventilation. These include continuous PAP, autoadjusting CPAP, bilevel PAP, adaptive servoventilation, and volume-assured pressure support. Noninvasive PAP has significant leak by design, which these devices adjust for in different manners. Algorithms to provide pressure, detect events, and respond to events vary greatly between the types of devices, and vary among the same category between companies and different models by the same company. Many devices include features designed to improve effectiveness and patient comfort. Data collection systems can track compliance, pressure, leak, and efficacy. Understanding how each device works allows the clinician to better select the best device and settings for a given patient. This paper reviews PAP devices, including their algorithms, settings, and features. PMID:26604837

  20. Improvement of electrolaryngeal speech quality using a supraglottal voice source with compensation of vocal tract characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Wan, Congying; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2013-07-01

    Electrolarynx (EL) is a medical speech-recovery device designed for patients who have lost their original voice box due to laryngeal cancer. As a substitute for human larynx, the current commercial EL voice source cannot reconstruct natural EL speech under laryngectomy conditions. To eliminate the abnormal acoustic properties of EL speech, a supraglottal voice source with compensation of vocal tract characteristics was proposed and provided through an experimental EL(SGVS-EL) system. The acoustic analyses of simulated EL speech and reconstructed EL speech produced with different voice sources were performed in the normal subject and laryngectomee. The results indicated that the supraglottal voice source was successful in improving the acoustic properties of EL speech by enhancing low- frequency energy, correcting the shifted formants to normal range, and eliminating the visible spectral zeros. Both normal subject and laryngectomee also produced more natural vowels using SGVS-EL than commercial EL, even if the vocal tract parameter was substituted and the supraglottal voice source was biased to a certain degree. Therefore, supraglottal voice source is a feasible and effective approach to improving the acoustic quality of EL speech.

  1. Evolution of the extraglottic airway: a review of its history, applications, and practical tips for success.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Michael R; Klock, P Allan; Ovassapian, Adranik

    2012-02-01

    The development of the laryngeal mask airway in 1981 was an important first step toward widespread use and acceptance of the extraglottic airway (EGA). The term extraglottic is used in this review to encompass those airways that do not violate the larynx, in addition to those with a supraglottic position. Although the term extraglottic may be broad and include airways such as tracheostomy tubes, the term supraglottic does not describe a large number of devices with subglottic components and is too narrow for a discussion of modern devices. EGAs have flourished in practice, and now a wide variety of devices are available for an ever-expanding array of applications. In this review we attempt to clarify the current state of EGA devices new and old, and to illustrate their use in numerous settings. Particular attention is paid to the use of EGAs in special situations such as obstetric, pediatric, prehospital, and nontraditional "out of the operating room" settings. The role of the EGA in difficult airway management is discussed. EGA devices have saved countless lives because they facilitate ventilation when facemask ventilation and tracheal intubation were not possible. Traditionally, difficult airway management focused on successful tracheal intubation. The EGA has allowed a paradigm shift, changing the emphasis of difficult airway management from tracheal intubation to ventilation and oxygenation. EGA devices have proved to be useful adjuncts to tracheal intubation; in particular, the combination of EGA devices and fiberoptic guidance is a powerful technique for difficult airway management. Despite their utility, EGAs do have disadvantages. For example, they typically do not provide the same protection from pulmonary aspiration of regurgitated gastric material as a cuffed tracheal tube. The risk of aspiration of gastric contents persists despite advances in EGA design that have sought to address the issue. The association between excessive EGA cuff pressure and

  2. Nasopharyngeal airway stenting devices for obstructive sleep apnoea: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A R; Guilleminault, C; Certal, V; Li, D; Capasso, R; Camacho, M

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review outcomes of adults with obstructive sleep apnoea treated with nasopharyngeal airway stenting devices. Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases were searched, and data on device use and tolerability, sleepiness, oxygen saturation, apnoea index, apnoea-hypopnoea index, and sleep quality were collected. Of 573 potential studies, 29 were retrieved for detailed evaluation and 16 met the study criteria. Polysomnography data for patients treated with nasal trumpets as an isolated therapy were pooled for meta-analysis. The mean apnoea index ± standard deviation, for 53 patients, decreased from 32.4 ± 15.9 to 9.0 ± 7.2 episodes per hour (p < 0.00001). The mean apnoea-hypopnoea index, for 193 patients, decreased from 44.1 ± 18.9 to 22.7 ± 19.3 episodes per hour (p < 0.00001). The mean lowest oxygen saturation, for 193 patients, increased from 66.5 ± 14.2 to 75.5 ± 13.9 per cent (p < 0.00001). Some studies have demonstrated limited effectiveness and low tolerability of nasopharyngeal airway stenting devices, while other studies have shown a significant benefit in treating obstructive sleep apnoea, with a high level of patient acceptance. Nasal trumpets have been successful in decreasing airway obstruction in the short term.

  3. Videomanometric analysis of supraglottic swallow, effortful swallow, and chin tuck in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bülow, M; Olsson, R; Ekberg, O

    1999-01-01

    Simultaneous videoradiography and solid-state manometry (videomanometry) was applied in eight healthy volunteers (four women, four men; age range 25-64 years, mean age 41 years) without swallowing problems. Three different swallowing techniques were tested; supraglottic swallow, effortful swallow, and chin tuck. Seven videoradiographic variables and six manometric variables were analyzed. The supraglottic swallowing technique did not differ significantly from that of the control swallows. The effortful swallow had a significantly (p = 0.0001) reduced hyoid-mandibular distance preswallow due to an elevation of the hyoid and the larynx, which caused a significantly (p = 0.007) reduced maximal hyoid movement and a significantly (p = 0.009) reduced laryngeal elevation during swallow. The chin tuck swallow had a significantly (p = 0. 001) reduced laryngohyoid distance and also a significantly (p = 0. 004) reduced hyoid-mandibular distance. The chin tuck swallow also displayed significantly (p = 0.003) weaker pharyngeal contractions. Videomanometry allows for analysis of bolus transport, movement of anatomical structures, and measurement of intraluminal pressures. These variables are important when evaluating swallowing techniques. In the present study, we made a few observations that never have been reported before. When healthy volunteers performed supraglottic swallow, they performed the technique somewhat differently. Therefore, we assume dysphagic patients would need a substantial period of training to perform a technique efficiently. Chin tuck could impair protection of the airways in dysphagic patients with weak pharyngeal constrictor muscles.

  4. Enrichment of lung microbiome with supraglottic taxa is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The lung microbiome of healthy individuals frequently harbors oral organisms. Despite evidence that microaspiration is commonly associated with smoking-related lung diseases, the effects of lung microbiome enrichment with upper airway taxa on inflammation has not been studied. We hypothesize that the presence of oral microorganisms in the lung microbiome is associated with enhanced pulmonary inflammation. To test this, we sampled bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from the lower airways of 29 asymptomatic subjects (nine never-smokers, 14 former-smokers, and six current-smokers). We quantified, amplified, and sequenced 16S rRNA genes from BAL samples by qPCR and 454 sequencing. Pulmonary inflammation was assessed by exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), BAL lymphocytes, and neutrophils. Results BAL had lower total 16S than supraglottic samples and higher than saline background. Bacterial communities in the lower airway clustered in two distinct groups that we designated as pneumotypes. The rRNA gene concentration and microbial community of the first pneumotype was similar to that of the saline background. The second pneumotype had higher rRNA gene concentration and higher relative abundance of supraglottic-characteristic taxa (SCT), such as Veillonella and Prevotella, and we called it pneumotypeSCT. Smoking had no effect on pneumotype allocation, α, or β diversity. PneumotypeSCT was associated with higher BAL lymphocyte-count (P= 0.007), BAL neutrophil-count (P= 0.034), and eNO (P= 0.022). Conclusion A pneumotype with high relative abundance of supraglottic-characteristic taxa is associated with enhanced subclinical lung inflammation. PMID:24450871

  5. All India Difficult Airway Association 2016 guidelines for the management of anticipated difficult extubation

    PubMed Central

    Kundra, Pankaj; Garg, Rakesh; Patwa, Apeksh; Ahmed, Syed Moied; Ramkumar, Venkateswaran; Shah, Amit; Divatia, Jigeeshu Vasishtha; Shetty, Sumalatha Radhakrishna; Raveendra, Ubaradka S; Doctor, Jeson R; Pawar, Dilip K; Singaravelu, Ramesh; Das, Sabyasachi; Myatra, Sheila Nainan

    2016-01-01

    Extubation has an important role in optimal patient recovery in the perioperative period. The All India Difficult Airway Association (AIDAA) reiterates that extubation is as important as intubation and requires proper planning. AIDAA has formulated an algorithm based on the current evidence, member survey and expert opinion to incorporate all patients of difficult extubation for a successful extubation. The algorithm is not designed for a routine extubation in a normal airway without any associated comorbidity. Extubation remains an elective procedure, and hence, patient assessment including concerns related to airway needs to be done and an extubation strategy must be planned before extubation. Extubation planning would broadly be dependent on preventing reflex responses (haemodynamic and cardiovascular), presence of difficult airway at initial airway management, delayed recovery after the surgical intervention or airway difficulty due to pre-existing diseases. At times, maintaining a patent airway may become difficult either due to direct handling during initial airway management or due to surgical intervention. This also mandates a careful planning before extubation to avoid extubation failure. Certain long-standing diseases such as goitre or presence of obesity and obstructive sleep apnoea may have increased chances of airway collapse. These patients require planned extubation strategies for extubation. This would avoid airway collapse leading to airway obstruction and its sequelae. AIDAA suggests that the extubation plan would be based on assessment of the airway. Patients requiring suppression of haemodynamic responses would require awake extubation with pharmacological attenuation or extubation under deep anaesthesia using supraglottic devices as bridge. Patients with difficult airway (before surgery or after surgical intervention) or delayed recovery or difficulty due to pre-existing diseases would require step-wise approach. Oxygen supplementation should

  6. Transfer of airway skills from manikin training to patient: success of ventilation with facemask or LMA-Supreme(TM) by medical students.

    PubMed

    Russo, S G; Bollinger, M; Strack, M; Crozier, T A; Bauer, M; Heuer, J F

    2013-11-01

    During emergency care, the ability to ventilate the patient's lungs is a crucial skill. Supraglottic airway devices have an established role in emergency care, and manikin trials have shown that placement is easy even for inexperienced users. However, there is current discussion as to what extent these results can be transferred to patients. We studied the transfer of skills learnt on a manikin to the clinical situation in novice medical students during their anaesthesia rotation. They were required to ventilate the lungs of a manikin using a facemask and then position a supraglottic airway device (LMA-Supreme™) and ventilate the lungs. This process was then repeated on anaesthetised patients, with standard ventilator settings to assess adequacy of ventilation. Sixty-three students participated in the manikin study. The success rate for ventilating the lungs was 100% for both devices, but the mean (SD) time to achieve successful ventilation was 27.8 (24.4) s with the facemask compared with 38.6 (22.0) s with the LMA-Supreme (p = 0.008). Fifty-one of the students progressed to the second part of the study. In anaesthetised patients, the success rate for ventilating the lungs was lower for the facemask, 27/41 (66%) compared with the LMA-Supreme 37/41 (90%, p = 0.006). For 26 students who succeeded with both devices, the tidal volume was lower using the facemask, 431 (192) ml compared with the LMA-Supreme 751 (221) ml (p = 0.001), but the time to successful ventilation did not differ, 60.0 (26.2) s vs 57.3 (26.6) s (p = 0.71). We conclude that the results obtained in manikin studies cannot be transferred directly to the clinical situation and that guidelines should take this into account. Based on our findings, a supraglottic airway device may be preferable to a facemask as the first choice for inexperienced emergency caregivers.

  7. Randomised comparison of the effectiveness of the laryngeal mask airway supreme, i-gel and current practice in the initial airway management of prehospital cardiac arrest (REVIVE-Airways): a feasibility study research protocol

    PubMed Central

    Benger, Jonathan Richard; Voss, Sarah; Coates, David; Greenwood, Rosemary; Nolan, Jerry; Rawstorne, Steven; Rhys, Megan; Thomas, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation with appropriate airway management improves outcomes following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Historically, tracheal intubation has been accepted as the optimal form of OHCA airway management in the UK. The Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee recently concluded that newer supraglottic airway devices (SADs) are safe and effective devices for hospital procedures and that their use in OHCA should be investigated. This study will address an identified gap in current knowledge by assessing whether it is feasible to use a cluster randomised design to compare SADs with current practice, and also to each other, during OHCA. Methods and analysis The primary objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of a cluster randomised trial to compare the ventilation success of two newer SADs: the i-gel and the laryngeal mask airway supreme to usual practice during the initial airway management of OHCA. The secondary objectives are to collect data on ventilation success, further airway interventions required, loss of a previously established airway during transport, airway management on arrival at hospital (or termination of the resuscitation attempt), initial resuscitation success, survival to intensive care admission, survival to hospital discharge and patient outcome at 3 months. Ambulance paramedics will be randomly allocated to one of the three methods of airway management. Adults in medical OHCA attended by a trial paramedic will be eligible for the study. Ethics and dissemination Approval for the study has been obtained from a National Health Service Research Ethics Committee with authority to review proposals for trials of a medical device in incapacitated adults. The results will be made publicly available on an open access website, and we will publish the findings in appropriate journals and present them at national and international conferences relevant to the subject field. Trial

  8. Management of severe obstructive sleep apnea using mandibular advancement devices with auto continuous positive airway pressures

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Rashmi; Dubey, Abhishek; Kant, Surya; Singh, Balendra Pratap

    2015-01-01

    The use of continuous positive airway pressures (CPAP) is considered standard treatment of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Treatment of the disease poses a great challenge not only for its diagnostic purpose but also for its treatment part. In about 29-83% of the patients, treatment is difficult because of non-compliance resulting due to high pressures, air leaks and other related issues. In such situations, alternative methods of treatment need to be looked for so as to ascertain better management. Mandibular advancement devices along with CPAP may show better treatment outcome in specific situations. PMID:25814802

  9. Fiberoptic intubation through laryngeal mask airway for management of difficult airway in a child with Klippel-Feil syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ravi; Mane, Rajesh S; Patil, Manjunath C; Suresh, S N

    2014-07-01

    The ideal airway management modality in pediatric patients with syndromes like Klippel-Feil syndrome is a great challenge and is technically difficult for an anesthesiologist. Half of the patients present with the classic triad of short neck, low hairline, and fusion of cervical vertebra. Numerous associated anomalies like scoliosis or kyphosis, cleft palate, respiratory problems, deafness, genitourinary abnormalities, Sprengel's deformity (wherein the scapulae ride high on the back), synkinesia, cervical ribs, and congenital heart diseases may further add to the difficulty. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy alone can be technically difficult and patient cooperation also becomes very important, which is difficult in pediatric patients. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with the aid of supraglottic airway devices is a viable alternative in the management of difficult airway in children. We report a case of Klippel-Feil syndrome in an 18-month-old girl posted for cleft palate surgery. Imaging of spine revealed complete fusion of the cervical vertebrae with hypoplastic C3 and C6 vertebrae and thoracic kyphosis. We successfully managed airway in this patient by fiberoptic intubation through classic laryngeal mask airway (LMA). After intubation, we used second smaller endotracheal tube (ETT) to stabilize and elongate the first ETT while removing the LMA.

  10. Partial laryngectomy in supraglottic pharyngeal tumors.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Hernández, José Francisco

    2010-01-01

    The upper third of the larynx shares a wall with the pharynx, the laryngopharyngeal wall. This anatomic structure is common to both organs and is often the source of epidermoid carcinomas. These carcinomas are more frequent in subjects who ingest large amounts of alcohol. The purpose of this study is to describe the indications, contraindications, technical errors and surgical technique of the supracricoid hemilaryngopharyngectomy and horizontal supraglottic laryngectomy. These tumors are usually bulky, respect laryngeal function and are limited to this anatomic structure. Laryngeal mobility is respected through advanced stages of the disease. Because tumors originating in this region are highly lymphophilic (presenting occult nodal metastasis in up to 45%), both techniques should be accompanied by cervical lymph node dissection, generally bilateral, and including at least levels II to IV. The presence of lymph node metastases is not an absolute contraindication for these procedures. We describe two surgical techniques designed to obtain adequate cancer control, preserving the natural functions of swallowing, speech and ventilation in patients with tumors arising in the supraglottic region and the region between the larynx and hypopharynx.

  11. Post- Thyroidectomy Haematoma Causing Severe Supraglottic Oedema and Pulmonary Oedema - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pujari, Vinayak Seenappa; Anandaswamy, Tejesh C; Vig, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    Large, long standing goiters present multiple challenges to anaesthesiologist. Post thyroidectomy haematoma is a rare but life threatening complication of thyroid surgery leading to airway obstruction. We report a case of huge goiter that underwent near total thyroidectomy and developed post thyroidectomy haematoma. Within no time it resulted in near fatal airway obstruction, pulmonary oedema and cardiac arrest. The haematoma was evacuated immediately and patient was resuscitated successfully. Pulmonary oedema was further worsened by subsequent aggressive fluid resuscitation. She was electively ventilated with PEEP and was extubated after five days. Except for right vocal cord palsy her postoperative stay was uneventful. This is unique case where a post thyoidectomy haematoma has resulted in fatal supraglottic oedema and pulmonary oedema. Early recognition, immediate intubation and evacuation of haematoma are the key to manage this complication. We highlight on the pathophysiology of haematoma and discuss the strategies to prevent similar events in future. PMID:25300409

  12. Comparison of laryngeal tube with laryngeal mask airway in anaesthetized and paralysed patients.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, T S; Solak, M; Toker, K

    2007-07-01

    The laryngeal mask has become a widely accepted alternative to endotracheal intubation and mask ventilation. The laryngeal tube is a relatively new supraglottic airway device for airway management. We compared the new version of the laryngeal tube with the laryngeal mask. In a randomized design, either a laryngeal tube (n = 66) or a laryngeal mask (n = 66) were inserted. Ease of insertion, oxygenation and ventilation, spirometry data and postoperative airway morbidity were determined. After successful insertion, it was possible to maintain oxygenation and ventilation in all the patients. Insertion success rates after the first, second and third attempts were 84.8% (n = 56), 12.1% (n = 8) and 3% (n = 2) for the laryngeal tube compared with 56.1% (n = 37), 25.8% (n = 17) and 18.2% (n = 12) for the laryngeal mask (P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in peak airway pressure, and dynamic compliance between the groups (P > 0.05). Blood on the cuff after removal of the device was noted in one patient with the laryngeal tube and in 10 patients with the laryngeal mask. Six patients in the laryngeal mask group complained of hoarseness (P = 0.012). With respect to clinical function, the new version of the laryngeal tube and the laryngeal mask are similar and either device can be used to establish a safe and effective airway in paralysed patients.

  13. Fiberoptic-guided intubation after insertion of the i-gel airway device in spontaneously breathing patients with difficult airway predicted: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Ludeña, Julian; Arcas-Bellas, Jose Juan; Alvarez-Rementería, Rafael; Alameda, Luis Enrique Muñoz

    2016-12-01

    To assess the viability of performing fiberoptic-guided orotracheal intubation through the i-gel airway device previously inserted in spontaneously breathing patients with predicted difficult airway to achieve a patent airway. Prospective observational study. Operating room in a tertiary care hospital. Eighty-five adult patients with at least 3 difficult airway predictors or difficult airway management history were included. The i-gel device was inserted in spontaneous ventilation under oropharyngeal local anesthesia and sedation. After checking the adequate ventilation through the i-gel with capnography curve, general anesthesia was induced to introduce the endotracheal tube guided by fiberoptic bronchoscope. We recorded the i-gel insertion time (tgel), intubation time (tint), and O2 saturation in pulse oximetry in different moments: basal (t0), after 3 minutes of preoxygenation with a face mask at 100% fraction of inspired O2 (t1), after i-gel mask insertion (t2), and after intubation (t3). Adverse events during the procedure were also recorded, and patient discomfort was questioned. All patients were successfully intubated. O2 saturation in pulse oximetry values were (mean±SD): 96.9±1.22 (t0), 99.0±0.85 (t1), 96.2±2.37 (t2), and 96.0±2.54 (t3). tgel and tint were 38.0±7.76 seconds and 36.5±5.55 seconds (mean±SD), respectively. No serious adverse events were recorded, and no patient suffered airway damage. Visual analogue scale for patient discomfort was 2 (interquartile range, 1-3). i-gel insertion in spontaneously breathing patients avoids the "cannot ventilate" scenario. The subsequent fiberoptic-guided intubation through the i-gel is a safe and effective technique. More studies might be necessary to confirm the results presented, but we consider that the technique described is an adequate alternative to classic orotracheal intubation with fiberoptic bronchoscope in spontaneous ventilation for certain patients with predicted difficult airway. Copyright

  14. Impact of bilateral neck dissection on recovery following supraglottic laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Weber, P C; Johnson, J T; Myers, E N

    1993-01-01

    Previously reported data from our institution has led us to perform bilateral neck dissections for therapeutic as well as staging advantages for horizontal supraglottic laryngectomies. Concern over the possibility of increased morbidity associated with simultaneous bilateral neck dissection prompted this retrospective review of patients with supraglottic laryngectomy who were treated with either unilateral (46 patients) or bilateral (23 patients) neck dissection. No significant differences were found in morbidity when patients were evaluated for transfusion rate, cervical wound drainage, need for tracheotomy, oral diet, or duration of hospitalization. Significant differences were noted in surgical operating time, eg, it took 100 minutes longer to perform bilateral dissections, and slight increases were noted in estimated blood loss and fluids given intravenously. No significant differences were noted in the percentage or type of postoperative complications. It seems that bilateral neck dissection in conjunction with supraglottic laryngectomy does not increase postoperative surgical morbidity and may actually avoid complications associated with postoperative radiation therapy in patients with supraglottic laryngectomy.

  15. The potential for delivery of particulate matter through positive airway pressure devices (CPAP/BPAP).

    PubMed

    Kristo, David; Corcoran, Timothy; O'Connell, Nina; Thomas, Kristina; Strollo, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    Airborne particulate matter may induce health risk with inhalation. Special concerns exist for deployed military personnel with inhaled particulate matter in desert environments. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) used in obstructive sleep apnea may facilitate inhalation of particulate matter. We evaluated the ability of commercial CPAP filter systems to eliminate inhalation of particulate matter. An ultrasonic medical nebulizer (DeVilbliss Ultraneb, DeVilbliss, Somerset, PA) atomized liquid producing "respirable" aerosol. Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid dissolved in water was also aerosolized to quantify aerosol inhalation. A high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter placed at the patient-hose connection port in the bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) device captured the aerosol inbound to the patient. The HEPA filter provided a means to quantify aerosol dose delivered to a simulated patient. Commercial foam and ultrafine filters were assessed with aerosol to determine the simulated patient exposure. Foam and ultrafine filters used together allowed 1.5% or less of aerosol volume to pass through the BPAP system. Foam filters alone allowed an average of 18.9% of aerosol delivered to pass through the BPAP system. Foam and ultrafine filters used together in BPAP systems provide excellent aerosol filtration in this laboratory simulation of BPAP use.

  16. [Patient safety and the prevention of skin and mucosal lesions associated with airway invasive devices].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Deisy Mello de; Schons, Estela dos Santos; Busanello, Josefine; Costa, Valdecir Zavarese da

    2015-10-01

    To analyze the care implemented by the nursing team to promote the safety of adult patients and prevention of skin and mucosal lesions associated with the presence of lower airways invasive devices. Study with qualitative and quantitative approach, descriptive and exploratory type, whose investigative scenarios were adult inpatient units of a hospital in the West Frontier of Rio Grande do Sul. The study subjects consisted of nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants. A total of 118 professionals were interviewed. We highlight the observed specific care with endotracheal tube and tracheostomy, management and assessment of the cuff and the criteria used to secretion aspiration. There is a superficial nursing work in the patient direct care and a differentiation in relation to the perception of nurse technicians, especially those working in the intensive care unit, who presented major property and view of the patient's clinical status.

  17. Comparative Study of Two Laryngeal Mask Airways: Proseal Laryngeal Mask Airway and Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway in Anesthetized Paralyzed Adults Undergoing Elective Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Ravneet Kaur; Tarat, Abhijit; Pathak, Debagopal; Dutta, Suneeta

    2017-01-01

    Context: Supraglottic airway devices can act as an alternative to endotracheal intubation in both normal and difficult airway. LMA Proseal (P-LMA) and LMA Supreme (S-LMA) alongwith acting as effective ventilating device, provide port for gastric drainage. Aim: The objective of this study was to compare the two devices for effective ventilation and complications. Setting and Design: A prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods: 100 patients of ASA grade I–II undergoing elective surgery under general anaesthesia were included after ethical committee clearance and written consent. Patients were randomly allocated size 4 P-LMA (Group P) or S-LMA (Group S) (50 patients in each group). Insertion attempt, insertion time, oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP) and complications were compared. Results: There was no difference demographically. The first insertion attempts were successful in 92% with P-LMA and 96% with S-LMA. Insertion time was faster in S-LMA. The mean OLP was 24.04 cmH2O in Group P and 20.05 cmH2O in Group S. Complications were cough, mild blood staining. Conclusion: Both can act as an effective ventilatory devices. But where LMA Proseal provides a more effective glottic seal by having a greater OLP, single use LMA Supreme provides acceptable glottic seal with easier and faster insertion, therefore, it can be accepted as better alternative to LMA Proseal. PMID:28298751

  18. Are prehospital airway management resources compatible with difficult airway algorithms? A nationwide cross-sectional study of helicopter emergency medical services in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yuko; Shinohara, Kazuaki; Goto, Aya; Yano, Tetsuhiro; Sato, Lubna; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Jiro; Tase, Choichiro

    2016-04-01

    Immediate access to the equipment required for difficult airway management (DAM) is vital. However, in Japan, data are scarce regarding the availability of DAM resources in prehospital settings. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Japanese helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) are adequately equipped to comply with the DAM algorithms of Japanese and American professional anesthesiology societies. This nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2015. Base hospitals of HEMS were mailed a questionnaire about their airway management equipment and back-up personnel. Outcome measures were (1) call for help, (2) supraglottic airway device (SGA) insertion, (3) verification of tube placement using capnometry, and (4) the establishment of surgical airways, all of which have been endorsed in various airway management guidelines. The criteria defining feasibility were the availability of (1) more than one physician, (2) SGA, (3) capnometry, and (4) a surgical airway device in the prehospital setting. Of the 45 HEMS base hospitals questioned, 42 (93.3 %) returned completed questionnaires. A surgical airway was practicable by all HEMS. However, in the prehospital setting, back-up assistance was available in 14.3 %, SGA in 16.7 %, and capnometry in 66.7 %. No HEMS was capable of all four steps. In Japan, compliance with standard airway management algorithms in prehospital settings remains difficult because of the limited availability of alternative ventilation equipment and back-up personnel. Prehospital health care providers need to consider the risks and benefits of performing endotracheal intubation in environments not conducive to the success of this procedure.

  19. Accuracy and Linearity of Positive Airway Pressure Devices: A Technical Bench Testing Study

    PubMed Central

    Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; López-Escárcega, Elodia; Carrillo-Alduenda, José Luis; Arredondo-del-Bosque, Fernando; Reyes-Zúñiga, Margarita; Castorena-Maldonado, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To analyze the accuracy and linearity of different CPAP devices outside of the manufacturers' own quality control environment. Methods: Accuracy (how well readings agree with the gold standard) and linearity were evaluated by comparing programmed pressure to measured CPAP pressure using an instrument established as the gold standard. Comparisons were made centimeter-by-centimeter (linearity) throughout the entire programming spectrum of each device (from 4 to 20 cm H2O). Results: A total of 108 CPAP devices were tested (1836 measurements); mean use of the devices was 956 hours. Twenty-two of them were new. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) decreased from 0.97 at pressures programmed between 4 and 10 cm H2O, to 0.84 at pressures of 16 to 20 cm H2O. Despite this high ICC, the 95% agreement limit oscillated between −1 and 1 cm H2O. This same behavior was observed in relation to hours of use: the ICC for readings taken on devices with < 2,000 hours of use was 0.99, while that of the 50 measurements made on devices with > 6,000 hours was 0.97 (the agreement limit oscillated between −1.3 and 2.5 cm H2O). “Adequate adjustments” were documented in 97% of measurements when the definition was ± 1 cm H2O of the programmed pressure, but this index of adequate adjustment readings decreased to 85% when the ± 0.5 cm H2O criterion was applied. Conclusions: In general, the CPAP devices were accurate and linear throughout the spectrum of programmable pressures; however, strategies to assure short- and long-term equipment reliability are required in conditions of routine use. Citation: Torre-Bouscoulet L; López-Escárcega E; Carrillo-Alduenda JL; Arredondo-del-Bosque F; Reyes-Zúñiga M; Castorena-Maldonado A. Accuracy and linearity of positive airway pressure devices: a technical bench testing study. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(4):369-373. PMID:20726286

  20. Evaluation of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ device versus traditional airway suction in a cadaver model.

    PubMed

    Lipe, Demis N; Lindstrom, Randi; Tauferner, Dustin; Mitchell, Christopher; Moffett, Peter

    2014-07-01

    We compared the efficacy of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ with inline suction to CMAC with traditional suction device in cadaveric models simulating difficult airways, using media mimicking pulmonary edema and vomit. This was a prospective, cohort study in which we invited emergency medicine faculty and residents to participate. Each participant intubated 2 cadavers (one with simulated pulmonary edema and one with simulated vomit), using CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Thirty emergency medicine providers performed 4 total intubations each in a crossover trial comparing the CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Two intubations were performed with simulated vomit and two with simulated pulmonary edema. The primary outcome was time to successful intubation; and the secondary outcome was proportion of successful intubation. The median time to successful intubation using the CMAC with inline suction versus traditional suction in the pulmonary edema group was 29s and 30s respectively (p=0.54). In the vomit simulation, the median time to successful intubation was 40s using the CMAC with inline suction and 41s using the CMAC with traditional suction (p=0.70). There were no significant differences in time to successful intubation between the 2 devices. Similarly, the proportions of successful intubation were also not statistically significant between the 2 devices. The proportions of successful intubations using the inline suction were 96.7% and 73.3%, for the pulmonary edema and vomit groups, respectively. Additionally using the handheld suction device, the proportions for the pulmonary edema and vomit group were 100% and 66.7%, respectively. CMAC with inline suction was no different than CMAC with traditional suction and was associated with no statistically significant differences in median time to intubation or proportion of successful intubations.

  1. Evaluation of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ Device Versus Traditional Airway Suction in a Cadaver Model

    PubMed Central

    Lipe, Demis N.; Lindstrom, Randi; Tauferner, Dustin; Mitchell, Christopher; Moffett, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We compared the efficacy of Karl Storz CMAC Tip™ with inline suction to CMAC with traditional suction device in cadaveric models simulating difficult airways, using media mimicking pulmonary edema and vomit. Methods This was a prospective, cohort study in which we invited emergency medicine faculty and residents to participate. Each participant intubated 2 cadavers (one with simulated pulmonary edema and one with simulated vomit), using CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Thirty emergency medicine providers performed 4 total intubations each in a crossover trial comparing the CMAC with inline suction and CMAC with traditional suction. Two intubations were performed with simulated vomit and two with simulated pulmonary edema. The primary outcome was time to successful intubation; and the secondary outcome was proportion of successful intubation. Results The median time to successful intubation using the CMAC with inline suction versus traditional suction in the pulmonary edema group was 29s and 30s respectively (p=0.54). In the vomit simulation, the median time to successful intubation was 40s using the CMAC with inline suction and 41s using the CMAC with traditional suction (p=0.70). There were no significant differences in time to successful intubation between the 2 devices. Similarly, the proportions of successful intubation were also not statistically significant between the 2 devices. The proportions of successful intubations using the inline suction were 96.7% and 73.3%, for the pulmonary edema and vomit groups, respectively. Additionally using the handheld suction device, the proportions for the pulmonary edema and vomit group were 100% and 66.7%, respectively. Conclusion CMAC with inline suction was no different than CMAC with traditional suction and was associated with no statistically significant differences in median time to intubation or proportion of successful intubations. PMID:25035766

  2. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Device Time to Procurement in a Disadvantaged Population.

    PubMed

    DelRosso, Lourdes M; Hoque, Romy; Chesson, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients who cannot afford a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device is challenging. In this study we compare time to CPAP procurement in three groups of patients diagnosed with OSA: uninsured subsidized by a humanitarian grant (Group 1), uninsured unsubsidized (Group 2), and those with Medicare or Medicaid (Group 3). We evaluate follow-up and adherence in Group 1. We hypothesize that additional factors, rather than just the ability to obtain CPAP, may uniquely affect follow-up and adherence in uninsured patients. Methods. 30 patients were in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. 12 patients were in Group 3. Time of CPAP procurement from OSA diagnosis to CPAP initiation was assessed in all groups. CPAP adherence data was collected for Group 1 patients at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months. Results. There were no significant differences between groups in gender, age, body mass index, or apnea hypopnea index. The mean time to procurement in Group 1 was shorter compared to Group 2 but not significant. Compared to both Group 1 and Group 2, Group 3 patients had significantly shorter times to device procurement. Conclusion. Time to procurement of CPAP was significantly shorter in those with Medicaid/Medicare insurance compared to the uninsured.

  3. Breathing exercise using a new breathing device increases airway secretion clearance in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Jones, Chulee U; Kluayhomthong, Sujittra; Chaisuksant, Seksan; Khrisanapant, Wilaiwan

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new device (BreatheMAX) that humidifies and oscillates inspired air to increase secretion clearance in mechanically ventilated patients. Poor secretion clearance is a serious problem for intubated patients leading to lung complications and delayed weaning. Double blinded crossover; fifteen patients, median age 60 years, range 16-75. Interventions consisted of spontaneous deep breathing with (treatment) and without (sham) humidification and oscillation of inspired air. Airway secretions were aspirated for 3 h before and after each intervention and wet weight and viscosity determined. The sham intervention caused no change in secretion clearance (95% CI: -1.8, 1.8 g) but after treatment secretions increased by 4.0 g (95% CI: 1.3, 6.7; p < 0.05). Viscosity decreased 30% after treatment and was unchanged after sham. Changes in cardiopulmonary function were not clinically significant and the patients reported only mild perceptions of breathlessness. Breathing exercise with a device that includes vibration and humidification of inspired air is effective for increasing secretion clearance with patients dependent on mechanical ventilation and was without any adverse effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Device Time to Procurement in a Disadvantaged Population

    PubMed Central

    DelRosso, Lourdes M.; Chesson, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients who cannot afford a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device is challenging. In this study we compare time to CPAP procurement in three groups of patients diagnosed with OSA: uninsured subsidized by a humanitarian grant (Group 1), uninsured unsubsidized (Group 2), and those with Medicare or Medicaid (Group 3). We evaluate follow-up and adherence in Group 1. We hypothesize that additional factors, rather than just the ability to obtain CPAP, may uniquely affect follow-up and adherence in uninsured patients. Methods. 30 patients were in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. 12 patients were in Group 3. Time of CPAP procurement from OSA diagnosis to CPAP initiation was assessed in all groups. CPAP adherence data was collected for Group 1 patients at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months. Results. There were no significant differences between groups in gender, age, body mass index, or apnea hypopnea index. The mean time to procurement in Group 1 was shorter compared to Group 2 but not significant. Compared to both Group 1 and Group 2, Group 3 patients had significantly shorter times to device procurement. Conclusion. Time to procurement of CPAP was significantly shorter in those with Medicaid/Medicare insurance compared to the uninsured. PMID:26137322

  5. Laryngeal mask airway ProSeal provides higher oropharyngeal leak pressure than i-gel in adult patients under general anesthesia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Souvik; Baidya, Dalim K; Arora, Mahesh K; Bhattacharjee, Sulagna; Khanna, Puneet

    2016-09-01

    i-gel is a single-use supraglottic airway device that has a gastric drain tube similar to laryngeal mask airway (LMA) ProSeal. Randomized trials, when compared i-gel with LMA ProSeal, reported a differing results. Primary objective of this study is to compare LMA ProSeal and i-gel in terms of oropharyngeal leak pressure. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials where i-gel has been compared to LMA ProSeal in adult airway management during general anesthesia. Teaching institutions. PubMed, PubMed Central, and Cochrane databases were searched with search words "i-gel," "i-gel laryngeal mask airway," "i-gel ProSeal," and "i-gel LMA ProSeal" to find out the randomized controlled trials that compared i-gel with LMA ProSeal in terms of safety and efficacy. A total of 10 prospective randomized trials have been included in this meta-analysis. LMA ProSeal provides higher oropharyngeal leak pressure than i-gel (mean difference, 3.37 cm H2O; 95% confidence interval, 1.80-4.95 cm H2O; P< .0001). Time to insert the device, first insertion success rate, and ease of gastric tube insertion are similar with both the devices, but i-gel may be easier to insert. Although the reported complications are not frequent and not very serious, a significantly higher blood staining on the mask has been noted with LMA ProSeal (odds ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.56; P= .0004). LMA ProSeal may still remain the supraglottic device of choice over i-gel in adult patients during general anesthesia as it provided better seal against leak pressure with comparable device insertion characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Scandinavian SSAI clinical practice guideline on pre-hospital airway management.

    PubMed

    Rehn, M; Hyldmo, P K; Magnusson, V; Kurola, J; Kongstad, P; Rognås, L; Juvet, L K; Sandberg, M

    2016-08-01

    The Scandinavian society of anaesthesiology and intensive care medicine task force on pre-hospital airway management was asked to formulate recommendations following standards for trustworthy clinical practice guidelines. The literature was systematically reviewed and the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system was applied to move from evidence to recommendations. We recommend that all emergency medical service (EMS) providers consider to: apply basic airway manoeuvres and airway adjuncts (good practice recommendation); turn unconscious non-trauma patients into the recovery position when advanced airway management is unavailable (good practice recommendation); turn unconscious trauma patients to the lateral trauma position while maintaining spinal alignment when advanced airway management is unavailable [strong recommendation, low quality of evidence (QoE)]. We suggest that intermediately trained providers use a supraglottic airway device (SAD) or basic airway manoeuvres on patients in cardiac arrest (weak recommendation, low QoE). We recommend that advanced trained providers consider using an SAD in selected indications or as a rescue device after failed endotracheal intubation (ETI) (good practice recommendation). We recommend that ETI should only be performed by advanced trained providers (strong recommendation, low QoE). We suggest that videolaryngoscopy is considered for ETI when direct laryngoscopy fails or is expected to be difficult (weak recommendation, low QoE). We suggest that advanced trained providers apply cricothyroidotomy in 'cannot intubate, cannot ventilate' situations (weak recommendation, low QoE). This guideline for pre-hospital airway management includes a combination of techniques applied in a stepwise fashion appropriate to patient clinical status and provider training. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Acta Anaesthesiologica

  7. Mechanisms linking advanced airway management and cardiac arrest outcomes.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Justin L; Prince, David K; Wang, Henry E

    2015-08-01

    Advanced airway management--such as endotracheal intubation (ETI) or supraglottic airway (SGA) insertion--is one of the most prominent interventions in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) resuscitation. While randomized controlled trials are currently in progress to identify the best advanced airway technique in OHCA, the mechanisms by which airway management may influence OHCA outcomes remain unknown. We provide a conceptual model describing potential mechanisms linking advanced airway management with OHCA outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimizing an Internal Airway Percussion Device for Facilitating Exhalate Diagnostics of the Human Respiratory System.

    PubMed

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Wu, Chang-Yu; Tsai, Hsiu-Wen; Silverman, Erin; Davenport, Paul; Hegde, Satyanarayan

    2015-03-31

    There is an urgent need for simple, inexpensive, noninvasive, and repeatable technique for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage, which is the gold standard diagnostic method for pulmonary diseases, does not meet any of these criteria. This study seeks to develop and optimize a novel technique of Internal Airway Percussion (IAP) to facilitate the collection and characterization of human respiratory system exhalates. The IAP device transmits sound waves into the respiratory tract, thereby increasing the release of aerosolized particles within exhaled breath by vibrating both lungs. Nine combinations of sound wave frequencies and amplitudes were studied to determine optimal frequency and amplitude combination for maximum aerosol particle gain in healthy human subjects. Square-shaped sound waves generated at 15 Hz and 3 cm H2O resulted in 15 times greater total mass of collected particles in the first 2 min of sampling, and 1.2 to 1.5 times increase in count median diameter of the particles. IAP, optimized at the frequency of 15 Hz and the pressure amplitude of 3 cm H2O, increased the total mass of particles exhaled from the human respiratory system. IAP has a broad range of potential clinical applications for noninvasive diagnosis of lung diseases including asthma, cystic fibrosis, pneumonia, and lung cancer, along with improvement of mucus clearance.

  9. Nasal Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure Devices (Provent) for OSA: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Muhammad; Certal, Victor; Nigam, Gaurav; Abdullatif, Jose; Zaghi, Soroush; Kushida, Clete A.; Camacho, Macario

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To quantify the effectiveness of nasal expiratory positive airway pressure (nasal EPAP) devices or Provent as treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods. PubMed and six other databases were searched through November 15, 2015, without language limitations. Results. Eighteen studies (920 patients) were included. Pre- and post-nasal EPAP means ± standard deviations (M ± SD) for apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) in 345 patients decreased from 27.32 ± 22.24 to 12.78 ± 16.89 events/hr (relative reduction = 53.2%). Random effects modeling mean difference (MD) was −14.78 events/hr [95% CI −19.12, −10.45], p value < 0.00001. Oxygen desaturation index (ODI) in 247 patients decreased from 21.2 ± 19.3 to 12.4 ± 14.1 events/hr (relative reduction = 41.5%, p value < 0.00001). Lowest oxygen saturation (LSAT) M ± SD improved in 146 patients from 83.2 ± 6.8% to 86.2 ± 11.1%, MD 3 oxygen saturation points [95% CI 0.57, 5.63]. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) M ± SD improved (359 patients) from 9.9 ± 5.3 to 7.4 ± 5.0, MD −2.5 [95% CI −3.2, −1.8], p value < 0.0001. Conclusion. Nasal EPAP (Provent) reduced AHI by 53.2%, ODI by 41.5% and improved LSAT by 3 oxygen saturation points. Generally, there were no clear characteristics (demographic factors, medical history, and/or physical exam finding) that predicted favorable response to these devices. However, limited evidence suggests that high nasal resistance could be associated with treatment failure. Additional studies are needed to identify demographic and polysomnographic characteristics that would predict therapeutic success with nasal EPAP (Provent). PMID:26798519

  10. Accuracy of positive airway pressure device-measured apneas and hypopneas: role in treatment followup.

    PubMed

    Stepnowsky, Carl; Zamora, Tania; Barker, Robert; Liu, Lin; Sarmiento, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Improved data transmission technologies have facilitated data collected from positive airway pressure (PAP) devices in the home environment. Although clinicians' treatment decisions increasingly rely on autoscoring of respiratory events by the PAP device, few studies have specifically examined the accuracy of autoscored respiratory events in the home environment in ongoing PAP use. "PAP efficacy" studies were conducted in which participants wore PAP simultaneously with an Embletta sleep system (Embla, Inc., Broomfield, CO), which was directly connected to the ResMed AutoSet S8 (ResMed, Inc., San Diego, CA) via a specialized cable. Mean PAP-scored Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) was 14.2 ± 11.8 (median: 11.7; range: 3.9-46.3) and mean manual-scored AHI was 9.4 ± 10.2 (median: 7.7; range: 1.2-39.3). Ratios between the mean indices were calculated. PAP-scored HI was 2.0 times higher than the manual-scored HI. PAP-scored AHI was 1.5 times higher than the manual-scored AHI, and PAP-scored AI was 1.04 of manual-scored AI. In this sample, PAP-scored HI was on average double the manual-scored HI. Given the importance of PAP efficacy data in tracking treatment progress, it is important to recognize the possible bias of PAP algorithms in overreporting hypopneas. The most likely cause of this discrepancy is the use of desaturations in manual hypopnea scoring.

  11. Effects of Use of a Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Device on Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Ulusoy, Seckin; Erden, Meltem; Dinc, Mehmet Emre; Yavuz, Nurdogan; Caglar, Erdem; Dalgic, Abdullah; Erdogan, Coskun

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of glaucoma in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and to determine the efficacy of the equipment used in the treatment of this disease. Material/Methods In this cross-sectional study, 38 patients with OSAS used the continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device (Group 1) and 32 patients with OSAS refused CPAP device (Group 2). Thirty-six patients did not have OSAS (Group 3). Results Patient age, gender, height, weight, and neck circumference did not differ among groups (p>0.05); and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and respiratory disturbance index (RDI) values did not differ between Groups 1 and 2 (p>0.05). Vision and pachymetric values did not differ among groups (p>0.05). The IOP was significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p<0.05) but did not differ between Groups 1 and 3 (p>0.05). The fundus C/D ratio was significantly higher (p<0.05) in Group 2 than in the other groups but did not differ between Groups 1 and 3 (p>0.05). In Group 1, 2, and 3, 5.2%, 12.5%, and 0%, respectively, of patients had glaucoma. Conclusions OSAS should be considered a significant risk factor for glaucoma. Eye tests may help to identify individuals with undiagnosed OSAS, and such testing of patients with diagnosed OSAS may allow early detection of glaucoma and referral of such patients for CPAP therapy to prevent development of complications. PMID:26547930

  12. Prevention of airway fires: testing the safety of endotracheal tubes and surgical devices in a mechanical model.

    PubMed

    Roy, Soham; Smith, Lee P

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the ability of carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers and radiofrequency ablation devices (Coblator) (ArthoCare Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA) to ignite either a non-reinforced (polyvinylchloride) endotracheal tube (ETT) or an aluminum and fluoroplastic wrapped silicon ("laser safe") ETT at varying titrations of oxygen in a mechanical model of airway surgery. Non-reinforced and laser safe ETTs were suspended in a mechanical model imitating endoscopic airway surgery. A CO2 laser set at 5-30 watts was fired at the ETT at oxygen concentrations ranging from 21% to 88%. The process was repeated using a radiofrequency ablation (RFA) device. All trials were repeated to ensure accuracy. The CO2 laser ignited a fire when contacting a non-reinforced ETT in under 2 seconds at oxygen concentrations as low as 44%. The CO2 laser could not ignite a laser safe ETT under any conditions, unless it struck the non-reinforced distal tip of the ETT. With the RFA, a fire could not be ignited with either reinforced or non-reinforced ETTs. RFA presents no risk of ignition in simulated airway surgery. CO2 lasers should be utilized with a reinforced ETT or no ETT, as fires can easily ignite when lasers strike a non-reinforced ETT. Decreasing the fraction of inspired oxygen reduces the risk of fire. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Incidence of sore throat in children following use of flexible laryngeal mask airways - impact of an introducer device.

    PubMed

    William, Anthea; Chambers, Neil A; Erb, Thomas O; von Ungern-Sternberg, Britta S

    2010-09-01

    Insertion of a flexible laryngeal mask airway (FLMA) is more difficult and therefore might result in a higher risk for trauma to the upper airway. To facilitate the insertion of FLMA, the use of an introducer device (Portex Limited, Hythe, Kent, UK) was promoted. However, the impact of the use of this device on the occurrence of postoperative sore throat is unknown. Four hundred children (3-21 years) undergoing elective ambulatory surgery were consecutively included in this study. In 196 cases, the FLMA was inserted using an introducer device. The FLMA cuff was then inflated and the pressure adjusted to below 60 cmH(2)O (according to manufacturers guidelines) using a calibrated cuff manometer (Portex Limited). Three types of FLMA were available: FLMA classic, FLMA unique (both FLMA PacMed, Richmond, Victoria, Australia) and FLMA ProBreathe (Well Lead Medical Co Ltd., Hualong, Guangzhou, China). Prior to discharge, patients' pain was assessed using an age appropriate scale. Thirteen children (3.3%) developed sore throat, two (0.5%) sore neck and three (0.75%) sore jaw. Of those that developed sore throat, seven had a FLMA inserted with an introducer, six without an introducer. Using a laryngeal mask airways (LMA) with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC), surface was associated with a higher risk for sore throat compared with an LMA with a silicone surface (P = 0.0002). In this study with controlled low cuff pressures, the incidence of sore throat was low. The use of an introducer device did not affect the rate of sore throat.

  14. Comparison of the effects of continuous positive airway pressure and mandibular advancement devices on sleepiness in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea: a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bratton, Daniel J; Gaisl, Thomas; Schlatzer, Christian; Kohler, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness is the most important symptom of obstructive sleep apnoea and can affect work productivity, quality of life, and the risk of road traffic accidents. We aimed to quantify the effects of the two main treatments for obstructive sleep apnoea (continuous positive airway pressure and mandibular advancement devices) on daytime sleepiness and to establish predictors of response to continuous positive airway pressure. We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library from inception to May 31, 2015, to identify randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of continuous positive airway pressure, mandibular advancement devices or an inactive control (eg, placebo or no treatment) on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, range 0-24 points) in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. We did a network meta-analysis using multivariate random-effects meta-regression to assess the effect of each treatment on ESS. We used meta-regression to assess the association of the reported effects of continuous positive airway pressure versus inactive controls with the characteristics of trials and their risk of bias. We included 67 studies comprising 6873 patients in the meta-analysis. Compared with an inactive control, continuous positive airway pressure was associated with a reduction in ESS score of 2·5 points (95% CI 2·0-2·9) and mandibular advancement devices of 1·7 points (1·1-2·3). We estimated that, on average, continuous positive airway pressure reduced the ESS score by a further 0·8 points compared with mandibular advancement devices (95% CI 0·1-1·4; p=0·015). However, there was a possibility of publication bias in favour of continuous positive airway pressure that might have resulted in this difference. We noted no evidence that studies reporting higher continuous positive airway pressure adherence also reported larger treatment effects (p=0·70). Continuous positive airway pressure and mandibular advancement devices are effective treatments for

  15. A real-world comparison of apnea-hypopnea indices of positive airway pressure device and polysomnography.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ritwick; Wang, Julie A; Ko, Anita G; Getsy, Joanne E

    2017-01-01

    The apnea hypopnea index (AHI) reported by positive airway pressure (PAP) device is widely used in clinical practice, yet its correlation with standardized AHI obtained during the sleep study is not established. The current study was conducted to investigate the correlation between AHI estimated by the PAP device and reported on the smart card with the AHI found during the PAP polysomnography (PSG) in the "real world" setting at an academic sleep center. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 280 patients who underwent a PAP titration PSG at Drexel sleep center, and were later prescribed a PAP device. The AHI was categorized in clinically relevant subgroups (as AHI ≤5 and AHI >5). The AHI at the final pressure on the PSG and the average AHI from the prescribed PAP device were compared. The results showed that in the majority (77.3%) of patients (126 of 163), the AHI from both PAP device and PSG correlated well and were in the same category (AHI ≤5 and AHI >5 respectively). The majority of patients (80.7%) with PSG AHI of <5 had PAP device AHI <5 as well. By contrast, if PSG AHI was >5, 61.5% patients reported good control, with AHI <5 on PAP device AHI. We conclude that in a majority of patients who were optimally titrated in the sleep laboratory, the PAP device continued to show optimal control at home.

  16. A real-world comparison of apnea–hypopnea indices of positive airway pressure device and polysomnography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julie A.; Ko, Anita G.; Getsy, Joanne E.

    2017-01-01

    The apnea hypopnea index (AHI) reported by positive airway pressure (PAP) device is widely used in clinical practice, yet its correlation with standardized AHI obtained during the sleep study is not established. The current study was conducted to investigate the correlation between AHI estimated by the PAP device and reported on the smart card with the AHI found during the PAP polysomnography (PSG) in the “real world” setting at an academic sleep center. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 280 patients who underwent a PAP titration PSG at Drexel sleep center, and were later prescribed a PAP device. The AHI was categorized in clinically relevant subgroups (as AHI ≤5 and AHI >5). The AHI at the final pressure on the PSG and the average AHI from the prescribed PAP device were compared. The results showed that in the majority (77.3%) of patients (126 of 163), the AHI from both PAP device and PSG correlated well and were in the same category (AHI ≤5 and AHI >5 respectively). The majority of patients (80.7%) with PSG AHI of <5 had PAP device AHI <5 as well. By contrast, if PSG AHI was >5, 61.5% patients reported good control, with AHI <5 on PAP device AHI. We conclude that in a majority of patients who were optimally titrated in the sleep laboratory, the PAP device continued to show optimal control at home. PMID:28379985

  17. Equipment for pre-hospital airway management on Helicopter Emergency Medical System helicopters in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Schmid, M; Schüttler, J; Ey, K; Reichenbach, M; Trimmel, H; Mang, H

    2011-05-01

    For advanced out-of-hospital airway management, skilled personnel and adequate equipment are key prerequisites. There are little data on the current availability of airway management equipment and standards of medical staff on Helicopter Emergency Medical System (HEMS) helicopters in central Europe. An internet search identified all HEMS helicopters in Austria, Switzerland and Luxembourg. We identified 15 HEMS helicopter bases in Switzerland, 28 in Austria and three in Luxembourg. A questionnaire was sent to all bases, asking both for the details of the clinical background and experience of participating staff, and details of airway management equipment carried routinely on board. Replies were received from 14 helicopter bases in Switzerland (93%), 25 bases in Austria (89%) and all three bases in Luxembourg. Anaesthesiologists were by far the most frequent attending physicians (68-85%). All except one bases reported to have at least one alternative supraglottic airway device. All bases had capnometry and succinylcholine. All bases in the study except two in Austria had commercial pre-packed sets for a surgical airway. All helicopters were equipped with automatic ventilators, although not all were suitable for non-invasive ventilation (NIV; Switzerland: 43%, Austria: 12%, Luxembourg: 100%). Masks for NIV were rarely available in Switzerland (two bases; 14%) and in Austria (three bases; 12%), whereas all three bases in Luxembourg carried those masks. Most HEMS helicopters carry appropriate equipment to meet the demands of modern advanced airway management in the pre-hospital setting. Further work is needed to ensure that appropriate airway equipment is carried on all HEMS helicopters.

  18. Device for Investigation of Mechanical Tension of Isolated Smooth Muscle Vessels and Airway Segments of Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleinik, A.; Karpovich, N.; Turgunova, N.; Nosarev, A.

    2016-11-01

    For the purpose of testing and the search for new drug compounds, designed to heal many human diseases, it is necessary to investigate the deformation of experimental tissue samples under influence of these drugs. For this task a precision force sensor for measuring the mechanical tension, produced by isolated ring segments of blood vessels and airways was created. The hardware and software systems for the study of changes in contractile responses of the airway smooth muscles and blood vessels of experimental animals was developed.

  19. The Easytube for airway management: a systematic review of clinical and simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Filippo; Chiarenza, Federica; Maybauer, Dirk M; Maybauer, Marc O

    2016-06-01

    Endotracheal intubation is considered the criterion-standard technique for securing the airway. Supraglottic airway devices (SADs) represent a major advance in airway management and are recommended by the guidelines in difficult situations such as Advanced Life Support and "cannot ventilate-cannot intubate" scenarios. The Easytube (EzT) is an SAD introduced a decade ago but not included yet in the above guidelines. Systematic review of MEDLINE and EMBASE according to PRISMA guidelines available up to January 12, 2016. We collected experimental and clinical evidence regarding EzT positioning performed by medial students, anesthesiologists, paramedics, or nurses. Manikins, cadavers, or patients. EzT positioning in both clinical and simulation studies, both under standard and under difficult scenarios. Time to insertion and time to ventilation, success rate and operator's assessment of the device, change in ventilatory parameters, and major complications. Fifteen manuscripts were found: 6 prospective clinical studies and 9 conducted under experimental conditions (7 with a simulator and 2 on cadavers). The EzT inserted by both inexperienced and experienced personnel in most studies had high success rate, and it showed excellent results also during simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation and in difficult airway scenarios. The EzT had better ventilatory parameters as compared with the Combitube and showed great airway sealing capacity, comparable to the Combitube and to the laryngeal mask airway and superior to other SADs. EzT allowed the insertion of large nasogastric tubes and has only mild adverse effects like other SADs. No major complications were described. The EzT appears to be a safe and a good alternative to established SADs. It may be considered among SADs by future guidelines on Advanced Life Support and "cannot ventilate-cannot intubate" scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Novel Nasal Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure (EPAP) Device for the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Richard B.; Kryger, Meir H.; Massie, Clifford A.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Investigate the efficacy of a novel nasal expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) device as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Design: A prospective, multicenter, sham-controlled, parallel-group, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Setting: 19 sites including both academic and private sleep disorder centers Patients: Obstructive sleep apnea with a pre-study AHI ≥ 10/hour Interventions: Treatment with a nasal EPAP device (N = 127) or similar appearing sham device (N = 123) for 3 months. Polysomnography (PSG) was performed on 2 non-consecutive nights (random order: device-on, device-off) at week 1 and after 3 months of treatment. Analysis of an intention to treat group (ITT) (patients completing week 1 PSGs) (EPAP N = 119, sham N = 110) was performed. Measurements and Results: At week 1, the median AHI value (device-on versus device-off) was significantly lower with EPAP (5.0 versus 13.8 events/h, P < 0.0001) but not sham (11.6 versus 11.1 events/h, P = NS); the decrease in the AHI (median) was greater (−52.7% vs. −7.3%, P < 0.0001) for the ITT group. At month 3, the percentage decrease in the AHI was 42.7% (EPAP) and 10.1% (sham), P < 0.0001. Over 3 months of EPAP treatment the Epworth Sleepiness Scale decreased (9.9 ± 4.7 to 7.2 ± 4.2, P < 0.0001), and the median percentage of reported nights used (entire night) was 88.2%. Conclusions: The nasal EPAP device significantly reduced the AHI and improved subjective daytime sleepiness compared to the sham treatment in patients with mild to severe OSA with excellent adherence. Clinical Trial Information: Registrations: ClinicalTrials.gov. Trial name: Randomized Study of Provent Versus Sham Device to Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea (AERO). URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00772044?term=Ventus&rank=1. Registration Number: NCT00772044. Citation: Berry RB; Kryger MH; Massie CA. A novel nasal expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) device for the treatment of

  1. Maintaining Control of Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease: Adherence to Inhaled Therapy and Risks and Benefits of Switching Devices.

    PubMed

    Melani, Andrea S; Paleari, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are major obstructive airway diseases that involve underlying airway inflammation. The most widely used pharmacotherapies for asthma and COPD are inhaled agents that have been shown to be effective and safe in these patients. However, despite the availability of effective pharmacologic treatment and comprehensive treatment guidelines, the prevalence of inadequately controlled asthma and COPD is high. A main reason for this is poor adherence. Adherence is a big problem for all chronic diseases, but in asthma and COPD patients there are some additional difficulties because of poor inhalation technique and inhaler choice. Easier-to-use devices and educational strategies on proper inhaler use from health caregivers can improve inhaler technique. The type of device used and the concordance between patient and physician in the choice of inhaler can also improve adherence and are as important as the drug. Adherence to inhaled therapy is absolutely necessary for optimizing patient control. If disease control is not adequate despite good adherence, switching to a more appropriate inhaled therapy is recommended. By contrast, uninformed switching or switching to less user-friendly inhaler may impact disease control negatively. This critical review of the available literature is aimed to provide a guidance protocol on when a switch may be recommended in individual patients.

  2. Comparison of the air-Q intubating laryngeal airway and the cobra perilaryngeal airway as conduits for fiber optic-guided intubation in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Girgis, Karim K.; Youssef, Maha M. I.; ElZayyat, Nashwa S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the methods proposed in cases of difficult airway management in children is using a supraglottic airway device as a conduit for tracheal intubation. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the Air-Q Intubating Laryngeal Airway (Air-Q) and the Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA) to function as a conduit for fiber optic-guided tracheal intubation in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 children with ages ranging from 1 to 6 years, undergoing elective surgery, were randomized to have their airway managed with either an Air-Q or CobraPLA. Outcomes recorded were the success rate, time and number of attempts required for fiber optic-guided intubation and the time required for device removal after intubation. We also recorded airway leak pressure (ALP), fiber optic grade of glottic view and occurrence of complications. Results: Both devices were successfully inserted in all patients. The intubation success rate was comparable with the Air-Q and the CobraPLA (96.7% vs. 90%), as was the first attempt success rate (90% vs. 80%). The intubation time was significantly longer with the CobraPLA (29.5 ± 10.9 s vs. 23.2 ± 9.8 s; P < 0.05), but the device removal time was comparable in the two groups. The CobraPLA showed a significantly higher ALP (20.8 ± 5.2 cmH2O vs. 16.3 ± 4.5 cmH2O; P < 0.001), but the fiber optic grade of glottic view was comparable with the two devices. The CobraPLA was associated with a significantly higher incidence of blood staining of the device on removal and post-operative sore throat. Conclusion: Both the Air-Q and CobraPLA can be used effectively as a conduit for fiber optic-guided tracheal intubation in children. However, the Air-Q proved to be superior due to a shorter intubation time and less airway morbidity compared with the CobraPLA. PMID:25422603

  3. Titration effectiveness of two autoadjustable continuous positive airway pressure devices driven by different algorithms in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Mario Francesco; Quaranta, Vitaliano Nicola; Tedeschi, Ersilia; Drigo, Riccardo; Ranieri, Teresa; Carratù, Pierluigi; Resta, Onofrio

    2013-08-01

    Nocturnal application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the standard treatment for patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Determination of the therapeutic pressure (CPAP titration) is usually performed by a technician in the sleep laboratory during attended polysomnography. One possible alternative to manual titration is automated titration. Indeed, during the last 15 years, devices have been developed that deliver autoadjustable CPAP (A-CPAP). The aim of the present study was to compare the titration effectiveness of two A-CPAP devices using different flow-based algorithms in patients with OSA. This is a randomized study; 79 subjects underwent two consecutive unattended home A-CPAP titration nights with two different devices (Autoset Resmed; Remstar Auto Respironics); during the third and the fourth night, patients underwent portable monitoring in the sleep laboratory during fixed CPAP at the A-CPAP recommended pressure. Bland Altman plots showed good agreement between the recommended median and maximal pressure levels obtained with the two devices. A significant improvement was observed in all the sleep parameters by both A-CPAP machines to a similar degree. It was observed that the two A-CPAP devices using different algorithms are equally effective in initial titration of CPAP. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  4. Is I-gel airway a better option to endotracheal tube airway for sevoflurane-fentanyl anesthesia during cardiac surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Elgebaly, Ahmed Said; Eldabaa, Ahmed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anesthetists used lower doses of fentanyl, successfully with hemodynamic control by titrating volatile anesthetic agents or vasodilators for fast-tracking in cardiac surgery. Hypothesis: Lower total doses of anesthetics and fentanyl could be required with hemodynamic control by use of supraglottic devices than endotracheal tube (ETT) and helps in fast-tracking. Design: A prospective randomized observational clinical trial study. Aims: The authors compared the utility of I-gel airway with a conventional ETT during the induction and maintenance of anesthesia with sevoflurane and fentanyl in adults undergoing cardiac surgery. Patients and Methods: A total of 49 adult patients underwent cardiac surgery were randomized into two groups according to the airway management: I-gel group (n = 23) and ETT group (n = 26). Doses of fentanyl and hemodynamic parameters (heart rate [HR], mean arterial pressure [MAP] central venous pressure [CVP], pulmonary artery pressure [PAP], and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure [PCWP]) were recorded preoperative, 5 min following tracheal intubation or I-gel airway insertion, after skin incision, after stenotomy, and after weaning off bypass. Results: None of the patients in the I-gel group required additional doses of fentanyl during the I-gel insertion, compared with 74% of the patients during laryngoscopy and endotracheal insertion in the ETT group, for an average total dose of 22.6 ± 0.6 μg/kg. The MAP and HR did not significantly differ from the baseline values at any point of measurement in either group. Furthermore, CVP, PAP, and PCWP measured during the procedure were significantly lower in I-gel group than ETT group. Extubation required more amount of time in ETT than I- gel group. Conclusion: The I-gel airway is well-tolerated by adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery, and requires lower total doses of anesthetics than endotracheal intubation with hemodynamic control and helps in fast-tracking. PMID:25886229

  5. Prevalence of difficult airway predictors in cases of failed prehospital endotracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Joshua B; Spaite, Daniel W; Stolz, Uwe; Ennis, Joshua; Mosier, Jarrod; Sakles, John J

    2014-09-01

    Difficult airway predictors (DAPs) are associated with failed endotracheal intubation (ETI) in the emergency department (ED). However, little is known about the relationship between DAPs and failed prehospital ETI. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of common DAPs among failed prehospital intubations. We reviewed a quality-improvement database, including all cases of ETI in a single ED, over 3 years. Failed prehospital (FP) ETI was defined as a case brought to the ED after attempted prehospital ETI, but bag-valve-mask ventilation, need for a rescue airway (supraglottic device, cricothyrotomy, etc.), or esophageal intubation was discovered at the ED. Physicians performing ETI evaluated each case for the presence of DAPs, including blood/emesis, facial/neck trauma, airway edema, spinal immobilization, short neck, and tongue enlargement. There were a total of 1377 ED ETIs and 161 had an FP-ETI (11.8%). Prevalence of DAPs in cases with FP-ETI was obesity 13.0%, large tongue 18.0%, short neck 13%, small mandible 4.3%, cervical immobility 49.7%, blood in airway 57.8%, vomitus in airway 23.0%, airway edema 12.4%, and facial or neck trauma 32.9%. The number of cases with FP-ETI and 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 or more DAPs per case was 22 (13.6%), 43 (26.7%), 23 (24.3%), 42 (26.1%), and 31 (19.3%), respectively. DAPs are common in cases of FP-ETI. Some of these factors may be associated with FP-ETI. Additional study is needed to determine if DAPs can be used to identify patients that are difficult to intubate in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing effectiveness of two nasal continuous positive airway pressure devices in very-low-birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Bober, Klaudiusz; Świetliński, Janusz; Zejda, Jan; Kornacka, Katarzyna; Pawlik, Dorota; Behrendt, Jakub; Gajewska, Elżbieta; Czyżewska, Małgorzata; Korbal, Piotr; Witalis, Janusz; Walas, Wojciech; Wilińska, Maria; Turzańska, Agnieszka; Zieliński, Grzegorz; Czeszyńska, Beata; Bachman, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Many studies suggest nasal continuous positive airway pressure is an effective and relatively complication-free means of respiratory support in premature infants. However, only limited data exist regarding the practical aspects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure delivery, including the best way to provide the positive airway pressure. Our aim was to compare the results of treatment using two different nasal continuous positive airway pressure devices: variable flow Infant Flow and constant flow nasal continuous positive airway pressure in two different groups of very-low-birth-weight infants in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. The indication groups were elective to avoid intubation and weaning from mechanical ventilation. Twelve leading tertiary care neonatal centers in Poland. Among 276 infants (weighing between 750-1500g, with a gestational age ≤32 wks) enrolled, 51% were randomized to receive Infant Flow and 49% to receive constant flow nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Treatment success (i.e., no need for intubation/reintubation) occurred in 75% of our patients with a nonstatistically significant advantage seen with Infant Flow. The incidence of severe nasal complications and necrotizing enterocolitis were statistically significantly lower in the infants treated with Infant Flow. In our study, factors associated with elective nasal continuous positive airway pressure failure were birth weight ≤1000 g, gestational age ≤28 wks, clinical risk index for babies score >1, and PaO(2)/FIO(2) ratio of <150. Only birth weight ≤1000 g was associated with weaning failure. We found fewer severe nasal complications but no statistically significant advantage in treatment success in infants assigned to Infant Flow nasal continuous positive airway pressure compared with those assigned to constant flow nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment. Significant risk factors of treatment failure include small size, maturity, and severity

  7. Use of a novel one-nostril mask-spacer device to evaluate airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in horses after chronic administration of albuterol

    PubMed Central

    Mazan, Melissa R.; Lascola, Kara; Bruns, Susan J.; Hoffman, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) is very common in stabled horses. Short-acting beta agonist (SABA) drugs are often used to relieve clinical signs, although long-term exposure to these drugs may result in rebound bronchoconstriction. The purpose of this study was twofold: i) to describe the deposition of radiolabeled drugs using a novel one-nostril design mask-spacer combination with a breath-activated inhaler (BAI), and ii) to determine whether treatment for 10 d with inhaled albuterol using this device would impair the ability of albuterol to prevent bronchospasm during a histamine challenge test. The percentage of radio-aerosol deposited in the total lung was 12.39% ± 5.05%. All study horses demonstrated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) before enrollment in the study [mean provocative concentration eliciting 35% increase in delta flow (PC35) < 6 mg/mL histamine]. There was no significant difference in airway hyperresponsiveness to post-albuterol histamine challenge before or after treatment with albuterol. A 10-d treatment with placebo, however, caused a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness in all horses (P < 0.001). The results of this study show that the novel mask-spacer device was effective in delivering radiolabeled aerosolized drug to the lung and that delivery of a SABA for 10 d using this device did not result in increased airway hyperresponsiveness. PMID:24982553

  8. Use of a novel one-nostril mask-spacer device to evaluate airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in horses after chronic administration of albuterol.

    PubMed

    Mazan, Melissa R; Lascola, Kara; Bruns, Susan J; Hoffman, Andrew M

    2014-07-01

    Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) is very common in stabled horses. Short-acting beta agonist (SABA) drugs are often used to relieve clinical signs, although long-term exposure to these drugs may result in rebound bronchoconstriction. The purpose of this study was twofold: i) to describe the deposition of radiolabeled drugs using a novel one-nostril design mask-spacer combination with a breath-activated inhaler (BAI), and ii) to determine whether treatment for 10 d with inhaled albuterol using this device would impair the ability of albuterol to prevent bronchospasm during a histamine challenge test. The percentage of radio-aerosol deposited in the total lung was 12.39% ± 5.05%. All study horses demonstrated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) before enrollment in the study [mean provocative concentration eliciting 35% increase in delta flow (PC35) < 6 mg/mL histamine]. There was no significant difference in airway hyperresponsiveness to post-albuterol histamine challenge before or after treatment with albuterol. A 10-d treatment with placebo, however, caused a significant increase in airway hyperresponsiveness in all horses (P < 0.001). The results of this study show that the novel mask-spacer device was effective in delivering radiolabeled aerosolized drug to the lung and that delivery of a SABA for 10 d using this device did not result in increased airway hyperresponsiveness.

  9. All India Difficult Airway Association 2016 guidelines for the management of unanticipated difficult tracheal intubation in adults

    PubMed Central

    Myatra, Sheila Nainan; Shah, Amit; Kundra, Pankaj; Patwa, Apeksh; Ramkumar, Venkateswaran; Divatia, Jigeeshu Vasishtha; Raveendra, Ubaradka S; Shetty, Sumalatha Radhakrishna; Ahmed, Syed Moied; Doctor, Jeson Rajan; Pawar, Dilip K; Ramesh, Singaravelu; Das, Sabyasachi; Garg, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    The All India Difficult Airway Association (AIDAA) guidelines for management of the unanticipated difficult airway in adults provide a structured, stepwise approach to manage unanticipated difficulty during tracheal intubation in adults. They have been developed based on the available evidence; wherever robust evidence was lacking, or to suit the needs and situation in India, recommendations were arrived at by consensus opinion of airway experts, incorporating the responses to a questionnaire sent to members of the AIDAA and the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists. We recommend optimum pre-oxygenation and nasal insufflation of 15 L/min oxygen during apnoea in all patients, and calling for help if the initial attempt at intubation is unsuccessful. Transnasal humidified rapid insufflations of oxygen at 70 L/min (transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange) should be used when available. We recommend no more than three attempts at tracheal intubation and two attempts at supraglottic airway device (SAD) insertion if intubation fails, provided oxygen saturation remains ≥ 95%. Intubation should be confirmed by capnography. Blind tracheal intubation through the SAD is not recommended. If SAD insertion fails, one final attempt at mask ventilation should be tried after ensuring neuromuscular blockade using the optimal technique for mask ventilation. Failure to intubate the trachea as well as an inability to ventilate the lungs by face mask and SAD constitutes ‘complete ventilation failure’, and emergency cricothyroidotomy should be performed. Patient counselling, documentation and standard reporting of the airway difficulty using a ‘difficult airway alert form’ must be done. In addition, the AIDAA provides suggestions for the contents of a difficult airway cart. PMID:28003690

  10. Postoperative Respiratory Complications of Laryngeal Mask Airway and Tracheal Tube in Ear, Nose and Throat Operations

    PubMed Central

    Safaeian, Reza; Hassani, Valiollah; Movasaghi, Gholamreza; Alimian, Mahzad; Faiz, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Supraglottic devices could be used to reduce postoperative respiratory complications, but there are few studies focused on their use in more prolonged surgeries. Objectives: In this study, we compared postoperative respiratory complications in patients with prolonged ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgeries, whose airways were controlled with tracheal tube or laryngeal mask airway (LMA). Materials and Methods: In a randomized control trial (RCT), 171 candidates of prolonged ENT surgeries were randomly assigned into two groups. In group one (n = 85) LMA and in group two (n = 86) endotracheal tube were used for airway control. The incidences of four postoperative respiratory complications including sore throat, hoarseness, cough and shortness of breath in immediate postoperative period were measured and compared among patients of each group. Results: Sore throat was recorded in 32.9% of patients with LMA and 44.2% of intubated patients, but it was not statistically significant (Fisher’s Exact test = 0.158). Hoarseness was recorded in 3.5% of patients with LMA and 24.4% of intubated patients (Fisher’s Exact test = 0.000). In 1.2% of patients with LMA cough was recorded; it was also seen in 7% of the intubated patients (Fisher’s Exact test = 0.005). Shortness of breath was mentioned by two intubated patients (2.3%) and in patient with LMA we did not record this complication. Conclusions: LMA in prolonged ENT surgeries was associated with reduced respiratory complications. PMID:26473104

  11. Randomised controlled cross-over comparison of continuous positive airway pressure through the Hamilton Galileo ventilator with a Dräger CF 800 device.

    PubMed

    Sutton, P J; Perkins, C L; Giles, S P; McAuley, D F; Gao, F

    2005-01-01

    In this controlled, randomised cross-over trial on 26 intensive care patients, we compared the effects on haemodynamic and respiratory profiles of continuous positive airway pressure delivered through the Hamilton Galileo ventilator or a Drager CF 800 device. We also compared the nursing time saved using the two approaches when weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. We did not find significant differences in haemodynamics, respiratory rate, physiological dead space, oxygen saturation and carbon dioxide production between the continuous positive airway pressure generated by the Galileo and Drager machines. However, there was a 10-fold reduction in nursing time using the Galileo ventilator compared with the Drager generator. We conclude that continuous positive airway pressure delivered through the Galileo ventilator is as efficient as a Drager device but consumes less nursing time.

  12. Mandibular Advancement Device as a Comparable Treatment to Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Positional Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Tsuiki, Satoru; Kobayashi, Mina; Komada, Yoko; Nakayama, Hideaki; Inoue, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Positional obstructive sleep apnea (P-OSA) is a clinically common phenotype of OSA, which can be treated effectively with mandibular advancement devices (MADs). We hypothesized that the efficacy of an MAD is comparable to that of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) in P-OSA patients. Methods: Among patients diagnosed with OSA at a single sleep center from January 2008 to May 2014, male subjects with moderate OSA were recruited and stringently categorized as having P-OSA when the ratio of their lateral apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) to supine AHI was ≤ 0.5, their lateral sleep time was > 60 minutes, and their lateral REM sleep time was longer than 10 minutes. Treatment efficacy was compared between P-OSA subjects with an MAD (n = 34) and those with nCPAP (n = 34) after matching for age, body-mass index, and baseline AHI. Results: There were no significant differences in baseline AHI (MAD: nCPAP = 20.6 ± 3.9/h: 21.3 ± 1.7/h, p = 0.35) or in follow-up AHI (MAD: nCPAP = 4.7 ± 3.5/h: 3.4 ± 3.7/h, p = 0.12) between the 2 treatment groups, and hence MADs lowered the AHI to the same extent as nCPAP. Conclusions: These findings suggest that an MAD is as efficacious as nCPAP for P-OSA patients. MAD treatment for this specific phenotype may be a promising patient-tailored and first-line approach to OSA. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1079. Citation: Takaesu Y, Tsuiki S, Kobayashi M, Komada Y, Nakayama H, Inoue Y. Mandibular advancement device as a comparable treatment to nasal continuous positive airway pressure for positional obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(8):1113–1119. PMID:27250814

  13. Comparison of streamlined liner of the pharynx airway (SLIPA™) with the laryngeal mask airway Proseal™ for lower abdominal laparoscopic surgeries in paralyzed, anesthetized patients

    PubMed Central

    Abdellatif, Ashraf Abualhassan; Ali, Monaz Abdulrahman

    2011-01-01

    Context: Supraglottic airway devices have been used as an alternative to tracheal intubation during laparoscopic surgery. Aims: The study was designed to compare the efficacy of Streamlined Liner of the Pharynx Airway (SLIPA) for positive pressure ventilation and postoperative complications with the Laryngeal Mask Airway ProSeal (PLMA) for patients undergoing lower abdominal laparoscopies under general anesthesia with controlled ventilation. Settings and Design: Prospective, crossover randomized controlled trial performed on patients undergoing lower abdominal laparoscopic surgeries. Methods: A total of 120 patients undergoing lower abdominal laparoscopic surgeries were randomly allocated into two equal groups; PLMA and SLIPA groups. Number of intubation attempts, insertion time, ease of insertion, and fiberoptic bronchoscopic view were recorded. Lung mechanics data were collected 5 minutes after securing the airway, then after abdominal insufflation. Blood traces and regurgitation were checked for; postoperative sore throat and other complications were recorded. Statistical Analysis: Arithmetic mean and standard deviation values were calculated and statistical analyses were performed for each group. Independent sample t-test was used to compare continuous variables exhibiting normal distribution, and Chi-squared test for noncontinuous variables. P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Insertion time, first insertion success rate, and ease of insertion were comparable in both groups. Fiberoptic bronchoscopic view was significantly better and epiglottic downfolding was significantly lower in SLIPA group. Sealing pressure and lung mechanics were similar. Gastric distension was not observed in both groups. Postoperative sore throat was significantly higher in PACU in PLMA group. Blood traces on the device were significantly more in SLIPA group. Conclusions: SLIPA can be used as a useful alternative to PLMA in patients undergoing lower abdominal laparoscopic

  14. Fluoroscopy assisted tracheal intubation in a case of anticipated difficult airway: Fail safe devices can also fail.

    PubMed

    Arulvelan, Appavoo; Soumya, Madhusudhan; Santhosh, Kannath

    2015-01-01

    Difficulty in airway management is the most important cause of major anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality. Unexpected difficulties may arise even with proper preanesthesia planning. Here, we report a case of anticipated difficult airway primarily planned for flexible fibreoptic bronchoscope assisted intubation, but due to unexpected failure of light source, fluoroscopy was used, and the airway was successfully secured.

  15. The comparison of ProSeal and I-gel laryngeal mask airways in anesthetized adult patients under controlled ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Ekinci, Osman; Abitagaoglu, Süheyla; Turan, Güldem; Sivrikaya, Zübeyir; Bosna, Gülşen; Özgultekin, Asu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the insertion time, ease of device insertion, ease of gastric tube insertion, airway leakage pressure, and complications between the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) ProSeal (P-LMA) and I-gel (I-gel) groups. Methods: Eighty patients with age range 18-65 years who underwent elective surgery were included in the study. The study took place in the operation rooms of Haydarpaşa Numune Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey from November 2013 to April 2014. Patients were equally randomized into 2 groups; the I-gel group, and the P-LMA group. In both groups, the same specialist inserted the supraglottic airway devices. The insertion time of the devices, difficulty during insertion, difficulty during gastric tube insertion, coverage of airway pressure, and complications were recorded. Results: The mean insertion time in the I-gel group was significantly lower than that of the P-LMA group (I-gel: 8±3; P-LMA: 13±5 s). The insertion success rate was higher in the I-gel group (100%, first attempt) than in the P-LMA group (82.5%, first attempt). The gastric tube placement success rate was higher in the I-gel group (92.5%, first attempt) than in the P-LMA group (72.5%, first attempt). The airway leakage pressures were similar. Conclusion: Insertion was easier, insertion time was lower, and nasogastric tube insertion success was higher with the I-gel application, and is, therefore, the preferred LMA. PMID:25828279

  16. The insecure airway: a comparison of knots and commercial devices for securing endotracheal tubes.

    PubMed

    Lovett, Paris B; Flaxman, Alexander; Stürmann, Kai M; Bijur, Polly

    2006-05-24

    Endotracheal Tubes (ETTs) are commonly secured using adhesive tape, cloth tape, or commercial devices. The objectives of the study were (1) To compare degrees of movement of ETTs secured with 6 different commercial devices and (2) To compare movement of ETTs secured with cloth tape tied with 3 different knots (hitches). A 17 cm diameter PVC tube with 14 mm "mouth" hole in the side served as a mannequin. ETTs were subjected to repeated jerks, using a cable and pulley system. (1) Total movement of ETTs relative to "mouth" (measure used for devices) (2) Slippage of ETT through securing knot (measure used for knots). Among commercial devices, the Dale showed less movement than other devices, although some differences between devices did not reach significance. Among knots, Magnus and Clove Hitches produced less slippage than the Cow Hitch, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Among devices tested, the Dale was most secure. Within the scope offered by the small sample sizes, there were no statistically significant differences between the knots in this study.

  17. Evaluation of advanced airway management in absolutely inexperienced hands: a randomized manikin trial.

    PubMed

    Goliasch, Georg; Ruetzler, Anita; Fischer, Henrik; Frass, Michael; Sessler, Daniel I; Ruetzler, Kurt

    2013-10-01

    Endotracheal intubation (ETI) and basic ventilation techniques (i.e. mouth-to-mouth/nose, bag-valve-mask ventilation) require skills and training. As an alternative, supraglottic airway devices (SAD) are efficient and technically easy to insert. We therefore evaluated the time to ventilation, success rate, and skill retention for various airway management approaches by medical laypersons using a manikin model. Fifty medical laypersons with no previous experience whatsoever in airway management or resuscitation were enrolled. All participants received a 1-h-long theoretical lecture and a practical demonstration of mouth-to-mouth ventilation, ETI, and six SAD. Afterwards, the laypersons performed mouth-to-mouth ventilation and used each of the seven airway-management systems on an advanced patient simulator (SimMan) in a random sequence. All participants were re-evaluated 3 months later without any further practical or theoretical demonstration. The success rates for ETI were 74% during the first evaluation and 64% during the second, whereas the success rate for all six SAD was 100% during all application attempts. The success rate for mouth-to-mouth ventilation was 86% initially and 84% 3 months later. The time to adequate mouth-to-mouth ventilation was 15 ± 13 s initially and 16 ± 7 s subsequently. ETI required 53 ± 21 s during the initial evaluation and 44 ± 16 s 3 months later. A variety of SAD all proved to reliably secure airways quickly, even in the hands of complete novices. The SAD were much more effective than ETI, which often failed, and were even superior to mouth-to-mouth ventilation. SAD may thus be an appropriate first-line approach to field ventilation.

  18. Airway management by physician-staffed Helicopter Emergency Medical Services - a prospective, multicentre, observational study of 2,327 patients.

    PubMed

    Sunde, Geir Arne; Heltne, Jon-Kenneth; Lockey, David; Burns, Brian; Sandberg, Mårten; Fredriksen, Knut; Hufthammer, Karl Ove; Soti, Akos; Lyon, Richard; Jäntti, Helena; Kämäräinen, Antti; Reid, Bjørn Ole; Silfvast, Tom; Harm, Falko; Sollid, Stephen J M

    2015-08-07

    Despite numerous studies on prehospital airway management, results are difficult to compare due to inconsistent or heterogeneous data. The objective of this study was to assess advanced airway management from international physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical services. We collected airway data from 21 helicopter emergency medical services in Australia, England, Finland, Hungary, Norway and Switzerland over a 12-month period. A uniform Utstein-style airway template was used for collecting data. The participating services attended 14,703 patients on primary missions during the study period, and 2,327 (16 %) required advanced prehospital airway interventions. Of these, tracheal intubation was attempted in 92 % of the cases. The rest were managed with supraglottic airway devices (5 %), bag-valve-mask ventilation (2 %) or continuous positive airway pressure (0.2 %). Intubation failure rates were 14.5 % (first-attempt) and 1.2 % (overall). Cardiac arrest patients showed significantly higher first-attempt intubation failure rates (odds ratio: 2.0; 95 % CI: 1.5-2.6; p < 0.001) compared to non-cardiac arrest patients. Complications were recorded in 13 %, with recognised oesophageal intubation being the most frequent (25 % of all patients with complications). For non-cardiac arrest patients, important risk predictors for first-attempt failure were patient age (a non-linear association) and administration of sedatives (reduced failure risk). The patient's sex, provider's intubation experience, trauma type (patient category), indication for airway intervention and use of neuromuscular blocking agents were not risk factors for first-attempt intubation failure. Advanced airway management in physician-staffed prehospital services was performed frequently, with high intubation success rates and low complication rates overall. However, cardiac arrest patients showed significantly higher first-attempt failure rates compared to non-cardiac arrest patients. All

  19. Passive continuous positive airway pressure ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized cross-over manikin simulation study.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Bernd E; Muellenbach, Ralf M; Wurmb, Thomas; Struck, Manuel F; Roewer, Norbert; Kranke, Peter

    2017-02-01

    While controlled ventilation is most frequently used during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and passive ventilation of the lung synchronously with chest compressions and decompressions might represent a promising alternative approach. One benefit of CPAP during CPR is the reduction of peak airway pressures and therefore a potential enhancement in haemodynamics. We therefore evaluated the tidal volumes and airway pressures achieved during CPAP-CPR. During CPR with the LUCAS™ 2 compression device, a manikin model was passively ventilated at CPAP levels of 5, 10, 20 and 30 hPa with the Boussignac tracheal tube and the ventilators Evita(®) V500, Medumat(®) Transport, Oxylator(®) EMX, Oxylog(®) 2000, Oxylog(®) 3000, Primus(®) and Servo(®)-i as well as the Wenoll(®) diver rescue system. Tidal volumes and airway pressures during CPAP-CPR were recorded and analyzed. Tidal volumes during CPAP-CPR were higher than during compression-only CPR without positive airway pressure. The passively generated tidal volumes increased with increasing CPAP levels and were significantly influenced by the ventilators used. During ventilation at 20 hPa CPAP via a tracheal tube, the mean tidal volumes ranged from 125 ml (Medumat(®)) to 309 ml (Wenoll(®)) and the peak airway pressures from 23 hPa (Primus(®)) to 49 hPa (Oxylog(®) 3000). Transport ventilators generated lower tidal volumes than intensive care ventilators or closed-circuit systems. Peak airway pressures during CPAP-CPR were lower than those during controlled ventilation CPR reported in literature. High peak airway pressures are known to limit the applicability of ventilation via facemask or via supraglottic airway devices and may adversely affect haemodynamics. Hence, the application of ventilators generating high tidal volumes with low peak airway pressures appears desirable during CPAP-CPR. The limited CPAP-CPR capabilities of transport

  20. Pre-hospital airway management by non-physicians in Northern Finland -- a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Raatiniemi, L; Länkimäki, S; Martikainen, M

    2013-05-01

    Airway management is an important skill in pre-hospital emergency medicine. The most optimal method depends on the resources and experience of the emergency medical service (EMS) providers. We wanted to study the frequency of occurrence, equipment used, problems experienced and maintenance of skills in pre-hospital airway management by non-physicians. A structured questionnaire consisting of 30 questions was distributed to 383 EMS providers in three hospital districts (population 597,521 and area 147,467 km(2) ) in Northern Finland. The questionnaire was answered by 226 EMS providers and 58.5% (224/383) were included in the final analyses. In all, 82.6% (185/224) of the EMS providers were allowed to perform endotracheal intubation (ETI) and 44.2% (99/224) could perform ETI using sedative agents. The annual mean frequency of using a supraglottic airway device (SAD) was 1.0 (range 0-20, n = 224), for ETI it was 2.0 (range 0-16, n = 185) and for bag-valve-mask ventilation it was 4.3 (range 0-30, n = 223). The mean frequency of drug-assisted ETI was 1.1 (range 0-13, n = 99). Unsuccessful ETI had been experienced by 65.7% (119/181) of the EMS providers. Airway management had been practised in an operating room by 25.9% (56/216) and with a manikin by 81.3% (182/224) of the EMS providers during the past 12 months. Advanced airway management procedures are uncommon for most EMS providers in Northern Finland. Procedures, training in and maintenance of airway management skills should be re-evaluated. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  1. The clinical effectiveness of the streamlined liner of pharyngeal airway (SLIPA™) compared with the laryngeal mask airway ProSeal™ during general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun Mi; Cha, Su Man; Baek, Chong Wha; Jung, Yong Hun; Woo, Young Cheol; Kim, Jin Yun; Koo, Gill Hoi; Park, Sun Gyoo

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the streamlined liner of the pharynx airway (SLIPA), a new supraglottic airway device (SGA), with the laryngeal mask airway ProSeal™ (PLMA) during general anesthesia. Methods Sixty patients were randomly allocated to two groups; a PLMA group (n = 30) or a SLIPA group (n = 30). Ease of use, first insertion success rate, hemodynamic responses to insertion, ventilatory efficiency and positioning confirmed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy were assessed. Lung mechanics data were collected with side stream spirometry at 10 minutes after insertion. We also compared the incidence of blood stain, incidence and severity of postoperative sore throat and other complications. Results First attempt success rates were 93.3% and 73.3%, and mean insertion time was 7.3 sec and 10.5 sec in PLMA and SLIPA. There was a significant rise in all of hemodynamic response from the pre-insertion value at one minute following insertion of SLIPA. But, insertion of PLMA was no significant rise in hemodynamic response. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean maximum sealing pressure, gas leakage, lung mechanics data, gastric distension, postoperative sore throat and other complication between the two groups. Blood stain were noted on the surface of the device in 40% (n = 12) in the SLIPA vs. 6.7% (n = 2) in the PLMA. Conclusions The SLIPA is a useful alternative to the PLMA and have comparable efficacy and complication rates. If we acquire the skill to use, SLIPA may be considered as primary SGA devices during surgery under general anesthesia. PMID:20532053

  2. 21 CFR 868.5115 - Device to relieve acute upper airway obstruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 868.5115 Section 868.5115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the event of choking on a foreign body, can be applied to the abdomen and pushed upward to generate... Obstruction Devices”). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part...

  3. Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association and Difficult Airway Society guidelines for the management of difficult and failed tracheal intubation in obstetrics*

    PubMed Central

    Mushambi, M C; Kinsella, S M; Popat, M; Swales, H; Ramaswamy, K K; Winton, A L; Quinn, A C

    2015-01-01

    The Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association and Difficult Airway Society have developed the first national obstetric guidelines for the safe management of difficult and failed tracheal intubation during general anaesthesia. They comprise four algorithms and two tables. A master algorithm provides an overview. Algorithm 1 gives a framework on how to optimise a safe general anaesthetic technique in the obstetric patient, and emphasises: planning and multidisciplinary communication; how to prevent the rapid oxygen desaturation seen in pregnant women by advocating nasal oxygenation and mask ventilation immediately after induction; limiting intubation attempts to two; and consideration of early release of cricoid pressure if difficulties are encountered. Algorithm 2 summarises the management after declaring failed tracheal intubation with clear decision points, and encourages early insertion of a (preferably second-generation) supraglottic airway device if appropriate. Algorithm 3 covers the management of the ‘can't intubate, can't oxygenate’ situation and emergency front-of-neck airway access, including the necessity for timely perimortem caesarean section if maternal oxygenation cannot be achieved. Table 1 gives a structure for assessing the individual factors relevant in the decision to awaken or proceed should intubation fail, which include: urgency related to maternal or fetal factors; seniority of the anaesthetist; obesity of the patient; surgical complexity; aspiration risk; potential difficulty with provision of alternative anaesthesia; and post-induction airway device and airway patency. This decision should be considered by the team in advance of performing a general anaesthetic to make a provisional plan should failed intubation occur. The table is also intended to be used as a teaching tool to facilitate discussion and learning regarding the complex nature of decision-making when faced with a failed intubation. Table 2 gives practical considerations of how

  4. Unsteady flow motions in the supraglottal region during phonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Haoxiang; Dai, Hu

    2008-11-01

    The highly unsteady flow motions in the larynx are not only responsible for producing the fundamental frequency tone in phonation, but also have a significant contribution to the broadband noise in the human voice. In this work, the laryngeal flow is modeled either as an incompressible pulsatile jet confined in a two-dimensional channel, or a pressure-driven flow modulated by a pair of viscoelastic vocal folds through the flow--structure interaction. The flow in the supraglottal region is found to be dominated by large-scale vortices whose unsteady motions significantly deflect the glottal jet. In the flow--structure interaction, a hybrid model based on the immersed-boundary method is developed to simulate the flow-induced vocal fold vibration, which involves a three-dimensional vocal fold prototype and a two-dimensional viscous flow. Both the flow behavior and the vibratory characteristics of the vocal folds will be presented.

  5. Comparison of the effectiveness of inhaler devices in asthma and chronic obstructive airways disease: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brocklebank, D; Ram, F; Wright, J; Barry, P; Cates, C; Davies, L; Douglas, G; Muers, M; Smith, D; White, J

    2001-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common diseases of the airways and lungs that have a major impact on the health of the population. The mainstay of treatment is by inhalation of medication to the site of the disease process. This can be achieved by a number of different device types, which have wide variations in costs to the health service. A number of different inhalation devices are available. The pressurised metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) is the most commonly used and cheapest device, which may also be used in conjunction with a spacer device. Newer chlorofluorocarbons (CFC)-free inhaler devices using hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs) have also been developed. The drug is dissolved or suspended in the propellant under pressure. When activated, a valve system releases a metered volume of drug and propellant. Other devices include breath-actuated pMDIs (BA-pMDI), such as Autohaler and Easi-Breathe. They incorporate a mechanism activated during inhalation that triggers the metered-dose inhaler. Dry powder inhalers (DPI), such as Turbohaler, Diskhaler, Accuhaler and Rotahaler, are activated by inspiration by the patient. The powdered drug is dispersed into particles by the inspiration. With nebulisers oxygen, compressed air, or ultrasonic power is used to break up solutions or suspensions of medication into droplets for inhalation. The aerosol is administered by mask or by a mouthpiece. There has been no previous systematic review of the evidence of clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these different inhaler devices. To review systematically the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of inhaler devices in asthma and COPD. The different aspects of inhaler devices were separated into the most clinically relevant comparisons. Methods involved systematic searching of electronic databases and bibliographies for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews. Pharmaceutical companies and experts in the field were contacted

  6. MicroRNA expression and its detection in human supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    SUN, XIN; SONG, YAN; TAI, XUHUI; LIU, BIN; JI, WENYUE

    2013-01-01

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is one of the most common head and neck malignancies with a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to detect the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in supraglottic LSCC and attached normal mucosa using microarray assay, and explore the role of miRNAs in supraglottic LSCC. Fresh-frozen samples of five supraglottic LSCC and attached normal mucosa were obtained, and their various endogenous miRNAs were screened by microarray. miRNAs of interest were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 48 supraglottic LSCC tumors and 10 normal mucosa tissues. In total, 38 miRNAs were differentially expressed in supraglottic LSCC, with 22 miRNAs being upregulated and 16 downregulated. Of the six miRNAs selected for qRT-PCR, miR-375, miR-139-3P, miR-1290 and miR-106b were differentially expressed in supraglottic LSCC with and without lymphatic metastasis. PMID:24649021

  7. Histological investigation of the supra-glottal structures in humans for understanding abnormal phonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Miwako; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Chan, Roger; Niimi, Seijii; Tayama, Niro

    2002-11-01

    Phonation is the vocal fold vibration on normal voice. But sometimes we can observe the other phonation styles like as the pressed voice or some throat singings like as ''kargyraa'' or ''drone'' in Khoomei in Mongolian music. Also, clinically, we know that some patients who have the wide glottal slit in phonation because of the recurrence nerve palsy or after partial laryngectomy, could make the ''supra-glottal phonation.'' The ''supra-glottal phonation'' would be made from the vibration of ''supra-glottal structures'' such as the false vocal folds, the arytenoids and the epiglottis, etc. Endoscopic examination suggests the existence of some contractile functions in supra-glottal space. However, these phonation systems have not been clear to explain their neuromuscular mechanism in histology. This study aimed to find the basis for making the supra-glottal phonation from the points of view of the histological structures. We tried to investigate if there were any muscles that could contract the supra-glottal structures. The samples are the excised larynx of human beings. They were fixed by formalin after excision. We observed their macroscopic anatomy, and also with the microscopic observation their histological preparations after the process of the embedding in paraffin, slicing for the preparation and HE (hematoxylin-eosin) staining.

  8. [Difficult airway management using the air-Q in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome].

    PubMed

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Miyazaki, Shinichiro; Soen, Masako; Kusunoki, Tomohiro; Tatsumi, Shinichi; Minami, Toshiaki

    2014-06-01

    Patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) frequently encounter difficult airway management due to skeletal abnormalities, including fusion of two or more vertebrae and short neck. We report successful tracheal intubation using the air-Q supraglottic airway device (air-Q). A 46-year-old woman (height, 149 cm; weight, 62 kg) with KFS was scheduled to undergo vertebral arch plasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. She could open her mouth sufficiently but could not tilt her head due to C1-3 fusion. Following administration of fentanyl 100 microg and propofol 120 mg, mask ventilation was achieved with jaw thrust maneuver. We then administered rocuronium 50 mg for immobilization and attempted tracheal intubation using the Pentax-AWS Airwayscope with a thin pediatric Intlock. However, we could not target the glottis, and ventilation via a size 3 i-gel or size 3.5 air-Q was unsuccessful. Using a size 2.5 air-Q, sufficient ventilation was finally achieved. We performed fiberoptic tracheal intubation through the air-Q using a tube with an internal diameter of 6.0-mm. We then exchanged the 6.0-mm tracheal tube with a 7.0-mm spiral tube using a 10 Fr tracheal tube introducer.

  9. Feasibility of a laryngeal tube for airway management during cardiac arrest by first responders.

    PubMed

    Länkimäki, S; Alahuhta, S; Kurola, J

    2013-04-01

    Airway management is of major importance in prehospital emergency care. Bag-valve mask (BVM) ventilation and endotracheal intubation (ETI) have been shown to be difficult, especially when caregivers are inexperienced. Alternative methods have been studied, and supraglottic devices have been shown to provide reasonable ease of placement and effective ventilation in manikin studies and anaesthetised patients. First responders (FR) are employed by many emergency medical services (EMS) to shorten initiation of emergency care, and they are trained to provide basic CPR including BVM and use of automated external defibrillators (AED) in case of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OCHA). The aim of this research was to study the feasibility of manikin-trained FRs using a laryngeal tube (LT) as a primary airway method during cardiac arrest. We trained 300 FRs to use a LT during OHCA. The FRs used a LT in 64 OHCA cases. The LT was correctly placed on the first attempt in 46/64 cases (71.9%) and on the second attempt in 13/64 cases (20.3%). Insertion was reported as being easy in 55/64 cases (85.9%). Median insertion time was 23.1s, with a range of 3-240s. We found that after manikin training, the FRs inserted the LT and performed adequate ventilation with a reasonable success rate and insertion time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of Nasopharyngeal Airway Device and Nasal Oxygen Tube in Obese Patients Undergoing Intravenous Anesthesia for Gastroscopy: A Prospective and Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan; Han, Ran; Hu, Jiali; Lan, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This prospective and randomized study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the nasopharyngeal airway relative to the nasal oxygen tube in obese patients undergoing painless gastroscopy. Materials and Methods. Obese patients (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2; n = 260) were randomly and equally apportioned to the nasopharyngeal airway (Group A) or nasal oxygen tube (Group B) group. Three patients were excluded due to failure of insertion of the nasopharyngeal airway. The duration of endoscopy, anesthetic dose, recovery time, and adverse events were recorded. The satisfaction of the anesthetist, physicians, and patient was scored. Results. The SpO2 reduction was significantly less in Group A than in Group B. Use of a respirator for assisted ventilation occurred significantly less in Group A. The groups were similar regarding mean arterial pressure, heart rate, anesthetic dose, duration of gastroscopy, recovery time, and adverse events. Satisfaction of the physician and anesthetist was greater in Group A; the groups were similar in patient satisfaction. Conclusions. Use of the nasopharyngeal airway for obese patients during painless gastroscopy resulted in less SpO2 reduction relative to the nasal oxygen tube. Altogether, it is a safe and effective device for obese patients undergoing painless gastroscopy. PMID:26997951

  11. Ease of insertion of the laryngeal mask airway in pediatric surgical patients: Predictors of failure and outcome.

    PubMed

    Asida, S M; Ahmed, S S

    2016-01-01

    Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is an useful alternative to endotracheal tube for airway management. The risk of life-threatening adverse respiratory events during its use is rare, but we need to know about the risk-adjusted prediction of its insertion failure requiring rescue tracheal intubation and its impact on patient outcome. Five hundred patients; 6 months to 12-year-old, American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II scheduled to undergo elective surgical procedures that require general anesthesia were included in this study. LMA was inserted after induction of anesthesia. The insertion conditions, intra, and postoperative events were recorded. Our primary outcome variable was trial success from the first time. We recorded 426 cases (85.2%) of first trial success with clear airway compared to 46 case (9.2%) of second trial success (P ≤ 0.001). Predictors of failure of first attempt of LMA insertion include abnormal airway anatomy (91%), body weight <16 kg and age below 5 years (44%), the use of LMA size of 1 and 1.5 (3.8%), the intraoperative lateral position (3.8%). The data obtained from this study support the use of the LMA as a reliable pediatric supraglottic airway device, demonstrating relatively low failure rates. Predictors of LMA failure in the pediatric surgical population should be independently considered. The study is registered in the Australian and New Zealand clinical trial registry with the allocated trial number: ACTRN12614000994684. Web address of trial: http://www.ANZCTR.org.au/A CTRN12614000994684.aspx.

  12. Is it safe to use frova airway intubating device during tracheal intubation in difficult airway patient with multiple and chest trauma?

    PubMed

    Hajjar, Waseem M; Alsubaie, Nourah; Nouh, Thamer A; Al-Nassar, Sami A

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic chest injury is one of the leading causes of death in motor vehicle accident (MVA). A complete tracheobronchial injury occurred in 1% of trauma cases and most of the cases died before arrival to the emergency department. We report a 37-year-old female involved in MVA presented to the emergency room (ER) with normal vital signs. Ten minutes later, her saturation dropped to 75%, which required ventilation; however, two attempts for endotracheal intubation failed. The third time frova airway intubating introducer used and succeeded. Immediately after tracheal intubation, the patient started to have extensive subcutaneous emphysema and severe hypoxia; chest X-ray showed right side tension pneumothorax which was not relieved by a chest tube insertion. Bronchoscopy confirmed total transection of the right main bronchus and lower tracheal laceration and injury. Emergency thoracotomy and repair of both trachea and the right main bronchus were successful.

  13. Salvage transoral laser supraglottic laryngectomy after radiation failure: a report of seven cases.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jong Chul; Kim, Sung Won; Lee, Hyoung Shin; Han, Young Jin; Park, Heon Soo; Lee, Kang Dae

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the oncological and functional outcomes of salvage transoral laser supraglottic laryngectomy after radiation failure. In addition, we demonstrated the usefulness of laser surgery in patients with recurrent supraglottic cancer. Between December 1999 and May 2011,7 patients (6 men and 1 woman) underwent transoral laser supraglottic laryngectomy after radiation failure. We conducted 4 different types of endoscopic supraglottic laryngectomy. In the cases with lymph node metastasis, we performed neck dissection at the time of laser surgery. All patients had recurrent squamous cell carcinoma confirmed on the surgical specimen. Two patients were classified as having T1 disease, 2 as having T2 disease, and 3 as having T3 disease with preepiglottic space involvement. The 2- and 5-year overall survival rates were 85.7% and 68.6%, respectively. There was a recurrence at 8 months of followup after laser surgery in 1 patient; he underwent successful salvage total laryngectomy. The ultimate local control rate was 100%, and the laryngeal preservation rate was 85.7%. The hospitalization times ranged from 2 to 32 days (mean, 15.6 days). The mean decannulation time was 10.7 days (range, 5 to 30 days). All patients started oral feeding within 1 to 3 days after surgery. Salvage transoral laser supraglottic laryngectomy following radiation failure seems a feasible and oncologically safe procedure in recurrent supraglottic cancers ranging from T1 to selected T3 with minimal preepiglottic space involvement. It can be an option for minimally invasive organ preservation surgery with lesser morbidity for recurrent supraglottic cancer.

  14. Feasibility of LMA Supreme for airway management in unconscious patients by ALS paramedics.

    PubMed

    Länkimäki, Sami; Alahuhta, Seppo; Silfvast, Tom; Kurola, Jouni

    2015-02-26

    Airway management to ensure sufficient gas exchange is of major importance in emergency care. The accepted basic technique is to maintain an open airway and perform artificial ventilation in emergency situations is bag-valve mask (BVM) ventilation with manual airway management without airway adjuncts or with an oropharyngeal tube (OPA) only. Endotracheal intubation (ETI) is often referred to as the golden standard of airway management, but is associated with low success rates and significant insertion-related complications when performed by non-anaesthetists. Supraglottic devices (SADs) are one alternative to ETI in these situations, but there is limited evidence regarding the use of SAD in non-cardiac arrest situations. LMA Supreme (LMA-S) is a new SAD which theoretically has an advantage concerning the risk of aspiration due to an oesophageal inlet gastric tube port. Forty paramedics were recruited to participate in the study. Adult (>18 years) patients, unconscious due to medical or traumatic cause with a GCS score corresponding to 3-5 and needed airway management were included in the study. Our aim was to study the feasibility of LMA-S as a primary airway method in unconscious patients by advanced life support (ALS) trained paramedics in prehospital care. Three regional Emergency Medical Service (EMS) services participated and 21 patients were treated during the survey. The LMA-S was placed correctly on the first attempt in all instances 21/21 (100%), with a median time to first ventilation of 9.8 s. Paramedics evaluated the insertion to be easy in every case 21/21 (100%). Because of air leak later in the patient care, the LMA-S was exchanged to an LT-D in two cases and to ETI in three cases (23.81%) by the paramedics. Regurgitation occurred after insertion two times out of 21 (9.52%) and in one of these cases (4.76%), paramedics reported regurgitation inside the LMA-S. We conclude that the LMA-S seems to be relatively easy and quick to insert in unconscious

  15. Comparison of remifentanil EC50 for facilitating i-gel and laryngeal mask airway insertion with propofol anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Bum; Kwak, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Kyung Cheon; Lee, Se Ryeon; Lee, Sook Young; Kim, Jong Yeop

    2016-06-01

    Each supraglottic airway requires different anesthetic depth because it has a specific structure and different compressive force in the oropharyngeal cavity. We designed the study to compare the effect-site concentration (Ce) of remifentanil in 50 % of patients (EC50) for successful insertion of the i-gel second-generation supraglottic airway device with that for laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion during target-controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol. Forty-one female patients were randomized to the i-gel group (n = 20) or the LMA group (n = 21). Anesthesia was induced with propofol Ce of 5 μg/ml and the predetermined remifentanil Ce, and the i-gel or LMA was inserted 5 min later. The remifentanil Ce was estimated by modified Dixon's up-and-down method (initial concentration: 3.0 ng/ml, step size: 0.5 ng/ml). The patient's response to device insertion was classified as either "success (no movement)" or "failure (movement)". Using the Dixon's up-and-down method, EC50 of remifentanil Ce for the i-gel (1.58 ± 0.41 ng/ml) was significantly lower than that for LMA (2.25 ± 0.55 ng/ml) (p = 0.038). Using isotonic regression, EC50 (83 % CI) of remifentanil in the i-gel group [1.50 (1.37-1.80) ng/ml] was statistically lower than that in the LMA group [2.00 (1.82-2.34) ng/ml]. EC95 (95 % CI) of remifentanil in the i-gel group [2.38 (1.48-2.50) ng/ml] was statistically lower than that in the LMA group [3.35 (2.58-3.48) ng/ml]. We found that EC50 of remifentanil Ce for i-gel insertion (1.58 ng/ml) was significantly lower than that for LMA insertion (2.25 ng/ml) in female patients during propofol TCI without neuromuscular blockade.

  16. Differentiation of pyriform sinus cancer from supraglottic laryngeal cancer by computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, S.; Mancuso, A.; Hoover, L.; Hanafee, W.

    1981-11-01

    Nine pyriform sinus tumors and 16 supraglottic laryngeal lesions were studied by computed tomography. The pyriform sinus tumors had a much higher incidence of thyroid cartilage invasion (five of nine patients) and involved the posterolateral margins of the cartilage. Only two of 16 supraglottic tumors reached the thyroid cartilage, involving the midline or more inferior margins. The supraglottic tumors grew in a circumferential pattern, and when the preepiglottic space was involved, extension was bilaterial. Lesions of the pyriform sinus more frequently showed unilateral involvement. Lymph node metastases were seen in an approximately equal proportion of patients in the two groups, and they correlated more with the size of the primary tumor than with its site of origin. Posteroinferior invasion of the space between the thyroid and cricoid cartilage was seen only with pyriform sinus lesions.

  17. In-hospital airway management training for non-anesthesiologist EMS physicians: a descriptive quality control study.

    PubMed

    Trimmel, Helmut; Beywinkler, Christoph; Hornung, Sonja; Kreutziger, Janett; Voelckel, Wolfgang G

    2017-04-26

    Pre-hospital airway management is a major challenge for emergency medical service (EMS) personnel. Despite convincing evidence that the rescuer's qualifications determine efficacy of tracheal intubation, in-hospital airway management training is not mandatory in Austria, and often neglected. Thus we sought to prove that airway management competence of EMS physicians can be established and maintained by a tailored training program. In this descriptive quality control study we retrospectively evaluated all in- and pre-hospital airway cases managed by EMS physicians who underwent a structured in-hospital training program in anesthesia at General Hospital Wiener Neustadt. Data was obtained from electronic anesthesia and EMS documentation systems. From 2006 to 2016, 32 EMS physicians with 3-year post-graduate education, but without any prior experience in anesthesia were trained. Airway management proficiency was imparted in three steps: initial training, followed by an ongoing practice schedule in the operating room (OR). Median and interquartile range of number of in-hospital tracheal intubations (TIs) vs. use of supra-glottic airway devices (SGA) were 33.5 (27.5-42.5) vs. 19.0 (15.0-27.0) during initial training; 62.0 (41.8-86.5) vs. 33.5 (18.0-54.5) during the first, and 64.0 (34.5-93.8) vs. 27 (12.5-56.0) during the second year. Pre-hospitaly, every physician performed 9.0 (5.0-14.8) TIs vs. 0.0 (0.0-0.0) SGA cases during the first, and 9.0 (7.0-13.8) TIs vs. 0.0 (0.0-0.3) SGA during the second year. Use of an SGA was mandatory when TI failed after the second attempt, thus accounting for a total of 33 cases. In 8 cases, both TI and SGA failed, but bag mask ventilation was successfully performed. No critical events related to airway management were noted and overall success rate for TI with a max of 2 attempts was 95.3%. Number of TIs per EMS physician is low in the pre-hospital setting. A training concept that assures an additional 60+ TIs per year appears to

  18. All India Difficult Airway Association 2016 guidelines for the management of unanticipated difficult tracheal intubation in obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Venkateswaran; Dinesh, Ekambaram; Shetty, Sumalatha Radhakrishna; Shah, Amit; Kundra, Pankaj; Das, Sabyasachi; Myatra, Sheila Nainan; Ahmed, Syed Moied; Divatia, Jigeeshu Vasishtha; Patwa, Apeksh; Garg, Rakesh; Raveendra, Ubaradka S; Doctor, Jeson Rajan; Pawar, Dilip K; Ramesh, Singaravelu

    2016-01-01

    The various physiological changes in pregnancy make the parturient vulnerable for early and rapid desaturation. Severe hypoxaemia during intubation can potentially compromise two lives (mother and foetus). Thus tracheal intubation in the pregnant patient poses unique challenges, and necessitates meticulous planning, ready availability of equipment and expertise to ensure maternal and foetal safety. The All India Difficult Airway Association (AIDAA) proposes a stepwise plan for the safe management of the airway in obstetric patients. These guidelines have been developed based on available evidence; wherever robust evidence was lacking, recommendations were arrived at by consensus opinion of airway experts, incorporating the responses to a questionnaire sent to members of the AIDAA and the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists (ISA). Modified rapid sequence induction using gentle intermittent positive pressure ventilation with pressure limited to ≤20 cm H2O is acceptable. Partial or complete release of cricoid pressure is recommended when face mask ventilation, placement of supraglottic airway device (SAD) or tracheal intubation prove difficult. One should call for early expert assistance. Maternal SpO2 should be maintained ≥95%. Apnoeic oxygenation with nasal insufflation of 15 L/min oxygen during apnoea should be performed in all patients. If tracheal intubation fails, a second- generation SAD should be inserted. The decision to continue anaesthesia and surgery via the SAD, or perform fibreoptic-guided intubation via the SAD or wake up the patient depends on the urgency of surgery, foeto-maternal status and availability of resources and expertise. Emergency cricothyroidotomy must be performed if complete ventilation failure occurs. PMID:28003691

  19. Effectiveness of flow inflating device in providing Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for critically ill children in limited-resource settings: A prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, G. Fatima Shirly; Velmurugan, Lakshmi; Sangareddi, Shanthi; Nedunchelian, Krishnamurthy; Selvaraj, Vinoth

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is an emerging popular concept, which includes bi-level positive airway pressure or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). In settings with scarce resources for NIV machines, CPAP can be provided through various indigenous means and one such mode is flow inflating device - Jackson-Rees circuit (JR)/Bain circuit. The study analyses the epidemiology, various clinical indications, predictors of CPAP failure, and stresses the usefulness of flow inflating device as an indigenous way of providing CPAP. Methods: A prospective observational study was undertaken in the critical care unit of a Government Tertiary Care Hospital, from November 2013 to September 2014. All children who required CPAP in the age group 1 month to 12 years of both sexes were included in this study. They were started on indigenous CPAP through flow inflating device on clinical grounds based on the pediatric assessment triangle, and the duration and outcome were analyzed. Results: This study population included 214 children. CPAP through flow inflating device was successful in 89.7% of cases, of which bronchiolitis accounted for 98.3%. A prolonged duration of CPAP support of >96 h was required in pneumonia. CPAP failure was noted in 10.3% of cases, the major risk factors being children <1 year and pneumonia with septic shock. Conclusion: We conclude that flow inflating devices - JR/Bain circuit are effective as an indigenous CPAP in limited resource settings. Despite its benefits, CPAP is not a substitute for invasive ventilation, as when the need for intubation arises timely intervention is needed. PMID:27630454

  20. Practice Parameters for the Use of Autotitrating Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Devices for Titrating Pressures and Treating Adult Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: An Update for 2007

    PubMed Central

    Morgenthaler, Timothy I.; Aurora, R. Nisha; Brown, Terry; Zak, Rochelle; Alessi, Cathy; Boehlecke, Brian; Chesson, Andrew L.; Friedman, Leah; Kapur, Vishesh; Maganti, Rama; Owens, Judith; Pancer, Jeffrey; Swick, Todd J.

    2008-01-01

    These practice parameters are an update of the previously published recommendations regarding the use of autotitrating positive airway pressure (APAP) devices for titrating pressures and treating adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) at an effective setting verified by attended polysomnography is a standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). APAP devices change the treatment pressure based on feedback from various patient measures such as airflow, pressure fluctuations, or measures of airway resistance. These devices may aid in the pressure titration process, address possible changes in pressure requirements throughout a given night and from night to night, aid in treatment of OSA when attended CPAP titration has not or cannot be accomplished, or improve patient comfort. A task force of the Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine has reviewed the literature published since the 2002 practice parameter on the use of APAP. Current recommendations follow: (1) APAP devices are not recommended to diagnose OSA; (2) patients with congestive heart failure, patients with significant lung disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; patients expected to have nocturnal arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation due to conditions other than OSA (e.g., obesity hypoventilation syndrome); patients who do not snore (either naturally or as a result of palate surgery); and patients who have central sleep apnea syndromes are not currently candidates for APAP titration or treatment; (3) APAP devices are not currently recommended for split-night titration; (4) certain APAP devices may be used during attended titration with polysomnography to identify a single pressure for use with standard CPAP for treatment of moderate to severe OSA; (5) certain APAP devices may be initiated and used in the self-adjusting mode for unattended treatment of patients with moderate to severe OSA without

  1. Peak inspiratory flow rate measurement by using In-Check DIAL for the different inhaler devices in elderly with obstructive airway diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kawamatawong, Theerasuk; Khiawwan, Supattra; Pornsuriyasak, Prapaporn

    2017-01-01

    Background Inhaler device technique is a common cause of treatment failure in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Dry powder inhaler (DPI) requires optimal peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) for drug delivery. Low PIFR generation is common in the elderly. Patient lung function and intrinsic inhaler resistance are factors for determining generated PIFR and drug delivery from DPI. Objectives We aimed to identify the PIFR of the older (aged >60 years) and the younger (aged ≤60 years) patients with obstructive airway diseases for the different inhaler devices (Turbuhaler® and Accuhaler). Patients and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to December 2014. Patients with obstructive airway diseases were recruited. Spirometry was performed. PIFR was measured by using an In-Check DIAL device. Individual PIFR values for each inhaler device were obtained for three consecutive measurements and then averaged. Results A total of 139 patients diagnosed with obstructive lung diseases (asthma, n = 109; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, n = 30) were recruited. Of these, 71 patients (51%) were >60 years. The PIFR generated by the patients who were ≤60 years for nonresistance mode was not different from that generated by those aged >60 years (115.0 ± 15.2 L/min vs 115.4 ± 13.3 L/min, p = 0.86). Regarding the DPI, PIFR generated from the older group was significantly lower than that generated from the younger group for Turbuhaler (72.5 ± 18.8 L/min vs 82.4 ± 21.1 L/min, p = 0.01), but the PIFR generated was not significantly different between the older and the younger groups for the Accuhaler (93.8 ± 22.9 L/min vs 99.4 ± 24.2 L/min, p = 0.86). The low peak expiratory flow rate and PIFR from spirometry were associated with the suboptimal PIFR measured by using In-Check DIAL. Discussion Optimal PIFR is critical for DPI use in the elderly; appropriate DPI selection is essential for management. In-Check DIAL may be useful for

  2. Airway management in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Finland: current practices and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, Pamela; Jäntti, Helena; Silfvast, Tom; Kuisma, Markku; Kurola, Jouni

    2016-04-12

    Though airway management methods during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remain controversial, no studies on the topic from Finland have examined adherence to OHCA recommendations in real life. In response, the aim of this study was to document the interventions, success rates, and adverse events in airway management processes in OHCA, as well as to analyse survival at hospital discharge and at follow-up a year later. During a 6-month study period in 2010, data regarding all patients with OHCA and attempted resuscitation in southern and eastern Finland were prospectively collected. Emergency medical services (EMS) documented the airway techniques used and all adverse events related to the process. Study endpoints included the frequency of different techniques used, their success rates, methods used to verify the correct placement of the endotracheal tube, overall adverse events, and survival at hospital discharge and at follow-up a year later. A total of 614 patients were included in the study. The incidence of EMS-attempted resuscitation was determined to be 51/100,000 inhabitants per year. The final airway technique was endotracheal intubation (ETI) in 413 patients (67.3%) and supraglottic airway device (SAD) in 188 patients (30.2%). The overall success rate of ETI was 92.5%, whereas that of SAD was 85.0%. Adverse events were reported in 167 of the patients (27.2%). Having a prehospital EMS physician on the scene (p < .001, OR 5.05, 95% CI 2.94-8.68), having a primary shockable rhythm (p < .001, OR 5.23, 95% CI 3.05-8.98), and being male (p = .049, OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.00-3.22) were predictors for survival at hospital discharge. This study showed acceptable ETI and SAD success rates among Finnish patients with OHCA. Adverse events related to airway management were observed in more than 25% of patients, and overall survival was 17.8% at hospital discharge and 14.0% after 1 year.

  3. Comparison of Four Airway Devices on Cervical Spine Alignment in Cadaver Models of Global Ligamentous Instability at C1-2

    PubMed Central

    Wendling, Adam L.; Tighe, Patrick J.; Conrad, Bryan P.; Baslanti, Tezcan Ozrazgat; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Rechtine, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of advanced airway management on cervical spine alignment in patients with upper cervical spine instability are uncertain. Methods To examine the potential for mechanical disruption during endotracheal intubation in cadavers with unstable cervical spines, we performed a prospective observational cohort study with three cadaver subjects. We created an unstable, type II odontoid fracture with global ligamentous instability at C1-2 in lightly embalmed cadavers, followed by repetitive intubations with four different airway devices (Airtraq laryngoscope, Lightwand, intubating LMA, and Macintosh laryngoscope) while manual in-line stabilization was applied. Motion analysis data were collected using an electromagnetic device to assess the degree of angular movement in three axes (flexion-extension, axial rotation and lateral bending) during the intubation trials with each device. Intubation was performed by either an emergency medical technician or attending anesthesiologist. Results Overall, 153 intubations were recorded with the four devices. The Lightwand technique resulted in significantly less flexion extension and axial rotation at C1-2 than with the intubating LMA (mean difference in flexion-extension 3.2 degrees [95% CI 0.9 to 5.5], p=0.003; mean difference in axial rotation 1.6 degrees [95% CI 0.3 to 2.8], p=0.01 and Macintosh laryngoscope (mean difference in flexion extension 3.1 degrees [95% CI 0.8 to5.4], p=0.005; mean difference in axial rotation 1.4 degrees [95% CI 0.1 to 2.6], p=0.03. Conclusions In cadavers with instability at C1-2, the Lightwand technique produced less motion than the Macintosh and intubating LMA. PMID:23354337

  4. Capability of a neck worn device to measure sleep/wake, airway position, and differentiate benign snoring from obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Levendowski, Daniel J; Veljkovic, Bratislav; Seagraves, Sean; Westbrook, Philip R

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of a neck-worn device in measuring sleep/wake, detecting supine airway position, and using loud snoring to screen for obstructive sleep apnea. Study A included 20 subjects who wore the neck-device during polysomnography (PSG), with 31 records obtained from diagnostic and split-night studies. Study B included 24 community-based snorers studied in-home for up to three-nights with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity measured with a validated Level III recorder. The accuracy of neck actigraphy-based sleep/wake was measured by assessing sleep efficiency (SE). Differences in sleep position measured at the chest and neck during PSG were compared to video-editing. Loud snoring acquired with an acoustic microphone was compared to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) by- and acrosspositions. Over-reported SE by neck actigraphy was inversely related to OSA severity. Measurement of neck and chest supine position were highly correlated with video-edits (r=0.93, 0.78). Chest was bias toward over-estimating supine time while the majority of neck-device supine position errors occurred during CPAP titrations. Snoring was highly correlated with the overall, supine, and non-supine PSG-AHI (r=0.79, 0.74, 0.83) and was both sensitive and specific in detecting overall, supine, and non-supine PSGAHI>10 (sensitivity=81, 88, 82%; specificity=87, 79, 100%). At home sleep testing-AHI>10, the sensitivity and specificity of loud snoring was superior when users were predominantly non-supine as compared to baseline (sensitivity=100, 92%; specificity=88, 77%). Neck actigraphy appears capable of estimating sleep/wake. The accuracy of supine airway detection with the neck-device warrants further investigation. Measurement of loud snoring appears to provide a screening tool for differentiating positional apneic and benign snorers.

  5. Functional outcomes of supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma treated by transoral laser microsurgery compared with horizontal supraglottic laryngectomy in patients younger and older than 65 years.

    PubMed

    Chiesa Estomba, C M; Betances Reinoso, F A; Lorenzo Lorenzo, A I; Fariña Conde, J L; Araujo Nores, J; Santidrian Hidalgo, C

    2016-12-01

    The treatment of supraglottic carcinoma remains a controversial issue. Five accepted surgical and non-surgical oncological treatments have been currently established: standard horizontal supraglottic laryngectomy (HSL), supraglottic CO2 laser microsurgery (TLM), transoral robotic surgery, radiotherapy alone and radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy. Some studies have shown that complications of head and neck surgeries increase significantly in patients over 65 years compared to younger patients. We designed a retrospective analysis to assess the rate of complications and functional outcomes of patients treated by TLM and HSL in cases of T1-T3 supraglottic squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in a tertiary University Hospital. Results were compared between patients younger and older than 65 years. We found significant differences in the rate of aspiration pneumonia (p = 0.026), mean time to decannulation (p = 0.001) and mean hospital stay (p = 0.007) in patients treated by TLM, which was higher and longer in the group of patients over 65 years of age. Regarding HPL, we only found significant differences in the mean time to decannulation (p = 0.001), which was longer in the group of patients younger than 65 years. According to our results, TLM or HPL can both be a safe surgical option for patients older than 65 years, but previous evaluation of lung function before surgery is mandatory because of an increased risk of aspiration pneumonia in patients with lung problems, especially when treated by TLM. Concerning functional outcomes in patients older than 65 years, TLM reduces the postoperative rate of tracheostomy, mean time required for decannulation and mean hospital stay compared with HPL. However, no significant difference in the occurrence of aspiration pneumonia, dysphagia or in the mean length of NGT feeding was found.

  6. ProSeal laryngeal mask airway in infants and toddlers with upper respiratory tract infections: a randomized control trial of spontaneous vs pressure control ventilation.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Aparna; Sharma, Bimla; Sood, Jayashree

    2009-10-01

    ProSeal LMA (PLMA), one of the advanced supraglottic devices has been successfully used to provide both spontaneous and controlled ventilation in children with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). URTI does not imply restriction of disease to upper respiratory tract; it has been shown to produce pulmonary dysfunction. PEEP has been shown to improve oxygenation in such cases. This randomized prospective study was designed to compare postoperative adverse events associated with spontaneous respiration (SR) and pressure control ventilation (PCV) with PEEP in infants and toddlers with URTI when using PLMA as an airway device. In the present study, 90 children, 6 months-2 years, scheduled for infra umbilical surgery were randomized to receive either SR or PCV with PEEP of 5cm H2O. Patients with risk of aspiration, bronchial asthma, anticipated difficult airway, snoring, passive smoking, morbid obesity, coexisting pulmonary and cardiac disease, lower respiratory tract infection, fever > 38 degrees C and sneezing, were excluded. At emergence, airway secretions, coughing, breath holding, bronchospasm, upper airway obstruction or laryngospasm (LS) were assessed. The adverse events were significantly higher in spontaneously breathing patients. Score of adverse events was 6.33 +/- 1.6 in PCV and 7.7 +/- 2.2 in SR group (P = 0.001). The mean SpO2 (%) in PACU was 96.5 +/- 2 in PCV and 94.4 +/- 1.37 in SR (P = 000). Pressure control ventilation with PEEP using PLMA is associated with lower incidence of adverse events in comparison to spontaneous respiration in infants and toddlers with upper respiratory tract infection undergoing infra umbilical surgeries under general anesthesia.

  7. 21 CFR 868.2600 - Airway pressure monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Airway pressure monitor. 868.2600 Section 868.2600...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2600 Airway pressure monitor. (a) Identification. An airway pressure monitor is a device used to measure the pressure in a patient's upper...

  8. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  9. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  10. 21 CFR 868.2600 - Airway pressure monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Airway pressure monitor. 868.2600 Section 868.2600...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2600 Airway pressure monitor. (a) Identification. An airway pressure monitor is a device used to measure the pressure in a patient's upper...

  11. 21 CFR 868.2600 - Airway pressure monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Airway pressure monitor. 868.2600 Section 868.2600...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2600 Airway pressure monitor. (a) Identification. An airway pressure monitor is a device used to measure the pressure in a patient's upper...

  12. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1780 Inspiratory airway pressure meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the...

  13. 21 CFR 868.2600 - Airway pressure monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Airway pressure monitor. 868.2600 Section 868.2600...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2600 Airway pressure monitor. (a) Identification. An airway pressure monitor is a device used to measure the pressure in a patient's upper...

  14. 21 CFR 868.2600 - Airway pressure monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Airway pressure monitor. 868.2600 Section 868.2600...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2600 Airway pressure monitor. (a) Identification. An airway pressure monitor is a device used to measure the pressure in a patient's upper...

  15. The effect of midline crossing of lateral supraglottic cancer on contralateral cervical lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Taner; Süslü, Nilda; Atay, Gamze; Günaydın, Rıza Önder; Bajin, Münir Demir; Özer, Serdar

    2015-05-01

    The degree of midline crossing of lateral supraglottic cancer does not significantly change its rate of contralateral cervical metastasis. The rate of occult metastasis is too high to take the risk of contralateral regional recurrence. We support routine bilateral neck dissection even in lateral supraglottic cancers with no or minimal midline crossing. Data on the rate of contralateral cervical metastasis of laterally located supraglottic cancer, the effect of its degree of midline crossing on contralateral cervical metastasis, and its treatment are still controversial. This was a retrospective cohort, chart review involving 305 surgically treated patients with T1-3 squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx. In all, 184 patients had bilateral neck dissection; 86 N0 contralateral necks were followed up. Thirty-five patients who needed postoperative radiation therapy because of the primary tumor or ipsilateral neck dissection specimen also received radiation therapy to the contralateral neck. The degree of midline crossing at the epiglottis was measured on a laryngectomy specimen with a ruler and expressed as 'no,' '<5 mm' or '≥5 mm.' The rates of occult and overall contralateral metastasis in our series were 16% and 28%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between contralateral neck metastasis and recurrence rates in the neck dissection, follow-up, and irradiation groups according to the degree of midline crossing.

  16. Comparison of functional outcomes after endoscopic versus open-neck supraglottic laryngectomies.

    PubMed

    Peretti, Giorgio; Piazza, Cesare; Cattaneo, Augusto; De Benedetto, Luigi; Martin, Eva; Nicolai, Piero

    2006-11-01

    Endoscopic supraglottic laryngectomy (ESL) by carbon dioxide laser for selected T1-T3 supraglottic squamous cell carcinomas is a sound procedure with oncological results comparable to those obtained by open-neck supraglottic laryngectomy (ONSL). The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate functional outcomes after ESL in comparison with ONSL. We performed perceptual voice evaluation by GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenicity, strain), subjective analysis by Voice Handicap Index, objective analysis with the Multidimensional Voice Program, swallowing evaluation with the M. D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory, video nasal endoscopic examination of swallowing, videofluoroscopy, and analysis of hospitalization time, need for and duration of feeding tube and tracheotomy, and complication and aspiration pneumonia rates in a group of 14 patients treated with ESL. These results were compared to those obtained in a historical group of 14 patients matched for T category who were treated with ONSL at the same institution. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney U and Pearson chi(2) tests. Comparison of comprehensive voice analysis, M. D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory, and complication and aspiration rates showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. However, significant differences were found for video nasal endoscopic examination of swallowing (p = .03), videofluoroscopy (p = .03), hospitalization (p = .0001), feeding tube duration (p = .0001), and tracheotomy duration (p = .0001). Endoscopic supraglottic laryngectomy had a significantly lower functional impact on swallowing than ONSL, even though it was not subjectively perceived by patients, and was associated with less morbidity and a shorter hospitalization time.

  17. The Effect of Nasal Surgery on Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Device Use and Therapeutic Treatment Pressures: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Macario; Riaz, Muhammad; Capasso, Robson; Ruoff, Chad M.; Guilleminault, Christian; Kushida, Clete A.; Certal, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between nasal surgery and its effect on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device therapeutic treatment pressures and CPAP device use has not been previously systematically examined. Study Objectives: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the effect of isolated nasal surgery on therapeutic CPAP device pressures and use in adults with obstructive sleep apnea. Methods: MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library were searched through July 15, 2014. The MOOSE consensus statement and PRISMA statement were followed. Results: Eighteen studies (279 patients) reported CPAP data after isolated nasal surgery. Seven studies (82 patients) reported preoperative and postoperative mean therapeutic CPAP device pressures and standard deviations, which reduced from 11.6 ± 2.2 to 9.5 ± 2.0 centimeters of water pressure (cwp) after nasal surgery. Pooled random effects analysis demonstrated a statistically significant pressure reduction, with a mean difference of −2.66 cwp (95% confidence intervals, −3.65 to −1.67); P < 0.00001. Eleven studies (153 patients) described subjective, self-reported data for CPAP use; and a subgroup analysis demonstrated that 89.1% (57 of 64 patients) who were not using CPAP prior to nasal surgery subsequently accepted, adhered to, or tolerated it after nasal surgery. Objective, device meter-based hours of use increased in 33 patients from 3.0 ± 3.1 to 5.5 ± 2.0 h in the short term (< 6 mo of follow-up). Conclusion: Isolated nasal surgery in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and nasal obstruction reduces therapeutic CPAP device pressures and the currently published literature's objective and subjective data consistently suggest that it also increases CPAP use in select patients. Citation: Camacho M, Riaz M, Capasso R, Ruoff CM, Guilleminault C, Kushida CA, Certal V. The effect of nasal surgery on continuous positive airway pressure device use and therapeutic treatment

  18. Intraocular pressure and haemodynamic responses to insertion of the i-gel, laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Salah A; Bisher, Neama A; Kandil, Hazem W; Mowafi, Hany A; Atawia, Hayam A

    2011-06-01

    We hypothesised that the effects of insertion of an i-gel supraglottic airway management device on intraocular pressure (IOP) and haemodynamic variables would be milder than those associated with insertion of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) or an endotracheal tube. This study evaluated IOP and haemodynamic responses following insertion of an i-gel airway, LMA or endotracheal tube. This was a randomised controlled study in a tertiary care centre in which 60 adults scheduled for elective non-ophthalmic procedures under general anaesthesia were allocated to one of three groups. Patients with pre-existing glaucoma, cardiovascular, pulmonary or metabolic diseases or anticipated difficult intubation were excluded. Following induction of general anaesthesia, an endotracheal tube, LMA or i-gel device was inserted. IOP, SBP, DBP, heart rate (HR) and perfusion index were measured before induction of anaesthesia and before and after insertion of the airway device. Insertion of the i-gel did not increase IOP. Insertion of an endotracheal tube increased IOP from 11.6 ± 1.6 to 16.5 ± 1.7 mmHg (P < 0.001). The post-insertion IOP exceeded the pre-induction value (P < 0.05). Insertion of the LMA increased IOP from 13.0 ± 1.5 to 14.7 ± 1.8 mmHg (P < 0.01), but this did not exceed the pre-induction value. Tracheal intubation significantly increased HR, SBP and DBP. Insertion of the LMA significantly increased HR and SBP. These increases were significantly higher than those which followed insertion of the i-gel device. Insertion of the endotracheal tube or LMA resulted in a significant decrease in perfusion index which was maintained for 5 min following tracheal intubation and for 2 min after insertion of the LMA. Insertion of the i-gel device did not change perfusion index significantly. Insertion of the i-gel device provides better stability of IOP and the haemodynamic system compared with insertion of an endotracheal tube or LMA in patients undergoing elective non

  19. Supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma: an analysis of dose-time-volume factors in 410 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, A.R.; Beale, F.A.; Cummings, B.J.; Keane, T.J.; Payne, D.G.; Rider, W.D.; Rawlinson, E.; Elhakim, T.

    1983-03-01

    Four hundred and ten patients with supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma treated with moderate dose radical radiotherapy with surgery for salvage (RRSS) were analyzed in detail to determine optimal dose-time-volume parameters to be used in the treatment of each stage of supraglottic carcinoma. In the RRSS group 41% are alive and well at 5 years, 38% died of their tumor and 21% of intercurrent disease. Presence or absence of nodal disease has a major impact on survival. Local control is approximately 70% in T1, T2N0 patients and approximately 50% in T3 and T4N0 patients. Seventeen percent of T1 and T2N0 patients failed in the initially negative neck. Ten major complications (2.4%) have been seen. Local control by irradiation was not influenced by dose or field size. Regional control in the initially negative neck was markedly increased with the use of larger irradiation field sizes. Field sizes of less than 7 x 7 cm resulted in an 18% neck failure rate as commpared to 3% with larger field sizes (p = 0.00005). This particularly applied to early stage disease. As a result of the use of larger irradiation field sizes giving reduced neck failure rates, improvement in survival has been seen in early stage supraglottic patients. The results are compared with published results. There is no statistically significant dose response curve in any stage of supraglottic cancer over the dose range 1650-2300 ret. Optimal treatment factors for supraglottic cancer are discussed.

  20. Control of OSA During Automatic Positive Airway Pressure Titration in a Clinical Case Series: Predictors and Accuracy of Device Download Data

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsin-Chia Carol; Hillman, David R.; McArdle, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the factors associated with physiologic control of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) titration in a clinical series. To also assess the usefulness of apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) data downloaded from the APAP device (Dev AHI). Design: Retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients with OSA who underwent APAP titration (Autoset Spirit, ResMed, Bella Vista, New South Wales, Australia ) with simultaneous polysomnographic (PSG) monitoring in the sleep laboratory. Setting: Tertiary sleep clinic. Participants: There were 190 consecutive patients with OSA referred for APAP titration. Measurements and Results: There were 58% of patients who achieved optimal or good control of OSA (titration PSG AHI < 10, or at least 50% reduction in AHI if diagnostic AHI < 15/hr) during APAP titration. The independent predictors of titration PSG AHI were a history of cardiac disease and elevated central apnea and arousal indices during the diagnostic study. Although the median and interquartile range (IQR) AHI from the device (7.0, 3.9-11.6 events/hr) was only slightly less than the PSG AHI (7.8, 3.9-14.4 events/hr, P = 0.04) during titration, case-by-case agreement between the two measures was poor (chi-square < 0.001). Conclusion: In a clinical sample control of OSA during APAP titration is often poor, and close clinical follow-up is particularly needed in patients with a history of cardiac disease or with high arousal or central apnea indices on the diagnostic study. Device AHI does not reliably assess control during APAP titration, and PSG assessment may be required if clinical response to treatment is poor. The findings relate to the ResMed AutoSet device and may not apply to other devices. Citation: Huang HCC; Hillman DR; McArdle N. Control of OSA during automatic positive airway pressure titration in a clinical case series: predictors and accuracy of device download data. SLEEP 2012;35(9):1277

  1. A Remote-Controlled Airbag Device Can Improve Upper Airway Collapsibility by Producing Head Elevation With Jaw Closure in Normal Subjects Under Propofol Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Ishizaka, Satoru; Kobayashi, Masato; Kajihara, Hiroki; Koga, Kazuya; Sugahara, Hirofumi; Ishimatsu, Takakazu; Kurata, Shinji; Kirkness, Jason P.; Oi, Kumiko; Ayuse, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Continuous maintenance of an appropriate position of the mandible and head purely by manual manipulation is difficult, although the maneuver can restore airway patency during sleep and anesthesia. The aim of this paper was to examine the effect of head elevation with jaw closure using a remote-controlled airbag device, such as the airbag system, on passive upper airway collapsibility during propofol anesthesia. Seven male subjects were studied. Propofol infusion was used for anesthesia induction and maintenance, with a target blood propofol concentration of 1.5–2 \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}\\(\\mu \\) \\end{document}g/ml. Nasal mask pressure (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}\\({P}_{\\text {N}}\\) \\end{document}) was intermittently reduced to evaluate upper airway collapsibility (passive \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}\\({P}_{_{\\text {CRIT}}}\\) \\end{document}) and upstream resistance (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}\\({R}_{_{\\text {US}}}\\) \\end{document}) at three different head and jaw positions, jaw opening position in the supine position, jaw opening position in the sniffing position with 6-cm head elevation, and jaw

  2. An evaluation of two different mandibular advancement devices on craniofacial characteristics and upper airway dimensions of Chinese adult obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Finn; Ahrens, Anika; McGrath, Colman; Hägg, Urban

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of two different mandibular advancement devices (MADs) on craniofacial characteristics and upper airway dimensions of Chinese adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Forty-five patients with OSA were recruited as part of a prospective randomized crossover trial for treatment with two different MADs. Lateral cephalograms were taken, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index were completed at baseline. The Apnea-Hypoxia Index was highly significantly reduced with the monoblock (P < .001) and significantly reduced with the twin block (P < .01). The monoblock demonstrated a superior result than the twin block (P < .05). A significant reduction was found in the distances between the hyoid bone to retrognathia (monoblock, P < .01; twin block, P < .001) as well as the distance between the hyoid bone and mandibular plane angle (P < .001). Furthermore, soft palate length increased significantly (P < .05) with both MADs. However, the changes did not differ in favor of either MAD. Monoblock was the better MAD to improve OSA severity. No difference could be found in changes of subjective OSA indicators. Significant but similar cephalometric changes were observed, indicating both MADs alter the position of the surrounding musculature and improve upper airway patency. Therefore, the different design features of the MADs suggest an impact on some OSA indicators.

  3. Surgical Airway

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sapna A; Meyer, Tanya K

    2014-01-01

    Close to 3% of all intubation attempts are considered difficult airways, for which a plan for a surgical airway should be considered. Our article provides an overview of the different types of surgical airways. This article provides a comprehensive review of the main types of surgical airways, relevant anatomy, necessary equipment, indications and contraindications, preparation and positioning, technique, complications, and tips for management. It is important to remember that the placement of a surgical airway is a lifesaving procedure and should be considered in any setting when one “cannot intubate, cannot ventilate”. PMID:24741501

  4. Ventilated post-mortem computed tomography through the use of a definitive airway.

    PubMed

    Rutty, Guy N; Biggs, Mike J P; Brough, Alison; Robinson, Claire; Mistry, Reena; Amoroso, Jasmin; Deshpande, Aparna; Morgan, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    Ventilated post-mortem computed tomography (VPMCT) has been shown to achieve lung expansion in cadavers and has been proposed to enhance the diagnosis of lung pathology. Two key problems of the method of ventilation have been identified: firstly, the presence of head and neck rigor making airway insertion challenging and, secondly, air leak, if there is not a good seal around the airway, which diminishes lung expansion and causes inflation of the stomach. Simple procedures to insert a 'definitive' cuffed airway, which has a balloon inflated within the trachea, are therefore desirable. This study aims to test different procedures for inserting cuffed airways in cadavers and compare their ventilation efficacy and to propose a decision algorithm to select the most appropriate method. We prospectively tested variations on two ways of inserting a cuffed airway into the trachea: firstly, using an endotracheal tube (ET) approach, either blind or by direct visualisation, and, secondly, using a tracheostomy incision, either using a standard tracheostomy tube or shortened ET tube. We compare these approaches with a retrospective analysis of a previously reported series using supraglottic airways. All techniques, except 'blind' insertion of ET tubes, were possible with adequate placement of the airway in most cases. However, achieving both adequate insertion and a complete tracheal seal was better for definitive airways with 56 successful cases from 59 (95 %), compared with 9 cases from 18 (50 %) using supraglottic airways (p < 0.0001). Good lung expansion was achieved using all techniques if the airway was adequately positioned and achieved a good seal, and there was no significant chest pathology. We prefer inserting a shortened ET tube via a tracheostomy incision, as we find this the easiest technique to perform and train. Based on our experience, we have developed a decision algorithm to select the most appropriate method for VPMCT.

  5. The effect of nasal surgery on continuous positive airway pressure device use and therapeutic treatment pressures: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Macario; Riaz, Muhammad; Capasso, Robson; Ruoff, Chad M; Guilleminault, Christian; Kushida, Clete A; Certal, Victor

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between nasal surgery and its effect on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device therapeutic treatment pressures and CPAP device use has not been previously systematically examined. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the effect of isolated nasal surgery on therapeutic CPAP device pressures and use in adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library were searched through July 15, 2014. The MOOSE consensus statement and PRISMA statement were followed. Eighteen studies (279 patients) reported CPAP data after isolated nasal surgery. Seven studies (82 patients) reported preoperative and postoperative mean therapeutic CPAP device pressures and standard deviations (SD), which reduced from 11.6 ± 2.2 to 9.5 ± 2.0 centimeters of water pressure (cwp) after nasal surgery. Pooled random effects analysis demonstrated a statistically significant pressure reduction, with a mean difference (MD) of -2.66 cwp (95% confidence interval (CI), -3.65 to -1.67); P < 0.00001. Eleven studies (153 patients) reported subjective, self-reported data for CPAP use; and a subgroup analysis demonstrated that 89.1% (57 of 64 patients) who were not using CPAP prior to nasal surgery subsequently accepted, adhered to, or tolerated it after nasal surgery. Objective, device meter-based hours of use increased in 33 patients from 3.0 ± 3.1 to 5.5 ± 2.0 h in the short term (<6 mo of follow-up). Isolated nasal surgery in patients with OSA and nasal obstruction reduces therapeutic CPAP device pressures and the currently published literature's objective and subjective data consistently suggest that it also increases CPAP use in select patients. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. A prospective randomised controlled trial of the LMA Supreme vs cuffed tracheal tube as the airway device during percutaneous tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Price, G C; McLellan, S; Paterson, R L; Hay, A

    2014-07-01

    We studied the performance of the LMA Supreme against a cuffed tracheal tube, our standard method of airway control during percutaneous tracheostomy, in 50 consecutive patients from three general critical care units. The primary outcome measure was adequacy of ventilation calculated as the difference in arterial carbon dioxide tension before and after tracheostomy. On an intention-to-treat analysis, there was no difference in the increase in arterial carbon dioxide tension between groups, with a median (IQR [range]) for the LMA Supreme of 0.9 (0.3-1.6 [0-2.8]) kPa, and for the tracheal tube of 0.8 (0.4-1.2 [0-2.5]) kPa, p = 0.82. Eight patients out of 25 (32%) crossed over from the LMA Supreme group to the tracheal tube group before commencement of tracheostomy due to airway or ventilation problems, compared with none out of 25 in the tracheal tube group, p = 0.01, and tracheostomy was postponed in two patients in the LMA Supreme group due to poor oxygenation. There were more clinically important complications in the LMA Supreme group compared with the tracheal tube group.

  7. 21 CFR 868.5110 - Oropharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oropharyngeal airway. 868.5110 Section 868.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5110 Oropharyngeal airway....

  8. 21 CFR 868.5100 - Nasopharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nasopharyngeal airway. 868.5100 Section 868.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5100 Nasopharyngeal airway....

  9. 21 CFR 868.5110 - Oropharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oropharyngeal airway. 868.5110 Section 868.5110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5110 Oropharyngeal airway. (a...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5100 - Nasopharyngeal airway.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nasopharyngeal airway. 868.5100 Section 868.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5100 Nasopharyngeal airway. (a...

  11. Comparison of Dexmedetomidine-Propofol versus Fentanyl-Propofol on Insertion Conditions of Proseal Laryngeal Mask Airway

    PubMed Central

    Waychal, Abhijeet Dattatray; Rustagi, Preeti Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Proseal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA) is a newer supraglottic airway device that requires adequate depth of anaesthesia and suppression of upper airway reflexes thereby providing optimal insertion conditions. Aim To compare dexmedetomidine and fentanyl for co-induction with propofol with respect to PLMA insertion conditions, haemodynamic variation and the total dose requirement of propofol. Materials and Methods This was a prospective randomized double-blinded study conducted in 60 cases of American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) class I/II undergoing elective surgery under general anaesthesia. They were randomly divided into two equal groups, D and F, each receiving 1μg/kg of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl respectively followed by Propofol 2.5mg/kg as per protocol. The ease of PLMA insertion was Young’s Criteria and Modified scheme of Lund and Stovener. The haemodynamic parameters (mean heart rate, mean arterial pressure, Respiratory rate, SPO2) were monitored at: Baseline, Pre-medication, Pre PLMA, Post LMA (at insertion), 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Results PLMA insertion conditions and haemodynamics were comparable between the dexmedetomidine-propofol and fentanyl-propofol groups according to the Young’s criteria and Modified scheme of Lund and Stovener. Total induction dose of propofol and its increments were significantly reduced in the dexmedetomidine group. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine and fentanyl when both used individually for co-induction with propofol for PLMA insertion give excellent overall insertion conditions with haemodynamic stability. Dexmedetomidine also significantly reduces the requirements of induction dose propofol for PLMA insertion. PMID:28050480

  12. Control of OSA during automatic positive airway pressure titration in a clinical case series: predictors and accuracy of device download data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsin-Chia Carol; Hillman, David R; McArdle, Nigel

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the factors associated with physiologic control of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) during automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) titration in a clinical series. To also assess the usefulness of apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) data downloaded from the APAP device (Dev AHI). Retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients with OSA who underwent APAP titration (Autoset Spirit, ResMed, Bella Vista, New South Wales, Australia ) with simultaneous polysomnographic (PSG) monitoring in the sleep laboratory. Tertiary sleep clinic. There were 190 consecutive patients with OSA referred for APAP titration. There were 58% of patients who achieved optimal or good control of OSA (titration PSG AHI < 10, or at least 50% reduction in AHI if diagnostic AHI < 15/hr) during APAP titration. The independent predictors of titration PSG AHI were a history of cardiac disease and elevated central apnea and arousal indices during the diagnostic study. Although the median and interquartile range (IQR) AHI from the device (7.0, 3.9-11.6 events/hr) was only slightly less than the PSG AHI (7.8, 3.9-14.4 events/hr, P = 0.04) during titration, case-by-case agreement between the two measures was poor (chi-square < 0.001). In a clinical sample control of OSA during APAP titration is often poor, and close clinical follow-up is particularly needed in patients with a history of cardiac disease or with high arousal or central apnea indices on the diagnostic study. Device AHI does not reliably assess control during APAP titration, and PSG assessment may be required if clinical response to treatment is poor. The findings relate to the ResMed AutoSet device and may not apply to other devices.

  13. Comparison of the laryngeal mask airway supreme and the i-gel in paralysed elderly patients: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung H; Lee, Jae H; Choi, Yong S; Park, Sujung; Shin, Seokyung

    2017-08-28

    The laryngeal mask airway supreme (LMA-S) and i-gel are both popular second-generation supraglottic airway devices that have been widely studied in surgical patients, but their differences in clinical performance in the elderly are not clear. We compared the efficacy and safety of the LMA-S and i-gel in anaesthetised and paralysed elderly patients. A prospective, randomised and parallel study. Single-centre trial, study period January 2014 from to October 2016. One hundred and six elderly patients who underwent urological or orthopaedic surgery with an expected duration less than 2 h. Patients were allocated to either the LMA-S (n = 53) or i-gel (n = 53) group. All insertions were performed in a standardised manner according to the manufacturers' instructions. Our primary endpoint was the rate of successful insertion at the first attempt. The adequacy of positive pressure ventilation and airway sealing, fibreoptic laryngoscopy grades and stability of airway maintenance during anaesthesia were also assessed. Although the rate of successful insertion at the first attempt was similar between the two groups (94.3 vs. 82.7%, P = 0.072), more patients required device manipulation during insertion with the LMA-S than the i-gel (42.3 vs. 18.9%, P = 0.011). Good fibreoptic laryngoscopy grades were significantly more common with the i-gel than the LMA-S (79.3 vs. 55.8%, P = 0.042), and peak inspiratory pressures were lower in the i-gel group both immediately after insertion and at the end of surgery. Leak pressures were significantly higher in the i-gel group than the LMA-S group, both immediately after insertion and at the end of surgery (25.8 vs. 23.0, P = 0.036; and 28.1 vs. 23.7, P < 0.001, respectively). Both the LMA-S and i-gel were used successfully and safely in elderly patients. However, the i-gel demonstrated better airway sealing than the LMA-S at insertion and during maintenance of anaesthesia. NCT02026791 at clinicaltrial.gov.

  14. Neck evaluation with barium-enhanced radiographs and CT scans after supraglottic subtotal laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, J H; Balfe, D M; Hayden, R E

    1987-02-01

    Supraglottic subtotal laryngectomy (SSL) is a radical, yet voice-conserving, surgical procedure commonly performed for carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx. The pharyngograms and computed tomographic (CT) scans of 35 patients obtained after SSL were evaluated retrospectively. These examinations reliably demonstrated the changes in anatomy caused by removal of the epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, and false vocal cords. Fourteen patients had documented recurrence of cancer; five mucosal, nine extramucosal. Three of five macroscopic mucosal recurrences in the larynx/pharynx were detected on the barium pharyngograms; the two mucosal lesions not seen were in the base of the tongue and tonsillar fossa. CT enabled detection of five of five recurrences and was superior to pharyngography in demonstrating the soft-tissue extent of disease. CT findings mimicking recurrence were seen in two patients: one with diffuse histiocytic lymphoma; the second, with benign hyperkeratosis. Barium and CT examinations are useful adjuncts to the clinical examination in detecting recurrent squamous cell carcinoma in patients following SSL.

  15. Surgical anatomy of the supraglottic larynx using the da Vinci robot.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Neerav; Yoo, Frederick; Setabutr, Dhave; Goldenberg, David

    2014-08-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has facilitated organ-preserving surgery of the larynx. It has also presented a change in the surgical perspective. We performed cadaveric dissections using the robot to highlight the vascular and muscular anatomy of the supraglottic larynx. Cadaveric specimens underwent injection of their vasculature, and after injection a robotic surgical system was used to perform a transoral dissection of the supraglottic region. Care was taken to preserve anatomic landmarks and microvascular structures. Five fresh frozen cadaveric human heads were injected with silicone and used for the dissection. The superior laryngeal neurovascular bundle was identified and an absent superior laryngeal vein (SLV) was noted on 1 specimen. Using the robotic endoscope allowed us to visualize and identify the microvasculature of the head and neck. These dissections revealed anatomic variations in the superior laryngeal neurovascular bundle and also highlighted the differences in view using a surgical robotic system. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Conservative surgery for supraglottic carcinoma. Surgical technique. Oncologic and functional results].

    PubMed

    Vega, S F; Scola, B; Vega, M F; Martinez, T; Scola, E

    1996-08-01

    We present the results of a retrospective study of 817 patients treated with conservative surgery for carcinomas of the supraglottic larynx at ENT department of the Gregorio Maranón Hospital between 1962-1993. The disease was staged using the criteria set forth in 1988 by the AJCC, and 36,2% were stages III and IV. From the 817 patients treated with conservative surgery 230 were extended supraglottic laryngectomies. Our theoretic treatment protocol is presented. The 5 years actuarial uncorrected survival rate related to stage was 83,9%, 83,2%, 78,5% and 55,3% for stages I, II, III and IV respectively. Local-regional failure occurred in 32,9% patients overall, and the most common site for local-regional failure was the cervical nodes. The 5 years local control rate related to stage was 86,97%, 89,1%, 82,15% and 66,55% for stages I, II, III and IV respectively. In extended supraglottic laryngectomies the 5 years uncorrected survival rate was 62,6% in supraglottic laryngectomies (SL) extended to the base of the tongue, 62,5% in SL extended to the hypopharynx, 72,5% in SL extended to the arythenoyd and 79,4% in SL extended to the vocal chord. The 5 years local control rate was 87% in SL extended to the base of the tongue, 85,7% in SL extended to the hypopharynx, 97% in SL extended to the arythenoid and 90,8% in SL extended to the vocal chord. Functional results have been evaluated according to a three grade scale. Good and fair results were 97.6% for swallowing, 90% for respiration and 95.8% for the quality of voice.

  17. [A modified laryngectomy combined with radical neck dissection for late-staged supraglottic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Chen, E; Lin, X; Shi, Q

    1998-03-01

    8 cases of supraglottic or transglottic carcinoma with neck lymphatic metastasis received a modified laryngectomy or subtotal laryngectomy combined with radical neck dissection. Laryngeal function was reconstructed in 3 of them. No postoperative complication occurred. All cases survived uneventfully through a five-year following up, except one who died of neck lymphatic and lung metastasis. The indication, procedure and advantage of this operation are discussed in this article.

  18. Surgical anatomy of oropharynx and supraglottic larynx for transoral robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Gun, Ramazan; Ozer, Enver

    2015-12-01

    Traditional external surgical approaches have been used for the surgical management of the oropharyngeal and laryngeal tumors. Trans-oral robotic surgery allows surgeon to operate oropharyngeal and supraglottic tumors through the mouth with preservation of functions. The surgeons must be knowledgeable about the anatomy of the oral cavity and oropharynx medial to lateral perspective. In this article, we will describe the relevant inside out surgical anatomy and its clinical implications for trans-oral robotic surgery. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Laryngeal mask airway as a rescue device for failed endotracheal intubation during scene-to-hospital air transport of combat casualties.

    PubMed

    Shavit, Itai; Aviram, Eliad; Hoffmann, Yoav; Biton, Oded; Glassberg, Elon

    2017-06-27

    Advanced airway management of combat casualties during scene-to-hospital air transport is challenging. Because of the short transport time, flight physicians of the Israeli military airborne combat evacuation unit are approved for the use of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in the event of failed endotracheal intubation (ETI). The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of LMA use during scene-to-hospital transport of combat casualties in Israel. A retrospective cohort analysis of all combat casualties treated with ETI during scene-to-hospital transport over a 3-year period was carried out. Successful LMA insertion was defined as satisfactory placement of the device on the basis of adequate chest expansion with bag-mask ventilation. The median flight time from scene to hospital was 13 min [interquartile range (IQR): 9-15 min]. Sixty-five casualties underwent ETI attempts, 47 successful and 18 failed. All 18 casualties who had failed ETI underwent LMA insertion as a rescue treatment. Six casualties suffered from traumatic brain injury, six had firearm injuries, two had blast injuries, and two had inhalational injuries. LMA insertion was successful in 16/18 (88.9%) casualties, 14 survived to hospital discharge, whereas two were declared dead upon hospital arrival. Two cases of LMA insertion were unsuccessful, but patients survived to hospital discharge. Among the 16 successful cases, the median oxygen saturation on scene-pickup before LMA insertion and on hospital-handover with LMA in place were 90% (IQR: 84-96%) and 98% (IQR: 96-99%), respectively (P<0.0001, the 95% confidence interval for difference between medians was 4-11). The findings of this study suggest that in the event of failed ETI, combat casualties can be treated effectively with LMA during a short scene-to-hospital transport time.

  20. Contribution of the supraglottic larynx to the vocal product: imaging and acoustic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracco, L. Carol

    1996-04-01

    Horizontal supraglottic laryngectomy is a surgical procedure to remove a mass lesion located in the region of the pharynx superior to the true vocal folds. In contrast to full or partial laryngectomy, patients who undergo horizontal supraglottic laryngectomy often present with little or nor involvement to the true vocal folds. This population provides an opportunity to examine the acoustic consequences of altering the pharynx while sparing the laryngeal sound source. Acoustic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were acquired in a group of four patients before and after supraglottic laryngectomy. Acoustic measures included the identification of vocal tract resonances and the fundamental frequency of the vocal fold vibration. 3D reconstruction of the pharyngeal portion of each subjects' vocal tract were made from MRIs taken during phonation and volume measures were obtained. These measures reveal a variable, but often dramatic difference in the surgically-altered area of the pharynx and changes in the formant frequencies of the vowel/i/post surgically. In some cases the presence of the tumor created a deviation from the expected formant values pre-operatively with post-operative values approaching normal. Patients who also underwent radiation treatment post surgically tended to have greater constriction in the pharyngeal area of the vocal tract.

  1. Management of early supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma by irradiation with surgery in reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, A.R.; Beale, F.A.; Cummings, B.J.; Keane, T.J.; Payne, D.G.; Rider, W.D.

    1983-09-01

    The results of radical radiotherapy with surgery in reserve for 136 patients with stage T1 and T2 NO supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma seen during a 20-year period are analyzed herein. Approximately one half of all patients were alive and well five years after treatment, while one fifth of patients died of supraglottic cancer. The cancer in two thirds of these patients was locally controlled by irradiation; of particular note was an 11% to 18% recurrence rate in patients whose necks were initially noted to be free of cancer. Analysis of the results of irradiation treatment disclosed a major reduction in nodal recurrence from the use of irradiation fields larger than 7 X 7 cm (3%, as compared with 19% with a smaller irradiation field). During the 20-year period of the study, there was a major reduction observed in tumor-related deaths; this is attributed to the use of larger irradiation fields and more aggressive use of surgery for irradiation failures. The results obtained are compared herein with the results of primary surgery, and conclusions are drawn as to the optimal management of early-stage supraglottic cancer.

  2. Occult contralateral nodal metastases in supraglottic laryngeal cancer crossing the midline.

    PubMed

    Oztürkcan, Sedat; Katilmiş, Hüseyin; Ozdemir, Ismail; Tuna, Bilge; Güvenç, Işil Adadan; Dündar, Riza

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the risk of occult contralateral neck involvement according to T stage and ipsilateral neck stage in centrally located supraglottic laryngeal cancer. The side largely involved by the tumor was defined as ipsilateral and the other side was defined as contralateral in terms of the neck dissection side. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and pathologic data from a group of 189 centrally located supraglottic cancer patients in which bilateral neck dissection was part of the primary treatment. Among 378 neck dissection specimens, the rate of bilateral metastasis was 33/189 (17.5%). The rate of occult metastases in the contralateral side were 33/75 (44%) and 6/114 (5.3%), when ipsilateral neck was pN+ and pN-, respectively. Clinically or pathologically positive ipsilateral nodes and the extracapsular spread in the ipsilateral positive nodes displayed significantly higher risk of contralateral metastases. The incidence of occult contralateral metastases did not seem to be affected significantly by T stage of the tumor. Our retrospective study confirmed that the probabilistic criteria of the incidence of contralateral occult metastases in supraglottic laryngeal cancer with tumor largely involving one side and crossing the midline. On the basis of our data, there is a high prevalence of contralateral metastases in tumors with clinically or pathologically positive ipsilateral lymph nodes. The extracapsular spread of the nodes is also an important determinant of the contralateral involvement.

  3. Effect of airway dynamics on the development of larynx cancer.

    PubMed

    Taylan, Mahsuk; Can, Omer Faruk; Cetincakmak, Mehmet Guli; Ozbay, Musa

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate and measure airway dynamics in anatomical regions where laryngeal cancer was most common in comparison to other regions of the larynx, thereby determining the effect of airway dynamics on the development of laryngeal cancer. Pulmonary function test airflow data and larynx anatomy measurement data obtained by three-dimensional computed tomography. A healthy male adult was modeled by simulation using the ANSYS program. Analysis of air flow rates, pressure, and force were also made. The supraglottic region average pressure was higher when compared to the subglottic region and clearly lower when compared to the glottic region. The subglottic had the lowest pressure and force levels. The glottic region was the first ranked location for laryngeal cancer; the supraglottic region was the second; and the frequency of laryngeal cancer was much lower in the subglottic region. Our data suggests that the high pressure and force contribute to an increased amount of contact and interaction between toxic particles and mucosa and to increased diffusion of the particles, leading to an increased carcinogenic effect and frequency of cancer. Laryngeal cancer was found more frequently in regions with an increased pressure and force stress and reduced air velocity, with a subsequent increase in penetration of the inhaled toxic agents. These findings demonstrate the importance of basic physical fluid mechanics in cancer pathogenesis. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:1136-1142, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Degrees of reality: airway anatomy of high-fidelity human patient simulators and airway trainers.

    PubMed

    Schebesta, Karl; Hüpfl, Michael; Rössler, Bernhard; Ringl, Helmut; Müller, Michael P; Kimberger, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    Human patient simulators and airway training manikins are widely used to train airway management skills to medical professionals. Furthermore, these patient simulators are employed as standardized "patients" to evaluate airway devices. However, little is known about how realistic these patient simulators and airway-training manikins really are. This trial aimed to evaluate the upper airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers in comparison with actual patients by means of radiographic measurements. The volume of the pharyngeal airspace was the primary outcome parameter. Computed tomography scans of 20 adult trauma patients without head or neck injuries were compared with computed tomography scans of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers. By using 14 predefined distances, two cross-sectional areas and three volume parameters of the upper airway, the manikins' similarity to a human patient was assessed. The pharyngeal airspace of all manikins differed significantly from the patients' pharyngeal airspace. The HPS Human Patient Simulator (METI®, Sarasota, FL) was the most realistic high-fidelity patient simulator (6/19 [32%] of all parameters were within the 95% CI of human airway measurements). The airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers does not reflect the upper airway anatomy of actual patients. This finding may impact airway training and confound comparative airway device studies.

  5. Evaluation of the add-on NOWAPI® medical device for remote monitoring of compliance to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure and treatment efficacy in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Leger, Damien; Elbaz, Maxime; Piednoir, Benoît; Carron, Amélie; Texereau, Joëlle

    2016-02-27

    Optimizing the measurement of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) compliance and treatment efficacy is paramount for patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Compliance knowledge is currently based on data coming from CPAP machines; however algorithms and measured parameters vary from one machine to another. This study was conducted to clinically evaluate a novel device, NOWAPI(®), designed to assess compliance remotely in conjunction with any CPAP machine. NOWAPI(®) was tested against polygraphy, the gold standard for the measurement of CPAP treatment duration and residual apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Single group assignment, open label, non-randomized. Sleep laboratory setting. 22 adult patients with OSAS treated by CPAP were included. Recordings were performed during one night while the patient was treated with his/her usual CPAP and interface. NOWAPI(®) data were collected electronically and compared to data acquisition and visual scoring using an EMBLETTA(®) GOLD polygraph. Statistics were only descriptive. Recordings were performed with six different CPAP machines and three different interfaces (full facemask, nasal pillow, nasal mask). The median [Q1; Q3] absolute difference in CPAP treatment duration between NOWAPI(®) and polygraphy was of 1.0 min [0.0; 12.0], corresponding to a relative difference of 0.21 % [0.0; 2.2] (Per Protocol data set, n = 20). NOWAPI(®) tended to underestimate residual AHI in a magnitude of two events per hour as compared to polygraphy. The device was well tolerated and the patient satisfaction was good. This clinical study confirmed prior bench tests, showing that NOWAPI(®) estimate of CPAP treatment duration was clinically acceptable and in agreement with polygraphy. Although a limited number of OSAS patients treated by CPAP were included, relevant findings for the device improvement were identified. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01441622. The study was funded by Air Liquide HealthCare.

  6. Comparison of the Disposable Streamlined Liner of the Pharynx Airway and the Disposable I-gel in Anaesthetized, Paralyzed Adults: A Randomized Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    EL-Radaideh, Khaled; Alhowary, Ala"a; Bani Hani, Diab

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. This study compared streamlined liner of the pharynx airway (SLIPA) and I-gel noninflatable, single-use, supraglottic airway device (SAD) performance in anesthetized, paralyzed adults. Methods. Eighty adults (ASA physical statuses I–III) who were undergoing elective procedures under general anesthesia with an SAD were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, single-blind study. Subjects were randomly and evenly assigned to the SLIPA or I-gel group for intraoperative airway management. Ease and number of insertions, insertion time, oropharyngeal sealing pressure, hemodynamic response, oxygen saturation (SpO2), end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), and peri- and postoperative complications were examined. Results. The SLIPA and I-gel devices were successfully inserted in 100% and 95% of subjects, respectively. In two I-gel subjects (5%), ventilation was not possible after two attempts, but a size 55 SLIPA was successfully inserted in both cases. Forty-two and 38 patients were ultimately included in the SLIPA and I-gel groups, respectively. Insertion time was significantly shorter with the SLIPA (11.19 ± 3.03 s) than with the I-gel (15.05 ± 6.37 s, P = 0.003). Oropharyngeal sealing pressure was significantly higher in SLIPA (28.76 ± 3.11 cmH2O) than in I-gel (25.9 ± 3.65 cmH2O) subjects (P = 0.001). Blood staining occurred more frequently in SLIPA (n = 8, 19.0%) than in I-gel (n = 5, 13.2%) patients (P < 0.01). Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, SpO2, and EtCO2 were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion. Although blood staining incidence was higher, SLIPA insertion was easier and faster than I-gel insertion. The SLIPA provided better airway sealing pressure. Both devices had similar mechanical ventilation and oxygenation characteristics and comparable hemodynamic stability. Both noninflatable SADs are useful, but SLIPA rapid insertion and good airway sealing make it an effective alternative to the I-gel. PMID:26697064

  7. Treatment experience of people with obstructive sleep apnoea seeking continuous positive airways pressure device provision through community pharmacies: a role for pharmacists?

    PubMed

    Shoukry, Grace; Wong, Keith; Bartlett, Delwyn; Saini, Bandana

    2011-10-01

    OBJECTIVES  This study aimed to explore the unique experiences of people with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) who source their treatment through community pharmacies. METHODS  A qualitative study employing the phenomenological approach was used. In-depth semi-structured interviews with a purposive convenience sample of 20 participants were conducted. Twenty participants were recruited from community pharmacies offering continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) device provision and a teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim, coded using Nvivo8 software and analysed based on the 'framework' method. KEY FINDINGS  The quality and delivery of information at diagnosis was reported to have been inappropriate for participants' personal needs. Many barriers emerged in regards to CPAP use, consistent with current literature. Participants' self-reported individual styles, coping practices and health beliefs appeared to be the most influential factors in CPAP uptake and adherence, regardless of mechanical advancements and environmental support. High satisfaction was expressed with CPAP obtainment from pharmacy services listing convenience and good service as notable characteristics. CONCLUSIONS  Community pharmacies have the potential to increase OSA awareness and improve optimal usage of CPAP. Psychosocial based models of adherence intervention could potentially be implemented through CPAP providers, including the community pharmacy, to address some of these factors which impede CPAP adherence. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of oral mandibular advancement devices and continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea.

    PubMed

    Sharples, Linda D; Clutterbuck-James, Abigail L; Glover, Matthew J; Bennett, Maxine S; Chadwick, Rebecca; Pittman, Marcus A; Quinnell, Timothy G

    2016-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (OSAH) causes excessive daytime sleepiness, impairs quality-of-life, and increases cardiovascular disease and road traffic accident risks. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment and mandibular advancement devices (MAD) have been shown to be effective in individual trials but their effectiveness particularly relative to disease severity is unclear. A MEDLINE, Embase and Science Citation Index search updating two systematic reviews to August 2013 identified 77 RCTs in adult OSAH patients comparing: MAD with conservative management (CM); MAD with CPAP; or CPAP with CM. Overall MAD and CPAP significantly improved apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) (MAD -9.3/hr (p < 0.001), CPAP -25.4 (p < 0.001)). In direct comparisons mean AHI and Epworth sleepiness scale score were lower (7.0/hr (p < 0.001) and 0.67 (p = 0.093) respectively) for CPAP. There were no CPAP vs. MAD trials in mild OSAH but in comparisons with CM, MAD and CPAP reduced ESS similarly (MAD 2.01 (p < 0.001); CPAP 1.23 (p = 0.012). Both MAD and CPAP are clinically effective in the treatment of OSAH. Although CPAP has a greater treatment effect, MAD is an appropriate treatment for patients who are intolerant of CPAP and may be comparable to CPAP in mild disease.

  9. Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of oral mandibular advancement devices and continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea

    PubMed Central

    Sharples, Linda D.; Clutterbuck-James, Abigail L.; Glover, Matthew J.; Bennett, Maxine S.; Chadwick, Rebecca; Pittman, Marcus A.; Quinnell, Timothy G.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (OSAH) causes excessive daytime sleepiness, impairs quality-of-life, and increases cardiovascular disease and road traffic accident risks. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment and mandibular advancement devices (MAD) have been shown to be effective in individual trials but their effectiveness particularly relative to disease severity is unclear. A MEDLINE, Embase and Science Citation Index search updating two systematic reviews to August 2013 identified 77 RCTs in adult OSAH patients comparing: MAD with conservative management (CM); MAD with CPAP; or CPAP with CM. Overall MAD and CPAP significantly improved apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) (MAD −9.3/hr (p < 0.001), CPAP −25.4 (p < 0.001)). In direct comparisons mean AHI and Epworth sleepiness scale score were lower (7.0/hr (p < 0.001) and 0.67 (p = 0.093) respectively) for CPAP. There were no CPAP vs. MAD trials in mild OSAH but in comparisons with CM, MAD and CPAP reduced ESS similarly (MAD 2.01 (p < 0.001); CPAP 1.23 (p = 0.012). Both MAD and CPAP are clinically effective in the treatment of OSAH. Although CPAP has a greater treatment effect, MAD is an appropriate treatment for patients who are intolerant of CPAP and may be comparable to CPAP in mild disease. PMID:26163056

  10. [Treatment compliance with continuous positive airway pressure device among adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): how many adhere to treatment?].

    PubMed

    Sarrell, E Michael; Chomsky, Ofer; Shechter, Dalia

    2013-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) afflicts approximately 5% of the adult population and increases with age. The gold standard treatment is with the Continuous Positive Airways Pressure (CPAP) machine. Well-designed prospective trials to elucidate long term compliance with CPAP machine are rare. Assessing compliance and long-term use of CPAP machines among patients with OSA who were referred for treatment with this machine. A 4 years prospective cohort observational study was conducted using telephone interviews of 371 newly diagnosed patients with moderate to severe OSA, who received a specialist recommendation to use the CPAP machine which was bought and adjusted to their use. At the end of the first year, 126 (34%) of the OSA patients used the CPAP machine on a nightly basis (regular users), 120 (32.3%) had not used it at all, and 125 (33.7%) had used it only intermittently. The number of regular users increased between the 1st and 2nd year from 126 (34%), to 163 (44%) (p < 0.07) due to additions from the intermittent users group. The non-users group grew from 120 (32.3%) in the first year, and every year afterwards, up to 221 (59.6%) in the fourth year (p < 0.02). In contrast, there was a significant decrease in the intermittent users group, which declined from 125 (33.7%) in the first year to only 18 (4.8%) in the 4th year (p < 0.005). Most of the patients (92.9%) were males. The average age of the regular users was 59.6 years (+/- 11), which was higher in comparison to 55.9 years (+/- 10.3) for the non-users or 58.9 years (+/- 12.6) among the intermittent users (p = 0.064). There were no statistical differences in co-morbidities or demographics between the three groups. However, the regular users were found to have a higher score in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and a minimal arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) level lower than the patients in the non-users and intermittent users groups (p = 0.019 and p = 0.03 respectively). Four years follow

  11. Clinical applications of image-based airway computational fluid dynamics: assessment of inhalation medication and endobronchial devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Backer, Jan W.; Vos, Wim G.; Germonpré, Paul; Salgado, Rodrigo; Parizel, Paul M.; De Backer, Wilfried

    2009-02-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a technique that is used increasingly in the biomedical field. Solving the flow equations numerically provides a convenient way to assess the efficiency of therapies and devices, ranging from cardiovascular stents and heart valves to hemodialysis workflows. Also in the respiratory field CFD has gained increasing interest, especially through the combination of three dimensional image reconstruction which results in highend patient-specific models. This paper provides an overview of clinical applications of CFD through image based modeling, resulting from recent studies performed in our center. We focused on two applications: assessment of the efficiency of inhalation medication and analysis of endobronchial valve placement. In the first application we assessed the mode of action of a novel bronchodilator in 10 treated patients and 4 controls. We assessed the local volume increase and resistance change based on the combination of imaging and CFD. We found a good correlation between the changes in volume and resistance coming from the CFD results and the clinical tests. In the second application we assessed the placement and effect of one way endobronchial valves on respiratory function in 6 patients. We found a strong patientspecific result of the therapy where in some patients the therapy resulted in complete atelectasis of the target lobe while in others the lobe remained inflated. We concluded from these applications that CFD can provide a better insight into clinically relevant therapies.

  12. Selective neck irradiation for supraglottic cancer: focus on Sublevel IIb omission.

    PubMed

    Kanayama, Naoyuki; Nishiyama, Kinji; Kawaguchi, Yoshifumi; Konishi, Koji; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Motoyuki; Yoshii, Tadashi; Fujii, Takashi; Yoshino, Kunitoshi; Teshima, Teruki

    2016-01-01

    To estimate selective neck irradiation omitting surgical Sublevel IIb. Bilateral necks of 47 patients (94 necks) were subjected to definitive radiotherapy for supraglottic cancer. Sixty-nine and 25 necks were clinically node negative (cN-) and clinically node positive (cN+), respectively. We subdivided Sublevel IIb by the international consensus guideline for radiotherapy into Sublevel IIb/a, directly posterior to the internal jugular vein, and Sublevel IIb/b, which was behind Sublevel IIb/a and coincided with surgical Sublevel IIb. Bilateral (Sub)levels IIa, III, IV and IIb/a were routinely irradiated, whereas Sublevel IIb/b was omitted from the elective clinical target volume in 73/94 treated necks (78%). Two patients presented with ipsilateral Sublevel IIb/a metastases. No Sublevel IIb/b metastasis was observed. Five patients experienced cervical lymph node recurrence; Sublevel IIb/a recurrence developed in two patients, whereas no Sublevel IIb/b recurrence occurred even in the cN- necks of cN+ patients or cN0 patients. The 5-year regional control rates were 91.5% for Sublevel IIb/b-omitted patients and 77.8% for Sublevel IIb/b treated patients. Selective neck irradiation omitting Sublevel IIb/b did not compromise regional control and could be indicated for cN- neck of supraglottic cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Three-dimensional reconstruction of supraglottic structures after partial pharyngolaryngectomy for hypopharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sakuraba, Minoru; Asano, Takayuki; Miyamoto, Shimpei; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Miyazaki, Masakazu; Ugumori, Toru; Daiko, Hiroyuki; Kimata, Yoshihiro; Ebihara, Satoshi; Harii, Kiyonori

    2008-06-01

    Larynx-preserving surgery is frequently performed for advanced hypopharyngeal cancer involving the larynx. However, reconstruction after partial pharyngolaryngectomy (PPL) remains a challenging problem because of the high risk of postoperative aspiration. In this report, we describe our new three-dimensional method for reconstructing supraglottic structures with a radial forearm flap. This is a retrospective analysis of 20 patients who underwent PPL for having hypopharyngeal cancer involving the larynx at our institution from 1996 to 2005. The resulting pharyngolaryngeal defects were reconstructed with radial forearm flaps in all patients. Three-dimensional structures were reconstructed with a single nylon suture, which was used to hoist the flap and ensures that the arytenoids and the aryepiglottic fold were of appropriate height. Radial forearm flaps were transferred successfully in all but one case. Swallowing function was satisfactory in all patients, and decannulation could be performed in all but one patient. Postoperative conversational function in all patients was rated as excellent with Hirose's scoring system. Free jejunum transfer is the method of first choice for reconstruction of a defect after partial hypopharyngectomy. However, the complex supraglottic structures of the larynx are difficult to reconstruct with a free jejunal graft after PPL. In such cases, we perform three-dimensional reconstruction of the pharyngolaryngeal defect with a radial forearm flap and have achieved satisfactory postoperative function. We believe that our new procedure is a useful method for functional reconstruction after PPL.

  14. Primary Burkitt lymphoma of the supraglottic larynx: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Alexandra E; Caulley, Lisa; Rodin, Danielle; Purgina, Bibianna; Eapen, Libni; Shier, Luke; Johnson-Obaseki, Stephanie

    2017-03-10

    Burkitt lymphoma is a high-grade B cell lymphoma which accounts for less than 1% of all adult cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Rare instances of Burkitt lymphoma developing secondary to prior irradiation have been described in the literature. We report a case of a 90-year-old white woman with a recent history of irradiation for Hodgkin lymphoma, who presented with primary Burkitt lymphoma of the supraglottic larynx. She underwent emergency awake tracheostomy with biopsy. A histopathological examination confirmed non-Hodgkin, B cell lymphoma of Burkitt type. Given her age and poor functional status, she underwent treatment with palliative radiotherapy. A literature review was performed to clarify the clinical characteristics of radiation-induced Burkitt lymphoma in the head and neck, as well as its diagnosis and management. The present case represents the second case of radiation-induced Burkitt lymphoma in the head and neck in the reported literature, and the first in the supraglottic larynx. It highlights the need to maintain a broad differential in the assessment of malignancies of the larynx, particularly in patients with a prior history of radiation treatment.

  15. A randomized prospective controlled trial comparing the laryngeal tube suction disposable and the supreme laryngeal mask airway: the influence of head and neck position on oropharyngeal seal pressure.

    PubMed

    Somri, Mostafa; Vaida, Sonia; Fornari, Gustavo Garcia; Mendoza, Gabriela Renee; Charco-Mora, Pedro; Hawash, Naser; Matter, Ibrahim; Swaid, Forat; Gaitini, Luis

    2016-10-06

    The Laryngeal Tube Suction Disposable (LTS-D) and the Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway (SLMA) are second generation supraglottic airway devices (SADs) with an added channel to allow gastric drainage. We studied the efficacy of these devices when using pressure controlled mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia for short and medium duration surgical procedures and compared the oropharyngeal seal pressure in different head and-neck positions. Eighty patients in each group had either LTS-D or SLMA for airway management. The patients were recruited in two different institutions. Primary outcome variables were the oropharyngeal seal pressures in neutral, flexion, extension, right and left head-neck position. Secondary outcome variables were time to achieve an effective airway, ease of insertion, number of attempts, maneuvers necessary during insertion, ventilatory parameters, success of gastric tube insertion and incidence of complications. The oropharyngeal seal pressure achieved with the LTS-D was higher than the SLMA in, (extension (p=0.0150) and right position (p=0.0268 at 60 cm H2O intracuff pressures and nearly significant in neutral position (p = 0.0571). The oropharyngeal seal pressure was significantly higher with the LTS-D during neck extension as compared to SLMA (p= 0.015). Similar oropharyngeal seal pressures were detected in all other positions with each device. The secondary outcomes were comparable between both groups. Patients ventilated with LTS-D had higher incidence of sore throat (p = 0.527). No major complications occurred. Better oropharyngeal seal pressure was achieved with the LTS-D in head-neck right and extension positions , although it did not appear to have significance in alteration of management using pressure control mechanical ventilation in neutral position. The fiberoptic view was better with the SLMA. The post-operative sore throat incidence was higher in the LTS-D. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02856672 , Unique

  16. Severe parainfluenza virus type 2 supraglottitis in an immunocompetent adult host: an unusual cause of a paramyxoviridae viral infection.

    PubMed

    Vigil, K J; Mulanovich, V E; Chemaly, R F; Tarrand, J; Raad, I I; Adachi, J A

    2009-03-01

    Parainfluenza virus is a major cause of respiratory illness in humans, manifesting from mild upper respiratory tract infection to bronchiolitis and pneumonia, especially in children. We report - to our knowledge - the first case of a nonimmunocompromised adult patient with human parainfluenza type 2 supraglottitis immediately after returning from China.

  17. Awake Measures of Nasal Resistance and Upper Airway Resistance on CPAP during Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Masdeu, Maria J.; Seelall, Vijay; Patel, Amit V.; Ayappa, Indu; Rapoport, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Since on CPAP, the nose is the primary determinant of upper airway resistance, we assess utility of noninvasive measures of nasal resistance during wakefulness as a predictor of directly assessed upper airway resistance on CPAP during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. Methods: Patients with complaints of snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness were recruited. 14 subjects underwent daytime evaluations including clinical assessment, subjective questionnaires to assess nasal symptoms and evaluation of nasal resistance with acoustic rhinometry (AR) and active anterior rhinomanometry (RM) in the sitting and supine positions. Patients underwent nocturnal polysomnography on optimal CPAP with measurements of supraglottic pressure to evaluate upper airway resistance. Comparisons were made between nasal resistance using AR and RM during wakefulness, and between AR and RM awake and upper airway resistance during sleep. Results: Our study shows that measures of awake nasal resistance using AR and RM had little or no correlation to each other in the sitting position, whereas there was significant but weak correlation in the supine position. Upper airway resistance measured while on CPAP during sleep did not show significant relationships to any of the awake measures of nasal resistance (AR or RM). Conclusion: Awake measurements of nasal resistance do not seem to be predictive of upper airway resistance during sleep on CPAP. Citation: Masdeu MJ; Seelall V; Patel AV; Ayappa I; Rapoport DM. Awake Measures of Nasal Resistance and Upper Airway Resistance on CPAP during Sleep. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(1):31-40. PMID:21344056

  18. 21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Emergency airway needle. 868.5090 Section 868.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5090 Emergency airway needle. (a...

  19. GTV delineation in supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma: interobserver agreement of CT versus CT-MR delineation.

    PubMed

    Jager, Elise Anne; Kasperts, Nicolien; Caldas-Magalhaes, Joana; Philippens, Mariëlle E P; Pameijer, Frank A; Terhaard, Chris H J; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P J

    2015-01-23

    GTV delineation is the first crucial step in radiotherapy and requires high accuracy, especially with the growing use of highly conformal and adaptive radiotherapy techniques. If GTV delineations of observers concord, they are considered to be of high accuracy. The aim of the study is to determine the interobserver agreement for GTV delineations of supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma on CT and on CT combined with MR-images and to determine the effect of adding MR images to CT-based delineation on the delineated volume and the interobserver agreement. Twenty patients with biopsy proven T1-T4 supraglottic laryngeal cancer, treated with curative intent were included. For all patients a contrast enhanced planning CT and a 1.5-T MRI with gadolinium were acquired in the same head-and-shoulder mask for fixation as used during treatment. For MRI, a two element surface coil was used as a receiver coil. Three dedicated observers independently delineated the GTV on CT. After an interval of 2 weeks, a set of co-registered CT and MR-images was provided to delineate the GTV on CT. Common volumes (C) and encompassing volumes (E) were calculated and C/E ratios were determined for each pair of observers. The conformity index general (CIgen) was used to quantify the interobserver agreement. In general, a large variation in interobserver agreement was found for CT (range: 0.29-0.77) as well as for CT-MR delineations (range: 0.17-0.80). The mean CIgen for CT (0.61) was larger compared to CT-MR (0.57) (p = 0.032). Mean GTV volume delineated on CT-MR (6.6 cm(3)) was larger compared to CT (5.6 cm(3)) (p = 0.002). Delineation on CT with co-registered MR-images resulted in a larger mean GTV volume and in a decrease in interobserver agreement compared to CT only delineation for supraglottic laryngeal carcinoma.

  20. Effect of visual biofeedback to acquire supraglottic swallow in healthy individuals: a randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Imada, Miho; Kagaya, Hitoshi; Ishiguro, Yuriko; Kato, Miho; Inamoto, Yoko; Tanaka, Takashi; Shibata, Seiko; Saitoh, Eiichi

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of visual biofeedback therapy in acquiring supraglottic swallow (SGS) in a randomized-controlled trial with healthy individuals. Eighteen individuals (mean age, 26 years) who could not close or keep closed the vocal folds before and during the swallow in SGS were allocated randomly to either a visual biofeedback group (eight individuals) or a nonbiofeedback group (10 individuals). A videoendoscope was inserted intranasally and an SGS exercise, using 4 ml of green-colored water, was performed 30 times per day up to 5 days. When the participant failed to perform SGS, the result was provided only to the participants in the visual biofeedback group. The median length of time until acquiring SGS was 1.5 days in the visual biofeedback group and 3.5 days in the nonbiofeedback group (P=0.040). We concluded that visual biofeedback effectively enabled participants to acquire SGS earlier.

  1. ProSeal versus Classic laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for positive pressure ventilation in adults undergoing elective surgery.

    PubMed

    Qamarul Hoda, Muhammad; Samad, Khalid; Ullah, Hameed

    2017-07-20

    The development of supraglottic airway devices has revolutionized airway management during general anaesthesia. Two devices are widely used in clinical practice to facilitate positive pressure ventilation: the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (pLMA) and the Classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA). It is not clear whether these devices have important clinical differences in terms of efficacy or complications. To compare the effectiveness of the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (pLMA) and the Classic LMA (cLMA) for positive pressure ventilation in adults undergoing elective surgery. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 3) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (Ovid SP, 1997 to April 2017); Embase (Ovid SP, 1997 to April 2017); the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science (1946 to April 2017); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (EBSCO host, 1982 to April 2017).We searched trial registries for ongoing studies to April 2017.We did not impose language restrictions. We restricted our search to the time from 1997 to April 2017 because pLMA was introduced into clinical practice in the year 2000. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effectiveness of pLMA and cLMA for positive pressure ventilation in adults undergoing elective surgery. We planned to include only data related to the first phase of cross-over RCTs. We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. We included eight RCTs that involved a total of 829 participants (416 and 413 participants in the pLMA and cLMA groups, respectively). We identified six cross-over studies that are awaiting classification; one is completed but has not been published, and data related to the first treatment period for the other five studies were not yet available. Seven included studies provided data related to the primary outcome, and eight studies provided data related to more than

  2. Carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx: A basis for comparing the results of radiotherapy and surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, W.M.; Parsons, J.T.; Stringer, S.P.; Cassisi, N.J.; Million, R.R. )

    1990-05-01

    An analysis of 129 patients with 131 squamous cell carcinomas of the supraglottic larynx treated between October 1964 and April 1987 with radiotherapy alone or radiotherapy followed by neck dissection is presented. All patients had a minimum 2-year follow-up. Patients were excluded from analysis of disease control at the primary site and/or neck if they died within 2 years of treatment with the site(s) continuously disease-free. Local control rates with radiotherapy and ultimate local control rates, including patients successfully salvaged after a local recurrence, were as follows: T1, 13 of 13 and 13 of 13; T2, 34 of 42 (81%) and 37 of 42 (88%); T3, 25 of 41 (61%) and 34 of 41 (83%); and T4, 3 of 9 and 6 of 9. There was no significant difference in local control rates when comparing patients who were anatomically suitable for a supraglottic laryngectomy with those who would have required a total laryngectomy. Local control rates were slightly diminished in patients with T2-T3 lesions who had impaired or absent vocal cord mobility. The overall rates of ultimate local control with voice preservation for the entire series of 129 patients were as follows: T1, 100%; T2, 87%; T3, 69%; and T4, 57%. Cause-specific survival rates at 5 years by stage were I, 2 of 2; II, 10 of 12 (83%); III, 9 of 13 (69%); IVA, 4 of 6; and IVB, 7 of 22 (32%). The incidence of severe complications was 4 of 115 (3%) for T1-T3 lesions and 4 of 14 (29%) for T4 lesions.

  3. A new removable airway stent

    PubMed Central

    Amundsen, Tore; Sørhaug, Sveinung; Leira, Håkon Olav; Tyvold, Stig Sverre; Langø, Thomas; Hammer, Tommy; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Mattsson, Erney

    2016-01-01

    Background Malignant airway obstruction is a feared complication and will most probably occur more frequently in the future because of increasing cancer incidence and increased life expectancy in cancer patients. Minimal invasive treatment using airway stents represents a meaningful and life-saving palliation. We present a new removable airway stent for improved individualised treatment. Methods To our knowledge, the new airway stent is the world's first knitted and uncovered self-expanding metal stent, which can unravel and be completely removed. In an in vivo model using two anaesthetised and spontaneously breathing pigs, we deployed and subsequently removed the stents by unravelling the device. The procedures were executed by flexible bronchoscopy in an acute and a chronic setting – a ‘proof-of-principle’ study. Results The new stent was easily and accurately deployed in the central airways, and it remained fixed in its original position. It was easy to unravel and completely remove from the airways without clinically significant complications. During the presence of the stent in the chronic study, granulation tissue was induced. This tissue disappeared spontaneously with the removal. Conclusions The new removable stent functioned according to its purpose and unravelled easily, and it was completely removed without significant technical or medical complications. Induced granulation tissue disappeared spontaneously. Further studies on animals and humans are needed to define its optimal indications and future use. PMID:27608269

  4. Pre-warming the Streamlined Liner of the Pharynx Airway (SLIPA) improves fitting to the laryngeal structure: a randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun; Kim, Dong Rim; Jung, Yong Hun; Baek, Chong Wha; Park, Yong Hee; In Oh, Jong; Kim, Won Joong; Choi, Geun Joo

    2015-11-20

    The Streamlined Liner of the Pharynx Airway (SLIPA), a type of supraglottic airway, has a non-inflatable cuff that softens at body temperature to fit the laryngeal structure. We investigated whether pre-warming of SLIPA to body temperature may improve insertion parameters. Ninety adult patients were assigned equally randomized to either Group W or Group R. Anesthesia was induced using propofol, fentanyl, and rocuronium. In Group W, the SLIPA was warmed to 37 ° C before insertion, whereas in Group R, it was inserted at room temperature. The insertion time, oropharyngeal leak pressure, postoperative throat pain, blood staining, regurgitation, number of attempts at insertion, and difficulty of insertion were compared between the two groups. The insertion time was shorter in Group W than in Group R (3.60 [3.15-4.06] s vs. 6.00 [4.45-7.50] s; P < 0.001). Oropharyngeal leak pressure from the time of insertion until 3 min after insertion was significantly higher in Group W than in Group R (P < 0.05). Postoperative throat pain, measured using the visual analog scale, was lower in Group W than in Group R (0.00 [0.00-2.50] vs. 2.00 [0.00-4.50]; P = 0.006). The difficulty of insertion was lower in Group W than in Group R (P < 0.004). There were no significant differences in terms of blood staining, regurgitation, and number of attempts. Pre-warming the SLIPA to body temperature has significant benefits compared to maintaining the device at room temperature. Specifically, insertion was easier, both insertion and fitting to the laryngeal structure could be performed more quickly, and the incidence of sore throat was reduced. Clinical Research Information Identifier NCT01209000.

  5. The Phillips airway.

    PubMed

    Haridas, R P; Wilkinson, D J

    2012-07-01

    The Phillips airway was developed by George Ramsay Phillips. There is no known original description of the airway and the earliest known reference to it is from 1919. The airway and its modifications are described.

  6. Airway management and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outcome in the CARES registry.

    PubMed

    McMullan, Jason; Gerecht, Ryan; Bonomo, Jordan; Robb, Rachel; McNally, Bryan; Donnelly, John; Wang, Henry E

    2014-05-01

    Optimal out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) airway management strategies remain unclear. We compared OHCA outcomes between patients receiving endotracheal intubation (ETI) versus supraglottic airway (SGA), and between patients receiving [ETI or SGA] and those receiving no advanced airway. We studied adult OHCA in the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES). Primary exposures were ETI, SGA, or no advanced prehospital airway placed. Primary outcomes were sustained ROSC, survival to hospital admission, survival to hospital discharge, and neurologically-intact survival to hospital discharge (cerebral performance category 1-2). Propensity scores characterized the probability of receiving ETI, SGA, or no advanced airway. We adjusted for Utstein confounders. Multivariable random effects regression accounted for clustering by EMS agency. We compared outcomes between (1) ETI vs. SGA, and (2) [no advanced airway] vs. [ETI or SGA]. Of 10,691 OHCA, 5591 received ETI, 3110 SGA, and 1929 had no advanced airway. Unadjusted neurologically-intact survival was: ETI 5.4%, SGA 5.2%, no advanced airway 18.6%. Compared with SGA, ETI achieved higher sustained ROSC (OR 1.35; 95%CI 1.19-1.54), survival to hospital admission (1.36; 1.19-1.55), hospital survival (1.41; 1.14-1.76) and hospital discharge with good neurologic outcome (1.44; 1.10-1.88). Compared with [ETI or SGA], patients receiving no advanced airway attained higher survival to hospital admission (1.31; 1.16-1.49), hospital survival (2.96; 2.50-3.51) and hospital discharge with good neurologic outcome (4.24; 3.46-5.20). In CARES, survival was higher among OHCA receiving ETI than those receiving SGA, and for patients who received no advanced airway than those receiving ETI or SGA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the Apnea-Hypopnea Index Determined by the S8 Auto-CPAP, a Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Device, in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Kanako; Kasai, Takatoshi; Brewer, Gregory; Takaya, Hisashi; Maeno, Ken-ichi; Kasagi, Satoshi; Kawana, Fusae; Ishiwata, Sugao; Narui, Koji

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been established as an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Recently, several auto-CPAP devices that can detect upper airway obstructive events and provide information about residual events while patients are on CPAP have come into clinical use. The purpose of this study was to compare the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) determined by the S8 auto-CPAP device with the AHI derived by polysomnography in patients with OSAHS. Method: Consecutive patients with OSAHS titrated on S8 auto-CPAP were included. The correlation between AHI determined by manual scoring (AHI-PSG) and by S8 (AHI-S8) during an overnight in-hospital polysomnogram with the patient on CPAP was assessed. Furthermore, the apnea index (AI) and the hypopnea index (HI) were evaluated separately. Results: Seventy patients with OSAHS (94% men) were enrolled. The mean AHI on the diagnostic study was 51.9 ± 2.4. During the titration, this device markedly suppressed the respiratory events (AHI-PSG, 4.2 ± 0.4; AI, 1.9 ± 0.3; HI, 2.3 ± 0.3). On the other hand, the AHI-S8 was 9.9 ± 0.6 (AI-S8, 2.4 ± 0.3; HI-S8, 7.5 ± 0.4). There was a strong correlation between the overall AHI-PSG and the AHI-S8 (r = 0.85, p < 0.001), with a stronger correlation in the apnea component AI-PSG and the AI-S8 (r = 0.93, p < 0.001), whereas there was a weaker correlation between the HI-PSG and the HI-S8 (r = 0.67, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Using the same airflow signals as those of the CPAP device, a strong correlation between the AHI-PSG and the AHI-S8 was observed. However, the correlation was weakened when the analysis was limited to the HI. Citation: Ueno K; Kasai T; Brewer G; Takaya H; Maeno K; Kasagi S; Kawana F; Ishiwata S; Narui K. Evaluation of the apnea-hypopnea index determined by the S8 auto-CPAP, a continuous positive airway pressure device, in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2010

  8. Blockage of upper airway

    MedlinePlus

    ... Airway obstruction - acute upper Images Throat anatomy Choking Respiratory system References Cukor J, Manno M. Pediatric respiratory emergencies: upper airway obstruction and infections. In: Marx ...

  9. Difficult airway management from Emergency Department till Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Debasis; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of "can ventilate but can't intubate" situation which was successfully managed in the Emergency Department and Intensive Care Unit by the use of ProSeal laryngeal mask airway and Frova Intubating Introducer as bridging rescue devices. Use of appropriate technique while strictly following the difficult airway algorithm is the mainstay of airway management in unanticipated difficult airway situations. Although the multiple airway devices were used but each step took not more than 2 min and "don't struggle, skip to the next step principle" was followed. With the availability of many advanced airway management tools, the intensivists should have a training and experience along with preparedness in order to perform such lifesaving airway managements.

  10. On the acoustic effects of the supraglottic structures in excised larynges

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Fariborz; Finnegan, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    The acoustic effects of the supraglottic laryngeal structures (SGSs), including the false vocal folds (FVFs) laryngeal ventricle, and the epiglottis were investigated in an excised canine larynx model with and without these anatomical structures. The purpose of this study was to better understand the acoustic contributions of these structures to phonation. Canine larynges were prepared and mounted over a 3/4 in. tube, which supplied pressurized, heated, and humidified air. Glottal adduction was accomplished by rotating the arytenoids with a suture passed behind the vocal folds to simulate the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle action. The SGSs were kept intact in the first part of the experiment and were removed in the second part. Results indicated that when the FVFs vibrated, a low frequency component was observed in the spectral data. The excised larynx with a SGS had a limited range of frequency with subglottal pressure, while the larynx without a SGS had a larger frequency range. The excised canine larynx with a SGS oscillated with a higher phonation threshold pressure and significantly louder. PMID:23654402

  11. A Civilian/Military Trauma Institute: National Trauma Research Coordinating Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Participants will practice placing the LMA brand and I-Gel brand supraglottic airways and will intubate the trachea using the LMA brand Fastrach...laryngoscopy techniques. Participants will intubate using the LMA brand McGrath video laryngoscope. Station 11 Percutaneous Airway Dr. (Capt) Matt...bronchoscope and an intubation catheter. Participants will practice placing LMA supraglottic airway devices and will intubate the trachea using a

  12. Triggers of airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kerrebijn, K F

    1986-01-01

    Most asthmatics have hyperresponsive airways. This makes them more sensitive than non-asthmatics to bronchoconstricting environmental exposures which, in their turn, may enhance responsiveness. Airway inflammation is considered to be a key determinant of airway hyperresponsiveness: the fact that chronic airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis does not lead to airway hyperresponsiveness of any importance indicates, however, that the role of airway inflammation is complex and incompletely elucidated. The main inducers of airway inflammation are viral infections, antigens, occupational stimuli and pollutants. Although exercise, airway cooling and hyper- or hypotonic aerosols are potent stimuli of bronchoconstriction, it is questionable if airway inflammation is involved in their mode of action. Each of the above-mentioned stimuli is discussed, with emphasis laid on the relation of symptoms to mechanisms.

  13. Evaluating Risk Factors for Pediatric Post-extubation Upper Airway Obstruction Using a Physiology-based Tool

    PubMed Central

    Hotz, Justin; Morzov, Rica; Flink, Rutger; Kamerkar, Asavari; Ross, Patrick A.; Newth, Christopher J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Subglottic edema is the most common cause of pediatric extubation failure, but few studies have confirmed risk factors or prevention strategies. This may be due to subjective assessment of stridor or inability to differentiate supraglottic from subglottic disease. Objectives: Objective 1 was to assess the utility of calibrated respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) and esophageal manometry to identify clinically significant post-extubation upper airway obstruction (UAO) and differentiate subglottic from supraglottic UAO. Objective 2 was to identify risk factors for subglottic UAO, stratified by cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes (ETTs). Methods: We conducted a single-center prospective study of children receiving mechanical ventilation. UAO was defined by inspiratory flow limitation (measured by RIP and esophageal manometry) and classified as subglottic or supraglottic based on airway maneuver response. Clinicians performed simultaneous blinded clinical UAO assessment at the bedside. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 409 children were included, 98 of whom had post-extubation UAO and 49 (12%) of whom were subglottic. The reintubation rate was 34 (8.3%) of 409, with 14 (41%) of these 34 attributable to subglottic UAO. Five minutes after extubation, RIP and esophageal manometry better identified patients who subsequently received UAO treatment than clinical UAO assessment (P < 0.006). Risk factors independently associated with subglottic UAO included low cuff leak volume or high preextubation leak pressure, poor sedation, and preexisting UAO (P < 0.04) for cuffed ETTs; and age (range, 1 mo to 5 yr) for uncuffed ETTs (P < 0.04). For uncuffed ETTs, the presence or absence of preextubation leak was not associated with subglottic UAO. Conclusions: RIP and esophageal manometry can objectively identify subglottic UAO after extubation. Using this technique, preextubation leak pressures or cuff leak volumes predict subglottic UAO in

  14. Evaluation of the apnea-hypopnea index determined by the S8 auto-CPAP, a continuous positive airway pressure device, in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Kanako; Kasai, Takatoshi; Brewer, Gregory; Takaya, Hisashi; Maeno, Ken-ichi; Kasagi, Satoshi; Kawana, Fusae; Ishiwata, Sugao; Narui, Koji

    2010-04-15

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been established as an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Recently, several auto-CPAP devices that can detect upper airway obstructive events and provide information about residual events while patients are on CPAP have come into clinical use. The purpose of this study was to compare the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) determined by the S8 auto-CPAP device with the AHI derived by polysomnography in patients with OSAHS. Consecutive patients with OSAHS titrated on S8 auto-CPAP were included. The correlation between AHI determined by manual scoring (AHI-PSG) and by S8 (AHIS8) during an overnight in-hospital polysomnogram with the patient on CPAP was assessed. Furthermore, the apnea index (Al) and the hypopnea index (HI) were evaluated separately. Seventy patients with OSAHS (94% men) were enrolled. The mean AHI on the diagnostic study was 51.9 +/- 2.4. During the titration, this device markedly suppressed the respiratory events (AHI-PSG, 4.2 +/- 0.4; AI, 1.9 +/- 0.3; HI, 2.3 +/- 0.3). On the other hand, the AHI-S8 was 9.9 +/- 0.6 (AI-S8, 2.4 +/- 0.3; HI-S8, 7.5 +/- 0.4). There was a strong correlation between the overall AHI-PSG and the AHI-S8 (r = 0.85, p < 0.001), with a stronger correlation in the apnea component AI-PSG and the AI-S8 (r = 0.93, p < 0.001), whereas there was a weaker correlation between the HI-PSG and the HI-S8 (r = 0.67, p <0.001). Using the same airflow signals as those of the CPAP device, a strong correlation between the AHI-PSG and the AHI-S8 was observed. However, the correlation was weakened when the analysis was limited to the HI.

  15. [Airway management in obstetrics].

    PubMed

    Boutonnet, M; Faitot, V; Keïta, H

    2011-09-01

    difficult intubation is sufficiently predictive alone. In obstetrics as in other contexts, the association of several criteria will permit to anticipate a difficult intubation. There is a worsening of the Mallampati during the pregnancy and during labour. To limit the risk of a difficult management of the airway in obstetrics, it will be paramount and capital, in addition to give priority to the regional anaesthesia/analgesia each time possible, to perform a careful and repeated evaluation of the predictive criteria of difficult intubation or ventilation. The inhalation of gastric fluid will systematically be prevented. The adapted material and algorithms for difficult intubation must be available in the labour wards. In case of a difficult intubation during an emergency caesarean section, the SFAR algorithms must be applied. In case of a "cannot intubate can ventilate situation", the possibility of carrying on the Caesarean maintaining the Sellick manoeuvre should be considered. The place of the laryngoscopy assisted by videolaryngoscope in this context clearly remains to be defined. Even if in the literature some cases of successful intubation through these devices suggest an interest, there is a clear deviance between the guidelines and the practices concerning general anaesthesia performed at the end of the labour. Indeed they should be systematically performed with rapid sequence induction and tracheal intubation. A reflexion on this theme is necessary in order to grant the practices to the recommendations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Airway-parenchymal interdependence

    PubMed Central

    Paré, Peter D; Mitzner, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript we discuss the interaction of the lung parenchyma and the airways as well as the physiological and pathophysiological significance of this interaction. These two components of the respiratory organ can be thought of as two independent elastic structures but in fact the mechanical properties of one influence the behavior of the other. Traditionally the interaction has focused on the effects of the lung on the airways but there is good evidence that the opposite is also true, i.e., that the mechanical properties of the airways influence the elastic properties of the parenchyma. The interplay between components of the respiratory system including the airways, parenchyma and vasculature is often referred to as “interdependence.” This interdependence transmits the elastic recoil of the lung to create an effective pressure that dilates the airways as transpulmonary pressure and lung volume increase. By using a continuum mechanics analysis of the lung parenchyma, it is possible to predict the effective pressure between the airways and parenchyma, and these predictions can be empirically evaluated. Normal airway caliber is maintained by this pressure in the adventitial interstitium of the airway, and it counteracts airway compression during forced expiration as well as the ability of airway smooth muscle to narrow airways. Interdependence has physiological and pathophysiological significance. Weakening of the forces of interdependence contributes to airway dysfunction and gas exchange impairment in acute and chronic airway diseases including asthma and emphysema. PMID:23723029

  17. Pediatric airway management: current practices and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sunder, Rani A; Haile, Dawit T; Farrell, Patrick T; Sharma, Anshuman

    2012-10-01

    Management of a pediatric airway can be a challenge, especially for the non-pediatric anesthesiologists. Structured algorithms for an unexpected difficult pediatric airway have been missing so far. A recent step wise algorithm, based on the Difficult Airway society (DAS) adult protocol, is a step in the right direction. There have been some exciting advances in development of pediatric extra-glottic devices for maintaining ventilation, and introduction of pediatric versions of new 'non line of sight' laryngoscopes and optical stylets. The exact role of these devices in routine and emergent situations is still evolving. Recent advances in simulation technology has become a valuable tool in imparting psychomotor and procedural skills to trainees and allied healthcare workers. Moving toward the goal of eliminating serious adverse events during the management of routine and difficult pediatric airway, authors propose that institutions develop a dedicated Difficult Airway Service comprising of a team of experts in advanced airway management. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Use of mechanical airway clearance devices in the home by people with neuromuscular disorders: effects on health service use and lifestyle benefits.

    PubMed

    Mahede, Trinity; Davis, Geoff; Rutkay, April; Baxendale, Sarah; Sun, Wenxing; Dawkins, Hugh J S; Molster, Caron; Graham, Caroline E

    2015-05-06

    People with neuromuscular disorders (NMD) exhibit weak coughs and are susceptible to recurrent chest infections and acute respiratory complications, the most frequent reasons for their unplanned hospital admissions. Mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) devices are a non-invasive method of increasing peak cough flow, improving cough efficacy, the clearance of secretion and overcoming atelectasis. There is limited published evidence on the impact of home use MI-E devices on health service utilisation. The aims of the study were: to assess the self-reported health and lifestyle benefits experienced as a result of home use of MI-E devices; and evaluate the effects of in-home use of MI-E devices on Emergency Department (ED) presentations, hospital admissions and inpatient length of stay (LOS). Individuals with NMD who were accessing a home MI-E device provided through Muscular Dystrophy Western Australia were invited to participate in a quantitative survey to obtain information on their experiences and self-assessed changes in respiratory health. An ad-hoc record linkage was performed to extract hospital, ED and mortality data from the Western Australian Department of Health (DOHWA). The main outcome measures were ED presentations, hospital separations and LOS, before and after commencement of home use of an MI-E device. Thirty seven individuals with NMD using a MI-E device at home consented to participate in this study. The majority (73%) of participants reported using the MI-E device daily or weekly at home without medical assistance and 32% had used the machine to resolve a choking episode. The survey highlighted benefits to respiratory function maintenance and the ability to manage increased health care needs at home. Not using a home MI-E device was associated with an increased risk of ED presentations (RR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.1-2.84). The number of hospital separations and LOS reduced after the use of MI-E device, but not significantly. No deaths were

  19. Upper airway biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... upper airway Images Upper airway test Bronchoscopy Throat anatomy References Yung RC, Boss EF. Tracheobronchial endoscopy. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  20. Noninvasive determination of upper airway resistance and flow limitation.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Khaled F; Rowley, James A; Badr, M Safwan

    2004-11-01

    We have shown that a polynomial equation, FP = AP3 + BP2 + CP + D, where F is flow and P is pressure, can accurately determine the presence of inspiratory flow limitation (IFL). This equation requires the invasive measurement of supraglottic pressure. We hypothesized that a modification of the equation that substitutes time for pressure would be accurate for the detection of IFL and allow for the noninvasive measurement of upper airway resistance. The modified equation is Ft = At3 + Bt2 + Ct + D, where F is flow and t is time from the onset of inspiration. To test our hypotheses, data analysis was performed as follows on 440 randomly chosen breaths from 18 subjects. First, we performed linear regression and determined that there is a linear relationship between pressure and time in the upper airway (R2 0.96 +/- 0.05, slope 0.96 +/- 0.06), indicating that time can be a surrogate for pressure. Second, we performed curve fitting and found that polynomial equation accurately predicts the relationship between flow and time in the upper airway (R2 0.93 +/- 0.12, error fit 0.02 +/- 0.08). Third, we performed a sensitivity-specificity analysis comparing the mathematical determination of IFL to manual determination using a pressure-flow loop. Mathematical determination had both high sensitivity (96%) and specificity (99%). Fourth, we calculated the upper airway resistance using the polynomial equation and compared the measurement to the manually determined upper airway resistance (also from a pressure-flow loop) using Bland-Altman analysis. Mean difference between calculated and measured upper airway resistance was 0.0 cmH2O x l(-1) x s(-1) (95% confidence interval -0.2, 0.2) with upper and lower limits of agreement of 2.8 cmH2O x l(-1) x s(-1) and -2.8 cmH2O x l(-1) x s(-1). We conclude that a polynomial equation can be used to model the flow-time relationship, allowing for the objective and accurate determination of upper airway resistance and the presence of IFL.

  1. Careers in Airway Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has initiated the Airway Science curriculum as a method of preparing the next generation of aviation technicians and managers. This document: (1) discusses the FAA's role in the Airway Science program; (2) describes some of the career fields that FAA offers to Airway Science graduates (air traffic control…

  2. Airway-parenchymal interdependence.

    PubMed

    Paré, Peter D; Mitzner, Wayne

    2012-07-01

    In this article, we discuss the interaction of the lung parenchyma and the airways as well as the physiological and pathophysiological significance of this interaction. These two components of the respiratory organ can be thought of as two independent elastic structures but in fact the mechanical properties of one influence the behavior of the other. Traditionally, the interaction has focused on the effects of the lung on the airways but there is good evidence that the opposite is also true, that is, that the mechanical properties of the airways influence the elastic properties of the parenchyma. The interplay between components of the respiratory system including the airways, parenchyma, and vasculature is often referred to as "interdependence." This interdependence transmits the elastic recoil of the lung to create an effective pressure that dilates the airways as transpulmonary pressure and lung volume increase. By using a continuum mechanics analysis of the lung parenchyma, it is possible to predict the effective pressure between the airways and parenchyma, and these predictions can be empirically evaluated. Normal airway caliber is maintained by this pressure in the adventitial interstitium of the airway, and it attenuates the ability of airway smooth muscle to narrow airways. Interdependence has physiological and pathophysiological significance. Weakening of the forces of interdependence contributes to airway dysfunction and gas exchange impairment in acute and chronic airway diseases including asthma and emphysema. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1853-1872, 2012.

  3. [Comparison of the Effectiveness of Different Supraglottic Ventilation Methods during Bronchial Thermoplasty].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Lin, Jiang-tao; Su, Nan; Nong, Ying; Hong, Hong; Yin, Yi-qing; Li, Cheng-hui

    2016-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of high-frequency jet ventilation via Wei jet nasal airway and controlled ventilation with improved laryngeal mask airway during bronchial thermoplasty. Twenty-eight patients undergoing bronchial thermoplasty were equally divided into two groups: group A (high-frequency jet ventilation through Wei jet nasal airway) and group B (controlled ventilation with improved laryngeal mask airway). Pulse oxygenation,heart rate,and mean arterial blood pressure were recorded after entering the operating room (T0), 1 minute after administration/induction (T1), bronchoscope inserting (T2), 15 minutes (T3)/30 minutes (T4)/45 minutes (T5) after ventilation,at the end of the operation (T6), and at the recovery of patients' consciousness (T7). The pH,arterial oxygen partial pressure,and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure were recorded at T0, T4, and T6. The endoscope indwelling duration,operative time,patients' awakening time,adverse events during anesthesia,satisfactions of patients and operators, anesthesic effectiveness were also recorded. The arterial carbon dioxide partial pressur in group A at T4 and T6 were significantly higher than in group B (P<0.05). The pH in group A at T4 and T6 was significantly lower than in group B (P<0.05). The endoscope indwelling duration and the operative time in group B were significantly shorter than in group A (P<0.05) while the recovery of consciousness in group B was significantly longer than in group A (P<0.05). The satisfaction for operators and the efficacy of anesthesia in group B were better than in group A (P<0.05). The number of adverse events in group B was significantly smaller than in group A (P<0.05). The improved laryngeal mask airway with controlled ventilation is more suitable for bronchial thermoplasty.

  4. [Tracheal intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask airway training on manikin: comparison of single use and reusable devices from the same manufacturer].

    PubMed

    Haardt, V; Lenfant, F; Cailliod, R; Freysz, M

    2008-04-01

    Recently, the French Society for Anaesthesia and Intensive Care (SFAR) has updated algorithms for difficult airway management, in which, the place of the intubating laryngeal mask (ILMA) is well defined. Moreover, in the guidelines, the SFAR recommended that the training for the different techniques for difficult intubation should initially be achieved on manikins. However, few data are available for disposable ILMA learning process on manikins. To compare, on manikin, the learning curves of the disposable and reusable ILMA. Forty operators (anaesthesiologist, nurse, resident), experienced with conventional tracheal intubation but novice to commercially available ILMAs (Sebac, Pantin, France), underwent videotape learning and manikin training. After randomisation, each participant had to perform 10 timed consecutive tracheal intubations with either reusable or disposable ILMA. The learning curve was built according to the duration of successful procedure. Failure was considered if tracheal intubation could not be achieved or if the procedure lasted more than five minutes. No difference was noted between the two groups in terms of learning curves, number and repartition of the failed attempts during the learning process. This study shows that both disposable and reusable ILMA share similar learning process on manikins. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficiency of the disposable ILMA in the clinical field of difficult intubation.

  5. The groningen laryngomalacia classification system--based on systematic review and dynamic airway changes.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Martijn; Dikkers, Frederik G; Halmos, Gyorgy B

    2015-12-01

    Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of dyspnea and stridor in newborn infants. Laryngomalacia is a dynamic change of the upper airway based on abnormally pliable supraglottic structures, which causes upper airway obstruction. In the past, different classification systems have been introduced. Until now no classification system is widely accepted and applied. Our goal is to provide a simple and complete classification system based on systematic literature search and our experiences. Retrospective cohort study with literature review. All patients with laryngomalacia under the age of 5 at time of diagnosis were included. Photo and video documentation was used to confirm diagnosis and characteristics of dynamic airway change. Outcome was compared with available classification systems in literature. Eighty-five patients were included. In contrast to other classification systems, only three typical different dynamic changes have been identified in our series. Two existing classification systems covered 100% of our findings, but there was an unnecessary overlap between different types in most of the systems. Based on our finding, we propose a new a classification system for laryngomalacia, which is purely based on dynamic airway changes. The groningen laryngomalacia classification is a new, simplified classification system with three types, based on purely dynamic laryngeal changes, tested in a tertiary referral center: Type 1: inward collapse of arytenoids cartilages, Type 2: medial displacement of aryepiglottic folds, and Type 3: posterocaudal displacement of epiglottis against the posterior pharyngeal wall. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The New Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA™)1 Is as Efficient as the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA™)2, But Provides Better Airway Sealing Pressures

    PubMed Central

    Akça, Ozan; Wadhwa, Anupama; Sengupta, Papiya; Durrani, Jaleel; Hanni, Keith; Wenke, Mary; Yücel, Yüksel; Lenhardt, Rainer; Doufas, Anthony G.; Sessler, Daniel I.

    2006-01-01

    The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) is a frequently-used efficient airway device, yet it sometimes seals poorly, thus reducing the efficacy of positive-pressure ventilation. The Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA) is a novel airway device with a larger pharyngeal cuff (when inflated). We tested the hypothesis that the CobraPLA was superior to LMA with regard to insertion time and airway sealing pressure and comparable to LMA in airway adequacy and recovery characteristics. After midazolam and fentanyl, 81 ASA I-II outpatients having elective surgery were randomized to receive an LMA or CobraPLA. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (2.5 mg/kg, IV), and the airway inserted. We measured 1) insertion time; 2) adequacy of the airway (no leak at 15-cm-H2O peak pressure or tidal volume of 5 ml/kg); 3) airway sealing pressure; 4) number of repositioning attempts; and 5) sealing quality (no leak at tidal volume of 8 ml/kg). At the end of surgery, gastric insufflation, postoperative sore throat, dysphonia, and dysphagia were evaluated. Data were compared with unpaired t-tests, chi-square tests, or Fisher’s Exact tests; P<0.05 was significant. Patient characteristics, insertion times, airway adequacy, number of repositioning attempts, and recovery were similar in each group. Airway sealing pressure was significantly greater with CobraPLA (23±6 cm H2O) than LMA (18±5 cm H2O, P<0.001). The CobraPLA has insertion characteristics similar to LMA, but better airway sealing capabilities. PMID:15281543

  7. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780 Section 868.1780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the amount...

  8. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780 Section 868.1780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the amount...

  9. Transoral laser microsurgery for locally advanced (T3-T4a) supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma: Sixteen years of experience.

    PubMed

    Vilaseca, Isabel; Blanch, José Luis; Berenguer, Joan; Grau, Juan José; Verger, Eugenia; Muxí, África; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel

    2016-07-01

    Controversy exists regarding treatment of advanced laryngeal cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oncologic and functional outcomes of T3 to T4a supraglottic squamous carcinomas treated with transoral laser microsurgery (TLM). We conducted a retrospective analysis from an SPSS database. Primary outcomes were: locoregional control, overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), laryngectomy-free survival, and function-preservation rates. Secondary objectives were: rate of tracheostomies and gastrostomies according to age. Risk factors for local control and larynx preservation were also evaluated. One hundred fifty-four consecutive patients were chosen for this study. Median follow-up was 40.7 + /- 32.8 months. Five and 10-year OS, DSS, and laryngectomy-free survival were 55.6% and 47%, 67.6% and 58.6%, and 75.2% and 59.5%, respectively. Paraglottic involvement was an independent factor for larynx preservation. Six patients (3.9%) needed a definitive tracheostomy, a gastrostomy, or both. The gastrostomy rate was higher in the group of patients above 65 years of age (p = .03). Five-year laryngectomy-free survival with preserved function was 74.5%. TLM constitutes a true alternative for organ preservation in locally advanced supraglottic carcinomas with good oncologic and functional outcomes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1050-1057, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Upper airway collapsibility in anesthetized children.

    PubMed

    Litman, Ronald S; McDonough, Joseph M; Marcus, Carole L; Schwartz, Alan R; Ward, Denham S

    2006-03-01

    We sought to establish the feasibility of measuring upper airway narrowing in spontaneously breathing, anesthetized children using dynamic application of negative airway pressure. A secondary aim was to compare differences in upper airway collapsibility after the administration of sevoflurane or halothane. Subjects were randomized to either drug for inhaled anesthetic induction. Each was adjusted to their 1 MAC value (0.9% for halothane and 2.5% for sevoflurane) and a blinded anesthesia provider held the facemask without performing manual airway opening maneuvers but with inclusion of an oral airway device. Inspiratory flows were measured during partial upper airway obstruction created by an adjustable negative pressure-generating vacuum motor inserted into the anesthesia circuit. Critical closing pressure of the pharynx (Pcrit) was obtained by plotting the peak inspiratory flow of the obstructed breaths against the corresponding negative pressure in the facemask and extrapolating to zero airflow using linear correlation. Fourteen children were enrolled, seven in each anesthetic group. Two children in the halothane group did not develop flow-limited airway obstruction despite negative pressures as low as -9 cm H2O. Pcrit for sevoflurane ranged from -6.7 to -11.6 (mean +/- sd, -9.8 +/- 1.9) cm H2O. Pcrit for halothane ranged from -8.1 to -33 (mean +/- sd, -19.4 +/- 9.3) cm H2O (sevoflurane versus halothane, P = 0.048). We conclude that when using dynamic application of negative airway pressure, halothane appears to cause less upper airway obstruction than sevoflurane at equipotent concentrations.

  11. Mandibular advancement devices vs nasal-continuous positive airway pressure in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea. Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Galletti, Cosimo; Galletti, Francesco; Galletti, Bruno; Galletti, Claudio; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2017-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder that may affect at least 2 to 4% of the adult population. Nasal-Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (N-CPAP) is today considered the gold standard for the treatment of OSA. The development of oral appliances (OAs) represents a new approach for the management of this pathology. The aim of this systematic review is to compare the efficacy of OAs and N-CPAP in the treatment of patients with mild to severe OSA. Material and Methods A PubMed-MEDLINE and Cochrane databases search of articles published between 1982 and 2016 comparing the effect of N-CPAP and OAs in OSA patients was conducted during July 2016. The studies were selected and stratified according to PRISMA and SORT criteria. The main outcome measure was post-treatment Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index (AHI) while secondary outcomes included post-treatment Epworth Score Scale (ESS) score and lowest Oxygen Saturation level. Results N-CPAP was significantly more effective in suppressing AHI than OA. Moreover, N- CPAP was significantly more effective in increasing post-treatment lowest Oxygen Saturation level than OA. However, no significant different in decreasing ESS values was found between the two treatments. Conclusions On the basis of evidence in this review it would appear appropriate to offer OA therapy to those who are unwilling or unable to persist with CPAP therapy. N-CPAP still must be considered the gold standard treatment for OSA and, therefore, OAs may be included in the list of alternative options. Key words:CPAP, obstructive sleep apnoea, oral appliances. PMID:28578372

  12. A feasibility study of concomitant boost radiotherapy for patients with cancer of the supraglottic larynx.

    PubMed

    Bujko, K; Skoczylas, J Z; Bentzen, S M; Hliniak, A; Wasilewski, M; Szutkowski, Z J; Osmólski, A

    1993-01-01

    Between February 1988 and December 1989, 65 patients with supraglottic cancer completed a course of concomitant boost radiotherapy. Cases with N3 disease, a Karnovsky performance score less than 70, age above 70 years, or a second primary cancer were not eligible for the study. Distribution of the patients was: Stage T1-T2 30%, T3-T4 70%, N0 68%, N+ 32%. The total dose ranged from 60 Gy to 76 Gy (median 66 Gy); overall treatment time ranged from 36 to 56 days with a median of 42 days. The daily dose during the first 4 weeks was 1.8 Gy, and during the last 2 weeks it was 1.6 Gy b.i.d. with a 4- or (after September 1988) 6-h interval. The clinical impression was that the early mucosal reactions were acceptable but more severe than after conventional treatment, with confluent membranous mucosal reaction being observed in 54% of the patients. Also, this reaction was significantly more frequent in patients treated with a 4-h interval (68%) than with a 6-h interval (41%) between the daily fractions. To relieve severe dysphagia, narcotics were required in 22% of the patients. The follow-up time ranged from 22 to 50 months, median 34 months. Treatment-requiring late complications were observed in 8 patients, and the 3-year actuarial risk was 17% with 95% confidence limits (6%, 27%). Two of these patients had severe complications: one of them required a temporary tracheostomy due to arytenoid edema and the other developed a laryngo-cutaneous fistula which healed after pharmacological treatment. Actuarial 3-year local-regional control was 59% (46%, 71%) and 3-year actuarial crude survival 55% (42%, 67%). There was no significant difference in the incidence of late complications or tumor control between the two groups of patients treated with a 4- or 6-h interval between the daily fractions. This study shows that the concomitant boost regimen tried here is feasible, but also stresses that the interval between dose fractions should be 6 h or more.

  13. Noninvasive clearance of airway secretions.

    PubMed

    Hardy, K A; Anderson, B D

    1996-06-01

    Airway clearance techniques are indicated for specific diseases that have known clearance abnormalities (Table 2). Murray and others have commented that such techniques are required only for patients with a daily sputum production of greater than 30 mL. The authors have observed that patients with diseases known to cause clearance abnormalities can have sputum clearance with some techniques, such as positive expiratory pressure, autogenic drainage, and active cycle of breathing techniques, when PDPV has not been effective. Hasani et al has shown that use of the forced exhalatory technique in patients with nonproductive cough still resulted in movement of secretions proximally from all regions of the lung in patients with airway obstruction. It is therefore reasonable to consider airway clearance techniques for any patient who has a disease known to alter mucous clearance, including CF, dyskinetic cilia syndromes, and bronchiectasis from any cause. Patients with atelectasis from mucous plugs and hypersecretory states, such as asthma and chronic bronchitis, patients with pain secondary to surgical procedures, and patients with neuromuscular disease, weak cough, and abnormal patency of the airway may also benefit from the application of airway clearance techniques. Infants and children up to 3 years of age with airway clearance problems need to be treated with PDPV. Manual percussion with hands alone or a flexible face mask or cup and small mechanical vibrator/percussors, such as the ultrasonic devices, can be used. The intrapulmonary percussive ventilator shows growing promise in this area. The high-frequency oscillator is not supplied with vests of appropriate sizes for tiny babies and has not been studied in this group. Young patients with neuromuscular disease may require assisted ventilation and airway oscillations can be applied. CPAP alone has been shown to improve achievable flow rates that will increase air-liquid interactions for patients with these diseases

  14. Cuffed oropharyngeal airway for difficult airway management.

    PubMed

    Takaishi, Kazumi; Kawahito, Shinji; Tomioka, Shigemasa; Eguchi, Satoru; Kitahata, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties with airway management are often caused by anatomic abnormalities due to previous oral surgery. We performed general anesthesia for a patient who had undergone several operations such as hemisection of the mandible and reconstructive surgery with a deltopectoralis flap, resulting in severe maxillofacial deformation. This made it impossible to ventilate with a face mask and to intubate in the normal way. An attempt at oral awake intubation using fiberoptic bronchoscopy was unsuccessful because of severe anatomical abnormality of the neck. We therefore decided to perform retrograde intubation and selected the cuffed oropharyngeal airway (COPA) for airway management. We inserted the COPA, not through the patient's mouth but through the abnormal oropharyngeal space. Retrograde nasal intubation was accomplished with controlled ventilation through the COPA, which proved to be very useful for this difficult airway management during tracheal intubation even though the method was unusual.

  15. Synchronous airway lesions in children: an analysis of characteristics and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Ho-Wo-Cheong, Dennis; Mijovic, Tamara; Manoukian, John J; Bergeron, Mathieu; Nguyen, Lily H P

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the characteristics and the associated medical co-morbidities in children with synchronous airway lesions (SALs) found during rigid bronchoscopy. Retrospective case series and chart review of patients who were found to have more than one airway lesion after undergoing airway evaluation via rigid endoscopy at a tertiary care pediatric hospital between 2001 and 2011. Patient demographics, presence of associated non-airway pathologies, and the number and types of airway lesions were collected. For analysis, airway lesions were classified based on the anatomical subsites involved (supraglottic, glottic, subglottic, tracheal and bronchial). Out of 592 rigid bronchoscopies performed, there were 73 cases with SALs (12.3%). Of these, only 20% of patients were term infants without associated congenital anomalies. Over 70% of patients with SALs have combinations of lesions involving the trachea, subglottis and supraglottis. Neurological anomalies and GERD were both independently associated with a three-time increase in the odds of having synchronous involvement of these three anatomical subsites (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.06-9.41; OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.05-8.50, respectively). Glottic lesions were present in 28.7% of patients. Prematurity and cardiac anomalies were both associated with tendency of doubling the odds of glottic lesions (OR 2.34, 95% CI 0.84-6.52; OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.76-5.60, respectively). Overall, almost 10% of newly diagnosed lesions in context of SALs required an additional intervention. The majority of patients with SALs are either born prematurely or have associated congenital anomalies. In SAL patients with associated neurological anomalies or GERD, the lesions are more likely to be localized to the supraglottis, subglottis and trachea whereas prematurity and cardiac anomalies could both be increasing the odds of a glottic lesion. High suspicious index should be kept in mind when rigid bronchoscopy is performed to not miss an associated lesion. Copyright

  16. Incidence of difficult airway situations during prehospital airway management by emergency physicians--a retrospective analysis of 692 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, Nils; Piegeler, Tobias; Brueesch, Martin; Sulser, Simon; Haas, Thorsten; Mueller, Stefan M; Seifert, Burkhardt; Spahn, Donat R; Ruetzler, Kurt

    2015-05-01

    In the prehospital setting, advanced airway management is challenging as it is frequently affected by facial trauma, pharyngeal obstruction or limited access to the patient and/or the patient's airway. Therefore, incidence of prehospital difficult airway management is likely to be higher compared to the in-hospital setting and success rates of advanced airway management range between 80 and 99%. 3961 patients treated by an emergency physician in Zurich, Switzerland were included in this retrospective analysis in order to determine the incidence of a difficult airway along with potential circumstantial risk factors like gender, necessity of CPR, NACA score, GCS, use and type of muscle relaxant and use of hypnotic drugs. 692 patients underwent advanced prehospital airway management. Seven patients were excluded due to incomplete or incongruent documentation, resulting in 685 patients included in the statistical analysis. Difficult intubation was recorded in 22 patients, representing an incidence of a difficult airway of 3.2%. Of these 22 patients, 15 patients were intubated successfully, whereas seven patients (1%) had to be ventilated with a bag valve mask during the whole procedure. In this physician-led service one out of five prehospital patients requires airway management. Incidence of advanced prehospital difficult airway management is 3.2% and eventual success rate is 99%, if performed by trained emergency physicians. A total of 1% of all prehospital intubation attempts failed and alternative airway device was necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Regeneration of airway epithelium].

    PubMed

    Adam, D; Perotin, J-M; Lebargy, F; Birembaut, P; Deslée, G; Coraux, C

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial regeneration is a complex process. It can lead to the remodeling of the airway epithelium as in asthma, COPD or cystic fibrosis. The development of in vivo and in vitro models has allowed the analysis of remodeling mechanisms and showed the role of components of extracellular matrix, proteases, cytokines and growth factors. Airway epithelial progenitors and stems cells have been studied in these models. However, their identification remains difficult. Identification and characterization of airway epithelial progenitor/stem-cells, and a better knowledge of the regeneration process may allow the development of new therapeutic strategies for airway epithelial reconstitution. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The Tactical Combat Casualty Care Casualty Card TCCC Guidelines - Proposed Change 13-01

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-30

    Tactical (BMIS-T)—a PDA device . Neither format was felt to sufficiently meet the needs of the prehospital providers in the tactical environment. The...documentation on pain level 4 - Incorporates a section for supraglottic airway use - Provides a space for the type of supraglottic airway - Provides a...improve performance at the prehospital level of care. Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) based casualty cards, TCCC after action reports, and unit

  19. Accuracy of residual apnea-hypopnea index obtained using the continuous positive airway pressure device: application of new version 2.0 scoring rules for respiratory events during sleep.

    PubMed

    Kim, Doh-Eui; Hwangbo, Young; Bae, Ji Hyun; Yang, Kwang Ik

    2015-12-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices can estimate apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) using respiratory event detection algorithms. In 2012, rules for manually scoring respiratory events during sleep were updated to version 2.0. The purpose of the present study was to compare residual AHI determined using the Sleepstyle HC608 CPAP device (HC) with those determined by the new manual scoring (NM) rules during CPAP titration in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Fifty-seven patients underwent CPAP titration with HC. Correlations were assessed between AHI determined by NM and HC. The AHI, the apnea index (AI), and the hypopnea index (HI) were evaluated separately. The mean AHI as assessed using diagnostic polysomnography (PSG) was 53.9 ± 22.4. During CPAP titration, respiratory events were effectively suppressed (HC-AHI, 4.2 ± 6.0; NM-AHI, 6.0 ± 5.8). Lower HI and AHI were obtained using HC compared to NM (HC-HI, 2.9 ± 3.6 and NM-HI, 5.2 ± 4.2, p < 0.001; HC-AHI, 4.2 ± 6.0 and NM-AHI, 6.0 ± 5.8, p < 0.001). Additionally, HC reported higher AI compared to NM (HC-AI, 1.3 ± 2.8; NM-AI, 0.9 ± 2.2, p = 0.002). NM-AI (ß = 1.017, p < 0.001), NM-HI (ß = -0.599, p < 0.001), and NM-arousal index (ß = -0.058, p = 0.042) were associated with greater differences between HC-AHI and NM-AHI in multivariate regression analysis. Our findings indicate differences in scoring respiratory events between our CPAP device and new version 2.0 manual scoring and suggest that residual AHI values should be carefully interpreted.

  20. Evaluation of glottic view through Air-Q Intubating Laryngeal Airway in the supine and lateral position and assessing it as a conduit for blind endotracheal intubation in children in the supine position.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ravinder Kumar; Subramanium, Raj Kumar; Darlong, Vanlal; Lekha, Chandra; Garg, Rakesh; Punj, Jyotsna; Rewari, Vimi; Bajpai, Meenu

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the feasibility of blind orotracheal intubation in children using the Air-QILA as a conduit in supine position and the glottic view grading by fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) through it both in supine and lateral positions. After ethical approval and consent, 60 children were enrolled in the study. In the operating room, after attaching standard monitors to all children, anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane (2-8%) in oxygen (100%). Once the children became sedated, an i.v. access was established and injection glycopyrrolate (10 μg · kg(-1)), fentanyl (2 μg · kg(-1)), and atracurium (0.5 mg · kg(-1)) were administered. After 3 min, the Air-QILA was placed in supine position and glottic view was assessed by using FOB, in supine and right lateral decubitus position. In all children, gradings of glottic view in two different positions were noted. After that all children were turned supine, and orotracheal intubation was done blindly through the Air-QILA. The success rate, insertion time of the Air-QILA, and endotracheal intubation were noted. The Air-QILA placement was successful in 57 children in first attempt and three children required second attempt. However, blind endotracheal intubations through the Air-QILA were successful in 38 children in first attempt and 12 children required second attempt. In the remaining 10 children, where blind endotracheal intubation through the Air-QILA remained unsuccessful, conventional laryngoscopy was performed. In supine and lateral positions, Grade 1 glottic view was seen in 41 and 38 of total 60 patients, respectively. Turning of all children from supine to lateral decubitus position resulted in the deterioration of grading of glottic view in eight children and improvement in two children (P = 0.001). The Air-QILA is an easy to place supraglottic airway device with excellent airway seal and low airway morbidity. It may be useful as a conduit for blind orotracheal intubation in supine position and can be used as

  1. The laryngeal mask airway.

    PubMed

    Brimacombe, J; Shorney, N

    The laryngeal mask airway is a new development in airway management. It became commercially available in 1988 and has since become an integral part of anaesthetic practice; its potential outside anaesthesia is rapidly developing. This article describes the basic concepts, methods of insertion and applications, current and projected.

  2. A randomized trial to compare the Truview picture capture device, C-MAC laryngoscope, and Macintosh laryngoscope in pediatric airway management.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranju; Kumar, Nishant; Jain, Aruna

    2015-02-19

    To evaluate and compare the Truview picture capture device (PCD) and C-MAC laryngoscope to the standard Macintosh laryngoscope in pediatric patients. One hundred and fifty patients with American Society of Anesthesiology status Grade I-II (ASA I-II) who were 1-6 years old (10-20 kg) were scheduled for elective surgery. They were randomized into three equal groups for laryngoscopy and intubation by either the Truview PCD (Group T), C-MAC (Group C), or Macintosh laryngoscope (Group M) under general anesthesia. The percentage of glottic opening (POGO) score, application of external laryngeal maneuver, time to intubation, number of attempts at intubation, failed intubations, episodes of desaturation, and trauma were recorded and statistically analyzed. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant. The POGO scores were significantly better with the Truview PCD (94.7 ± 12.91) than with the C-MAC and Macintosh laryngoscopes (82 ± 24.97 and 85.1 ± 17.07, respectively; p < 0.01). There were no failures, episodes of desaturation, or trauma in any of the patients. It took 19.24 seconds to intubate with the Truview PCD, compared to 12.32 seconds with the C-MAC laryngoscope and 10.7 seconds with the Macintosh laryngoscope (p < 0.01). An external laryngeal maneuver was required in 42% of patients in group C, compared to 38% in Group M and 16% in group T (p < 0.01). The Truview PCD offers the best laryngeal view, although it takes a longer time for intubation. The C-MAC laryngoscope provides similar laryngeal views as the Macintosh blade, and is an excellent teaching aid. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Controversies in Pediatric Perioperative Airways.

    PubMed

    Klučka, Jozef; Štourač, Petr; Štoudek, Roman; Ťoukálková, Michaela; Harazim, Hana; Kosinová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric airway management is a challenge in routine anesthesia practice. Any airway-related complication due to improper procedure can have catastrophic consequences in pediatric patients. The authors reviewed the current relevant literature using the following data bases: Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline (OVID SP), and Dynamed, and the following keywords: Airway/s, Children, Pediatric, Difficult Airways, and Controversies. From a summary of the data, we identified several controversies: difficult airway prediction, difficult airway management, cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes for securing pediatric airways, rapid sequence induction (RSI), laryngeal mask versus endotracheal tube, and extubation timing. The data show that pediatric anesthesia practice in perioperative airway management is currently lacking the strong evidence-based medicine (EBM) data that is available for adult subpopulations. A number of procedural steps in airway management are derived only from adult populations. However, the objective is the same irrespective of patient age: proper securing of the airway and oxygenation of the patient.

  4. Controversies in Pediatric Perioperative Airways

    PubMed Central

    Klučka, Jozef; Štourač, Petr; Štoudek, Roman; Ťoukálková, Michaela; Harazim, Hana; Kosinová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric airway management is a challenge in routine anesthesia practice. Any airway-related complication due to improper procedure can have catastrophic consequences in pediatric patients. The authors reviewed the current relevant literature using the following data bases: Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline (OVID SP), and Dynamed, and the following keywords: Airway/s, Children, Pediatric, Difficult Airways, and Controversies. From a summary of the data, we identified several controversies: difficult airway prediction, difficult airway management, cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes for securing pediatric airways, rapid sequence induction (RSI), laryngeal mask versus endotracheal tube, and extubation timing. The data show that pediatric anesthesia practice in perioperative airway management is currently lacking the strong evidence-based medicine (EBM) data that is available for adult subpopulations. A number of procedural steps in airway management are derived only from adult populations. However, the objective is the same irrespective of patient age: proper securing of the airway and oxygenation of the patient. PMID:26759809

  5. High-frequency oscillation of the airway and chest wall.

    PubMed

    Fink, James B; Mahlmeister, Michael J

    2002-07-01

    High-frequency oscillation (HFO), applied to either the airway or chest wall, has been associated with changes in sputum attributes and clearance. The evolution of evidence, both in vitro and in vivo, supporting the use of HFO is reviewed. Devices that apply HFO to the airway range from the relatively simple mechanical Flutter and Acapella devices to the more complex Percussionaire Intrapercussive Ventilators. and the Hayek Oscillator are designed to provide high-frequency chest wall compression. Operation and use of these devices are described with examples of differentiation of device types by characterization of flows, and airway and esophageal pressures. Although HFO devices span a broad range of costs, they provide a reasonable therapeutic option to support secretion clearance for patients with cystic fibrosis.

  6. Present-day prehospital airway management in the former Eastern German state of Thuringia: equipment and education of emergency physicians.

    PubMed

    Hüter, Lars; Schreiber, Torsten; Reichel, Jens; Schwarzkopf, Konrad

    2009-04-01

    We describe the condition of education and equipment regarding prehospital airway management in the German federal state of Thuringia, representing a part of former Eastern Germany. In 2006 a postal survey of the 39 emergency medical stations (EMS) in Thuringia was carried out. The response rate was 100%. In 72% of the EMS, a device for extraglottic airway management and in all EMS a device for cricothyrotomy was available. A device to monitor end-tidal CO2 was available in 41%. Difficulties in airway management in the past two years were reported from 74% of the EMS. Ongoing training and education in airway management is provided in 82% of the emergency districts. This survey reveals wide variations in the equipment for airway management available to prehospital emergency physicians in Thuringia. Given the reported difficulties in airway management, availability of a more standardized set of airway management devices in Thuringia may be helpful.

  7. Airway Monitoring experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-02-25

    ISS046e048360 (02/25/2016) --- NASA astronaut Tim Kopra prepares to participate in the Airway Monitoring experiment. With dust particles present in the International Space Station atmosphere, Airway Monitoring studies the occurrence and indicators of airway inflammation in crewmembers, using ultra-sensitive gas analyzers to analyze exhaled air. This helps to highlight any health impacts and to maintain crewmember well-being on future human spaceflight missions, especially longer-duration missions to the Moon and Mars for example, where crewmembers will have to be more self-sufficient in highlighting and avoiding such conditions.

  8. Airway Monitoring experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-02-25

    ISS046e047972 (02/25/2016) --- ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Timothy Peake participates in the Airway Monitoring experiment. With dust particles present in the International Space Station atmosphere, Airway Monitoring studies the occurrence and indicators of airway inflammation in crewmembers, using ultra-sensitive gas analyzers to analyze exhaled air. This helps to highlight any health impacts and to maintain crewmember well-being on future human spaceflight missions, especially longer-duration missions to the Moon and Mars for example, where crewmembers will have to be more self-sufficient in highlighting and avoiding such conditions.

  9. User preference comparing a conventional videolaryngoscope blade vs. a novel suction videolaryngoscope blade in simulated hemorrhagic airway intubation.

    PubMed

    Boedeker, Ben H; Bernhagen, Mary; Miller, David J; Murray, W Bosseau

    2012-01-01

    The hemorrhagic airway makes visualization during laryngoscopy and intubation difficult. A specially designed videolaryngoscope blade with integrated suction was developed and studied in a simulated hemorrhagic airway at the Omaha VA Medical Center. Results show that, if available, many users would choose to include this new suction device in their standard airway carts due to its "always there" design.

  10. [Self-assessment of the effect of dysphagia on the quality of life in patients after partial laryngectomy for cancer initially located in the supraglottic area].

    PubMed

    Strek, Paweł; Hydzik-Sobocińtska, Karolina; Składzień, Jacek; Modrzejewski, Maciej; Zagólski, Olaf; Blaschke, Joanna; Najdzionek, Daniel; Kurzyński, Marian; Muszyński, Piotr; Gawlik, Jolanta; Dutsch-Wicherek, Magdalena

    2005-09-01

    Dysphagia is frequent in patients after partial laryngectomy for cancer initially located in the supraglottic area. To ensure the best quality of life, establishing how the patient feels after treatment is necessary. Therefore, a self-administered questionnaire was designed to evaluate the dysphagia. 95 patients (75 male and 20 women) who were operated in ENT Department CMUJ between 1998-2004 participated in this study. The MDADI questionnaire in the Polish version was used. The subjective evaluation by the patient of dysphagia is directly related to the size of the tumor and the extent of the partial laryngectomy treatment. Patients, whose tumor was located in supraglottic-glottic area, had subtotal laryngectomy m. Miodoński. Their quality of life was significantly worse due to dysphagia than those with tumors located only in the supraglottic area. Swallowing dysfunctionality was significantly greater after the resection of the hyoid bone. Reconstruction of the base of a tongue by a graft of angiopedunculated submandibular gland diminished the difficulties in swallowing. Moreover, the longer the period after treatment, the higher the quality of life becomes because of the improvement in the swallowing functionality.

  11. Emergency airway puncture

    MedlinePlus

    ... be inserted into the throat, just below the Adam's apple (cricoid cartilage), into the airway. In a ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  12. Computed tomography of nonanesthetized cats with upper airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Krystina; O'Brien, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Upper airway obstruction is a potentially life-threatening problem in cats and for which a noninvasive, sensitive method rapid diagnosis is needed. The purposes of this prospective study were to describe a computed tomography (CT) technique for nonanesthetized cats with upper airway obstruction, CT characteristics of obstructive diseases, and comparisons between CT findings and findings from other diagnostic tests. Ten cats with clinical signs of upper airway obstruction were recruited for the study. Four cats with no clinical signs of upper airway obstruction were recruited as controls. All cats underwent computed tomography imaging without sedation or anesthesia, using a 16-slice helical CT scanner and a previously described transparent positional device. Three-dimensional (3D) internal volume rendering was performed on all CT image sets and 3D external volume rendering was also performed on cats with evidence of mass lesions. Confirmation of upper airway obstruction was based on visual laryngeal examination, endoscopy, fine-needle aspirate, biopsy, or necropsy. Seven cats were diagnosed with intramural upper airway masses, two with laryngotracheitis, and one with laryngeal paralysis. The CT and 3D volume-rendered images identified lesions consistent with upper airway disease in all cats. In cats with mass lesions, CT accurately identified the mass and location. Findings from this study supported the use of CT imaging as an effective technique for diagnosing upper airway obstruction in nonanesthetized cats.

  13. Airway stents in children.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, T

    2008-04-01

    Airway obstruction in children is a rare, but difficult clinical problem, with no clear agreement on optimal therapeutic approach. Stenting of the airway has been used successfully in adults, and is an attractive alternative in children. Fundamental differences of pediatric compared to adult use include the benign nature of most stenoses, the narrow and soft airways of children, the required long-term tolerance and adaptation to growth. These differences may significantly alter the therapeutic balance, calling into question the precise role stents play in the treatment of airway obstruction in children. Stent placement can be technically demanding but is not exceedingly difficult. Experience is necessary to select the proper size and type of stent. Metal stents usually achieve airway patency and clinical improvement in the majority of cases, while this is less frequently the case with silicone stents. Some complications such as granulation and secretion retention seem to occur in most children after stent implantation. Unfortunately, severe complications including death have been reported in a significant proportion of children. Stent related mortality can be estimated at 12.9% from published data, but these include complication centered reports. The initial euphoria for airway stents in children has largely abated and most authors agree that they should only be employed in circumstances with no good alternatives. It is crucial that all surgical and medical alternatives are considered and the decision to place a stent is not made because other options are overlooked or not available locally. Stent use in a palliative setting has also been reported and is probably reasonable. Stents will only allow limited adaptation for the growth of pediatric airways by balloon dilatation. All metal stents should be considered as potentially permanent, and removal sometimes may only be possible through a surgical and sometimes risky approach.

  14. Airway clearance techniques for bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Annemarie L; Burge, Angela T; Holland, Anne E

    2015-11-23

    these data in the meta-analysis; the review is therefore narrative.One study including 20 adults that compared an airway oscillatory device versus no treatment found no significant difference in the number of exacerbations at 12 weeks (low-quality evidence). Data were not available for assessment of the impact of ACTs on time to exacerbation, duration or incidence of hospitalisation or total number of hospitalised days. The same study reported clinically significant improvements in HRQoL on both disease-specific and cough-related measures. The median difference in the change in total St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score over three months in this study was 7.5 units (P value = 0.005 (Wilcoxon)). Treatment consisting of high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) or a mix of ACTs prescribed for 15 days significantly improved HRQoL when compared with no treatment (low-quality evidence). Two studies reported mean increases in sputum expectoration with airway oscillatory devices in the short term of 8.4 mL (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4 to 13.4 mL) and in the long term of 3 mL (P value = 0.02). HFCWO improved forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) by 156 mL and forced vital capacity (FVC) by 229.1 mL when applied for 15 days, but other types of ACTs showed no effect on dynamic lung volumes. Two studies reported a reduction in pulmonary hyperinflation among adults with non-positive expiratory pressure (PEP) ACTs (difference in functional residual capacity (FRC) of 19%, P value < 0.05; difference in total lung capacity (TLC) of 703 mL, P value = 0.02) and with airway oscillatory devices (difference in FRC of 30%, P value < 0.05) compared with no ACTs. Low-quality evidence suggests that ACTs (HFCWO, airway oscillatory devices or a mix of ACTs) reduce symptoms of breathlessness and cough and improve ease of sputum expectoration compared with no treatment (P value < 0.05). ACTs had no effect on gas exchange, and no studies reported effects of antibiotic

  15. A case of difficult airway due to lingual tonsillar hypertrophy in a patient with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Koichi; Ikeda, Daisuke; Ishikawa, Seiji; Makita, Koshi

    2003-09-01

    In this report, we describe airway management of symptomatic lingual tonsillar hypertrophy in a pediatric patient with Down's syndrome. Besides obstructive sleep apnea, the history included a small atrial septal defect with mild aortic regurgitation and Moyamoya disease. Anesthesia was induced with IV administration of 1 mg/kg of propofol, followed by inhalation of sevoflurane in 100% oxygen. Muscle relaxants were not used on induction. Rigid laryngoscopy could not visualize the epiglottis because of hypertrophied tonsillar tissue, and mask ventilation became difficult when spontaneous breathing stopped. We avoided using a laryngeal mask airway because of a slight bleeding tendency presumably caused by preoperative antiplatelet therapy. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy through the nasal cavity in combination with jet ventilation successfully identified the glottis and allowed nasotracheal intubation to be accomplished. After lingual tonsillectomy, the patient was extubated on the seventh postoperative day, after supraglottic edema had resolved. Fiberoptic nasotracheal intubation under inhaled anesthesia may therefore be preferable in pediatric or uncooperative patients with symptomatic lingual tonsillar hypertrophy.

  16. Comparison of laryngeal mask airway vs tracheal intubation: a systematic review on airway complications.

    PubMed

    van Esch, Babette F; Stegeman, Inge; Smit, Adriana L

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) has advantages over the tracheal tube (TT) in terms of incidence of cough, sore throat, laryngospasm, dysphagia, dysphonia, and blood staining. This is a systematic literature review performed at the Universtity Medical Center of Utrecht. The online databases PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials. Two independent reviewers selected relevant articles after title, abstract, and full text screening. Articles were assessed on risk of bias in accordance with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Study results of the LMA and the TT were related to the method of selection of the device size and the method for cuff inflation. Of the 1718 unique articles, we included 19 studies which used the LMA Classic, the LMA Proseal, the Flexible Reinforced LMA, and the LMA Supreme compared with TT. After methodological inspection, data could not be pooled due to heterogeneity among the selected studies. Overall, no clear advantage of the LMA over the TT was found but the LMA Supreme was related to the lowest incidence of airway complications. In this review, no clear difference in incidence of postoperative airway complications could be demonstrated between LMA and TT. The LMA Supreme may reduce the incidence of airway complication in comparison to the TT but high quality randomized trials are recommended to further objectify if use of the LMA decreases the risk on postoperative airway complications.

  17. Difficult airway management.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Peter; Sloane, Christian; Ban, Kevin M; Lanigra, Michele; Wolfe, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Airway management is unequivocally the most important responsibility of the emergency physician. No matter how prepared for the task, no matter what technologies are utilized, there will be cases that are difficult. The most important part of success in the management of a difficult airway is preparation. When the patient is encountered, it is too late to check whether appropriate equipment is available, whether a rescue plan has been in place, and what alternative strategies are available for an immediate response. The following article will review the principles of airway management with an emphasis upon preparation, strategies for preventing or avoiding difficulties, and recommended technical details that hopefully will encourage the reader to be more prepared and technically skillful in practice.

  18. End results of a prospective trial on elective lateral neck dissection vs type III modified radical neck dissection in the management of supraglottic and transglottic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    1999-12-01

    Either modified type III radical neck dissection (MRND) or lateral neck dissections (LNDs) are considered valid treatments for patients with laryngeal carcinoma with clinically negative neck findings (N0). The object of this prospective study was to compare complications, neck recurrences, and survival results of elective MRND and LND on the management of laryngeal cancer patients. Patients and Methods This prospective randomized study began in 1990, and patient accrual was closed on December 1993. A total of 132 patients was included in the trial. All patients had previously untreated T2-T4 N0 M0 supraglottic or transglottic squamous cell carcinoma. No significant imbalance was found between groups with respect to demographic, clinical, pathologic, and other therapeutic variables. Seventy-one patients were given MRNDs (13 bilateral) and 61 were given LNDs (18 bilateral). The false-negative rate was 26%, and most positive nodes were sited at levels II and III. Complications and period of hospitalization were similar in both groups. There were 6 ipsilateral neck recurrences (4 in the MRND group, and 2 in the LND group). The 5-year actuarial survival calculated by Kaplan-Meier method was 72.3% in the MRND group and 62. 4% in the LND group (log-rank test p =.312). The rate of false-negative nodes in supraglottic and transglottic carcinomas was 26%, and most positive nodes were at levels II and III. The rates of 5-year overall survival, neck recurrences, and complications were similar in both groups. These results confirm the efficacy of lateral neck dissection in the elective treatment of the neck in patients with supraglottic and transglottic carcinomas. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Head Neck 21: 694-702, 1999.

  19. Posttreatment FDG-PET Uptake in the Supraglottic and Glottic Larynx Correlates With Decreased Quality of Life After Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dornfeld, Ken Hopkins, Shane; Simmons, Joel; Spitz, Douglas R.; Menda, Yusuf; Graham, Michael; Smith, Russell; Funk, Gerry; Karnell, Lucy; Karnell, Michael; Dornfeld, Maude; Yao Min; Buatti, John

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: Inflammation and increased metabolic activity associated with oxidative stress in irradiated normal tissues may contribute to both complications following radiotherapy and increased glucose uptake as detected by posttherapy fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET imaging. We sought to determine whether increased glucose uptake in normal tissues after chemoradiotherapy is associated with increased toxicity. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with locoregionally advanced head and neck cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy and free of recurrence at 1 year were studied. FDG-PET imaging was obtained at 3 and 12 months posttreatment. Standardized uptake value (SUV) levels were determined at various head and neck regions. Functional outcome was measured using a quality of life questionnaire and weight loss and type of diet tolerated 1 year after therapy. A one-tailed Pearson correlation test was used to examine associations between SUV levels and functional outcome measures. Results: Standardized uptake value levels in the supraglottic and glottic larynx from FDG-PET imaging obtained 12 months posttreatment were inversely associated with quality of life measures and were correlated with a more restricted diet 1 year after therapy. SUV levels at 3 months after therapy did not correlate with functional outcome. Increases in SUV levels in normal tissues between 3 and 12 months were commonly found in the absence of recurrence. Conclusion: Altered metabolism in irradiated tissues persists 1 year after therapy. FDG-PET scans may be used to assess normal tissue damage following chemoradiotherapy. These data support investigating hypermetabolic conditions associated with either inflammation, oxidative stress, or both, as causal agents for radiation-induced normal tissue damage.

  20. Airway clearance techniques for bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Annemarie L; Burge, Angela; Holland, Anne E

    2013-05-31

    People with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis commonly experience chronic cough and sputum production and these features may be associated with progressive decline in clinical status. Airway clearance techniques (ACTs) are often prescribed to facilitate expectoration of sputum from the lungs, but the efficacy of these techniques in a stable clinical state or during an acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis is unclear. Primary: to determine the effects of ACTs on the rate of acute exacerbations, incidence of hospitalisation and health-related quality of life in individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis.Secondary: to determine whether a) ACTs are safe for individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis and b) ACTs have beneficial effects on physiology and symptoms in individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials from inception to October 2012, PEDro in October 2012 and handsearched relevant journals. Randomised controlled parallel and cross-over trials that compared an ACT to no treatment, sham ACT or directed coughing in participants with bronchiectasis. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Five studies involving 51 participants met the inclusion criteria of the review, all of which were cross-over design. Four studies were on adults with stable bronchiectasis, and the other study was on clinically stable children with bronchiectasis. Three studies were single treatment sessions, two were longer-term studies. The interventions varied and some control groups received a sham intervention while others were inactive. The methodological quality of the studies was variable and the studies were not able to blind participants and personal. Heterogeneity between studies precluded these data from meta-analysis and the review was therefore narrative.One study on 20 adults comparing an airway oscillatory device with no treatment found no significant

  1. The Tulip GT® airway versus the facemask and Guedel airway: a randomised, controlled, cross-over study by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers in anaesthetised patients.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, A; Robinson, P N; Hasan, M

    2016-03-01

    We performed a randomised, controlled, cross-over study of lung ventilation by Basic Life Support-trained providers using either the Tulip GT® airway or a facemask with a Guedel airway in 60 anaesthetised patients. Successful ventilation was achieved if the provider produced an end-tidal CO2 > 3.5 kPa and a tidal volume > 250 ml in two of the first three breaths, within 60 sec and within two attempts. Fifty-seven (95%) providers achieved successful ventilation using the Tulip GT compared with 35 (58%) using the facemask (p < 0.0001). Comparing the Tulip GT and facemask, the mean (SD) end-tidal CO2 was 5.0 (0.7) kPa vs 2.5 (1.5) kPa, tidal volume was 494 (175) ml vs 286 (186) ml and peak inspiratory pressure was 18.3 (3.4) cmH2 O vs 13.6 (7) cmH2 O respectively (all p < 0.0001). Forty-seven (78%) users favoured the Tulip GT airway. These results are similar to a previous manikin study using the same protocol, suggesting a close correlation between human and manikin studies for this airway device. We conclude that the Tulip GT should be considered as an adjunct to airway management both within and outside hospitals when ventilation is being undertaken by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers. © 2015 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. Advances in prehospital airway management.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Pe; Grabinsky, A

    2014-01-01

    Prehospital airway management is a key component of emergency responders and remains an important task of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) systems worldwide. The most advanced airway management techniques involving placement of oropharyngeal airways such as the Laryngeal Mask Airway or endotracheal tube. Endotracheal tube placement success is a common measure of out-of-hospital airway management quality. Regional variation in regard to training, education, and procedural exposure may be the major contributor to the findings in success and patient outcome. In studies demonstrating poor outcomes related to prehospital-attempted endotracheal intubation (ETI), both training and skill level of the provider are usually often low. Research supports a relationship between the number of intubation experiences and ETI success. National standards for certification of emergency medicine provider are in general too low to guarantee good success rate in emergency airway management by paramedics and physicians. Some paramedic training programs require more intense airway training above the national standard and some EMS systems in Europe staff their system with anesthesia providers instead. ETI remains the cornerstone of definitive prehospital airway management, However, ETI is not without risk and outcomes data remains controversial. Many systems may benefit from more input and guidance by the anesthesia department, which have higher volumes of airway management procedures and extensive training and experience not just with training of airway management but also with different airway management techniques and adjuncts.

  3. Advances in prehospital airway management

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, PE; Grabinsky, A

    2014-01-01

    Prehospital airway management is a key component of emergency responders and remains an important task of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) systems worldwide. The most advanced airway management techniques involving placement of oropharyngeal airways such as the Laryngeal Mask Airway or endotracheal tube. Endotracheal tube placement success is a common measure of out-of-hospital airway management quality. Regional variation in regard to training, education, and procedural exposure may be the major contributor to the findings in success and patient outcome. In studies demonstrating poor outcomes related to prehospital-attempted endotracheal intubation (ETI), both training and skill level of the provider are usually often low. Research supports a relationship between the number of intubation experiences and ETI success. National standards for certification of emergency medicine provider are in general too low to guarantee good success rate in emergency airway management by paramedics and physicians. Some paramedic training programs require more intense airway training above the national standard and some EMS systems in Europe staff their system with anesthesia providers instead. ETI remains the cornerstone of definitive prehospital airway management, However, ETI is not without risk and outcomes data remains controversial. Many systems may benefit from more input and guidance by the anesthesia department, which have higher volumes of airway management procedures and extensive training and experience not just with training of airway management but also with different airway management techniques and adjuncts. PMID:24741499

  4. Comparison of streamlined liner of the pharynx airway (SLIPA ™) and laryngeal mask airway: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, G J; Kang, H; Baek, C W; Jung, Y H; Woo, Y C; Kim, S H; Kim, J G

    2015-05-01

    We performed a systematic review to compare the efficacy and safety of the streamlined liner of the pharynx airway and laryngeal mask airway used in adults during general anaesthesia. We included 14 studies with studies with 1273 patients in total. There was no evidence of a difference between the two devices in insertion success rate on the first attempt (13 studies, 1143 patients), insertion time (seven studies, 576 patients), ease of insertion (five studies, 466 patients), oropharyngeal leak pressure (eight studies, 771 patients) and the quality of the fibreoptic view of the larynx through the device (three studies, 281 patients). The relative risk (95% CI) of bloodstaining of the device (nine studies, 859 patients) was 2.09 (1.46-3.00) for the streamlined liner of the pharynx airway compared with the laryngeal mask airway. Other adverse events were comparable. Subgroup analysis suggested that the insertion by novice users might be faster and more successful with the streamlined liner of the pharynx airway than the laryngeal mask airway; however, this was from only two studies and 186 patients. The method of size selection of the streamlined liner of the pharynx airway device might also affect the speed of insertion: choosing according to the width of the patient's thyroid cartilage, rather than height, may produce better results. © 2015 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Endoscopic low coherence interferometry in upper airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacrétaz, Yves; Boss, Daniel; Lang, Florian; Depeursinge, Christian

    2009-07-01

    We introduce Endoscopic Low Coherence Interferometry to obtain topology of upper airways through commonly used rigid endoscopes. Quantitative dimensioning of upper airways pathologies is crucial to provide maximum health recovery chances, for example in order to choose the correct stent to treat endoluminal obstructing pathologies. Our device is fully compatible with procedures used in day-to-day examinations and can potentially be brought to bedside. Besides this, the approach described here can be almost straightforwardly adapted to other endoscopy-related field of interest, such as gastroscopy and arthroscopy. The principle of the method is first exposed, then filtering procedure used to extract the depth information is described. Finally, demonstration of the method ability to operate on biological samples is assessed through measurements on ex-vivo pork bronchi.

  6. Fully biodegradable airway stents using amino alcohol-based poly(ester amide) elastomers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jane; Boutin, Kyle G; Abdulhadi, Omar; Personnat, Lyndia D; Shazly, Tarek; Langer, Robert; Channick, Colleen L; Borenstein, Jeffrey T

    2013-10-01

    Airway stents are often used to maintain patency of the tracheal and bronchial passages in patients suffering from central airway obstruction caused by malignant tumors, scarring, and injury. Like most conventional medical implants, they are designed to perform their functions for a limited period of time, after which surgical removal is often required. Two primary types of airway stents are in general use, metal mesh devices and elastomeric tubes; both are constructed using permanent materials, and must be removed when no longer needed, leading to potential complications. This paper describes the development of process technologies for bioresorbable prototype elastomeric airway stents that would dissolve completely after a predetermined period of time or by an enzymatic triggering mechanism. These airway stents are constructed from biodegradable elastomers with high mechanical strength, flexibility and optical transparency. This work combines microfabrication technology with bioresorbable polymers, with the ultimate goal of a fully biodegradable airway stent ultimately capable of improving patient safety and treatment outcomes.

  7. How much force is required to dislodge an alternate airway?

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jestin N; Mayrose, James; Wang, Henry E

    2010-01-01

    Endotracheal tube (ETT) dislodgment is a potentially catastrophic adverse event. Newer alternate airway devices-esophageal-tracheal Combitube (ETC), King laryngeal tube disposable airway (King LT), and laryngeal mask airway (LMA)-are easier to insert, but their relative extubating forces remain unknown. To examine the applied forces required to dislodge an ETC, King LT, LMA, and ETT. We used five recently deceased adult unembalmed cadavers. In random order, we sequentially inserted an ETC, King LT, LMA, and standard ETT. Because commercial tube holders are not designed for all alternate airways, we secured the devices with a standard adhesive tape method. Using a precision digital force measuring device, we measured the minimum manually applied axial force (lb) that dislodged each airway device at least 4 cm. We compared required dislodgment forces between airway devices using a mixed-effects regression model, adjusting for cadaver height, weight, neck circumference, and thyromental distance. Characteristics of the cadavers were as follows (median, interquartile range [IQR]): height 172 cm (167-177), weight 98 kg (84-120), neck circumference 46.5 cm (41-52), and thyromental distance 7.5 cm (7.5-8). Required axial dislodgment forces for each airway device were as follows (median, IQR): ETC 28.3 lb (19.0-28.6), King LT 12.5 lb (11.7-13.3), LMA 18.3 lb (14.0-21.9), and ETT 14.4 lb (13.5-22.1). The ETC required twice as much dislodgment force as the ETT (adjusted difference 16.7 lb, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.3 to 25.1). The King LT and LMA dislodgment forces were similar to that of the ETT (King LT vs. ETT adjusted difference 5.9 lb, 95% CI: -2.4 to 14.2; LMA vs. ETT 8.1 lb, 95% CI: -0.2 to 16.5). In a cadaver model of unintended airway dislodgment, the ETC required the most force for dislodgment. The King LT and LMA performed similarly to a standard ETT.

  8. Leukotrienes and airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Okunishi, Katsuhide; Peters-Golden, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by airway obstruction and hyperresponsiveness. Leukotrienes (LTs) are lipid mediators that contribute to many aspects of asthma pathogenesis. As the LT pathway is relatively steroid-resistant, its blockade by alternative strategies is a desirable component of asthma management. Cysteinyl LT receptor 1 antagonists have been utilized worldwide for more than 10 years, and while their efficacy in asthma is well accepted, their limitations are also evident. In this review, we summarize the biological effects of LTs in asthma, review recent advances in LT receptors, and consider possible new therapeutic targets in the LT pathway that offer the potential to achieve better control of asthma in the future. PMID:21352897

  9. Upper Airway Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Verbraecken, Johan A.; De Backer, Wilfried A.

    2009-01-01

    This review discusses the pathophysiological aspects of sleep-disordered breathing, with focus on upper airway mechanics in obstructive and central sleep apnoea, Cheyne-Stokes respiration and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. These disorders constitute the end points of a spectrum with distinct yet interrelated mechanisms that lead to substantial pathology, i.e. increased upper airway collapsibility, control of breathing instability, increased work of breathing, disturbed ventilatory system mechanics and neurohormonal changes. Concepts are changing. Although sleep apnoea is considered more and more to be an increased loop gain disorder, the central type of apnoea is now considered as an obstructive event, because it causes pharyngeal narrowing, associated with prolonged expiration. Although a unifying concept for the pathogenesis is lacking, it seems that these patients are in a vicious circle. Knowledge of common patterns of sleep-disordered breathing may help to identify these patients and guide therapy. PMID:19478479

  10. The airway, breathing and orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Page, David C; Mahony, Derek

    2010-01-01

    Dentists need to play a bigger role in managing airway development and craniofacial formation even though the relationship between the airway, breathing and malocclusion remains quite controversial. Certainly the airway, the mode of breathing and craniofacial formation are so interrelated during growth and development that form can follow function and function can follow form. So, it is imperative to normalize form and function as early as possible so that function is optimized for life.

  11. Airway Management of Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Overbeck, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    Patients in respiratory distress often require airway management, including endotracheal intubation. It takes a methodical approach to transition from an unstable patient in distress with an unsecured airway, to a stable, sedated patient with a definitive airway. Through a deliberate course of advanced preparation, the emergency physician can tailor the approach to the individual clinical situation and optimize the chance of first-pass success. Sedation of the intubated patient confers physiologic benefits and should be included in the plan for airway control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Catheter-Based Sensing In The Airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouke, J. M.; Saunders, K. G.

    1988-04-01

    Studies attempting to define the role of the respiratory tract in heating and humidifying inspired air point to the need for sensing many variables including airway wall and airstream temperatures, humidity, and surface fluid pH and osmolarity. In order to make such measurements in vivo in human volunteers, catheter based technologies must be exploited both to assure subject safety and subject comfort. Miniturization of the electrodes or sensors becomes a top priority. This paper describes the use of thin-film microelectronic technology to fabricate a miniature, flexible sensor which can be placed directly onto the surface of the airway to measure the electrical conductance of the fluids present. From this information the osmolarity of the surface fluid was calculated. Physiologic evaluation of the device and corroboration of the calculations was performed in mongrel dogs. We also describe the successful application of current thermistor technology for the thermal mapping of the airways in humans in order to characterize the dynamic intrathoracic events that occur during breathing. The thermal probe consisted of a flexible polyvinyl tube that contained fourteen small thermistors fixed into the catheter. Data have been obtained in dozens of people, both normal subjects and asthmatic patients, under a variety of interventions. These data have substantively advanced the study of asthma, a particularly troublesome chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder.

  13. Does Mandibular Distraction Vector Influence Airway Volumes and Outcome?

    PubMed

    Zellner, Elizabeth G; Mhlaba, Julie M; Reid, Russell R; Steinbacher, Derek M

    2017-01-01

    The goal of mandibular distraction in the Pierre-Robin sequence is to maximally expand the oropharyngeal airway. It has been hypothesized that a steep oblique distraction vector might allow greater airway enlargement compared with horizontal distraction. This study compared vector orientation in relation to airway volume and overall clinical outcome. Micrognathic infants who underwent mandibular distraction with sufficient computed tomographic data were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic, diagnostic, perioperative, and distraction data were recorded. Groups were separated based on distraction vector (group 1, horizontal; group 2, oblique). Airway and mandibular volumes were measured using Mimics (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). Morphologic and outcomes data were analyzed. Statistics involved 2-tailed t test, Pearson correlation, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Mean age at distraction was 40 days, with devices maintained for 82 days on average. Fifty percent of patients were girls and 65% had cleft palate. Forty computed tomograms were analyzed. Airway (1,234 vs 3,501 mm(3); P < .01) and mandibular (5,457 vs 11,827 mm(3); P < .01) volumes, minimal airway area (12.5 vs 63.7 mm(2); P < .01), and posterior airway space distance (2.3 vs 9.8 mm; P = .04) were significantly increased after distraction. Patients also had clinically improved sleep studies after distraction (apnea hypopnea index, 51.3 vs 5.5; P < .01). Vector analysis showed an average of 5.3° and 14.0° in groups 1 and 2, respectively (n = 10 each). Intergroup analysis showed a trend toward increased airway volume in horizontal vectors (548 vs 255% of preoperative volume; P = .058), with slightly longer distraction length (20.3 vs 16.6 mm; P = .17). However, ANCOVA regression analysis showed no difference in the relation between vector and length. Other morphologic data and sleep study outcomes (apnea hypopnea index, 7.0 vs 3.9; P = .09) also were not statistically different between

  14. 21 CFR 874.5370 - Tongs antichoke device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identification. A tongs antichoke device is a device that is intended to be used in an emergency situation to grasp and remove foreign objects that obstruct a patient's airway to prevent asphyxiation of the patient... airway in a blind manner to grasp and extract foreign objects, and a stainless steel forceps with...

  15. Advances in Positive Airway Pressure Treatment Modalities for Hypoventilation Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Dan; Shetty, Safal; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Rationale Positive airway pressure therapy for hypoventilation syndromes can significantly improve health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), healthcare costs, and even mortality. The sleep-disordered breathing in such individuals are quite complex and require sophisticated devices with algorithms that are designed to accurately detect and effectively treat respiratory events that includes hypoventilation, upper airway obstruction, lower airway obstruction, central apneas and central hypopneas and reduce the work of breathing while maintaining breathing comfort. Objectives The therapeutic physiological rationale for the various advanced PAP modalities and the details about the principles of operation and technology implementation are provided here. Conclusions The physiological rationale for advanced PAP modalities is sound considering the complexity of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with hypoventilation syndromes. Although such devices are increasingly used in clinical practice, the supporting clinical evidence – specifically comparative-effectiveness studies in real-life conditions -- needs to be performed. Moreover, there is much opportunity for further refining these devices that include the ability of the device to reliably monitor gas-exchange, sleep-wakefulness state, and for reducing variability in device efficacy due to provider-selected device-settings. PMID:25346650

  16. Brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wykes, P M

    1991-06-01

    This is a complex condition, recognized primarily in brachycephalic breeds, that results in varying degrees of upper airway obstruction. The signs consist of respiratory distress, stridor, reduced exercise tolerance, and in more severe cases, cyanosis and collapse. The inherent anatomy of the brachycephalic skull contributes to the development of these signs. Such anatomic features include: a shortened and distorted nasopharynx, stenotic nares, an elongated soft palate, and everted laryngeal saccules. The increased negative pressure created in the pharyngolaryngeal region, as a result of these obstructing structures, ultimately results in distortion and collapse of the arytenoid cartilages of the larynx.

  17. Derivation and Validation of The Prehospital Difficult Airway IdentificationTool (PreDAIT): A Predictive Model for Difficult Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jestin N.; Hostler, David; Guyette, Francis X.; Pinchalk, Mark; Martin-Gill, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Endotracheal intubation (ETI) in the prehospital setting poses unique challenges where multiple ETI attempts are associated with adverse patient outcomes. Early identification of difficult ETI cases will allow providers to tailor airway-management efforts to minimize complications associated with ETI. We sought to derive and validate a prehospital difficult airway identification tool based on predictors of difficult ETI in other settings. Methods We prospectively collected patient and airway data on all airway attempts from 16 Advanced Life Support (ALS) ground emergency medical services (EMS) agencies from January 2011 to October 2014. Cases that required more than two ETI attempts and cases where an alternative airway strategy (e.g. supraglottic airway) was employed after one unsuccessful ETI attempt were categorized as “difficult.” We used a random allocation sequence to split the data into derivation and validation subsets. Using backward elimination, factors with a p<0.1 were included in the multivariable regression for the derivation cohort and then tested in the validation cohort. We used this model to determine the area under the curve (AUC), and the sensitivity and specificity for each cut point in both the derivation and validation cohorts. Results We collected data on 1,102 cases with 568 in the derivation set (155 difficult cases; 27%) and 534 in the validation set (135 difficult cases; 25%). Of the collected variables, five factors were predictive of difficult ETI in the derivation model (adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval [CI]): Glasgow coma score [GCS] >3 (2.15, 1.19–3.88), limited neck movement (2.24, 1.28–3.93), trismus/jaw clenched (2.24, 1.09–4.6), inability to palpate the landmarks of the neck (5.92, 2.77–12.66), and fluid in the airway such as blood or emesis (2.25, 1.51–3.36). This was the most parsimonious model and exhibited good fit (Hosmer-Lemeshow test p = 0.167) with an AUC of 0.68 (95% CI [0.64–0

  18. Derivation and Validation of The Prehospital Difficult Airway IdentificationTool (PreDAIT): A Predictive Model for Difficult Intubation.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jestin N; Hostler, David; Guyette, Francis X; Pinchalk, Mark; Martin-Gill, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Endotracheal intubation (ETI) in the prehospital setting poses unique challenges where multiple ETI attempts are associated with adverse patient outcomes. Early identification of difficult ETI cases will allow providers to tailor airway-management efforts to minimize complications associated with ETI. We sought to derive and validate a prehospital difficult airway identification tool based on predictors of difficult ETI in other settings. We prospectively collected patient and airway data on all airway attempts from 16 Advanced Life Support (ALS) ground emergency medical services (EMS) agencies from January 2011 to October 2014. Cases that required more than two ETI attempts and cases where an alternative airway strategy (e.g. supraglottic airway) was employed after one unsuccessful ETI attempt were categorized as "difficult." We used a random allocation sequence to split the data into derivation and validation subsets. Using backward elimination, factors with a p<0.1 were included in the multivariable regression for the derivation cohort and then tested in the validation cohort. We used this model to determine the area under the curve (AUC), and the sensitivity and specificity for each cut point in both the derivation and validation cohorts. We collected data on 1,102 cases with 568 in the derivation set (155 difficult cases; 27%) and 534 in the validation set (135 difficult cases; 25%). Of the collected variables, five factors were predictive of difficult ETI in the derivation model (adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval [CI]): Glasgow coma score [GCS] >3 (2.15, 1.19-3.88), limited neck movement (2.24, 1.28-3.93), trismus/jaw clenched (2.24, 1.09-4.6), inability to palpate the landmarks of the neck (5.92, 2.77-12.66), and fluid in the airway such as blood or emesis (2.25, 1.51-3.36). This was the most parsimonious model and exhibited good fit (Hosmer-Lemeshow test p = 0.167) with an AUC of 0.68 (95% CI [0.64-0.73]). When applied to the validation set, the

  19. Recurrent airway obstruction: a review.

    PubMed

    Pirie, R S

    2014-05-01

    Recurrent airway obstruction is a widely recognised airway disorder, characterised by hypersensitivity-mediated neutrophilic airway inflammation and lower airway obstruction in a subpopulation of horses when exposed to suboptimal environments high in airborne organic dust. Over the past decade, numerous studies have further advanced our understanding of different aspects of the disease. These include clarification of the important inhaled airborne agents responsible for disease induction, improving our understanding of the underlying genetic basis of disease susceptibility and unveiling the fundamental immunological mechanisms leading to establishment of the classic disease phenotype. This review, as well as giving a clinical overview of recurrent airway obstruction, summarises much of the work in these areas that have culminated in a more thorough understanding of this debilitating disease.

  20. Operative endoscopy of the airway

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Dustin M.

    2016-01-01

    Airway endoscopy has long been an important and useful tool in the management of thoracic diseases. As thoracic specialists have gained experience with both flexible and rigid bronchoscopic techniques, the technology has continued to evolve so that bronchoscopy is currently the foundation for diagnosis and treatment of many thoracic ailments. Airway endoscopy plays a significant role in the biopsy of tumors within the airways, mediastinum, and lung parenchyma. Endoscopic methods have been developed to treat benign and malignant airway stenoses and tracheomalacia. And more recently, techniques have been conceived to treat end-stage emphysema and prolonged air leaks in select patients. This review describes the abundant uses of airway endoscopy, as well as technical considerations and limitations of the current technologies. PMID:26981263

  1. Global airway disease beyond allergy.

    PubMed

    Hellings, Peter W; Prokopakis, Emmanuel P

    2010-03-01

    Besides the anatomic continuity of the upper and lower airways, inflammation in one part of the airway influences the homeostasis of the other. The mechanisms underlying this interaction have been studied primarily in allergic disease, showing systemic immune activation, induction of inflammation at a distance, and a negative impact of nasal inflammation on bronchial homeostasis. In addition to allergy, other inflammatory conditions of the upper airways are associated with lower airway disease. Rhinosinusitis is frequently associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The impairment of purification, humidification, and warming up of the inspired air by the nose in rhinosinusitis may be responsible in part for bronchial pathology. The resolution of sinonasal inflammation via medical and/or surgical treatment is responsible for the beneficial effect of the treatment on bronchial disease. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of upper and lower airway communication beyond allergic disease.

  2. The airway microbiome and disease.

    PubMed

    Marsland, Benjamin J; Yadava, Koshika; Nicod, Laurent P

    2013-08-01

    Although traditionally thought to be sterile, accumulating evidence now supports the concept that our airways harbor a microbiome. Thus far, studies have focused upon characterizing the bacterial constituents of the airway microbiome in both healthy and diseased lungs, but what perhaps provides the greatest impetus for the exploration of the airway microbiome is that different bacterial phyla appear to dominate diseased as compared with healthy lungs. As yet, there is very limited evidence supporting a functional role for the airway microbiome, but continued research in this direction is likely to provide such evidence, particularly considering the progress that has been made in understanding host-microbe mutualism in the intestinal tract. In this review, we highlight the major advances that have been made discovering and describing the airway microbiome, discuss the experimental evidence that supports a functional role for the microbiome in health and disease, and propose how this emerging field is going to impact clinical practice.

  3. Innovations in anesthesia education: the development and implementation of a resident rotation for advanced airway management.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Edward; Lane, Alan

    2009-12-01

    This article incorporates the following objectives: to review the current evidence regarding the occurrence and management of difficult airways, to outline the role for alternative technology in the management of the difficult airway, to provide a rationale for structured airway rotations in anesthesia residency training, to discuss the barriers to establishing the rotations, to outline issues that must be considered and resolved to enhance these rotations, and to share the experience we have gained over the last decade of offering an airway rotation in the Department of Anesthesiology at the University of Ottawa. The incidence of difficult laryngoscopy and intubation has not changed in recent times. Persistent attempts at direct laryngoscopy are associated with low success rates and patient complications. The early use of alternative devices improves the likelihood of success in airway management and reduces the potential for patient injury. Alternative airway management devices are increasingly available to Canadian anesthesiologists, and there is an expectation that anesthesiologists will possess the necessary skills to safely manage the difficult airway with these alternative devices. Anesthesia training programs must provide residents with the skill sets necessary for safe independent practice in airway management. The changes in the scope and reality of residency training have exposed limitations in the traditional mentoring model of residency training; consequently, many programs have responded by offering sub-specialty rotations. In particular, advanced airway management rotations are being offered increasingly to residents in the Canadian training programs. Considerations and strategies to develop and implement a structured airway management program during anesthesia residency are discussed.

  4. Laryngoaltimeter: a new ambulatory device for laryngeal height control, preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, Murat; Denizoğlu, Ilter

    2009-09-01

    The vertical larynx position has significant effects on vocal tract resonances and on the biomechanical properties of the vocal folds. It is generally agreed that the larynx should be kept in a comfortably low position during singing, and voice problems are often associated with a habitually raised larynx. A new method, and a battery operated portable device called Laryngoaltimeter, was developed to control laryngeal height continuously for therapeutic or educational purposes. Two similar condenser microphones attached on the suprasternal notch and supraglottic region were used to capture corresponding vibrations during phonation. The microphone signals were then filtered through a band pass filter (90-240 Hz), digitized, and compared to each other by detection algorithms of the Laryngoaltimeter. When the supraglottic microphone received subglottic resonance related vibrations due to laryngeal elevation, auditory and visual signals were produced as a biofeedback by the device. Waterfall amplitude spectrograms of the microphone signals verified that the frequencies captured by each microphone were dissimilar before and similar after laryngeal elevation. The accuracy of the device was found to be 87% on 13 subjects having different voice classifications as a demonstration of its use. Laryngoaltimeter is a prototype device and needs to be developed. Further research may also be established to investigate the habitual effects of keeping vertical position low by using Laryngoaltimeter as a biofeedback device during therapy exercises or voice lessons.

  5. Computational Flow Modeling of Human Upper Airway Breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylavarapu, Goutham

    Computational modeling of biological systems have gained a lot of interest in biomedical research, in the recent past. This thesis focuses on the application of computational simulations to study airflow dynamics in human upper respiratory tract. With advancements in medical imaging, patient specific geometries of anatomically accurate respiratory tracts can now be reconstructed from Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) or Computed Tomography (CT) scans, with better and accurate details than traditional cadaver cast models. Computational studies using these individualized geometrical models have advantages of non-invasiveness, ease, minimum patient interaction, improved accuracy over experimental and clinical studies. Numerical simulations can provide detailed flow fields including velocities, flow rates, airway wall pressure, shear stresses, turbulence in an airway. Interpretation of these physical quantities will enable to develop efficient treatment procedures, medical devices, targeted drug delivery etc. The hypothesis for this research is that computational modeling can predict the outcomes of a surgical intervention or a treatment plan prior to its application and will guide the physician in providing better treatment to the patients. In the current work, three different computational approaches Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Flow-Structure Interaction (FSI) and Particle Flow simulations were used to investigate flow in airway geometries. CFD approach assumes airway wall as rigid, and relatively easy to simulate, compared to the more challenging FSI approach, where interactions of airway wall deformations with flow are also accounted. The CFD methodology using different turbulence models is validated against experimental measurements in an airway phantom. Two case-studies using CFD, to quantify a pre and post-operative airway and another, to perform virtual surgery to determine the best possible surgery in a constricted airway is demonstrated. The unsteady

  6. Assessing the measurement of airway resistance by the interrupter technique.

    PubMed

    Zuriarrain Reyna, Yolanda; López Neyra, Alejandro; Sanz Santiago, Verónica; Almería Gil, Esmeralda; Villa Asensi, José Ramón

    2013-12-01

    Pulmonary function tests allow an objective assessment of the degree of bronchial obstruction in collaborative subjects. The measurement of airway resistance using passive methods is very helpful in non-collaborative subjects. The objective of this study was to assess the applicability of measuring airway resistance by the interrupter technique (Rint) in pediatric subjects, determining its reproducibility, reliability and accuracy versus other techniques to measure airway resistance. Cross-sectional study in healthy children and in children with an obstructive airway disease, all aged 2-18 years old. The Rint was measured using a portable device and results were compared to airway resistance measured by oscillometry and plethysmography. The reproducibility of measurements and the infuence of the different outcome measures (use of mask or mouthpiece, cheek support, or nose clip) were assessed. Valid measurements were obtained in 82.6% of 460 children (47.6% younger than 7 years old). Reproducibility was very good (ICC= 0.9412; p <0.00001), and no differences were found among the measurements obtained at separate time intervals (0.75 ± 0.3 versus 0.74 ± 0.28; p= 0.435). None of the factors indicated before had an effect on the reproducibility of measurements. Resistance values obtained by plethysmography and oscillometry were higher than those obtained using the Rint, with a positive correlation between them. The higher the degree of airway obstruction, the worse the correlation with plethysmography. The Rint measurement is a plausible and reproducible technique, and has an adequate correlation with the resistance measurements obtained using oscillometry or plethysmography, thus making it useful for non-collaborative patients. In patients with airway obstruction, this technique could underestimate resistance, so it would be a hurdle to use it to follow-up subjects with a moderate to severe obstructive disease or in bronchial challenge tests.

  7. Putting the Squeeze on Airway Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Ah; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by chronic inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and progressive airway remodeling. The airway epithelium is known to play a critical role in the initiation and perpetuation of these processes. Here, we review how excessive epithelial stress generated by bronchoconstriction is sufficient to induce airway remodeling, even in the absence of inflammatory cells. PMID:26136543

  8. Self-expandable metallic stents in nonmalignant large airway disease.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Marc; MacEachern, Paul; Hergott, Christopher A; Chee, Alex; Dumoulin, Elaine; Tremblay, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Airway self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) were initially studied in malignant airway obstruction; however, their use in benign airway diseases has become progressively more frequent. This may be explained by their ease of insertion compared with silicone stents, which require rigid bronchoscopy for insertion. While initial experience with SEMS in benign disease suggested efficacy and promising short-term safety profile, long-term follow-up revealed significant complication rates. In addition to a high complication rate, the management of these complications is made more difficult by the semipermanent nature of these devices. Reported complications include infection, granulation tissue formation, stent migration, stent fracture, airway perforation and fistula formation, as well as extension of the initial injury, potentially eliminating other therapeutic options such as surgical resection. Therefore, SEMS should only be used in nonmalignant large airway disease as a last resort for patients in whom other endoscopic methods, including silicone stents and dilations, as well as surgical options have failed or are technically not feasible.

  9. Airway management of patients with craniofacial abnormalities: 10-year experience at a teaching hospital in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Lun; Wu, Kuo-Hwa

    2009-09-01

    Airway management for patients with craniofacial abnormalities poses many challenges. It potentially has a high rate of morbidity and even mortality. We reviewed our experience in administering anesthesia to patients with a diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis or Pierre Robin sequence in the past 10 years (July 1998 to October 2008). The anesthetic procedures, methods of airway management, and events of morbidity and mortality were evaluated. Thirty patients with mucopolysaccharidosis and 53 patients with Pierre Robin sequence were placed under general anesthesia. Although the anesthesiologists always encountered difficulties in managing the airway, most of the anesthetic procedures were performed safely except for 1 case that resulted in mortality. Managing the airway of patients with craniofacial abnormalities can potentially be difficult. It should be carried out by experienced anesthesiologists, with assistance from an otolaryngologist when necessary. A variety of different airway devices should be available if needed.

  10. Telemedicine in British Airways.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, M

    1996-01-01

    In the year ending March 1994, British Airways (BA) carried in excess of 30 million passengers worldwide. There was a total of 2078 reported in-flight medical incidents, with 18 unscheduled diversions for medical reasons. The commonest reported conditions were faints, diarrhoea and vomiting. The BA aircraft medical kit content exceeds the statutory minimum requirement and all cabin crew undergo training in first aid and life support. There is a BA doctor on 24 h call with whom an aircraft captain may communicate via a high-frequency radio link. This link has limitations and immediate contact is not always possible. BA is installing satellite communication facilities in new aircraft and the application of telemedicine utilizing this facility is being explored.

  11. Gene Delivery to the Airway

    PubMed Central

    Keiser, Nicholas W.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2013-01-01

    This unit describes generation of and gene transfer to several commonly used airway models. Isolation and transduction of primary airway epithelial cells are first described. Next, the preparation of polarized airway epithelial monolayers is outlined. Transduction of these polarized cells is also described. Methods are presented for generation of tracheal xenografts as well as both ex vivo and in vivo gene transfer to these xenografts. Finally, a method for in vivo gene delivery to the lungs of rodents is included. Methods for evaluating transgene expression are given in the support protocols. PMID:23853081

  12. Airway complications after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Machuzak, Michael; Santacruz, Jose F; Gildea, Thomas; Murthy, Sudish C

    2015-01-01

    Airway complications after lung transplantation present a formidable challenge to the lung transplant team, ranging from mere unusual images to fatal events. The exact incidence of complications is wide-ranging depending on the type of event, and there is still evolution of a universal characterization of the airway findings. Management is also wide-ranging. Simple observation or simple balloon bronchoplasty is sufficient in many cases, but vigilance following more severe necrosis is required for late development of both anastomotic and nonanastomotic airway strictures. Furthermore, the impact of coexisting infection, rejection, and medical disease associated with high-level immunosuppression further complicates care.

  13. Airway surface mycosis in chronic TH2-associated airway disease.

    PubMed

    Porter, Paul C; Lim, Dae Jun; Maskatia, Zahida Khan; Mak, Garbo; Tsai, Chu-Lin; Citardi, Martin J; Fakhri, Samer; Shaw, Joanne L; Fothergil, Annette; Kheradmand, Farrah; Corry, David B; Luong, Amber

    2014-08-01

    Environmental fungi have been linked to TH2 cell-related airway inflammation and the TH2-associated chronic airway diseases asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS), but whether these organisms participate directly or indirectly in disease pathology remains unknown. To determine the frequency of fungus isolation and fungus-specific immunity in patients with TH2-associated and non-TH2-associated airway disease. Sinus lavage fluid and blood were collected from sinus surgery patients (n = 118) including patients with CRSwNP, patients with CRS without nasal polyps, patients with AFRS, and non-CRS/nonasthmatic control patients. Asthma status was determined from medical history. Sinus lavage fluids were cultured and directly examined for evidence of viable fungi. PBMCs were restimulated with fungal antigens in an enzyme-linked immunocell spot assay to determine total memory fungus-specific IL-4-secreting cells. These data were compared with fungus-specific IgE levels measured from plasma by ELISA. Filamentous fungi were significantly more commonly cultured in patients with TH2-associated airway disease (asthma, CRSwNP, or AFRS: n = 68) than in control patients with non-TH2-associated disease (n = 31): 74% vs 16%, respectively (P < .001). Both fungus-specific IL-4 enzyme-linked immunocell spot (n = 48) and specific IgE (n = 70) data correlated with TH2-associated diseases (sensitivity 73% and specificity 100% vs 50% and 77%, respectively). The frequent isolation of fungi growing directly within the airways accompanied by specific immunity to these organisms only in patients with TH2-associated chronic airway diseases suggests that fungi participate directly in the pathogenesis of these conditions. Efforts to eradicate airway fungi from the airways should be considered in selected patients. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intubating condition, hemodynamic parameters and upper airway morbidity: A comparison of intubating laryngeal mask airway with standard direct laryngoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, J.; Tripathy, Debendra Kumar; Mishra, Sandeep Kumar; Mishra, Gayatri; Chandrasekhar, L. J.; Ezhilarasu, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (ILMA) is a relatively new device designed to have better intubating characteristics than the standard Laryngeal Mask Airway. This study was designed to compare Intubating Laryngeal Mask with standard Direct Laryngoscopy (DLS), taking into account ease of intubation, time taken for intubation, success rate of intubation, hemodynamic responses and upper airway morbidity. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients, ASA I or II, of age between 20 and 60 years, were enrolled in this prospective and randomized study. They were randomly allocated to one of the two groups: group ILMA, Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway; group DLS, Direct Laryngoscopy. The patients were intubated orally using either equipment after induction of general anesthesia. Results and Conclusions: DLS is comparatively a faster method to secure tracheal intubation than Intubating Laryngeal Mask. ILMA offers no advantage in attenuating the hemodynamic responses compared to direct laryngoscope. The success rate of intubation through Intubating Laryngeal Mask is comparable with that of DLS. The upper airway morbidity and mean oxygen saturation are comparable in both the groups. PMID:25885300

  15. Advanced airway management simulation training in medical education: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Cassie C; Cannon, Eric K; Warner, David O; Cook, David A

    2014-01-01

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on teaching airway management using technology-enhanced simulation. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, and Scopus for eligible articles through May 11, 2011. Observational or controlled trials instructing medical professionals in direct or fiberoptic intubation, surgical airway, and/or supraglottic airway using technology-enhanced simulation were included. Two reviewers determined eligibility. Study quality, instructional design, and outcome data were abstracted independently and in duplicate. Of 10,904 articles screened, 76 studies were included (n = 5,226 participants). We used random effects meta-analysis to pool results. In comparison with no intervention, simulation training was associated with improved outcomes for knowledge (standardized mean difference, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.19-1.35]; n = 7 studies) and skill (1.01 [0.68-1.34]; n = 28) but not for behavior (0.52 [-0.30 to 1.34]; n = 4) or patient outcomes (-0.12 [-0.41 to 0.16]; n = 4). In comparison with nonsimulation interventions, simulation training was associated with increased learner satisfaction (0.54 [0.37-0.71]; n = 2), improved skills (0.64 [0.12-1.16]; n = 5), and patient outcomes (0.86 [0.12-1.59]; n = 3) but not knowledge (0.29 [-0.28 to 0.86]; n = 4). We found few comparative effectiveness studies exploring how to optimize the use of simulation-based training, and these revealed inconsistent results. For example, animal models were found superior to manikins in one study (p = 0.004) using outcome of task speed but inferior in another study in terms of skill ratings (p = 0.02). Five studies comparing simulators of high versus low technical sophistication found no significant difference in skill outcomes (p > 0.31). Limitations of this review include heterogeneity (I2 > 50% for most analysis) and variation in quality among primary studies. Simulation-based airway management curriculum is superior to

  16. Assessment of Vibratory Characteristics in Children Following Airway Reconstruction Using Flexible and Rigid Endoscopy and Stroboscopy.

    PubMed

    Zacharias, Stephanie R C; Weinrich, Barbara; Brehm, Susan Baker; Kelchner, Lisa; Deliyski, Dimitar; Tabangin, Meredith; de Alarcon, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    Up to half of children have substantial dysphonia after airway reconstruction. Visual assessment of vocal function is valuable. Feasibility of flexible and rigid endoscopy has been reported; however, the clinical utility of stroboscopy has not been examined. Rating of vibratory characteristics, such as mucosal wave and amplitude of vibration, is essential for the development of interventions to improve voice outcomes. To examine (1) clinicians’ ratings of anatomical and physiological features in children following airway reconstruction on initial voice evaluation using videolaryngostroboscopy and (2) the relationship of age to the type of endoscopy used. Retrospective medical record review of 32 patients aged 3 to 21 years evaluated for post–airway reconstruction dysphonia between July 2011 and July 2012 at a quaternary care children’s hospital. Clinical voice evaluation protocol including rigid and/or flexible endoscopy with stroboscopy. Demographic and voice quality characteristics were collected. The ability to complete endoscopy and ratings of anatomical and/or physiological features were assessed by a consensus of 4 clinicians. A t test was used to determine whether age was a significant factor in successful completion of videolaryngostroboscopy. Of 31 children who underwent flexible videolaryngostroboscopy, 22 (71%) examinations were completed with a distal chip endoscope and 9 (29%) with a fiberoptic. Significant differences were found in age between children who completed the distal chip vs. fiberoptic examination (mean [SD], 7.3 [2.7] vs. 5.5 [6.2] years; P = .05). Rigid endoscopy was attempted for 14 (44%) of 32 patients; 9 examinations (64%) were successful. Significant differences were found in age between patients for whom a rigid endoscopy could be successfully completed vs. those for whom it was not (mean [SD], 12.9 [3.4] vs. 6.2 [2.1] years; P < .001). Eighteen (56%) were glottic phonators, 8 (25%) supraglottic, and 6 (19%) aphonic. Vibratory

  17. Successful training of HEMS personnel in laryngeal mask airway and intubating laryngeal mask airway placement.

    PubMed

    Frascone, R J; Pippert, Greg; Heegaard, William; Molinari, Paul; Dries, David

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA) placement by helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) personnel after a comprehensive training program. HEMS flight staff attended a didactic and manikin-based training session for both devices. After this training, they attempted LMA and ILMA placement in live, anesthetized patients in an operating room (OR). Outcome measures included placement success rates with the LMA, ILMA, and endotracheal intubation through the ILMA, time to ventilation, and time to intubation. Success rates and time to ventilation were compared using chi-squared and analysis of variance (ANOVA), respectively. Mean time to ventilation for the first and second placements of both devices was examined with repeated measures ANOVA. There was no difference in successful placement of the LMA compared with the ILMA (100% vs. 91%, P = .15). Ninety-five percent (19/20) of patients were successfully intubated through the ILMA. Time to intubation was 57.1 +/- 55 seconds (range, 20-240). Mean time to ventilation with either device did not differ significantly (36.8 +/- 17 vs. 38.05 +/- 20 seconds; P = .29). Mean time to ventilation for the first and second placement of either the LMA (P = .45) or the ILMA (P = .47) was not statistically different. Trained HEMS flight staff are capable of effectively placing the LMA and ILMA in the operating room after a comprehensive training protocol.

  18. Equipment for the difficult airway in obstetric units in Germany.

    PubMed

    Stamer, U M; Messerschmidt, A; Wulf, H; Hoeft, A

    2000-03-01

    To examine the availability of specialized equipment for the difficult airway management in obstetric units of German departments of anesthesiology. An anonymous questionnaire survey was mailed to the directors of 993 German departments of anesthesiology. Completed replies were grouped by number of deliveries performed each year. 55.5% of the hospitals responded. Data of 449 answers were evaluated for this investigation. A difficult airway cart was available in 99.3% of the departments. More detailed investigation revealed that different shaped laryngoscope blades (74.9% of the departments), laryngeal masks (91.0%), a fiberoptic bronchoscope (85.9%), and transtracheal puncture devices (59.9%) were available in the majority of the units. However, only a minority of the departments had these devices directly available in their obstetric operating rooms (OR; laryngeal masks 36.2%, fiberoptic bronchoscope 23.9%, transtracheal puncture set 22.0%). Larger units with more than 1,000 deliveries per year provided their equipment more often directly in the obstetric OR or the facility housing the obstetric unit than did smaller units with less than 1,000 deliveries per year (p< 0.001). The survey of German departments of anesthesia revealed that specialized equipment for the difficult airway management often is not directly available in the obstetric OR. Anesthesiologists must familiarize themselves as to which difficult airway equipment is available in their unit and where it is stored.

  19. Apoptosis and the Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    White, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    The airway epithelium functions as a barrier and front line of host defense in the lung. Apoptosis or programmed cell death can be elicited in the epithelium as a response to viral infection, exposure to allergen or to environmental toxins, or to drugs. While apoptosis can be induced via activation of death receptors on the cell surface or by disruption of mitochondrial polarity, epithelial cells compared to inflammatory cells are more resistant to apoptotic stimuli. This paper focuses on the response of airway epithelium to apoptosis in the normal state, apoptosis as a potential regulator of the number and types of epithelial cells in the airway, and the contribution of epithelial cell apoptosis in important airways diseases. PMID:22203854

  20. United airway disease: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Aun, Marcelo Vivolo; Takejima, Priscila; Kalil, Jorge; Agondi, Rosana Câmara

    2016-01-01

    Upper and lower airways are considered a unified morphological and functional unit, and the connection existing between them has been observed for many years, both in health and in disease. There is strong epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, and clinical evidence supporting an integrated view of rhinitis and asthma: united airway disease in the present review. The term “united airway disease” is opportune, because rhinitis and asthma are chronic inflammatory diseases of the upper and lower airways, which can be induced by allergic or nonallergic reproducible mechanisms, and present several phenotypes. Management of rhinitis and asthma must be jointly carried out, leading to better control of both diseases, and the lessons of the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma initiative cannot be forgotten. PMID:27257389

  1. Novel Technique for Placement of Laryngeal Mask Airway in Difficult Pediatric Airways

    PubMed Central

    Roodneshin, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    Background The main responsibility of an anesthesiologist is to safely maintain an open airway and preserve sufficient gas exchange in the lungs. This role becomes more significant when managing children especially those with difficult airways (DA). In such cases, a quick appropriate action can decrease the related mortality and morbidity. Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is a device used in cases with difficult airways. Its placement is much more difficult in children especially those with DA. There is a greater risk of malpositioning and its insertion with routine techniques is sometimes impossible. In this article, we introduce a new method for replacement of LMA in difficult pediatric airways (DPA). Materials and Methods In this before and after, pre and post design clinical trial, we evaluated 30 children with congenital anomalies and difficult airways who were candidates for elective eye surgery (short term). A written consent was obtained from the parents or the legal guardians of those who met the inclusion criteria. Inhalation anesthesia was induced by sevoflurane. The patients had assisted spontaneous respiration. No muscle relaxant was administered. LMA was inserted using the classic method in the anesthesia depth of BIS = 35-40. After 2 unsuccessful attempts according to the criteria for adequate function of LMA, we tried placing the LMA using our innovated method after meeting the primary requirements and reaching the anesthesia depth of 35-40. In this method, the index finger of the left hand was placed on the tongue pushing it downwards (towards the floor of the mouth) when inserting the LMA. This way, we assisted LMA passing down the pharynx resulting in its adequate positioning. Criteria for adequate function of LMA in both classic and innovated insertion methods included monitoring of easy ventilation, no resistance during exhalation, adequate chest movement, no air leakage, optimal airway pressure, optimal lung compliance, level of oxygenation of

  2. Air-Q laryngeal airway for rescue and tracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Ads, Ayman; Auerbach, Frederic; Ryan, Kelly; El-Ganzouri, Abdel R

    2016-08-01

    We report the successful use of the Air-Q laryngeal airway (Air-Q LA) as a ventilatory device and a conduit for tracheal intubation to rescue the airway in a patient with difficult airway and tracheal stenosis. This is the first case report of the device to secure the airway after two episodes of hypoxemia in the operating room and intensive care unit. Consent for submission of this case report was obtained from our institution's human studies institutional review board given that the patient died a few months after his discharge from the hospital before his personal consent could be obtained and before preparation of this report. All personal identifiers that could lead to his identification have been removed from this report. A 59-year-old man was scheduled for a flexible and rigid bronchoscopy with possible laser excision of tracheal stenosis. He had a history of hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and diabetes. Assessment of airway revealed a thyromental distance of 6.5 cm, Mallampati class II, and body weight of 110 kg. He had hoarseness and audible inspiratory/expiratory stridor with Spo2 90% breathing room air. After induction and muscle relaxation, tracheal intubation and flexible bronchoscopy were achieved without incident. The patient was then extubated and a rigid bronchoscopy was attempted but failed with Spo2 dropping to 92%; rocuronium 60 mg was given, and reintubation was accomplished with a 7.5-mm endotracheal tube. A second rigid bronchoscopy attempt failed, with Spo2 dropping to 63%. Subsequent direct laryngoscopy revealed a bloody hypopharynx. A size 4.5 Air-Q LA was placed successfully and confirmed with capnography, and Spo2 returned to 100%. The airway was suctioned through the Air-Q LA device, and the airway was secured using a fiberoptic bronchoscope to place an endotracheal tube of 7.5-mm internal diameter. The case was canceled because of edema of the upper airway from multiple attempts with rigid bronchoscopy. The patient was transported

  3. Acapella versus 'usual airway clearance' during acute exacerbation in bronchiectasis: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Patterson, J E; Hewitt, O; Kent, L; Bradbury, I; Elborn, J S; Bradley, J M

    2007-01-01

    Devices such as the Acapella may facilitate independent airway clearance, however, few clinical trials have investigated the efficacy of Acapella. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Acapella to 'usual airway clearance' in adults during an acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis requiring oral antibiotic therapy. Twenty patients with bronchiectasis and an acute exacerbation requiring oral antibiotic therapy were recruited into a randomized crossover trial. Patients were allocated to one of two groups determined by concealed computer generated randomization. Group 1 (n=10): airway clearance session using Acapella at home twice daily during oral antibiotic therapy. Group 2 (n=10): 'usual' airway clearance sessions at home during oral antibiotic therapy. Patients recorded duration of each treatment session, volume of sputum produced and perception of breathlessness. An independent assessor performed outcome measures of spirometric lung function, pulse oximetry and breathlessness at the beginning and end of the study period. The mean volume of sputum expectorated during Acapella sessions was greater than for usual airway clearance sessions although this difference was not significant 2.61 ml (95% CI-1.62 to 6.84). Mean duration of Acapella sessions was greater than usual airway clearance sessions and approached significance. There were no significant between group differences in changes in lung function. This study demonstrates that the Acapella device may offer an acceptable, user-friendly method of airway clearance in patients with bronchiectasis.

  4. Airway Hydration and COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arunava; Boucher, R.C.; Tarran, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the prevalent causes of worldwide mortality and encompasses two major clinical phenotypes, i.e., chronic bronchitis (CB) and emphysema. The most common cause of COPD is chronic tobacco inhalation. Research focused on the chronic bronchitic phenotype of COPD has identified several pathological processes that drive disease initiation and progression. For example, the lung’s mucociliary clearance (MCC) system performs the critical task of clearing inhaled pathogens and toxic materials from the lung. MCC efficiency is dependent on: (i) the ability of apical plasma membrane ion channels such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) to maintain airway hydration; (ii) ciliary beating; and, (iii) appropriate rates of mucin secretion. Each of these components is impaired in CB and likely contributes to the mucus stasis/accumulation seen in CB patients. This review highlights the cellular components responsible for maintaining MCC and how this process is disrupted following tobacco exposure and with CB. We shall also discuss existing therapeutic strategies for the treatment of chronic bronchitis and how components of the MCC can be used as biomarkers for the evaluation of tobacco or tobacco-like-product exposure. PMID:26068443

  5. Upper airway resistance syndrome.

    PubMed

    Montserrat, J M; Badia, J R

    1999-03-01

    This article reviews the clinical picture, diagnosis and management of the upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). Presently, there is not enough data on key points like the frequency of UARS and the morbidity associated with this condition. Furthermore, the existence of LIARS as an independent sleep disorder and its relation with snoring and obstructive events is in debate. The diagnosis of UARS is still a controversial issue. The technical limitations of the classic approach to monitor airflow with thermistors and inductance plethysmography, as well as the lack of a precise definition of hypopnea, may have led to a misinterpretation of UARS as an independent diagnosis from the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be missed using a conventional polysomnographic setting unless appropriate techniques are applied. The use of an esophageal balloon to monitor inspiratory effort is currently the gold standard. However, other sensitive methods such as the use of a pneumotachograph and, more recently, nasal cannula/pressure transducer systems or on-line monitoring of respiratory impedance with the forced oscillation technique may provide other interesting possibilities. Recognition and characterization of this subgroup of patients within sleep breathing disorders is important because they are symptomatic and may benefit from treatment. Management options to treat UARS comprise all those currently available for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). However, the subset of patients classically identified as LIARS that exhibit skeletal craneo-facial abnormalities might possibly obtain further benefit from maxillofacial surgery.

  6. Human airway ciliary dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kristin; Knowles, Michael R.; Davis, C. William

    2013-01-01

    Airway cilia depend on precise changes in shape to transport the mucus gel overlying mucosal surfaces. The ciliary motion can be recorded in several planes using video microscopy. However, cilia are densely packed, and automated computerized systems are not available to convert these ciliary shape changes into forms that are useful for testing theoretical models of ciliary function. We developed a system for converting planar ciliary motions recorded by video microscopy into an empirical quantitative model, which is easy to use in validating mathematical models, or in examining ciliary function, e.g., in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). The system we developed allows the manipulation of a model cilium superimposed over a video of beating cilia. Data were analyzed to determine shear angles and velocity vectors of points along the cilium. Extracted waveforms were used to construct a composite waveform, which could be used as a standard. Variability was measured as the mean difference in position of points on individual waveforms and the standard. The shapes analyzed were the end-recovery, end-effective, and fastest moving effective and recovery with mean (± SE) differences of 0.31(0.04), 0.25(0.06), 0.50(0.12), 0.50(0.10), μm, respectively. In contrast, the same measures for three different PCD waveforms had values far outside this range. PMID:23144323

  7. Efficacy of Surgical Airway Plasty for Benign Airway Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Takahama, Makoto; Nakajima, Ryu; Kimura, Michitaka; Inoue, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Ryoji

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term patency is required during treatment for benign airway stenosis. This study investigated the effectiveness of surgical airway plasty for benign airway stenosis. Methods: Clinical courses of 20 patients, who were treated with surgical plasty for their benign airway stenosis, were retrospectively investigated. Results: Causes of stenosis were tracheobronchial tuberculosis in 12 patients, post-intubation stenosis in five patients, malacia in two patients, and others in one patient. 28 interventional pulmonology procedures and 20 surgical plasty were performed. Five patients with post-intubation stenosis and four patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with tracheoplasty. Eight patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with bronchoplasty, and two patients with malacia were treated with stabilization of the membranous portion. Anastomotic stenosis was observed in four patients, and one to four additional treatments were required. Performance status, Hugh–Jones classification, and ventilatory functions were improved after surgical plasty. Outcomes were fair in patients with tuberculous stenosis and malacia. However, efficacy of surgical plasty for post-intubation stenosis was not observed. Conclusion: Surgical airway plasty may be an acceptable treatment for tuberculous stenosis. Patients with malacia recover well after surgical plasty. There may be untreated patients with malacia who have the potential to benefit from surgical plasty. PMID:26567879

  8. Efficacy of Surgical Airway Plasty for Benign Airway Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Tsukioka, Takuma; Takahama, Makoto; Nakajima, Ryu; Kimura, Michitaka; Inoue, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Long-term patency is required during treatment for benign airway stenosis. This study investigated the effectiveness of surgical airway plasty for benign airway stenosis. Clinical courses of 20 patients, who were treated with surgical plasty for their benign airway stenosis, were retrospectively investigated. Causes of stenosis were tracheobronchial tuberculosis in 12 patients, post-intubation stenosis in five patients, malacia in two patients, and others in one patient. 28 interventional pulmonology procedures and 20 surgical plasty were performed. Five patients with post-intubation stenosis and four patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with tracheoplasty. Eight patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with bronchoplasty, and two patients with malacia were treated with stabilization of the membranous portion. Anastomotic stenosis was observed in four patients, and one to four additional treatments were required. Performance status, Hugh-Jones classification, and ventilatory functions were improved after surgical plasty. Outcomes were fair in patients with tuberculous stenosis and malacia. However, efficacy of surgical plasty for post-intubation stenosis was not observed. Surgical airway plasty may be an acceptable treatment for tuberculous stenosis. Patients with malacia recover well after surgical plasty. There may be untreated patients with malacia who have the potential to benefit from surgical plasty.

  9. Bronchoscopic management of malignant airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Patrick D; Kennedy, Marcus P

    2014-05-01

    Approximately one-third of patients with lung cancer will develop airway obstruction and many cancers lead to airway obstruction through meta stases. The treatment of malignant airway obstruction is often a multimodality approach and is usually performed for palliation of symptoms in advanced lung cancer. Removal of airway obstruction is associated with improvement in symptoms, quality of life, and lung function. Patient selection should exclude patients with short life expectancy, limited symptoms, and an inability to visualize beyond the obstruction. This review outlines both the immediate and delayed bronchoscopic effect options for the removal of airway obstruction and preservation of airway patency with endobronchial stenting.

  10. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Y S; Pabelick, Christina M; Sieck, Gary C

    2017-09-01

    There is increasing appreciation that mitochondria serve cellular functions beyond oxygen sensing and energy production. Accordingly, it has become important to explore noncanonical roles of mitochondria in normal and pathophysiological processes that influence airway structure and function in the context of diseases such as asthma and COPD. Mitochondria can sense upstream processes such as inflammation, infection, tobacco smoke, and environmental insults important in these diseases and in turn can respond to such stimuli through altered mitochondrial protein expression, structure, and resultant dysfunction. Conversely, mitochondrial dysfunction has downstream influences on cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium regulation, airway contractility, gene and protein housekeeping, responses to oxidative stress, proliferation, apoptosis, fibrosis, and certainly metabolism, which are all key aspects of airway disease pathophysiology. Indeed, mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to play a role even in normal processes such as aging and senescence and in conditions such as obesity, which impact airway diseases. Thus, understanding how mitochondrial structure and function play central roles in airway disease may be critical for the development of novel therapeutic avenues targeting dysfunctional mitochondria. In this case, it is likely that mitochondria of airway epithelium, smooth muscle, and fibroblasts play differential roles, consistent with their contributions to disease biology, underlining the challenge of targeting a ubiquitous cellular element of existential importance. This translational review summarizes the current state of understanding of mitochondrial processes that play a role in airway disease pathophysiology and identifying areas of unmet research need and opportunities for novel therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Airway management in emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Dörges, Volker

    2005-12-01

    Securing and monitoring the airway are among the key requirements of appropriate therapy in emergency patients. Failures to secure the airways can drastically increase morbidity and mortality of patients within a very short time. Therefore, the entire range of measures needed to secure the airway in an emergency, without intermediate ventilation and oxygenation, is limited to 30-40 seconds. Endotracheal intubation is often called the 'gold standard' for airway management in an emergency, but multiple failed intubation attempts do not result in maintaining oxygenation; instead, they endanger the patient by prolonging hypoxia and causing additional trauma to the upper airways. Thus, knowledge and availability of alternative procedures are also essential in every emergency setting. Given the great variety of techniques available, it is important to establish a well-planned, methodical protocol within the framework of an algorithm. This not only facilitates the preparation of equipment and the training of personnel, it also ensures efficient decision-making under time pressure. Most anaesthesia-related deaths are due to hypoxaemia when difficulty in securing the airway is encountered, especially in obstetrics during induction of anaesthesia for caesarean delivery. The most commonly occurring adverse respiratory events are failure to intubate, failure to recognize oesophageal intubation, and failure to ventilate. Thus, it is essential that every anaesthesiologist working on the labour and delivery ward is comfortable with the algorithm for the management of failed intubation. The algorithm for emergency airway management describing the sequence of various procedures has to be adapted to internal standards and to techniques that are available.

  12. Emergency cricothyrotomy in confined space airway emergencies: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Givens, Gregory C; Shelton, Stephen L; Brown, Eric A

    2011-08-01

    In confined-space airway emergencies, prehospital personnel may need to perform cricothyrotomy when conventional airway techniques cannot be utilized or have failed. This study is a prospective, cross-over, randomized controlled trial that compares two widely-known techniques using two commercially available kits. Twenty residents at Palmetto Health Richland Department of Emergency Medicine participated in the study. Their performance was assessed using the time required to placement and correctness of placement for each device. The residents performed the procedures on an Air-Man™ manikin that had been situated in a confined space.The residents also indicated which kit they would prefer in a confined-space, emergency airway situation. All of the devices were placed in the airway. The mean time to placement for the Melker™ and Quicktrach™ kits was 108.5 seconds and 23.9 seconds, respectively. This yielded a mean difference of 84.5 seconds, which provided a t-statistic of 8.88 (p < 0.0001).There was no evidence of a carry-over effect (p = 0.292) or a period effect (p = 0.973). All residents preferred using the Quicktrach™ kit. Use of the Quicktrach™ kit resulted in the fastest time to placement, was placed correctly in the airway, and was preferred by each of the residents. Its small, simple,and sturdy design, with few parts and easy manipulation, allow the Quicktrach™ to be a valuable option in prehospital situations involving confined spaces. The Melker™ kit, with its many parts, and need for greater manipulation, is not as easily utilized or preferred in a confined space scenario.

  13. The efficacy and safety of the flexible fiber CO2 laser delivery system in the endoscopic management of pediatric airway problems: Our long term experience.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gi Soo; Irace, Alexandra; Rahbar, Reza

    2017-06-01

    To report the use of flexible fiber CO2 laser in the endoscopic management of pediatric airway cases. A retrospective review was conducted of patients who underwent CO2 laser-assisted airway procedures between September 2007 and January 2014 at a tertiary pediatric hospital. Sixty-eight patients underwent 80 procedures utilizing flexible fiber CO2 laser. Procedures included supraglottoplasty (n = 32), laryngeal cleft repair (type I [n = 10], type II [n = 7], type III [n = 6]), suprastomal granuloma excision (n = 6), cordotomy (n = 4), laryngeal neurofibroma excision (n = 4), laryngeal granulomatous mass excision (n = 1), subglottic stenosis excision (n = 6), division of glottic web (n = 2), subglottic cyst excision (n = 1), and supraglottic biopsy (n = 1). Ages ranged from 8 days to 21 years (median 11 months). No intraoperative or postoperative complications related to the use of laser were noted. The flexible fiber CO2 laser can be safely and effectively used to address a variety of pediatric airway lesions. Previously, the use of CO2 laser in minimally invasive airway surgery has been limited due to the articulating arm carrier, absence of a hand piece, and the direct line-of sight view required. The fiber allows the cutting beam to be directed at the site of the lesion and bypasses limitations posed by other laser systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Human Lung Small Airway-on-a-Chip Protocol.

    PubMed

    Benam, Kambez H; Mazur, Marc; Choe, Youngjae; Ferrante, Thomas C; Novak, Richard; Ingber, Donald E

    2017-01-01

    Organs-on-chips are microfluidic cell culture devices created using microchip manufacturing techniques that contain hollow microchannels lined by living cells, which recreate specialized tissue-tissue interfaces, physical microenvironments, and vascular perfusion necessary to recapitulate organ-level physiology in vitro. Here we describe a protocol for fabrication, culture, and operation of a human lung "small airway-on-a-chip," which contains a differentiated, mucociliary bronchiolar epithelium exposed to air and an underlying microvascular endothelium that experiences fluid flow. First, microengineering is used to fabricate a multilayered microfluidic device that contains two parallel elastomeric microchannels separated by a thin rigid porous membrane; this requires less than 1 day to complete. Next, primary human airway bronchiolar epithelial cells isolated from healthy normal donors or patients with respiratory disease are cultured on the porous membrane within one microchannel while lung microvascular endothelial cells are cultured on the opposite side of the same membrane in the second channel to create a mucociliated epithelium-endothelium interface; this process take about 4-6 weeks to complete. Finally, culture medium containing neutrophils isolated from fresh whole human blood are flowed through the microvascular channel of the device to enable real-time analysis of capture and recruitment of circulating leukocytes by endothelium under physiological shear; this step requires less than 1 day to complete. The small airway-on-a-chip represents a new microfluidic tool to model complex and dynamic inflammatory responses of healthy and diseased lungs in vitro.

  15. Longitudinal and regional trends in paramedic student exposure to advanced airway placement: 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Westgard, Bjorn C; Peterson, Bjorn K; Salzman, Joshua G; Anderson, Richard; Buldra, Mike; Burnett, Aaron M

    2013-01-01

    The primary aims of this study were to determine whether the frequency of placement, type of advanced airway, and settings of advanced airway placement (clinical vs. field) have changed for paramedic students over the last 11 years, and to describe regional differences regarding the same set of variables. This study was a retrospective review of prospectively reported airway procedures documented by paramedic students in Fisdap ( http://www.fisdap.net ). Students were included if they graduated from a paramedic program, had procedure entries verified by a preceptor, and provided consent for research. Exclusion criteria included students who had a total number of airway placements ≥2 standard deviations from the mean or had 0 airway placements recorded, and programs with <10 graduating students total over the study period. Airway device types and educational settings were descriptively compared over the 11-year study period by year and region. A total of 8,934 paramedic student records were reviewed, with 2,811 excluded based on a priori criteria, leaving 6,123 records for analysis. In each year, the median number of airway devices placed per student was greater in the clinical setting. Endotracheal intubation (ETI) was more common than alternative airway placement in both the field and clinical settings. The median number of clinical ETIs per student has remained relatively constant at 7. The median number of field ETIs per student ranged from 0 to 1 over the study period, with a median alternative airway placement rate of 0 for both clinical and field settings. For all regions, the majority of procedures were performed in a clinical environment. The median number of clinical alternative airway device placements was 0 for all regions. The number of clinical ETIs ranged from 5 to 11 per student, with the highest number of ETIs per student in the West North Central and New England regions and the lowest in the West South Central and East South Central regions

  16. [Airway management in intensive care units in Rhineland-Palatinate : Evolution over five years].

    PubMed

    Piepho, T; Härer, T; Ellermann, L; Noppens, R R

    2017-05-01

    Securing the airway in severely ill patients is associated with a high rate of complications. So far, no information exists about the equipment readily available for airway management in German intensive care units (ICUs). It is also unknown if the range of material has improved over time. In the present trial the availability of equipment for airway management in ICUs in Rhineland-Palatinate was evaluated at two different times. Using a structured questionnaire, all ICUs in the state were contacted in the years 2010 and 2015. The availability of different types of equipment for airway management, as well as the presence of a training program for airway management, was evaluated. For 2010 data from 64 ICUs were evaluated and for 2015 data sets from 63 ICUs were collected. In 2010 indirect laryngoscopes were available in eight ICUs; in 2015 these devices were directly accessible in 43 units (p < 0.0001). Extraglottic devices were available in all but one ICU in 2010 and all ICUs in 2015. Equipment for emergency surgical airway procedures was available in nearly every ICU (n = 60). The availability of capnography increased significantly from 2010 (n = 12) to 2015 (n = 56; p < 0.0001). In 2010 and 2015, frequent training with a focus on airway management was performed in 23 and 32 units, respectively (p > 0.05). Most ICUs in Rhineland-Palatinate have a broad range of equipment for airway management available, and the range has significantly improved over the time period evaluated. The availability of indirect laryngoscopes and capnometers improved significantly. However, it is remarkable that in some ICU's there is still a lack of equipment for advanced airway management.

  17. The Airway Microbiome at Birth

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Charitharth Vivek; Travers, Colm; Aghai, Zubair H.; Eipers, Peter; Jilling, Tamas; Halloran, Brian; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Keeley, Jordan; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Bhandari, Vineet; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. Genus Lactobacillus was decreased at birth in infants with chorioamnionitis and in preterm infants who subsequently went on to develop lung disease. Our results, taken together with previous literature indicating a placental and amniotic fluid microbiome, suggest fetal acquisition of an airway microbiome. We speculate that the early airway microbiome may prime the developing pulmonary immune system, and dysbiosis in its development may set the stage for subsequent lung disease. PMID:27488092

  18. Fiber optic tracheal detection device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souhan, Brian E.; Nawn, Corinne D.; Shmel, Richard; Watts, Krista L.; Ingold, Kirk A.

    2017-02-01

    Poorly performed airway management procedures can lead to a wide variety of adverse events, such as laryngeal trauma, stenosis, cardiac arrest, hypoxemia, or death as in the case of failed airway management or intubation of the esophagus. Current methods for confirming tracheal placement, such as auscultation, direct visualization or capnography, may be subjective, compromised due to clinical presentation or require additional specialized equipment that is not always readily available during the procedure. Consequently, there exists a need for a non-visual detection mechanism for confirming successful airway placement that can give the provider rapid feedback during the procedure. Based upon our previously presented work characterizing the reflectance spectra of tracheal and esophageal tissue, we developed a fiber-optic prototype to detect the unique spectral characteristics of tracheal tissue. Device performance was tested by its ability to differentiate ex vivo samples of tracheal and esophageal tissue. Pig tissue samples were tested with the larynx, trachea and esophagus intact as well as excised and mounted on cork. The device positively detected tracheal tissue 18 out of 19 trials and 1 false positive out of 19 esophageal trials. Our proof of concept device shows great promise as a potential mechanism for rapid user feedback during airway management procedures to confirm tracheal placement. Ongoing studies will investigate device optimizations of the probe for more refined sensing and in vivo testing.

  19. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator in Sarcoplasmic Reticulum of Airway Smooth Muscle. Implications for Airway Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Daniel P.; Rector, Michael V.; Bouzek, Drake C.; Michalski, Andrew S.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Reznikov, Leah R.; Li, Xiaopeng; Stroik, Mallory R.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H.; Thompson, Michael A.; Prakash, Y. S.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Meyerholz, David K.; Seow, Chun Y.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: An asthma-like airway phenotype has been described in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Whether these findings are directly caused by loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function or secondary to chronic airway infection and/or inflammation has been difficult to determine. Objectives: Airway contractility is primarily determined by airway smooth muscle. We tested the hypothesis that CFTR is expressed in airway smooth muscle and directly affects airway smooth muscle contractility. Methods: Newborn pigs, both wild type and with CF (before the onset of airway infection and inflammation), were used in this study. High-resolution immunofluorescence was used to identify the subcellular localization of CFTR in airway smooth muscle. Airway smooth muscle function was determined with tissue myography, intracellular calcium measurements, and regulatory myosin light chain phosphorylation status. Precision-cut lung slices were used to investigate the therapeutic potential of CFTR modulation on airway reactivity. Measurements and Main Results: We found that CFTR localizes to the sarcoplasmic reticulum compartment of airway smooth muscle and regulates airway smooth muscle tone. Loss of CFTR function led to delayed calcium reuptake following cholinergic stimulation and increased myosin light chain phosphorylation. CFTR potentiation with ivacaftor decreased airway reactivity in precision-cut lung slices following cholinergic stimulation. Conclusions: Loss of CFTR alters porcine airway smooth muscle function and may contribute to the airflow obstruction phenotype observed in human CF. Airway smooth muscle CFTR may represent a therapeutic target in CF and other diseases of airway narrowing. PMID:26488271

  20. [Orthodontics and the upper airway].

    PubMed

    Cobo Plana, J; de Carlos Villafranca, F; Macías Escalada, E

    2004-03-01

    One of the general aims of orthodontic treatment and of the combination of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery is to achieve good occlusion and aesthetic improvement, especially in cases of severe dentoskeletal deformities. However, on many occasions, the parameters of the upper airways are not taken into account when the aims of conventional treatment are fulfilled. Patients with obstructive alterations during sleep represent for the orthodontist a type of patient who differs from the normal; for them, treatment should include the objective of improving oxygen saturation. Here, functional considerations should outweigh purely aesthetic ones. It is important, when making an orthodontic, surgical or combined diagnosis for a patient, to bear in mind the impact that treatment may have on the upper airways. Good aesthetics should never be achieved for some of our patients at the expense of diminishing the capacity of their upper airways.

  1. Airway management in the hospital environment.

    PubMed

    Higginson, Ray; Parry, Andy; Williams, Meirion

    In the hospital environment, patients can deteriorate rapidly and for many different reasons. Maintaining a patient's breathing is the main priority in any emergency situation, although achieving airway control can be difficult. All health professionals need to be able to undertake airway management safely. The key is a thorough assessment to ensure first of all whether the airway is patent (open and clear) or not. This article will discuss airway management, both acute and chronic, as well as associated nursing care.

  2. Mechanotransduction, asthma, and airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fabry, Ben; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    Excessive force generation by airway smooth muscle is the main culprit in excessive airway narrowing during an asthma attack. The maximum force the airway smooth muscle can generate is exquisitely sensitive to muscle length fluctuations during breathing, and is governed by complex mechanotransduction events that can best be studied by a hybrid approach in which the airway wall is modeled in silico so as to set a dynamic muscle load comparable to that experienced in vivo. PMID:18836522

  3. Comparison of insertion of the modified i-gel airway for oral surgery with the LMA Flexible: a manikin study.

    PubMed

    Sanuki, Takuro; Sugioka, Shingo; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Ueki, Ryusuke; Kaminoh, Yoshiroh; Kotani, Junichiro

    2014-01-01

    We previously modified the i-gel airway to enable its use in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery and reported its fabrication methods. In general, the standard i-gel airway is quick to insert and has a high success rate, but the modified i-gel airway has yet to be assessed for these attributes. We, therefore, set out to compare the ease of insertion of the modified i-gel airway with the LMA Flexible to investigate the usefulness of the modified i-gel airway. The study participants, who included 20 new interns with no experience using either the LMA Flexible or the modified i-gel airway, inserted each device 3 times into an intubation practice manikin. The variables measured in this study were insertion time and rate of successful insertions. Mean insertion time over 3 attempts was significantly shorter for the modified i-gel™ airway (18.9 ± 4.7 seconds) than the LMA Flexible (24.9 ± 5.1 seconds, P < .001). The rate of successful insertions as a total of all 3 attempts was significantly higher for the modified i-gel airway (56/60 times, 93.3%) than the LMA Flexible (45/60 times, 75%; P = .012). When used by an inexperienced operator, the modified i-gel™ airway is faster and has a higher success rate than the LMA Flexible, suggesting that it can be easily manipulated during insertion.

  4. Airway Assessment for Office Sedation/Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Morton B; Phero, James C

    2015-01-01

    Whenever a patient is about to receive sedation or general anesthesia, no matter what the technique, the preoperative assessment of the airway is one of the most important steps in ensuring patient safety and positive outcomes. This article, Part III in the series on airway management, is directed at the ambulatory office practice and focuses on predicting the success of advanced airway rescue techniques.

  5. Comments to Role of upper airway ultrasound in airway management.

    PubMed

    Lien, Wan-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Tracheal ultrasound can be an alternative diagnostic tool in airway management, besides traditional confirmatory methods such as capnography and auscultation. The standard image is a hyperechoic air-mucosa (A-M) interface with a reverberation artifact posteriorly (comet-tail artifact). If the second A-M interface appears, which we call a "double-tract sign," esophageal intubation is considered.

  6. Airway Management of Patients Undergoing Oral Cancer Surgery: A Retrospective Analysis of 156 Patients.

    PubMed

    Nikhar, Sapna Annaji; Sharma, Ashima; Ramdaspally, Mahesh; Gopinath, Ramachandran

    2017-04-01

    Oral cancer patients have a potentially difficult airway, but if managed properly during the perioperative period, morbidity and mortality can be reduced or avoided. The medical records of 156 patients who were operated for oral cancers were reviewed for airway management during the perioperative period. The surgical procedures ranged from excisions, wide local excisions with split skin graftings, hemiglossectomies and radical neck nodes dissections to pectoralis major myocutaneous or free fibular flaps. Intubation was assessed as difficult in 14.7% of patients because of tumour- or radiation fibrosis-related trismus, restricted neck mobility and prior similar surgeries. Twenty patients had undergone surgery for oral cancer previously and were scheduled for flap reconstruction. Nasotracheal intubation was a preferred route, and 62.8% of patients could be intubated nasotracheally after neuromuscular blockade. Tracheostomy (elective or existing) was utilised for airway control in 19.2% cases. Patients who had undergone prior radiotherapy were more likely to be tracheostomised. McCoy laryngoscopes (13.4%), gum elastic bougies (23.6%), Airtraq devices (0.006%) and fibreoptic bronchoscopes (FOBs) (0.03%) were the additional airway techniques employed. In total, 64 patients (50.7%) could be extubated immediately after surgery. Proper preoperative evaluation and planning help manage difficult airways effectively with minimal need of advanced airway gadgets. Gum elastic bougies and Magill forceps are very useful in airway management and decrease the need of elective tracheostomy in oral cancer patients.

  7. Airway clearance techniques used by people with cystic fibrosis in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hoo, Z H; Daniels, T; Wildman, M J; Teare, M D; Bradley, J M

    2015-12-01

    To describe the current use of airway clearance techniques among people with cystic fibrosis (CF) in the UK, and the baseline characteristics for users of different airway clearance techniques. Analysis of the UK CF Registry 2011 data. All people with CF in the UK aged ≥11 years (n=6372). Of the 6372 people on the UK CF registry in 2011, 89% used airway clearance techniques. The most commonly used primary techniques were forced expiratory techniques (28%) and oscillating positive expiratory pressure (PEP) (23%). Postural drainage and high-frequency chest wall oscillation were used by 4% and 1% of people with CF, respectively. The male:female ratio of individuals who used exercise as their primary airway clearance technique was 2:1, compared with 1:1 for other techniques. Individuals with more severe lung disease tended to use devices such as non-invasive ventilation or high-frequency chest wall oscillation. Forced expiratory techniques and oscillating PEP are the most common airway clearance techniques used by people with CF in the UK, and postural drainage and high-frequency chest wall oscillation are the least common techniques. This is significant in terms of planning airway clearance technique trials, where postural drainage has been used traditionally as the comparator. The use of airway clearance techniques varies between countries, but the reasons for these differences are unknown. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Republication: All India Difficult Airway Association 2016 Guidelines for Tracheal Intubation in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Myatra, Sheila Nainan; Ahmed, Syed Moied; Kundra, Pankaj; Garg, Rakesh; Ramkumar, Venkateswaran; Patwa, Apeksh; Shah, Amit; Raveendra, Ubaradka S.; Shetty, Sumalatha Radhakrishna; Doctor, Jeson Rajan; Pawar, Dilip K.; Ramesh, Singaravelu; Das, Sabyasachi; Divatia, Jigeeshu Vasishtha

    2017-01-01

    Tracheal intubation (TI) is a routine procedure in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and is often lifesaving. In contrast to the controlled conditions in the operating room, critically ill patients with respiratory failure and shock are physiologically unstable. These factors, along with under evaluation of the airway and suboptimal response to preoxygenation, are responsible for a high incidence of life-threatening complications such as severe hypoxemia and cardiovascular collapse during TI in the ICU. The All India Difficult Airway Association (AIDAA) proposes a stepwise plan for safe management of the airway in critically ill patients. These guidelines have been developed based on available evidence; Wherever, robust evidence was lacking, recommendations were arrived at by consensus opinion of airway experts, incorporating the responses to a questionnaire sent to members of the (AIDAA) and Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for preoxygenation provides adequate oxygen stores during TI for patients with respiratory pathology. Nasal insufflation of oxygen at 15 L/min can increase the duration of apnea before hypoxemia sets in. High flow nasal cannula oxygenation at 60–70 L/min may also increase safety during intubation of critically ill patients. Stable hemodynamics and gas exchange must be maintained during rapid sequence induction. It is necessary to implement an intubation protocol during routine airway management in the ICU. Adherence to a plan for difficult airway management incorporating the use of intubation aids and airway rescue devices and strategies is useful. PMID:28400685

  9. Postoperative sore throat: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    El-Boghdadly, K; Bailey, C R; Wiles, M D

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative sore throat has a reported incidence of up to 62% following general anaesthesia. In adults undergoing tracheal intubation, female sex, younger age, pre-existing lung disease, prolonged duration of anaesthesia and the presence of a blood-stained tracheal tube on extubation are associated with the greatest risk. Tracheal intubation without neuromuscular blockade, use of double-lumen tubes, as well as high tracheal tube cuff pressures may also increase the risk of postoperative sore throat. The expertise of the anaesthetist performing tracheal intubation appears to have no influence on the incidence in adults, although it may in children. In adults, the i-gel(™) supraglottic airway device results in a lower incidence of postoperative sore throat. Cuffed supraglottic airway devices should be inflated sufficiently to obtain an adequate seal and intracuff pressure should be monitored. Children with respiratory tract disease are at increased risk. The use of supraglottic airway devices, oral, rather than nasal, tracheal intubation and cuffed, rather than uncuffed, tracheal tubes have benefit in reducing the incidence of postoperative sore throat in children. Limiting both tracheal tube and supraglottic airway device cuff pressure may also reduce the incidence. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Comparison of laryngeal mask airway use with endotracheal intubation during anesthesia of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Cerveny, Shannon N; D'Agostino, Jennifer J; Davis, Michelle R; Payton, Mark E

    2012-12-01

    The laryngeal mask airway is an alternative to endotracheal intubation that achieves control of the airway by creating a seal around the larynx with an inflatable cuff. This study compared use of the laryngeal mask airway with endotracheal intubation in anesthetized western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Eight adult gorillas were immobilized for routine and diagnostic purposes for a total of nine anesthetic events. During each anesthetic event, gorillas were either intubated (n = 4; group A) or fitted with a laryngeal mask airway (n= 5; group B). Time required to place each airway device, physiologic parameters, and arterial blood gas were measured and compared between the two groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups for time required to place airway device, heart rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, end-tidal carbon dioxide, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide, or arterial pH between the two groups. Mean arterial partial pressure of oxygen was significantly greater in group B, 15 (group A: 94 +/- 44 mm Hg; group B: 408 +/- 36 mm Hg; P= 0.0025) and 45 (group A: 104 +/- 21 mm Hg; group B: 407 +/- 77 mm Hg; P = 0.0026) min after airway device placement. Mean respiratory rate was significantly greater in group A at multiple time points. Mean arterial pressure (group A: 129 +/- 16 mm Hg; group B: 60 +/- 8 mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure (group A: 115 +/- 21 mm Hg; group B: 36 +/- 10 mm Hg) were significantly greater in group A at the time of airway device placement. The laryngeal mask airway maintained oxygenation and ventilation effectively in all gorillas and is a useful alternative to endotracheal intubation in western lowland gorillas.

  11. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Neil R; Shaykhiev, Renat; Walters, Matthew S; Wang, Rui; Zwick, Rachel K; Ferris, Barbara; Witover, Bradley; Salit, Jacqueline; Crystal, Ronald G

    2011-05-04

    The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium.

  12. The Human Airway Epithelial Basal Cell Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Zwick, Rachel K.; Ferris, Barbara; Witover, Bradley; Salit, Jacqueline; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    Background The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. Methodology/Principal Findings Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the “human airway basal cell signature” as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. Conclusion/Significance The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem

  13. Airway nerves: in vitro electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Fox, Alyson

    2002-06-01

    Recording the activity of single airway sensory fibres or neuronal cell bodies in vitro has allowed detailed characterisation of fibre types and membrane properties. Fibre types can be identified by their conduction velocities and further studied by the application of drugs to their receptive field. C-fibres are sensitive to mechanical stimuli and a range of irritant chemicals (bradykinin, capsaicin, low pH, platelet-activating factor), whereas Adelta-fibres are relatively insensitive to chemical stimuli and appear to correlate to the rapidly adapting receptors identified in airways in vivo. Their site of origin also differs: upper airway C-fibres arise predominantly from the jugular ganglion and Adelta-fibres from the jugular and nodose ganglia. Intracellular recording from cell bodies in the ganglia has revealed a calcium-dependent potassium current common to many putative C-fibre cell bodies. This slow after hyperpolarisation current may be inhibited by stimuli that excite and sensitise C-fibres - this could be an important mechanism underlying the sensitisation of C-fibres in airway irritability.

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease and airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Vutcovici, Maria; Brassard, Paul; Bitton, Alain

    2016-09-14

    Airway diseases are the most commonly described lung manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the similarities in disease pathogenesis and the sharing of important environmental risk factors and genetic susceptibility suggest that there is a complex interplay between IBD and airway diseases. Recent evidence of IBD occurrence among patients with airway diseases and the higher than estimated prevalence of subclinical airway injuries among IBD patients support the hypothesis of a two-way association. Future research efforts should be directed toward further exploration of this association, as airway diseases are highly prevalent conditions with a substantial public health impact.

  15. The Lung Microbiome and Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Susan V

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of literature has demonstrated relationships between the composition of the airway microbiota (mixed-species communities of microbes that exist in the respiratory tract) and critical features of immune response and pulmonary function. These studies provide evidence that airway inflammatory status and capacity for repair are coassociated with specific taxonomic features of the airway microbiome. Although directionality has yet to be established, the fact that microbes are known drivers of inflammation and tissue damage suggests that in the context of chronic inflammatory airway disease, the composition and, more importantly, the function, of the pulmonary microbiome represent critical factors in defining airway disease outcomes.

  16. Airway management in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shaha, Ashok R

    2008-07-01

    In patients who present with advanced anaplastic thyroid cancer, airway management is difficult because of bilateral vocal cord paralysis or tracheal invasion by the tumor. Airway management can be extremely complex in these patients. This is the author's 25 year experience with 30 patients who presented with anaplastic thyroid cancer and acute airway problems. The patients' airway issues developed soon after presentation or a few months after treatment. Ten patients presented with initial symptoms of acute airway distress. All of these patients were treated with tracheostomy or cricothyrotomy. The 10 patients who presented with initial symptoms of acute airway distress died within 4 months. Eight of the remaining 20 patients developed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Airway management for these patients depended on the extent of distant disease and the family's understanding of the advanced nature of the disease and the palliative efforts. The remaining patients had a palliative and supportive approach. Airway management was the most critical issue in patients who presented with anaplastic thyroid cancer and initial airway distress. Cricothyrotomy was helpful in avoiding acute airway catastrophe. It is important to distinguish between poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancer and lymphoma for appropriate airway management.

  17. Airway malacia in children with achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Dessoffy, Kimberly E; Modaff, Peggy; Pauli, Richard M

    2014-02-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the frequency of airway malacia in infants and young children with achondroplasia, a population well known to be at risk for a variety of respiratory problems. We also wished to evaluate what, if any, contribution airway malacia makes to the complex respiratory issues that may be present in those with achondroplasia. Retrospective chart review of all infants and young children with achondroplasia who were assessed through the Midwest Regional Bone Dysplasia Clinics from 1985 through 2012 (n = 236) was completed. Records of comprehensive clinical examinations, polysomnographic assessments, and airway visualization were reviewed and abstracted using a data collection form. Analyses were completed comparing the group with and those without evidence for airway malacia. Thirteen of 236 patients (5.5%) were found to have airway malacia. Most of those affected had lower airway involvement (9/13). The presence of airway malacia was correlated with an increased occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea as well as need for oxygen supplementation, airway surgeries and tracheostomy placement. Although estimates of the frequency of airway malacia in the general population are limited, its frequency in children with achondroplasia appears to be much higher than any published general population estimate. The presence of airway malacia appears to confound other breathing abnormalities in this population and results in the need for more invasive airway treatments.

  18. Native Small Airways Secrete Bicarbonate

    PubMed Central

    Quinton, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cl− impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl− transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3−) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3− transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3− secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidity in CF. We used a novel, mini-Ussing chamber system to investigate the properties of HCO3− transport in native porcine small airways (∼ 1 mm φ). We assayed HCO3− transport across small airway epithelia as reflected by the transepithelial voltage, conductance, and equivalent short-circuit current with bilateral 25-mM HCO3− plus 125-mM NaGlu Ringer’s solution in the presence of luminal amiloride (10 μM). Under these conditions, because no major transportable anions other than HCO3− were present, we took the equivalent short-circuit current to be a direct measure of active HCO3− secretion. Applying selective agonists and inhibitors, we show constitutive HCO3− secretion in small airways, which can be stimulated significantly by β-adrenergic– (cAMP) and purinergic (Ca2+) -mediated agonists, independently. These results indicate that two separate components for HCO3− secretion, likely via CFTR- and calcium-activated chloride channel–dependent processes, are physiologically regulated for likely roles in mucus clearance and antimicrobial innate defenses of small airways. PMID:24224935

  19. Sarcoidosis of the upper and lower airways.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, Adam S; Teirstein, Alvin S

    2011-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of undetermined etiology characterized by a variable clinical presentation and disease course. Although clinical granulomatous inflammation may occur within any organ system, more than 90% of sarcoidosis patients have lung disease. Sarcoidosis is considered an interstitial lung disease that is frequently characterized by restrictive physiologic dysfunction on pulmonary function tests. However, sarcoidosis also involves the airways (large and small), causing obstructive airways disease. It is one of a few interstitial lung diseases that affects the entire length of the respiratory tract - from the nose to the terminal bronchioles - and causes a broad spectrum of airways dysfunction. This article examines airway dysfunction in sarcoidosis. The anatomical structure of the airways is the organizational framework for our discussion. We discuss sarcoidosis involving the nose, sinuses, nasal passages, larynx, trachea, bronchi and small airways. Common complications of airways disease, such as, atelectasis, fibrosis, bullous leions, bronchiectasis, cavitary lesions and mycetomas, are also reviewed.

  20. Airway remodeling in asthma: what really matters.

    PubMed

    Fehrenbach, Heinz; Wagner, Christina; Wegmann, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Airway remodeling is generally quite broadly defined as any change in composition, distribution, thickness, mass or volume and/or number of structural components observed in the airway wall of patients relative to healthy individuals. However, two types of airway remodeling should be distinguished more clearly: (1) physiological airway remodeling, which encompasses structural changes that occur regularly during normal lung development and growth leading to a normal mature airway wall or as an acute and transient response to injury and/or inflammation, which ultimately results in restoration of a normal airway structures; and (2) pathological airway remodeling, which comprises those structural alterations that occur as a result of either disturbed lung development or as a response to chronic injury and/or inflammation leading to persistently altered airway wall structures and function. This review will address a few major aspects: (1) what are reliable quantitative approaches to assess airway remodeling? (2) Are there any indications supporting the notion that airway remodeling can occur as a primary event, i.e., before any inflammatory process was initiated? (3) What is known about airway remodeling being a secondary event to inflammation? And (4), what can we learn from the different animal models ranging from invertebrate to primate models in the study of airway remodeling? Future studies are required addressing particularly pheno-/endotype-specific aspects of airway remodeling using both endotype-specific animal models and "endotyped" human asthmatics. Hopefully, novel in vivo imaging techniques will be further advanced to allow monitoring development, growth and inflammation of the airways already at a very early stage in life.

  1. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Strategies with Bubble Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: Not All Bubbling Is the Same: The Seattle Positive Airway Pressure System.

    PubMed

    Welty, Stephen E

    2016-12-01

    Premature neonates are predisposed to complications, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). BPD is associated with long-term pulmonary and neurodevelopmental consequences. Noninvasive respiratory support with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been recommended strongly by the American Academy of Pediatrics. However, CPAP implementation has shown at least a 50% failure rate. Enhancing nasal CPAP effectiveness may decrease the need for mechanical ventilation and reduce the incidence of BPD. Bubble nasal CPAP is better than nasal CPAP using mechanical devices and the bubbling provides air exchange in distal respiratory units. The Seattle PAP system reduces parameters that assess work of breathing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Post-treatment FDG-PET Uptake in the Supraglottic and Glottic Larynx Correlates with Decreased Quality of Life After Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Dornfeld, Ken; Hopkins, Shane; Simmons, Joel; Spitz, Douglas R.; Menda, Yusuf; Graham, Michael; Smith, Russell; Funk, Gerry; Karnell, Lucy; Karnell, Michael; Dornfeld, Maude; Yao, Min; Buatti, John

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Inflammation and increased metabolic activity associated with oxidative stress in irradiated normal tissues may contribute to both complications following radiotherapy and increased glucose uptake as detected by post-therapy FDG PET imaging. We sought to determine if increased glucose uptake in normal tissues after chemoradiotherapy is associated with increased toxicity. Methods Consecutive patients with locoregionally advanced head and neck cancers treated with IMRT and free of recurrence at one year were studied. FDG-PET imaging was obtained at 3 and 12 months post-treatment. SUV levels were determined at various head and neck regions. Functional outcome was measured using a quality of life questionnaire and weight loss and type of diet tolerated one year after therapy. A one-tailed Pearson correlation test was used to examine associations between SUV levels and functional outcome measures. Results SUV levels in the supraglottic and glottic larynx from FDG PET imaging obtained 12 months post-treatment were inversely associated with quality of life measures and were correlated with a more restricted diet one year after therapy. SUV levels at 3 months after therapy did not correlate with functional outcome. Increases in SUV levels in normal tissues between 3 and 12 months were commonly found in the absence of recurrence. Conclusion Altered metabolism in irradiated tissues persists one year after therapy. FDG PET scans may be used to assess normal tissue damage following chemoradiotherapy. These data support investigating hypermetabolic conditions associated with inflammation and\\or oxidative stress as causal agents for radiation induced normal tissue damage. PMID:18164842

  3. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs).

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Addis, A; Adcock, I; Agache, I; Agusti, A; Alonso, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Anto, J M; Bachert, C; Baena-Cagnani, C E; Bai, C; Baigenzhin, A; Barbara, C; Barnes, P J; Bateman, E D; Beck, L; Bedbrook, A; Bel, E H; Benezet, O; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bernabeu-Wittel, M; Bewick, M; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Blain, H; Blasi, F; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Boulet, L P; Bourdin, A; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Brightling, C E; Briggs, A; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Bush, A; Caimmi, D; Calderon, M; Calverley, P; Camargos, P A; Camuzat, T; Canonica, G W; Carlsen, K H; Casale, T B; Cazzola, M; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Cesario, A; Chen, Y Z; Chkhartishvili, E; Chavannes, N H; Chiron, R; Chuchalin, A; Chung, K F; Cox, L; Crooks, G; Crooks, M G; Cruz, A A; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; Demoly, P; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dubakiene, R; Eglin, S; Elliot, F; Emuzyte, R; Fabbri, L; Fink Wagner, A; Fletcher, M; Fokkens, W J; Fonseca, J; Franco, A; Frith, P; Furber, A; Gaga, M; Garcés, J; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gamkrelidze, A; Gonzales-Diaz, S; Gouzi, F; Guzmán, M A; Haahtela, T; Harrison, D; Hayot, M; Heaney, L G; Heinrich, J; Hellings, P W; Hooper, J; Humbert, M; Hyland, M; Iaccarino, G; Jakovenko, D; Jardim, J R; Jeandel, C; Jenkins, C; Johnston, S L; Jonquet, O; Joos, G; Jung, K S; Kalayci, O; Karunanithi, S; Keil, T; Khaltaev, N; Kolek, V; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Le, L T; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Louis, R; MacNee, W; Mair, A; Majer, I; Manning, P; de Manuel Keenoy, E; Masjedi, M R; Melen, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Menzies-Gow, A; Mercier, G; Mercier, J; Michel, J P; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Morgan, M; N'Diaye, M; Nafti, S; Nekam, K; Neou, A; Nicod, L; O'Hehir, R; Ohta, K; Paggiaro, P; Palkonen, S; Palmer, S; Papadopoulos, N G; Papi, A; Passalacqua, G; Pavord, I; Pigearias, B; Plavec, D; Postma, D S; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Radier Pontal, F; Redon, J; Rennard, S; Roberts, J; Robine, J M; Roca, J; Roche, N; Rodenas, F; Roggeri, A; Rolland, C; Rosado-Pinto, J; Ryan, D; Samolinski, B; Sanchez-Borges, M; Schünemann, H J; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Sibille, Y; Similowski, T; Small, I; Sola-Morales, O; Sooronbaev, T; Stelmach, R; Sterk, P J; Stiris, T; Sud, P; Tellier, V; To, T; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valiulis, A; Valovirta, E; Van Ganse, E; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vestbo, J; Vezzani, G; Viegi, G; Visier, L; Vogelmeier, C; Vontetsianos, T; Wagstaff, R; Wahn, U; Wallaert, B; Whalley, B; Wickman, M; Williams, D M; Wilson, N; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yorgancioglu, A; Yusuf, O M; Zar, H J; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Zuberbier, T

    2014-08-01

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy and will add value to existing public health knowledge by: 1) proposing a common framework of care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases, which will facilitate comparability and trans-national initiatives; 2) informing cost-effective policy development, strengthening in particular those on smoking and environmental exposure; 3) aiding risk stratification in chronic disease patients, using a common strategy; 4) having a significant impact on the health of citizens in the short term (reduction of morbidity, improvement of education in children and of work in adults) and in the long-term (healthy ageing); 5) proposing a common simulation tool to assist physicians; and 6) ultimately reducing the healthcare burden (emergency visits, avoidable hospitalisations, disability and costs) while improving quality of life. In the longer term, the incidence of disease may be reduced by innovative prevention strategies. AIRWAYSICPs was initiated by Area 5 of the Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. All stakeholders are involved (health and social care, patients, and policy makers).

  4. Use of the CTrach Laryngeal Mask Airway in adult patients: a retrospective review of 126 cases.

    PubMed

    Maurtua, Marco A; Fernando, Michael; Finnegan, Patrick S; Mehta, Behram; Wu, Jiang; Foss, Joseph; Perilla, Mauricio; Zura, Andrew; Doyle, D John

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the CTrach Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) when used electively. Retrospective analysis. Operating room of an academic hospital. Data from 126 patients who were electively intubated with the CTrach LMA over a 16-month period were reviewed. Each patient's weight, height, ASA physical status classification, Mallampati score, thyromental distance, and cervical spine range of motion were recorded. Successful ventilation was achieved in 100% of patients, while successful intubation was achieved in 89.7% of patients. The most common reason for failure to intubate was poor airway visualization and the inability to appropriately position the device anterior to the vocal cords. The major advantage of the CTrach LMA is that it is the only device that allows airway visualization during patient ventilation; however, it does not have 100% success with intubation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ventilation heterogeneity is a major determinant of airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma, independent of airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Downie, Sue R; Salome, Cheryl M; Verbanck, Sylvia; Thompson, Bruce; Berend, Norbert; King, Gregory G

    2007-01-01

    Background Airway hyperresponsiveness is the ability of airways to narrow excessively in response to inhaled stimuli and is a key feature of asthma. Airway inflammation and ventilation heterogeneity have been separately shown to be associated with airway hyperresponsiveness. A study was undertaken to establish whether ventilation heterogeneity is associated with airway hyperresponsiveness independently of airway inflammation in subjects with asthma and to determine the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on this relationship. Methods Airway inflammation was measured in 40 subjects with asthma by exhaled nitric oxide, ventilation heterogeneity by multiple breath nitrogen washout and airway hyperresponsiveness by methacholine challenge. In 18 of these subjects with uncontrolled symptoms, measurements were repeated after 3 months of treatment with inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate. Results At baseline, airway hyperresponsiveness was independently predicted by airway inflammation (partial r2 = 0.20, p<0.001) and ventilation heterogeneity (partial r2 = 0.39, p<0.001). Inhaled corticosteroid treatment decreased airway inflammation (p = 0.002), ventilation heterogeneity (p = 0.009) and airway hyperresponsiveness (p<0.001). After treatment, ventilation heterogeneity was the sole predictor of airway hyperresponsiveness (r2 = 0.64, p<0.001). Conclusions Baseline ventilation heterogeneity is a strong predictor of airway hyperresponsiveness, independent of airway inflammation in subjects with asthma. Its persistent relationship with airway hyperresponsiveness following anti‐inflammatory treatment suggests that it is an important independent determinant of airway hyperresponsiveness. Normalisation of ventilation heterogeneity is therefore a potential goal of treatment that may lead to improved long‐term outcomes. PMID:17311839

  6. Generation of Pig Airways using Rules Developed from the Measurements of Physical Airways

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md Khurshidul; Mansy, Hansen A.

    2017-01-01

    Background A method for generating bronchial tree would be helpful when constructing models of the tree for benchtop experiments as well as for numerical modeling of flow or sound propagation in the airways. Early studies documented the geometric details of the human airways that were used to develop methods for generating human airway tree. However, methods for generating animal airway tree are scarcer. Earlier studies suggested that the morphology of animal airways can be significantly different from that of humans. Hence, using algorithms for the human airways may not be accurate in generating models of animal airway geometry. Objective The objective of this study is to develop an algorithm for generating pig airway tree based on the geometric details extracted from the physical measurements. Methods In the current study, measured values of branch diameters, lengths and bifurcation angles and rotation of bifurcating planes were used to develop an algorithm that is capable of generating a realistic pig airway tree. Results The generation relations between parent and daughter branches were found to follow certain trends. The diameters and the length of different branches were dependent on airway generations while the bifurcation angles were primarily dependent on bifurcation plane rotations. These relations were sufficient to develop rules for generating a model of the pig large airways. Conclusion The results suggested that the airway tree generated from the algorithm can provide an approximate geometric model of pig airways for computational and benchtop studies. PMID:28255517

  7. Generation of Pig Airways using Rules Developed from the Measurements of Physical Airways.

    PubMed

    Azad, Md Khurshidul; Mansy, Hansen A

    2016-09-01

    A method for generating bronchial tree would be helpful when constructing models of the tree for benchtop experiments as well as for numerical modeling of flow or sound propagation in the airways. Early studies documented the geometric details of the human airways that were used to develop methods for generating human airway tree. However, methods for generating animal airway tree are scarcer. Earlier studies suggested that the morphology of animal airways can be significantly different from that of humans. Hence, using algorithms for the human airways may not be accurate in generating models of animal airway geometry. The objective of this study is to develop an algorithm for generating pig airway tree based on the geometric details extracted from the physical measurements. In the current study, measured values of branch diameters, lengths and bifurcation angles and rotation of bifurcating planes were used to develop an algorithm that is capable of generating a realistic pig airway tree. The generation relations between parent and daughter branches were found to follow certain trends. The diameters and the length of different branches were dependent on airway generations while the bifurcation angles were primarily dependent on bifurcation plane rotations. These relations were sufficient to develop rules for generating a model of the pig large airways. The results suggested that the airway tree generated from the algorithm can provide an approximate geometric model of pig airways for computational and benchtop studies.

  8. Nitric oxide in the airways.

    PubMed

    Scadding, Glenis

    2007-08-01

    This review briefly explains the basic facts about nitric oxide, which is entering clinical practice as a measure of lower airways inflammation and is likely also to be employed in otorhinolaryngological practice. These include the validity of nasal nitric oxide in diagnosing primary ciliary dyskinesia and in monitoring the response to chronic rhinosinusitis therapy. The nasal nitric oxide value combined with a humming manoeuvre, which increases the passage of nitric oxide from the sinuses to the nose if the ostiomeatal complex is patent, could reduce the need for computed tomography scans. The link between nitric oxide production and ciliary beating requires further exploration. Therapeutic adjustments to nitric oxide production are under investigation. Nitric oxide is likely to prove highly relevant to airways defence, as well as being an inflammatory mediator. Nasal nitric oxide probably explains some of the benefit of nasal rather than mouth breathing.

  9. Recent trends in airway management

    PubMed Central

    Karlik, Joelle; Aziz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Tracheal intubation remains a life-saving procedure that is typically not difficult for experienced providers in routine conditions. Unfortunately, difficult intubation remains challenging to predict and intubation conditions may make the event life threatening. Recent technological advances aim to further improve the ease, speed, safety, and success of intubation but have not been fully investigated. Video laryngoscopy, though proven effective in the difficult airway, may result in different intubation success rates in various settings and in different providers’ hands. The rescue surgical airway remains a rarely used but critical skill, and research continues to investigate optimal techniques. This review highlights some of the new thoughts and research on these important topics. PMID:28299194

  10. Airway inflammation in thunderstorm asthma.

    PubMed

    Wark, P A B; Simpson, J; Hensley, M J; Gibson, P G

    2002-12-01

    Epidemics of acute asthma associated with thunderstorms occur intermittently worldwide, though airway inflammation during these acute episodes has not been characterized. The aim of this study was to characterize airway inflammation in thunderstorm asthma. Cases were recruited after presentation to the emergency room with acute asthma immediately following a thunderstorm (n = 6). They were compared to two control groups: a group of atopic asthmatics that had presented with acute asthma to the emergency room prior to the thunderstorm (n = 12), and a second group of corticosteroid naive asthmatics who presented to the emergency room in the prior 12 months (n = 6). Subjects had spirometry, sputum induction and allergy skin tests acutely and at review 4 weeks later. Thunderstorm (TS) cases were more likely to have a history of hay fever and grass pollen allergy, and less likely to be on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) prior to presentation. Cases and control groups had a similar degree of moderate to severe acute airway obstruction (P = 1.0). TS cases had elevated sputum eosinophils (14.8% of total cell count) compared to controls (1%, 2.6%, P < 0.01). TS cases had higher sputum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP; 11,686 ng/mL) compared to controls (1,883, 3,300, P = 0.02) acutely. TS cases had more cells positive for IL-5 (30%) compared to controls (1, 1.5%, P = 0.02). When adjusted for ICS use, TS cases had a risk ratio for elevated sputum eosinophils of 2.4 (1.23-4.69). Thunderstorm asthma is characterized by airway inflammation with IL-5-mediated sputum eosinophilia and eosinophil degranulation. These results are consistent with allergen exposure as the cause of the exacerbation, and are consistent with the thunderstorm-induced grass pollen deluge as the cause of epidemic asthma after thunderstorms.

  11. Partial airway obstruction following manufacturing defect in laryngeal mask airway (Laryngeal Mask Silken™).

    PubMed

    Jangra, Kiran; Malhotra, Surender Kumar; Saini, Vikas

    2014-10-01

    Laryngeal mask (LM) airway is commonly used for securing airway in day-care surgeries. Various problems have been described while using LM airway. Out of those, mechanical obstruction causing airway compromise is most common. Here, we describe a case report of 4-year-old child who had partial upper airway obstruction due to LM manufacturer's defect. There was a silicon band in upper one-third of shaft of LM airway. This band was made up of the same material as that of LM airway so it was not identifiable on external inspection of transparent shaft. We suggest that such as non-transparent laryngeal mask, a transparent LM airway should also be inspected looking inside the lumen with naked eyes or by using a probe to rule out any manufacturing defect before its insertion.

  12. Airway management in cervical spine injury

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Naola; Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Dagal, Arman

    2014-01-01

    To minimize risk of spinal cord injury, airway management providers must understand the anatomic and functional relationship between the airway, cervical column, and spinal cord. Patients with known or suspected cervical spine injury may require emergent intubation for airway protection and ventilatory support or elective intubation for surgery with or without rigid neck stabilization (i.e., halo). To provide safe and efficient care in these patients, practitioners must identify high-risk patients, be comfortable with available methods of airway adjuncts, and know how airway maneuvers, neck stabilization, and positioning affect the cervical spine. This review discusses the risks and benefits of various airway management strategies as well as specific concerns that affect patients with known or suspected cervical spine injury. PMID:24741498

  13. Anesthesia for patients with mucopolysaccharidoses: Comprehensive review of the literature with emphasis on airway management.

    PubMed

    Clark, Brittney M; Sprung, Juraj; Weingarten, Toby N; Warner, Mary E

    2017-06-06

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are rare, inherited, lysosomal storage diseases that cause accumulation of glycosaminoglycans, resulting in anatomic abnormalities and organ dysfunction that can increase the risk of anesthesia complications. We conducted a systematic review of the literature in order to describe the anesthetic management and perioperative outcomes in patients with MPS. We reviewed English-language literature search using an OVID-based search strategy of the following databases: 1) PubMed (1946-present), 2) Medline (1946-present), 3) EMBASE (1946-present), and 4) Web of Science (1946-present) using the following search terms: mucopolysaccharidosis, Hurler, Scheie, Sanfilippo, Morquio, Maroteaux, anesthesia, perioperative, intubation, respiratory insufficiency, and airway. The review of the literature revealed 9 case series and 27 case reports. A substantial number of patients have facial and oral abnormalities posing various challenges for airway management, however evolving new technologies that include videolaryngoscopy, appears to substantially facilitate airway management in these patients. The only type of MPS that appears to have less difficulty with airway management are MPS III patients, as the primary site of glycosaminoglycan deposition is in the central nervous system. All other MPS types have facial and oral characteristics that increase the risk of airway management. To mitigate these risks, anesthesia should be conducted by experienced anesthesiologist with expertise in using of advanced airway intubating devices.

  14. The Availability of Advanced Airway Equipment and Experience with Videolaryngoscopy in the UK: Two UK Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Rachel L.; Jeffrey, Audrey S. Y.; McNarry, Alistair F.; Liew, Geoffrey H. C.

    2015-01-01

    Fibreoptic intubation, high frequency jet ventilation, and videolaryngoscopy form part of the Royal College of Anaesthetists compulsory higher airway training module. Curriculum delivery requires equipment availability and competent trainers. We sought to establish (1) availability of advanced airway equipment in UK hospitals (Survey I) and (2) if those interested in airway management (Difficult Airway Society (DAS) members) had access to videolaryngoscopes, their basic skill levels and teaching competence with these devices and if they believed that videolaryngoscopy was replacing conventional or fibreoptic laryngoscopy (Survey II). Data was obtained from 212 hospitals (73.1%) and 554 DAS members (27.6%). Most hospitals (202, 99%) owned a fiberscope, 119 (57.5%) had a videolaryngoscope, yet only 62 (29.5%) had high frequency jet ventilators. DAS members had variable access to videolaryngoscopes with Airtraq 319 (59.6%) and Glidescope 176 (32.9%) being the most common. More DAS members were happy to teach or use videolaryngoscopes in a difficult airway than those who had used them more than ten times. The majority rated Macintosh laryngoscopy as the most important airway skill. Members rated fibreoptic intubation and videolaryngoscopy skills equally. Our surveys demonstrate widespread availability of fibreoptic scopes, limited availability of videolaryngoscopes, and limited numbers of experienced videolaryngoscope tutors. PMID:25628653

  15. LARYNGEAL CHONDROSARCOMA: SUCCESSFUL USE OF VIDEO LARYNGOSCOPE IN ANTICIPATED DIFFICULT AIRWAY MANAGEMENT.

    PubMed

    Dolinaj, Vladimir; Milošev, Sanja; Janjević, Dušanka

    2016-03-01

    Laryngeal chondrosarcoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor, most frequently affecting cricoid cartilage. The objective of this report is to present successful video laryngoscope usage in a patient with anticipated difficult airway who refused awake fiberoptic endotracheal intubation (AFOI). A 59-year-old male patient was admitted in our hospital due to difficulty breathing and swallowing. On clinical examination performed by ENT surgeon, preoperative endoscopic airway examination (PEAE) could not be performed properly due to the patient's uncooperativeness. Computed tomography revealed a spherical tumor that obstructed the subglottic area almost entirely. Due to the narrowed airway, the first choice for the anticipated difficult airway management was AFOI, which the patient refused. Consequently, we decided to perform endotracheal intubation with indirect laryngoscope using a C-MAC video laryngoscope (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany). Reinforced endotracheal tube (6.0 mm internal diameter) was placed gently between the tumor mass and the posterior wall of the trachea in the first attempt. Confirmation of endotracheal intubation was done by capnography. In a patient with subglottic area chondrosarcoma refusing PEAE and AFOI, video laryngoscope is a particularly helpful device for difficult airway management when difficult airway is anticipated.

  16. [Separation of the airways: historical aspects].

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, K; Fleischer, E; Dressler, P

    2002-01-01

    Techniques to separate the airways to both lungs were employed in the laboratory by renowned physiologists like Pflüger and C. Bernard to study gas exchange. Pflüger's catheter, as used by Wolffberg in 1871 in the dog, essentially constituted an early example of endobronchial single lumen tube, and was to be the first airway separator introduced into man by Loewy and v. Schrötter in 1905 in experiments on circulation. As a variation of this device the carinal hook made ist appearance used by Hess in 1912 in rabbits. While the endobronchial catheters afforded airtight access to only one lung at a time for concomitantly studying ventilation in both lungs, a short tracheal cannula was combined with one introduced into the left main bronchus by Head in 1889, constituting as it were the prototype of double lumen (DL) tubes applicable to rabbits and turtles even. Werigo described 1892 a coaxial DL-tracheostomy cannula for dogs which construction principle was adopted in the first DL-bronchoscope used in man. In lung surgery during the 30s and 40s the ventilated lung was prevented from drowning by pus or secretions from the lung under surgery by sealing off ist main bronchus, either by endobronchial intubation or by a bronchial blocker inserted alongside the endotracheal tube. This principle gave rise to sophisticated devices, from the fixed combination of tube and blocker to the present-day tube housing a movable blocker. Remarkably, DL-intubation in its proper sense then was performed in bronchospirometry only. This technique was introduced by Jacobaeus upon suggestion of Liljestrand when dissatisfied with the restriction to sequential spirometry by customary bronchoscopic catheterization, relying on Frenckner's ingenious DL-bronchoscope. Rubber DL-tubes were developed by Gebauer 1939 and Zavod 1940 exclusively with bronchospirometry in mind, even E. Carlens primarily constructed his tube to improve this procedure. After its usage in over 100 bronchospirometries it

  17. Airway Assessment for Office Sedation/Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Morton B.; Phero, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Whenever a patient is about to receive sedation or general anesthesia, no matter what the technique, the preoperative assessment of the airway is one of the most important steps in ensuring patient safety and positive outcomes. This article, Part III in the series on airway management, is directed at the ambulatory office practice and focuses on predicting the success of advanced airway rescue techniques. PMID:26061578

  18. Efficacy of the New Perilaryngeal Airway (CobraPLA™) Versus the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA™) to Improve Oropharyngeal Leak Pressure in Obese and Overweight Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoobi, Siamak; Abootorabi, Seyed Mohamadreza; Kayalha, Hamid; Van Zundert, Tom C

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of Cobra perilaryngeal airway (Cobra PLA™) for obese patients under general anesthesia and also to compare the results with those of classic laryngeal mask airway (LMA™). Materials and Methods: Seventy-three overweight and obese patients were included in this study. The patients were randomly assigned to LMA™ or Cobra PLA™ groups. Time required for intubation, successful intubation attempt, airway sealing pressure and incidence of complications including blood staining, sore throat and dysphagia were assessed and noted. Results: Thirty-six and 37 patients were randomly allocated to LMA™ and Cobra PLA™ groups, respectively. Most patients were males and had Mallampati Class II airway in both groups. The first attempt and overall insertion success for Cobra PLA™ was significantly higher compared to LMA (P<0.05). Airway insertion was more successful (P = 0.027; 94% vs. 77%) with Cobra PLA™. Insertion times were similar with Cobra PLA™ and LMA™ (Cobra PLA™, 29.94±16.35s; LMA™, 27.00±7.88s). The oropharyngeal leak pressure in the Cobra PLA™ group (24.80±0.90 H2O) was significantly higher than that in LMA™ group (19±1 H2O, p<0.001). Sore throat was more frequent in the LMA™ group although it did not reach statistical significance (Fisher’s exact test, P = 0.33). Blood staining on airway tube was seen in both groups with a higher incidence in the Cobra PLA™ group (Fisher’s Exact test, P = 0.02). Incidence of dysphagia was not different between the two groups. Conclusion: CobraPLA™ was found to be safe with low complications. It provided better airway sealing with high rate of the first insertion success for use in obese and overweight patients. This study recommends the use of CobraPLA™ as a rescue device in emergency situations for obese and overweight patients. PMID:26221151

  19. Automated Lobe-Based Airway Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Suicheng; Wang, Zhimin; Siegfried, Jill M.; Wilson, David; Bigbee, William L.; Pu, Jiantao

    2012-01-01

    Regional quantitative analysis of airway morphological abnormalities is of great interest in lung disease investigation. Considering that pulmonary lobes are relatively independent functional unit, we develop and test a novel and efficient computerized scheme in this study to automatically and robustly classify the airways into different categories in terms of pulmonary lobe. Given an airway tree, which could be obtained using any available airway segmentation scheme, the developed approach consists of four basic steps: (1) airway skeletonization or centerline extraction, (2) individual airway branch identification, (3) initial rule-based airway classification/labeling, and (4) self-correction of labeling errors. In order to assess the performance of this approach, we applied it to a dataset consisting of 300 chest CT examinations in a batch manner and asked an image analyst to subjectively examine the labeled results. Our preliminary experiment showed that the labeling accuracy for the right upper lobe, the right middle lobe, the right lower lobe, the left upper lobe, and the left lower lobe is 100%, 99.3%, 99.3%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Among these, only two cases are incorrectly labeled due to the failures in airway detection. It takes around 2 minutes to label an airway tree using this algorithm. PMID:23093951

  20. Method for 3D Airway Topology Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Grothausmann, Roman; Kellner, Manuela; Heidrich, Marko; Lorbeer, Raoul-Amadeus; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko; Kuehnel, Mark P.; Ochs, Matthias; Rosenhahn, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    In lungs the number of conducting airway generations as well as bifurcation patterns varies across species and shows specific characteristics relating to illnesses or gene variations. A method to characterize the topology of the mouse airway tree using scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT) tomograms is presented in this paper. It is used to test discrimination between two types of mice based on detected differences in their conducting airway pattern. Based on segmentations of the airways in these tomograms, the main spanning tree of the volume skeleton is computed. The resulting graph structure is used to distinguish between wild type and surfactant protein (SP-D) deficient knock-out mice. PMID:25767561

  1. Resolution of cell-mediated airways diseases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    "Inflammation resolution" has of late become a topical research area. Activation of resolution phase mechanisms, involving select post-transcriptional regulons, transcription factors, 'autacoids', and cell phenotypes, is now considered to resolve inflammatory diseases. Critical to this discourse on resolution is the elimination of inflammatory cells through apoptosis and phagocytosis. For major inflammatory diseases such as asthma and COPD we propose an alternative path to apoptosis for cell elimination. We argue that transepithelial migration of airway wall leukocytes, followed by mucociliary clearance, efficiently and non-injuriously eliminates pro-inflammatory cells from diseased airway tissues. First, it seems clear that numerous infiltrated granulocytes and lymphocytes can be speedily transmitted into the airway lumen without harming the epithelial barrier. Then there are a wide range of 'unexpected' findings demonstrating that clinical improvement of asthma and COPD is not only associated with decreasing numbers of airway wall inflammatory cells but also with increasing numbers of these cells in the airway lumen. Finally, effects of inhibition of transepithelial migration support the present hypothesis. Airway inflammatory processes have thus been much aggravated when transepithelial exit of leukocytes has been inhibited. In conclusion, the present hypothesis highlights risks involved in drug-induced inhibition of transepithelial migration of airway wall leukocytes. It helps interpretation of common airway lumen data, and suggests approaches to treat cell-mediated airway inflammation. PMID:20540713

  2. Anatomic Optical Coherence Tomography of Upper Airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin Loy, Anthony; Jing, Joseph; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yong; Elghobashi, Said; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    The upper airway is a complex and intricate system responsible for respiration, phonation, and deglutition. Obstruction of the upper airways afflicts an estimated 12-18 million Americans. Pharyngeal size and shape are important factors in the pathogenesis of airway obstructions. In addition, nocturnal loss in pharyngeal muscular tone combined with high pharyngeal resistance can lead to collapse of the airway and periodic partial or complete upper airway obstruction. Anatomical optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to provide high-speed three-dimensional tomographic images of the airway lumen without the use of ionizing radiation. In this chapter we describe the methods behind endoscopic OCT imaging and processing to generate full three dimensional anatomical models of the human airway which can be used in conjunction with numerical simulation methods to assess areas of airway obstruction. Combining this structural information with flow dynamic simulations, we can better estimate the site and causes of airway obstruction and better select and design surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  3. Use of a Novel Airway Kit and Simulation in Resident Training on Emergent Pediatric Airways.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Jonathan M; Hamersley, Erin R S; Gallagher, Thomas Q

    2017-06-01

    Objective Development of a novel pediatric airway kit and implementation with simulation to improve resident response to emergencies with the goal of improving patient safety. Methods Prospective study with 9 otolaryngology residents (postgraduate years 1-5) from our tertiary care institution. Nine simulated pediatric emergency airway drills were carried out with the existing system and a novel portable airway kit. Response times and time to successful airway control were noted with both the extant airway system and the new handheld kit. Results were analyzed to ensure parametric data and compared with t tests. A Bonferroni adjustment indicated that an alpha of 0.025 was needed for significance. Results Use of the airway kit significantly reduced the mean time of resident arrival by 47% ( P = .013) and mean time of successful intubation by 50% ( P = .007). Survey data indicated 100% improved resident comfort with emergent airway scenarios with use of the kit. Discussion Times to response and meaningful intervention were significantly reduced with implementation of the handheld airway kit. Use of simulation training to implement the new kit improved residents' comfort and airway skills. This study describes an affordable novel mobile airway kit and demonstrates its ability to improve response times. Implications for Practice The low cost of this airway kit makes it a tenable option even for smaller hospitals. Simulation provides a safe and effective way to familiarize oneself with novel equipment, and, when possible, realistic emergent airway simulations should be used to improve provider performance.

  4. Airway Management During Upper GI Endoscopic Procedures: State of the Art Review.

    PubMed

    Goudra, Basavana; Singh, Preet Mohinder

    2017-01-01

    With the growing popularity of propofol mediated deep sedation for upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic procedures, challenges are being felt and appreciated. Research suggests that management of the airway is anything but routine in this setting. Although many studies and meta-analyses have demonstrated the safety of propofol sedation administered by registered nurses under the supervision of gastroenterologists (likely related to the lighter degrees of sedation than those provided by anesthesia providers and is under medicolegal controversy in the United States), there is no agreement on the optimum airway management for procedures such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Failure to rescue an airway at an appropriate time has led to disastrous consequences. Inability to evaluate and appreciate the risk factors for aspiration can ruin the day for both the patient and the health care providers. This review apprises the reader of various aspects of airway management relevant to the practice of sedation during upper GI endoscopy. New devices and modification of existing devices are discussed in detail. Recognizing the fact that appropriate monitoring is important for timely recognition and management of potential airway disasters, these issues are explored thoroughly.

  5. The intubation scoop (i-scoop) - a new type of laryngoscope for difficult and normal airways.

    PubMed

    Raymondos, K; Seidel, T; Sander, B; Gerdes, A; Goetz, F; Helmstädter, V; Panning, B; Dieck, T

    2014-09-01

    The i-scoop is an intubation device with a curved guiding bar with laterally located lenses at its tip, rather than a blade. Twenty-five anaesthesiologists intubated a manikin that simulated first a normal and then a difficult airway. All participants were able to intubate the difficult airway with a good view of the glottis using the i-scoop. None was able to intubate using seven other laryngoscopes (Macintosh laryngoscope, GlideScope(®) GVL and AVL, McGrath(®) (Series 5/MAC), C-MAC(®) , A.P. Advance(™) ). Intubation was successful only with the Airtraq(®) (n = 10), the Airway Scope (n = 5), the C-MAC D-Blade (n = 2), the A.P. Advance DAB (n = 1) and the GlideScope DL Trainer (n = 1) (p < 0.001, success rate of i-scoop vs all 12 laryngoscopes combined). In contrast to all other videolaryngoscopes, intubation of the normal airway with the i-scoop was achieved even faster than with the Macintosh laryngoscope (p < 0.02). The i-scoop outperformed all other laryngoscopes in both difficult and normal airways, and therefore has potential as an easier and safer alternative to present devices.

  6. Parasympathetic Control of Airway Submucosal Glands: Central Reflexes and the Airway Intrinsic Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Wine, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Airway submucosal glands produce the mucus that lines the upper airways to protect them against insults. This review summarizes evidence for two forms of gland secretion, and hypothesizes that each is mediated by different but partially overlapping neural pathways. Airway innate defense comprises low level gland secretion, mucociliary clearance and surveillance by airway-resident phagocytes to keep the airways sterile in spite of nearly continuous inhalation of low levels of pathogens. Gland secretion serving innate defense is hypothesized to be under the control of intrinsic (peripheral) airway neurons and local reflexes, and these may depend disproportionately on non-cholinergic mechanisms, with most secretion being produced by VIP and tachykinins. In the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, airway glands no longer secrete in response to VIP alone and fail to show the synergy between VIP, tachykinins and ACh that is observed in normal glands. The consequent crippling of the submucosal gland contribution to innate defense may be one reason that cystic fibrosis airways are infected by mucus-resident bacteria and fungi that are routinely cleared from normal airways. By contrast, the acute (emergency) airway defense reflex is centrally mediated by vagal pathways, is primarily cholinergic, and stimulates copious volumes of gland mucus in response to acute, intense challenges to the airways, such as those produced by very vigorous exercise or aspiration of foreign material. In cystic fibrosis, the acute airway defense reflex can still stimulate the glands to secrete large amounts of mucus, although its properties are altered. Importantly, treatments that recruit components of the acute reflex, such as inhalation of hypertonic saline, are beneficial in treating cystic fibrosis airway disease. The situation for recipients of lung transplants is the reverse; transplanted airways retain the airway intrinsic nervous system but lose centrally mediated reflexes. The consequences

  7. Liquid plug propagation in flexible microchannels: A small airway model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Fujioka, H.; Bian, S.; Torisawa, Y.; Huh, D.; Takayama, S.; Grotberg, J. B.

    2009-07-01

    In the present study, we investigate the effect of wall flexibility on the plug propagation and the resulting wall stresses in small airway models with experimental measurements and numerical simulations. Experimentally, a flexible microchannel was fabricated to mimic the flexible small airways using soft lithography. Liquid plugs were generated and propagated through the microchannels. The local wall deformation is observed instantaneously during plug propagation with the maximum increasing with plug speed. The pressure drop across the plug is measured and observed to increase with plug speed, and is slightly smaller in a flexible channel compared to that in a rigid channel. A computational model is then presented to model the steady plug propagation through a flexible channel corresponding to the middle plane in the experimental device. The results show qualitative agreements with experiments on wall shapes and pressure drops and the discrepancies bring up interesting questions on current field of modeling. The flexible wall deforms inward near the plug core region, the deformation and pressure drop across the plug increase with the plug speed. The wall deformation and resulting stresses vary with different longitudinal tensions, i.e., for large wall longitudinal tension, the wall deforms slightly, which causes decreased fluid stress and stress gradients on the flexible wall comparing to that on rigid walls; however, the wall stress gradients are found to be much larger on highly deformable walls with small longitudinal tensions. Therefore, in diseases such as emphysema, with more deformable airways, there is a high possibility of induced injuries on lining cells along the airways because of larger wall stresses and stress gradients.

  8. Sturge-Weber-Syndrome with extreme ocular manifestation and rare association of upper airway angioma with anticipated difficult airway.

    PubMed

    Wong, Hon Seng; Abdul Rahman, Ropilah; Choo, Swee Ying; Yahya, Nurlia

    2012-08-01

    We report a rare case of an 18 year old girl with Sturge-Weber syndrome, she had extensive facial port wine stains, right bupthalmos and advanced glaucoma involving both eyes. She underwent right eye glaucoma drainage device surgery under general anaesthesia, and had a difficult intubation due to extensive angiomatous like soft tissue swelling at her upper airway. This report highlights the importance of being aware of the need for continuous follow-up in Sturge-Weber syndrome patients as this syndrome can lead to blindness due to advance glaucoma and the awareness of possible difficult intubation for this group of patients.

  9. Air pollution and airway disease.

    PubMed

    Kelly, F J; Fussell, J C

    2011-08-01

    Epidemiological and toxicological research continues to support a link between urban air pollution and an increased incidence and/or severity of airway disease. Detrimental effects of ozone (O(3)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and particulate matter (PM), as well as traffic-related pollution as a whole, on respiratory symptoms and function are well documented. Not only do we have strong epidemiological evidence of a relationship between air pollution and exacerbation of asthma and respiratory morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but recent studies, particularly in urban areas, have suggested a role for pollutants in the development of both asthma and COPD. Similarly, while prevalence and severity of atopic conditions appear to be more common in urban compared with rural communities, evidence is emerging that traffic-related pollutants may contribute to the development of allergy. Furthermore, numerous epidemiological and experimental studies suggest an association between exposure to NO(2) , O(3) , PM and combustion products of biomass fuels and an increased susceptibility to and morbidity from respiratory infection. Given the considerable contribution that traffic emissions make to urban air pollution researchers have sought to characterize the relative toxicity of traffic-related PM pollutants. Recent advances in mechanisms implicated in the association of air pollutants and airway disease include epigenetic alteration of genes by combustion-related pollutants and how polymorphisms in genes involved in antioxidant pathways and airway inflammation can modify responses to air pollution exposures. Other interesting epidemiological observations related to increased host susceptibility include a possible link between chronic PM exposure during childhood and vulnerability to COPD in adulthood, and that infants subjected to higher prenatal levels of air pollution may be at greater risk of developing respiratory conditions

  10. Nitric oxide and airway reactivity.

    PubMed

    Strapkova, A; Nosalova, G

    2001-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a neurotransmitter of the inhibitory nonadrenergic noncholinergic mediation in the respiratory system. Its participation in the regulation of airways functions is determined by its level in the organism. We examined participation of nitric oxide in the changes of the airway reactivity evoked by toluene exposure as the source of the free radicals. The changes of nitric oxide level in the organism were evoked by administration of its indirect donor isosorbide dinitrate. Thiol groups were provided by administration of antioxidative mucolytic N-acetylcysteine. Used drugs--isosorbide dinitrate (5 mg/kg b.w.) and N-acetylcysteine (300 mg/kg b.w.) were administered intraperitoneally or by inhalation 30 minutes before each exposure to the toluene vapours. The control group was not treated with drugs. After toluene exposure (2 hours in each of 3 consecutive days) tracheal and lung strips smooth muscle reactivity to histamine was observed under in "in vitro" conditions. The administration of isosorbide dinitrate decreased especially the lung strip smooth muscle reactivity to histamine. We revealed more expressive effect of the pretreatment with intraperitoneally administered isosorbide dinitrate in the comparison with inhalation. Simultaneous pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine intensified beneficial effect of isosorbide dinitrate probably by increasing of the intracellullary level of thiols. In our experimental conditions possible participation of nitric oxide in changes of airways smooth muscle reactivity after exposure to the toluene follows from results, as well as the importance of thiol groups for the activity of its indirect donors. (Fig. 6, Tab. 3, Ref. 35.)

  11. Airway management: induced tension pneumoperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Khedher; Amine, El Ghali Mohamed; Abdelbaki, Azouzi; Jihene, Ayachi; Khaoula, Meddeb; Yamina, Hamdaoui; Mohamed, Boussarsar

    2016-01-01

    Pneumoperitoneum is not always associated with hollow viscus perforation. Such condition is called non-surgical or spontaneous pneumoperitoneum. Intrathoracic causes remain the most frequently reported mechanism inducing this potentially life threatening complication. This clinical condition is associated with therapeutic dilemma. We report a case of a massive isolated pneumoperitoneum causing acute abdominal hypertension syndrome, in a 75 year female, which occurred after difficult airway management and mechanical ventilation. Emergent laparotomy yielded to full recovery. The recognition of such cases for whom surgical management can be avoided is primordial to avoid unnecessary laparotomy and its associated morbidity particularly in the critically ill.

  12. Airway smooth muscle dynamics: a common pathway of airway obstruction in asthma.

    PubMed

    An, S S; Bai, T R; Bates, J H T; Black, J L; Brown, R H; Brusasco, V; Chitano, P; Deng, L; Dowell, M; Eidelman, D H; Fabry, B; Fairbank, N J; Ford, L E; Fredberg, J J; Gerthoffer, W T; Gilbert, S H; Gosens, R; Gunst, S J; Halayko, A J; Ingram, R H; Irvin, C G; James, A L; Janssen, L J; King, G G; Knight, D A; Lauzon, A M; Lakser, O J; Ludwig, M S; Lutchen, K R; Maksym, G N; Martin, J G; Mauad, T; McParland, B E; Mijailovich, S M; Mitchell, H W; Mitchell, R W; Mitzner, W; Murphy, T M; Paré, P D; Pellegrino, R; Sanderson, M J; Schellenberg, R R; Seow, C Y; Silveira, P S P; Smith, P G; Solway, J; Stephens, N L; Sterk, P J; Stewart, A G; Tang, D D; Tepper, R S; Tran, T; Wang, L

    2007-05-01

    Excessive airway obstruction is the cause of symptoms and abnormal lung function in asthma. As airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the effecter controlling airway calibre, it is suspected that dysfunction of ASM contributes to the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the precise role of ASM in the series of events leading to asthmatic symptoms is not clear. It is not certain whether, in asthma, there is a change in the intrinsic properties of ASM, a change in the structure and mechanical properties of the noncontractile components of the airway wall, or a change in the interdependence of the airway wall with the surrounding lung parenchyma. All these potential changes could result from acute or chronic airway inflammation and associated tissue repair and remodelling. Anti-inflammatory therapy, however, does not "cure" asthma, and airway hyperresponsiveness can persist in asthmatics, even in the absence of airway inflammation. This is perhaps because the therapy does not directly address a fundamental abnormality of asthma, that of exaggerated airway narrowing due to excessive shortening of ASM. In the present study, a central role for airway smooth muscle in the pathogenesis of airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma is explored.

  13. Mechanisms of inflammation-mediated airway smooth muscle plasticity and airways remodeling in asthma.

    PubMed

    Halayko, Andrew J; Amrani, Yassine

    2003-09-16

    Recent evidence points to progressive structural change in the airway wall, driven by chronic local inflammation, as a fundamental component for development of irreversible airway hyperresponsiveness. Acute and chronic inflammation is orchestrated by cytokines from recruited inflammatory cells, airway myofibroblasts and myocytes. Airway myocytes exhibit functional plasticity in their capacity for contraction, proliferation, and synthesis of matrix protein and cytokines. This confers a principal role in driving different components of the airway remodeling process, and mediating constrictor hyperresponsiveness. Functional plasticity of airway smooth muscle (ASM) is regulated by an array of environmental cues, including cytokines, which mediate their effects through receptors and a number of intracellular signaling pathways. Despite numerous studies of the cellular effects of cytokines on cultured airway myocytes, few have identified how intracellular signaling pathways modulate or induce these cellular responses. This review summarizes current understanding of these concepts and presents a model for the effects of inflammatory mediators on functional plasticity of ASM in asthma.

  14. Diagnostic tools assessing airway remodelling in asthma.

    PubMed

    Manso, L; Reche, M; Padial, M A; Valbuena, T; Pascual, C

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lower airways characterised by the presence of airway inflammation, reversible airflow obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness and alterations on the normal structure of the airways, known as remodelling. Remodelling is characterised by the presence of metaplasia of mucous glands, thickening of the lamina reticularis, increased angiogenesis, subepithelial fibrosis and smooth muscle hypertrophy/hyperplasia. Several techniques are being optimised at present to achieve a suitable diagnosis for remodelling. Diagnostic tools could be divided into two groups, namely invasive and non-invasive methods. Invasive techniques bring us information about bronchial structural alterations, obtaining this information directly from pathological tissue, and permit measure histological modification placed in bronchi layers as well as inflammatory and fibrotic cell infiltration. Non-invasive techniques were developed to reduce invasive methods disadvantages and measure airway remodelling-related markers such as cytokines, inflammatory mediators and others. An exhaustive review of diagnostic tools used to analyse airway remodelling in asthma, including the most useful and usually employed methods, as well as the principal advantages and disadvantages of each of them, bring us concrete and summarised information about all techniques used to evaluate alterations on the structure of the airways. A deep knowledge of these diagnostic tools will make an early diagnosis of airway remodelling possible and, probably, early diagnosis will play an important role in the near future of asthma. Copyright © 2011 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Athletic Trainers' Knowledge Regarding Airway Adjuncts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edler, Jessica R.; Eberman, Lindsey E.; Kahanov, Leamor; Roman, Christopher; Mata, Heather Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Context: Research suggests that knowledge gaps regarding the appropriate use of airway adjuncts exist among various health care practitioners, and that knowledge is especially limited within athletic training. Objective: To determine the relationship between perceived knowledge (PK) and actual knowledge (AK) of airway adjunct use and the…

  16. Upper airway resistance: species-related differences.

    PubMed

    Kirschvink, N; Reinhold, P

    2010-07-01

    In veterinary medicine, upper airway resistance deserves a particular attention in equines athletes and brachycephalic dogs. Due to the anatomical peculiarities of the upper airway and/or pathological conditions, significant alterations of performance and/or well being might occur in horses and dogs. Physiological specificities and pathological changes of the lower respiratory tract deserve a major attention in other species.

  17. SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES PERSISTENT AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The endotoxin component of organic dusts causes acute reversible airflow obstruction and airway inflammation. To test the hypothesis that endotoxin alone causes airway remodeling, we have compared the response of two inbred mouse strains to subchronic endotoxin ...

  18. Airway and Extracellular Matrix Mechanics in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Bidan, Cécile M.; Veldsink, Annemiek C.; Meurs, Herman; Gosens, Reinoud

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common lung diseases worldwide, and is characterized by airflow obstruction that is not fully reversible with treatment. Even though airflow obstruction is caused by airway smooth muscle contraction, the extent of airway narrowing depends on a range of other structural and functional determinants that impact on active and passive tissue mechanics. Cells and extracellular matrix in the airway and parenchymal compartments respond both passively and actively to the mechanical stimulation induced by smooth muscle contraction. In this review, we summarize the factors that regulate airway narrowing and provide insight into the relative contributions of different constituents of the extracellular matrix and their biomechanical impact on airway obstruction. We then review the changes in extracellular matrix composition in the airway and parenchymal compartments at different stages of COPD, and finally discuss how these changes impact airway narrowing and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Finally, we position these data in the context of therapeutic research focused on defective tissue repair. As a conclusion, we propose that future works should primarily target mild or early COPD, prior to the widespread structural changes in the alveolar compartment that are more characteristic of severe COPD. PMID:26696894

  19. Difficult airway response team: a novel quality improvement program for managing hospital-wide airway emergencies.

    PubMed

    Mark, Lynette J; Herzer, Kurt R; Cover, Renee; Pandian, Vinciya; Bhatti, Nasir I; Berkow, Lauren C; Haut, Elliott R; Hillel, Alexander T; Miller, Christina R; Feller-Kopman, David J; Schiavi, Adam J; Xie, Yanjun J; Lim, Christine; Holzmueller, Christine; Ahmad, Mueen; Thomas, Pradeep; Flint, Paul W; Mirski, Marek A

    2015-07-01

    Difficult airway cases can quickly become emergencies, increasing the risk of life-threatening complications or death. Emergency airway management outside the operating room is particularly challenging. We developed a quality improvement program-the Difficult Airway Response Team (DART)-to improve emergency airway management outside the operating room. DART was implemented by a team of anesthesiologists, otolaryngologists, trauma surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, and risk managers in 2005 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. The DART program had 3 core components: operations, safety, and education. The operations component focused on developing a multidisciplinary difficult airway response team, standardizing the emergency response process, and deploying difficult airway equipment carts throughout the hospital. The safety component focused on real-time monitoring of DART activations and learning from past DART events to continuously improve system-level performance. This objective entailed monitoring the paging system, reporting difficult airway events and DART activations to a Web-based registry, and using in situ simulations to identify and mitigate defects in the emergency airway management process. The educational component included development of a multispecialty difficult airway curriculum encompassing case-based lectures, simulation, and team building/communication to ensure consistency of care. Educational materials were also developed for non-DART staff and patients to inform them about the needs of patients with difficult airways and ensure continuity of care with other providers after discharge. Between July 2008 and June 2013, DART managed 360 adult difficult airway events comprising 8% of all code activations. Predisposing patient factors included body mass index >40, history of head and neck tumor, prior difficult intubation, cervical spine injury, airway edema, airway bleeding, and previous or current tracheostomy. Twenty

  20. Difficult Airway Response Team: A Novel Quality Improvement Program for Managing Hospital-Wide Airway Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Lynette J.; Herzer, Kurt R.; Cover, Renee; Pandian, Vinciya; Bhatti, Nasir I.; Berkow, Lauren C.; Haut, Elliott R.; Hillel, Alexander T.; Miller, Christina R.; Feller-Kopman, David J.; Schiavi, Adam J.; Xie, Yanjun J.; Lim, Christine; Holzmueller, Christine; Ahmad, Mueen; Thomas, Pradeep; Flint, Paul W.; Mirski, Marek A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Difficult airway cases can quickly become emergencies, increasing the risk of life-threatening complications or death. Emergency airway management outside the operating room is particularly challenging. Methods We developed a quality improvement program—the Difficult Airway Response Team (DART)—to improve emergency airway management outside the operating room. DART was implemented by a team of anesthesiologists, otolaryngologists, trauma surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, and risk managers in 2005 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. The DART program had three core components: operations, safety, and education. The operations component focused on developing a multidisciplinary difficult airway response team, standardizing the emergency response process, and deploying difficult airway equipment carts throughout the hospital. The safety component focused on real-time monitoring of DART activations and learning from past DART events to continuously improve system-level performance. This objective entailed monitoring the paging system, reporting difficult airway events and DART activations to a web-based registry, and using in situ simulations to identify and mitigate defects in the emergency airway management process. The educational component included development of a multispecialty difficult airway curriculum encompassing case-based lectures, simulation, and team building/communication to ensure consistency of care. Educational materials were also developed for non-DART staff and patients to inform them about the needs of patients with difficult airways and ensure continuity of care with other providers after discharge. Results Between July 2008 and June 2013, DART managed 360 adult difficult airway events comprising 8% of all code activations. Predisposing patient factors included body mass index > 40, history of head and neck tumor, prior difficult intubation, cervical spine injury, airway edema, airway bleeding, and previous

  1. The critical airway in adults: The facts

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Fabrizio Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm on the indications and timing for a surgical airway in emergency as such cannot be drawn due to the multiplicity of variables and the inapplicability in the context of life-threatening critical emergency, where human brain elaborates decisions better in cluster rather than in binary fashion. In particular, in emergency or urgent scenarios, there is no clear or established consensus as to specifically who should receive a tracheostomy as a life-saving procedure; and more importantly, when. The two classical indications for emergency tracheostomy (laryngeal injury and failure to secure airway with endotracheal intubation or cricothyroidotomy) are too generic and encompass a broad spectrum of possibilities. In literature, specific indications for emergency tracheostomy are scattered and are biased, partially comprehensive, not clearly described or not homogeneously gathered. The review highlights the indications and timing for an emergency surgical airway and gives recommendations on which surgical airway method to use in critical airway. PMID:22787346

  2. Airway fires during surgery: Management and prevention.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Navaid; Ansar, Farrukh; Baig, Mirza Shahzad; Abbas, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Airway fires pose a serious risk to surgical patients. Fires during surgery have been reported for many years with flammable anesthetic agents being the main culprits in the past. Association of airway fires with laser surgery is well-recognized, but there are reports of endotracheal tube fires ignited by electrocautery during pharyngeal surgery or tracheostomy or both. This uncommon complication has potentially grave consequences. While airway fires are relatively uncommon occurrences, they are very serious and can often be fatal. Success in preventing such events requires a thorough understanding of the components leading to a fire (fuel, oxidizer, and ignition source), as well as good communication between all members present to appropriately manage the fire and ensure patient safety. We present a case of fire in the airway during routine adenotonsillectomy. We will review the causes, preventive measures, and brief management for airway fires.

  3. Airway pressure release ventilation: theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Frawley, P M; Habashi, N M

    2001-05-01

    Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a relatively new mode of ventilation, that only became commercially available in the United States in the mid-1990s. Airway pressure release ventilation produces tidal ventilation using a method that differs from any other mode. It uses a release of airway pressure from an elevated baseline to simulate expiration. The elevated baseline facilitates oxygenation, and the timed releases aid in carbon dioxide removal. Advantages of APRV include lower airway pressures, lower minute ventilation, minimal adverse effects on cardio-circulatory function, ability to spontaneously breathe throughout the entire ventilatory cycle, decreased sedation use, and near elimination of neuromuscular blockade. Airway pressure release ventilation is consistent with lung protection strategies that strive to limit lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. Future research will probably support the use of APRV as the primary mode of choice for patients with acute lung injury.

  4. Barrier function of airway tract epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Shyamala; Comstock, Adam T; Sajjan, Uma S

    2013-01-01

    Airway epithelium contributes significantly to the barrier function of airway tract. Mucociliary escalator, intercellular apical junctional complexes which regulate paracellular permeability and antimicrobial peptides secreted by the airway epithelial cells are the three primary components of barrier function of airway tract. These three components act cooperatively to clear inhaled pathogens, allergens and particulate matter without inducing inflammation and maintain tissue homeostasis. Therefore impairment of one or more of these essential components of barrier function may increase susceptibility to infection and promote exaggerated and prolonged innate immune responses to environmental factors including allergens and pathogens resulting in chronic inflammation. Here we review the regulation of components of barrier function with respect to chronic airways diseases. PMID:24665407

  5. Airway tissue engineering for congenital laryngotracheal disease.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Elizabeth; Lesage, Flore; Butler, Colin R; Hynds, Robert E; Hewitt, Richard; Janes, Sam M; Deprest, Jan A; Coppi, Paolo De

    2016-06-01

    Regenerative medicine offers hope of a sustainable solution for severe airway disease by the creation of functional, immunocompatible organ replacements. When considering fetuses and newborns, there is a specific spectrum of airway pathologies that could benefit from cell therapy and tissue engineering applications. While hypoplastic lungs associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) could benefit from cellular based treatments aimed at ameliorating lung function, patients with upper airway obstruction could take advantage from a de novo tissue engineering approach. Moreover, the international acceptance of the EXIT procedure as a means of securing the precarious neonatal airway, together with the advent of fetal surgery as a method of heading off postnatal co-morbidities, offers the revolutionary possibility of extending the clinical indication for tissue-engineered airway transplantation to infants affected by diverse severe congenital laryngotracheal malformations. This article outlines the necessary basic components for regenerative medicine solutions in this potential clinical niche. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Toll-like receptors and airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gon, Yasuhiro

    2008-03-01

    The respiratory tract opens to the external environment at the oral side edge, and the other edge of the respiratory tract connects to the closed space (alveoli), and so to preserve the sterility in the terminal respiratory tract is critical for protection against pathogens. The recognition machinery for the invasion of microbes is indispensable for the preservation of the sterility in the lungs. Our general understanding of how microbes are recognized by the innate immune system has increased considerably over the past several years, and the contribution of Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) to innate immunity is now well documented. In the meantime, it has come to understand that many inflammatory processes may depend on TLR signaling, it has been considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of airway inflammatory diseases such as airway infections, bronchial asthma, and occupational airway diseases. In this review, we focus on physiological roles of TLRs in defense mechanisms of the airways, and pathophysiological roles on airway diseases.

  7. Intrathoracic airway measurement: ex-vivo validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Raab, Stephen A.; D'Souza, Neil D.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1997-05-01

    High-resolution x-ray CT (HRCT) provides detailed images of the lungs and bronchial tree. HRCT-based imaging and quantitation of peripheral bronchial airway geometry provides a valuable tool for assessing regional airway physiology. Such measurements have been sued to address physiological questions related to the mechanics of airway collapse in sleep apnea, the measurement of airway response to broncho-constriction agents, and to evaluate and track the progression of disease affecting the airways, such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. Significant attention has been paid to the measurements of extra- and intra-thoracic airways in 2D sections from volumetric x-ray CT. A variety of manual and semi-automatic techniques have been proposed for airway geometry measurement, including the use of standardized display window and level settings for caliper measurements, methods based on manual or semi-automatic border tracing, and more objective, quantitative approaches such as the use of the 'half-max' criteria. A recently proposed measurements technique uses a model-based deconvolution to estimate the location of the inner and outer airway walls. Validation using a plexiglass phantom indicates that the model-based method is more accurate than the half-max approach for thin-walled structures. In vivo validation of these airway measurement techniques is difficult because of the problems in identifying a reliable measurement 'gold standard.' In this paper we report on ex vivo validation of the half-max and model-based methods using an excised pig lung. The lung is sliced into thin sections of tissue and scanned using an electron beam CT scanner. Airways of interest are measured from the CT images, and also measured with using a microscope and micrometer to obtain a measurement gold standard. The result show no significant difference between the model-based measurements and the gold standard; while the half-max estimates exhibited a measurement bias and were significantly

  8. Investigating the geometry of pig airways using computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Azad, Md Khurshidul; McMurray, Brandon; Henry, Brian; Royston, Thomas J.; Sandler, Richard H.

    2015-03-01

    Numerical modeling of sound propagation in the airways requires accurate knowledge of the airway geometry. These models are often validated using human and animal experiments. While many studies documented the geometric details of the human airways, information about the geometry of pig airways is scarcer. In addition, the morphology of animal airways can be significantly different from that of humans. The objective of this study is to measure the airway diameter, length and bifurcation angles in domestic pigs using computed tomography. After imaging the lungs of 3 pigs, segmentation software tools were used to extract the geometry of the airway lumen. The airway dimensions were then measured from the resulting 3 D models for the first 10 airway generations. Results showed that the size and morphology of the airways of different animals were similar. The measured airway dimensions were compared with those of the human airways. While the trachea diameter was found to be comparable to the adult human, the diameter, length and branching angles of other airways were noticeably different from that of humans. For example, pigs consistently had an early airway branching from the trachea that feeds the superior (top) right lung lobe proximal to the carina. This branch is absent in the human airways. These results suggested that the human geometry may not be a good approximation of the pig airways and may contribute to increasing the errors when the human airway geometric values are used in computational models of the pig chest.

  9. Medical devices for the anesthetist: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ingrande, Jerry; Lemmens, Hendrikus JM

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesiologists are unique among most physicians in that they routinely use technology and medical devices to carry out their daily activities. Recently, there have been significant advances in medical technology. These advances have increased the number and utility of medical devices available to the anesthesiologist. There is little doubt that these new tools have improved the practice of anesthesia. Monitoring has become more comprehensive and less invasive, airway management has become easier, and placement of central venous catheters and regional nerve blockade has become faster and safer. This review focuses on key medical devices such as cardiovascular monitors, airway equipment, neuromonitoring tools, ultrasound, and target controlled drug delivery software and hardware. This review demonstrates how advances in these areas have improved the safety and efficacy of anesthesia and facilitate its administration. When applicable, indications and contraindications to the use of these novel devices will be explored as well as the controversies surrounding their use. PMID:24707188

  10. Prehospital Glidescope video laryngoscopy for difficult airway management in a helicopter rescue program with anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    Struck, Manuel Florian; Wittrock, Maike; Nowak, Andreas

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the prehospital use of a Glidescope video laryngoscope (GSVL) due to anticipated and unexpected difficult airway in a helicopter emergency medical service setting in which emergency physicians (EP) are experienced anesthetists. Retrospective observational study and survey of the experiences of EP were conducted for more than a 3-year period (July 2007-August 2010). In 1675 missions, 152 tracheal intubations (TI) were performed. GSVL was used in 23 cases (15%). A total of 17 patients presented with multiple traumas, including nine with cervical spine immobilization, three with burns, and three with nontraumatic diagnoses. Eight patients experienced previously failed TI with conventional laryngoscopy (five by nonhelicopter emergency medical service EP). In two patients, the EP required two attempts with GSVL to obtain a successful TI. Since the introduction of the GSVL, no other backup airway device was necessary. GSVL may be a valuable support instrument in the prehospital management of difficult airways in emergency patients.

  11. Continuous mucociliary transport by primary human airway epithelial cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Patrick R.; Yin, Wei-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance (MCC) is an important innate defense mechanism that continuously removes inhaled pathogens and particulates from the airways. Normal MCC is essential for maintaining a healthy respiratory system, and impaired MCC is a feature of many airway diseases, including both genetic (cystic fibrosis, primary ciliary dyskinesia) and acquired (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis) disorders. Research into the fundamental processes controlling MCC, therefore, has direct clinical application, but has been limited in part due to the difficulty of studying this complex multicomponent system in vitro. In this study, we have characterized a novel method that allows human airway epithelial cells to differentiate into a mucociliary epithelium that transports mucus in a continuous circular track. The mucociliary transport device allows the measurement and manipulation of all features of mucociliary transport in a controlled in vitro system. In this initial study, the effect of ciliary beat frequency and mucus concentration on the speed of mucociliary transport was investigated. PMID:25979076

  12. A comparison of the Airway Scope and McCoy laryngoscope in patients with simulated restricted neck mobility.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, R; Kamata, K; Sessler, D I; Ozaki, M

    2010-06-01

    We compared the efficacy of the Airway Scope and McCoy laryngoscope as intubation tools with the neck stabilised by a rigid cervical collar. After induction of anaesthesia and neck stabilisation, 100 patients were randomly assigned to tracheal intubation with an Airway Scope or McCoy laryngoscope. Overall intubation success rate, time required for intubation, number of intubation attempts required for successful intubation, and airway complications related to intubation were recorded. Overall intubation success rates were 100% with both devices and a similar number of intubation attempts were required. However, the mean (SD) time required for successful intubation was shorter with the Airway Scope (30 (7) s) than with the McCoy laryngoscope (40 (14) s; p < 0.0001). The incidences of intubation complications were similar, but oesophageal intubation (in six cases) occurred only with McCoy laryngoscope.

  13. Glutathione redox regulates airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Koike, Yoko; Hisada, Takeshi; Utsugi, Mitsuyoshi; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Shimizu, Yasuo; Ono, Akihiro; Murata, Yukie; Hamuro, Junji; Mori, Masatomo; Dobashi, Kunio

    2007-09-01

    Glutathione is the major intracellular redox buffer. We have shown that glutathione redox status, which is the balance between intracellular reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, in antigen-presenting cells (APC) regulates the helper T cell type 1 (Th1)/Th2 balance due to the production of IL-12. Bronchial asthma is a typical Th2 disease. Th2 cells and Th2 cytokines are characteristic of asthma and trigger off an inflammation. Accordingly, we studied the effects of the intracellular glutathione redox status on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and allergen-induced airway inflammation in a mouse model of asthma. We used gamma-Glutamylcysteinylethyl ester (gamma-GCE), which is a membrane-permeating GSH precursor, to elevate the intracellular GSH level and GSH/GSSG ratio of mice. In vitro, gamma-GCE pretreatment of human monocytic THP-1 cells elevated the GSH/GSSG ratio and enhanced IL-12(p70) production induced by LPS. In the mouse asthma model, intraperitoneal injection of gamma-GCE elevated the GSH/GSSG ratio of lung tissue and reduced AHR. gamma-GCE reduced levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and the chemokines eotaxin and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, whereas it enhanced the production of IL-12 and IFN-gamma. Histologically, gamma-GCE suppressed eosinophils infiltration. Interestingly, we also found that gamma-GCE directly inhibited chemokine-induced eosinophil chemotaxis without affecting eotaxin receptor chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) expressions. Taken together, these findings suggest that changing glutathione redox balance, increase in GSH level, and the GSH/GSSG ratio by gamma-GCE, ameliorate bronchial asthma by altering the Th1/Th2 imbalance through IL-12 production from APC and suppressing chemokine production and eosinophil migration itself.

  14. The All India Difficult Airway Association 2016 guidelines for tracheal intubation in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Myatra, Sheila Nainan; Ahmed, Syed Moied; Kundra, Pankaj; Garg, Rakesh; Ramkumar, Venkateswaran; Patwa, Apeksh; Shah, Amit; Raveendra, Ubaradka S; Shetty, Sumalatha Radhakrishna; Doctor, Jeson Rajan; Pawar, Dilip K; Ramesh, Singaravelu; Das, Sabyasachi; Divatia, Jigeeshu Vasishtha

    2016-01-01

    Tracheal intubation (TI) is a routine procedure in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and is often life-saving. In contrast to the controlled conditions in the operating room, critically ill patients with respiratory failure and shock are physiologically unstable. These factors, along with a suboptimal evaluation of the airway and limited oxygen reserves despite adequate pre-oxygenation, are responsible for a high incidence of life-threatening complications such as severe hypoxaemia and cardiovascular collapse during TI in the ICU. The All India Difficult Airway Association (AIDAA) proposes a stepwise plan for safe management of the airway in critically ill patients. These guidelines have been developed based on available evidence; wherever robust evidence was lacking, recommendations were arrived at by consensus opinion of airway experts, incorporating the responses to a questionnaire sent to members of the AIDAA and the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation during pre-oxygenation improves oxygen stores in patients with respiratory pathology. Nasal insufflation of oxygen at 15 L/min can increase the duration of apnoea before the occurrence of hypoxaemia. High-flow nasal cannula oxygenation at 60–70 L/min may also increase safety during TI in critically ill patients. Stable haemodynamics and gas exchange must be maintained during rapid sequence induction. It is necessary to implement an intubation protocol during routine airway management in the ICU. Adherence to a plan for difficult airway management incorporating the use of intubation aids and airway rescue devices and strategies is useful. PMID:28003694

  15. Airway and feeding problems in infants with Fairbairn-Robin triad deformities.

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Susanna M; van den Berg, Hester J S; Bütow, Kurt W; Hoogendijk, Christiaan F

    2013-01-01

    The majority of patients with Pierre Robin sequence in the subdivision Fairbairn- Robin triad (FRT), are born with glossoptosis, retro-/micrognathia and cleft or agenesis of the palate leading to feeding difficulties and airway obstruction. There is limited literature on these problems, and on methods used to address them. Community nurses in the Facial Cleft Deformity Clinic evaluate associated airway obstruction and feeding problems and devise nursing interactions to address these. This retrospective study examined the incidence of airway and feeding difficulties in the neonatal, pre-surgical period, as well as the surgical and nutritional management of these infants. Retrospective records of 215 infants with FRT were examined and data on incidence, airway and feeding difficulties and surgical and nutritional management was collected. Descriptive statistics, including average and percentage values, were compiled. The incidence of FRT amongst the cleft palate patients was 6.0%, with 37.7% of these having feeding difficulties. However, surgical interventions such as glossopexy (5.6%), distraction osteogenesis (0.9%) and tracheotomy (2.3%) for airway management were seldom required. Most of the infants who had upper airway obstruction and feeding problems were handled by means of suction and drinking plates, along with additional specific feeding aids. This reduced airway obstruction in 70.6%, and feeding problems in 62.4% of these infants. Based on this study’s finding the introduction of the suction and drinking plate and the use of specific types of feeding devices and surgical management can improve growth and development in infants with FRT.

  16. Mapping PET-measured triamcinolone acetonide (TAA) aerosol distribution into deposition by airway generation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Z; Berridge, M S; Finlay, W H; Heald, D L

    2000-04-10

    The three dimensional (3D) distribution of inhaled drugs was measured using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) (Berridge, M.S, Muswick, G.J., Lee, Z., Leisure, G.L., Nelson, A.D., Muzic, R.F. Jr., Miraldi, F., Heald, D.L., 1997. PET evaluation of Azmacort(R) ([C-11]triamcinolone acetonide) dose administration. J. Nucl. Med. 38 (5) Suppl., 4-5). Data analysis was based upon regional ratios or penetration indices. To improve the analytical usefulness and objectivity, labeled drug from dynamic PET images was mapped into 23 airway generations following a general framework from a SPECT-based methodology (Fleming, J.S., Nassim, M.A., Hashish, A.H., Bailey, A.G. , Conway, J., Holgate, S., Halson, P., Moore, E., Martonen, T.B., 1995. Description of pulmonary deposition of radiolabeled aerosol by airway generation using a conceptual three dimensional model of lung morphology. J. Aerosol Med. 8, 341-356). A recently developed airway network model was used in this study. Quantitative PET scans of [C-11]triamcinolone acetonide distribution in the lung were determined following administration of Azmacort(R), a commercial metered dose inhaler with an integrated spacer device. Distributions at varying time periods after drug administration were investigated to explore the dynamics and kinetics of the aerosolized drug. Initially, deposition of labeled drug on conducting airways (generations 1-14) was found to be higher than those on acinar airways (generation 15-23), 64% versus 36%. The distribution pattern changed slowly with time. By 47 min, 51% of the dose remaining in the lung was found on conducting airways while 49% was on acinar airways. This study illustrates the value of PET imaging for the evaluation and design of drug formulations.

  17. 4,871 Emergency Airway Encounters by Air Medical Providers: A Report of the Air Transport Emergency Airway Management (NEAR VI: “A-TEAM”) Project

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Calvin A.; Cox, Kelly; Hurwitz, Shelley; Walls, Ron M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pre-hospital airway management is a key component of resuscitation although the benefit of pre-hospital intubation has been widely debated. We report a large series of pre-hospital emergency airway encounters performed by air-transport providers in a large, multi-state system. Methods We retrospectively reviewed electronic intubation flight records from an 89 rotorcraft air medical system from January 01, 2007, through December 31, 2009. We report patient characteristics, intubation methods, success rates, and rescue techniques with descriptive statistics. We report proportions with 95% confidence intervals and binary comparisons using chi square test with p-values <0.05 considered significant. Results 4,871 patients had active airway management, including 2,186 (44.9%) medical and 2,685 (55.1%) trauma cases. There were 4,390 (90.1%) adult and 256 (5.3%) pediatric (age ≤ 14) intubations; 225 (4.6%) did not have an age recorded. 4,703 (96.6%) had at least one intubation attempt. Intubation was successful on first attempt in 3,710 (78.9%) and was ultimately successful in 4,313 (91.7%). Intubation success was higher for medical than trauma patients (93.4% versus 90.3%, p=0.0001 JT test). 168 encounters were managed primarily with an extraglottic device (EGD). Cricothyrotomy was performed 35 times (0.7%) and was successful in 33. Patients were successfully oxygenated and ventilated with an endotracheal tube, EGD, or surgical airway in 4809 (98.7%) encounters. There were no reported deaths from a failed airway. Conclusion Airway management, predominantly using rapid sequence intubation protocols, is successful within this high-volume, multi-state air-transport system. PMID:24672610

  18. Postoperative bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children--a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Friedman, O; Chidekel, A; Lawless, S T; Cook, S P

    1999-12-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children, characterized by hypoventilation secondary to upper airway obstruction, often results from tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy. Adenotonsillectomy is the standard therapy in this patient population. The immediate postoperative period is complicated occasionally by respiratory diffi