Science.gov

Sample records for surface decontamination technology

  1. Surface and subsurface decontamination technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tuck, Matt; Wray, Beth; Musgrave, Mark

    2013-07-01

    A number of proven technologies applicable to the chemical and physical decontamination of radioactive and non-radioactive contaminants within the environmental remediation and radiological waste management sectors exist. Previous work generally acknowledges that these methods have limitations such as production of large volumes of waste, destruction of the substrate, complex safety considerations [1a] and application of special precautions to meet disposal acceptance criteria [2]. A method that removes a variety of contaminants from the surface and subsurface of porous materials, with minimal contaminated waste arisings, is highly desirable. TechXtract{sup R} is a patented, sequential chemical extraction process developed to remove radionuclides, PCBs, and other hazardous organic and inorganic substances from solid materials such as concrete, brick, steel, and exotic metals [3]. The technology uses multifarious task-specific chemical formulations and engineered applications to achieve surface penetration and removal of the contaminants from the atomic voids of metals and other substrates, or the capillaries and gel pores of concretes. TechXtract{sup R} is proven to remove a variety of contaminants from various substrates, allowing free release of the substrate as waste for disposal, or re-use, whilst producing minimal secondary waste. Data from testing of TechXtract's capabilities and evidencing the technology's efficacy during site based applied research and development is presented here. (authors)

  2. Novel Laser Ablation Technology for Surface Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chung H.

    2004-06-01

    Laser ablation for surface cleaning has been pursued for the removal of paint on airplanes. It has also been pursued for the cleaning of semiconductor surfaces. However, all these approaches have been pursued by laser ablation in air. For highly contaminated surface, laser ablation in air can easily cause secondary contamination. Thus it is not suitable to apply to achieve surface decontamination for DOE facilities since many of these facilities have radioactive contaminants on the surface. Any secondary contamination will be a grave concern. The objective of this project is to develop a novel technology for laser ablation in liquid for surface decontamination. It aims to achieve more efficient surface decontamination without secondary contamination and to evaluate the economic feasibility for large scale surface decontamination with laser ablation in liquid. When laser ablation is pursued in the solution, all the desorbed contaminants will be confined in liquid. The contaminants can be precipitated and subsequently contained in a small volume for disposal. It can reduce the risk of the decontamination workers. It can also reduce the volume of contaminants dramatically.

  3. Efficacy of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for chemical warfare agents on indoor surfaces.

    PubMed

    Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Hanna, M Leslie; Hok, Saphon; Vu, Alex K; Reutter, Dennis J; Raber, Ellen

    2011-11-30

    Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of four decontamination formulations on typical indoor surfaces following exposure to the liquid chemical warfare agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), sulfur mustard (HD), and VX. Residual surface contamination on coupons was periodically measured for up to 24h after applying one of four selected decontamination technologies [0.5% bleach solution with trisodium phosphate, Allen Vanguard Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF™), U.S. military Decon Green™, and Modec Inc. and EnviroFoam Technologies Sandia Decontamination Foam (DF-200)]. All decontamination technologies tested, except for the bleach solution, performed well on nonporous and nonpermeable glass and stainless-steel surfaces. However, chemical agent residual contamination typically remained on porous and permeable surfaces, especially for the more persistent agents, HD and VX. Solvent-based Decon Green™ performed better than aqueous-based bleach or foams on polymeric surfaces, possibly because the solvent is able to penetrate the polymer matrix. Bleach and foams out-performed Decon Green for penetrating the highly polar concrete surface. Results suggest that the different characteristics needed for an ideal and universal decontamination technology may be incompatible in a single formulation and a strategy for decontaminating a complex facility will require a range of technologies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. SURFACE DECONTAMINATION METHODOLOGIES FOR A ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Brief This brief will review a wide range of technologies (e.g., liquids, foams, gels, wipes, etc.) that have been shown to decontaminate surfaces contaminated with B. anthracis spores. It will provide decision makers practical information on surface decontaminations options for consideration during a B. anthracis response.

  5. Facility decontamination technology workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    Purpose of the meeting was to provide a record of experience at nuclear facilities, other than TMI-2, of events and incidents which have required decontamination and dose reduction activities, and to furnish GPU and others involved in the TMI-2 cleanup with the results of that decontamination and dose reduction technology. Separate abstracts were prepared for 24 of the 25 papers; the remaining paper had been previously abstracted. (DLC)

  6. DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FACILITY REUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, Steven J.; Blair, Danielle M.

    2003-02-27

    As nuclear research and production facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex are slated for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D), there is a need to decontaminate some facilities for reuse for another mission or continued use for the same mission. Improved technologies available in the commercial sector and tested by the DOE can help solve the DOE's decontamination problems. Decontamination technologies include mechanical methods, such as shaving, scabbling, and blasting; application of chemicals; biological methods; and electrochemical techniques. Materials to be decontaminated are primarily concrete or metal. Concrete materials include walls, floors, ceilings, bio-shields, and fuel pools. Metallic materials include structural steel, valves, pipes, gloveboxes, reactors, and other equipment. Porous materials such as concrete can be contaminated throughout their structure, although contamination in concrete normally resides in the top quarter-inch below the surface. Metals are normally only contaminated on the surface. Contamination includes a variety of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides and can sometimes include heavy metals and organic contamination regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes several advanced mechanical, chemical, and other methods to decontaminate structures, equipment, and materials.

  7. Decontaminating metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Childs, Everett L.

    1984-11-06

    Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g.,>600 g/l of NaNO.sub.3, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH<6.

  8. Decontaminating metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Childs, E.L.

    1984-01-23

    Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g., >600 g/1 of NaNO/sub 3/, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH < 6.

  9. Evaluation of Hydrogel Technologies for the Decontamination ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report This current research effort was developed to evaluate intermediate level (between bench-scale and large-scale or wide-area implementation) decontamination procedures, materials, technologies, and techniques used to remove radioactive material from different surfaces. In the event of such an incident, application of this technology would primarily be intended for decontamination of high-value buildings, important infrastructure, and landmarks.

  10. Evaluation of Hydrogel Technologies for the Decontamination ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report This current research effort was developed to evaluate intermediate level (between bench-scale and large-scale or wide-area implementation) decontamination procedures, materials, technologies, and techniques used to remove radioactive material from different surfaces. In the event of such an incident, application of this technology would primarily be intended for decontamination of high-value buildings, important infrastructure, and landmarks.

  11. Glovebox decontamination technology comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, D.M.; Rodriguez, J.B.; Cournoyer, M.E.

    1999-09-26

    Reconfiguration of the CMR Building and TA-55 Plutonium Facility for mission requirements will require the disposal or recycle of 200--300 gloveboxes or open front hoods. These gloveboxes and open front hoods must be decontaminated to meet discharge limits for Low Level Waste. Gloveboxes and open front hoods at CMR have been painted. One of the deliverables on this project is to identify the best method for stripping the paint from large numbers of gloveboxes. Four methods being considered are the following: conventional paint stripping, dry ice pellets, strippable coatings, and high pressure water technology. The advantages of each technology will be discussed. Last, cost comparisons between the technologies will be presented.

  12. SURFACE DECONTAMINATION EFFICACY STUDIES FOR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Brief This Technical Brief summarizes the findings from three studies in which the decontamination efficacy was determined for various liquid contaminants when applied to various surfaces that are contaminated with blister agents (vesicants).This may provide decision-makers with practical information on surface decontaminations options during a blister agent response.

  13. SURFACE DECONTAMINATION EFFICACY STUDIES FOR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Brief This Technical Brief summarizes the findings from three studies in which the decontamination efficacy was determined for various liquid contaminants when applied to various surfaces that are contaminated with blister agents (vesicants).This may provide decision-makers with practical information on surface decontaminations options during a blister agent response.

  14. [Advances in peroxide-based decontaminating technologies].

    PubMed

    Xi, Hai-ling; Zhao, San-ping; Zhou, Wen

    2013-05-01

    With the boosting demand for eco-friendly decontaminants, great achievements in peroxide-based decontaminating technologies have been made in recent years. These technologies have been applied in countering chemical/biological terrorist attacks, dealing with chemical/biological disasters and destructing environmental pollutants. Recent research advances in alpha-nucleophilic/oxidative reaction mechanisms of peroxide-based decontamination against chemical warfare agents were reviewed, and some classical peroxide-based decontaminants such as aqueous decontaminating solution, decontaminating foam, decontaminating emulsions, decontaminating gels, decontaminating vapors, and some newly developed decontaminating media (e.g., peroxide-based self-decontaminating materials and heterogeneous nano-catalytic decontamination systems) were introduced. However, currently available peroxide-based decontaminants still have some deficiencies. For example, their decontamination efficiencies are not as high as those of chlorine-containing decontaminants, and some peroxide-based decontaminants show relatively poor effect against certain agents. More study on the mechanisms of peroxide-based decontaminants and the interfacial interactions in heterogeneous decontamination media is suggested. New catalysts, multifunctional surfactants, self-decontaminating materials and corrosion preventing technologies should be developed before peroxide-based decontaminants really become true "green" decontaminants.

  15. Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

  16. Decision Analysis System for Selection of Appropriate Decontamination Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.; Boudreaux, J.F.; Chinta, S.; Zanakis, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    The principal objective for designing Decision Analysis System for Decontamination (DASD) is to support DOE-EM's endeavor to employ the most efficient and effective technologies for treating radiologically contaminated surfaces while minimizing personnel and environmental risks. DASD will provide a tool for environmental decision makers to improve the quality, consistency, and efficacy of their technology selection decisions. The system will facilitate methodical comparisons between innovative and baseline decontamination technologies and aid in identifying the most suitable technologies for performing surface decontamination at DOE environmental restoration sites.

  17. Metallic surfaces decontamination by using laser light

    SciTech Connect

    Moggia, Fabrice; Lecardonnel, Xavier

    2013-07-01

    Metal surface cleaning appears to be one of the major priorities for industries especially for nuclear industries. The research and the development of a new technology that is able to meet the actual requirements (i.e. waste volume minimization, liquid effluents and chemicals free process...) seems to be the main commitment. Currently, a wide panel of technologies already exists (e.g. blasting, disk sander, electro-decontamination...) but for some of them, the efficiency is limited (e.g, Dry Ice blasting) and for others, the wastes production (liquid and/or solid) remains an important issue. One answer could be the use of a LASER light process. Since a couple of years, the Clean- Up Business Unit of the AREVA group investigates this decontamination technology. Many tests have been already performed in inactive (i.e. on simulants such as paints, inks, resins, metallic oxides) or active conditions (i.e. pieces covered with a thick metallic oxide layer and metallic pieces covered with grease). The paper will describe the results obtained in term of decontamination efficiency during all our validation process. Metallographic characterizations (i.e. SEM, X-ray scattering) and radiological analysis will be provided. We will also focus our paper on the future deployment of the LASER technology and its commercial use at La Hague reprocessing facility in 2013. (authors)

  18. Recent developments in chemical decontamination technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    Chemical decontamination of parts of reactor coolant systems is a mature technology, used routinely in many BWR plants, but less frequently in PWRs. This paper reviews recent developments in the technology - corrosion minimization, waste processing and full system decontamination, including the fuel. Earlier work was described in an extensive review published in 1990.

  19. Decontamination Technologies, Task 3, Urban Remediation and Response Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser,J.; Sullivan, T.

    2009-06-30

    In the aftermath of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD, also known as a dirty bomb) it will be necessary to remediate the site including building exteriors and interiors, equipment, pavement, vehicles, personal items etc. Remediation will remove or reduce radioactive contamination from the area using a combination of removing and disposing of many assets (including possible demolition of buildings), decontaminating and returning to service other assets, and fixing in place or leaving in place contamination that is deemed 'acceptable'. The later will require setting acceptable dose standards, which will require negotiation with all involved parties and a balance of risk and cost to benefit. To accomplish the first two, disposal or decontamination, a combination of technologies will be deployed that can be loosely classified as: Decontamination; Equipment removal and size reduction; and Demolition. This report will deal only with the decontamination technologies that will be used to return assets to service or to reduce waste disposal. It will not discuss demolition, size reduction or removal technologies or equipment (e.g., backhoe mounted rams, rock splitter, paving breakers and chipping hammers, etc.). As defined by the DOE (1994), decontamination is removal of radiological contamination from the surfaces of facilities and equipment. Expertise in this field comes primarily from the operation and decommissioning of DOE and commercial nuclear facilities as well as a small amount of ongoing research and development closely related to RDD decontamination. Information related to decontamination of fields, buildings, and public spaces resulting from the Goiania and Chernobyl incidents were also reviewed and provide some meaningful insight into decontamination at major urban areas. In order to proceed with decontamination, the item being processed needs to have an intrinsic value that exceeds the cost of the cleaning and justifies the exposure of any workers during the

  20. Decontamination technologies for release from bioprocessing facilities. Part I. Introduction. Part II. Decontamination of wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramanayake, G.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Genetically engineered microorganisms are widely used in biotechnology. Wastewater from bioprocessing facilities will require treatment to ensure that effluents discharged into surface water or other waste streams are not a source of viable organisms or transmittable genetic material. The application of treatment technologies used in other industries to decontaminate the releases from biotechnology processing facilities was evaluated. Since published literature on the inactivation of recombinant-DNA organisms is very limited, information for bacteria, viruses, fungi and subcellular components was obtained. The data indicated that ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, heat, ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation offer good performance potential for decontamination of rDNA processing wastewater. 180 refs., 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  1. Biological decontamination of surfaces using guided ionization waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrige, Julien; Zaepffel, Clement

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets have received an increasing attention these last ten years in various domains, including biomedical applications and decontamination. Among these technologies, guided ionization waves (also called ``plasma bullets'') are very promising because of their ability to produce a highly non-equilibrium plasma. Reactive species can be generated in the open air over a long distance during the propagation of the wave (typically: several cm), while the background gas remains at ambient temperature. A non-thermal plasma system has been developed and tested for the biological decontamination of surfaces. It consists of a dielectric barrier discharge in a helium flow driven by high voltage pulses. The propagation of the ionization wave and the spatial distribution of the species have been characterized by high speed imaging and optical emission spectroscopy. The influence of the discharge parameters on the plasma properties is investigated. Results of decontamination on several bacteria are shown, and the decontamination efficiency is compared with the plasma properties.

  2. Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities.

  3. Methods of decontaminating surfaces and related compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Crosby, Daniel; Norton, Christopher J.

    2016-11-22

    A composition of matter includes water, at least one acid, at least one surfactant, at least one fluoride salt, and ammonium nitrate. A method of decontaminating a surface includes exposing a surface to such a composition and removing the composition from the surface. Other compositions of matter include water, a fatty alcohol ether sulfate, nitrilotriacetic acid, at least one of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid, sodium fluoride, potassium fluoride, ammonium nitrate, and gelatin.

  4. Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1993-09-01

    The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species.

  5. High-Power Ultrasound in Surface Cleaning and Decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Sami B.

    High-power ultrasound is being widely utilized for decontamination in different industrial applications. The same technology is also being investigated as an effective tool for cleaning of components in the decontamination of produce. An understanding of the basic technology and how it works in cleaning various industrial parts should help in applying it on a large scale in the food industry. The technology has evolved throughout the past four decades. Different frequencies were developed and are now industrially available. The frequency range is from 20 kHz to 1 MHz. Current sound technology provides a uniform ultrasonic activity throughout the cleaning vessel, which was a major disadvantage in the earlier technology. The two main driving forces that affect cleaning of surfaces are cavitation and acoustic streaming. Both are generated as a result of the direct interaction of high-frequency sound waves with fluids.

  6. Surface decontamination compositions and methods

    DOEpatents

    Wright,; Karen, E [Idaho Falls, ID; Cooper, David C [Idaho Falls, ID; Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Demmer, Ricky L [Idaho Falls, ID; Tripp, Julia L [Pocatello, ID; Hull, Laurence C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-03-29

    Clay-based compositions capable of absorbing contaminants from surfaces or objects having surface faces may be applied to a surface and later removed, the removed clay-based compositions absorbing at least a portion of the contaminant from the surface or object to which it was applied.

  7. Method for the decontamination of metallic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Purohit, Ankur; Kaminski, Michael D.; Nunez, Luis

    2003-01-01

    A method of decontaminating a radioactively contaminated oxide on a surface. The radioactively contaminated oxide is contacted with a diphosphonic acid solution for a time sufficient to dissolve the oxide and subsequently produce a precipitate containing most of the radioactive values. Thereafter, the diphosphonic solution is separated from the precipitate. HEDPA is the preferred diphosphonic acid and oxidizing and reducing agents are used to initiate precipitation. SFS is the preferred reducing agent.

  8. Decontamination technologies for meat products.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, T; Picouet, P A; Monfort, J M

    2008-01-01

    Consumers demand high quality, natural, nutritious, fresh appearance and convenient meat products with natural flavour and taste and an extended shelf-life. To match all these demands without compromising safety, in the last decades alternative non-thermal preservation technologies such as HHP, irradiation, light pulses, natural biopreservatives together with active packaging have been proposed and further investigated. They are efficient to inactivate the vegetative microorganisms, most commonly related to food-borne diseases, but not spores. The combination of several non-thermal and thermal preservation technologies under the so-called hurdle concept has also been investigated in order to increase their efficiency. Quick thermal technologies such as microwave and radiofrequency tunnels or steam pasteurization bring new possibilities to the pasteurization of meat products especially in ready to eat meals. Their application after final packaging will prevent further cross-contamination during post-processing handling. The benefits of these new technologies and their limitations in an industrial application will be presented and discussed.

  9. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military

    PubMed Central

    Doona, Christopher J.; Feeherry, Florence E.; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G.; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-01-01

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC’s novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers, using an array of Bacillus

  10. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military.

    PubMed

    Doona, Christopher J; Feeherry, Florence E; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-01-01

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC's novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers, using an array of Bacillus

  11. Innovative decontamination technology by abrasion in vibratory vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbri, Silvio; Ilarri, Sergio

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The possibility of using conventional vibratory vessel technology as a decontamination technique is the motivation for the development of this project. The objective is to explore the feasibility of applying the vibratory vessel technology for decontamination of radioactively-contaminated materials such as pipes and metal structures. The research and development of this technology was granted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Abrasion processes in vibratory vessels are widely used in the manufacture of metals, ceramics, and plastics. Samples to be treated, solid abrasive media and liquid media are set up into a vessel. Erosion results from the repeated impact of the abrasive particles on the surface of the body being treated. A liquid media, generally detergents or surfactants aid the abrasive action. The amount of material removed increases with the time of treatment. The design and construction of the machine were provided by Vibro, Argentina private company. Tests with radioactively-contaminated aluminum tubes and a stainless steel bar, were performed at laboratory level. Tests showed that it is possible to clean both the external and the internal surface of contaminated tubes. Results show a decontamination factor around 10 after the first 30 minutes of the cleaning time. (authors)

  12. Laboratory-Scale Study in Determining the Decontamination Standards for Personnel Protective Equipment Used by Homeland Defense Personnel: Evaluation of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Technologies for Decontamination of Personnel Protective Equipment-Relevant Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    rubber) were intentionally contaminated with either 10E7 spores of avirulent ASterne Bacillus anthracis or 50 pg ricin protein toxin. Two disinfection...SUBJECT TERMS ASteme Bacillus anthracis Tyvek Butyl rubber Stainless steel Polycarbonate Clorox Peridox PPE CT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...restoration and re-use. In this report, decontamination of PPE surfaces contaminated with two common BW agents, Bacillus anthracis spores and ricin

  13. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Technology for Decontamination of Space Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Hubertus; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Thoma, Markus; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia; Müller, Meike; Semenov, Igor

    2016-07-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) technology is very fast and effective in inactivation of all kinds of pathogens. It is used in hygiene and especially in medicine, since the plasma treatment can be applied to sensitive surfaces, like skin, too. In a first study to use CAP for the decontamination of space equipment we could show its potential as a quite promising alternative to the standard "dry heat" and H2O2 methods [Shimizu et al. Planetary and Space Science, 90, 60-71. (2014)]. In a follow-on study we continue the investigations to reach high application level of the technology. First, we redesign the actual setup to a plasma-gas circulation system, increasing the effectivity of inactivation and the sustainability. Additionally, we want to learn more about the plasma chemistry processes involved in the inactivation. Therefore, we perform detailed plasma and gas measurements and compare them to numerical simulations. The latter will finally be used to scale the decontamination system to sizes useful also for larger space equipment. Typical materials relevant for space equipment will be tested and investigated on surface material changes due to the plasma treatment. Additionally, it is planned to use electronic boards and compare their functionality before and after the CAP expose. We will give an overview on the status of the plasma decontamination project funded by the Bavarian Ministry of Economics.

  14. Analysis of Potential Concerete Floor Decontamination Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Ebadian

    1997-08-06

    During the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities to be conducted at the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), contaminated concrete waste will be generated from the D&D of approximately 200 buildings and other structures [1]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns the Fernald site. The site is a contractor-operated federal facility that produced high-purity uranium metal products for the DOE and its predecessor agency, the Atomic Energy Commission, from 1952 to 1989. Thorium being ores were also processed at FEMP, but on a smaller scale. Production activities ceased in 1989, and the production mission of the facility ended formally in 1991. FEMP was included on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List in 1989. The current mission of the site is environmental restoration according to the requirements specified by CERCLA [1]. Decontamination and decommissioning activities require the treatment of concrete floors to segregate technetium-99 contaminated concrete from the remainder of the concrete. Many proven commercial stiace removal technologies are available. These processes vary in aggressiveness, stiety requirements, waste generation, capital requirements, and operating and maintenance costs.

  15. UV/Ozone treatment to decontaminate tritium contaminated surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Krasznai, J.P.; Mowat, R.

    1995-10-01

    Tritium contamination on surfaces is often encountered during operation and maintenance of equipment at the Darlington Tritium Removal Facility and likely at other tritium handling facilities. The use of efficient decontamination techniques that produce little or no secondary wastes is desirable. At Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT) we have been developing a process utilizing a combination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and ozone gas to remove tritium surface contamination from materials often used in tritium service. This paper summarizes the performance of the technique. The results are encouraging because the technique is very effective, simple in terms of equipment requirements and concentrates tritium in an easily managed waste form. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. DECISION ANALYSIS AND TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENTS FOR METAL AND MASONRY DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a comparative analysis of innovative technologies for the non-aggressive removal of coatings from metal and masonry surfaces and the aggressive removal of one-quarter to one-inch thickness of surface from structural masonry. The technologies tested should be capable of being used in nuclear facilities. Innovative decontamination technologies are being evaluated under standard, non-nuclear conditions at the FIU-HCET technology assessment site in Miami, Florida. This study is being performed to support the OST, the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) Focus Area, and the environmental restoration of DOE facilities throughout the DOE complex by providing objective evaluations of currently available decontamination technologies.

  17. METHOD AND COATING COMPOSITION FOR PROTECTING AND DECONTAMINATING SURFACES

    DOEpatents

    Overhold, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.

    1959-03-10

    A protective coating useful in the decontamination of surfaces exposed to radioactive substances is presented. This coating is placed on the surface before use and is soluble in waters allowing its easy removal in the event decontamination becomes necessary. Suitable coating compositions may be prepared by mixing a water soluble carbohydrate such as sucrose or dextrin, together with a hygroscopic agent such as calcium chloride or zinc chloride.

  18. Method and coating composition for protecting and decontaminating surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Overhold, D C; Peterson, M D

    1959-03-10

    A protective coating useful in the decontamination of surfaces exposed to radioactive substances is described. This coating is placed on the surface before use and is soluble in water, allowing its easy removal in the event decontamination becomes necessary. Suitable coating compositions may be prepared by mixing a water soluble carbohydrate such as sucrose or dextrin, together with a hygroscopic agent such as calcium chloride or zinc chloride.

  19. Surface Decontamination of Simulated Chemical Warfare Agents Using a Nonequilibrium Plasma with Off-Gas Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Trevor M.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Engelhard, Mark H.; Gaspar, Dan J.; Luna, Maria L.; Irving, Patricia M.

    2002-08-01

    InnovaTek is developing a surface decontamination technology that utilizes active species generated in a nonequilibrium corona plasma. The plasma technology was tested against DMMP, a simulant for the chemical agent Sarin. GC-MS analysis showed that a greater than four log10 destruction of the DMMP on an aluminum surface was achieved in a 10 minute treatment. An ion-trap mass spectrometer was utilized to collect time-resolved data on the treatment off-gases. These data indicate that only non-toxic fragments of the broken down DMMP molecule were present in the gas phase. The technology is being further refined to develop a product that will not only decontaminate surfaces but will also sense when decontamination is complete

  20. Laser decontamination of epoxy painted concrete surfaces in nuclear plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthofer, A.; Lippmann, W.; Hurtado, A.

    2014-04-01

    Laser technology offers an efficient decontamination of surfaces contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) by precise application of highly focused laser beam power. In the context of nuclear decommissioning all walls and floors of a reactor building have to be cleaned from chemical-toxic substances. State of the art is a manual and mechanic ablation and a subsequent treatment in a hazardous waste incinerator. In this study, alternatively, a laser-based system exhibiting, decontamination rates of up to 6.4 m2/h has been operated using a 10 kW diode laser in continuous wave (CW) mode with a spot size of 45×10 mm2 and a wavelength of 980-1030 nm. The system allows a rapid heating of the surfaces up to temperatures of more than 1000 °C leading to ablation and thermal decomposition of PCB in one process step. Thermal quenching prevents formation of polychlorinated dioxines (PCDD) and polychlorinate furans (PCDF) in the flue gas. Additionally, an in situ measurement system based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is developed to monitor the thermal decomposition of PCB. For initial experiments samples covered with epoxy paint were used to evaluate the process and to carry out finite element based simulations. In this paper, experimental results of ablation tests by laser irradiation of epoxy painted concrete are presented and discussed.

  1. Innovative Decontamination Technology for Use in Gaseous Diffusion Plant Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, M.J.; Norton, C.J.; Fraikor, G.B.; Potter, G.L.; Chang, K.C.

    2006-07-01

    The results of bench scale tests demonstrated that TechXtract{sup R} RadPro{sup TM} technology (hereinafter referred to as RadPro{sup R}) can provide 100% coverage of complex mockup gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) equipment and can decontaminate uranium (U) deposits with 98% to 99.99% efficiency. Deployment tests demonstrated RadPro{sup R} can be applied as foam, mist/fog, or steam, and fully cover the internal surfaces of complex mockup equipment, including large piping. Decontamination tests demonstrated that two formulations of RadPro{sup R}, one with neutron attenuators and one without neutron attenuators, could remove up to 99.99% of uranyl fluoride deposits, one of the most difficult to remove deposits in GDP equipment. These results were supplemented by results from previous tests conducted in 1994 that showed RadPro{sup R} could remove >97% of U and Tc-99 contamination from actual GDP components. Operational use of RadPro{sup R} at other DOE and commercial facilities also support these data. (authors)

  2. Benefits of automated surface decontamination of a radioiodine ward.

    PubMed

    Westcott, Eliza; Broadhurst, Alicia; Crossley, Steven; Lee, Lloyd; Phan, Xuyen; Scharli, Rainer; Xu, Yan

    2012-02-01

    A floor-washing robot has been acquired to assist physicists with decontamination of radioiodine therapy ward rooms after discharge of the patient at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. The effectiveness of the robot in decontaminating the ward has been evaluated. A controlled experiment was performed by deliberately contaminating a polyvinyl chloride flooring offcut with 131I followed by automated decontamination with the robot. The extent of fixed and removable contamination was assessed before and after decontamination by two methods: (1) direct Geiger-Mueller counting and (2) beta-counting wipe tests. Surface contamination was also assessed in situ on the ward by Geiger-Mueller counting and wipe testing. Contamination maps confirmed that contamination was removed rather than spread around by the robot. Wipe testing revealed that the robot was successful in clearing approximately 60-80% of removable contamination. The robotic floor-washing device was considered suitable to provide effective automated decontamination of the radioiodine ward. In addition, the robot affords other benefits: the time spent by the physicists decontaminating the room is greatly reduced offering financial and occupational safety and health benefits. The robot has also found utility in other decontamination applications in the healthcare environment.

  3. Surface Decontamination of Blister Agents Lewisite, Sulfur ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Journal Article Sulfur mustard (HD) and Lewisite (L) are blister agents that have a high potential for terrorist use. Agent Yellow (HL) is the eutectic mixture of HD and L. Bench-scale testing was used to determine the residual amount of these chemical warfare agents remaining on three building materials coupons (wood, metal and glass) after application of various decontaminants (household bleach, full strength and dilute; hydrogen peroxide 3 % solution; and EasyDECON® DF200).

  4. Surface Decontamination of Blister Agents Lewisite, Sulfur ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Journal Article Sulfur mustard (HD) and Lewisite (L) are blister agents that have a high potential for terrorist use. Agent Yellow (HL) is the eutectic mixture of HD and L. Bench-scale testing was used to determine the residual amount of these chemical warfare agents remaining on three building materials coupons (wood, metal and glass) after application of various decontaminants (household bleach, full strength and dilute; hydrogen peroxide 3 % solution; and EasyDECON® DF200).

  5. Decision Analysis Science Modeling for Application and Fielding Selection Applied to Concrete Decontamination Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A. Ross, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    Concrete surfaces contaminated with radionuclides present a significant challenge during the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) process. As structures undergo D and D, coating layers and/or surface layers of the concrete containing the contaminants must be removed for disposal in such a way as to present little to no risk to human health or the environment. The selection of a concrete decontamination technology that is safe, efficient, and cost-effective is critical to the successful D and D of contaminated sites. To support U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management objectives and to assist DOE site managers in the selection of the best-suited concrete floor decontamination technology(s) for a given site, two innovative and three baseline technologies have been assessed under standard, non-nuclear conditions at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU). The innovative technologies assessed include the Pegasus Coating Removal System and Textron's Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling System. The three baseline technologies assessed include: the Wheelabrator Blastrac model 1-15D, the NELCO Porta Shot Blast{trademark} model GPx-1O-18 HO Rider, and the NELCO Porta Shot Blast{trademark} model EC-7-2. These decontamination technology assessments provide directly comparable performance data that have previously been available for only a limited number of technologies under restrictive site-specific constraints. Some of the performance data collected during these technology assessments include: removal capability, production rate, removal gap, primary and secondary waste volumes, and operation and maintenance requirements. The performance data generated by this project is intended to assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives.

  6. Environmental decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, G.A.; Jernigan, H.C.

    1981-02-01

    The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination. (DLS)

  7. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military

    DOE PAGES

    Doona, Christopher J.; Feeherry, Florence E.; Kustin, Kenneth; ...

    2015-08-12

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). Here, the basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized asmore » a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination.« less

  8. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military

    SciTech Connect

    Doona, Christopher J.; Feeherry, Florence E.; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G.; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-08-12

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). Here, the basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination.

  9. Cold atmospheric plasma - A new technology for spacecraft component decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Satoshi; Barczyk, Simon; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Klaempfl, Tobias; Zimmermann, Julia L.; Hoeschen, Till; Linsmeier, Christian; Weber, Peter; Morfill, Gregor E.; Thomas, Hubertus M.

    2014-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) based on the Surface Micro-Discharge (SMD) technology was investigated for inactivation of different bacteria and endospores. The used technique was developed to serve as an alternative method for the decontamination of spacecraft components based on the COSPAR planetary protection policy where currently the dry heat microbial reduction method is the only applicable way to satisfy the required demands. However it is known, that dry heat can thermally damage sophisticated components installed on the device. Therefore, the development of a low temperature sterilization system is one of the high priority issues for upcoming space missions in the extraterrestrial field. In the study presented here, the vegetative bacteria Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans and several types of bacterial endospores - including Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus safensis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus megaterium 2c1 and Bacillus thuringiensis E24 - were inactivated by exposing them indirectly i.e. only to the reactive gases produced by the SMD electrode at room temperature. The results showed a 5 log inactivation for E. coli after 10 min of exposure. In contrast D. radiodurans proved to be more resistant resulting in a reduction of 3 log after exposure of 30 min. More than 6 log reductions were achieved for B. safensis, B. megaterium and B. megaterium 2c1 after 90 min of exposure. Furthermore the applicability of the used CAP system for spacecraft decontamination according to the planetary protection policy was investigated. This included also the investigation of the inactivation homogeneity by the plasma gas, the control of the temperature at the area of interest, the measurement of the O3 density in the treatment region and the detailed investigation of the effects of the exposure on different materials.

  10. Progress of electro-hydraulic scabbling technology for concrete decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Goldfarb, V.; Gannon, R.

    1997-05-01

    Concrete decontamination from organics, metals, and radionuclides requires removal of up to one inch of the surface layer. The Electro- Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS) technique has been developed within a 3- phase program. A prototype 8 kW EHS unit was designed and assembled in Phase II. This system was tested initially by scabbling noncontaminated concrete, and later at the DOE Fernald site where a concrete floor containing uranium was decontaminated. In the latter test, the unit operated without problems and reduced the counts per minute by more than 90%. Currently in Phase III, a larger 30 kW unit has been assembled and prepared for testing/demonstration.

  11. Minimal impact, waterless decontamination technologies for improving food safety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pathogen contamination of produce, meats, poultry, shellfish, and other foods remains an ongoing concern. Chemical sanitizers are widely employed for foods and food contact surfaces. However, there is growing interest in the development of minimal impact, waterless decontamination processes that wil...

  12. Nonacid meat decontamination technologies: model studies and commercial applications.

    PubMed

    Sofos, J N; Smith, G C

    1998-11-10

    Increased consumer awareness and concern about microbial foodborne diseases has resulted in intensified efforts to reduce contamination of raw meat, as evidenced by new meat and poultry inspection regulations being implemented in the United States. In addition to requiring operation of meat and poultry slaughtering and processing plants under the principles of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system, the new regulations have established microbiological testing criteria for Escherichia coli and Salmonella, as a means of evaluating plant performance. These developments have renewed and intensified interest in the development and commercial application of meat and poultry decontamination procedures. Technologies developed and evaluated for decontamination include live animal cleaning/washing, chemical dehairing, carcass knife-trimming to remove physical contaminants, steam/hot water-vacuuming for spot-cleaning/decontamination of carcasses, spray washing/rinsing of carcasses with water of low or high pressures and temperatures or chemical solutions, and exposure of carcass sides to pressurized steam. Under appropriate conditions, the technologies applied to carcasses may reduce mean microbiological counts by approximately one-three log colony forming units (cfu)/cm2, and some of them have been approved and are employed in commercial applications (i.e., steam-vacuuming; carcass spray-washing with water, chlorine, organic acid or trisodium phosphate solutions; hot water deluging/spraying/rinsing, and pressurized steam). The contribution of these decontamination technologies to the enhancement of food safety will be determined over the long term, as surveillance data on microbial foodborne illness are collected. This review examines carcass decontamination technologies, other than organic acids, with emphasis placed on recent advances and commercial applications.

  13. Gaseous and air decontamination technologies for Clostridium difficile in the healthcare environment.

    PubMed

    Davies, A; Pottage, T; Bennett, A; Walker, J

    2011-03-01

    The recent data for hospital-acquired infections suggest that infection rates for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile are beginning to decrease. However, while there is still pressure to maintain this trend, the resistance of C. difficile spores to standard detergents continues to present a problem for many UK hospitals trying to prevent its spread or control outbreaks. Alternative disinfection technologies such as gaseous decontamination are currently being marketed to the healthcare sector as an alternative/supplement to manual disinfection, and have been shown to be effective in reducing environmental contamination. When used correctly, they offer a complementary technology to manual cleaning that increases the probability of an effective reduction in viability and provides a comparatively uniform distribution of disinfectant. Three gaseous decontamination technologies are examined for their suitability in reducing environmental contamination with C. difficile: gaseous hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide and ozone. Air decontamination and UV-based technologies are also briefly described. We conclude that while there is a role to play for these new technologies in the decontamination of ward surfaces contaminated with C. difficile, the requirement for both a preclean before use and the limited 'in vivo' evidence means that extensive field trials are necessary to determine their cost-effectiveness in a healthcare setting. Copyright © 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    MacNair, V.; Muth, T.; Shasteen, K.; Liby, A.; Hradil, G.; Mishra, B.

    1996-12-31

    In October 1993, Manufacturing Sciences Corporation was awarded DOE contract DE-AC21-93MC30170 to develop and test recycling of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) to high value and intermediate and final product forms. This work was conducted to help solve the problems associated with decontamination and reuse of the diffusion plant barrier nickel and other radioactively contaminated scrap metals present in the diffusion plants. Options available for disposition of the nickel include decontamination and subsequent release or recycled product manufacture for restricted end use. Both of these options are evaluated during the course of this research effort. work during phase I of this project successfully demonstrated the ability to make stainless steel from barrier nickel feed. This paved the way for restricted end use products made from stainless steel. Also, after repeated trials and studies, the inducto-slag nickel decontamination process was eliminated as a suitable alternative. Electro-refining appeared to be a promising technology for decontamination of the diffusion plant barrier material. Goals for phase II included conducting experiments to facilitate the development of an electro-refining process to separate technetium from nickel. In parallel with those activities, phase II efforts were to include the development of the necessary processes to make useful products from radioactive scrap metal. Nickel from the diffusion plants as well as stainless steel and carbon steel could be used as feed material for these products.

  15. Surface Decontamination of System Components in Uranium Conversion Plant at KAERI

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, W. K.; Kim, K. N.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. H.; Oh, W. Z.

    2003-02-25

    A chemical decontamination process using nitric acid solution was selected as in-situ technology for recycle or release with authorization of a large amount of metallic waste including process system components such as tanks, piping, etc., which is generated by dismantling a retired uranium conversion plant at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The applicability of nitric acid solution for surface decontamination of metallic wastes contaminated with uranium compounds was evaluated through the basic research on the dissolution of UO2 and ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC) powder. Decontamination performance was verified by using the specimens contaminated with such uranium compounds as UO2 and AUC taken from the uranium conversion plant. Dissolution rate of UO2 powder is notably enhanced by the addition of H2O2 as an oxidant even in the condition of a low concentration of nitric acid and low temperature compared with those in a nitric acid solution without H2O2. AUC powders dissolve easily in nitric acid solutions until the solution pH attains about 2.5 {approx} 3. Above that solution pH, however, the uranium concentration in the solution is lowered drastically by precipitation as a form of U3(NH3)4O9 . 5H2O. Decontamination performance tests for the specimens contaminated with UO2 and AUC were quite successful with the application of decontamination conditions obtained through the basic studies on the dissolution of UO2 and AUC powders.

  16. Technology demonstrations in the Decontamination and Decommissioning Focus Area

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, S.J.

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes three large-scale demonstration projects sponsored jointly by the Decontamination and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA), and the three US Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices that successfully offered to deactivate or decommission (D&D) one of its facilities using a combination of innovative and commercial D&D technologies. The paper also includes discussions on recent technology demonstrations for an Advanced Worker Protection System, an Electrohydraulic Scabbling System, and a Pipe Explorer{trademark}. The references at the conclusion of this paper should be consulted for more detailed information about the large-scale demonstration projects and recent technology demonstrations sponsored by the DDFA.

  17. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.

    1996-08-13

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  18. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  19. Contaminant Organic Complexes: Their Structure and Energetics in Surface Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel Traina; Shankar Sharma

    2005-07-12

    The Department of Energy has a goal of decontaminating an estimated 180,000 metric tons of metal wastes in various surplus facilities. Uranium (U) and other radioactive actinides and lanthanides are embedded within the mixed oxide structures of the passivity layers of corroded iron and steel. These toxic metals can be dissolved out of the surface layers by a naturally occurring bacterial siderophore called Desferrioxamine B (DFB). DFB is a trihydroxamate ligand with one amine and three hydroxamate groups, which chelates with metals through hydroxamate coordination. Complexation of DFB with U can be utilized in decontamination strategy of the passivity layers. Therefore, we have been studying reactions of uranyl U(VI) with zerovalent iron (Fe0) followed by dissolution by DFB. The objectives were to determine the structure and speciation of solution and solid phases of U and to assess the effectiveness of DVB in U dissolution.

  20. Foam and gel methods for the decontamination of metallic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Nunez, Luis; Kaminski, Michael Donald

    2007-01-23

    Decontamination of nuclear facilities is necessary to reduce the radiation field during normal operations and decommissioning of complex equipment. In this invention, we discuss gel and foam based diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) chemical solutions that are unique in that these solutions can be applied at room temperature; provide protection to the base metal for continued applications of the equipment; and reduce the final waste form production to one step. The HEDPA gels and foams are formulated with benign chemicals, including various solvents, such as ionic liquids and reducing and complexing agents such as hydroxamic acids, and formaldehyde sulfoxylate. Gel and foam based HEDPA processes allow for decontamination of difficult to reach surfaces that are unmanageable with traditional aqueous process methods. Also, the gel and foam components are optimized to maximize the dissolution rate and assist in the chemical transformation of the gel and foam to a stable waste form.

  1. DECONTAMINATION/DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Jones; Javier Del Campo; Patrick Nevins; Stuart Legg

    2002-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has approximately 5000 55-gallon drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste in interim storage. These may not be shipped to WIPP in TRUPACT-II containers due to the high rate of hydrogen production resulting from the radiolysis of the organic content of the drums. In order to circumvent this problem, the {sup 238}Pu needs to be separated from the organics--either by mineralization of the latter or by decontamination by a chemical separation. We have conducted ''cold'' optimization trials and surrogate tests in which a combination of a mediated electrochemical oxidation process (SILVER II{trademark}) and ultrasonic mixing have been used to decontaminate the surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes were impregnated with copper oxalate for plutonium dioxide. Our process combines both mineralization of reactive components (such cellulose, rubber, and oil) and surface decontamination of less reactive materials such as polyethylene, polystyrene and polyvinylchloride. By using this combination of SILVER II and ultrasonic mixing, we have achieved 100% current efficiency for the destruction of the reactive components. We have demonstrated that: The degree of decontamination achieved would be adequate to meet both WIPP waste acceptance criteria and TRUPACT II packaging and shipping requirements; The system can maintain near absolute containment of the surrogate radionuclides; Only minimal pre-treatment (coarse shredding) and minimal waste sorting are required; The system requires minimal off gas control processes and monitoring instrumentation; The laboratory trials have developed information that can be used for scale-up purposes; The process does not produce dioxins and furans; Disposal routes for secondary process arisings have already been demonstrated in other programs. Based on the results from Phase 1, the recommendation is to proceed to Phase 2 and use the equipment at Savannah River Site to demonstrate

  2. Development of waste minimization and decontamination technologies at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, R.L.; Archibald, K.E.; Demmer, R.L.

    1995-11-01

    Emphasis on the minimization of decontamination secondary waste has increased because of restrictions on the use of hazardous chemicals and Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) waste handling issues. The Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co. (LITCO) Decontamination Development Subunit has worked to evaluate and introduce new performed testing, evaluations, development and on-site demonstrations for a number of novel decontamination techniques that have not yet previously been used at the ICPP. This report will include information on decontamination techniques that have recently been evaluated by the Decontamination Development Subunit.

  3. Manual Operated Ultraviolet Surface Decontamination for Healthcare Environments.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Thaila Quatrini; Blanco, Kate Cristina; Inada, Natalia Mayumi; Hortenci, Maisa de Fátima; Costa, Angela Aparecida; Silva, Evaine da Silveira; Pereira da Costa Gimenes, Patricia; Pompeu, Soraya; Holanda E Silva, Raphael Luiz de; Figueiredo, Walter Manso; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2017-10-12

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new handheld equipment based on a mercury low-pressure vapor lamp. The Surface UV(®) device was tested in Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, two strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and other clinical microorganisms isolated from different surfaces of a public health hospital. The incidence of hospital infections has increased in recent years. Despite the variety of available chemicals to reduce the microorganisms, the search for antimicrobial agents and the characterization of novel targets are a continued need. Also, the minimization of chemical procedures is a constant need, and the use of ultraviolet (UV) light as a germicidal device for microorganisms' inactivation has been an alternative and one possible approach for the reduction of contamination. The in vitro decontamination was performed by application of Surface UV in different species of microorganisms (study 1). The surface decontamination was carried out by application of Surface UV on each surface of hospital environment (study 2). The device presents ultraviolet C (UV-C) light at 254 nm and produces an irradiance of 13 mW/cm(2) at a distance of 1 cm of the surfaces. The light dose was 0.78 J/cm(2) for 60 sec of application in both studies. The results for in vitro decontamination indicated a log10 reduction factor of 6.5 for S. aureus, 6.7 for S. mutans, 6.2 for S. pneumoniae, 5.4 for E. coli, 5.2 for E. coli (ATCC 8739), 5.4 for P. aeruginosa, and 6.7 for C. albicans. The hospital level of microorganisms decreases more by 75% after the procedure. The study highlights the development and successful application of a new portable device that can reduce the risk of contamination in health settings. Our results suggest that Surface UV is efficient and may be an alternative decontamination method.

  4. A laboratory investigation of the effectiveness of various skin and surface decontaminants for aliphatic polyisocyanates.

    PubMed

    Bello, Dhimiter; Woskie, Susan R; Streicher, Robert P; Stowe, Meredith H; Sparer, Judy; Redlich, Carrie A; Cullen, Mark R; Liu, Youcheng

    2005-07-01

    Isocyanates may cause contact dermatitis and respiratory sensitization leading to asthma. Dermal exposure to aliphatic isocyanates in auto body shops is very common. However, little is known about the effectiveness of available commercial products used for decontaminating aliphatic polyisocyanates. This experimental study evaluated the decontamination effectiveness of aliphatic polyisocyanates for several skin and surface decontaminants available for use in the auto body industry. The efficiency of two major decontamination mechanisms, namely (i) consumption of free isocyanate groups via chemical reactions with active hydrogen components of the decontaminant and (ii) physical removal processes such as dissolution were studied separately for each decontaminant. Considerable differences were observed among surface decontaminants in their rate of isocyanate consumption, of which those containing free amine groups performed the best. Overall, Pine-Sol(R) MEA containing monoethanolamine was the most efficient surface decontaminant, operating primarily via chemical reaction with the isocyanate group. Polypropylene glycol (PPG) had the highest physical removal efficiency and the lowest reaction rate with isocyanates. All tested skin decontaminants performed similarly, accomplishing decontamination primarily via physical processes and removing 70-80% of isocyanates in one wiping. Limitations of these skin decontaminants are discussed and alternatives presented. In vitro testing using animal skins and in vivo testing with field workers are being conducted to further assess the efficiency and identify related determinants.

  5. Developments in Decontamination Technologies of Military Personnel and Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sata, Utkarsh R.; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Individual protection is important for warfighters, first responders and civilians to meet the current threat of toxic chemicals and chemical warfare (CW) agents. Within the realm of individual protection, decontamination of warfare agents is not only required on the battlefield but also in laboratory, pilot plants, production and agent destruction sites. It is of high importance to evaluate various decontaminants and decontamination techniques for implementing the best practices in varying scenarios such as decontamination of personnel, sites and sensitive equipment.

  6. Decontamination of Surfaces Exposed to Carbonbased Nanotubes and Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Zahra

    Contamination of surfaces by nanomaterials can happen due to accidental spillage and release or gradual accumulation during processing or handling. Considering the increasingly wide use of nanomaterials in industry and research labs and also taking into account the diversity of physical and chemical properties of different nanomaterials (such as solubility, aggregation/agglomeration, and surface reactivity), there is a pressing need to define reliable nanomaterial-specific decontamination guidelines. In this project, we propose and investigate a potential method for surface decontamination of carbon-based nanomaterials using solvent cleaning and wipes. The results show that the surfactant-assisted removal efficiencies of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, single walled carbon nantubes and single walled carbon nano-horns from silicon wafers through wiping is greater than 95%, 90% and 78%, respectively. The need for further studies to understand the mechanisms of nanomaterial removal from surfaces and development of standard techniques for surface decontamination of nanomaterials is highlighted. Another phase of experiments were performed to examine the efficiency of surfactants to remove multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) from silicon substrates with nano and microscaled features. In the first set of experiments, nanoscale features were induced on silicon wafers using SF6 and O2 plasma. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to observe the surface topology and roughness. In the second set, well-defined microscale topological features were induced on silicon wafers using photo lithography and plasma etching. The etching time was varied to create semi-ellipsoidal pits with average diameter and height of ~ 7-9 microm, and ~ 1-3 microm, respectively. MWCNTs in the form of liquid solution were deposited on the surface of silicon wafers using the spin coating process. For the cleaning process, the contaminated surfaces were first sprayed with different types of surfactant

  7. A Nanosecond Pulsed Plasma Brush for Surface Decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuber, Johanna; Malik, Muhammad; Song, Shutong; Jiang, Chunqi

    2015-11-01

    This work optimizes a non-thermal, atmospheric pressure plasma brush for surface decontamination. The generated plasma plumes with a maximum length of 2 cm are arranged in a 5 cm long, brush-like array. The plasma was generated in ambient air with <= 10 kV, 200 ns pulses at a repetition rate of 1.5 kHz. The energy per pulse and average power are in the range of 1-3 mJ and 0.5-1.5 W, respectively. Helium containing varying concentrations of water vapor was evaluated as the carrier gas and was fed into the plasma chamber at a rate varying between 1 to 7 SLPM. Optimization of the cold plasma brush for surface decontamination was tested in a study of the plasma inactivation of two common pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. Laminate surfaces inoculated with over-night cultured bacteria were subject to the plasma treatment for varying water concentrations in He, flow rates and discharge voltages. It was found that increasing the water content of the feed gas greatly enhanced the bactericidal effect. Emission spectroscopy was performed to identify the reactive plasma species that contribute to this variation. Additional affiliation: Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics

  8. Composition suitable for decontaminating a porous surface contaminated with cesium

    DOEpatents

    Kaminski, Michael D.; Finck, Martha R.; Mertz, Carol J.

    2010-06-15

    A method of decontaminating porous surfaces contaminated with water soluble radionuclides by contacting the contaminated porous surfaces with an ionic solution capable of solubilizing radionuclides present in the porous surfaces followed by contacting the solubilized radionuclides with a gel containing a radionuclide chelator to bind the radionuclides to the gel, and physically removing the gel from the porous surfaces. A dry mix is also disclosed of a cross-linked ionic polymer salt, a linear ionic polymer salt, a radionuclide chelator, and a gel formation controller present in the range of from 0% to about 40% by weight of the dry mix, wherein the ionic polymer salts are granular and the non cross-linked ionic polymer salt is present as a minor constituent.

  9. Contaminated concrete: Occurrence and emerging technologies for DOE decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, K.S.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.; Morris, M.I.

    1995-08-01

    The goals of the Facility Deactivation, Decommissioning, and Material Disposition Focus Area, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development, are to select, demonstrate, test, and evaluate an integrated set of technologies tailored to provide a complete solution to specific problems posed by deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning, (D&D). In response to these goals, technical task plan (TTP) OR152002, entitled Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods, was submitted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report describes the results from the initial project tasks, which focused on the nature and extent of contaminated concrete, emerging candidate technologies, and matching of emerging technologies to concrete problems. Existing information was used to describe the nature and extent of contamination (technology logic diagrams, data bases, and the open literature). To supplement this information, personnel at various DOE sites were interviewed, providing a broad perspective of concrete contamination. Because characterization is in the initial stage at many sites, complete information is not available. Assimilation of available information into one location is helpful in identifying potential areas of concern in the future. The most frequently occurring radiological contaminants within the DOE complex are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}U (and it daughters), and {sup 60}Co, followed closely by {sup 90}Sr and tritium, which account for {minus}30% of the total occurrence. Twenty-four percent of the contaminants were listed as unknown, indicating a lack of characterization information, and 24% were listed as other contaminants (over 100 isotopes) with less than 1% occurrence per isotope.

  10. Comparative study of different surface decontaminants on chicken quality.

    PubMed

    Sinhamahapatra, M; Biswas, S; Das, A K; Bhattacharyya, D

    2004-10-01

    (1) A comparative study on the effect of different surface decontaminants: hot water at 70 degrees C for one minute; 2% lactic acid for 30 s; 1200 p.p.m. acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) solution for 5 s and 50 p.p.m. chlorine solution for 5 min in the form of dips and sprays on the surface of dressed broilers for 0, 24 and 48 h of storage was conducted. (2) The variables studied were, total plate count (TPC), presumptive coliform count (PCC), pH and extract release volume (ERV). All treatments reduced TPC and PCC. (3) Lactic acid dip and hot water dip were the most effective for reducing TPC (1.36 and 1.28 log/cm2, respectively) with no significant difference between them. (4) ASC and hot water in dip could diminish PCC (1.37 and 1.34 log/cm2, respectively) and did not vary significantly. (5) No treatment affected muscle pH, water holding capacity (WHC), ERV, appearance, smell, tenderness and overall acceptability of treated broilers significantly. (6) Hot water treatment is the cheapest, most convenient and simplest decontamination technique for hygienic and wholesome poultry production.

  11. VERIFICATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES IN EPA'S SAFE BUILDINGS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes initial progress in identifying and testing technologies applicable for decontaminating workplaces and other buildings that may be subject to chemical or biological attack. The EPA is using the process established in its Environmental Technology Verification (...

  12. VERIFICATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES IN EPA'S SAFE BUILDINGS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes initial progress in identifying and testing technologies applicable for decontaminating workplaces and other buildings that may be subject to chemical or biological attack. The EPA is using the process established in its Environmental Technology Verification (...

  13. CO{sub 2} pellet decontamination technology at Westinghouse Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Aldridge, T.L.; Aldrich, L.K. II; Bowman, E.V.

    1995-03-01

    Experimentation and testing with CO{sub 2} pellet decontamination technology is being conducted at Westinghosue Hanford Company (WHC), Richland, Washington. There are 1,100 known existing waste sites at Hanford. The sites specified by federal and state agencies are currently being studied to determine the appropriate cleanup methods best for each site. These sites are contaminated and work on them is in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). There are also 63 treatment, storage, and disposal units, for example: groups of waste tanks or drums. In 1992, there were 100 planned activities scheduled to bring these units into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance or close them after waste removal. Ninety-six of these were completed. The remaining four were delayed or are being negotiated with regulatory agencies. As a result of past defense program activities at Hanford a tremendous volume of materials and equipment have accumulated and require remediation.

  14. Improving the Accuracy of Coastal Sea Surface Heights by Retracking Decontaminated Radar Altimetry Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhengkai; Wang, Haihong; Luo, Zhicai

    2017-04-01

    Due to the complex coastal topography and energetic ocean dynamics effect, the return echoes are contaminated while the satellite footprint approaches or leaves the coastline. Specular peaks are often induced in the trailing edges of contaminated waveforms, thus leading the error in the determination of the leading edge and associated track offset in the waveform retracking process. We propose an improved algorithm base on Tseng's modification method to decontaminated coastal (0-7 km from coastline) waveforms, thus improving both the utilization and precision of coastal sea surface height (SSH). Using the Envisat/Jason-2 SGDR data, the shortcoming of Tseng's method is pointed out and the novel algorithm is proposed by revising the strategy of selecting reference waveform and determining weight for removing outlier. The reference waveform of the decontaminated technology is closer to the real waveform of the offshore area, which avoids the over-modification problem of Tseng method. The sea-level measurements from tide gauge station and geoid height from EGM2008 model were used to validate the retracking strategy. Experimental results show that decontaminated waveform was more suitable than original and Tseng modified waveform and has uniform performance in both compare to the tide gauge and geoid. The retrieved altimetry data in the 0-1km and 1-7km coastal zone indicate that threshold retracker with decontaminated waveform have STD of 73.8cm and 33cm as compared with in situ gauge data,which correspond to 62.1% and 58% in precession compared to the unretracked altimetry measurements. The retracked SSHs are better in two coastal (0-1 km and 1-7km) zones, which have STD of 11.9cm and 22.7cm as compared with geoid height. Furthermore, the comparisons shows that the precision of decontaminated technology improve 0.3cm and 3.3cm than the best result of PISTACH product in coastal sea. This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos

  15. Field Evaluation of Whole Airliner Decontamination Technologies for Narrow-Body Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Field Evaluation of Whole Airliner Decontamination Technologies for Narrow- Body Aircraft William F. Gale Hyacinth S. Gale Air Transportation...be the case with most decontamination chemistries, as VHP breaks down readily to water and oxygen. Nonetheless, the use of a fully closed-loop

  16. Decontamination of dental implant surface in peri-implantitis treatment: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Buitrago-Vera, Pedro; Solá-Ruiz, María F.; Ferrer-García, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Etiological treatment of peri-implantitis aims to reduce the bacterial load within the peri-implant pocket and decontaminate the implant surface in order to promote osseointegration. The aim of this literature review was to evaluate the efficacy of different methods of implant surface decontamination. A search was conducted using the PubMed (Medline) database, which identified 36 articles including in vivo and in vitro studies, and reviews of different decontamination systems (chemical, mechanical, laser and photodynamic therapies). There is sufficient consensus that, for the treatment of peri-implant infections, the mechanical removal of biofilm from the implant surface should be supplemented by chemical decontamination with surgical access. However, more long-term research is needed to confirm this and to establish treatment protocols responding to different implant characterics. Key words:Peri-implantitis, treatment, decontamination, implant surface, laser. PMID:23986023

  17. Laser ablation system, and method of decontaminating surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Ferguson, Russell L.; Edelson, Martin C.; Pang, Ho-ming

    1998-07-14

    A laser ablation system comprising a laser head providing a laser output; a flexible fiber optic cable optically coupled to the laser output and transmitting laser light; an output optics assembly including a nozzle through which laser light passes; an exhaust tube in communication with the nozzle; and a blower generating a vacuum on the exhaust tube. A method of decontaminating a surface comprising the following steps: providing an acousto-optic, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser light ablation system having a fiber optically coupled output optics assembly; and operating the laser light ablation system to produce an irradiance greater than 1.times.10.sup.7 W/cm.sup.2, and a pulse width between 80 and 170 ns.

  18. Verification of Commercial Decontamination Technologies in Bench-Scale Studies Using Bacillus anthracis Spores

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-17

    12980) • Spore Strips – Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) Biological Indicator Spore Strip BUSINESS SENSITIVE Organisms Biological Indicators: SEM Images...BUSINESS SENSITIVE Verification of Commercial Decontamination Technologies in Bench-Scale Studies Using Bacillus anthracis Spores M.L. Taylor, J.V...Commercial Decontamination Technologies in Bench-Scale Studies Using Bacillus anthracis Spores 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  19. Anthrax Sampling and Decontamination: Technology Trade-Offs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Phillip N.; Hamachi, Kristina; McWilliams, Jennifer; Sohn, Michael D.

    2008-09-12

    The goal of this project was to answer the following questions concerning response to a future anthrax release (or suspected release) in a building: 1. Based on past experience, what rules of thumb can be determined concerning: (a) the amount of sampling that may be needed to determine the extent of contamination within a given building; (b) what portions of a building should be sampled; (c) the cost per square foot to decontaminate a given type of building using a given method; (d) the time required to prepare for, and perform, decontamination; (e) the effectiveness of a given decontamination method in a given type of building? 2. Based on past experience, what resources will be spent on evaluating the extent of contamination, performing decontamination, and assessing the effectiveness of the decontamination in abuilding of a given type and size? 3. What are the trade-offs between cost, time, and effectiveness for the various sampling plans, sampling methods, and decontamination methods that have been used in the past?

  20. Decontamination of VX, GD, and HD on a surface using modified vaporized hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George W; Sorrick, David C; Procell, Lawrence R; Brickhouse, Mark D; Mcvey, Iain F; Schwartz, Lewis I

    2007-01-30

    Vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) has proven efficacy for biological decontamination and is a common gaseous sterilant widely used by industry. Regarding chemical warfare agent decontamination, VHP is also effective against HD and VX, but not GD. Simple addition of ammonia gas to VHP affords reactivity toward GD, while maintaining efficacy for HD (and bioagents) and further enhancing efficacy for VX. Thus, modified VHP is a broad-spectrum CB decontaminant suitable for fumigant-type decontamination scenarios, i.e., building, aircraft, and vehicle interiors and sensitive equipment. Finally, as an interesting aside to the current study, commercial ammonia-containing cleaners are also shown to be effective surface decontaminants for GD, but not for VX or HD.

  1. Bioinspired Surface Treatments for Improved Decontamination: Fluoro Plasma Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-21

    materials . Funding was provided by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA, CB10125). This report details results for evaluation of a plasma treatment...15°C/min and then to 300°C at 20°C/min where it was held for 5 min. Nanoporous Photocatalysts for Decontamination 3 RESULTS...min (H). A B C D E F G H Nanoporous Photocatalysts for Decontamination 5 Fig. 3 — Progression of simulant droplet

  2. Agricultural pathogen decontamination technology-reducing the threat of infectious agent spread.

    SciTech Connect

    Betty, Rita G.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David

    2005-10-01

    Sandia decontamination chemistry were developed and tested against a few surrogate pathogens under conditions of relatively heavy organic load. Tests were conducted on surfaces commonly found in agricultural environments. Wide spectrum decontamination efficacy, low corrosivity, and biodegradability issues were addressed in developing an enhanced detergency formulation. A method for rapid assessment of loss of pathogenic activity (inactivation) was also assessed. This enhanced technology will enable rapid assessment of contamination following an intentional event, and will also be extremely useful in routine assessment of agricultural environments. The primary effort during the second year was progress towards a demonstration of both decontamination and viral inactivation technologies of Foot and Mouth virus (FMDv) using the modified SNL chemistry developed through this project. Lab studies using a surrogate virus (bovine enterovirus) were conducted using DF200, modified DF200 chemistry, and decontaminants currently recommended for use in heavily loaded organic, agricultural environments (VirkonS, 10% bleach, sodium hydroxide and citric acid). Tests using actual FMD virus will be performed at the Department of Homeland Security's Plum Island facilities in the fall of 2005. Success and the insight gained from this project will lead to enhanced response capability, which will benefit agencies such as USDA, DHS, DOD, and the agricultural industry.

  3. Decontamination of dental implant surface in peri-implantitis treatment: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Mellado-Valero, Ana; Buitrago-Vera, Pedro; Solá-Ruiz, María-Fernanda; Ferrer-García, Juan-Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Etiological treatment of peri-implantitis aims to reduce the bacterial load within the peri-implant pocket and decontaminate the implant surface in order to promote osseointegration. The aim of this literature review was to evaluate the efficacy of different methods of implant surface decontamination. A search was conducted using the PubMed (Medline) database, which identified 36 articles including in vivo and in vitro studies, and reviews of different decontamination systems (chemical, mechanical, laser and photodynamic therapies). There is sufficient consensus that, for the treatment of peri-implant infections, the mechanical removal of biofilm from the implant surface should be supplemented by chemical decontamination with surgical access. However, more long-term research is needed to confirm this and to establish treatment protocols responding to different implant characterics.

  4. Development of Biodegradable Isosaccharinate-Containing Foams for Decontamination of Actinides: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Reactions between Isosaccharinate and Actinides on Metal and Concrete Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Dhanpat; Rao, Linfeng; Moore, Robert C.; Bontchev, Ranko; Holt, Kathleen

    2004-06-01

    Actinide contamination of steel and concrete surfaces is a major problem within the DOE complex. Almost all current decontamination technologies rely on removal of the contaminated surface layer by mechanical means or by chemical methods using harsh chemicals. Some of the technologies are ineffective. Others are expensive, labor intensive, and hazardous to workers. Still others create secondary mixed wastes that are not environmentally acceptable. This project seeks fundamental information that will lead to the development of a new and more environmentally acceptable technology for decontamination of actinides, especially Pu, on steel and concrete surfaces. The key component of this technology is isosaccharinate (ISA), a degradation product of cellulose materials that is biodegradable. Isosaccharinate will be incorporated into foams/gels for safe and easy use in decontamination of actinides from steel, concrete, and other surfaces. Thermodynamic data are being developed on ISA species as a function of pH and on ISA interactions with actinides and competing metals [e.g., Fe(III) and Ca(II)] under a wide range of conditions relevant to decontamination of steel and concrete. The efficiency of the ISA containing foams/gels/solutions for decontamination is also being tested. This project builds on capabilities at three different national laboratories, and represents a joint effort between PNNL, LBNL, and SNL.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF BIODEGRADABLE ISOSACCHARINATE-CONTAINING FOAMS FOR DECONTAMINATION OF ACTINIDES: THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC REACTIONS BETWEEN ISOSACCHARINATE AND ACTINIDES ON METAL AND CONCRETE SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Dhanpat; Moore, Robert C.; Linfeng, Rao; Tucker, Mark D.

    2003-06-01

    Actinide contamination of steel and concrete surfaces is a major problem within the DOE complex. Almost all current decontamination technologies rely on removal of the contaminated surface layer by mechanical means or by chemical methods, using harsh chemicals. Some of the technologies are ineffective. Others are expensive, labor intensive, and hazardous to workers. Still others create secondary mixed wastes that are not environmentally acceptable. This project seeks fundamental information that will lead to the development of a new and more environmentally acceptable technology for decontamination of actinides, especially Pu, on steel and concrete surfaces. The key component of this technology is isosaccharinate (ISA), a degradation product of cellulose materials that is biodegradable. Isosaccharinate will be incorporated into foams/gels for safe and easy use in decontamination of actinides from steel, concrete, and other surfaces. Thermodynamic data are being developed on the interactions of ISA with actinides and competing metals [e.g., Fe(III) and Ca(II)] under a wide range of conditions relevant to decontamination of steel and concrete. The efficiency of the ISA containing foams/gels/solutions for decontamination is also being tested. This project builds on capabilities at three different national laboratories, and represents a joint effort between PNNL, LBNL, and SNL.

  6. Radioactivity decontamination of materials commonly used as surfaces in general-purpose radioisotope laboratories.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Natalia M; Tesán, Fiorella C; Zubillaga, Marcela B; Salgueiro, María J

    2014-12-01

    In accord with as-low-as-reasonably-achievable and good-manufacturing-practice concepts, the present study evaluated the efficiency of radioactivity decontamination of materials commonly used in laboratory surfaces and whether solvent spills on these materials affect the findings. Four materials were evaluated: stainless steel, a surface comprising one-third acrylic resin and two-thirds natural minerals, an epoxy cover, and vinyl-based multipurpose flooring. Radioactive material was eluted from a (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator, and samples of the surfaces were control-contaminated with 37 MBq (100 μL) of this eluate. The same procedure was repeated with samples of surfaces previously treated with 4 solvents: methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, and ethanol. The wet radioactive contamination was allowed to dry and then was removed with cotton swabs soaked in soapy water. The effectiveness of decontamination was defined as the percentage of activity removed per cotton swab, and the efficacy of decontamination was defined as the total percentage of activity removed, which was obtained by summing the percentages of activity in all the swabs required to complete the decontamination. Decontamination using our protocol was most effective and most efficacious for stainless steel and multipurpose flooring. Moreover, treatment with common organic solvents seemed not to affect the decontamination of these surfaces. Decontamination of the other two materials was less efficient and was interfered with by the organic solvents; there was also great variability in the overall results obtained for these other two materials. In expanding our laboratory, it is possible for us to select those surface materials on which our decontamination protocol works best. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  7. Analysis of the application of decontamination technologies to radioactive metal waste minimization using expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bayrakal, S.

    1993-09-30

    Radioactive metal waste makes up a significant portion of the waste currently being sent for disposal. Recovery of this metal as a valuable resource is possible through the use of decontamination technologies. Through the development and use of expert systems a comparison can be made of laser decontamination, a technology currently under development at Ames Laboratory, with currently available decontamination technologies for applicability to the types of metal waste being generated and the effectiveness of these versus simply disposing of the waste. These technologies can be technically and economically evaluated by the use of expert systems techniques to provide a waste management decision making tool that generates, given an identified metal waste, waste management recommendations. The user enters waste characteristic information as input and the system then recommends decontamination technologies, determines residual contamination levels and possible waste management strategies, carries out a cost analysis and then ranks, according to cost, the possibilities for management of the waste. The expert system was developed using information from literature and personnel experienced in the use of decontamination technologies and requires validation by human experts and assignment of confidence factors to the knowledge represented within.

  8. Decontamination of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores on selected surfaces by chlorine dioxide gas*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-ju; Zhu, Neng; Jia, Hai-quan; Wu, Jin-hui; Yi, Ying; Qi, Jian-cheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Chlorine dioxide (CD) gas has been used as a fumigant in the disinfection of biosafety laboratories. In this study, some experiments were conducted to assess the inactivation of spores inoculated on six materials [stainless steel (SS), painted steel (PS), polyvinyl chlorid (PVC), polyurethane (PU), glass (GS), and cotton cloth (CC)] by CD gas. The main aims of the study were to determine the sporicidal efficacy of CD gas and the effect of prehumidification before decontamination on sporicidal efficacy. Methods: Material coupons (1.2 cm diameter of SS, PS, and PU; 1.0 cm×1.0 cm for PVC, GS, and CC) were contaminated with 10 μl of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (ATCC 9372) spore suspension in mixed organic burden and then dried in a biosafety cabinet for 12 h. The spores were recovered by soaking the coupons in 5 ml of extraction liquid for 1 h and then vortexing the liquid for 1 min. Results: The log reductions in spore numbers on inoculated test materials exposed to CD gas [0.080% (volume ratio, v/v) for 3 h] were in the range of from 1.80 to 6.64. Statistically significant differences were found in decontamination efficacies on test material coupons of SS, PS, PU, and CC between with and without a 1-h prehumidification treatment. With the extraction method, there were no statistically significant differences in the recovery ratios between the porous and non-porous materials. Conclusions: The results reported from this study could provide information for developing decontamination technology based on CD gas for targeting surface microbial contamination. PMID:22467366

  9. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Lomasney, H.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes an electropotential gradient and the subsequent electrical transport mechanism to cause the controlled movement of ionics species, whereby the contaminants exit the recesses deep within the concrete. This report discusses the technology and use at the Oak Ridge k-25 plant.

  10. Improvement of Biological Indicators by Uniformly Distributing Bacillus subtilis Spores in Monolayers To Evaluate Enhanced Spore Decontamination Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Raguse, Marina; Fiebrandt, Marcel; Stapelmann, Katharina; Madela, Kazimierz; Laue, Michael; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Thwaite, Joanne E.; Setlow, Peter; Awakowicz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Novel decontamination technologies, including cold low-pressure plasma and blue light (400 nm), are promising alternatives to conventional surface decontamination methods. However, the standardization of the assessment of such sterilization processes remains to be accomplished. Bacterial endospores of the genera Bacillus and Geobacillus are frequently used as biological indicators (BIs) of sterility. Ensuring standardized and reproducible BIs for reliable testing procedures is a significant problem in industrial settings. In this study, an electrically driven spray deposition device was developed, allowing fast, reproducible, and homogeneous preparation of Bacillus subtilis 168 spore monolayers on glass surfaces. A detailed description of the structural design as well as the operating principle of the spraying device is given. The reproducible formation of spore monolayers of up to 5 × 107 spores per sample was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Surface inactivation studies revealed that monolayered spores were inactivated by UV-C (254 nm), low-pressure argon plasma (500 W, 10 Pa, 100 standard cubic cm per min), and blue light (400 nm) significantly faster than multilayered spores were. We have thus succeeded in the uniform preparation of reproducible, highly concentrated spore monolayers with the potential to generate BIs for a variety of nonpenetrating surface decontamination techniques. PMID:26801572

  11. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, T.R.; Shasteen, K.E.; Liby, A.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) accumulated large quantities of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) through historic maintenance activities. The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of major sites formerly engaged in production of nuclear materials and manufacture of nuclear weapons will generate additional quantities of RSM, as much as 3 million tons of such metal according to a recent study. The recycling of RSM is quickly becoming appreciated as a key strategy in DOE`s cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities.

  12. Contaminant-Organic Complexes: Their Structure and Energetics in Surface Decontamination Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Traina, Samuel J.; Myneni, Satish C. B.

    2003-06-01

    The current debate over possible decontamination processes for DOE facilities is centered on disparate decontamination problems, but the key contaminants (Thorium [Th],uranium [U], and plutonium [Pu]) are universally important. Innovative agents used alone or in conjunction with traditional processes can increase the potential to reclaim for future use some these valuable resources or at the least decontaminate the metal surfaces to allow disposal as nonradioactive, nonhazardous material. This debate underscores several important issues: (1) regardless of the decontamination scenario, metal (Fe, U, Pu, Np) oxide film removal from the surface is central to decontamination; and (2) simultaneous oxide dissolution and sequestration of actinide contaminants against re-adsorption to a clean metal surface will influence the efficacy of a process or agent and its cost. Current research is investigating the use of microbial siderophores (chelates) to solubilize actinides (i.e., Th, U, Pu) from the surface of Fe oxide surfaces. Continuing research integrates (1) studies of macroscopic dissolution/desorption of common actinide (IV) [Th, U, Pu, Np] solids and species sorbed to and incorporated into Fe oxides, (2) molecular spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman, XAS), to probe the structure and bonding of contaminants, siderophores and their functional moieties, and how these change with the chemical environment, (3) and molecular mechanics and electronic structure calculations to design model siderophore compounds to test and extend the MM3 model.

  13. Decontamination of Terrorist-Dispersed Radionuclides from Surfaces in Urban Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Robert; Sutton, Mark; Gates-Anderson, Dianne; Gray, Jeremy; Hu, Qinhong; McNab, Walt; Viani, Brian

    2008-01-15

    Research is currently underway at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to advance the basic scientific knowledge of radionuclide-substrate interactions in the urban environment. Investigations have focused on more optimized decontamination agents for cesium (Cs) and americium (Am) specifically for use in mass transit infrastructure and urban environments. This project is designed to enhance the capability of the United States to effectively respond to a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) attack. The work addresses recognized data gaps by advancing the basic scientific knowledge of radionuclide-substrate interactions in the urban environment and provides a solution to a national need. The research is focused in four major areas: (1) a better understanding of urban surface conditions that influence the efficacy of decontamination processes, (2) development of prototype decontamination agents for Am and Cs optimized for use in urban environments, (3) the development of capabilities to realistically contaminate surfaces at both the real world and laboratory scale and (4) a validated model for radionuclide-surface interactions. The decontamination of urban surfaces following the detonation of an RDD presents a number of challenges. The following key points are found to be critical for the efficiency of decontamination agents in an urban environment: - Particle size and surface deposition of radionuclide particles on urban surface materials. - Interactions between radionuclides and urban materials. - The presence of grime and carbonation/alteration layers on the surface of urban surfaces. - Post-detonation penetration of radionuclides strongly affected by the dynamic wetting/drying processes. A laboratory scale contamination system has been developed allowing for samples to be contaminated and radionuclide interactions to be studied. In combination with laboratory scale experiments, a real scale outdoor test is scheduled for the spring of 2007. In conclusion

  14. Efficacy of UV light treatment for the microbiological decontamination of chicken, associated packaging, and contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    Haughton, P N; Lyng, J G; Cronin, D A; Morgan, D J; Fanning, S; Whyte, P

    2011-04-01

    UV light was investigated for the decontamination of raw chicken, associated packaging, and contact surfaces. The UV susceptibilities of a number of Campylobacter isolates (seven Campylobacter jejuni isolates and three Campylobacter coli isolates), Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis ATCC 10376 in liquid media were also investigated. From an initial level of 7 log CFU/ml, no viable Campylobacter cells were detected following exposure to the most intense UV dose (0.192 J/cm(2)) in liquid media (skim milk subjected to ultrahigh-temperature treatment and diluted 1:4 with maximum recovery diluent). Maximum reductions of 4.8 and 6.2 log CFU/ml were achieved for E. coli and serovar Enteritidis, respectively, in liquid media. Considerable differences in susceptibilities were found between the Campylobacter isolates examined, with variations of up to 4 log CFU/ml being observed. UV treatment of raw chicken fillet (0.192 J/cm(2)) reduced C. jejuni, E. coli, serovar Enteritidis, total viable counts, and Enterobacteriaceae by 0.76, 0.98, 1.34, 1.76, and 1.29 log CFU/g, respectively. Following UV treatment of packaging and surface materials, reductions of up to 3.97, 4.50, and 4.20 log CFU/cm(2) were obtained for C. jejuni, E. coli, and serovar Enteritidis, respectively (P < 0.05). Overall, the color of UV-treated chicken was not significantly affected (P ≥ 0.05). The findings of this study indicate that Campylobacter is susceptible to UV technology and that differences in sensitivities exist between investigated isolates. Overall, UV could be used for improving the microbiological quality of raw chicken and for decontaminating associated packaging and surface materials.

  15. Interim Status of the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment Integrated Decontamination and Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect

    A. M Smith; G. E. Matthern; R. H. Meservey

    1998-11-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), and Argonne National Laboratory - East (ANL-E) teamed to establish the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) Integrated Decontamination and Decommissioning (ID&D) project to increase the use of improved technologies in D&D operations. The project is making the technologies more readily available, providing training, putting the technologies to use, and spreading information about improved performance. The improved technologies are expected to reduce cost, schedule, radiation exposure, or waste volume over currently used baseline methods. They include some of the most successful technologies proven in the large-scale demonstrations and in private industry. The selected technologies are the Pipe Explorer, the GammaCam, the Decontamination Decommissioning and Remediation Optimal Planning System (DDROPS), the BROKK Demolition Robot, the Personal Ice Cooling System (PICS), the Oxy-Gasoline Torch, the Track-Mounted Shear, and the Hand-Held Shear.

  16. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, T.R.; Shasteen, K.E.; Liby, A.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) accumulated large quantities of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) through historic maintenance activities. The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of major sites formerly engaged in production of nuclear materials and manufacture of nuclear weapons will generate additional quantities of RSM, as much as 3 million tons of such metal according to a recent study. The recycling of RSM is quickly becoming appreciated as a key strategy in DOE`s cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. The work described here has focused on recycle of the concentrated and high-value contaminated scrap metal resource that will arise from cleanup of DOE`s gaseous diffusion plants.

  17. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metals

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, T.R.; Moore, J.; Olson, D.; Mishra, B.

    1994-12-31

    Recycle of radioactive scrap metals (RSM) from decommissioning of DOE uranium enrichment and nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities is mandatory to recapture the value of these metals and avoid the high cost of disposal by burial. The scrap metals conversion project detailed below focuses on the contaminated nickel associated with the gaseous diffusion plants. Stainless steel can be produced in MSC`s vacuum induction melting process (VIM) to the S30400 specification using nickel as an alloy constituent. Further the case alloy can be rolled in MSC`s rolling mill to the mechanical property specification for S30400 demonstrating the capability to manufacture the contaminated nickel into valuable end products at a facility licensed to handle radioactive materials. Bulk removal of Technetium from scrap nickel is theoretically possible in a reasonable length of time with the high calcium fluoride flux, however the need for the high temperature creates a practical problem due to flux volatility. Bulk decontamination is possible and perhaps more desirable if nickel is alloyed with copper to lower the melting point of the alloy allowing the use of the high calcium fluoride flux. Slag decontamination processes have been suggested which have been proven technically viable at the Colorado School of Mines.

  18. LARGE-BORE PIPE DECONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian

    1999-01-01

    The decontamination and characterization of large-bore pipe is difficult because of the various geometries and diameters of pipe and its different material types. A robust decontamination system must be capable of adapting to different pipe diameters (project scope is 6 inches to 24 inches), cleaning surfaces with various surface conditions and material types (i.e., painted, rusted, carbon steel, or stainless steel), and be cost-effective to operate and maintain. The characterization system must be capable of handling the different pipe parameters and detecting contamination on the inside and outside surfaces. It must also operate in a cost-effective manner. Current technology options do not provide a robust system to meet these objectives. The purpose of this project is to verify the need for this technology through determining quantities of pipe available for decontamination (completed FY97), perform a technology screening process to select technologies for decontamination (completed FY97) and characterization (completed FY98), perform treatability studies to collect required performance data (completed FY97), and design and fabricate a prototype system to decontaminate and characterize the internal and external surfaces of large-bore pipe. A field mobile system capable of performing decontamination and characterization operations will be the main deliverable for this project. A summary of activities completed during FY97 is provided to understand the project development and implementation process.

  19. PRACTICAL EXPERIENCES WITH TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF B. ANTHRACIS IN LARGE BUILDINGS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Fall of 2001 a number of buildings were contaminated with B. anthracis (B.A.) from letters processed through United States Postal Service and other mail handling facilities. All of the buildings have now been decontaminated using a variety of technologies. In a number of...

  20. PRACTICAL EXPERIENCES WITH TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF B. ANTHRACIS IN LARGE BUILDINGS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Fall of 2001 a number of buildings were contaminated with B. anthracis (B.A.) from letters processed through United States Postal Service and other mail handling facilities. All of the buildings have now been decontaminated using a variety of technologies. In a number of...

  1. Nuclear decontamination technology evaluation to address contamination of a municipal water system

    SciTech Connect

    McFee, J.; Langsted, J.; Young, M.; Porcon, J.; Day, E.

    2007-07-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) are considering the impact and recovery from contamination of municipal water systems, including intentional contamination of those systems. Industrial chemicals, biological agents, drugs, pesticides, chemical warfare agents, and radionuclides all could be introduced into a municipal water system to create detrimental health effects and disrupt a community. Although unintentional, the 1993 cryptosporidium contamination of the Milwaukee WS water system resulted in 100 fatalities and disrupted the city for weeks. Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure Inc, (Shaw), as a subcontractor on a DHS contract with Michael Baker Jr., Inc., was responsible for evaluation of the impact and recovery from radionuclide contamination in a municipal water system distribution system. Shaw was tasked to develop a matrix of nuclear industry decontamination technologies and evaluate applicability to municipal water systems. Shaw expanded the evaluation to include decontamination methods commonly used in the drinking water supply. The matrix compared all technologies for implementability, effectiveness, and cost. To address the very broad range of contaminants and contamination scenarios, Shaw bounded the problem by identification of specific contaminant release scenario(s) for specific water system architecture(s). A decontamination technology matrix was developed containing fifty-nine decontamination technologies potentially applicable to the water distribution system piping, pumps, tanks, associated equipment, and/or contaminated water. Qualitatively, the majority of the nuclear industry decontamination technologies were eliminated from consideration due to implementability concerns. However, inclusion of the municipal water system technologies supported recommendations that combined the most effective approaches in both industries. (authors)

  2. Determination of the Efficacy of Two Building Decontamination Strategies by Surface Sampling with Culture and Quantitative PCR Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buttner, Mark P.; Cruz, Patricia; Stetzenbach, Linda D.; Klima-Comba, Amy K.; Stevens, Vanessa L.; Cronin, Tracy D.

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of currently available decontamination strategies for the treatment of indoor furnishings contaminated with bioterrorism agents is poorly understood. Efficacy testing of decontamination products in a controlled environment is needed to ensure that effective methods are used to decontaminate domestic and workplace settings. An experimental room supplied with materials used in office furnishings (i.e., wood laminate, painted metal, and vinyl tile) was used with controlled dry aerosol releases of endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (“Bacillus subtilis subsp. niger,” also referred to as BG), a Bacillus anthracis surrogate. Studies were performed using two test products, a foam decontaminant and chlorine dioxide gas. Surface samples were collected pre- and posttreatment with three sampling methods and analyzed by culture and quantitative PCR (QPCR). Additional aerosol releases with environmental background present on the surface materials were also conducted to determine if there was any interference with decontamination or sample analysis. Culture results indicated that 105 to 106 CFU per sample were present on surfaces before decontamination. After decontamination with the foam, no culturable B. atrophaeus spores were detected. After decontamination with chlorine dioxide gas, no culturable B. atrophaeus was detected in 24 of 27 samples (89%). However, QPCR analysis showed that B. atrophaeus DNA was still present after decontamination with both methods. Environmental background material had no apparent effect on decontamination, but inhibition of the QPCR assay was observed. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of two decontamination methods and illustrate the utility of surface sampling and QPCR analysis for the evaluation of decontamination strategies. PMID:15294810

  3. Decision Analysis Science Modeling for Application and Fielding Selection Applied to Metal Decontamination Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    During the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities being conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), approximately 550,000 metric tons of contaminated metal will be generated by the disposition of contaminated buildings. The majority of the structural steel is considered to be radiologically contaminated. The D and D activities require the treatment of the structural steel to reduce occupational and environmental radiological exposures during dismantlement. Treatment technologies may also be required for possible recycling. Many proven commercial treatment technologies are available. These treatment processes vary in aggressiveness, safety requirements, secondary waste generation, necessary capital, and operation and maintenance costs. Choosing the appropriate technology to meet the decontamination objectives for structural steel is a difficult process. A single information source comparing innovative and nuclear and non-nuclear technologies in the areas of safety, cost and effectiveness is not currently commercially available to perform a detailed analysis. This study presents comparable data related to operation and maintenance, cost, and health and safely aspects of three readily available technologies and one innovative technology for nuclear decontamination. The technologies include Advance Recyclable Media System (ARMS{trademark}), NELCO Porta Shot Blast{trademark} (JHJ-2000), Pegasus Coating Removal System 7 (PCRS-7) and the innovative laser ablation technology called the Yag Eraser{trademark}.

  4. Possibilities of a metal surface radioactive decontamination using a pulsed CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milijanic, Scepan S.; Stjepanovic, Natasa N.; Trtica, Milan S.

    2000-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the laser radioactive decontamination of metal surfaces. It offers advantages over conventional methods: improved safety, reduction of secondary waste, reduced waste volume, acceptable cost. A main mechanism of cleaning in by lasers is ablation. In this work a pulsed TEA CO2 laser was used for surface cleaning, primarily in order to demonstrate that the ablation from metal surfaces with this laser is possible even with relatively low pulse energies, and secondary, that it could be competitive with other lasers because of much higher energy efficiencies. The laser pulse contains two parts, one strong and shot peak at the beginning, followed with a tail. The beam was focused onto a contaminated surface with a KBr lens. The surface was contaminated with 137Cs. Three different metals were used: stainless steel, copper and aluminum. The evaporated material was pumped out in air atmosphere and transferred to a filter. Presence of the activity on the filter was proved by a germanium detector-multichannel analyzer. Activity levels were measured by a GM counter. Calculated decontamination factors as well as collection factors have shown that ablation takes place with relatively high efficiency of decontamination. This investigation suggests that decontamination using the CO2 laser should be seriously considered.

  5. Available decontamination and decommissioning capabilities at the Savannah River Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Polizzi, L.M.; Norkus, J.K.; Paik, I.K.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-08-19

    The Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group has performed a survey of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) technical capabilities, skills, and experience in Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) activities. The goal of this survey is to enhance the integration of the SRTC capabilities with the technical needs of the Environmental Restoration Department D D program and the DOE Office of Technology Development through the Integrated Demonstration Program. This survey has identified technical capabilities, skills, and experience in the following D D areas: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Material Disposal, Remote Systems, and support on Safety Technology for D D. This review demonstrates the depth and wealth of technical capability resident in the SRTC in relation to these activities, and the unique qualifications of the SRTC to supply technical support in the area of DOE facility D D. Additional details on specific technologies and applications to D D will be made available on request.

  6. Available decontamination and decommissioning capabilities at the Savannah River Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Polizzi, L.M.; Norkus, J.K.; Paik, I.K.; Wooten, L.A.

    1992-08-19

    The Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group has performed a survey of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) technical capabilities, skills, and experience in Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) activities. The goal of this survey is to enhance the integration of the SRTC capabilities with the technical needs of the Environmental Restoration Department D&D program and the DOE Office of Technology Development through the Integrated Demonstration Program. This survey has identified technical capabilities, skills, and experience in the following D&D areas: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Material Disposal, Remote Systems, and support on Safety Technology for D&D. This review demonstrates the depth and wealth of technical capability resident in the SRTC in relation to these activities, and the unique qualifications of the SRTC to supply technical support in the area of DOE facility D&D. Additional details on specific technologies and applications to D&D will be made available on request.

  7. Synthesis of a Chloroamide-Hyperbranched Polymer Additive for Self-Decontaminating Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Soldiers. Similar concerns exist for surfaces exposed to chemical warfare agents, which require substantial cleaning procedures to “render safe” the...affected asset. To reduce logistical burdens associated with decontamination of both chemical and biological challenges, spontaneously segregating...bacterial and chemical contamination of military assets. 2. Approach The use of a polymer additive to modify a coating formulation is advantageous

  8. ''Green'' Biopolymers for Improved Decontamination of Metals from Surfaces: Sorptive Characterization and Coating Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Brian H.; Kurtiz,Tanya

    1999-06-01

    The proposed research aims to develop a fundamental understanding of important biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions. Understanding how heavy metal-chelating biopolymers coat and interact with contaminated surfaces will benefit the development of novel, safe, easy-to-apply decontamination methodologies for removal of radionuclides and heavy metals. The benefits of these methodologies will include the following: (1) decreased exposure hazards for workers; (2) decreased secondary waste generation; (3) increased efficiency of decontamination; (4) positive public appeal and development of novel, nature-friendly business opportunities; and (5) lower cost of cleanup to the government. We propose to use aqueous biopolymer solutions to coat a contaminated metal surface (i.e., steel), solubilize the heavy metals (e.g., uranium) from the surface, and bind the heavy metals into the biopolymer. The biopolymer coating (containing the immobilized hazardous metal contaminants) will then be removed as a viscous film, as a dry powder, or by washing. This ''apply, wait, and remove'' procedure will reduce the amount of worker time spent in decontamination activities.

  9. ''Green'' Biopolymers for Improved Decontamination of Metals from Surfaces: Sorptive Characterization and Coating Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Brian H.; Kuritz, Tanya

    2000-06-01

    The proposed research aims to develop a fundamental understanding of important biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions. Understanding how heavy metal-chelating biopolymers coat and interact with contaminated surfaces will benefit the development of novel, safe, easy-to-apply decontamination methodologies for removal of radionuclides and heavy metals. The benefits of these methodologies will include the following: (1) decreased exposure hazards for workers; (2) decreased secondary waste generation; (3) increased efficiency of decontamination; (4) positive public appeal and development of novel, nature-friendly business opportunities; and (5) lower cost of cleanup to the government. We propose to use aqueous biopolymer solutions to coat a contaminated metal surface (i.e., steel), solubilize the heavy metals (e.g., uranium) from the surface, and bind the heavy metals into the biopolymer. The biopolymer coating (containing the immobilized hazardous metal contaminants) will then be removed as a viscous film, as a dry powder, or by washing. This ''apply, wait, and remove'' procedure will reduce the amount of worker time spent in decontamination activities.

  10. ''Green'' Biopolymers for Improved Decontamination of Metals from Surfaces: Sorptive Characterization and Coating Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Brian H.

    2002-04-30

    The proposed research aimed to develop a fundamental understanding of important biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions. Understanding how heavy metal-chelating biopolymers coat and interact with contaminated surfaces will benefit the development of novel, safe, easy-to-apply decontamination methodologies for removal of radionuclides and heavy metals. The benefits of these methodologies include the following: decreased exposure hazards for workers; decreased secondary waste generation; increased efficiency of decontamination; positive public appeal and development of novel, nature-friendly business opportunities; and lower cost of cleanup to the government. We proposed to use aqueous biopolymer solutions to coat a contaminated metal surface (i.e., steel), solubilize the heavy metals (e.g., uranium) from the surface, and bind the heavy metals into the biopolymer. The biopolymer coating (containing the immobilized hazardous metal contaminants) was to be removed as a viscous film, as a dry powder, or by washing. This ''apply, wait, and remove'' procedure will reduce the amount of worker time spent in decontamination activities.

  11. In-situ generation of chlorine dioxide for surface decontamination of produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruits and vegetables, particularly fresh-cut products, are frequently contaminated with bacterial pathogens and implicated in foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was to develop a unique in-situ sequential surface decontamination method for produce using sodium chlorite and acid. The ...

  12. Pulsed-light system as a novel food decontamination technology: a review.

    PubMed

    Elmnasser, N; Guillou, S; Leroi, F; Orange, N; Bakhrouf, A; Federighi, M

    2007-07-01

    In response to consumer preferences for high quality foods that are as close as possible to fresh products, athermal technologies are being developed to obtain products with high levels of organoleptic and nutritional quality but free of any health risks. Pulsed light is a novel technology that rapidly inactivates pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms. It appears to constitute a good alternative or a complement to conventional thermal or chemical decontamination processes. This food preservation method involves the use of intense, short-duration pulses of broad-spectrum light. The germicidal effect appears to be due to both photochemical and photothermal effects. Several high intensity flashes of broad spectrum light pulsed per second can inactivate microbes rapidly and effectively. However, the efficacy of pulsed light may be limited by its low degree of penetration, as microorganisms are only inactivated on the surface of foods or in transparent media such as water. Examples of applications to foods are presented, including microbial inactivation and effects on food matrices.

  13. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 2: Technology logic diagram

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 2 has been divided into five sections: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Robotics/Automation, and Waste Management. Each section contains logical breakdowns of the Y-12 D and D problems by subject area and identifies technologies that can be reasonably applied to each D and D challenge.

  14. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives.

  15. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets; Part A, Characterization, decontamination, dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.L.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This report is part A of Volume 3 concerning characterization, decontamination, and dismantlement.

  16. Decontamination of surfaces by blasting with crystals of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, C.E.; Parfitt, J.E.; Patton, B.D.

    1995-02-01

    A major mission of the US Department of Energy during the 1990s is site and environmental cleanup. In pursuit of this mission, numerous remediation projects are under way and many others are being planned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In this report, tests using two proposed methods for decontaminating surfaces one using water ice crystals [Crystalline Ice Blast (CIB)], the other using dry ice crystals (CO{sub 2} Cleanblast{trademark}) -- are described. Both methods are adaptations of the commonly used sand blasting technology. The two methods tested differ from sand blasting in that the particles are not particularly abrasive and do not accumulate as particles in the wastes. They differ from each other in that the CO{sub 2} particles sublime during and after impact and the ice particles melt. Thus, the two demonstrations provide important information about two strong candidate decontamination methodologies. Each process was tested at ORNL using contaminated lead bricks and contaminated tools and equipment. Demonstrations with the prototype Crystalline Ice Blast and the CO{sub 2} Cleanblast systems showed that paint, grease, and oil can be removed from metal, plastic, asphalt, and concrete surfaces. Furthermore, removal of contamination from lead bricks was highly effective. Both processes were found to be less effective, under the conditions tested, with contaminated tools and equipment that had chemically bonded contamination or contamination located in crevices since neither technology abrades the substrates or penetrates deeply into crevices to remove particulates. Some process improvements are recommended.

  17. Application of Surface Micro-Discharge plasma to spacecraft component decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Satoshi; Barczyk, Simon; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Klaempfl, Tobias; Zimmermann, Julia; Weber, Peter; Morfill, Gregor; Thomas, Hubertus

    2013-09-01

    In the field of extinct or extant extraterrestrial life research on other planets and moons, the prevention of biological contamination through spaceprobes is one of the most important requirements, and its detailed conditions are defined by the COSPAR planetary protection policy. Currently, a dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) method is the only applicable way to satisfy the demand, which could, however, damage the sophisticated components like integrated circuits. In this study, cold atmospheric plasma based on the Surface Micro-Discharge technology was investigated for inactivation of different types of bacteria and endospores as an alternative method. After 90 min of plasma gas exposure, 3-6 log reductions were observed for the vegetative bacteria Escherichia coliand Deinococcus radiodurans and several types of bacterial endospores - including Bacillus atrophaeus, B. safensis, B. megaterium, B. megaterium 2c1 and B. thuringiensis E24. Furthermore, the applicability of the system for spacecraft decontamination was checked by studying the inactivation homogeneity, the temperature at the area of interest and the effects of the plasma gas exposure on different materials. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from Deutches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (FKZ 50 JR1005).

  18. Decontamination after a release of B. anthracis spores.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Chris G; Kirvel, Robert D; Love, Adam H; Bailey, Christopher G; Miles, Robin; Schweickert, Jerry; Sutton, Mark; Raber, Ellen

    2012-03-01

    Decontaminating civilian facilities or large urban areas following an attack with Bacillus anthracis poses daunting challenges because of the lack of resources and proven technologies. Nevertheless, lessons learned from the 2001 cleanups together with advances derived from recent research have improved our understanding of what is required for effective decontamination. This article reviews current decontamination technologies appropriate for use in outdoor environments, on material surfaces, within large enclosed spaces, in water, and on waste contaminated with aerosolized B. anthracis spores.

  19. Advanced Decontamination Technologies: High Hydrostatic Pressure on Meat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa

    The increasing demand for “natural” foodstuffs, free from chemical additives, and preservatives has triggered novel approaches in food technology developments. In the last decade, practical use of high-pressure processing (HPP) made this emerging non-thermal technology very attractive from a commercial point of view. Despite the fact that the investment is still high, the resulting value-added products, with an extended and safe shelf-life, will fulfil the wishes of consumers who prefer preservative-free minimally processed foods, retaining sensorial characteristics of freshness. Moreover, unlike thermal treatment, pressure treatment is not time/mass dependant, thus reducing the time of processing.

  20. New methods and processes based on advanced vacuum technology for photomask decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foray, J. M.; Bellet, B.; HadjRabah, S.; Palisson, J.; Veran, E.; Davenet, M.; Favre, A.; Sergent, P.; Tissier, M.; Baudiquez, V.; Nesladek, P.; Foca, E.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Hollein, I.; Dufaye, F.; Gough, S.

    2009-01-01

    Within the frame of the European R&D project the so called "HYMNE" project, lead by STM, advanced vacuum decontamination processes had been demonstrated to be efficient on wafer substrates in order to remove airborne molecular contamination (moisture, VOC..), to avoid crystalline defects after dry etching process and to improve yield for sub 90 nm technologies. Further to these significant results on wafers, a pool of partners investigated new methods and processes based on vacuum technology for photomask decontamination. These studies were carried out in the frame of the European R&D CRYSTAL project, focusing on photomask defect reduction. Today, vacuum process is not very widespread in photomask environment: in fab environment nor in mask manufacturing cycle. However such vacuum substrate decontamination could be also efficiently applied in order to reduce AMC contamination, which is one of the root causes of haze and crystalline defects. In this paper, we report for the first time, vacuum process investigations on pellicled photomasks that could be applied in fab environment, as well as vacuum process investigations on patterned blank that could be integrated into mask manufacturing cycle. First, vacuum process had been investigated on pellicled photomasks, including parameter influences. Goal is to renew and replace the environment under the pellicle by clean environment. During the process, specific care has to be taken on pellicle behavior under vacuum. The challenge is indeed to manage the pellicle during the vacuum process without damaging it, especially after several decontamination cycles. Finally, repeatability tests have also been successfully carried out and will be reported. We also report advanced vacuum process on patterned blank that could be integrated into mask manufacturing flow. Such procedure is an efficient complementary process in order to outgas contaminants from photomasks, and in order to reduce AMC residues (especially sulfate) in mask

  1. Decontamination of titanium implant surface and re-osseointegration to treat peri-implantitis: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Subramani, Karthikeyan; Wismeijer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    To review the literature on decontamination of titanium implant surfaces following peri-implantitis and the effect of various cleaning methods on re-osseointegration. An electronic search of the literature at PubMed was conducted on the studies published between 1966 and October 2010. In vitro, animal, and clinical studies were included. Of 597 studies retrieved, 74 manuscripts were selected for the review. Various implant surface decontamination methods using various chemical and mechanical agents have been suggested for treatment and re-osseointegration following periimplantitis. It has been shown that re-osseointegration of contaminated implant surfaces is possible; this largely depends upon the surface of the implant and the types of decontamination techniques and bone regenerative materials used. Complete re-osseointegration cannot be achieved by surface decontamination alone. Titanium implants with titanium plasma-sprayed or sandblasted and acid-etched surfaces may be effectively decontaminated by applying chlorhexidine and saline-soaked gauze or by repeated rinsing with these solutions. Both mechanical and chemical decontamination techniques should be applied alongside regenerative surgical procedures to obtain optimum re-osseointegration and successfully treat peri-implantitis. In recent years, lasers and photodynamic therapy have shown minor beneficial results, which need to be confirmed by long-term clinical studies with comparable groups.

  2. Effectiveness of domestic antibacterial products in decontaminating food contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    DeVere, Elizabeth; Purchase, Diane

    2007-06-01

    Four commercially available antibacterial products (two wipes and two sprays) were tested under laboratory conditions on a range of food contact surfaces (wood, glass, plastic, Microban incorporated plastic). The products' effectiveness at preventing cross-contamination of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and the influence of surface type and drying time were assessed. Survival of the bacterial culture (approximately 400 colonies per 8 cm(2)) on the above preparation surfaces was determined using an in situ nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) method. In the absence of any antibacterial products, both bacteria survived up to 120 min on all test surfaces with glass and plastic showing no reduction in bacterial number. The order of survival is: glass>plastic>Microban incorporated plastic>wood (<8%). The length of drying time did not affect the survival of either bacterium on glass and plastic surfaces. On wood and Microban incorporated plastic, E. coli appeared to be more sensitive to drying time than S. aureus. Only plastic appeared to affect the effectiveness of the antibacterial products, where the reduction in bacterial number was significantly lower than the other test surfaces (p<0.05). The overall results suggest the antibacterial products are effective in disinfecting food preparing surfaces, provided products instructions are carefully followed.

  3. Reactive decontamination formulation

    DOEpatents

    Giletto, Anthony; White, William; Cisar, Alan J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Fyffe, James

    2003-05-27

    The present invention provides a universal decontamination formulation and method for detoxifying chemical warfare agents (CWA's) and biological warfare agents (BWA's) without producing any toxic by-products, as well as, decontaminating surfaces that have come into contact with these agents. The formulation includes a sorbent material or gel, a peroxide source, a peroxide activator, and a compound containing a mixture of KHSO.sub.5, KHSO.sub.4 and K.sub.2 SO.sub.4. The formulation is self-decontaminating and once dried can easily be wiped from the surface being decontaminated. A method for decontaminating a surface exposed to chemical or biological agents is also disclosed.

  4. Decontamination System Utilizing Hydrogen Peroxide, UV Light and Catalytic Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    low vapor pressure appears to be the problem. The injected sample rapidly dries down to a droplet of molten acephate , which does not dissolve in the...Olexander Hnojewyj of Litton Applied Technologies (Santa Clara, CA). The sample of unformulated, technical grade dimethoate used was provided by the...11 Malathion ............................................ 11 Acephate .............................. ............... 11 Dimethoate

  5. Bio-Decontamination of Water and Surfaces by DC Discharges in Atmospheric Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machala, Zdenko; Tarabová, Barbora; Pelach, Michal; Šipoldová, Zuzana; Hensel, Karol; Janda, Mário; Šikurová, Libuša

    Two types of DC-driven atmospheric air discharges, including a streamer corona and a transient spark with short high current pulses of limited energy, were employed for bio-decontamination of water and various surfaces (agar plates, plastic foils, human teeth) contaminated by bacteria or spores (Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus). Both discharges generate cold non-equilibrium plasma. The discharges combined with the electro-spraying of the treated water through the needle electrode lead to fast and efficient bio-decontamination. Experiments comparing direct and indirect plasma effects, oxidation stress measurements in the cell membranes, and chemical changes induced in the treated water enable assessment of the plasma agents being responsible for microbial inactivation. Radicals and reactive oxygen species seem to be dominant biocidal agents, although deeper understanding of the plasma-induced water chemistry and of the temporal evolution of the bio-inactivation processes is needed.

  6. Low-pressure water vapour plasma treatment of surfaces for biomolecules decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, F.; Kylián, O.; Amato, L.; Hanuš, J.; Rossi, F.

    2012-04-01

    Decontamination treatments of surfaces are performed on bacterial spores, albumin and brain homogenate used as models of biological contaminations in a low-pressure, inductively coupled plasma reactor operated with water-vapour-based gas mixtures. It is shown that removal of contamination can be achieved using pure H2O or Ar/H2O mixtures at low temperatures with removal rates comparable to oxygen-based mixtures. Particle fluxes (Ar+ ions, O and H atomic radicals and OH molecular radicals) from water vapour discharge are measured by optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe under several operating conditions. Analysis of particle fluxes and removal rates measurements illustrates the role of ion bombardment associated with O radicals, governing the removal rates of organic matter. Auxiliary role of hydroxyl radicals is discussed on the basis of experimental data. The advantages of a water vapour plasma process are discussed for practical applications in medical devices decontamination.

  7. Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, F.; Kylián, O.; Rauscher, H.; Hasiwa, M.; Gilliland, D.

    2009-11-01

    The mechanisms of sterilization and decontamination of surfaces are compared in direct and post discharge plasma treatments in two low-pressure reactors, microwave and inductively coupled plasma. It is shown that the removal of various biomolecules, such as proteins, pyrogens or peptides, can be obtained at high rates and low temperatures in the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) by using Ar/O2 mixtures. Similar efficiency is obtained for bacterial spores. Analysis of the discharge conditions illustrates the role of ion bombardment associated with O radicals, leading to a fast etching of organic matter. By contrast, the conditions obtained in the post discharge lead to much lower etching rates but also to a chemical modification of pyrogens, leading to their de-activation. The advantages of the two processes are discussed for the application to the practical case of decontamination of medical devices and reduction of hospital infections, illustrating the advantages and drawbacks of the two approaches.

  8. Surface Decontamination of Chemical Agent Surrogates Using an Atmospheric Pressure Air Flow Plasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhanguo; Li, Ying; Cao, Peng; Zhao, Hongjie

    2013-07-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jet generator using air flow as the feedstock gas was applied to decontaminate the chemical agent surrogates on the surface of aluminum, stainless steel or iron plate painted with alkyd or PVC. The experimental results of material decontamination show that the residual chemical agent on the material is lower than the permissible value of the National Military Standard of China. In order to test the corrosion effect of the plasma jet on different material surfaces in the decontamination process, corrosion tests for the materials of polymethyl methacrylate, neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), phenolic resin, iron plate painted with alkyd, stainless steel, aluminum, etc. were carried out, and relevant parameters were examined, including etiolation index, chromatism, loss of gloss, corrosion form, etc. The results show that the plasma jet is slightly corrosive for part of the materials, but their performances are not affected. A portable calculator, computer display, mainboard, circuit board of radiogram, and a hygrometer could work normally after being treated by the plasma jet.

  9. Vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide as a surface decontaminant and sterilant.

    PubMed Central

    Klapes, N A; Vesley, D

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) as a surface decontaminant and sterilant was evaluated in a centrifuge application. The prototype VPHP decontamination system, retrofitted into a Beckman L8-M ultracentrifuge, was designed to vaporize a 30% (wt/wt) solution of aqueous hydrogen peroxide continuously injecting and withdrawing VPHP in a deep-vacuum flow-through system. VPHP cycles of 4, 8, 16, and 32 min were examined for cidal activity against spores of Bacillus subtilis subsp. globigii and Bacillus stearothermophilus. Spore inocula (approximately 10(6)/coupon) were dried onto 0.5-in. (1.27-cm)-square stainless-steel coupons, and coupons were suspended in the centrifuge chamber, the space between the refrigeration can and the barrier ring (inner gap), and the space between the barrier ring and the vacuum ring (outer gap). At a chamber temperature of 4 degrees C, B. subtilis subsp. globigii spores were inactivated within 8 min, while inactivation of spores located in the outer gap at 27 degrees C required 32 min. The elevated temperature and high surface area/volume ratios in the outer gap may serve to decompose the gas more rapidly, thus reducing cidal efficacy. Of the two test spores, B. stearothermophilus was more resistant to VPHP. Nonetheless, VPHP was shown to possess significant sporicidal capability. For practical decontamination applications of the type described, VPHP shows promise as an effective and safer alternative to currently used ethylene oxide or formaldehyde vapors. PMID:2106287

  10. Study on the decontamination of surface of radioactive metal device using plasmatron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jong-Keun; Yang, Ik-Jun; Kim, Seung-Hyeon; Rai, Suresh; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2015-09-01

    Radioactive waste contiguously produced during operation of NPP (nuclear power plant). Therefore, KHNP (korea hydro & nuclear power co., ltd) decided to disband the NPP unit 1 in the Kori area. Since most of the metallic radioactive wastes are not contaminated ones themselves but rather ones containing polluted nuclides on their surface, the amount of wastes can be sharply reduced through decontamination process. In this study DC plasmatron and isotope sheet of radioactive cobalt was used to study the decontamination process. Decontamination can be achieved by etching the contaminated layer from the surface. Due to the restricted usage of radioactive materials, we have studied etching of Cobalt (Co) sheet to imitate the radioactive contamination. Plasma was generated using mixture gas of CF4/O2 in the ratio of 10:0, 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4 maintaining the plasma sample distance of 20 mm, 30 mm, 40 mm and exposed time of 60 sec, 120 sec, 180 sec using fixed Ar carrier gas flow rate of 1000 sccm. As a result, we obtained maximum etching rate of 9.24 μm/min when the mixture ratio of CF4/O2 gas was 4:1, which was confirmed by SEM and mass-meter. It was confirmed that more close positioning the Co samples to the plasmatron nozzle yields maximum etching rate.

  11. Large-scale decontamination and decommissioning technology demonstration project at a former uranium metal production facility

    SciTech Connect

    Martineit, R.A.; Borgman, T.D.; Peters, M.S.; Stebbins, L.L.

    1997-03-05

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Focus Area, led by the Federal Energy Technology Center, has been charged with improving upon baseline D&D technologies with the goal of demonstrating and validating more cost-effective and safer technologies to characterize, deactivate, survey, decontaminate, dismantle, and dispose of surplus structures, buildings, and their contents at DOE sites. The D&D Focus Area`s approach to verifying the benefits of the improved D&D technologies is to use them in large-scale technology demonstration (LSTD) projects at several DOE sites. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was selected to host one of the first three LSTD`s awarded by the D&D Focus Area. The FEMP is a DOE facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, that was formerly engaged in the production of high quality uranium metal. The FEMP is a Superfund site which has completed its RUFS process and is currently undergoing environmental restoration. With the FEMP`s selection to host an LSTD, the FEMP was immediately faced with some challenges. The primary challenge was that this LSTD was to be integrated into the FEMP`s Plant 1 D&D Project which was an ongoing D&D Project for which a firm fixed price contract had been issued to the D&D Contractor. Thus, interferences with the baseline D&D project could have significant financial implications. Other challenges include defining and selecting meaningful technology demonstrations, finding/selecting technology providers, and integrating the technology into the baseline D&D project. To date, twelve technologies have been selected, and six have been demonstrated. The technology demonstrations have yielded a high proportion of {open_quotes}winners.{close_quotes} All demonstrated, technologies will be evaluated for incorporation into the FEMP`s baseline D&D strategy.

  12. Industrial Technology of Decontamination of Liquid Radioactive Waste in SUE MosSIA 'Radon' - 12371

    SciTech Connect

    Adamovich, Dmitry V.; Neveykin, Petr P.; Karlin, Yuri V.; Savkin, Alexander E.

    2012-07-01

    SUE MosSIA 'RADON' - this enterprise was created more than 50 years ago, which deals with the recycling of radioactive waste and conditioning of spent sources of radiation in stationary and mobile systems in the own factory and operating organizations. Here is represented the experience SUE MosSIA 'Radon' in the field of the management with liquid radioactive waste. It's shown, that the activity of SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is developing in three directions - improvement of technical facilities for treatment of radioactive waters into SUE MosSIA 'RADON' development of mobile equipment for the decontamination of radioactive waters in other organizations, development of new technologies for decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes as part of various domestic Russian and international projects including those related to the operation of nuclear power and nuclear submarines. SUE MosSIA 'RADON' has processed more than 270 thousand m{sup 3} of radioactive water, at that more than 7000 m{sup 3} in other organizations for more than 50 years. It is shown that a number of directions, particularly, the development of mobile modular units for decontamination of liquid radioactive waste, SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is a leader in the world. (authors)

  13. New information technology tools for a medical command system for mass decontamination.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Akira; Okumura, Tetsu; Hagiwara, Jun; Tanabe, Tomohide; Fukuda, Reo; Masuno, Tomohiko; Mimura, Seiji; Yamamoto, Kaname; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2013-06-01

    In a mass decontamination during a nuclear, biological, or chemical (NBC) response, the capability to command, control, and communicate is crucial for the proper flow of casualties at the scene and their subsequent evacuation to definitive medical facilities. Information Technology (IT) tools can be used to strengthen medical control, command, and communication during such a response. Novel IT tools comprise a vehicle-based, remote video camera and communication network systems. During an on-site verification event, an image from a remote video camera system attached to the personal protective garment of a medical responder working in the warm zone was transmitted to the on-site Medical Commander for aid in decision making. Similarly, a communication network system was used for personnel at the following points: (1) the on-site Medical Headquarters; (2) the decontamination hot zone; (3) an on-site coordination office; and (4) a remote medical headquarters of a local government office. A specially equipped, dedicated vehicle was used for the on-site medical headquarters, and facilitated the coordination with other agencies. The use of these IT tools proved effective in assisting with the medical command and control of medical resources and patient transport decisions during a mass-decontamination exercise, but improvements are required to overcome transmission delays and camera direction settings, as well as network limitations in certain areas.

  14. Decontamination of blood soaked electronic devices using ultrasonic technology.

    PubMed

    Dudeck, Kimberly C; Brennan, Tamara C; Embury, Daniel J

    2012-01-10

    With advancements in technology allowing for the miniaturization of consumer electronics, criminal investigations of all types frequently involve the forensic examination of electronic devices, such as cellular telephones, smartphones, and portable flash memory; in some extreme, violent cases, these devices are found covered in blood. Due to the complexity of such devices, standard operating procedures for the complete removal of blood had not previously been established by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police prior to this study. The electronics industry has adopted the use of the ultrasonic cleaner for sanitizing printed circuit boards (PCBs) by removing residues and contaminants. High frequency sound waves created by the machine penetrate and remove dirt and residues; however, early research during the 1950s recorded these sound waves breaking the internal bonds of integrated circuit chips. Experimentation with modern ultrasonic technology was used to determine if internal components were damaged, as well as if ultrasonic cleaning was the most suitable method for the removal of dried and liquid blood from a PCB. Several disinfectant solutions were compared against the 0.5% Triton(®) X-100 detergent solution in the ultrasonic cleaner, including: 10% sodium hypochlorite bleach, 85% isopropyl alcohol, and Conflikt(®) disinfectant spray. The results not only demonstrated that the ultrasonic cleaner did not damage the vital memory chip on the PCB, but also, with the assistance of Conflikt(®), was able to remove all traces of blood as indicated by Hemastix(®) reagent strips. Of five methods experimented with, two cycles of ultrasonic cleaning followed by sanitization with Conflikt(®) proved to be the only procedure capable of removing all traces of blood, as confirmed with both Hemastix(®) reagent strips and the hemochromogen test.

  15. The use of laser therapy for dental implant surface decontamination: a narrative review of in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Marina Salah; Khosa, Amardeep; Tawse-Smith, Andrew; Leichter, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this narrative review was to critically evaluate in vitro studies assessing the efficacy of lasers in the bacterial decontamination of titanium implant surfaces. The MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge and Embase electronic databases were used to search for articles relating to the use of lasers in the bacterial decontamination of titanium specimen surfaces using predetermined search statements. Clinical studies, case reports, case series, review articles and animal models were excluded. Study selection was carried out independently and then cross-checked by two authors through abstract viewing. Eighteen articles were selected for full-text analysis. Erbium-doped yttrium-aluminium-garnet lasers had a wide range of powers capable of inducing bacterial decontamination. While carbon dioxide and gallium-aluminium-arsenide diode lasers demonstrated the ability to produce bacterial decontamination, the bacterial sensitivity to each varied depending on the species involved. There is no concensus on the laser type or settings that are optimal for bacterial decontamination of titanium implant surfaces as studies employ various test specimens, contamination methodologies, irradiation settings and protocols, and outcome measures resulting in limited study comparability. More investigations are required to provide guidelines for the use of laser therapy in the decontamination of implant surfaces.

  16. Reusable nanoengineered surfaces for bacterial recruitment and decontamination.

    PubMed

    Ista, Linnea K; Yu, Qian; Parthasarathy, Anand; Schanze, Kirk S; López, Gabriel P

    2016-03-06

    Biofouling, or accumulation of unwanted biofilms, on surfaces is a major concern for public health and human industry. Materials either avoiding contamination (fouling resistant) and/or directly killing attached microbes (biocidal) have thus far failed to achieve the goal of eliminating biofouling; fouling resistant surfaces eventually foul and biocidal surfaces accumulate debris that eventually decrease their efficacy. Combined biocidal and fouling release materials offer the potential for both killing and removing debris and are promising candidates for reducing biofouling on manufactured materials. Interference lithography was used to create nanopatterns of initiators, which were then used to initiate atom transfer radical polymerization of the temperature-responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) as a fouling release component. Biocidal activity was conferred by subsequent layer-by-layer deposition of cationic and anionic poly(phenylene ethynylenes) into the valleys between the PNIPAAm. For both Gram positive and Gram negative model bacteria, dark-regime biocidal activity was observed that did not increase upon exposure to light, suggesting that the mode of antimicrobial activity is due to ionic disruption of the cell wall. Subsequent to killing, bacteria and cellular debris were removed upon a temperature-induced phase transition of the PNIPAAm. These materials exhibited capture, killing, and release activity over multiple cycles of use.

  17. [Effect of decontaminating solutions on titanium surface: an in vitro study of human epithelial cell culture].

    PubMed

    Ungvári, Krisztina; Pelsoczi, K István; Kormos, Bernadett; Oszkó, Albert; Radnai, Márta; Nagy, Katalin; Fazekas, András; Turzó, Kinga

    2011-03-01

    The effects of three different decontaminating solutions in clinical use for peri-implantitis therapy on the chemical structure and surface roughness of commercially pure (CP) Ti were investigated. A further aim was to survey the response of the biological environment to these changes, by examining the attachment and proliferation of human epithelial cells after treatment of the Ti surfaces with these solutions. CP (grade 4) machined titanium discs (CAMLOG Biotechnologies AG, Switzerland) were treated with 3% H2O2 (5 min), saturated citric acid (pH = 1; 1 min) or chlorhexidine gel (CHX, 5 min). The surface properties were followed through the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The epithelial cell attachment and proliferation was examined by means of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein-content assays. XPS showed an intact TiO2 layer on each sample and CHX was adsorbed by the surface, as C-O and/or C=O bond formation was revealed. AFM results gave no significant changes in the roughness after treating the surfaces with the cleaning solutions. While MTT and BCA assays did not show significant differences in epithelial cell attachments, the cell proliferation was significantly increased after H2O2 treatment as compared to CHX (not shown by BCA assays). The applied decontaminating agents do not damage the Ti surface. H2O2 can be used effectively in decontaminating the implants affected by peri-implantitis, as the human epithelial cell growth was improved, in contrast with CHX.

  18. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 2, Technology Logic Diagram: Part A, Decontamination and Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report documents activities of decontamination and decommissioning at ORNL. Topics discussed include general problems, waste types, containment, robotics automation and decontamination processes.

  19. Efficacy of alkaline washing for the decontamination of orange fruit surfaces inoculated with Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pao, S; Davis, C L; Kelsey, D F

    2000-07-01

    The effectiveness of washing treatments to decontaminate orange fruit surfaces inoculated with Escherichia coli was evaluated. Washing on roller brushes with fruit cleaners or sanitizers followed by potable water rinse reduced E. coli by 1.9 to 3.5 log cycles. Prewetting fruit for 30 s before washing provided no significant benefit in most cases. Additional sanitizing treatments either with chlorine or acid sanitizers did not enhance the results of alkaline washing. In general, high pH washing solutions (pH 11.8) applied with an adequate spray volume effectively reduced the surface contamination of fruit that lowered the microbial load of fresh juice as well.

  20. Thin Film Conductive Coatings for Surface Heating and Decontamination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    area 9 - dimensionless surface coverage ( oo) Subscripts 0 - upper sur ace 1 - substrate material ( plexi - glass ) 2 -. heater m terial (Indium-Tin Oxide...ke 54 C* " C* THIS PROGRAM SOLVES FOR THE DIFFUSION OF HEAT AND CONTAMINANT S C VAPOR WITHIN A SOLID-SUBSTRATE ( PLEXI - GLASS ) WITH AN EMBEDDED C... PLEXI -. GLASS "Ups S - SOLUBILITY PARAMETER APPENOIX 55 , . * , 55 C*THE GIVEN INPU.IT DATA ISo PRINTEDc OUT. HERE ’NW~’ REFERS C* TO THE OUTPUT

  1. Surface decontamination and quality enhancement in meat steaks using plant extracts as natural biopreservatives.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F; Moussa, Shaaban H; El-Sabbagh, Sabha M

    2012-08-01

    Nine plant extracts were evaluated as biopreservatives to decontaminate and maintain the quality of meat steaks. Most of the extracts exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against antibiotic resistant strains from Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. The pomegranate peel extract (PPE), cinnamon bark extract (CBE), and lemon grass leaves extract (LGE) were the most effective as bactericides, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 250, 350, and 550 μg/mL, respectively. The most effective treatments, for decontaminating meat steak surfaces, were the application of combined PPE, CBE, and LGE at their MIC values and the treatment with double MIC from PPE; these treatments resulted in complete bacterial inhibitions during the first 2 days of storage period for 7 days. The sensory evaluation of treated steaks revealed that these two treatments had the highest panelist overall scores. The highest scores, for individual attributes, were observed in the treated steaks with double MIC from PPE. Application of plant extracts could be impressively recommended for comprehensive meat decontamination and quality attributes enhancement.

  2. Exploratory Use of Microaerosol Decontamination Technology (PAEROSOL) in Enclosed, Unoccupied Hospital Setting

    SciTech Connect

    Rainina, Evguenia I.; McCune, D. E.; Luna, Maria L.; Cook, J. E.; Soltis, Michele A.; Demons, Samandra T.; Godoy-Kain, Patricia; Weston, J. H.

    2012-05-31

    The goal of this study was to validate the previously observed high biological kill performance of PAEROSOL, a semi-dry, micro-aerosol decontamination technology, against common HAI in a non-human subject trial within a hospital setting of Madigan Army Medical Center (MAMC) on Joint Base Lewis-McChord in Tacoma, Washington. In addition to validating the disinfecting efficacy of PAEROSOL, the objectives of the trial included a demonstration of PAEROSOL environmental safety, (i.e., impact to hospital interior materials and electronic equipment exposed during testing) and PAEROSOL parameters optimization for future deployment.

  3. Contaminant-Organic Complexes, Their Structure and Energetics in Surface Decontamination Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Friedrich, Donald M.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Myneni, Satish C.B.; Traina, Samuel J.

    1999-06-01

    There are a wide variety of compounds that are naturally occurring biodegradable organic chelates (siderophores) that appear to be more effective at oxide dissolution and actinide complexation than EDTA or other organic acids now used in decontamination processes. These chelates bind hard acids [Fe(III) and actinides(IV)] with extraordinarily high affinities. For example, the binding constant for the siderophore enterobactin with iron is about 1050, and its binding constant for Pu(IV) is estimated to be as high. Hence, this project is investigating the efficacy of using siderophores (or siderophore-like chelates) as decontamination agents of metal surfaces. The specific goals of this project are as follows: 1. develop an understanding of the surface interaction between siderophores (and their functional moieties), iron, and actinide oxides; their surface chemical properties that foster their dissolution; and the conditions that maximize that dissolution 2. develop the computational tools necessary to predict the reactivity of different siderophore functional groups toward oxide dissolution and actinide(IV) solubilization 3. identify likely candidate chelates for use in decontamination processes. To meet these objectives, the project combines molecular spectroscopy and computational chemistry to provide basic information on the structure and bonding of siderophore functional groups to metal (iron and uranium) oxide specimens common to corrosion products and scales on carbon steel and stainless steel encountered in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The project explores fundamental scientific aspects of oxide mineral surface chemistry and dissolution related to chelate-induced solubilization. The spectroscopic and computational aspects of this project are complemented by macroscopic dissolution and solubilization studies of oxides and associated contaminants. From this combination of molecular, macroscopic, and computational studies, structure-function and

  4. Contaminant-Organic Complexes, Their Structure and Energetics in Surface Decontamination Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Traina, Samuel J.; Myneni, Satish C. B.

    2000-06-01

    There are many compounds that are naturally occurring biodegradable organic chelates (siderophores) and appear to be more effective at oxide dissolution and actinide complexation than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other organic acids currently used in decontamination processes. These chelates bind hard acids [Fe(III) and actinides(IV)] with extraordinarily high affinities. For example, the binding constant for the siderophore enterobactin with iron is about 1050, and its binding constant for Pu(IV) is estimated to be as high. Hence, this project is investigating the efficacy of using siderophores (or siderophore-like chelates) as decontamination agents of metal surfaces. The specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) To develop an understanding of the interactions between siderophores (and their functional moieties), Fe and actinide oxides, their surface chemical properties that foster their dissolution and the conditions that maximize that dissolution. (2) To develop the computational tools necessary to predict the reactivity of different siderophore functional groups toward oxide dissolution and actinide (IV) solubilization. (3) To identify likely candidate chelates for use in decontamination processes. To meet these objectives, the project combines x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and computational chemistry to provide basic information on the structure and bonding of siderophore functional groups to metal (Fe and U) oxide specimens common to corrosion products and scales on carbon steel and stainless steel encountered in DOE facilities. The project explores fundamental scientific aspects of oxide mineral surface chemistry and dissolution related to chelate-induced solubilization. The spectroscopic and computational aspects of this project are complemented by macroscopic dissolution and solubilization studies of oxides and associated contaminants. From this combination of molecular, macroscopic, and computational studies, structure

  5. Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 1: Technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    During World War 11, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was built as part of the Manhattan Project to supply enriched uranium for weapons production. In 1945, Building 9201-4 (Alpha-4) was originally used to house a uranium isotope separation process based on electromagnetic separation technology. With the startup of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site gaseous diffusion plant In 1947, Alpha-4 was placed on standby. In 1953, the uranium enrichment process was removed, and installation of equipment for the Colex process began. The Colex process--which uses a mercury solvent and lithium hydroxide as the lithium feed material-was shut down in 1962 and drained of process materials. Residual Quantities of mercury and lithium hydroxide have remained in the process equipment. Alpha-4 contains more than one-half million ft{sup 2} of floor area; 15,000 tons of process and electrical equipment; and 23,000 tons of insulation, mortar, brick, flooring, handrails, ducts, utilities, burnables, and sludge. Because much of this equipment and construction material is contaminated with elemental mercury, cleanup is necessary. The goal of the Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 is to provide a planning document that relates decontamination and decommissioning and waste management problems at the Alpha-4 building to the technologies that can be used to remediate these problems. The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 builds on the methodology transferred by the U.S. Air Force to the Environmental Management organization with DOE and draws from previous technology logic diagram-efforts: logic diagrams for Hanford, the K-25 Site, and ORNL.

  6. Mechanisms of Radionuclide-Hyroxycarboxylic Acid Interactions for Decontamination of Metallic Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Francis; C.J. Dodge; J.B. Gillow; G.P. Halada; C.R. Clayton

    2002-04-24

    Is this EMSP program we investigated the key fundamental issues involved in the use of simple and safe methods for the removal of radioactive contamination from equipment and facilities using hydroxycarboxylic acids. Specifically, we investigate (i) the association of uranium with various iron oxides commonly formed on corroding plain carbon steel surfaces, (ii) the association of uranium with corroding metal coupons under a variety of conditions, and (iii) the decontamination of the uranium contaminated metal coupons by citric acid or citric acid formulations containing oxalic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

  7. Nanoindentation of orthodontic archwires: The effect of decontamination and clinical use on hardness, elastic modulus and surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Alcock, Joseph P; Barbour, Michele E; Sandy, Jonathan R; Ireland, Anthony J

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of decontamination and clinical exposure on the elastic moduli, hardness and surface roughness of two frequently used orthodontic archwires, namely 0.020in.x0.020in. heat activated (martensitic active) nickel titanium archwires and 0.019in.x0.025in. austenitic stainless steel archwires. This study was a prospective clinical trial in which 20 consecutive patients requiring an archwire change as part of their course of orthodontic fixed appliance therapy, had either a nickel titanium or stainless steel archwire fitted as deemed clinically necessary. The effect of clinical use was determined by comparing distal end cuts of the "as received" archwires before and after decontamination, with the same retrieved archwires following clinical use and decontamination. Hardness, elastic modulus and surface roughness were determined using an atomic force microscope (AFM) coupled with a nanoindenter. The results showed that the decontamination regimen and clinical use had no statistically significant effect on the nickel titanium archwires, but did have a statistically significant effect on the steel archwires. Decontamination of the steel wires significantly increased the observed surface hardness (p=0.01) and reduced the surface roughness (p=0.02). Clinical use demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the observed elastic modulus (p<0.001) and a decrease in surface roughness (p=0.001). At present it is difficult to predict the clinical significance of these statistically significant changes in archwire properties on orthodontic tooth movement.

  8. Gross decontamination experiment report

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  9. In Situ Generation of Chlorine Dioxide for Surface Decontamination of Produce.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Cheng-An; Huang, Lihan; Wu, Vivian Chi-Hua

    2017-04-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are frequently contaminated with bacterial pathogens and implicated in foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was to develop a unique surface decontamination method for produce using sodium chlorite and an acid in a sequential treatment. The surfaces of cantaloupe rinds, peels of cucumbers, stem scars of grape tomatoes, and leaves of baby spinach were inoculated with Salmonella or Listeria monocytogenes at 5 to 6 log CFU/g, submerged in 1.6 to 4% sodium chlorite solutions for 10 or 30 min, dried for 20 min, and then soaked in 6 mM hydrogen chloride (HCl) for 10 or 30 min and dried for 20 min. Control samples were treated with deionized water, sodium chlorite, HCl, or a premixed solution of sodium chlorite and HCl for comparison. The control treatments reduced the levels of both pathogens on the samples by only 0.3 to 2.9 log CFU/g, whereas the sequential treatment caused significantly higher reductions (P < 0.05) of 5.1 to 5.6 log CFU/g, effectively eliminating the inoculated pathogens. The more effective decontamination resulting from the sequential treatment was attributed to the in situ formation of chlorine dioxide within the plant tissues under the surface by the reaction between sodium chlorite absorbed by the produce and HCl. These results suggest that the sequential use of sodium chlorite and acid is a potentially effective treatment for elimination of foodborne pathogens on produce.

  10. Decontamination of Hospital Surfaces With Multijet Cold Plasma: A Method to Enhance Infection Prevention and Control?

    PubMed

    Cahill, Orla J; Claro, Tânia; Cafolla, Attilio A; Stevens, Niall T; Daniels, Stephen; Humphreys, Hilary

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of a multijet cold-plasma system and its efficacy in decontaminating 2 surfaces commonly found in hospitals DESIGN An in vitro study of common causes of healthcare-acquired infection METHODS Log10 9 cultures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii were applied to 5-cm2 sections of stainless steel and mattress. Human serum albumin (HSA) was used as a proxy marker for organic material, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the impact on bacterial cell structure. The inoculated surfaces were exposed to a cold-air-plasma-generating multijet prototype for 15, 20, 30, and 45 seconds. RESULTS After 45 seconds, at least 3 to 4 log reductions were achieved for all bacteria on the mattress, while 3 to 6 log reductions were observed on stainless steel. The presence of HSA had no appreciable effect on bacterial eradication. The surfaces with bacteria exposed to AFM showed significant morphological changes indicative of "etching" due to the action of highly charged ions produced by the plasma. CONCLUSION This multijet cold-plasma prototype has the potential to augment current environmental decontamination approaches but needs further evaluation in a clinical setting to confirm its effectiveness. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1182-1187.

  11. Decontamination of U-metal Surface by an Oxidation Etching System

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, R B; Kansa, E J; Shaffer, R J; Weed, H C

    2000-12-18

    A surface oxidation treatment is described to remove surface contamination from uranium (U) metal and/or hydrides of uranium and heavy metals (HM) from U-metal parts. In the case of heavy metal atomic contamination on a surface, and potentially several atomic layers beneath, the surface oxidation treatment combines both chemical and chemically driven mechanical processes. The chemical process is a controlled temperature-time oxidization process that creates a thin film of uranium oxide (UO{sub 2} and higher oxides) on the U-metal surface. The chemically driven mechanical process is strain induced by the volume increase as the U-metal surface transforms to a UO{sub 2} surface film. These volume strains are sufficiently large to cause surface failure spalling/scale formation and thus, removal of a U-oxide film that contains the HM-contaminated surface. The case of a HM-hydride surface contamination layer can be treated similarly by using inert hot gas to decompose the U-hydrides and/or HM-hydrides that are contiguous with the surface. A preliminary analysis to design and to plan for a sequence of tests is developed. The tests will provide necessary and sufficient data to evaluate the effective implementation and operational characteristics of a safe and reliable system. The following description is limited to only a surface oxidation process for HM-decontamination.

  12. Systematic Evaluation of the Efficacy of Chlorine Dioxide in Decontamination of Building Interior Surfaces Contaminated with Anthrax Spores▿

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Vipin K.; Ryan, Shawn P.; Wallace, Lalena; Smith, Lisa S.; Shah, Saumil S.; Martin, G. Blair

    2010-01-01

    Efficacy of chlorine dioxide (CD) gas generated by two distinct generation systems, Sabre (wet system with gas generated in water) and ClorDiSys (dry system with gas generated in air), was evaluated for inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores on six building interior surfaces. The six building materials included carpet, acoustic ceiling tile, unpainted cinder block, painted I-beam steel, painted wallboard, and unpainted pinewood. There was no statistically significant difference in the data due to the CD generation technology at a 95% confidence level. Note that a common method of CD gas measurement was used for both wet and dry CD generation types. Doses generated by combinations of different concentrations of CD gas (500, 1,000, 1,500, or 3,000 parts per million of volume [ppmv]) and exposure times (ranging between 0.5 and 12 h) were used to evaluate the relative role of fumigant exposure period and total dose in the decontamination of building surfaces. The results showed that the time required to achieve at least a 6-log reduction in viable spores is clearly a function of the material type on which the spores are inoculated. The wood and cinder block coupons required a longer exposure time to achieve a 6-log reduction. The only material showing a clear statistical difference in rate of decay of viable spores as a function of concentration was cinder block. For all other materials, the profile of spore kill (i.e., change in number of viable spores with exposure time) was not dependent upon fumigant concentration (500 to 3,000 ppmv). The CD dose required for complete spore kill on biological indicators (typically, 1E6 spores of Bacillus atrophaeus on stainless steel) was significantly less than that required for decontamination of most of the building materials tested. PMID:20305025

  13. Decontaminating lead bricks and shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Lussiez, G.

    1994-02-01

    Lead used for shielding is often surface contaminated with radioisotopes and is therefore a RCRA D008 mixed waste. The technology-based standard for treatment is macroencapsulation. However, decontaminating and recycling the clean lead is a more attractive solution. Los Alamos National Laboratory decontaminates material and equipment contaminated with radioisotopes. Decontaminating lead poses special problems because of the RCRA hazard classification and the size of the inventory, now about 50 tons and likely to grow substantially of planned decommissioning operations. Thus lead, in the form of bricks and other shield shapes, is surface contaminated with fission products. One of the best methods for contaminated lead is removing the superficial layer of contamination with an abrasive medium under pressure. For lead, a mixture of alumina with water and air at about 40 psig rapidly and effectively decontaminates the lead. The abrasive medium is sprayed onto the lead in a scaled-off area. The slurry of abrasive and particles of lead falls through a floor and is collected in a sump. A pump sends the slurry mixture back to the spray gun, creating a continuous process. The process generates small volumes of lead slurry that can be solidified and, because it passes the TCLP, is not a mixed waste. The decontaminated lead can be released for recycling.

  14. Technical Report: Contaminant Organic Complexes: Their structure and energetics in surface decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel J. Traina; Shankar Sharma

    2007-04-22

    The Department of Energy has a goal of decontaminating an estimated 180,000 metric tons of metal wastes in various surplus facilities. Uranium (U) and other radioactive actinides and lanthanides are embedded within the mixed oxide structures of the passivity layers of corroded iron and steel. These toxic metals can be dissolved out of the surface layers by a naturally occurring bacterial siderophore called Desferrioxamine B (DFB). DFB is a trihydroxamate ligand with one amine (pK1 =10.89) and three hydroxamate groups (pK2 =9.70, pK3 =9.03, and pK4 =8.30), which chelates with metals through hydroxamate coordination. Complexation of DFB with U can be utilized in decontamination strategy of the passivity layers. Therefore, we have been studying reactions of uranyl U(VI) with zerovalent iron (Fe0) followed by dissolution by DFB. The objectives were to determine the structure and speciation of solution and solid phases of U and to assess the effectiveness of DFB in U dissolution.

  15. Laboratory Demonstration of Radiological Decontamination Using Radpro

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, P.; Greene, R.; Isham, J.; Martin, R.; Norton, C.

    2007-07-01

    In the event of terrorist activity involving the explosive dispersion of radioactive materials (a 'dirty' bomb), a number of different types of surfaces and substrates, including concrete, granite, brick, cinder block, tile, asphalt, wood, glass, plastic, iron, and steel, may become radiologically contaminated. Incident cleanup is assumed to involve decontamination of these surfaces. Laboratory testing was conducted using samples of concrete, ferrous metal, steel, aluminum, lead, tin, glass, lexan, vinyl, asphalt shingle, wood, and rubber surfaces. The surfaces were sprayed with Cs-137 or Co-60 solutions to simulate contamination. The entire surface area of the samples was surveyed using a Ludlum Model 2360 scaler/ratemeter with Ludlum Model 43-93-2 100 cm{sup 2} open area alpha/beta scintillation probe. The surfaces were then decontaminated using RadPro{sup R} chemical decontamination technology that is currently field proven and ready to deploy. The entire surface area of the samples was re-surveyed following decontamination. The RadPro{sup R} chemical decontamination technology was able to remove virtually all of the removable contamination and over 90% of the fixed contamination from these surfaces during the laboratory testing. (authors)

  16. Integration of improved decontamination and characterization technologies in the decommissioning of the CP-5 research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.; Boing, L. E.

    2000-02-17

    The aging of research reactors worldwide has resulted in a heightened awareness in the international technical decommissioning community of the timeliness to review and address the needs of these research institutes in planning for and eventually performing the decommissioning of these facilities. By using the reactors already undergoing decommissioning as test beds for evaluating enhanced or new/innovative technologies for decommissioning, it is possible that new techniques could be made available for those future research reactor decommissioning projects. Potentially, the new technologies will result in: reduced radiation doses to the work force, larger safety margins in performing decommissioning and cost and schedule savings to the research institutes in performing the decommissioning of these facilities. Testing of these enhanced technologies for decontamination, dismantling, characterization, remote operations and worker protection are critical to furthering advancements in the technical specialty of decommissioning. Furthermore, regulatory acceptance and routine utilization for future research reactor decommissioning will be assured by testing and developing these technologies in realistically contaminated environments prior to use in the research reactors. The decommissioning of the CP-5 Research Reactor is currently in the final phase of dismantlement. In this paper the authors present results of work performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the development, testing and deployment of innovative and/or enhanced technologies for the decommissioning of research reactors.

  17. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutionsThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Stone, H., D. See, A. Smiley, A. Ellingson, J. Schimmoeller, and L. Oudejans. Surface Decontamination of Blister Agents Lewisite, Sulfur Mustard and Agent Yellow, a Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Mixture. JOURNAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 1-5, (2015).

  18. Growth of micrometric oxide layers for the study of metallic surfaces decontamination by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Luisa; Pacquentin, Wilfried; Tabarant, Michel; Maskrot, Hicham; Semerok, Alexandre

    2017-09-01

    The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in term of level of hazard, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop techniques for dismantling and for decontamination in a safe way, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. We propose a method of formation of oxide layer on stainless steel 304L with europium (Eu) as contaminant marker. In this method, an Eu-solution is sprayed on the stainless steel samples. The specimen are firstly treated with a pulsed nanosecond laser and secondly the steel samples are exposed to a 600°C furnace for various durations in order to grow an oxide layer. The oxide structure and in-depth distribution of Eu in the oxide layer are analysed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer, and by glow discharge optical emission or mass spectrometry. The oxide layers were grown to thicknesses in the range of 200 nm to 4.5 μm regarding to the laser treatment parameters and the heating duration. These contaminated oxides have a `duplex structure' with a mean weight percentage of 0.5% of europium in the volume of the oxide layer. It appears that europium implementation prevents the oxide growth by furnace but has no impact on laser heating. These oxide layers are used to study the decontamination of metallic surfaces such as stainless steel 304L using a nanosecond pulsed laser.

  19. Decontamination of uranium-contaminated steel surfaces by hydroxycarboxylic acid with uranium recovery.

    PubMed

    Francis, A J; Dodge, C J; McDonald, J A; Halada, G P

    2005-07-01

    We developed a simple, safe method to remove uranium from contaminated metallic surfaces so that the materials can be recycled or disposed of as low-level radioactive or nonradioactive waste. Surface analysis of rusted uranium-contaminated plain carbon-steel coupons by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy showed that uranium was predominantly associated with ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite, and magnetite, or occluded in the matrix of the corrosion product as uranyl hydroxide and schoepite (UO3 x 2H2O). Citric acid formulations, consisting of oxalic acid-hydrogen peroxidecitric acid (OPC) or citric acid-hydrogen peroxidecitric acid (CPC), were used to remove uranium from the coupons. The efficiency of uranium removal varied from 68% to 94% depending on the extent of corrosion, the association of uranium with the iron oxide matrix, and the accessibility of the occluded contaminant. Decontaminated coupons clearly showed evidence of the extensive removal of rust and uranium. The waste solutions containing uranium and iron from decontamination by OPC and CPC were treated first by subjecting them to biodegradation followed by photodegradation. Biodegradation of a CPC solution by Pseudomonas fluorescens resulted in the degradation of the citric acid with concomitant precipitation of Fe (>96%), whereas U that remained in solution was recovered (>99%) by photodegradation as schoepite. In contrast, in an OPC solution citric acid was biodegraded but not oxalic acid, and both Fe and U remained in solution. Photodegradation of this OPC solution resulted in the precipitation of iron as ferrihydrite and uranium as uranyl hydroxide.

  20. Comet Surface Sampling Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Chu, P.; Paulsen, G.; Indyk, S.

    2014-06-01

    The goal of the Comet Surface Sample Return (CSSR) is to acquire and return to Earth a ≥500 cc) sample. Honeybee developed several sampling technologies including a standalone CSSR Probe (CSSRP) and Pyramid Comet Sampler (PyCoS).

  1. Homogenous photocatalytic decontamination of prion infected stainless steel and titanium surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Berberidou, Chrysanthi; Xanthopoulos, Konstantinos; Paspaltsis, Ioannis; Lourbopoulos, Athanasios; Polyzoidou, Eleni; Sklaviadis, Theodoros; Poulios, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Prions are notorious for their extraordinary resistance to traditional methods of decontamination, rendering their transmission a public health risk. Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (iCJD) via contaminated surgical instruments and medical devices has been verified both experimentally and clinically. Standard methods for prion inactivation by sodium hydroxide or sodium hypochlorite have failed, in some cases, to fully remove prion infectivity, while they are often impractical for routine applications. Prion accumulation in peripheral tissues and indications of human-to-human bloodborne prion transmission, highlight the need for novel, efficient, yet user-friendly methods of prion inactivation. Here we show both in vitro and in vivo that homogenous photocatalytic oxidation, mediated by the photo-Fenton reagent, has the potential to inactivate the pathological prion isoform adsorbed on metal substrates. Photocatalytic oxidation with 224 μg mL−1 Fe3+, 500 μg mL−1 h−1 H2O2, UV-A for 480 min lead to 100% survival in golden Syrian hamsters after intracranial implantation of stainless steel wires infected with the 263K prion strain. Interestingly, photocatalytic treatment of 263K infected titanium wires, under the same experimental conditions, prolonged the survival interval significantly, but failed to eliminate infectivity, a result that we correlate with the increased adsorption of PrPSc on titanium, in comparison to stainless steel. Our findings strongly indicate that our, user- and environmentally friendly protocol can be safely applied to the decontamination of prion infected stainless steel surfaces. PMID:24247293

  2. Homogenous photocatalytic decontamination of prion infected stainless steel and titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Berberidou, Chrysanthi; Xanthopoulos, Konstantinos; Paspaltsis, Ioannis; Lourbopoulos, Athanasios; Polyzoidou, Eleni; Sklaviadis, Theodoros; Poulios, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Prions are notorious for their extraordinary resistance to traditional methods of decontamination, rendering their transmission a public health risk. Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) via contaminated surgical instruments and medical devices has been verified both experimentally and clinically. Standard methods for prion inactivation by sodium hydroxide or sodium hypochlorite have failed, in some cases, to fully remove prion infectivity, while they are often impractical for routine applications. Prion accumulation in peripheral tissues and indications of human-to-human bloodborne prion transmission, highlight the need for novel, efficient, yet user-friendly methods of prion inactivation. Here we show both in vitro and in vivo that homogenous photocatalytic oxidation, mediated by the photo-Fenton reagent, has the potential to inactivate the pathological prion isoform adsorbed on metal substrates. Photocatalytic oxidation with 224 μg mL(-1) Fe (3+), 500 μg mL(-1) h(-1) H 2O 2, UV-A for 480 min lead to 100% survival in golden Syrian hamsters after intracranial implantation of stainless steel wires infected with the 263K prion strain. Interestingly, photocatalytic treatment of 263K infected titanium wires, under the same experimental conditions, prolonged the survival interval significantly, but failed to eliminate infectivity, a result that we correlate with the increased adsorption of PrP(Sc) on titanium, in comparison to stainless steel. Our findings strongly indicate that our, user--and environmentally--friendly protocol can be safely applied to the decontamination of prion infected stainless steel surfaces.

  3. RE-ENTERING BUILDING FOLLOWING CHEMICAL ATTACK: MEASURING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SURFACE DECONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to re-entering a building following a chemical attack, decontamination and testing must be conducted to determine whether toxic agents have been eliminated or reduced to safe levels. Building contents must also be decontaminated and tested or destroyed. Recent incidents i...

  4. RE-ENTERING BUILDING FOLLOWING CHEMICAL ATTACK: MEASURING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SURFACE DECONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to re-entering a building following a chemical attack, decontamination and testing must be conducted to determine whether toxic agents have been eliminated or reduced to safe levels. Building contents must also be decontaminated and tested or destroyed. Recent incidents i...

  5. Assessment, evaluation, and testing of technologies for environmental restoration, decontamination, and decommissioning and high level waste management. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Uzochukwu, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management objectives are being assessed and evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objectives of the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites.

  6. Bimetallic nickel-iron nanoparticles for groundwater decontamination: effect of groundwater constituents on surface deactivation.

    PubMed

    Han, Yanlai; Yan, Weile

    2014-12-01

    The incorporation of catalytic metals on iron nanoparticles to form bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) generates a class of highly reactive materials for degrading chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene, TCE) in groundwater. Successful implementation of BNPs to groundwater decontamination relies critically on the stability of surface reactive sites of BNPs in groundwater matrices. This study investigated the effect of common groundwater solutes on TCE reduction with Ni-Fe (with Ni at 2 wt.%) bimetallic nanoparticles (herein denoted as Ni-Fe BNPs). Batch experiments involving pre-exposing the nanoparticles to various groundwater solutions for 24 h followed by reactions with TCE solutions were conducted. The results suggest that the deactivation behavior of Ni-Fe BNPs differs significantly from that of the well-studied Pd-Fe BNPs. Specifically, Ni-Fe BNPs were chemically stable in pure water. Mild reduction in TCE reaction rates were observed for Ni-Fe BNPs pre-exposed to chloride (Cl(-)), bicarbonate (HCO3(-)), sulfite (SO3(2-)) and humic acid solutions. Nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)) and phosphate (HPO4(2-)) may cause moderate to severe deactivation at elevated concentrations (>1 mM). Product analysis and surface chemistry investigations using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS) reveal that NO3(-) decreased particle reactivity mainly due to progressive formation of passivating oxides, whereas SO4(2-) and phosphate elicited rapid deactivation as a result of specific poisoning of the surface nickel sites. At similar levels, phosphate is the most potent deactivation agent among the solutes examined in this study. While our findings point out the desirable quality of Ni-Fe nanoparticles, particularly their greater electrochemical stability compared to Pd-Fe BNPs, its susceptibility to chemical poisoning at high levels of complexing ligands is also noted. Groundwater chemistry is therefore an important factor to consider when

  7. Evaluation of hydrogen peroxide vapour as a method for the decontamination of surfaces contaminated with Clostridium botulinum spores.

    PubMed

    Johnston, M D; Lawson, S; Otter, J A

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) against spores of Clostridium botulinum, for use as a method for decontaminating environments where this pathogen has been handled. Spores were dried onto stainless steel slides and exposed to HPV in a sealed glovebox enclosure, transferred to a quenching agent at timed intervals during the exposure period, before survivors were cultured and enumerated. D-values were calculated from graphs of log10 survivors plotted against time and were found to range from 1.41 to 4.38 min. HPV was found to be effective at deactivating spores of toxigenic Cl. botulinum, non-toxigenic Clostridium spp. and Geobacillus stearothermophilus dried onto stainless steel surfaces. HPV could be used to decontaminate cabinets and rooms where Cl. botulinum has been handled. The cycle parameters should be based on studies carried out with relevant spores of this organism, rather than based on inactivation data for G. stearothermophilus spores, which have been used in the past as a standard biological challenge for disinfection and sterilisation procedures. HPV could provide an attractive alternative to other decontamination methods, as it was rapid, residue-free and did not give rise to the health and safety concerns associated with other gaseous decontamination systems.

  8. Decontamination efficacy of antiseptic agents on in vivo grown biofilms on rough titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sennhenn-Kirchner, Sabine; Wolff, Nadine; Klaue, Sören; Mergeryan, Hamparsum; Borg-von Zepelin, Margarete

    2009-01-01

    Four common antimicrobial agents were evaluated for their efficacy in reduction of aerobic bacteria intraorally grown in biofilms on rough titanium samples. The solutions investigated contained chlorhexidine, essential oil, octenidine, or citric acid. Twenty volunteers wore splints with titanium sleeves intraorally for 10 days. Following irrigation with the antiseptics, the sleeves were removed and biofilm samples were taken by swabbing. The bacteria were first examined microscopically by Gram staining. These samples from the surfaces were then cultured under aerobic conditions to identify and quantify the colonizing bacteria. Compared to untreated controls, significant (P < .05) differences in antimicrobial efficacy were observed for the different regimens depending on bacterial species or even the subtype. The reduction rates achieved varied from 30.0% after 2 minutes of rinsing with chlorhexidine to 99.8% after 8 minutes of rinsing with octenidine. The irrigation regimens studied in this investigation reduced bacterial colonization in a mature biofilm grown intraorally on rough titanium surfaces. The highest absolute reduction was achieved after 8 minutes, but only the 2-minute reduction rates are significant for clinical practice. Taking this into consideration, the distinct decontamination efficacy of octenidine and citric acid is evident.

  9. Metabolic reengineering invoked by microbial systems to decontaminate aluminum: implications for bioremediation technologies.

    PubMed

    Auger, Christopher; Han, Sungwon; Appanna, Varun P; Thomas, Sean C; Ulibarri, Gerardo; Appanna, Vasu D

    2013-01-01

    As our reliance on aluminum (Al) increases, so too does its presence in the environment and living systems. Although generally recognized as safe, its interactions with most living systems have been nefarious. This review presents an overview of the noxious effects of Al and how a subset of microbes can rework their metabolic pathways in order to survive an Al-contaminated environment. For instance, in order to expulse the metal as an insoluble precipitate, Pseudomonas fluorescens shuttles metabolites toward the production of organic acids and lipids that play key roles in chelating, immobilizing and exuding Al. Further, the reconfiguration of metabolic modules enables the microorganism to combat the dearth of iron (Fe) and the excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) promoted by Al toxicity. While in Rhizobium spp., exopolysaccharides have been invoked to sequester this metal, an ATPase is known to safeguard Anoxybacillus gonensis against the trivalent metal. Hydroxyl, carboxyl and phosphate moieties have also been exploited by microbes to trap Al. Hence, an understanding of the metabolic networks that are operative in microorganisms residing in polluted environments is critical in devising bioremediation technologies aimed at managing metal wastes. Metabolic engineering is essential in elaborating effective biotechnological processes to decontaminate metal-polluted surroundings.

  10. Composition of CBRN Decontamination Effluent and Development of Surrogate Mixtures for Testing Effluent Treatment Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    ER D C/ EL S R -1 6 -2 Composition of CBRN Decontamination Effluent and Development of Surrogate Mixtures for Testing Effluent...ERDC/EL SR-16-2 July 2016 Composition of CBRN Decontamination Effluent and Development of Surrogate Mixtures for Testing Effluent Treatment...there has been an absence of CBRN events to collect samples for analysis; so, the best alternative is to estimate the composition and concentration

  11. ''Green'' Biopolymers for Improved Decontamination of Metals from Surfaces: Sorptive Characterization and Coating Properties.. Annual report to be submitted to DOE Program Managers for posting on web page.

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, BH

    2001-06-15

    The proposed research aims to develop a fundamental understanding of important biological and physical chemical parameters for effective decontamination of metal surfaces using environmentally benign aqueous-based biopolymer solutions. Understanding how heavy metal-chelating biopolymers coat and interact with contaminated surfaces will benefit the development of novel, safe, easy-to-apply decontamination methodologies for removal of radionuclides and heavy metals. The benefits of these methodologies will include the following: decreased exposure hazards for workers; decreased secondary waste generation; increased efficiency of decontamination; positive public appeal and development of novel, nature-friendly business opportunities; and lower cost of cleanup to the government.

  12. Fiscal year 1996 decontamination and decommissioning activities photobriefing book for the Argonne National Laboratory-East Site, Technology Development Division, Waste Management Program, Decontamination and Decommissioning Projects Department

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The Photobriefing Book describes the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Program at the Argonne National Laboratory-East Site (ANL-E) near Lemont, Illinois. This book summarizes current D and D projects, reviews fiscal year (FY) 1996 accomplishments, and outlines FY 1997 goals. A section on D and D Technology Development provides insight on new technologies for D and D developed or demonstrated at ANL-E. Past projects are recapped and upcoming projects are described as Argonne works to accomplish its commitment to, ``Close the Circle on the Splitting of the Atom.`` Finally, a comprehensive review of the status and goals of the D and D Program is provided to give a snap-shot view of the program and the direction it`s taking as it moves into FY 1997. The D and D projects completed to date include: Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility; East Area Surplus Facilities; Experimental Boiling Water Reactor; M-Wing Hot Cell Facilities; Plutonium Gloveboxes; and Fast Neutron Generator.

  13. Surface decontamination using a teleoperated vehicle and Kelly spray/vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.; Dyches, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    A commercial teleoperated wheeled vehicle was fitted with a modified commercial spray/vacuum decontamination system to allow floor and wall decontamination of an existing process room in one of the chemical separations areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Custom end-of-arm tooling was designed to provide sufficient compliance for routine cleaning operations. An operator console was designed to allow complete control of the vehicle base and are movements as well as viewing operations via multiple television monitors. 3 refs.

  14. Surface decontamination using a teleoperated vehicle and Kelly spray/vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.; Dyches, G.M.

    1990-12-31

    A commercial teleoperated wheeled vehicle was fitted with a modified commercial spray/vacuum decontamination system to allow floor and wall decontamination of an existing process room in one of the chemical separations areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Custom end-of-arm tooling was designed to provide sufficient compliance for routine cleaning operations. An operator console was designed to allow complete control of the vehicle base and are movements as well as viewing operations via multiple television monitors. 3 refs.

  15. Effect of prion decontamination protocols on nickel-titanium rotary surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, David; Peters, Ove A

    2007-04-01

    Decontamination of instruments is a prerequisite for their potential reuse but may affect surface integrity. Hence, the effect of prion removal protocols on 7 brands of nickel-titanium files was investigated. Baseline debris scores were determined under magnification after staining with van Gieson's solution. After shaping root canals in vitro, rotaries were mechanically and ultrasonically cleaned followed by immersion for 24 hours in 2 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 6 M CH(5)N(3), or 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); control files were stored dry. After sterilization, files were again stained and evaluated. Two of seven file brands demonstrated significantly higher baseline debris scores compared to final scores. Uniformly, debris could not be completely removed; there were no significant differences among groups. After immersion in NaOCl, 27.8% of instruments showed corrosion; however, no deterioration after immersion in the other solutions was found in the other groups. Regarding corrosion, no significant difference was found between brands. Based on these findings, single use of nickel-titanium rotaries appears beneficial.

  16. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt - Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies

    PubMed Central

    Belondrade, Maxime; Nicot, Simon; Béringue, Vincent; Coste, Joliette; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bougard, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA). This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10−8 brain dilution) of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions. PMID:26800081

  17. Long lasting decontamination foam

    DOEpatents

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Peterman, Dean R.; Tripp, Julia L.; Cooper, David C.; Wright, Karen E.

    2010-12-07

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  18. Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation and Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith; Watson, Annetta Paule; Hauschild, Veronique; Munro, Nancy B; King, J.

    2007-02-01

    The decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWA) from structures, environmental media, and even personnel has become an area of particular interest in recent years due to increased homeland security concerns. In addition to terrorist attacks, scenarios such as accidental releases of CWA from U.S. stockpile sites or from historic, buried munitions are also subjects for response planning. To facilitate rapid identification of practical and effective decontamination approaches, this paper reviews pathways of CWA degradation by natural means as well as those resulting from deliberately applied solutions and technologies; these pathways and technologies are compared and contrasted. We then review various technologies, both traditional and recent, with some emphasis on decontamination materials used for surfaces that are difficult to clean. Discussion is limited to the major threat CWA, namely sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide), VX (O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate), and the G-series nerve agents. The principal G-agents are GA (tabun, ethyl N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate), GB (sarin, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), and GD (soman, pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate). The chemical decontamination pathways of each agent are outlined, with some discussion of intermediate and final degradation product toxicity. In all cases, and regardless of the CWA degradation pathway chosen for decontamination, it will be necessary to collect and analyze pertinent environmental samples during the treatment phase to confirm attainment of clearance levels.

  19. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

  20. Aspects of decontamination of ivermectin and praziquantel from environmental waters using advanced oxidation technology.

    PubMed

    Havlíková, Lucie; Šatínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr

    2016-02-01

    Recently performed environmental risk assessments of ivermectin demonstrated the need to complete the information regarding the fate of ivermectin in environment. There is also a lack of information concerning the fate and stability of praziquantel. The forced degradation study and photocatalytic degradation pathways in aqueous TiO2 suspensions of the two anthelmintics ivermectin and praziquantel were investigated and compared. The degradation efficiency increased for both compounds with the increase in the TiO2 concentration from 0.25 to 2.00 g L(-1), and then remained constant. The estimated k-values were from 0.36 h(-1) to 0.64 h(-1) for IVE and from 0.29 h(-1) to 0.47 h(-1) for PZQ, respectively. The degradation rate was not significantly impacted by the change of the pH value (pH 3, 5, 7, and 9) at 2.0 g L(-1) of TiO2. The photo degradation was about 90% for both compounds after 5 h of irradiation and it was significantly inhibited in the presence of iodide anion and isopropyl alcohol, which indicated, that hydroxyl radicals as well as holes contributed to the degradation of both anthelmintics. The contribution of hydroxyl radicals and holes was 92.1% for IVE and 93.2% for PZQ, respectively. Photocatalytic process of ivermectin resulted in three degradation intermediates; another two were formed during acidic and basic hydrolysis. Praziquantel underwent degradation to six degradation intermediates; four of them were formed under photocatalytic irradiation. The intermediates were identified using UHPLC-MS/MS. UV/TiO2 photolysis has been found as an effective advanced oxidation technology for the decontamination of ivermectin and praziquantel.

  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 1, Technology Evaluation: Part A, Decontamination and Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Strategic Roadmap for the Oak Ridge Reservation is a generalized planning document that identifies broad categories of issues that keep ORNL outside full compliance with the law and other legally binding agreements. Possible generic paths to compliance, issues, and the schedule for resolution of the issues one identified. The role of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) is then to identify specific site issues (problems), identify specific technologies that can be brought to bear on the issues, and assess the current status and readiness of these remediation technologies within the constraints of the schedule commitment. Regulatory requirements and commitments contained in the Strategic Roadmap for the Oak Ridge Reservation are also included in the TLD as constraints to the application of immature technological solutions. Some otherwise attractive technological solutions may not be employed because they may not be deployable on the schedule enumerated in the regulatory agreements. The roadmap for ORNL includes a list of 46 comprehensive logic diagrams for WM of low-level, radioactive-mixed, hazardous, sanitary and industrial. and TRU waste. The roadmapping process gives comparisons of the installation as it exists to the way the installation should exist under full compliance. The identification of the issues is the goal of roadmapping. This allows accurate and timely formulation of activities.

  2. Evaluation of decontamination efficacy of cleaning solutions on stainless steel and glass surfaces contaminated by 10 antineoplastic agents.

    PubMed

    Queruau Lamerie, Thomas; Nussbaumer, Susanne; Décaudin, Bertrand; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine; Goossens, Jean-François; Bonnabry, Pascal; Odou, Pascal

    2013-05-01

    The handling of antineoplastic agents results in chronic surface contamination that must be minimized and eliminated. This study was designed to assess the potential of several chemical solutions to decontaminate two types of work surfaces that were intentionally contaminated with antineoplastic drugs. A range of solutions with variable physicochemical properties such as their hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance, oxidizing power, desorption, and solubilization were tested: ultrapure water, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, sodium hypochlorite, and surfactants such as dishwashing liquid (DWL), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Tween 40, and Span 80. These solutions were tested on 10 antineoplastic drugs: cytarabine, gemcitabine, methotrexate, etoposide phosphate, irinotecan, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, doxorubicin, epirubicin, and vincristine. To simulate contaminated surfaces, these molecules (200ng) were deliberately spread onto two types of work surfaces: stainless steel and glass. Recovered by wiping with a specific aqueous solvent (acetonitrile/HCOOH; 20/0.1%) and an absorbent wipe (Whatman 903®), the residual contamination was quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry. To compare all tested cleaning solutions, a performance value of effectiveness was determined from contamination residues of the 10 drugs. Sodium hypochlorite showed the highest overall effectiveness with 98% contamination removed. Ultrapure water, isopropyl alcohol/water, and acetone were less effective with effectiveness values of 76.8, 80.7, and 40.4%, respectively. Ultrapure water was effective on most hydrophilic molecules (97.1% for cytarabine), while on the other hand, isopropyl alcohol/water (70/30, vol/vol) was effective on the least hydrophilic ones (85.2% for doxorubicin and 87.8% for epirubicin). Acetone had little effect, whatever the type of molecule. Among products containing surfactants, DWL was found effective (91.5%), but its formulation

  3. Gaseous decontamination treatments of food and food environments and emerging technologies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of gaseous sanitation treatments for decontamination of foods and food processing facilities show promise. Gases can penetrate into crevices and niches in foods and in facilities where entrapped microbes could be missed by conventional techniques of cleaning and sanitization. Many of these...

  4. Temperature changes at the implant-bone interface during simulated surface decontamination with an Er:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Kreisler, Matthias; Al Haj, Haitham; d'Hoedt, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated temperature changes at the implant-bone interface during simulated implant surface decontamination with an Er:YAG laser. Stepped cylinder implants with three different surfaces (titanium plasma sprayed, sandblasted and acid etched, and hydroxyapatite coated) were placed in bone blocks cut from freshly resected pig femurs. An artificial periimplant bone defect with a size of 6 mm2 provided access for laser irradiation in the coronal third of the implant. A 540-pm periimplantitis application tip was used at a distance of 0.5 mm from the implant surface. Pulse energy was varied between 60 and 120 mJ at 10 pps. The bone block was placed into a 37 degrees C water bath to simulate in vivo thermal conductivity and diffusitivity of heat. K-type thermocouples connected to a digital meter were used to register temperature changes at three levels of the periimplant bone. The temperature at the implant-bone interface did not exceed 47 degrees C after 120 seconds of continuing laser irradiation. Temperature elevations were significantly higher at the hydroxyapatite-coated implants than in the two titanium surface groups (P < .001). Decontamination of implant surfaces by means of the Er:YAG laser did not excessively heat the periimplant bone within the energy range investigated. This technique therefore seems clinically safe, at least when used with the surfaces studied.

  5. A new dry-surface biofilm model: An essential tool for efficacy testing of hospital surface decontamination procedures.

    PubMed

    Almatroudi, Ahmad; Hu, Honghua; Deva, Anand; Gosbell, Iain B; Jacombs, Anita; Jensen, Slade O; Whiteley, Greg; Glasbey, Trevor; Vickery, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The environment has been shown to be a source of pathogens causing infections in hospitalised patients. Incorporation of pathogens into biofilms, contaminating dry hospital surfaces, prolongs their survival and renders them tolerant to normal hospital cleaning and disinfection procedures. Currently there is no standard method for testing efficacy of detergents and disinfectants against biofilm formed on dry surfaces. The aim of this study was to develop a reproducible method of producing Staphylococcus aureus biofilm with properties similar to those of biofilm obtained from dry hospital clinical surfaces, for use in efficacy testing of decontamination products. The properties (composition, architecture) of model biofilm and biofilm obtained from clinical dry surfaces within an intensive care unit were compared. The CDC Biofilm Reactor was adapted to create a dry surface biofilm model. S. aureus ATCC 25923 was grown on polycarbonate coupons. Alternating cycles of dehydration and hydration in tryptone soy broth (TSB) were performed over 12 days. Number of biofilm bacteria attached to individual coupons was determined by plate culture and the coefficient of variation (CV%) calculated. The DNA, glycoconjugates and protein content of the biofilm were determined by analysing biofilm stained with SYTO 60, Alexa-488-labelled Aleuria aurantia lectin and SyproOrange respectively using Image J and Imaris software. Biofilm architecture was analysed using live/dead staining and confocal microscopy (CM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Model biofilm was compared to naturally formed biofilm containing S. aureus on dry clinical surfaces. The CDC Biofilm reactor reproducibly formed a multi-layered, biofilm containing about 10(7) CFU/coupon embedded in thick extracellular polymeric substances. Within run CV was 9.5% and the between run CV was 10.1%. Protein was the principal component of both the in vitro model biofilm and the biofilms found on clinical surfaces. Continued

  6. DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Weger, Hans, Ph.D.; Kodanda, Raja Tilek Meruva; Mazumdar, Anindra; Srivastava, Rajiv Ph.D.; Ebadian, M.A. Ph.D.

    2003-02-27

    Four hand-held tools were tested for failed high-level waste melter decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The forces felt by the tools during operation were measured using a tri-axial accelerometer since they will be operated by a remote manipulator. The efficiency of the tools was also recorded. Melter D&D consists of three parts: (1) glass fracturing: removing from the furnace the melted glass that can not be poured out through normal means, (2) glass cleaning: removing the thin layer of glass that has formed over the surface of the refractory material, and (3) K-3 refractory breakup: removing the K-3 refractory material. Surrogate glass, from a formula provided by the Savannah River Site, was melted in a furnace and poured into steel containers. K-3 refractory material, the same material used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility, was utilized for the demonstrations. Four K-3 blocks were heated at 1150 C for two weeks with a glass layer on top to simulate the hardened glass layer on the refractory surface in the melter. Tools chosen for the demonstrations were commonly used D&D tools, which have not been tested specifically for the different aspects of melter D&D. A jackhammer and a needle gun were tested for glass fracturing; a needle gun and a rotary grinder with a diamond face wheel (diamond grinder) were tested for glass cleaning; and a jackhammer, diamond grinder, and a circular saw with a diamond blade were tested for refractory breakup. The needle gun was not capable of removing or fracturing the surrogate glass. The diamond grinder only had a removal rate of 3.0 x 10-4 kg/s for K-3 refractory breakup and needed to be held firmly against the material. However, the diamond grinder was effective for glass cleaning, with a removal rate of 3.9 cm2/s. The jackhammer was successful in fracturing glass and breaking up the K-3 refractory block. The jackhammer had a glass-fracturing rate of 0.40 kg/s. The jackhammer split the K-3 refractory block into two

  7. Rapid Determination of Endospore Viability by Hyperspectral Reflectance Following Surface Decontamination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    metabolic activity of endospores makes determining their viability very difficult. Bacterial endospores have extreme tolerance to sterilization and...Alexandria, VA ABSTRACT Bacterial spores, or endospores, such as those of Bacillus anthracis, are an asymmetrical threat. Decontamination...differentiate live (viable) from dead (non-viable) bacterial endospores are lacking. Endospores have minimal metabolic activity and withstand many

  8. Improved Technologies for Decontamination of Crated Large Metal Objects LANL Release No: LA-UR-02-0072

    SciTech Connect

    McFee, J.; Stallings, E.; Barbour, K.

    2002-02-26

    The Los Alamos Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) is identifying and demonstrating technologies to reduce the cost and risk of management of transuranic element contaminated large metal objects, i.e. gloveboxes. The previously conducted demonstrations supported characterization and ''front end'' aspects of the Los Alamos Decontamination and Volume Reduction System (DVRS) project. The first demonstration was shown to save the DVRS project approximately $200,000 per year and characterization technologies have been estimated to save DVRS a month of DVRS operation per year. In FY01 demonstrations for decontamination technologies, communication systems, and waste data collection systems have provided additional savings equivalent to another $200K per year of operation. The Los Alamos Large Scale demonstration and Deployment Project continues to provide substantial cost savings to the DVRS process in this second round of demonstrations. DVRS cost savings of $400K per year can now be counted, with additional efficiency savings of up to 30% on many tasks.

  9. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 3: Technology evaluation data sheets; Part A: Characterization, dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD uses information from the Strategic Roadmap for the Oak Ridge Reservation, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram, and a previous Hanford logic diagram. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. This report consists of the characterization and dismantlement data sheets.

  10. Development of predictive modelling approaches for surface temperature and associated microbiological inactivation during hot dry air decontamination.

    PubMed

    Valdramidis, V P; Belaubre, N; Zuniga, R; Foster, A M; Havet, M; Geeraerd, A H; Swain, M J; Bernaerts, K; Van Impe, J F; Kondjoyan, A

    2005-04-15

    This research deals with the development of predictive modelling approaches in the field of heat transfer and microbial inactivation. Upon making some backstage microbiological considerations, surface temperature predictions during hot dry air decontaminations are incorporated in a microbial inactivation model, in order to describe inactivation kinetics under realistic (time-varying) temperature conditions. In the present study, the following parts are presented. (i) First, a one-dimensional heat transfer model is developed taking into account exchanges by convection, radiation and evaporation. The model is subsequently validated on a laboratory setup and on a test rig, assuming no water activity changes. This test rig is developed for studying-at a later stage-surface pasteurisation treatment on food products with the use of hot dry air. (ii) Isothermal inactivation data of Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 have been collected and inactivation parameters are accurately estimated by using a primary and a secondary model in a global modelling approach. (iii) Microbiological considerations such as microbial growth effects during come-up times, initial temperature of inactivation, and heat resistance effects, based on experimental observations and on literature studies, are formulated in order to evaluate possible microbial effects arising under the dynamic temperature conditions modelled in step (i). (iv) Microbial inactivation simulations with the incorporation of surface temperature predictions are presented. (v) Finally, the level of the microbial decontamination in an example based on the design of an industrial installation is presented, outlining the importance of the combination of surface temperature and microbial inactivation modelling approaches.

  11. Decontamination performance of selected in situ technologies for jet fuel contamination. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Chesley, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    Specific study of jet fuel is warranted because of the quantitive and qualitative component differences between jet fuel and other hydrocarbon fuels. Quantitatively, jet fuel contains a larger aliphatic or saturate fraction and a smaller aromatic fraction than other fuels (i.e. heating oil and diesel oil) in the medium-boiling-point-distillate class of fuels. Since the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of fuel are not equally susceptible to biodegradation, jet fuel decontamination using biodegradation may be different from other fuels.

  12. Contaminant Organic Complexes: Their Structure and Energetics in Surface Decontamination Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Satish C. B. Myneni

    2005-12-13

    Siderophores are biological macromolecules (400-2000 Da) released by bacteria in iron limiting situations to sequester Fe from iron oxyhydroxides and silicates in the natural environment. These molecules contain hydroxamate and phenolate functional groups, and exhibit very high affinity for Fe{sup 3+}. While several studies were conducted to understand the behavior of siderophores and their application to the metal sequestration and mineral dissolution, only a few of them have examined the molecular structure of siderophores and their interactions with metals and mineral surfaces in aqueous solutions. Improved understanding of the chemical state of different functional moieties in siderophores can assist in the application of these biological molecules in actinide separation, sequestration and decontamination processes. The focus of our research group is to evaluate the (a) functional group chemistry of selected siderophores and their metal complexes in aqueous solutions, and (b) the nature of siderophore interactions at the mineral-water interfaces. We selected desferrioxamine B (desB), a hydroxamate siderophore, and its small structural analogue, acetohydroxamic acid (aHa), for this investigation. We examined the functional group chemistry of these molecules as a function of pH, and their complexation with aqueous and solid phase Fe(III). For solid phase Fe, we synthesized all naturally occurring Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides (goethite, lepidocrocite, akaganeite, feroxyhite) and hematite. We also synthesized Fe-oxides (goethite and hematite) of different sizes to evaluate the influence of particle size on mineral dissolution kinetics. We used a series of molecular techniques to explore the functional group chemistry of these molecules and their complexes. Infrared spectroscopy is used to specifically identify the variations in oxime group as a function of pH and Fe(III) complexation. Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used to evaluate the nature of hydroxamate binding in

  13. Controlling hospital-acquired infection: focus on the role of the environment and new technologies for decontamination.

    PubMed

    Dancer, Stephanie J

    2014-10-01

    There is increasing interest in the role of cleaning for managing hospital-acquired infections (HAI). Pathogens such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multiresistant Gram-negative bacilli, norovirus, and Clostridium difficile persist in the health care environment for days. Both detergent- and disinfectant-based cleaning can help control these pathogens, although difficulties with measuring cleanliness have compromised the quality of published evidence. Traditional cleaning methods are notoriously inefficient for decontamination, and new approaches have been proposed, including disinfectants, steam, automated dispersal systems, and antimicrobial surfaces. These methods are difficult to evaluate for cost-effectiveness because environmental data are not usually modeled against patient outcome. Recent studies have reported the value of physically removing soil using detergent, compared with more expensive (and toxic) disinfectants. Simple cleaning methods should be evaluated against nonmanual disinfection using standardized sampling and surveillance. Given worldwide concern over escalating antimicrobial resistance, it is clear that more studies on health care decontamination are required. Cleaning schedules should be adapted to reflect clinical risk, location, type of site, and hand touch frequency and should be evaluated for cost versus benefit for both routine and outbreak situations. Forthcoming evidence on the role of antimicrobial surfaces could supplement infection prevention strategies for health care environments, including those targeting multidrug-resistant pathogens.

  14. Controlling Hospital-Acquired Infection: Focus on the Role of the Environment and New Technologies for Decontamination

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY There is increasing interest in the role of cleaning for managing hospital-acquired infections (HAI). Pathogens such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), multiresistant Gram-negative bacilli, norovirus, and Clostridium difficile persist in the health care environment for days. Both detergent- and disinfectant-based cleaning can help control these pathogens, although difficulties with measuring cleanliness have compromised the quality of published evidence. Traditional cleaning methods are notoriously inefficient for decontamination, and new approaches have been proposed, including disinfectants, steam, automated dispersal systems, and antimicrobial surfaces. These methods are difficult to evaluate for cost-effectiveness because environmental data are not usually modeled against patient outcome. Recent studies have reported the value of physically removing soil using detergent, compared with more expensive (and toxic) disinfectants. Simple cleaning methods should be evaluated against nonmanual disinfection using standardized sampling and surveillance. Given worldwide concern over escalating antimicrobial resistance, it is clear that more studies on health care decontamination are required. Cleaning schedules should be adapted to reflect clinical risk, location, type of site, and hand touch frequency and should be evaluated for cost versus benefit for both routine and outbreak situations. Forthcoming evidence on the role of antimicrobial surfaces could supplement infection prevention strategies for health care environments, including those targeting multidrug-resistant pathogens. PMID:25278571

  15. Laser decontamination: A new strategy for facility decommissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, H. M.; Lipert, R. J.; Hamrick, Y. M.; Bayrakal, S.; Gaul, K.; Davis, B.; Baldwin, D. P.; Edelson, M. C.

    Lasers can be employed to remove both surface and bulk contamination from metals. Experiments demonstrate that approximately 5 microns can be removed from an Al surface by one powerful laser pulse. Focusing with cylindrical lenses is shown to result in good surface coverage and reduced surface redeposition. High-resolution laser spectroscopy in a small atomic beam device is demonstrated and discussions of bulk decontamination by AVLIS-like methods are described. A plan for estimating the cost-effectiveness of laser decontamination technology is discussed.

  16. A survey of decontamination processes applicable to DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this survey was to select an appropriate technology for in situ decontamination of equipment interiors as part of the decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities. This selection depends on knowledge of existing chemical decontamination methods. This report provides an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. According to available information, aqueous systems are probably the most universally used method for decontaminating and cleaning metal surfaces. We have subdivided the technologies, on the basis of the types of chemical solvents, into acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and miscellaneous systems. Two miscellaneous chemical decontamination methods (electrochemical processes and foam and gel systems) are also described. A concise technical description of various processes is given, and the report also outlines technical considerations in the choice of technologies, including decontamination effectiveness, waste handing, fields of application, and the advantages and limitations in application. On the basis of this survey, six processes were identified for further evaluation. 144 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Fiscal years 1993 and 1994 decontamination and decommissioning activities photobriefing book for the Argonne National Laboratory-East Site, Technology Development Division, Decontamination and Decommissioning Projects Department

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This photobriefing book describes the ongoing decontamination and decommissioning projects at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)-East Site near Lemont, Illinois. The book is broken down into three sections: introduction, project descriptions, and summary. The introduction elates the history and mission of the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Projects Department at ANL-East. The second section describes the active ANL-East D and D projects, giving a project history and detailing fiscal year (FY) 1993 and FY 1994 accomplishments and FY 1995 goals. The final section summarizes the goals of the D and D Projects Department and the current program status. The D/D projects include the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor, Chicago Pile-5 Reactor, that cells, and plutonium gloveboxes. 73 figs.

  18. Effectiveness and reaction networks of H2O2 vapor with NH3 gas for decontamination of the toxic warfare nerve agent, VX on a solid surface.

    PubMed

    Gon Ryu, Sam; Wan Lee, Hae

    2015-01-01

    The nerve agent, O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) must be promptly eliminated following its release into the environment because it is extremely toxic, can cause death within a few minutes after exposure, acts through direct skin contact as well as inhalation, and persists in the environment for several weeks after release. A mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas was examined as a decontaminant for the removal of VX on solid surfaces at ambient temperature, and the reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). All the VX on glass wool filter disks was found to be eliminated after 2 h of exposure to the decontaminant mixtures, and the primary decomposition product was determined to be non-toxic ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA); no toxic S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioic acid (EA-2192), which is usually produced in traditional basic hydrolysis systems, was found to be formed. However, other by-products, such as toxic O-ethyl S-vinyl methylphosphonothioate and (2-diisopropylaminoethyl) vinyl disulfide, were detected up to 150 min of exposure to the decontaminant mixture; these by-products disappeared after 3 h. The two detected vinyl byproducts were identified first in this study with the decontamination system of liquid VX on solid surfaces using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas. The detailed decontamination reaction networks of VX on solid surfaces produced by the mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas were suggested based on the reaction products. These findings suggest that the mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas investigated in this study is an efficient decontaminant mixture for the removal of VX on solid surfaces at ambient temperature despite the formation of a toxic by-product in the reaction process.

  19. Decontamination in the Aftermath of a Radiological Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassif, Jaime

    2004-05-01

    Much of the damage caused by a radiological weapon would result from long-term contamination, yet the U.S. lacks a coherent plan for cleanup in the aftermath of an attack. A rapidly implemented decontamination strategy could minimize economic damage by restoring normal activity, when possible, and could ease the cleanup process, which can become more difficult as time passes. Loose dust particles can become trapped under layers of oxidized metal and organic materials or penetrate deeper into porous surfaces, and reactive elements, such as cesium-137, chemically bind to components of glass, asphalt and concrete. Decontamination planning requires identification of appropriate existing technologies that are transferable from small-scale tasks, such as nuclear facility decommissioning, and adaptable to urban-scale operations. Applicable technologies should effectively contain and remove fixed and loose contamination with α-, β- and γ-emitters without generating large quantities of secondary waste. Development of new technologies is also necessary, particularly to improve α-detection, as is research to test existing technologies for their effectiveness in large-scale operations. These techniques will be most effective if integrated into a broad strategy that identifies appropriate exposure limits, prioritizes decontamination tasks and assigns authority and responsibility for performing these tasks. This talk will address existing decontamination thresholds and suggest ways to modify them and will discuss appropriate, existing technologies that can decontaminate to the required levels.

  20. Appropriate technology for rural India - solar decontamination of water for emergency settings and small communities.

    PubMed

    Kang, Gagandeep; Roy, Sheela; Balraj, Vinohar

    2006-09-01

    A commercial solar water heating system was evaluated for its effectiveness in decontaminating drinking water with a view to use in emergency situations. A total of 18 seeding experiments carried out over 6 months with 10(5) to 10(7)Escherichia coli/ml showed that the solar heater produced 125 l of bacteriologically safe water in 4 h when the ambient temperature was above 30 degrees C, with a holding time of at least 2 h. The solar water heating system is inexpensive, easy to transport and set up and could provide safer drinking water for 50 people a day. It would be effective in the decrease and prevention of waterborne disease in emergency situations, and is appropriate for use in small communities.

  1. Laser decontamination and decomposition of PCB-containing paint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthofer, A.; Kögler, P.; Friedrich, C.; Lippmann, W.; Hurtado, A.

    2017-01-01

    Decontamination of concrete surfaces contaminated with paint containing polychlorinated biphenyls is an elaborate and complex task that must be performed within the scope of nuclear power plant dismantling as well as conventional pollutant cleanup in buildings. The state of the art is mechanical decontamination, which generates dust as well as secondary waste and is both dangerous and physically demanding. Moreover, the ablated PCB-containing paint has to be treated in a separate process step. Laser technology offers a multitude of possibilities for contactless surface treatment with no restoring forces and a high potential for automation. An advanced experimental setup was developed for performing standard laser decontamination investigations on PCB-painted concrete surfaces. As tested with epoxy paints, a high-power diode laser with a laser power of 10 kW in continuous wave (CW) mode was implemented and resulted in decontamination of the concrete surfaces as well as significant PCB decomposition. The experimental results showed PCB removal of 96.8% from the concrete surface and PCB decomposition of 88.8% in the laser decontamination process. Significant PCDD/F formation was thereby avoided. A surface ablation rate of approx. 7.2 m2/h was realized.

  2. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOEpatents

    Gentile, Charles A. , Guttadora, Gregory L. , Parker, John J.

    2006-02-07

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  3. Cold plasma rapid decontamination of food contact surfaces contaminated with Salmonella biofilms.

    PubMed

    Niemira, Brendan A; Boyd, Glenn; Sites, Joseph

    2014-05-01

    Cross-contamination of foods from persistent pathogen reservoirs is a known risk factor in processing environments. Industry requires a rapid, waterless, zero-contact, chemical-free method for removing pathogens from food contact surfaces. Cold plasma was tested for its ability to inactivate Salmonella biofilms. A 3-strain Salmonella culture was grown to form adherent biofilms for 24, 48, or 72 h on a test surface (glass slides). These were placed on a conveyor belt and passed at various line speeds to provide exposure times of 5, 10, or 15 s. The test plate was either 5 or 7.5 cm under a plasma jet emitter operating at 1 atm using filtered air as the feed gas. The frequency of high-voltage electricity was varied from 23 to 48 kHz. At the closer spacing (5 cm), cold plasma reduced Salmonella biofilms by up to 1.57 log CFU/mL (5 s), 1.82 log CFU/mL (10 s), and 2.13 log CFU/mL (15 s). Increasing the distance to 7.5 cm generally reduced the efficacy of the 15 s treatment, but had variable effects on the 5 and 10 s treatments. Variation of the high-voltage electricity had a greater effect on 10 and 15 s treatments, particularly at the 7.5 cm spacing. For each combination of time, distance, and frequency, Salmonella biofilms of 24, 48, and 72 h growth responded consistently with each other. The results show that short treatments with cold plasma yielded up to a 2.13 log reduction of a durable form of Salmonella contamination on a model food contact surface. This technology shows promise as a possible tool for rapid disinfection of materials associated with food processing. Pathogens such as Salmonella can form chemical-resistant biofilms, making them difficult to remove from food contact surfaces. A 15 s treatment with cold plasma reduced mature Salmonella biofilms by up to 2.13 log CFU/mL (99.3%). This contact-free, waterless method uses no chemical sanitizers. Cold plasma may therefore have a practical application for conveyor belts, equipment, and other food contact

  4. Test methods and response surface models for hot, humid air decontamination of materials contaminated with dirty spores of Bacillus anthracis ∆Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam.

    PubMed

    Buhr, T L; Young, A A; Barnette, H K; Minter, Z A; Kennihan, N L; Johnson, C A; Bohmke, M D; DePaola, M; Cora-Laó, M; Page, M A

    2015-11-01

    To develop test methods and evaluate survival of Bacillus anthracis ∆Sterne or Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam on materials contaminated with dirty spore preparations after exposure to hot, humid air using response surface modelling. Spores (>7 log10 ) were mixed with humic acid + spent sporulation medium (organic debris) or kaolin (dirt debris). Spore samples were then dried on five different test materials (wiring insulation, aircraft performance coating, anti-skid, polypropylene, and nylon). Inoculated materials were tested with 19 test combinations of temperature (55, 65, 75°C), relative humidity (70, 80, 90%) and time (1, 2, 3 days). The slowest spore inactivation kinetics was on nylon webbing and/or after addition of organic debris. Hot, humid air effectively decontaminates materials contaminated with dirty Bacillus spore preparations; debris and material interactions create complex decontamination kinetic patterns; and B. thuringiensis Al Hakam is a realistic surrogate for B. anthracis. Response surface models of hot, humid air decontamination were developed which may be used to select decontamination parameters for contamination scenarios including aircraft. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Bacterial decontamination using ambient pressure nonthermal discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Birmingham, J.G.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    2000-02-01

    Atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasmas can efficiently deactivate bacteria in gases, liquids, and on surfaces, as well as can decompose hazardous chemicals. This paper focuses on the changes to bacterial spores and toxic biochemical compounds, such as mycotoxins, after their treatment in ambient pressure discharges. The ability of nonthermal plasmas to decompose toxic chemicals and deactivate hazardous biological materials has been applied to sterilizing medical instruments, ozonating water, and purifying air. In addition, the fast lysis of bacterial spores and other cells has led us to include plasma devices within pathogen detection instruments, where nucleic acids must be accessed. Decontaminating chemical and biological warfare materials from large, high value targets such as building surfaces, after a terrorist attack, are especially challenging. A large area plasma decontamination technology is described.

  6. Reactor surface contamination stabilization. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Contaminated surfaces, such as the face of a nuclear reactor, need to be stabilized (fixed) to avoid airborne contamination during decontamination and decommissioning activities, and to prepare for interim safe storage. The traditional (baseline) method of fixing the contamination has been to spray a coating on the surfaces, but ensuring complete coverage over complex shapes, such as nozzles and hoses, is difficult. The Hanford Site C Reactor Technology Demonstration Group demonstrated innovative technologies to assess stabilization properties of various coatings and to achieve complete coverage of complex surfaces on the reactor face. This demonstration was conducted in two phases: the first phase consisted of a series of laboratory assessments of various stabilization coatings on metal coupons. For the second phase, coatings that passed the laboratory tests were applied to the front face of the C Reactor and evaluated. The baseline coating (Rust-Oleum No. 769) and one of the innovative technologies did not completely cover nozzle assemblies on the reactor face, the most critical of the second-phase evaluation criteria. However, one of the innovative coating systems, consisting of a base layer of foam covered by an outer layer of a polymeric film, was successful. The baseline technology would cost approximately 33% as much as the innovative technology cost of $64,000 to stabilize an entire reactor face (196 m{sup 2} or 2116 ft{sup 2}) with 2,004 nozzle assemblies, but the baseline system failed to provide complete surface coverage.

  7. Non-destructive decontamination of building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holecek, Josef; Otahal, Petr

    2015-11-01

    For nondestructive radiation decontamination of surfaces it is necessary to use varnishes, such as ARGONNE, DG1101, DG1108, etc. This text evaluates the use of manufactured strippable coatings for radiation decontamination. To evaluate decontamination capability of such coatings the following varnishes were selected and subsequently used: AZ 1-700 and AXAL 1807S. The varnishes were tested on different building materials surfaces contaminated by short-term radioisotopes of Na-24 or La-140, in water soluble or water insoluble forms. Decontamination quality was assessed by the decontamination efficiency value, defined as the proportion of removed activity to the applied activity. It was found that decontamination efficiency of both used varnishes depends not only on the form of contaminant, but in the case of application of AXAL 1807S varnish it also depends on the method of its application on the contaminated surface. The values of the decontamination efficiency for AZ1-700 varnish range from 46% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 98% for the decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. The decontamination efficiency values determined for AXAL 1807S varnish range from 48% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 96% for decontamination of an insoluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. Comparing these values to the values given for the decontaminating varnishes we can conclude that AXAL 1807S varnish is possible to use on all materials, except highly porous materials, such as plasterboard or breeze blocks, or plastic materials. AZ 1-700 varnish can be used for all dry materials except plasterboard.

  8. Proceedings of the concrete decontamination workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.; Currier, A.J.

    1980-05-28

    Fourteen papers were presented. These papers describe concrete surface removal methods and equipment, as well as experiences in decontaminating and removing both power and experimental nuclear reactors.

  9. Decontamination of Streptococci biofilms and Bacillus cereus spores on plastic surfaces with DC and pulsed corona discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval'ová, Zuzana; Tarabová, Kataŕna; Hensel, Karol; Machala, Zdenko

    2013-02-01

    Cold air plasmas of DC and pulsed corona discharges: positive streamers and negative Trichel pulses were used for bio-decontamination of Streptococci biofilm and Bacillus cereus spores on polypropylene plastic surfaces. The reduction of bacterial population (evaluated as log10) in the biofilm on plastic surfaces treated by DC corona reached 2.4 logs with 10 min treatment time and 3.3 logs with 2 min treatment time with water spraying. The enhancement of plasma biocidal effects on the biofilm by electro-spraying of water through a hollow needle high-voltage electrode was investigated. No significant polarity effect was found with DC corona. Pulsed corona was demonstrated slightly more bactericidal for spores, especially in the negative polarity where the bacterial population reduction reached up to 2.2 logs at 10 min exposure time. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  10. Decontamination of chemical-warfare agent simulants by polymer surfaces doped with the singlet oxygen generator zinc octaphenoxyphthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Gephart, Raymond T; Coneski, Peter N; Wynne, James H

    2013-10-23

    Using reactive singlet oxygen (1O2), the oxidation of chemical-warfare agent (CWA) simulants has been demonstrated. The zinc octaphenoxyphthalocyanine (ZnOPPc) complex was demonstrated to be an efficient photosensitizer for converting molecular oxygen (O2) to 1O2 using broad-spectrum light (450-800 nm) from a 250 W halogen lamp. This photosensitization produces 1O2 in solution as well as within polymer matrices. The oxidation of 1-naphthol to naphthoquinone was used to monitor the rate of 1O2 generation in the commercially available polymer film Hydrothane that incorporates ZnOPPc. Using electrospinning, nanofibers of ZnOPPc in Hydrothane and polycarbonate were formed and analyzed for their ability to oxidize demeton-S, a CWA simulant, on the surface of the polymers and were found to have similar reactivity as their corresponding films. The Hydrothane films were then used to oxidize CWA simulants malathion, 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide (CEPS), and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES). Through this oxidation process, the CWA simulants are converted into less toxic compounds, thus decontaminating the surface using only O2 from the air and light.

  11. Atmospheric pressure argon surface discharges propagated in long tubes: physical characterization and application to bio-decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalova, Zuzana; Leroy, Magali; Jacobs, Carolyn; Kirkpatrick, Michael J.; Machala, Zdenko; Lopes, Filipa; Laux, Christophe O.; DuBow, Michael S.; Odic, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Pulsed corona discharges propagated in argon (or in argon with added water vapor) at atmospheric pressure on the interior surface of a 49 cm long quartz tube were investigated for the application of surface bio-decontamination. H2O molecule dissociation in the argon plasma generated reactive species (i.e. OH in ground and excited states) and UV emission, which both directly affected bacterial cells. In order to facilitate the evaluation of the contribution of UV radiation, a DNA damage repair defective bacterial strain, Escherichia coli DH-1, was used. Discharge characteristics, including propagation velocity and plasma temperature, were measured. Up to ~5.5 and ~5 log10 reductions were observed for E. coli DH-1 bacteria (from 106 initial load) exposed 2 cm and 44 cm away from the charged electrode, respectively, for a 20 min plasma treatment. The factors contributing to the observed bactericidal effect include desiccation, reactive oxygen species (OH) plus H2O2 accumulation in the liquid phase, and UV-B (and possibly VUV) emission in dry argon. The steady state temperature measured on the quartz tube wall did not exceeded 29 °C the contribution of heating, along with that of H2O2 accumulation, was estimated to be low. The effect of UV-B emission alone or in combination with the other stress factors of the plasma process was examined for different operating conditions.

  12. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  13. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities performed during FY98 and describes the planned activities for FY99. Accomplishments for FY98 include identifying and selecting decontamination, the screening of potential characterization technologies, development of minimum performance factors for the decontamination technology, and development and identification of Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Regulations (ARARs).

  14. The development and evaluation of radiological decontamination procedures for documents, document inks, and latent fingermarks on porous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Andrew; Colella, Michael; Evans, Tegan

    2010-05-01

    Criminal acts such as an attack utilizing a radiological dispersal device (RDD or dirty bomb), the manufacture of such a device, or the illicit trafficking of radioactive materials would warrant a criminal investigation. This could involve the collection, transportation, and analysis of radiologically contaminated trace evidence. But are law enforcement agencies and forensic scientists capable of dealing with this? This research investigates the decontamination efficacy of two decontamination techniques (chemical and physical) designed for the removal of radiological material from documents of forensic importance. The impact that these procedures have on the development of latent fingermarks and the forensic analysis of the inks on these documents is also studied. It was found that slight changes in the color and chemical composition of a variety of document inks and a destruction of fingermark ridges occurred after chemical decontamination. Physical decontamination had no impact on these parameters.

  15. The treatment of peri-implant diseases: a new approach using hybenx® as a decontaminant for implant surface and oral tissues

    PubMed Central

    LOPEZ, M.A.; BASSI, M. ANDREASI; CONFALONE, L.; SILVESTRE, F.; ARCURI, C.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Purpose The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the efficacy of HyBeNX® to decontaminate the implant surface, both in the case mucositis and severe peri-implantitis and to allow future bone regeneration. Materials and methods We describe three case reports of peri-implantitis successfully treated with HyBeNX®. In our study, we have used microbiological tests to demonstrate the efficacy of HyBeNX® in decreasing bacterial load. Results The microbiological results of the clinical cases described show that there was a reduction in the total bacterial count after treatment. Conclusions The ability of HyBeNX® to dry the surface and remove biofilm may explain the efficacy of the decontamination and subsequent clinical improvements in all three cases. PMID:28042438

  16. Decontamination of Anodized Implant Surface With Different Modalities for Peri-Implantitis Treatment: Lasers and Mechanical Debridement With Citric Acid.

    PubMed

    Htet, Moe; Madi, Marwa; Zakaria, Osama; Miyahara, Takayuki; Xin, Wang; Lin, Zayar; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Kasugai, Shohei

    2016-08-01

    Although oral rehabilitation with dental implants is a very promising and effective procedure, peri-implantitis is an emerging concern. Surgical and non-surgical methods have been applied to treat peri-implantitis together with various implant surface decontamination methods. However, there is no consensus concerning the most effective treatment for peri-implantitis. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of erbium-doped:yttrium, aluminum, and garnet (Er:YAG) laser, photodynamic therapy (PDT), and titanium bur with and without citric acid on ligature-induced peri-implantitis around an anodized implant surface. Thirty dental implants with anodized surface (3.3 × 10 mm) were installed in the mandibles of five beagle dogs. After 3 months, peri-implantitis was induced by applying cotton ligatures subgingivally. After ligature removal (baseline), the implants were divided into the following treatment groups: 1) Er:YAG laser, 2) PDT, 3) titanium bur alone, and 4) titanium bur with citric acid. Animals were sacrificed after 3 months, and clinical, radiologic, histologic, and histomorphometric evaluations were conducted for all treatment modalities. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test. A value of P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The titanium bur with citric acid group exhibited statistically significantly greater improvement in vertical bone height than the Er:YAG laser group and significantly better bone-to-implant contact than the PDT group and the bur-alone group. Within the limits of the study, the combination of mechanical and chemical treatment proved to be the most effective treatment for disinfection of the anodized implant surface.

  17. Decontamination of large components-test case

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, A.; Bosco, B.

    1996-12-31

    The rising per-cubic-foot burial costs, together with the trend toward standardized above-ground burial sites, provides the basis for seeking an alternative to direct burial of large components. Large contaminated components such as steam generators can be safely dismantled and decontaminated for free release, metals recycle, and volume reduction. This grand-scale disposal technology will prove to be an economical and ecological alternative to direct burial or interim storage. Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) in Bolton, operators and decommissioners of the Yankee Nuclear Power Station in Rowe, Massachusetts, has teamed with Frank W Hake Associates in Memphis, TN, to decontaminate a large component as a test case. The large component is YAEC`s reactor pressure vessel head (RPVH). The 79 100 lb RPVH is surface contaminated with 0.7 Ci (1500 mR/h contact) resulting from 32 yr of operating in a 2000 psi, 530{degrees}F pressurized water reactor environment.

  18. Surface decontamination for blister agents Lewisite, sulfur mustard and agent yellow, a Lewisite and sulfur mustard mixture.

    PubMed

    Stone, Harry; See, David; Smiley, Autumn; Ellingson, Anthony; Schimmoeller, Jessica; Oudejans, Lukas

    2016-08-15

    Sulfur mustard (HD) and Lewisite (L) are blister agents that have a high potential for terrorist use; Agent Yellow (HL) is the eutectic mixture of HD and L. Bench-scale testing was used to determine the residual amount of these chemical warfare agents remaining on three building materials (wood, metal and glass) after application of various decontaminants (household bleach, full strength and dilute; hydrogen peroxide 3% solution; and EasyDECON(®) DF200). All decontaminants reduced the amount of L recovered from coupons. Application of dilute bleach showed little or no difference compared to natural attenuation in the amount of HD recovered from coupons. Full-strength bleach was the most effective of four decontaminants at reducing the amount of HD from coupons. Hydrogen peroxide (3% solution) and DF200 did decrease the amount of HD recovered from coupons more than natural attenuation (except DF200 against HD on metal), but substantial amounts of HD remained on some materials. Toxic HD by-products were generated by hydrogen peroxide treatment. The effectiveness of decontaminants was found to depend on agent, material, and decontaminant. Increased decontaminant reaction time (60min rather than 30min) did not significantly increase effectiveness.

  19. Decontamination of surgical instruments from prion proteins: in vitro studies on the detachment, destabilization and degradation of PrPSc bound to steel surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lemmer, Karin; Mielke, Martin; Pauli, Georg; Beekes, Michael

    2004-12-01

    Effective reprocessing of surgical instruments ensuring elimination of inadvertent contamination with infectious agents causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is essential for the prevention of iatrogenic transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) or its new variant (vCJD) from asymptomatic carriers. In a search for effective yet instrument-friendly and routinely applicable reprocessing procedures, we used an in vitro carrier assay to assess the decontamination activity exerted by different reagents on pathological prion protein (PrP(Sc)), the biochemical marker for TSE infectivity, attached to steel surfaces. In this assay, steel wires were contaminated with 263K scrapie brain homogenate and reprocessed for decontamination by exposure to several different test reagents. Residual contamination with PrP(Sc) and its protease-resistant core PrP27-30, still present after reprocessing on the wire surface or in the cleaning solution, was monitored by sensitive Western blot detection without or after proteinase K digestion. Using this approach, various reagents and processing conditions were screened for both their efficacy of decontamination and their active principles, such as detachment, destabilization or degradation of surface-bound prion protein. This revealed that, under appropriate conditions, relatively mild reagents such as 0.2 % SDS/0.3 % NaOH (pH 12.8), a commercially available alkaline cleaner (pH 11.9-12.2), a disinfectant containing 0.2 % peracetic acid and low concentrations of NaOH (pH 8.9) or 5 % SDS (pH 7.1) exert potent decontaminating activities on PrP(Sc)/PrP27-30 attached to steel surfaces. For in vivo validation, wires reprocessed in these reagents have been implanted into reporter animals in ongoing experiments.

  20. Determination of vapor-liquid equilibrium data and decontamination factors needed for the development of evaporator technology for use in volume reduction of radioactive waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, Stephen Ellsworth

    1993-05-01

    A program is currently in progress at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste streams. By concentrating radioactive waste streams, disposal costs can be significantly reduced. To effectively reduce the volume of waste, the evaporator must achieve high decontamination factors so that the distillate is sufficiently free of radioactive material. One technology that shows a great deal of potential for this application is being developed by LICON, Inc. In this program, Argonne plans to apply LICON`s evaporator designs to the processing of radioactive solutions. Concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of the evaporator include, criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. To design an effective process for concentrating waste streams, both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed. The key issue, however, is the high decontamination factors that have been demonstrated by this equipment. Two major contributions were made to this project. First, a literature survey was completed to obtain available solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data. Some vapor-liquid data necessary for the project but not available in the literature was obtained experimentally. Second, the decontamination factor for the evaporator was determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA).

  1. High density interconnection technology - Surface mount technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menozzi, G.

    The design features of surface mount technology (SMT) circuits for data transmission, engineering and aerospace applications are examined. Details of pin out, dual face, and interconnection techniques employed for SMT circuits mounted on plastic or ceramic leadless chip carriers are explored. The industrial processes applied to obtain the SMT boards are discussed, along with methods for quality assurance, especially for the soldered connections. SMT installations in the form of 4 Mbit multilayer circuits for an ESA project and a 32-bit mainframe computer are described.

  2. Decontamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables with cold plasma technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by foodborne pathogens has prompted research into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes. This flexible sanitizing method uses ele...

  3. Chemical Decontaminant Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-20

    structural members). (10) Carbon /stainless steels (vehicle, munitions substrate surface). (11) Brass/bronze/copper and nickel alloys (munitions substrate...construction materials (e.g., acrylic, stainless steel , glass, etc.) for containing the chemical agents, coupons, coupon holding fixture, and decontaminant(s...deliberately contaminated with chemical agent in a temperature - and humidity-controlled environment. The test fixture must include controlled doors with

  4. Decontamination of soils and materials containing medium-fired PuO{sub 2} using inhibited fluorides with polymer filtration technology

    SciTech Connect

    Temer, D.J.; Villarreal, R.; Smith, B.F.

    1997-10-01

    The decontamination of soils and/or materials from medium-fired plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) with an effective and efficient decontamination agent that will not significantly dissolve the matrix requires a new and innovative technology. After testing several decontamination agents and solutions for dissolution of medium-fired PuO{sub 2}, the most successful decontamination solutions were fluoride compounds, which were effective in breaking the Pu-oxide bond but would not extensively dissolve soil constituents and other materials. The fluoride compounds, tetra fluoboric acid (HBF{sub 4}) and hydrofluorosilicic acid (H{sub 2}F{sub 6}Si), were effective in dissolving medium-fired PuO{sub 2}, and did not seem to have the potential to dissolve the matrix. In both compounds, the fluoride atom is attached to a boron or silicon atom that inhibits the reactivity of the fluoride towards other compounds or materials containing atoms less attracted to the fluoride atom in an acid solution. Because of this inhibition of the reactivity of the fluoride ion, these compounds are termed inhibited fluoride compounds or agents. Both inhibited fluorides studied effectively dissolved medium-fired PuO{sub 2} but exhibited a tendency to not attack stainless steel or soil. The basis for selecting inhibited fluorides was confirmed during leaching tests of medium-fired PuO{sub 2} spiked into soil taken from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). When dissolved in dilute HNO{sub 3}, HCl, or HBr, both inhibited fluoride compounds were effective at solubilizing the medium-fired PuO{sub 2} from spiked INEL soil.

  5. Cold plasma rapid decontamination of food contact surfaces contaminated with Salmonella biofilms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cross-contamination of fresh produce and other foods from persistent pathogen reservoirs is a known risk factor in processing environments. Industry requires a rapid, waterless, zero-contact, chemical-free method for removing pathogens from food-contact surfaces. Cold plasma was tested for its abili...

  6. Application of slightly acidic electrolyzed water for decontamination of stainless steel surfaces in animal transport vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ni, Li; Zheng, Weichao; Zhang, Qiang; Cao, Wei; Li, Baoming

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) in reducing Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurim, Staphylococcus aureus or bacterial mixtures on stainless steel surfaces was evaluated and compared its efficacy with composite phenol solution for reducing total aerobic bacteria in animal transport vehicles. Stainless steel surfaces were inoculated with these strains individually or in a mixture, and sprayed with SAEW, composite phenol, or alkaline electrolyzed water for 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2min. The bactericidal activity of SAEW increased with increasing available chlorine concentration and spraying duration. The SAEW solution of 50mgl(-1) of available chlorine concentration showed significantly higher effectiveness than composite phenol in reducing the pathogens on stainless steel surfaces (P<0.05). Complete inactivation of pathogens on stainless steel surfaces were observed after treatment with alkaline electrolyzed water followed by SAEW at 50mgl(-1) of available chlorine concentration for 2min or alkaline electrolyzed water treatment followed by SAEW treatment at 90mgl(-1) of available chlorine concentration for 0.5min. The efficacy of SAEW in reducing total aerobic bacteria in animal transport vehicles was also determined. Vehicles in the disinfection booth were sprayed with the same SAEW, alkaline electrolyzed water and composite phenol solutions using the automatic disinfection system. Samples from vehicle surfaces were collected with sterile cotton swabs before and after each treatment. No significant differences in bactericidal efficiency were observed between SAEW and composite phenol for reducing total aerobic bacteria in the vehicles (P>0.05). SAEW was also found to be more effective when used in conjunction with alkaline electrolyzed water. Results suggest that the bactericidal efficiency of SAEW was higher than or equivalent to that of composite phenol and SAEW may be used as effective alternative for reducing microbial contamination of

  7. Proceedings: 1998 EPRI chemical decontamination conference

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    In today`s competitive environment, chemical decontamination technology has evolved to meet nuclear industry challenges to control costs and reduce outage times. EPRI`s 1998 Chemical Decontamination Conference--held May 18-19, 1998, in Greenville, South Carolina--featured the results of the first applications of the EPRI decontamination for decommissioning (DFD) process in the decommissioning of Big Rock Point and Maine Yankee plants. Also discussed in the 29 presentations were chemical decontamination progress at European and Japanese nuclear plants, recent developments and applications in the area of solvents, the real versus perceived risks that surround decontamination solvents containing oxalic acid, and the use of chemical decontamination to reduce the cost of disposing of retired components from operating plants.

  8. Flight Mechanics of Reversible Attachment Landing for Micro-Aerial Vehicles With Self-Decontaminating Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-30

    studies have revealed that flying insects execute landing maneuvers ranging in com- plexity. For example, the honeybee utilizes a very simple control...34landing gear" the honeybee is much more adept at hovering flight while the housefly has superior surface adhesion. The agility demonstrated by flying...Robotics and Automation, 1:1164-1170. Srinivasan, M. V., Zhang, S., and Chahl, J. S. (2001). Landing strategies in honeybees , and possible

  9. Self-Disinfection and Decontaminating Interior Surfaces Based on Photocatalytic Titania/Easy-Release Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 00 JAN 2002 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE...indoor air quality problems have been associated with bioaerosols of more than 60 different types . These include mainly bacteria, viruses, and fungi that...critical surface tension analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis, as well as air-impaction/collection techniques

  10. Surface-decontaminating action of glutaraldehyde in the gas-aerosol phase.

    PubMed Central

    Bovallius, A; Anäs, P

    1977-01-01

    The surface disinfectant effect of glutaraldehyde in the gas-aerosol phase was investigated at different relative humidities and temperatures. At a gas-aerosol concentration of 15 to 20 mg/m3 and a relative humidity of about 80%, glutaraldehyde had a good disinfectant effect against both vegetative bacteria (decimal reduction time, less than 5 min) and bacterial spores (decimal reduction time, less than 45 min). In spite of its low volatility, glutaraldehyde was more effective than formaldehyde when the two substances were compared on an "added amount" basis. Images PMID:410366

  11. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  12. Cold Air Plasma To Decontaminate Inanimate Surfaces of the Hospital Environment

    PubMed Central

    Claro, Tânia; O'Connor, Niall; Cafolla, Anthony A.; Stevens, Niall T.; Daniels, Stephen; Humphreys, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    The hospital environment harbors bacteria that may cause health care-associated infections. Microorganisms, such as multiresistant bacteria, can spread around the patient's inanimate environment. Some recently introduced biodecontamination approaches in hospitals have significant limitations due to the toxic nature of the gases and the length of time required for aeration. This study evaluated the in vitro use of cold air plasma as an efficient alternative to traditional methods of biodecontamination of hospital surfaces. Cultures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii were applied to different materials similar to those found in the hospital environment. Artificially contaminated sections of marmoleum, mattress, polypropylene, powder-coated mild steel, and stainless steel were then exposed to a cold air pressure plasma single jet for 30 s, 60 s, and 90 s, operating at approximately 25 W and 12 liters/min flow rate. Direct plasma exposure successfully reduced the bacterial load by log 3 for MRSA, log 2.7 for VRE, log 2 for ESBL-producing E. coli, and log 1.7 for A. baumannii. The present report confirms the efficient antibacterial activity of a cold air plasma single-jet plume on nosocomial bacterially contaminated surfaces over a short period of time and highlights its potential for routine biodecontamination in the clinical environment. PMID:24441156

  13. How Reliable Are ATP Bioluminescence Meters in Assessing Decontamination of Environmental Surfaces in Healthcare Settings?

    PubMed Central

    Omidbakhsh, Navid; Ahmadpour, Faraz; Kenny, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Background Meters based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence measurements in relative light units (RLU) are often used to rapidly assess the level of cleanliness of environmental surfaces in healthcare and other settings. Can such ATP measurements be adversely affected by factors such as soil and cleaner-disinfectant chemistry? Objective This study tested a number of leading ATP meters for their sensitivity, linearity of the measurements, correlation of the readings to the actual microbial contamination, and the potential disinfectant chemicals’ interference in their readings. Methods First, solutions of pure ATP in various concentrations were used to construct a standard curve and determine linearity and sensitivity. Serial dilutions of a broth culture of Staphylococcus aureus, as a representative nosocomial pathogen, were then used to determine if a given meter’s ATP readings correlated with the actual CFUs. Next, various types of disinfectant chemistries were tested for their potential to interfere with the standard ATP readings. Results All four ATP meters tested herein demonstrated acceptable linearity and repeatability in their readings. However, there were significant differences in their sensitivity to detect the levels of viable microorganisms on experimentally contaminated surfaces. Further, most disinfectant chemistries tested here quenched the ATP readings variably in different ATP meters evaluated. Conclusions Apart from their limited sensitivity in detecting low levels of microbial contamination, the ATP meters tested were also prone to interference by different disinfectant chemistries. PMID:24940751

  14. Decontamination of protective clothing against radioactive contamination.

    PubMed

    Vošahlíková, I; Otáhal, P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the experimental results of external surface mechanical decontamination of the studied materials forming selected suits. Seven types of personal protective suits declaring protection against radioactive aerosol contamination in different price ranges were selected for decontamination experiments. The outcome of this study is to compare the efficiency of a double-step decontamination process on various personal protective suits against radioactive contamination. A comparison of the decontamination effectiveness for the same type of suit, but for the different chemical mixtures ((140)La in a water-soluble or in a water-insoluble compound), was performed.

  15. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION OF A THERMAL DESORPTION/UV PHOTOLYSIS PROCESS FOR DECONTAMINATING SOILS CONTAINING HERBICIDE ORANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study report presents the results of laboratory and field tests on the effectiveness of a new decontamination process for soils containing 2,4-D/2,4,5-T and traces of dioxin. The process employs three operations, thermal desorption, condensation and absorp...

  16. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION OF A THERMAL DESORPTION/UV PHOTOLYSIS PROCESS FOR DECONTAMINATING SOILS CONTAINING HERBICIDE ORANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study report presents the results of laboratory and field tests on the effectiveness of a new decontamination process for soils containing 2,4-D/2,4,5-T and traces of dioxin. The process employs three operations, thermal desorption, condensation and absorp...

  17. Transfer and Decontamination of S. aureus in Transmission Routes Regarding Hands and Contact Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Arinder, Pernilla; Johannesson, Pär; Karlsson, Ingela; Borch, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene, cleaning and disinfection are pre-requirements for hygiene management in hospital settings and the food industry. In order to facilitate risk management, different contamination scenarios and interventions need to be evaluated. In the present study data on transfer rates and reductions of Staphylococcus aureus were provided in an experimental set-up using artificial skin. Using this methodology, test persons were not exposed with pathogenic bacteria. An exposure assessment model was developed and applied to evaluate different contamination routes and hygiene interventions. The transfer rates of S. aureus from inoculated VITRO-SKIN® to fomites were calculated from blotting series. The VITRO-SKIN® was more prone to spread bacteria than fomites. When different surfaces were cleaned, the reduction of S. aureus varied between <1 and 7 log CFU. It could not be concluded that a certain coupon material, cleaning agent, cleaning wipe, soiling or humidity consistently resulted in a high or low reduction of S. aureus. The reduction of S. aureus and E. coli during hand washing was evaluated on artificial skin, VITRO-SKIN®. The reduction of E. coli on VITRO-SKIN® was similar to the log reduction obtained when washing human hands. The S. aureus count on a human hand was both calculated in different scenarios describing different contamination routes starting from a contaminated hand using the exposure assessment model, and measured on an experimental setup using VITRO-SKIN® for validation. A linear relationship was obtained between the analysed level of S. aureus and the calculated level. However, the calculated levels of S. aureus on the VITRO-SKIN® in the scenarios were 1-1.5 log lower than the analysed level. One of the scenarios was used to study the effect of interventions like hand washing and cleaning of surfaces.

  18. Transfer and Decontamination of S. aureus in Transmission Routes Regarding Hands and Contact Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Arinder, Pernilla; Johannesson, Pär; Karlsson, Ingela; Borch, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene, cleaning and disinfection are pre-requirements for hygiene management in hospital settings and the food industry. In order to facilitate risk management, different contamination scenarios and interventions need to be evaluated. In the present study data on transfer rates and reductions of Staphylococcus aureus were provided in an experimental set-up using artificial skin. Using this methodology, test persons were not exposed with pathogenic bacteria. An exposure assessment model was developed and applied to evaluate different contamination routes and hygiene interventions. The transfer rates of S. aureus from inoculated VITRO-SKIN® to fomites were calculated from blotting series. The VITRO-SKIN® was more prone to spread bacteria than fomites. When different surfaces were cleaned, the reduction of S. aureus varied between <1 and 7 log CFU. It could not be concluded that a certain coupon material, cleaning agent, cleaning wipe, soiling or humidity consistently resulted in a high or low reduction of S. aureus. The reduction of S. aureus and E. coli during hand washing was evaluated on artificial skin, VITRO-SKIN®. The reduction of E. coli on VITRO-SKIN® was similar to the log reduction obtained when washing human hands. The S. aureus count on a human hand was both calculated in different scenarios describing different contamination routes starting from a contaminated hand using the exposure assessment model, and measured on an experimental setup using VITRO-SKIN® for validation. A linear relationship was obtained between the analysed level of S. aureus and the calculated level. However, the calculated levels of S. aureus on the VITRO-SKIN® in the scenarios were 1–1.5 log lower than the analysed level. One of the scenarios was used to study the effect of interventions like hand washing and cleaning of surfaces. PMID:27280772

  19. Efficacy of UV, acidified sodium hypochlorite, and mild heat for decontamination of surface and infiltrated Escherichia coli O157:H7 on green onions and baby spinach.

    PubMed

    Durak, M Zeki; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2012-07-01

    Produce-associated foodborne illnesses outbreaks have highlighted the need for more effective decontamination methods to ensure the safety of fresh produce. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the individual and combined efficacies of germicidal UV light (12.5 to 500 mJ/cm(2)), acidified sodium hypochlorite (ASC 10 to 200 ppm), and mild heat (40 to 50°C) for decontaminating green onions and baby spinach infected with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were inoculated by spot and dip inoculation methods to mimic surface and infiltrated E. coli O157:H7 contamination, respectively. In green onions and baby spinach, the individual efficacies of UV, ASC, and mild-heat treatments varied based on the produce type and contamination method. Following analysis of the efficacies of the single treatments, a combined treatment with 125 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 50°C was selected for spot-inoculated green onions, and a combined treatment with 125 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 20°C was selected for spot- and dip-inoculated baby spinach. While a >5-log reduction was achieved with the combination treatment for spot-inoculated green onions with an initial contamination level of 7.2 log CFU per spot, the same treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations below the detection limit (<1 log) on green onions spot inoculated at a lower contamination level (4.3 log CFU per spot). On spot- and dip-inoculated baby spinach, the combined treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations by 2.8 log CFU per spot and 2.6 log CFU/g, respectively. The combined treatment of 500 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 50°C selected for the decontamination of dip-inoculated green onions resulted in a 2.2-log CFU/g reduction. These findings suggest that when foodborne pathogens contaminate produce and subsequently infiltrate, attach to, or become localized into protected areas, the individual or combined applications of UV, ASC, and mild-heat treatments have limited decontamination

  20. A DECONTAMINATION PROCESS FOR METAL SCRAPS FROM THE DECOMMISSIONING OF TRR

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, T.Y.; Gan, J.S.; Lin, K.M.; Chung, Z.J.

    2003-02-27

    A decontamination facility including surface condition categorizing, blasting, chemical/electrochemical cleaning, very low radioactivity measuring, and melting, is being established at INER. The facility will go into operation by the end of 2004. The main purpose is to clean the dismantled metal wastes from the decommissioning of Taiwan Research Reactor (TRR). The pilot test shows that over 70% of low level metal waste can be decontaminated to very low activity and can be categorized as BRC (below regulatory concern) waste. All the chemical decontamination technologies applied are developed by INER. In order to reduce the secondary wastes, chemical reagents will be regenerated several times with a selective precipitation method. The exhausted chemical reagent will be solidified with INER's patented process. The total secondary waste is estimated about 0.1-0.3 wt.% of the original waste. This decontamination process is accessed to be economic and feasible.

  1. Pulsed light and antimicrobial combination treatments for surface decontamination of cheese: Favorable and antagonistic effects.

    PubMed

    Proulx, J; Sullivan, G; Marostegan, L F; VanWees, S; Hsu, L C; Moraru, C I

    2017-03-01

    Postprocessing cross-contamination of cheese can lead to both food safety issues and significant losses due to spoilage. Pulsed light (PL) treatment, consisting of short, high-energy, broad-spectrum light pulses, has been proven effective in reducing the microbial load on cheese surface. As PL treatment effectiveness is limited by light-cheese interactions, the possibility to improve its effectiveness by combining it with the antimicrobial nisin was explored. The effect of natamycin, which is added to cheeses as an antifungal agent, on PL effectiveness was also investigated. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Listeria innocua were used as challenge microorganisms. Bacterial cultures in stationary growth phase were diluted to initial inoculum levels of 5 or 7 log cfu per cheese slice. Slices of sharp white Cheddar cheese and white American singles were cut in rectangles of 2.5 × 5 cm. For cheese slices receiving antimicrobial treatment before PL, slices were dipped in natamycin or nisin, spot inoculated with 100 μL of bacterial suspension, and then treated with PL. Cheese slices receiving PL treatment before antimicrobials were spot inoculated, treated with PL, and then treated with antimicrobials. The PL fluence levels from 1.02 to 12.29 J/cm(2) were used. Survivors were enumerated by standard plate counting or the most probable number technique, as appropriate. All treatments were performed in triplicate, and the data were analyzed using a general linear model. Treatment with nisin or natamycin before PL decreased the effectiveness of PL for all bacteria tested. For instance, PL reduced P. fluorescens on Cheddar cheese by 2.19 ± 0.27 log after 6.14 J/cm(2), whereas combination treatments at the same PL fluence yielded barely 1 log reduction. Inactivation of L. innocua on Cheddar was only 0.78 ± 0.01 log when using PL after nisin, compared with a 1.30 ± 0.76 log reduction by nisin alone. This was attributed to the absorption of UV light

  2. Laser-based characterization and decontamination of contaminated facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, K.H.; Hunter, B.V.; Grace, J.E.; Pellin, M.J.; Leidich, H.F.; Kugler, T.R.

    1996-12-31

    This study examines the application of laser ablation to the characterization and decontamination of painted and unpainted concrete and metal surfaces that are typical of many facilities within the US Department of Energy complex. The utility of this promising technology is reviewed and the essential requirements for efficient ablation extracted. Recent data obtained on the ablation of painted steel surfaces and concrete are presented. The affects of beam irradiance, ablation speed and efficiency, and characteristics of the aerosol effluent are discussed. Characterization of the ablated components of the surface offers the ability of concurrent determination of the level of contamination. This concept can be applied online where the ablation endpoint can be determined. A conceptual system for the characterization and decontamination of surfaces is proposed.

  3. Industrial Hygiene Concerns during the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Lumia; C.A. Gentile

    2002-01-18

    A significant industrial hygiene concern during the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was the oxidation of the lead bricks' surface, which were utilized for radiation shielding. This presented both airborne exposure and surface contamination issues for the workers in the field removing this material. This paper will detail the various protection and control methods tested and implemented to protect the workers, including those technologies deployed to decontaminate the work surfaces. In addition, those techniques employed to recycle the lead for additional use at the site will be discussed.

  4. The feasibility study of hot cell decontamination by the PFC spray method

    SciTech Connect

    Hui-Jun Won; Chong-Hun Jung; Jei-Kwon Moon

    2008-01-15

    The characteristics of per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFC) are colorless, non-toxic, easily vaporized and nonflammable. Also, some of them are liquids of a high density, low surface tension, low latent heat and low specific heat. These particular chemical and physical properties of fluoro-organic compounds permit their use in very different fields such as electronics, medicine, tribology, nuclear and material science. The Sonatol process was developed under a contract with the DOE. The Sonatol process uses an ultrasonic agitation in a PFC solution that contains a fluorinated surfactant to remove radioactive particles from surfaces. Filtering the suspended particles allows the solutions to be reused indefinitely. They applied the Sonatol process to the decontamination of a heterogeneous legacy Pu-238 waste that exhibited an excessive hydrogen gas generation, which prevents a transportation of such a waste to a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing dry decontamination technologies applicable to a decontamination of a highly radioactive area loosely contaminated with radioactive particles. This contamination has occurred as a result of an examination of a post-irradiated material or the development of the DUPIC process. The dry decontamination technologies developed are the carbon dioxide pellet spray method and the PFC spray method. As a part of the project, PFC ultrasonic decontamination technology was developed in 2004. The PFC spray decontamination method which is based on the test results of the PFC ultrasonic method has been under development since 2005. The developed PFC spray decontamination equipment consists of four modules (spray, collection, filtration and distillation). Vacuum cup of the collection module gathers the contaminated PFC solution, then the solution is moved to the filtration module and it is recycled. After a multiple recycling of the spent PFC solution, it is purified in the distillation

  5. Vibratory finishing as a decontamination process

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, M.W.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Allen, R.P.

    1980-10-01

    The major objective of this research is to develop vibratory finishing into a large-scale decontamination technique that can economicaly remove transuranic and other surface contamination from large volumes of waste produced by the operation and decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities. The successful development and widespread application of this decontamination technique would substantially reduce the volume of waste requiring expensive geologic disposal. Other benefits include exposure reduction for decontamination personnel and reduced risk of environmental contamination. Laboratory-scale studies showed that vibratory finishing can rapidly reduce the contamination level of transuranic-contaminated stainless steel and Plexiglas to well below the 10-nCi/g limit. The capability of vibratory finishing as a decontamination process was demonstrated on a large scale. The first decontamination demonstration was conducted at the Hanford N-Reactor, where a vibratory finisher was installed to reduce personnel exposure during the summer outage. Items decontaminated included fuel spacers, process-tube end caps, process-tube inserts, pump parts, ball-channel inspection tools and miscellaneous hand tools. A second demonstration is currently being conducted in the decontamination facility at the Hanford 231-Z Building. During this demonstration, transuranic-contaminated material from decommissioned plutonium facilities is being decontaminated to <10 nCi/g to minimize the volume of material that will require geologic disposal. Items that are being decontaminated include entire glove boxes, process-hood structural material and panels, process tanks, process-tank shields, pumps, valves and hand tools used during the decommissioning work.

  6. Advanced Decontamination Technologies: Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U.

    Bacterial food-borne illnesses account for an estimated 76 million cases, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths each year in the United States (CDCP, 2005), and 5,300 food-borne outbreaks in Europe resulted in 5,330 hospitalizations and 24 deaths in 2005 (Aymerich, Picouet, & Monfort, 2008). Major food-borne pathogens of concern include Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum/perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophylia, and Bacillus cereu, and spoilage microorganisms include Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter/Moraxella, Aeromonas, Alteromonas putrefaciens, Lactobacillus, and Brochothrix thermosphecta (Mead et al., 1999).

  7. Decontamination solution development studies

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.P.; Fetrow, L.K.; Kjarmo, H.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study was conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the Hanford Grout Technology Program (HGTP). The objective of this study was to identify decontamination solutions capable of removing radioactive contaminants and grout from the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) process equipment and to determine the impact of these solutions on equipment components and disposal options. The reference grout used in this study was prepared with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) and a dry blend consisting of 40 wt % limestone flour, 28 wt % blast furnace slag, 28 wt % fly ash, and 4 wt % type I/II Portland cement.

  8. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  9. Four-year follow-up of combined surgical therapy of advanced peri-implantitis evaluating two methods of surface decontamination.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Frank; Hegewald, Andrea; John, Gordon; Sahm, Narja; Becker, Jürgen

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the impact of two surface decontamination methods on the long-term outcomes following combined surgical resective/regenerative therapy of advanced peri-implantitis lesions. Seventeen patients (n = 17 combined supra- and intrabony-defects) completed the 48 months follow-up observation following access flap surgery, granulation tissue removal and implantoplasty at bucally and supracrestally exposed implant parts. The remaining unmodified implant surface areas were randomly treated using either (i) an Er:YAG laser (ERL), or (ii) plastic curets + cotton pellets + sterile saline (CPS), and augmented with a natural bone mineral + collagen membrane. At 48 months, CPS-treated sites tended to reveal higher reductions in mean BOP (CPS: 85.2 ± 16.4% versus ERL: 71.6 ± 24.9%) and CAL values (CPS: 1.5 ± 2.0 mm versus ERL: 1.2 ± 2.0 mm) when compared with the ERL group. In both groups, clinical outcomes were not directly influenced by the initial defect configuration. The 4-year clinical outcomes obtained following combined surgical resective/regenerative therapy of advanced peri-implantitis were not influenced by the method of surface decontamination. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  11. Hard Surface Detergency. Part I. Interfacial Tensions of Candidate Surface Decontaminating Agents in Contact with Model Fluids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-23

    malathion . The effect of surfactant structure and model fluid on the adsorption process were catalogued with the aid of the Szyszkowski equation and the...the interfacial tension to low values by the surfactant when combined with the kinetic energy of the flow process assists in significant erosion of...methyl salicylate, malathion and ortho- dichlorobenzene. The interfacial tension properties of the fluids used are shown in Table 3. The surface tension

  12. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    SciTech Connect

    Charles A. Gentile; John J. Parker; Gregory L. Guttadora; Lloyd P. Ciebiera

    2002-02-11

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Tritium Systems Group has developed and fabricated an Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System (OTDS), which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination on various components and items. The system is configured to introduce gaseous ozone into a reaction chamber containing tritiated items that require a reduction in tritium surface contamination. Tritium surface contamination (on components and items in the reaction chamber) is removed by chemically reacting elemental tritium to tritium oxide via oxidation, while purging the reaction chamber effluent to a gas holding tank or negative pressure HVAC system. Implementing specific concentrations of ozone along with catalytic parameters, the system is able to significantly reduce surface tritium contamination on an assortment of expendable and non-expendable items. This paper will present the results of various experimentation involving employment of this system.

  13. Use of Er:YAG laser to decontaminate infected dental implant surface in preparation for reestablishment of bone-to-implant contact.

    PubMed

    Nevins, Myron; Nevins, Marc L; Yamamoto, Atsuhiko; Yoshino, Toshiaki; Ono, Yoshihiro; Wang, Chin-Wei; Kim, David M

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of peri-implantitis is of concern to all clinicians participating in implant dentistry. Peri-implant inflammation results in the loss of supporting bone for the implant that may or may not be accompanied by bleeding on probing and suppuration. Early diagnosis and intervention are mandated, but there is a paucity of evidence leading to the most effective therapy. There is agreement that one of the challenges in surgically treating peri-implant defects is the process of cleaning and decontaminating the implant surface, which may be contaminated by bacterial aggregates. This preclinical canine study investigates the erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser to decontaminate the complex rough surface of the implant by stripping the contaminated oxide layer for induction of hard and soft tissue adaptation to a compromised or failing implant. The results provide evidence of new bone-to-implant contact established at a level representative of the size of the defects. The soft tissues contain little or no evidence of inflammation, which can be interpreted as an arrest of the disease progression process. The results can be translated to a treatment goal of stabilizing the prognosis of an implant that has been compromised.

  14. Plasma Decontamination of Space Equipment for Planetary Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Hubertus; Barczyk, Simon; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Klaempfl, Tobias; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia; Weber, Peter

    The search for extraterrestrial life is one of the most challenging science topics for the next decades. Space missions, like ExoMars, plan to land and search for biological remnants on planets and moons in our nearby Solar system. Planetary protection regulations defined by COSPAR prevent that during the mission biological contamination of the bodies occur through the space probes. Therefore decontamination of the probes and more general space equipment is necessary before the launch. The up-to-date accepted decontamination procedure originate from the old NASA Viking missions and use dry heat (T>110°C for 30h) - a technology not well suited for sensitive equipment nowadays. We investigated in a study financed by the German Space Agency* cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) as an alternative for such decontamination. It is well known that CAP can kill bacteria or spores within seconds or minutes, respectively, if the plasma is in direct contact with the treated sample. This procedure might also be quite aggressive to the treated surface materials. Therefore, we developed an afterglow CAP device specially designed for the soft treatment of space equipment. Afterglow plasma produced by a SMD device in air is transported into a “larger” treatment chamber where the samples are positioned. It could be shown that samples of different bacteria and spores, the latter defined by COSPAR as a means to show the effectiveness of the decontamination process, positioned on different materials (steel, Teflon, quartz) could be effectively inactivated. The surface materials were investigated after the plasma treatment to identify etching or deposition problems. The afterglow in the treatment chamber could even overcome obstacles (tubes of different height and diameter) which simulate more complicated structures of the relevant surfaces. Up to now, CAP looks like a quite promising alternative to decontaminate space equipment and need to be studied in greater detail in the near future

  15. Assessing user acceptance towards automated and conventional sink use for hand decontamination using the technology acceptance model.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Carolyn H; Mackrill, Jamie B; Cain, Rebecca

    2017-04-24

    Hand hygiene (HH) prevents harmful contaminants spreading in settings including domestic, health care and food handling. Strategies to improve HH range from behavioural techniques through to automated sinks that ensure hand surface cleaning. This study aimed to assess user experience and acceptance towards a new automated sink, compared to a normal sink. An adapted version of the technology acceptance model (TAM) assessed each mode of handwashing. A within-subjects design enabled N = 46 participants to evaluate both sinks. Perceived Ease of Use and Satisfaction of Use were significantly lower for the automated sink, compared to the conventional sink (p < 0.005). Across the remaining TAM factors, there was no significant difference. Participants suggested design features including jet strength, water temperature and device affordance may improve HH technology. We provide recommendations for future HH technology development to contribute a positive user experience, relevant to technology developers, ergonomists and those involved in HH across all sectors. Practitioner Summary: The need to facilitate timely, effective hand hygiene to prevent illness has led to a rise in automated handwashing systems across different contexts. User acceptance is a key factor in system uptake. This paper applies the technology acceptance model as a means to explore and optimise the design of such systems.

  16. Temperature changes induced by 809-nm GaAlAs laser at the implant-bone interface during simulated surface decontamination.

    PubMed

    Kreisler, Matthias; Al Haj, Haitham; D'Hoedt, Bernd

    2003-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate temperature changes at the implant-bone interface during simulated implant surface decontamination with a 809-nm gallium-aluminium-arsenid (GaAlAs) semiconductor laser. Stepped cylinder implants with a diameter of 3.8 mm and a length of 11 mm with two different surfaces (sand-blasted and acid etched, and hydroxyapatite-coated) were inserted into bone blocks cut from freshly resected pig femurs. Access holes of 0.5 mm were drilled into the bone, to allow K-type thermocouples to contact periimplant bone in different parts of the cavity. An artificial periimplant bone defect provided access for laser irradiation in the coronal third. A 600-micrometer optic fiber was used at a distance of 0.5 mm from the implant surface. Power output varied between 0.5 and 2.5 W in the continuous wave mode. The bone block was placed into a 37 degrees C water bath in order to simulate in vivo thermal conductivity and diffusitivity of heat. Temperature elevations during irradiation were registered for a period of 120 s. In mean, the critical threshold of 47 degrees C was exceeded after 9.0 s at 2.5 W, 12.5 s at 2.0 W, 18.0 s at 1.5 W and 30.5 s at 1.0 W. Surface characteristics did not have a significant effect on temperature elevations. In an energy-dependent manner, implant surface decontamination with an 809-nm GaAlAs laser must be limited in time to allow the implant and bone to cool down. Clinical guidelines are presented to avoid tissue damage.

  17. Modern technologies for improving cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M

    2016-01-01

    Experts agree that careful cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces are essential elements of effective infection prevention programs. However, traditional manual cleaning and disinfection practices in hospitals are often suboptimal. This is often due in part to a variety of personnel issues that many Environmental Services departments encounter. Failure to follow manufacturer's recommendations for disinfectant use and lack of antimicrobial activity of some disinfectants against healthcare-associated pathogens may also affect the efficacy of disinfection practices. Improved hydrogen peroxide-based liquid surface disinfectants and a combination product containing peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide are effective alternatives to disinfectants currently in widespread use, and electrolyzed water (hypochlorous acid) and cold atmospheric pressure plasma show potential for use in hospitals. Creating "self-disinfecting" surfaces by coating medical equipment with metals such as copper or silver, or applying liquid compounds that have persistent antimicrobial activity surfaces are additional strategies that require further investigation. Newer "no-touch" (automated) decontamination technologies include aerosol and vaporized hydrogen peroxide, mobile devices that emit continuous ultraviolet (UV-C) light, a pulsed-xenon UV light system, and use of high-intensity narrow-spectrum (405 nm) light. These "no-touch" technologies have been shown to reduce bacterial contamination of surfaces. A micro-condensation hydrogen peroxide system has been associated in multiple studies with reductions in healthcare-associated colonization or infection, while there is more limited evidence of infection reduction by the pulsed-xenon system. A recently completed prospective, randomized controlled trial of continuous UV-C light should help determine the extent to which this technology can reduce healthcare-associated colonization and infections. In conclusion, continued efforts to

  18. Decontamination demonstration facility (D. D. F) modularization/mobility study

    SciTech Connect

    FitzPatrick, V.F.; Butts, H.L.; Moles, R.G.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1980-11-01

    The component decontamination technology, developed under the DOE sponsored TRU Waste Decontamination Program, has potential benefits to nuclear utility owners in four strategic areas: (1) Meeting ALARA Criteria for Maintenance/Operations; (2) Management of wastes and waste forms; (3) Accident Response; (4) Decommissioning. The most significant step in transferring this technology directly to the nuclear industry is embodied in the TMI Decontamination Demonstration Facility (D.D.F.).

  19. Research on chemical cleaning technology for super-smooth surface of fused silica substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Lingyan; Jin, Yuzhu; Ji, Yiqin; Tong, Yi; Wang, Fang; Liu, Tao; Wang, Lishuan

    2010-10-01

    A chemical technology for cleaning super-smooth surface, based on wet method, is put forward in order to solve the problems including that the dirt existing on the surface of optical components is difficult to remove, and the system used to estimate the surface quality is hard to establish. Firstly, in this paper, all kinds of dirt existing on optical surface and their adsorption mechanism are discussed. Secondly, a cleaning route has been designed. Thirdly, all the reagents in use are prepared and their decontamination capabilities are described. Finally, the cleaned optical components are tested. The result shows that the surface cleanliness is high, the defect density is no more than 0.7/mm2 within a certain area, and the scattering loss is no more than 20ppm.

  20. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination.

  1. Decontamination and disposal of PCB wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination and disposal processes for PCB wastes are reviewed. Processes are classed as incineration, chemical reaction or decontamination. Incineration technologies are not limited to the rigorous high temperature but include those where innovations in use of oxident, heat transfer and residue recycle are made. Chemical processes include the sodium processes, radiant energy processes and low temperature oxidations. Typical processing rates and associated costs are provided where possible. PMID:3928363

  2. Decontamination and disposal of PCB wastes.

    PubMed

    Johnston, L E

    1985-05-01

    Decontamination and disposal processes for PCB wastes are reviewed. Processes are classed as incineration, chemical reaction or decontamination. Incineration technologies are not limited to the rigorous high temperature but include those where innovations in use of oxident, heat transfer and residue recycle are made. Chemical processes include the sodium processes, radiant energy processes and low temperature oxidations. Typical processing rates and associated costs are provided where possible.

  3. Showering effectiveness for human hair decontamination of the nerve agent VX.

    PubMed

    Josse, Denis; Wartelle, Julien; Cruz, Catherine

    2015-05-05

    In this work, our goals were to establish whether hair decontamination by showering one hour post-exposure to the highly toxic organophosphate nerve agent VX was effective, whether it required the addition of a detergent to water and, if it could be improved by using the adsorbent Fuller's Earth (FE) or the Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) 30 min prior to showering. Hair exposure to VX and decontamination was performed by using an in vitro model. Hair showering led to 72% reduction of contamination. Addition of detergent to water slightly increased the decontamination effectiveness. Hair treatment with FE or RSDL improved the decontamination rate. Combination of FE use and showering, which yielded a decontamination factor of 41, was demonstrated to be the most effective hair decontamination procedure. Hair wiping after showering was shown to contribute to hair decontamination. Altogether, our results highlighted the importance of considering hair decontamination as an important part of body surface decontamination protocols.

  4. Advanced Technologies for Determination of Surface Cleanliness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudlacek, Jan; Chabera, Petr

    2014-12-01

    For high utility value of products is significant quality of surface treatment. Among the processes that most affect the quality of surface treatment are mainly surface pretreatment processes, namely processes of cleaning (degreasing). This article is devoted to quality control after surface pre-treatment. It mainly deals with the modern method for detecting surface contamination grease based on fluorescence methods. Impurities such as grease, oil and other have characteristic fluorescence after illumination by UV source. This principle can be used to determine the purity of the substrate surface, thereby ensuring the quality of the surface. Surface cleanliness is very important factor for the correct application of subsequent technological processes.

  5. Chemical and Biological Substances Decontamination Study for Mars Missions and Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottage, Thomas; Walker, James; Bennett, Allan; Vrublevskis, John; Hovland, Scott

    This study, funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) and undertaken by the Health Protec-tion Agency, UK supported by Systems Engineering and Assessment Ltd., was devised to select suitable current decontamination technologies for development for future manned missions to the Moon and Mars. There is a requirement to decontaminate the habitat module due to the concerns about astronaut ill health, microbial deterioration of materials and potential forward contamination in the case of Mars. In the case of the MIR space station, biodeterioration of components and materials occurred, and dangerous levels of airborne microorganisms were detected during air sampling procedures which lead to the introduction of microbial exposure limits (as MORD SSP 50260) to ensure the health of the crew. COSPAR planetary protection guidelines highlight the need to reduce any potential forward or backwards contamination issues that may occur through the use of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) suits whilst on Mars. Decontamination of the suit exterior must be completed before any EVA activity on Mars, whilst a further decontamination cycle must be completed after entry to the airlock following EVA. Technologies and techniques have also been investigated for the microbial reduction of the interior surfaces of the EVA suit to stop biodeterioration of the materials and protect the user from pathogenic microbe accumulation. The first work package reviewed the systems description and requirements as detailed in the statement of work. The requirements were broken down into 12 further requirement sections, where they were updated and expanded, resulted in Technical Note (TN) 1 which was then used as the base document for WP2 and WP3. WP2 investigated the current technologies available for the decontamination of the habitat module interior on missions of up to 6 months and missions that have durations of greater than 6 months. A comprehensive review was carried out for the different methods that

  6. Phase 2 microwave concrete decontamination results

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.; Foster, D. Jr.; Wilson, C.T.; Schaich, C.R.

    1995-04-01

    The authors report on the results of the second phase of a four-phase program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop a system to decontaminate concrete using microwave energy. The microwave energy is directed at the concrete surface through the use of an optimized wave guide antenna, or applicator, and this energy rapidly heats the free water present in the interstitial spaces of the concrete matrix. The resulting steam pressure causes the surface to burst in much the same way popcorn pops in a home microwave oven. Each steam explosion removes several square centimeters of concrete surface that are collected by a highly integrated wave guide and vacuum system. The authors call this process the microwave concrete decontamination, or MCD, process. In the first phase of the program the principle of microwaves concrete removal concrete surfaces was demonstrated. In these experiments, concrete slabs were placed on a translator and moved beneath a stationary microwave system. The second phase demonstrated the ability to mobilize the technology to remove the surfaces from concrete floors. Area and volume concrete removal rates of 10.4 cm{sup 2}/s and 4.9 cm{sup 3}/S, respectively, at 18 GHz were demonstrated. These rates are more than double those obtained in Phase 1 of the program. Deeper contamination can be removed by using a longer residence time under the applicator to create multiple explosions in the same area or by taking multiple passes over previously removed areas. Both techniques have been successfully demonstrated. Small test sections of painted and oil-soaked concrete have also been removed in a single pass. Concrete with embedded metal anchors on the surface has also been removed, although with some increased variability of removal depth. Microwave leakage should not pose any operational hazard to personnel, since the observed leakage was much less than the regulatory standard.

  7. Decontamination system study for the Tank Waste Retrieval System

    SciTech Connect

    Reutzel, T.; Manhardt, J.

    1994-05-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s decontamination study in support of the Tank Waste Retrieval System (TWRS) development program. Problems associated with waste stored in existing single shell tanks are discussed as well as the justification for the TWRS program. The TWRS requires a decontamination system. The subsystems of the TWRS are discussed, and a list of assumptions pertinent to the TWRS decontamination system were developed. This information was used to develop the functional and operational requirements of the TWRS decontamination system. The requirements were combined with a comprehensive review of currently available decontamination techniques to produced a set of evaluation criteria. The cleaning technologies and techniques were evaluated, and the CO{sub 2} blasting decontamination technique was chosen as the best technology for the TWRS.

  8. Magnetic separation for soil decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; deAguero, K.J.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D. ); Tolt, T.L. )

    1993-01-01

    High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is a physical separation process that is used to extract magnetic particles from mixtures. The technology is used on a large scale in the kaolin clay industry to whiten or brighten kaolin clay and increase its value. Because all uranium and plutonium compounds are slightly magnetic, HGMS can be used to separate these contaminants from non-magnetic soils. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was signed in 1992 between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company (LESAT) to develop HGMS for soil decontamination. This paper reports progress and describes the HGMS technology.

  9. Magnetic separation for soil decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; deAguero, K.J.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D.; Tolt, T.L.

    1993-02-01

    High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is a physical separation process that is used to extract magnetic particles from mixtures. The technology is used on a large scale in the kaolin clay industry to whiten or brighten kaolin clay and increase its value. Because all uranium and plutonium compounds are slightly magnetic, HGMS can be used to separate these contaminants from non-magnetic soils. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was signed in 1992 between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company (LESAT) to develop HGMS for soil decontamination. This paper reports progress and describes the HGMS technology.

  10. Surface decontamination technologies for enhancing safety and shelf life of cantaloupe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cantaloupes have been implicated in six outbreaks of salmonellosis that resulted in over 800 cases and two deaths in the U.S. since 1990. A recent multi-state outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infection in the U.S. resulting in at least 146 illnesses and 30 deaths in 2011 came from contaminated ca...

  11. A Comparison of Decontamination Technologies for Biological Agents on Selected Commercial Surface Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    The University of Michigan, Center for Biological Nanotechnology has developed a novel broad-spectrum antimicrobial nanoemulsion . The emulsions kill...disintegration. This process starts in about 30 minutes and the complete killing will be achieved in 2-3 hours. The nanoemulsions are non-irritant

  12. Fission Surface Power Technology Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palac, Donald T.; Mason, Lee S.; Houts, Michael G.; Harlow, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Power is a critical consideration in planning exploration of the surfaces of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. Nuclear power is an important option, especially for locations in the solar system where sunlight is limited in availability or intensity. NASA is maintaining the option for fission surface power for the Moon and Mars by developing and demonstrating technology for an affordable fission surface power system. Because affordability drove the determination of the system concept that this technology will make possible, low development and recurring costs result, while required safety standards are maintained. However, an affordable approach to fission surface power also provides the benefits of simplicity, robustness, and conservatism in design. This paper will illuminate the multiplicity of benefits to an affordable approach to fission surface power, and will describe how the foundation for these benefits is being developed and demonstrated in the Exploration Technology Development Program s Fission Surface Power Project.

  13. Non-thermal Physical Technologies to Decontaminate and Extend the Shelf-life of Fruits and Vegetables: Trends Aiming at Quality and Safety.

    PubMed

    Pinela, José; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-07-20

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are one of the major growing sectors in food industry. This growing demand for healthy and convenient foods with fresh-like properties is accompanied by concerns surrounding efficacy of the available sanitizing methods to appropriately deal with food-borne diseases. In fact, chemical sanitizers do not provide an efficient microbial reduction, besides being perceived negatively by the consumers, dangerous for human health and harmful to the environment, and the conventional thermal treatments may negatively affect physical, nutritional or bioactive properties of these perishable foods. For this reasons, the industry is investigating alternative non-thermal physical technologies, namely innovative packaging systems, ionizing and ultraviolet radiation, pulsed light, high-power ultrasound, cold plasma, high hydrostatic pressure, and dense phase carbon dioxide, as well as possible combinations between them or with other preservation factors (hurdles). This review discusses the potential of these novel or emerging technologies for decontamination and shelf-life extension of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Advantages, limitations and challenges related to its use in this sector are also highlighted.

  14. MAINTAINING ACCESS TO AMERICA'S INTERMODAL PORTS/TECHNOLOGIES FOR DECONTAMINATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENT: NEW YORK/NEW JERSEY HARBOR

    SciTech Connect

    STERN,E.A.; JONES,K.; DONATO,K.; PAULING,J.D.; SONTAG,J.G.; CLESCERI,N.L.; MENSINGER,M.C.; WILDE,C.L.

    1998-05-01

    One of the greatest drivers for maintaining access to America's Intermodal ports and related infrastructure redevelopment efforts over the next several years will be the control and treatment of contaminated sediments dredged from the nation's waterways. More than 306 million cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (400 million cubic yards [cy]) of sediments are dredged annually from US waterways, and each year close to 46 million m{sup 3} (60 million cy) of this material is disposed of in the ocean (EPA 842-F-96-003). The need to protect the environment against undesirable effects from sediment dredging and disposal practices is gaining increased attention from the public and governmental agencies. Meeting this need is a challenging task not only from the standpoint of solving formidable scientific and engineering problems, but also, and more importantly, from the need to implement complex collaborations among the many different parties concerned with the problem. Some 40 years ago, C.P. Snow pointed out the problems involved in communicating between the two cultures of the sciences and the humanities (Snow, 1993). Today, it is necessary to extend Snow's concept to a multicultural realm with groups that include governmental, industrial, environmental, academic, and the general public communicating in different languages based on widely different fundamental assumptions. The handling of contaminated sediments in the Port of New York/New Jersey (Port) exemplifies this problem. This paper describes a multicultural team that has formed as the result of a Congressional mandate for the development of procedures suitable for the decontamination of sediments in the Port under the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1992 (Section 405C) and 1996 (Section 226).

  15. Electroosmotic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Bush, S.A.; Marsh, G.C.; Henson, H.M.; Box, W.D.; Morgan, I.L.

    1993-03-01

    A method is described for the electroosmotic decontamination of concrete surfaces, in which an electrical field is used to induce migration of ionic contaminants from porous concrete into an electrolyte solution that may be disposed of as a low-level liquid radioactive waste (LLRW); alternately, the contaminants from the solution can be sorbed onto anion exchange media in order to prevent contaminant buildup in the solution and to minimize the amount of LLRW generated. We have confirmed the removal of uranium (and infer the removal of {sup 99}Tc) from previously contaminated concrete surfaces. In a typical experimental configuration, a stainless steel mesh is placed in an electrolyte solution contained within a diked cell to serve as the negative electrode (cathode) and contaminant collection medium, respectively, and an existing metal penetration (e.g., piping, conduit, or rebar reinforcement within the concrete surface) serves as the positive electrode (anode) to complete the cell. Typically we have achieved 70 to >90% reductions in surface activity by applying <400 V and <1 A for 1--3 h (energy consumption of 0.4--12 kWh/ft{sup 2}).

  16. NPOx Decontamination System

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, K.; Demmer, R.; Argyle, M.; Ancho, M.; Hai-Pao, J.

    2002-02-25

    The nitric acid/potassium permanganate/oxalic acid (NPOx) Phase II system is being prepared for remote operation at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Several tests have been conducted to prepare the system for remote operation. This system performs very well with high decontamination efficiencies and very low quantities of waste generated during decontamination.

  17. Evaporation Rates of Decontamination Solutions From Operationally Relevant Substrates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    evaporation rates of two decontamination solutions, DeconGreenTM and DF200 TM, were measured from surfaces with multiple and independent methods. Evaporation...humidity and high temperature. The decontamination solution, DF200 TM, evaporated faster from bare and CARC-coated aluminum by a factor of approximately...Decontamination Studies of DF200 Formulations with VX, HD, and GD; U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center: Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD; unpublished data

  18. The Portable Chemical Sterilizer (PCS), D-FENS, and D-FEND ALL: Novel Chlorine Dioxide Decontamination Technologies for the Military

    PubMed Central

    Doona, Christopher J.; Feeherry, Florence E.; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.; Leighton, Terrence J.

    2014-01-01

    There is a stated Army need for a field-portable, non-steam sterilizer technology that can be used by Forward Surgical Teams, Dental Companies, Veterinary Service Support Detachments, Combat Support Hospitals, and Area Medical Laboratories to sterilize surgical instruments and to sterilize pathological specimens prior to disposal in operating rooms, emergency treatment areas, and intensive care units. The following ensemble of novel, ‘clean and green’ chlorine dioxide technologies are versatile and flexible to adapt to meet a number of critical military needs for decontamination6,15. Specifically, the Portable Chemical Sterilizer (PCS) was invented to meet urgent battlefield needs and close critical capability gaps for energy-independence, lightweight portability, rapid mobility, and rugged durability in high intensity forward deployments3. As a revolutionary technological breakthrough in surgical sterilization technology, the PCS is a Modern Field Autoclave that relies on on-site, point-of-use, at-will generation of chlorine dioxide instead of steam. Two (2) PCS units sterilize 4 surgical trays in 1 hr, which is the equivalent throughput of one large steam autoclave (nicknamed “Bertha” in deployments because of its cumbersome size, bulky dimensions, and weight). However, the PCS operates using 100% less electricity (0 vs. 9 kW) and 98% less water (10 vs. 640 oz.), significantly reduces weight by 95% (20 vs. 450 lbs, a 4-man lift) and cube by 96% (2.1 vs. 60.2 ft3), and virtually eliminates the difficult challenges in forward deployments of repairs and maintaining reliable operation, lifting and transporting, and electrical power required for steam autoclaves. PMID:24998679

  19. The Portable Chemical Sterilizer (PCS), D-FENS, and D-FEND ALL: novel chlorine dioxide decontamination technologies for the military.

    PubMed

    Doona, Christopher J; Feeherry, Florence E; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J; Leighton, Terrence J

    2014-06-29

    There is a stated Army need for a field-portable, non-steam sterilizer technology that can be used by Forward Surgical Teams, Dental Companies, Veterinary Service Support Detachments, Combat Support Hospitals, and Area Medical Laboratories to sterilize surgical instruments and to sterilize pathological specimens prior to disposal in operating rooms, emergency treatment areas, and intensive care units. The following ensemble of novel, 'clean and green' chlorine dioxide technologies are versatile and flexible to adapt to meet a number of critical military needs for decontamination(6,15). Specifically, the Portable Chemical Sterilizer (PCS) was invented to meet urgent battlefield needs and close critical capability gaps for energy-independence, lightweight portability, rapid mobility, and rugged durability in high intensity forward deployments(3). As a revolutionary technological breakthrough in surgical sterilization technology, the PCS is a Modern Field Autoclave that relies on on-site, point-of-use, at-will generation of chlorine dioxide instead of steam. Two (2) PCS units sterilize 4 surgical trays in 1 hr, which is the equivalent throughput of one large steam autoclave (nicknamed "Bertha" in deployments because of its cumbersome size, bulky dimensions, and weight). However, the PCS operates using 100% less electricity (0 vs. 9 kW) and 98% less water (10 vs. 640 oz.), significantly reduces weight by 95% (20 vs. 450 lbs, a 4-man lift) and cube by 96% (2.1 vs. 60.2 ft(3)), and virtually eliminates the difficult challenges in forward deployments of repairs and maintaining reliable operation, lifting and transporting, and electrical power required for steam autoclaves.

  20. COMPILATION OF AVAILABLE DATA ON BUILDING DECONTAMINATION ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents an analysis of selected technologies that have been tested for their potential effectiveness in decontaminating a building that has been attacked using biological or chemical warfare agents, or using toxic industrial compounds. The technologies selected to be ...

  1. COMPILATION OF AVAILABLE DATA ON BUILDING DECONTAMINATION ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents an analysis of selected technologies that have been tested for their potential effectiveness in decontaminating a building that has been attacked using biological or chemical warfare agents, or using toxic industrial compounds. The technologies selected to be ...

  2. Equipment decontamination: A brief survey of the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.; Chamberlain, D.B; Chen, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1995-03-01

    Deactivation at DOE facilities has left a tremendous amount of contaminated equipment behind. In-situ methods are needed to decontaminate the interiors of the equipment sufficiently to allow either free release or land disposal. A brief survey was completed of the DOE complex on their needs for equipment decontamination with in-situ technology to determine (1) the types of contamination problems within the DOE complex, (2) decontamination processes that are being used or are being developed within the DOE, and (3) the methods that are available to dispose of spent decontamination solutions. In addition, potential sites for testing decontamination methods were located. Based on the information obtained from these surveys, the Rocky Flats Plant and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory appear to be best suited to complete the initial testing of the decontamination processes.

  3. Surface drilling technologies for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blacic, J. D.; Rowley, J. C.; Cort, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Rock drilling and coring conceptual designs for the surface activities associated with a manned Mars mission are proposed. Straightforward extensions of equipment and procedures used on Earth are envisioned for the sample coring and shallow high explosive shot holes needed for tunneling and seismic surveying. A novel rocket exhaust jet piercing method is proposed for very rapid drilling of shot holes required for explosive excavation of emergency radiation shelters. Summaries of estimated equipment masses and power requirements are provided, and the indicated rotary coring rigs are scaled from terrestrial equipment and use compressed CO2 from the Martian atmosphere for core bit cooling and cuttings removal. A mass of 120 kg and power of 3 kW(e) are estimated for a 10 m depth capability. A 100 m depth capacity core rig requires about 1150 kg and 32 km(e). The rocket exhaust jet equipment devised for shallow (3m) explosive emplacement shot holes requires no surface power beyond an electrical ignition system, and might have a 15 kg mass.

  4. DECONTAMINATION AND BENEFICIAL USE OF DREDGED MATERIALS.

    SciTech Connect

    STERN, E.A.; LODGE, J.; JONES, K.W.; CLESCERI, N.L.; FENG, H.; DOUGLAS, W.S.

    2000-12-03

    Our group is leading a large-sale demonstration of dredged material decontamination technologies for the New York/New Jersey Harbor. The goal of the project is to assemble a complete system for economic transformation of contaminated dredged material into an environmentally-benign material used in the manufacture of a variety of beneficial use products. This requires the integration of scientific, engineering, business, and policy issues on matters that include basic knowledge of sediment properties, contaminant distribution visualization, sediment toxicity, dredging and dewatering techniques, decontamination technologies, and product manufacturing technologies and marketing. A summary of the present status of the system demonstrations including the use of both existing and new manufacturing facilities is given here. These decontamination systems should serve as a model for use in dredged material management plans of regions other than NY/NJ Harbor, such as Long Island Sound, where new approaches to the handling of contaminated sediments are desirable.

  5. Fission Surface Power Technology Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palac, Donald T.; Mason, Lee S.; Harlow, Scott

    2009-01-01

    With the potential future deployment of a lunar outpost there is expected to be a clear need for a high-power, lunar surface power source to support lunar surface operations independent of the day-night cycle, and Fission Surface Power (FSP) is a very effective solution for power levels above a couple 10 s of kWe. FSP is similarly enabling for the poorly illuminated surface of Mars. The power levels/requirements for a lunar outpost option are currently being studied, but it is known that cost is clearly a predominant concern to decision makers. This paper describes the plans of NASA and the DOE to execute an affordable fission surface power system technology development project to demonstrate sufficient technology readiness of an affordable FSP system so viable and cost-effective FSP system options will be available when high power lunar surface system choices are expected to be made in the early 2010s.

  6. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE.

  7. Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-09

    NASA Glenn Technician Mark Springowski works on a 10-kilowatt Stirling Power Conversion Unit, which is part of the Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit. This is a system level demonstration of a surface power system, which could potentially be used to support manned missions to the moon or Mars. A flight system would use 180 kilowatt nuclear fission reactor and four Stirling PCU’s to produce 40 kW of electricity for manned surface missions.

  8. Soil removal as a decontamination practice and radiocesium accumulation in tadpoles in rice paddies at Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Nunokawa, Masanori; Wakahara, Taeko; Onda, Yuichi

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the biological accumulation of radiocesium in tadpoles [Rana (Pelophylax) porosa porosa] in rice paddies with and without decontamination practice at Fukushima. Radiocesium was accumulated in surface part of soils both in the control and decontaminated paddies one year after decontamination. Mean (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in tadpoles in the control and decontaminated paddies were 3000 and 4500, and 600 and 890 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Radiocesium concentrations in surface soil (0-5 cm depth) and tadpoles in the decontaminated paddy were five times smaller than in the control paddy. These results suggest that decontamination practice can reduce radiocesium concentrations in both soil and tadpoles. However, at the decontaminated paddy, radiocesium concentrations in surface soils became 3.8 times greater one year after decontamination, which indicates that monitoring the subsequent movement of radiocesium in rice paddies and surrounding areas is essential for examining contamination propagation.

  9. Investigations into the application of a combination of bioventing and biotrickling filter technologies for soil decontamination processes--a transition regime between bioventing and soil vapour extraction.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, S M C; Ferreira Jorge, R M; Castro, P M L

    2009-10-30

    Bioventing has emerged as one of the most cost-effective in situ technologies available to address petroleum light-hydrocarbon spills, one of the most common sources of soil pollution. However, the major drawback associated with this technology is the extended treatment time often required. The present study aimed to illustrate how an intended air-injection bioventing technology can be transformed into a soil vapour extraction effort when the air flow rates are pushed to a stripping mode, thus leading to the treatment of the off-gas resulting from volatilisation. As such, a combination of an air-injection bioventing system and a biotrickling filter was applied for the treatment of contaminated soil, the latter aiming at the treatment of the emissions resulting from the bioventing process. With a moisture content of 10%, soil contaminated with toluene at two different concentrations, namely 2 and 14 mg g soil(-1), were treated successfully using an air-injection bioventing system at a constant air flow rate of ca. 0.13 dm(3) min(-1), which led to the removal of ca. 99% toluene, after a period of ca. 5 days of treatment. A biotrickling filter was simultaneously used to treat the outlet gas emissions, which presented average removal efficiencies of ca. 86%. The proposed combination of biotechnologies proved to be an efficient solution for the decontamination process, when an excessive air flow rate was applied, reducing both the soil contamination and the outlet gas emissions, whilst being able to reduce the treatment time required by bioventing only.

  10. Chemical & Biological Point Detection Decontamination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    Large Frame Aircraft Decontamination Demonstration is to identify methods of decontamination sufficiently effective to clean contaminated aircraft and...methodology is still being optimized, however, down select processes have shown the Cepheid bead-based ultra- sonication to be the current method of choice for...Aircraft Decontamination Demonstration is to identify methods of decontamination sufficiently effective to clean contaminated aircraft and allow

  11. Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Anstine, Larry D.; James, Dean B.; Melaika, Edward A.; Peterson, Jr., John P.

    1985-01-01

    An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

  12. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  13. Inactivation of vegetative bacterial threat agents on environmental surfaces.

    PubMed

    Calfee, M Worth; Wendling, Morgan

    2013-01-15

    Following a wide-area biological terror attack, numerous decontamination technologies, techniques, and strategies will be required for rapid remediation. Establishing an understanding of how disinfectants will perform under field conditions is of critical importance. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of several liquid decontaminants, when used to inactivate vegetative biological agents on environmental surfaces. Aluminum, carpet, concrete, glass, and wood coupons were inoculated with 1×10(8) CFU of Burkholderia mallei, Francisella tularensis, Vibrio cholerae, or Yersinia pestis. Using spray-based application methods, decontamination was then attempted with pH-adjusted bleach, 1% citric acid, 70% ethanol, quaternary ammonia, or Pine-Sol®. Results indicated that decontamination efficacy varied significantly by decontaminant and organism. Materials such as wood are difficult to decontaminate, even when using sporicides. The data presented here will help responders develop efficacious remediation strategies following a large-scale contamination incident.

  14. Company Decontamination Systems (Compagnieontsmettingssystemen)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    The usage of a high pressure water jet and of a steam cleaner are compared to each other for the possible usage in a decontamination street of the... jet or of a steam cleaner in each separate station of the decontamination street is discussed. A water jet can be used best for the preliminary-cleaning...efficiency of a water jet and a steamcleaner are studied and compared here too. The decontamination efficiency of each type of apparatus is dependent on the type of contamination.

  15. Assessment of strippable coatings for decontamination and decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Strippable or temporary coatings were developed to assist in the decontamination of the Three Mile Island (TMI-2) reactor. These coatings have become a viable option during the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of both US Department of Energy (DOE) and commercial nuclear facilities to remove or fix loose contamination on both vertical and horizontal surfaces. A variety of strippable coatings are available to D and D professionals. However, these products exhibit a wide range of performance criteria and uses. The Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) was commissioned to perform a 2-year investigation into strippable coatings. This investigation was divided into four parts: (1) identification of commercially available strippable coating products; (2) survey of D and D professionals to determine current uses of these coatings and performance criteria; (3) design and implementation of a non-radiological testing program to evaluate the physical properties of these coatings; and (4) design and implementation of a radiological testing program to determine decontamination factors and effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Activities during fiscal year 1997 are described.

  16. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet for Chem/Bio Warfare Decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans W.; Henins, Ivars; Park, Jaeyoung; Selwyn, Gary S.

    1999-11-01

    Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ) technology may provide a much needed method of CBW decontamination which, unlike traditional decon methods, is dry and nondestructive to sensitive equipment and materials. The APPJ discharge uses a high-flow feedgas consisting primarily of an inert carrier gas, such as He, and a small amount of a reactive additive, such as O2, which flows between capacitively-coupled electrodes powered at 13.56 MHz. The plasma generates highly reactive metastable and atomic species of oxygen which are then directed onto a contaminated surface. The reactive effluent of the APPJ has been shown to effectively neutralize VX nerve agent as well as simulants for anthrax and mustard blister agent. Research efforts are now being directed towards reducing He consumption and increasing the allowable stand-off distance. Recent results demonstrate that by replacing the O2 reactive additive with CO2, ozone formation is greatly reduced. This has the result of extending the lifetime of atomic oxygen by an order of magnitude or more. A recirculating APP Decon Chamber which combines heat, vacuum, forced convection and reactivity is currently being developed for enhanced decontamination of sensitive equipment. Several techniques are also being evaluated for use in an APP Decon Jet for decontamination of items which cannot be placed inside a chamber.

  17. Decontamination of Drinking Water Infrastructure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Brief This study examines the effectiveness of decontaminating corroded iron and cement-mortar coupons that have been contaminated with spores of Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii (B. globigii), which is often used as a surrogate for pathogenic B. anthracis (anthrax) in disinfection studies. Bacillus spores are persistent on common drinking water material surfaces like corroded iron, requiring physical or chemical methods to decontaminate the infrastructure. In the United States, free chlorine and monochloramine are the primary chemical disinfectants used by the drinking water industry to inactivate microorganisms. Flushing is also a common, easily implemented practice in drinking water distribution systems, although large volumes of contaminated water needing treatment could be generated. Identifying readily available alternative disinfectant formulations for infrastructure decontamination could give water utilities options for responding to specific types of contamination events. In addition to presenting data on flushing alone, which demonstrated the persistence of spores on water infrastructure in the absence of high levels of disinfectants, data on acidified nitrite, chlorine dioxide, free chlorine, monochloramine, ozone, peracetic acid, and followed by flushing are provided.

  18. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, George M.; Nelson, Timothy O.; Parker, John L.; Getty, Richard H.; Hergert, Tom R.; Lindahl, Kirk A.; Peppers, Larry G.

    1994-10-01

    Using the electrolytic method, we have demonstrated removal of Pu and Am from contaminated conductive material. At EG and G /Rocky Flats, we electrolytically decontaminated stainless steel. Results from this work show removal of fixed contamination, including the following geometries: planar, large radius, bolt holes, glove ports, and protruding studs. More specifically, fixed contamination was reduced from levels ranging from greater than 1 000 000 counts per minute (cpm) down to levels ranging from 1500 to 250 cpm using the electrolytic method. More recently, the electrolytic work has continued at Los Alamos National Laboratory as a joint project with EG and G/Rocky Flats. Impressively, electrolytic decontamination of Pu /Am from U surfaces (10 sq cm per side) shows decreases in swipable contamination from 500 000-1 500 000 disintegrations per minute (dpm) down to 0-2 dpm. Moreover, the solid waste product of the electrolytic method is reduced in volume by more than 50 times compared with the liquid waste produced by the previous U decontamination method -- a hot concentrated acid spray leach process.

  19. Decontamination of Drinking Water Infrastructure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Brief This study examines the effectiveness of decontaminating corroded iron and cement-mortar coupons that have been contaminated with spores of Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii (B. globigii), which is often used as a surrogate for pathogenic B. anthracis (anthrax) in disinfection studies. Bacillus spores are persistent on common drinking water material surfaces like corroded iron, requiring physical or chemical methods to decontaminate the infrastructure. In the United States, free chlorine and monochloramine are the primary chemical disinfectants used by the drinking water industry to inactivate microorganisms. Flushing is also a common, easily implemented practice in drinking water distribution systems, although large volumes of contaminated water needing treatment could be generated. Identifying readily available alternative disinfectant formulations for infrastructure decontamination could give water utilities options for responding to specific types of contamination events. In addition to presenting data on flushing alone, which demonstrated the persistence of spores on water infrastructure in the absence of high levels of disinfectants, data on acidified nitrite, chlorine dioxide, free chlorine, monochloramine, ozone, peracetic acid, and followed by flushing are provided.

  20. Savannah River Laboratory Decontamination Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has had a Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) Technology program since 1981. The objective of this program is to provide state-of-the-art technology for use in D D operations that will enable our customers to minimize waste generated and personal exposure, increase productivity and safety, and to minimize the potential for release and uptake of radioactive material. The program identifies and evaluates existing technology, develops new technology, and provides technical assistance to implement its use onsite. This program has impacted not only the Savannah River Site (SRS), but the entire Department of Energy (DOE) complex. To document and communicate the technology generated by this program, 28 papers have been presented at National and International meetings in the United States and Foreign Countries.

  1. Savannah River Laboratory Decontamination Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.

    1991-12-31

    Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has had a Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Technology program since 1981. The objective of this program is to provide state-of-the-art technology for use in D&D operations that will enable our customers to minimize waste generated and personal exposure, increase productivity and safety, and to minimize the potential for release and uptake of radioactive material. The program identifies and evaluates existing technology, develops new technology, and provides technical assistance to implement its use onsite. This program has impacted not only the Savannah River Site (SRS), but the entire Department of Energy (DOE) complex. To document and communicate the technology generated by this program, 28 papers have been presented at National and International meetings in the United States and Foreign Countries.

  2. Fission Surface Power Technology Development Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palac, Donald T.; Mason, Lee S.; Houts, Michael G.; Harlow, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Power is a critical consideration in planning exploration of the surfaces of the Moon, Mars, and places beyond. Nuclear power is an important option, especially for locations in the solar system where sunlight is limited or environmental conditions are challenging (e.g., extreme cold, dust storms). NASA and the Department of Energy are maintaining the option for fission surface power for the Moon and Mars by developing and demonstrating technology for a fission surface power system. The Fission Surface Power Systems project has focused on subscale component and subsystem demonstrations to address the feasibility of a low-risk, low-cost approach to space nuclear power for surface missions. Laboratory demonstrations of the liquid metal pump, reactor control drum drive, power conversion, heat rejection, and power management and distribution technologies have validated that the fundamental characteristics and performance of these components and subsystems are consistent with a Fission Surface Power preliminary reference concept. In addition, subscale versions of a non-nuclear reactor simulator, using electric resistance heating in place of the reactor fuel, have been built and operated with liquid metal sodium-potassium and helium/xenon gas heat transfer loops, demonstrating the viability of establishing system-level performance and characteristics of fission surface power technologies without requiring a nuclear reactor. While some component and subsystem testing will continue through 2011 and beyond, the results to date provide sufficient confidence to proceed with system level technology readiness demonstration. To demonstrate the system level readiness of fission surface power in an operationally relevant environment (the primary goal of the Fission Surface Power Systems project), a full scale, 1/4 power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) is under development. The TDU will consist of a non-nuclear reactor simulator, a sodium-potassium heat transfer loop, a power

  3. Food decontamination using nanomaterials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The research indicates that nanomaterials including nanoemulsions are promising decontamination media for the reduction of food contaminating pathogens. The inhibitory effect of nanoparticles for pathogens could be due to deactivate cellular enzymes and DNA; disrupting of membrane permeability; and/...

  4. Surface and interface modification science and technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.-H.

    1999-07-19

    Surface modification of solids is of scientific and technological interest due to its significant benefits in a wide variety of applications. Various coatings applications such as corrosion protection and electrical insulators and conductors are required for proper engineering design based on geometrical relationships between interfaces and on thermodynamic/kinetic considerations for the development of surface modifications. This paper will explore three basic examples: the proton conductor BaCeO{sub 3}, high-temperature protective coatings, and epitaxial relationships between interfaces.

  5. Lessons Learned from Decontamination Experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, JH

    2000-11-16

    This interim report describes a DOE project currently underway to establish what is known about decontamination of buildings and people and the procedures and protocols used to determine when and how people or buildings are considered ''clean'' following decontamination. To fulfill this objective, the study systematically examined reported decontamination experiences to determine what procedures and protocols are currently employed for decontamination, the timeframe involved to initiate and complete the decontamination process, how the contaminants were identified, the problems encountered during the decontamination process, how response efforts of agencies were coordinated, and the perceived social psychological effects on people who were decontaminated or who participated in the decontamination process. Findings and recommendations from the study are intended to aid decision-making and to improve the basis for determining appropriate decontamination protocols for recovery planners and policy makers for responding to chemical and biological events.

  6. Surface transport vehicles and supporting technology requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matijevic, J. R.; Dias, W. C.; Levin, R. R.; Lindemann, R. A.; Smith, J. H.; Venkataraman, S. T.

    1992-01-01

    Requirements have been identified for surface transport vehicles which allow remote scientific exploration on the moon, as well as lunar resource recovery and emplacement of a permanent base on the lunar surface. Attention is given to the results of a design study which developed configurational concepts for lunar surface transport vehicles and inferred technology-development requirements, with a view to a phased program of implementation. Distinct benefits are noted for the design of simple vehicle platforms with high commonality, in order to reduce logistical-support requirements and maximize functional flexibility. Two generic vehicle classed are defined.

  7. MRSA decontamination using octenidine-based products.

    PubMed

    Danilevicius, Mindaugas; Juzéniené, Audra; Juzénaité-Karneckiené, Indré; Veršinina, Anželika

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are an increasing problem worldwide with a high risk of severe illness and mortality in hospitalised patients. Patients with chronic wounds are at particular risk of developing MRSA infections. As octenidine-based products have shown promising success in decontamination in the past, the aim of the present study was to determine its efficacy, safety, and tolerability in decontaminating hospitalised MRSA-positive patients. From 1 April 2011 until 9 November 2012, 36 patients were screened MRSA-positive at the Republican Vilnius University Hospital, Vilnius, Lithuania. At least three swab tests were performed for each patient to screen for MRSA, one from each nostril and one from the perineum. In patients with wounds, an additional swab was taken from the wound surface. In the affected patients octenidine-based products were used in one or two cycles of 7 days each. In addition, adverse events were recorded and the tolerability was assessed using a 4-point scale ranging from 'very good' to 'poor'. Complete decontamination was achieved in 24 patients (67%) following treatment with the octenidine-based products. None of the patients experienced side-effects or secondary symptoms such as skin irritation or allergic reactions during the course of the study. In addition, octenidine was very well tolerated in the majority of patients (n=31; 86%). The results demonstrate that octenidine-based products are highly efficient in the multifaceted decontamination of hospitalised MRSA-positive patients. Having a range of products that can be used for full body decontamination (including the scalp and nasal passages) is of particular significance when developing an MRSA decontamination protocol, as multiple parts of the body can be affected. Combined with a favourable safety and tolerability profile, octenidine-based products thus represent a good choice in multifaceted MRSA decontamination regimes, which are necessary to

  8. Effects of cell surface charge and hydrophobicity on attachment of 16 Salmonella serovars to cantaloupe rind and decontamination with sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Ukuku, Dike O; Fett, William F

    2006-08-01

    Adherence of bacteria to cantaloupe rind is favored by surface irregularities such as roughness, crevices, and pits, thus reducing the ability of washing or sanitizer treatments to remove or inactivate attached cells. In this study, we compared the surface charge and hydrophobicity of two cantaloupe-related outbreak strains of Salmonella Poona (RM2350 and G-91-1595) to those of 14 additional Salmonella strains using electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The relative abilities of the 16 strains to attach to cantaloupe surfaces and resist removal by washing with water, chlorine (200 ppm), or hydrogen peroxide (2.5%) for 5 min after a storage period of up to 7 days at 5 to 20 degrees C also were determined. Whole cantaloupes were inoculated with each pathogen at 8.36 log CFU/ml, dried for 1 h inside a biosafety cabinet, stored, and then subjected to the washing treatments. Only the positive surface charge of the two cantaloupe-related strains of Salmonella Poona was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of the other strains. Initial bacterial attachment to cantaloupe surfaces ranged from 3.68 to 4.56 log CFU/cm2 (highest values for Salmonella Michigan, Newport, Oranienburg, and Mbandaka). The average percentage of the total bacterial population strongly attached to the cantaloupe surface for the Salmonella serovars studied ranged from 0.893 to 0.946 at 5 degrees C and from 0.987 to 0.999 at 25 degrees C. Washing inoculated melons with water did not produce a significant reduction in the concentration of the pathogens (P > 0.05). Chlorine and hydrogen peroxide treatments caused an average 3-log reduction when applied 20 to 40 min postinoculation. However, sanitizer treatments applied 60 min or more postinoculation were less effective (approximately 2.5-log reduction). No significant differences were noted in sanitizer efficacy against the individual strains (P > 0.05). The two cantaloupe-related outbreak Salmonella Poona strains did not

  9. Advances in Sterilization and Decontamination: a Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Recent technical advances made in the field of sterilization and decontamination and their applicability to private and commercial interests are discussed. Government-sponsored programs by NASA produced the bulk of material presented in this survey. The summary of past and current research discussed is detailed to enhance an effective transfer of technology from NASA to potential users.

  10. Cold plasma rapid decontamination of food contact surfaces contaminated with Salmonella and Escherichia coli 0157:H7

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cross-contamination of fresh produce from persistent pathogen reservoirs is a known risk factor in processing environments. Industry requires a waterless, zero-contact, chemical-free method for removing pathogens from food-contact surfaces. Cold plasma was tested for its ability to remove biofilms f...

  11. Bleaching process preferred to decontaminate odorants

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The problem of decontaminating and disposing of out-of-service gas odorizers has long faced both gas transmission and distribution companies since the early 1980s. Finding a methodology to safely and effectively decontaminate odorant-contaminated equipment has caused many companies to simply cap the equipment and put it in storage. The recommended process of decontamination by odorant manufacturers is currently a bleaching-type process. A sodium hypochlorite solution is added to water and either circulated or left standing in the contaminated equipment. The sodium hypochlorite effectively neutralizes the smell of the odorant and slightly corrodes the inside of the equipment to neutralize any odorant which has permeated the metal. The waste sodium hypochlorite and water is then shipped as hazardous waste (pH of 12.5) or non-hazardous waste after the pH has been adjusted. The bleaching process has proven cost-effective and less time-consuming than most other methods including bioremediation. To effectively use it, there are several problems to overcome--most importantly the removal of residual product and the release of vapors into the atmosphere. River Valley Technologies, a contractor located in Cincinnati, OH, specializing in odorant-equipment decontamination, has developed several methods and engineering controls to eliminate most of the problems associated with decontaminating odorant equipment. The paper describes these methods.

  12. Surface contamination analysis technology team overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, H. Dewitt, Jr.

    1996-11-01

    The surface contamination analysis technology (SCAT) team was originated as a working roup of NASA civil service, Space Shuttle contractor, and university groups. Participating members of the SCAT Team have included personnel from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processes Laboratory and Langley Research Center's Instrument Development Group; contractors-Thiokol Corporation's Inspection Technology Group, AC Engineering support contractor, Aerojet, SAIC, and Lockheed MArtin/Oak Ridge Y-12 support contractor and Shuttle External Tank prime contractor; and the University of Alabama in Huntsville's Center for Robotics and Automation. The goal of the SCAT team as originally defined was to develop and integrate a multi-purpose inspection head for robotic application to in-process inspection of contamination sensitive surfaces. One area of interest was replacement of ozone depleting solvents currently used for surface cleanliness verification. The team approach brought together the appropriate personnel to determine what surface inspection techniques were applicable to multi-program surface cleanliness inspection. Major substrates of interest were chosen to simulate space shuttle critical bonding surface or surfaces sensitive to contamination such as fuel system component surfaces. Inspection techniques evaluated include optically stimulated electron emission or photoelectron emission; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; near infrared fiber optic spectroscopy; and, ultraviolet fluorescence. Current plans are to demonstrate an integrated system in MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex within five years from initiation of this effort in 1992. Instrumentation specifications and designs developed under this effort include a portable diffuse reflectance FTIR system built by Surface Optics Corporation and a third generation optically stimulated electron emission system built by LaRC. This paper will discuss the evaluation of the various techniques on a

  13. Feasibility of gas-phase decontamination of gaseous diffusion equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Munday, E.B.; Simmons, D.W.

    1993-02-01

    The five buildings at the K-25 Site formerly involved in the gaseous diffusion process contain 5000 gaseous diffusion stages as well as support facilities that are internally contaminated with uranium deposits. The gaseous diffusion facilities located at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant also contain similar equipment and will eventually close. The decontamination of these facilities will require the most cost-effective technology consistent with the criticality, health physics, industrial hygiene, and environmental concerns; the technology must keep exposures to hazardous substances to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). This report documents recent laboratory experiments that were conducted to determine the feasibility of gas-phase decontamination of the internal surfaces of the gaseous diffusion equipment that is contaminated with uranium deposits. A gaseous fluorinating agent is used to fluorinate the solid uranium deposits to gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}), which can be recovered by chemical trapping or freezing. The lab results regarding the feasibility of the gas-phase process are encouraging. These results especially showed promise for a novel decontamination approach called the long-term, low-temperature (LTLT) process. In the LTLT process: The equipment is rendered leak tight, evacuated, leak tested, and pretreated, charged with chlorine trifluoride (ClF{sub 3}) to subatmospheric pressure, left for an extended period, possibly > 4 months, while processing other items. Then the UF{sub 6} and other gases are evacuated. The UF{sub 6} is recovered by chemical trapping. The lab results demonstrated that ClF{sub 3} gas at subatmospheric pressure and at {approx} 75{degree}F is capable of volatilizing heavy deposits of uranyl fluoride from copper metal surfaces sufficiently that the remaining radioactive emissions are below limits.

  14. The EPRI DFDX Chemical Decontamination Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bushart, S.; Wood, C. J.; Bradbury, D.; Elder, G.

    2003-02-25

    Decommissioning of retired nuclear plants and components demands the proper management of the process, both for economic reasons and for retaining public confidence in the continued use of nuclear power for electricity generation. The cost and ease of management of radioactively contaminated components can be greatly assisted by the application of decontamination technology. EPRI initiated a program of research and development work in collaboration with Bradtec, which has led to the ''EPRI DFD'' (Decontamination for Decommissioning) Process. The Process has been patented and licensed to six companies worldwide. The purpose of this process is to achieve efficient removal of radioactivity with minimum waste from retired nuclear components and plant systems. The process uses dilute fluoroboric acid with controlled oxidation potential. By removing all the outer scale and a thin layer of base metal from the surfaces, contamination can in many cases be reduced below the levels required to allow clearance (free-release) or recycle to form new components for the nuclear industry. This reduces the need for on-site storage or burial of large amounts of contaminated material at low level radioactive disposal facilities. An additional benefit is that residual radiation fields can be reduced by a large factor, which reduces the worker radiation exposure associated with decommissioning. Furthermore, this dose rate reduction improves the viability of early dismantlement following plant closure, as opposed to waiting for a prolonged period for radioactive decay to occur. The results obtained in early applications of the EPRI DFD process demonstrated the benefits of taking this approach (reference 1).

  15. Position-sensitive radiation monitoring (surface contamination monitor). Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-06-01

    The Shonka Research Associates, Inc. Position-Sensitive Radiation Monitor both detects surface radiation and prepares electronic survey map/survey report of surveyed area automatically. The electronically recorded map can be downloaded to a personal computer for review and a map/report can be generated for inclusion in work packages. Switching from beta-gamma detection to alpha detection is relatively simple and entails moving a switch position to alpha and adjusting the voltage level to an alpha detection level. No field calibration is required when switching from beta-gamma to alpha detection. The system can be used for free-release surveys because it meets the federal detection level sensitivity limits requires for surface survey instrumentation. This technology is superior to traditionally-used floor contamination monitor (FCM) and hand-held survey instrumentation because it can precisely register locations of radioactivity and accurately correlate contamination levels to specific locations. Additionally, it can collect and store continuous radiological data in database format, which can be used to produce real-time imagery as well as automated graphics of survey data. Its flexible design can accommodate a variety of detectors. The cost of the innovative technology is 13% to 57% lower than traditional methods. This technology is suited for radiological surveys of flat surfaces at US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) sites or similar public or commercial sites.

  16. Gentilly 1: decontamination program

    SciTech Connect

    Le, H.; Denault, P.

    1985-11-01

    The Gentilly 1 station, a 250-MW(e) light-water-cooled and heavy-water-moderated nuclear reactor, is being decommissioned to a static state (variant of stage 1) condition by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). The scope of the decontamination program at the Gentilly 1 site includes the fuel pool and associated systems, the decontamination center, the laundry, the feedwater pumps and piping systems, the service building ventilation and drainage systems, and miscellaneous floor and wall areas. After an extensive literature review for acceptable decontamination methods, it was decided that the decontamination equipment used at Gentilly 1 during the program would include a hydrolaser, a scarifier, chipping hammers, a steam cleaner, an ultrasonic bath, and cutting tools. In addition, various foams, acids, detergents, surfactants, and abrasives are used alone and in tandem with the above equipment. This paper highlights the result of these decontaminations, their effectiveness, and the recommendation for future application. The methodology in performing these operations are also presented.

  17. Ultraviolet (UV)-reflective paint with ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) improves decontamination of nosocomial bacteria on hospital room surfaces.

    PubMed

    Jelden, Katelyn C; Gibbs, Shawn G; Smith, Philip W; Hewlett, Angela L; Iwen, Peter C; Schmid, Kendra K; Lowe, John J

    2017-06-01

    An ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) generator (the TORCH, ClorDiSys Solutions, Inc.) was used to compare the disinfection of surface coupons (plastic from a bedrail, stainless steel, and chrome-plated light switch cover) in a hospital room with walls coated with ultraviolet (UV)-reflective paint (Lumacept) or standard paint. Each surface coupon was inoculated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), placed at 6 different sites within a hospital room coated with UV-reflective paint or standard paint, and treated by 10 min UVC exposure (UVC dose of 0-688 mJ/cm(2) between sites with standard paint and 0-553 mJ/cm(2) with UV-reflective paint) in 8 total trials. Aggregated MRSA concentrations on plastic bedrail surface coupons were reduced on average by 3.0 log10 (1.8 log10 Geometric Standard Deviation [GSD]) with standard paint and 4.3 log10 (1.3 log10 GSD) with UV-reflective paint (p = 0.0005) with no significant reduction differences between paints on stainless steel and chrome. Average VRE concentrations were reduced by ≥4.9 log10 (<1.2 log10 GSD) on all surface types with UV-reflective paint and ≤4.1 log10 (<1.7 log10 GSD) with standard paint (p < 0.05). At 5 aggregated sites directly exposed to UVC light, MRSA concentrations on average were reduced by 5.2 log10 (1.4 log10 GSD) with standard paint and 5.1 log10 (1.2 log10 GSD) with UV-reflective paint (p = 0.017) and VRE by 4.4 log10 (1.4 log10 GSD) with standard paint and 5.3 log10 (1.1 log10 GSD) with UV-reflective paint (p < 0.0001). At one indirectly exposed site on the opposite side of the hospital bed from the UVGI generator, MRSA concentrations on average were reduced by 1.3 log10 (1.7 log10 GSD) with standard paint and 4.7 log10 (1.3 log10 GSD) with UV-reflective paint (p < 0.0001) and VRE by 1.2 log10 (1.5 log10 GSD) with standard paint and 4.6 log10 (1.1 log10 GSD) with UV-reflective paint (p < 0.0001). Coating hospital

  18. DECONTAMINATION OF NEUTRON-IRRADIATED REACTOR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Buyers, A.G.; Rosen, F.D.; Motta, E.E.

    1959-12-22

    A pyrometallurgical method of decontaminating neutronirradiated reactor fuel is presented. In accordance with the invention, neutron-irradiated reactor fuel may be decontaminated by countercurrently contacting the fuel with a bed of alkali and alkaine fluorides under an inert gas atmosphere and inductively melting the fuel and tracking the resulting descending molten fuel with induction heating as it passes through the bed. By this method, a large, continually fresh surface of salt is exposed to the descending molten fuel which enhances the efficiency of the scrubbing operation.

  19. EM Task 12 -- Laser cleaning of contaminated painted surfaces. Semi-annual report, April 1--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Grisanti, A.A.; Jenson, R.R.; Allan, S.E.

    1997-12-31

    Surface decontamination of concrete and steel surfaces in nuclear facilities provides cost savings during decommissioning operations by allowing recycling or reuse of concrete and steel structures. Separation of radionuclides and other contamination from the concrete or steel substrates also allows reduction in volume of hazardous materials during the D and D (decontamination and decommissioning) process, resulting in further cost savings. Several techniques are available or under development for surface decontamination in nuclear facilities. Each technique has its merits; however, none of them is universally the best choice for all surface decontamination applications. Because of the multitude of factors which influence the environmental and economic aspects of selecting a surface decontamination technique, it is difficult to select the best method in a given situation; an objective basis for comparing techniques is needed. The objective of this project is to develop a software tool for use by personnel selecting a surface decontamination technique. The software will incorporate performance data for available surface decontamination techniques. The major activities in the project are broken down as follows: Task 1--Complete decision tree development; Task 2--Literature search for surface decontamination reports; Task 3--Compilation of database from literature data; Task 4--Sensitivity analysis and model design; Task 5--Design of model data structures; and Task 6--PC software design and coding. Work during this reporting period completed Tasks 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6. Task 4 activities resulted in a prototype of the model design; sensitivity analysis and model modifications are in progress at the time of this report. Task 4 will be complete prior to the end of December 1997. A working prototype of the software implementation of the surface decontamination model and technology database has been completed. The program developed at the Energy and Environmental Research

  20. Concrete decontamination by Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS). Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-30

    Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS) technology and equipment for decontaminating concrete structures from radionuclides, organic substances, and hazardous metals is being developed by Textron Systems Division (TSD). This wet scabbling technique involves the generation of powerful shock waves and intense cavitation by a strong pulsed electric discharge in a water layer at the concrete surface. The high pressure impulse results in stresses which crack and peel off a concrete layer of a controllable thickness. Scabbling produces contaminated debris of relatively small volume which can be easily removed, leaving clean bulk concrete. This new technology is being developed under Contract No. DE-AC21-93MC30164. The project objective is to develop and demonstrate a cost-efficient, rapid, controllable process to remove the surface layer of contaminated concrete while generating minimal secondary waste. The primary target of this program is uranium-contaminated concrete floors which constitute a substantial part of the contaminated area at DOE weapon facilities.

  1. Radiological Contaminant Persistence and Decontamination ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report The objective of this study was to use the Pipe Decontamination Experimental Design Protocol (PDEDP) to evaluate the persistence of cesium, cobalt, and strontium on concrete and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and explore possible decontamination approaches. The PDEDP is an approach for evaluating the persistence characteristics of contaminants on drinking water pipe materials and various decontamination approaches.

  2. Airport Surface Movement Technologies: Atlanta Demonstrations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Young, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A flight demonstration was conducted in August 1997 at the Hartsfield Atlanta (ATL) International Airport as part of low visibility landing and surface operations (LVLASO) research activities. This research was aimed at investigating technology to improve the safety and efficiency of aircraft movements on the surface during the operational phases of roll-out, turnoff, and taxi in any weather condition down to a runway visual range of 300 feet. The system tested at ATL was composed of airborne and ground-based components that were integrated to provide both the flight crew and controllers with supplemental information to enable safe, expedient surface operations. Experimental displays were installed on a Boeing 757-200 research aircraft in both headup and head-down formats. On the ground, an integrated system maintained surveillance of the airport surface and a controller interface provided routing and control instructions. While at ATL, the research aircraft performed a series of flight and taxi operations to show the validity of the operational concept at a major airport facility, to validate simulation findings, and to assess each of the individual technologies performance in an airport environment. The concept was demonstrated to over 100 visitors from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the aviation community. This paper gives an overview of the LVLASO system and ATL test activities.

  3. Quantitative Method To Determine Sporicidal Decontamination of Building Surfaces by Gaseous Fumigants, and Issues Related to Laboratory-Scale Studies▿

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Vipin K.; Wallace, Lalena; Smith, Lisa S.; Ryan, Shawn P.; Martin, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide gas and vaporous hydrogen peroxide sterilant have been used in the cleanup of building interiors contaminated with spores of Bacillus anthracis. A systematic study, in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, was jointly undertaken by the U.S. Army-Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to determine the sporicidal efficacies of these two fumigants on six building structural materials: carpet, ceiling tile, unpainted cinder block, painted I-beam steel, painted wallboard, and unpainted pinewood. Critical issues related to high-throughput sample processing and spore recovery from porous and nonporous surfaces included (i) the extraction of spores from complex building materials, (ii) the effects of titer challenge levels on fumigant efficacy, and (iii) the impact of bioburden inclusion on spore recovery from surfaces and spore inactivation. Small pieces (1.3 by 1.3 cm of carpet, ceiling tile, wallboard, I-beam steel, and pinewood and 2.5 by 1.3 cm for cinder block) of the materials were inoculated with an aliquot of 50 μl containing the target number (1 × 106, 1 × 107, or 1 × 108) of avirulent spores of B. anthracis NNR1Δ1. The aliquot was dried overnight in a biosafety cabinet, and the spores were extracted by a combination of a 10-min sonication and a 2-min vortexing using 0.5% buffered peptone water as the recovery medium. No statistically significant drop in the kill efficacies of the fumigants was observed when the spore challenge level was increased from 6 log units to 8 log units, even though a general trend toward inhibition of fumigant efficacy was evident. The organic burden (0 to 5%) in the spore inoculum resulted in a statistically significant drop in spore recovery (at the 2 or 5% level). The effect on spore killing was a function of the organic bioburden amount and the material type. In summary, a high-throughput quantitative method was developed for determining the efficacies of fumigants, and the spore recoveries

  4. Plasma Decontamination: A Case Study on Kill Efficacy of Geobacillus stearothermophilus Spores on Different Carrier Materials.

    PubMed

    Semmler, Egmont; Novak, Wenzel; Allinson, Wilf; Wallis, Darren; Wood, Nigel; Awakowicz, Peter; Wunderlich, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    A new technology to the pharmaceutical field is presented: surface decontamination by plasmas The technology is comparable to established barrier systems like e-beam, volatile hydrogen peroxide, or radiation inactivation of microbiological contaminations. This plasma technology is part of a fully automated and validated syringe filling line at a major pharmaceutical company and is in production operation. Incoming pre-sterilized syringe containers ("tubs") are processed by plasma, solely on the outside, and passed into the aseptic filling isolator upon successful decontamination. The objective of this article is to present the operating principles and develop and establish a validation routine on the basis of standard commercial biological indicators. Their decontamination efficacies are determined and correlated to the actual inactivation efficacy on the pharmaceutical packaging material.The reference setup is explained in detail and a short presentation of the cycle development and the relevant plasma control parameters is given, with a special focus on the in-process monitor determining the cycle validity. Different microbial inactivation mechanisms are also discussed and evaluated for their contribution and interaction to enhance plasma decontamination. A material-dependent inactivation behavior was observed. In order to be able to correlate the tub surface inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus endospores to metallic biological indicators, a comparative study was performed. Through consistently demonstrating the linear inactivation behavior between the different materials, it becomes possible to develop an effective and time-saving validation scheme. The challenge in new decontamination systems lies in a thorough validation of the inactivation efficacy under different operating regimes. With plasma, as an ionized gas, a new barrier concept is introduced into pharmaceutical aseptic processing of syringes. The presented system operates in vacuum and only

  5. Efficacy of antimicrobial compounds on surface decontamination of seven shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella inoculated onto fresh beef

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several antimicrobial compounds have been implemented in commercial meat processing plants for decontamination of pathogens on beef carcasses, but there are many commercially available, novel antimicrobial compounds that may be more effective and suitable to be implemented in beef processing pathoge...

  6. Method for electrochemical decontamination of radioactive metal

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    2008-06-10

    A decontamination method for stripping radionuclides from the surface of stainless steel or aluminum material comprising the steps of contacting the metal with a moderately acidic carbonate/bicarbonate electrolyte solution containing sodium or potassium ions and thereafter electrolytically removing the radionuclides from the surface of the metal whereby radionuclides are caused to be stripped off of the material without corrosion or etching of the material surface.

  7. Decontamination for decommissioning: EPRI DfD process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, D.; Elder, G.; Waite, M.

    1996-05-01

    Chemical decontamination is a technique applied to sub-systems of operational LWR plants for the purpose of reducing radiation exposure to plant workers. Several processes are routinely used for this operation, such as the LOMI process originally developed by EPRI. It is necessary to avoid base metal damage on items of plant which are to be returned operational service whereas removal of a thin layer of base metal is required to achieve the high decontamination effectiveness required for decommissioning. Operational decontamination processes therefore have limited value for decontamination of redundant plant items. EPRI has funded a research project with Bradtec Ltd. to develop a decontamination process for decommissioning which could achieve the necessary effectiveness, while retaining the major features of (and hence experience with) operational sub-system processes. The result of this program is the ``EPRI DfD process`` which is the subject of a patent application. The EPRI DfD process uses dilute fluoroboric acid under conditions of controlled oxidation potential to remove contamination from surfaces and collect the contamination on ion exchange resin. High effectiveness is achievable, for example decontamination factors of 8,000 on stainless steel and 2,000 on Inconel 600 reactor artifacts have been achieved with the process, and these figures are not considered to be limiting. The process can in principle be applied by decontamination vendors` existing equipment, and retains the waste management characteristics typical of sub-system decontamination. There is no chelant present in the ion exchange waste form.

  8. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION (IVOD) SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    The deactivation and decommissioning of 1200 buildings within the U.S. Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management complex will require the disposition of a large quantity of contaminated concrete and metal surfaces. It has been estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete and over 600,000 tons of metal will need disposition. The disposition of such large quantities of material presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The final disposition of this large amount of material will take time and money as well as risk to the D&D work force. A single automated system that would decontaminate and characterize surfaces in one step would not only reduce the schedule and decrease cost during D&D operations but would also protect the D&D workers from unnecessary exposures to contaminated surfaces. This report summarizes the activities performed during FY00 and describes the planned activities for FY01. Accomplishments for FY00 include the following: Development and field-testing of characterization system; Completion of Title III design of deployment platform and decontamination unit; In-house testing of deployment platform and decontamination unit; Completion of system integration design; Identification of deployment site; and Completion of test plan document for deployment of IVOD at Rancho Seco nuclear power facility.

  9. Biological Decontamination Using Pulsed Filamentary Microplasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Keil, Gernot; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    Microplasma jet for the generation of pulsed filamentary discharge at atmospheric pressure has been devised for biological decontamination as well as for modification of surface properties. Long plasma-filament is generated inside a quartz tube and characterized using optical emission spectroscopy, current voltage measurements, numerical simulations and microphotography. Efficiency of our plasma source for the decontamination on inner surface of the tube as well as on objects placed in proximity of plasma effluent is studied. Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria) and spores of Bacillus atrophaeus (Gram-positive bacteria) are used for the decontamination studies. Decontamination of Bacillus atrophaeus endospores, which are layered on PET polymer material, and placed in the proximity of plasma effluent, shows the mean logarithmic bacterial reduction of 3.67 for the treatment time of 120 s. Inactivation of Escherichia coli coated on inner surface of the tube shows the mean logarithmic bacterial reduction of about 5 for the treatment time of 30 s. In addition to this, inhibition studies of bacteria coated on agar plate are also carried out. It shows plasma effluent generated in our plasma source is very effective for the inhibition of bacterial colonization.

  10. Advanced robotics for decontamination and dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, W.R.; Haley, D.C.

    1994-06-01

    The decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) robotics technology application area of the US Department of Energy`s Robotics Technology Development Program is explained and described. D&D robotic systems show real promise for the reduction of human exposure to hazards, for improvement of productivity, and for the reduction of secondary waste generation. Current research and development pertaining to automated floor characterization, robotic equipment removal, and special inspection is summarized. Future research directions for these and emerging activities is given.

  11. The Creative Application of Science, Technology and Work Force Innovations to the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Charboneau, S.; Klos, B.; Heineman, R.; Skeels, B.; Hopkins, A.

    2006-07-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) consists of a number of process and support buildings for handling plutonium. Building construction began in the late 1940's to meet national priorities and became operational in 1950 producing refined plutonium salts and metal for the United States nuclear weapons program The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material for fabrication into a nuclear device for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race. PFP has now completed its mission and is fully engaged in deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). At this time the PFP buildings are planned to be reduced to ground level (slab-on-grade) and the site remediated to satisfy national, Department of Energy (DOE) and Washington state requirements. The D and D of a highly contaminated plutonium processing facility presents a plethora of challenges. PFP personnel approached the D and D mission with a can-do attitude. They went into D and D knowing they were facing a lot of challenges and unknowns. There were concerns about the configuration control associated with drawings of these old process facilities. There were unknowns regarding the location of electrical lines and the condition and contents of process piping containing chemical residues such as strong acids and caustics. The gloveboxes were highly contaminated with plutonium and chemical residues. Most of the glovebox windows were opaque with splashed process chemicals that coated the windows or etched them, reducing visibility to near zero. Visibility into the glovebox was a serious worker concern. Additionally, all the gloves in the gloveboxes were degraded and unusable. Replacing gloves in gloveboxes was necessary to even begin glovebox clean-out. The sheer volume of breathing air needed was also an issue. These and other challenges and PFP

  12. Demonstration recommendations for accelerated testing of concrete decontamination methods

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, K.S.; Ally, M.R.; Brown, C.H.; Morris, M.I.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    A large number of aging US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facilities located throughout the US require deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning. Although several technologies are available commercially for concrete decontamination, emerging technologies with potential to reduce secondary waste and minimize the impact and risk to workers and the environment are needed. In response to these needs, the Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods project team described the nature and extent of contaminated concrete within the DOE complex and identified applicable emerging technologies. Existing information used to describe the nature and extent of contaminated concrete indicates that the most frequently occurring radiological contaminants are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}U (and its daughters), {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, and tritium. The total area of radionuclide-contaminated concrete within the DOE complex is estimated to be in the range of 7.9 {times} 10{sup 8} ft{sup 2}or approximately 18,000 acres. Concrete decontamination problems were matched with emerging technologies to recommend demonstrations considered to provide the most benefit to decontamination of concrete within the DOE complex. Emerging technologies with the most potential benefit were biological decontamination, electro-hydraulic scabbling, electrokinetics, and microwave scabbling.

  13. Experiences with decontaminating tritium-handling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, J.L.; Garcia, F.; Garza, R.G.; Kanna, R.L.; Mayhugh, S.R.; Taylor, D.T.

    1991-07-01

    Tritium-handling apparatus has been decontaminated as part of the shutdown of the LLNL Tritium Facility. Two stainless-steel gloveboxes that had been used to process lithium deuteride-tritide (LiDT) salt were decontaminated using the Portable Cleanup System so that they could be flushed with room air through the facility ventilation system. Further surface decontamination was performed by scrubbing the interior with paper towels and ethyl alcohol or Swish{trademark}. The surface contamination, as shown by swipe surveys, was reduced from 4{times}10{sup 4}--10{sup 6} disintegrations per minute (dpm)/cm{sup 2} to 2{times}10{sup 2}--4{times}10{sup 4} dpm/cm{sup 2}. Details on the decontamination operation are provided. A series of metal (palladium and vanadium) hydride storage beds have been drained of tritium and flushed with deuterium in order to remove as much tritium as possible. The bed draining and flushing procedure is described, and a calculational method is presented which allows estimation of the tritium remaining in a bed after it has been drained and flushed. Data on specific bed draining and flushing are given.

  14. Experiences with decontaminating tritium-handling apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, J.L.; Garcia, F.; Garza, R.G.; Kanna, R.L.; Mayhugh, S.R.; Taylor, D.T.

    1991-07-01

    Tritium-handling apparatus has been decontaminated as part of the shutdown of the LLNL Tritium Facility. Two stainless-steel gloveboxes that had been used to process lithium deuteride-tritide (LiDT) salt were decontaminated using the Portable Cleanup System so that they could be flushed with room air through the facility ventilation system. Further surface decontamination was performed by scrubbing the interior with paper towels and ethyl alcohol or Swish{trademark}. The surface contamination, as shown by swipe surveys, was reduced from 4{times}10{sup 4}--10{sup 6} disintegrations per minute (dpm)/cm{sup 2} to 2{times}10{sup 2}--4{times}10{sup 4} dpm/cm{sup 2}. Details on the decontamination operation are provided. A series of metal (palladium and vanadium) hydride storage beds have been drained of tritium and flushed with deuterium in order to remove as much tritium as possible. The bed draining and flushing procedure is described, and a calculational method is presented which allows estimation of the tritium remaining in a bed after it has been drained and flushed. Data on specific bed draining and flushing are given.

  15. New developments in surface technology and prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmer, Thomas; Beyer, Eckhard

    2003-03-01

    Novel lightweight applications in the automotive and aircraft industries require advanced materials and techniques for surface protection as well as direct and rapid manufacturing of the related components and tools. The manufacturing processes presented in this paper are based on multiple additive and subtractive technologies such as laser cutting, laser welding, direct laser metal deposition, laser/plasma hybrid spraying technique or CNC milling. The process chain is similar to layer-based Rapid Prototyping Techniques. In the first step, the 3D CAD geometry is sliced into layers by a specially developed software. These slices are cut by high speed laser cutting and then joined together. In this way laminated tools or parts are built. To improve surface quality and to increase wear resistance a CNC machining center is used. The system consists of a CNC milling machine, in which a 3 kW Nd:YAG laser, a coaxial powder nozzle and a digitizing system are integrated. Using a new laser/plasma hybrid spraying technique, coatings can be deposited onto parts for surface protection. The layers show a low porosity and high adhesion strength, the thickness is up to 0.3 mm, and the lower effort for preliminary surface preparation reduces time and costs of the whole process.

  16. Photochemically Reactive Surfaces for Decontamination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-10

    producers – curcumin, silicon phthalocyanine, Radical generators – decatungstate, benzophenone . A number of light sources were chosen to excite...from 1:10 to 10:1. Mustard Simulant Photochemistry G-Agent simulant T15 min T60 min VX simulant Singlet oxygen No identified loss 85% 90% No...P-S cleavage Table 1 Summary of the amount of simulant removed by the photochemistry AROPHOTOFINAL01 2 G-agent simulants The following

  17. System decontamination as a tool to control radiation fields

    SciTech Connect

    Riess, R.; Bertholdt, H.O.

    1995-03-01

    Since chemical decontamination of the Reactor Coolant Systems (RCS) and subsystems has the highest potential to reduce radiation fields in a short term this technology has gained an increasing importance. The available decontamination process at Siemens, i.e., the CORD processes, will be described. It is characterized by using permanganic acid for preoxidation and diluted organic acid for the decontamination step. It is a regenerative process resulting in very low waste volumes. This technology has been used frequently in Europe and Japan in both RCS and subsystems. An overview will be given i.e. on the 1993 applications. This overview will include plant, scope, date of performance, system volume specal features of the process removed activities, decon factor time, waste volumes, and personnel dose during decontamination. This overview will be followed by an outlook on future developments in this area.

  18. Decontamination Project for Cell G of the Metal Recovery Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Mandry, G.J.; Grisham, R.W.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of the decontamination effort in Cell G at the Metal Recovery Facility, Building 3505, located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was two-fold: to determine the effectiveness of the dry decontamination technique employed and to provide data required to assess whether additional decontamination using this method would be beneficial in the eventual decommissioning of the facility. Allied Technology Group (ATG) was contracted to remove a portion of the concrete surface in Cell G by a technique known as scabbling. Some metallic cell components were also scabbled to remove paint and other surface debris. Generally, the scabbling operation was a success. Levels of contamination were greatly reduced. The depth of contaminant penetration into the concrete surfaces of certain areas was much greater than had been anticipated, necessitating the removal of additional concrete and extending ATG`s period of performance. Scabbling and other related techniques will be extremely useful in the decontamination and decommissioning of other nuclear facilities with similar radiological profiles.

  19. Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tritium Decontamination Techniques and Processes

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Gentile; S.W. Langish; C.H. Skinner; L.P. Ciebiera

    2004-09-10

    In support of fusion energy development, various techniques and processes have been developed over the past two decades for the removal and decontamination of tritium from a variety of items, surfaces, and components. Tritium decontamination, by chemical, physical, mechanical, or a combination of these methods, is driven by two underlying motivational forces. The first of these motivational forces is safety. Safety is paramount to the established culture associated with fusion energy. The second of these motivational forces is cost. In all aspects, less tritium contamination equals lower operational and disposal costs. This paper will discuss and evaluate the various processes employed for tritium removal and decontamination.

  20. Decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Jevec, J.; Lenore, C.; Ulbricht, S.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. This report describes the results of the performance testing of chelates and solvents for the dissolution of uranium.

  1. Cleanout and Decontamination of a Mustard Agent Ton Container.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    HD TCs using pressurized hot water and steam. ERDEC has successfully decontaminated two HD TCs in an ERDEC Toxic Test Chamber to a 3X condition using...this process. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Ton Containers HD Decontamination Alternative Technology Program 143 3X Condition Heel Hot Water ...the interior of the TC with pressurized hot water . The demonstration was designed to confirm the results of the first HD TC Cleanout Demonstration, and

  2. Decontamination Processes for Restorative Operations and as a Precursor to Decommissioning: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J. L.; Divine, J. R.

    1981-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted an comprehensive literature review of actual reactor decontamination processes that are currently available. In general, any decontamination process should be based on the following criteria: effectiveness, efficiency, safety, and waste production. The information that was collected and analyzed has been divided into three major categories of decontamination: chemical, mechanical, and electrochemical. Chemical methods can be further classified as either low-concentration, singlestep processes or high-concentration, single- or multistep processes. Numerous chemical decontamination methods are detailed. Mechanical decontamination methods are usually restricted to the removal of a contaminated surface layer, whlch limits their versatility; several mechanical decontamination methods are described. Electrochemical decontamination. is both fast and easily controlled, and numerous processes that have been used in industry for many years are discussed. Information obtained from this work is tabulated in Appendix A for easy access, and a bibliography and a glossary have been provided.

  3. Analysis of waste management issues arising from a field study evaluating decontamination of a biological agent from a building.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, P; Wood, J; Drake, J; Minamyer, S; Silvestri, E; Yund, C; Nichols, T; Ierardi, M; Amidan, B

    2016-01-01

    The Bio-response Operational Testing and Evaluation (BOTE) Project was a cross-government effort designed to operationally test and evaluate a response to a biological incident (release of Bacillus anthracis [Ba] spores, the causative agent for anthrax) from initial public health and law enforcement response through environmental remediation. The BOTE Project was designed to address site remediation after the release of a Ba simulant, Bacillus atrophaeus spp. globigii (Bg), within a facility, drawing upon recent advances in the biological sampling and decontamination areas. A key component of response to a biological contamination incident is the proper management of wastes and residues, which is woven throughout all response activities. Waste is generated throughout the response and includes items like sampling media packaging materials, discarded personal protective equipment, items removed from the facility either prior to or following decontamination, aqueous waste streams, and materials generated through the application of decontamination technologies. The amount of residual contaminating agent will impact the available disposal pathways and waste management costs. Waste management is an integral part of the decontamination process and should be included through "Pre-Incident" response planning. Overall, the pH-adjusted bleach decontamination process generated the most waste from the decontamination efforts, and fumigation with chlorine dioxide generated the least waste. A majority of the solid waste generated during pH-adjusted bleach decontamination was the nonporous surfaces that were removed, bagged, decontaminated ex situ, and treated as waste. The waste during the two fumigation rounds of the BOTE Project was associated mainly with sampling activities. Waste management activities may represent a significant contribution to the overall cost of the response/recovery operation. This paper addresses the waste management activities for the BOTE field test

  4. Decontamination of the populated areas contaminated as a result of nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Voronik, N.I.; Shatilo, N.N.; Davydov, Y.P.

    1996-12-31

    Decontamination tests on urban surfaces contaminated by the Chernobyl accident have shown that Chernobyl fallout behaves differently from fallout from nuclear weapons tests and contamination on surfaces in nuclear power plant. The effectiveness of various decontamination compositions for removing Chernobyl fallout from urban surfaces and machinery was determined in a series of laboratory experiments and field trials.

  5. Electrolytic decontamination of the 3013 inner can

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.E.; Nelson, T.O.; Rivera, Y.; Weisbrod, K.; Martinez, H.E.; Limback, S.

    1998-12-31

    Disposition of plutonium recovered from nuclear weapons or production residues must be stored in a manner that ensures safety. The criteria that has been established to assure the safety of stored materials for a minimum of 50 years is DOE-STD-3013. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has designed a containment package in accordance with the DOE standard. The package consists of an optional convenience (food pack) can, a welded type 304L stainless steel inner (primary) can, and a welded type 304L stainless steel outer (secondary) can. With or without the food pack can, the material is placed inside the primary can and welded shut under a helium atmosphere. This activity takes place totally within the confinement of the glove box line. Following the welding process, the can is checked for leaks and then sent down the line for decontamination. Once decontaminated, the sealed primary can may be removed from the glove box line. Welding of the secondary container takes place outside the glove box line. The highly automated decontamination process that has been developed to support the packaging of Special Nuclear Materials is based on an electrolytic process similar to the wide spread industrial technique of electropolishing. The can is placed within a specially designed stainless steel fixture built within a partition of a glove box. This fixture is then filled with a flowing electrolyte solution. A low DC electric current is made to flow between the can, acting as the anode, and the fixture, acting as the cathode. Following the decontamination, the system provides a flow of rinse water through the fixture to rinse the can of remaining salt residues. The system then carried out a drying cycle. Finally, the fixture is opened from the opposite side of the partition and the can surface monitored directly and through surface smears to assure that decontamination is adequate.

  6. Decontamination of radioisotopes

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Gadea, Luis; Cerezo, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Contaminations with radioactive material may occur in several situations related to medicine, industry or research. Seriousness of the incident depends mainly on the radioactive element involved; usually there are no major acute health effects, but in the long term can cause malignancies, leukemia, genetic defects and teratogenic anomalies. The most common is superficial contamination, but the radioactive material can get into the body and be retained by the cells of target organs, injuring directly and permanently sensitive elements of the body. Rapid intervention is very important to remove the radioactive material without spreading it. Work must be performed in a specially prepared area and personnel involved should wear special protective clothing. For external decontamination general cleaning techniques are used, usually do not require chemical techniques. For internal decontamination is necessary to use specific agents, according to the causative element, as well physiological interventions to enhance elimination and excretion. PMID:24376972

  7. Improvement in ultraviolet based decontamination rate using meta-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enaki, Nicolae A.; Bazgan, Sergiu; Ciobanu, Nellu; Turcan, Marina; Paslari, Tatiana; Ristoscu, Carmen; Vaseashta, Ashok; Mihailescu, Ion N.

    2017-09-01

    We propose a method of decontamination using photon-crystals consisting of microspheres and fiber optics structures with various geometries. The efficient decontamination using the surface of the evanescent zone of meta-materials opens a new perspective in the decontamination procedures. We propose different topological structures of meta-materials to increase the contact surface of UV radiation with contaminated liquid. Recent observation of the trapping of dielectric particles along the fibers help us propose a new perspective on the new possibilities to trap the viruses, bacteria and other microorganisms from liquids, in this special zone, where the effective UV coherent Raman decontamination becomes possible. The nonlinear theory of the excitation of vibration modes of bio-molecule of viruses and bacteria is revised, taking into consideration the bimodal coherent states in coherent Raman excitation of biomolecules.

  8. Combined decontamination processes for wastes containing PCBs.

    PubMed

    Kastánek, Frantisek; Kastánek, Petr

    2005-01-31

    This project has focused on the development of a complex assembly of mutually corresponding technological units: a low temperature thermal process for the desorption of PCBs and other organics from soils and other contaminated solid wastes; the extraction of PCBs from soils by an ecological friendly aqueous solution of selected surfactants; the chemical decontamination of PCBs in oils and in-oil-in-water emulsions by metallic sodium and potassium in polyethylene glycols in the presence of aluminum powder; the modified alkaline catalyzed chemical decontamination of PCBs in oil-in-water dispersions in a solid-state reactor (in a film of reacting emulsion on solid carriers); and the breakdown of PCBs in aqueous emulsions with activated hydroxyl radicals enhanced by UV radiation. The processes operate in a closed loop configuration with effluents circulating among the process unit. These technologies have been verified at laboratory and pilot-plant scales.

  9. Preconceptual design of the gas-phase decontamination demonstration cart

    SciTech Connect

    Munday, E.B.

    1993-12-01

    Removal of uranium deposits from the interior surfaces of gaseous diffusion equipment will be a major portion of the overall multibillion dollar effort to decontaminate and decommission the gaseous diffusion plants. Long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas-phase decontamination is being developed at the K-25 Site as an in situ decontamination process that is expected to significantly lower the decontamination costs, reduce worker exposure to radioactive materials, and reduce safeguard concerns. This report documents the preconceptual design of the process equipment that is necessary to conduct a full-scale demonstration of the LTLT method in accordance with the process steps listed above. The process equipment and method proposed in this report are not intended to represent a full-scale production campaign design and operation, since the gas evacuation, gas charging, and off-gas handling systems that would be cost effective in a production campaign are not cost effective for a first-time demonstration. However, the design presented here is expected to be applicable to special decontamination projects beyond the demonstration, which could include the Deposit Recovery Program. The equipment will therefore be sized to a 200 ft size 1 converter (plus a substantial conservative design margin), which is the largest item of interest for gas phase decontamination in the Deposit Recovery Program. The decontamination equipment will allow recovery of the UF{sub 6}, which is generated from the reaction of ClF{sub 3} with the uranium deposits, by use of NaF traps.

  10. Planning guidance for nuclear-power-plant decontamination. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, L.F.; Divine, J.R.; Martin, J.B.

    1983-06-01

    Direct and indirect costs of decontamination are considered in the benefit-cost analysis. A generic form of the benefit-cost ratio is evaluated in monetary and nonmonetary terms, and values of dollar per man-rem are cited. Federal and state agencies that may have jurisiction over various aspects of decontamination and waste disposal activities are identified. Methods of decontamination, their general effectiveness, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are outlined. Dilute or concentrated chemical solutions are usually used in-situ to dissolve the contamination layer and a thin layer of the underlying substrate. Electrochemical techniques are generally limited to components but show high decontamination effectiveness with uniform corrosion. Mechanical agents are particularly appropriate for certain out-of-system surfaces and disassembled parts. These processes are catagorized and specific concerns are discussed. The treatment, storage, and disposal or discharge or discharge of liquid, gaseous, and solid wastes generated during the decontamination process are discussed. Radioactive and other hazardous chemical wastes are considered. The monitoring, treatment, and control of radioactive and nonradioactive effluents, from both routine operations and possible accidents, are discussed. Protecting the health and safety of personnel onsite during decontamination is of prime importance and should be considered in each facet of the decontamination process. The radiation protection philosophy of reducing exposure to levels as low as reasonably achievable should be stressed. These issues are discussed.

  11. Technical evaluation report for the demonstration of radio frequency soil decontamination at Site S-1

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, C.R.; Blanchard, C.F.; Whitt, L.H.

    1995-04-01

    The Air Force`s Armstrong Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, has supported the research and development of Radio Frequency Soil Decontamination. Radio frequency soil decontamination is essentially a heat-assisted soil vapor extraction process. Site S-1 at Kelly Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, was selected for the demonstration of two patented techniques. The site is a former sump that collected spills and surface run-off from a waste petroleum, oils, and lubricants and solvent storage and transfer area. In 1993, a technique developed by the IIT Research Institute using an array of electrodes placed in the soil was demonstrated. In 1994, a technique developed by KAI Technologies, Inc. using a single applicator placed in a vertical borehole was demonstrated. Approximately 120 tons of soil were heated during each demonstration to a temperature of about 150 degrees Celsius.

  12. Decontamination and Decommisioning Equipment Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Scott

    1994-08-26

    DDETS is Relational Data Base Management System (RDBMS) which incorporates 1-D (code 39) and 2-D (PDF417) bar codes into its equipment tracking capabilities. DDETS is compatible with the Reportable Excess Automated Property System (REAPS), and has add, edit, delete and query capabilities for tracking equipment being decontaminated and decommissioned. In addition, bar code technology is utilized in the inventory tracking and shipping of equipment.

  13. Cesium powder and pellets inner container decontamination method determination

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1998-07-09

    The cesium powder and pellets inner container is to be performance tested per the criteria specified in Section 4.0 of HNF-2399, ``Design, Fabrication, and Assembly Criteria for Cesium Powder and Pellet Inner Container.`` The test criteria specifies that the inner container be water tight during decontamination of the exterior surface. Three prototypes will be immersed into a pool of water to simulate a water decontamination process.

  14. Decontamination and detoxification of mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Jemmali, M

    1990-01-01

    Product decontamination and chemical detoxification are needed because preventive measures are not fully able to avoid contamination by mycotoxins. Criteria for safety evaluation studies of decontaminated products have to be established. Few chemical methods are available on an industrial scale; among them, ammoniation and the mixture monomethylamine-calcium hydroxide treatments show greatest promise of short-term application to oilseed cakes. Technical, economic, and public health aspects of these treatments are considered. Other decontamination techniques are briefly reviewed.

  15. THE USE OF A TREATABILITY STUDY TO INVESTIGATE THE POTENTIAL FOR SELF HEATING & EXOTHERMIC REACTIONS IN DECONTAMINATION MATERIALS AT PFP

    SciTech Connect

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2005-02-23

    Cerium Nitrate has been proposed for use in the decontamination of plutonium contaminated equipment at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington. A Treatability Study was conducted to determine the validity of this decontamination technology in terms of meeting its performance goals and to understand the risks associated with the use of Cerium Nitrate under the conditions found at the PFP. Fluor Hanford is beginning the decommissioning of the PFP at the Hanford site. Aggressive chemicals are commonly used to remove transuranic contaminants from process equipment to allow disposal as low level waste. Chemicals being considered for decontamination of gloveboxes in PFP include cerium (IV) nitrate in a nitric acid solution, and proprietary commercial solutions that include acids, degreasers, and sequestering agents. Fluor's decontamination procedure involves application of the chemicals, followed by a wipe-down of the contaminated surfaces with rags. This process effectively transfers the decontamination liquids containing the transuranic materials to the rags, which can then be readily packaged for disposal as TRU waste. As part of a treatability study, Fluor Hanford and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have evaluated the potential for self-heating and exothermic reactions in the residual decontamination materials and the waste packages. Laboratory analyses and thermal-hydraulic modeling reveal a significant self-heating risk for cerium nitrate solutions when used with cotton rags. Exothermic reactions that release significant heat and off-gas have been discovered for cerium nitrate at higher temperatures. From these studies, limiting conditions have been defined to assure safe operations and waste packaging.

  16. Applied surface analysis in magnetic storage technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windeln, Johannes; Bram, Christian; Eckes, Heinz-Ludwig; Hammel, Dirk; Huth, Johanna; Marien, Jan; Röhl, Holger; Schug, Christoph; Wahl, Michael; Wienss, Andreas

    2001-07-01

    This paper gives a synopsis of today's challenges and requirements for a surface analysis and materials science laboratory with a special focus on magnetic recording technology. The critical magnetic recording components, i.e. the protective carbon overcoat (COC), the disk layer structure, the read/write head including the giant-magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor, are described and options for their characterization with specific surface and structure analysis techniques are given. For COC investigations, applications of Raman spectroscopy to the structural analysis and determination of thickness, hydrogen and nitrogen content are discussed. Hardness measurements by atomic force microscopy (AFM) scratching techniques are presented. Surface adsorption phenomena on disk substrates or finished disks are characterized by contact angle analysis or so-called piezo-electric mass adsorption systems (PEMAS), also known as quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). A quickly growing field of applications is listed for various X-ray analysis techniques, such as disk magnetic layer texture analysis for X-ray diffraction, compositional characterization via X-ray fluorescence, compositional analysis with high lateral resolution via electron microprobe analysis. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) has become a standard method for the absolute measurement of individual layer thicknesses contained in multi-layer stacks and thus, is the successor of ellipsometry for this application. Due to the ongoing reduction of critical feature sizes, the analytical challenges in terms of lateral resolution, sensitivity limits and dedicated nano-preparation have been consistently growing and can only be met by state-of-the-art Auger electron spectrometers (AES), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) characterization, focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning and TEM lamella preparation via FIB. The depth profiling of GMR sensor full stacks was significantly

  17. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces.

  18. Decontamination of chemical tracers in droplets by a submerging thin film flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landel, Julien R.; McEvoy, Harry; Dalziel, Stuart B.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the decontamination of chemical tracers contained in small viscous drops by a submerging falling film. This problem has applications in the decontamination of hazardous chemicals, following accidental releases or terrorist attacks. Toxic droplets lying on surfaces are cleaned by spraying a liquid decontaminant over the surface. The decontaminant film submerges the droplets, without detaching them, in order to neutralize toxic chemicals in the droplets. The decontamination process is controlled by advection, diffusion and reaction processes near the drop-film interface. Chemical tracers dissolve into the film flow forming a thin diffusive boundary layer at the interface. The chemical tracers are then neutralized through a reaction with a chemical decontaminant transported in the film. We assume in this work that the decontamination process occurs mainly in the film phase owing to low solubility of the decontaminant in the drop phase. We analyze the impact of the reaction time scale, assuming first-order reaction, in relation with the characteristic advection and diffusion time scales in the case of a single droplet. Using theoretical, numerical and experimental means, we find that the reaction time scale need to be significantly smaller than the characteristic time scale in the diffusive boundary layer in order to enhance noticeably the decontamination of a single toxic droplet. We discuss these results in the more general case of the decontamination of a large number of droplets. This material is based upon work supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency under Contract No. HDTRA1-12-D-0003-0001.

  19. A laser-based solution to industrial decontamination problems

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, M.C.; Pang, Ho-ming; Ferguson, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    The ability of lasers to deposit significant amounts of energy on surfaces located at large distances from the laser can be exploited to solve very difficult industrial problems. The Ames Laboratory has been working in partnership with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies (LMIT) to apply laser technologies to the decontamination of radioactively contaminated surfaces located in hostile environments. Many such applications exist within former USDOE and nuclear industry facilities. As opposed to laser coating removal systems, which are designed to ``strip`` relatively soft coatings from a substrate without damage to the substrate, the system being developed by Ames - LMIT is designed to remove contaminants that are embedded within the metal surface itself. The system generates irradiance levels sufficient to remove microns of metal from a surface and an off-gas system that prevents the redeposition of materials removed from the surface. Process control is assisted by monitoring the laser-generated plasma produced during laser surface ablation. Results achieved using this apparatus for various metal types will be presented along with a discussion of other potential industrial applications.

  20. Ultraviolet light-an FDA approved technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ultraviolet Light (254 nm) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved nonthermal intervention technology that can be used for decontamination of food and food contact surfaces. Ultraviolet light is a green technology that leaves no chemical residues. Results from our laboratory indicate that ex...

  1. DESCALING AND DECONTAMINATING METHOD FOR METALS

    DOEpatents

    Baybarz, R.D.

    1961-04-25

    Oxide scale is removed from the surface of stainless steels and similar metals by contacting the metal under an inert atmosphere with a dilute sulfuric acid solution containing chromous sulfate. The removed oxide scale is either dissolved or disintegrated into a slurry by the solution. Preferred reagent concentrations are 0.3 to 0.5 M chromous sulfate and 0.4 to 0.6 M sulfuric acid. This process is particularly applicable to decontamination of aqueous homogsneous nuclear reactor systems.

  2. Decontamination by cleaning with fluorocarbon surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, R.; Benson, C.E.; Meyers, E.S.; Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1994-02-01

    In the nuclear industry, facilities and their components inevitably become contaminated with radioactive materials. This report documents the application of a novel particle-removal process developed by Entropic Systems, Inc. (ESI), to decontaminate critical instruments and parts that are contaminated with small radioactive particles that adhere to equipment surfaces. The tests were performed as a cooperative effort between ESI and the Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ESI developed a new, environmentally compatible process to remove small particles from solid surfaces that is more effective than spraying or sonicating with CFC-113. This process uses inert perfluorinated liquids as working media; the liquids have zero ozone-depleting potential, are nontoxic and nonflammnable, and are generally recognized as nonhazardous materials. In the ESI process, parts to be cleaned are first sprayed or sonicated with a dilute solution of a high-molecular-weight fluorocarbon surfactant in an inert perfluorinated liquid to effect particle removal. The parts are then rinsed with the perfluorinated liquid to remove the fluorocarbon surfactant applied in the first step, and the residual rinse liquid is then evaporated from the parts into an air or nitrogen stream from which it is recovered. Nuclear contamination is inherently a surface phenomenon. The presence of radioactive particles is responsible for all ``smearable`` contamination and, if the radioactive particles are small enough, for some of the fixed contamination. Because radioactivity does not influence the physical chemistry of particle adhesion, the ESI process should be just as effective in removing radioactive particles as it is in removing nonradioactive particles.

  3. Release of organic chelating agents from solidified decontamination wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Piciulo, P.L.; Adams, J.W.; Milian, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide technical information needed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to evaluate the adequacy of near-surface disposal of decontamination wastes, Brookhaven National Laboratory has measured the release of organic complexing agents from simulated decontamination resin wastes solidified in cement and vinyl ester-styrene. The simulated waste consisted of either mixed bed ion-exchange resins or anion exchange resins equilibrated with EDTA, oxalic acid, citric acid, picolinic acid, formic acid, simulated LOMI reagent or the LND-101A decontamination reagent. The standard procedure ANS 16.1 appeared to be adequate for determining a leachability index for organic acids for comparing the leach resistance of decontamination waste forms. Leachability indexes appeared to be specific for each organic acid. Further, the apparent diffusivities were generally less than those observed for Cs releases from cement wastes forms. The finder material and the composition of the simulated wastes affected the release of the reagents.

  4. Modeling the electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, M.T.; DePaoli, D.W.; Ally, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The decontamination of concrete is a major concern in many Department of (DOE) facilities. Numerous techniques (abrasive methods, manual methods, ultrasonics, concrete surface layer removal, chemical extraction methods, etc.) have been used to remove radioactive contamination from the surface of concrete. Recently, processes that are based on electrokinetic phenomena have been developed to decontaminate concrete. Electrokinetic decontamination has been shown to remove from 70 to over 90% of the surface radioactivity. To evaluate and improve the electrokinetic processes, a model has been developed to simulate the transport of ionic radionuclei constituents through the pores of concrete and into the anolyte and catholyte. The model takes into account the adsorption and desorption kinetics of the radionuclei from the pore walls, and ion transport by electro-osmosis, electromigration, and diffusion. A numerical technique, orthogonal collocation, is used to simultaneously solve the governing convective diffusion equations for a porous concrete slab and the current density equation. This paper presents the theoretical framework of the model and the results from the computation of the dynamics of ion transport during electrokinetic treatment of concrete. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  5. Development and testing of a laser-based decontamination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthofer, A.; Lippmann, W.; Hurtado, A.

    2013-06-01

    Decontamination of radioactive concrete surfaces may be necessary during operation or decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Usually only the upper layers of the concrete structure are contaminated and are removed using labor-intensive mechanical milling processes. Production of a large amount of dust, which can lead to secondary contamination, is inherent to these processes. Improvements in high-energy laser technology have now made it possible for laser radiation to be used in decontamination technologies for the removal of concrete layers. A decontamination unit comprising a diode laser with a beam power of 10 kW in continuous wave (CW) mode in combination with an autonomous manipulator was developed for use in nuclear plants. The laser beam melts the concrete surface to a depth of approximately 5 mm. Compressed air jets then detach the molten layer from the concrete surface and convey it to a suction system, with which it is transported to a collection container. Most of the radionuclides are trapped in the solidifying melt particles, which form an extremely stable effluent well suited to long-term storage. A relatively small amount of dust is generated in the process. Because there is no backlash during energy transfer, the laser device carrier can be designed to be lightweight and flexible. A specially developed manipulator that can move freely along walls and ceilings by means of suction plates is used for the carrier unit. This results in short setup times for preparing for use of the device and minimal personnel exposure to the radiation. Experiments were conducted on a concrete wall to demonstrate the functionality of the overall system in realistic conditions. An optimal ablation rate of 2.16 m²/h at an ablation depth of 1-5 mm was achieved. Today's commercially available diode lasers with powers higher than 50 kW enable ablation rates of >10 m²/h to be achieved and hence make these laser-based systems competitive alternatives to mechanical systems.

  6. Assessing cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Despite the enormous cost of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture, it is not clear what levels of reduction in external radiation exposure are possible in the Special Decontamination Area, the Intensive Contamination Survey Areas and the whole of Fukushima. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of radiation decontamination in Fukushima Prefecture in its entirety. Using a geographic information system, we calculated the costs of removal, storage containers, transport, and temporary and interim storage facilities as well as the reduction in air dose rate for a cumulative external exposure for 9000 1 km × 1 km mesh units incorporating 51 municipalities. The decontamination cost for the basic scenario, for which forested areas within 20 m of habitation areas were decontaminated, was JPY2.53-5.12 trillion; the resulting reduction in annual external dose was about 2500 person-Sv. The transport, storage, and administrative costs of decontamination waste and removed soil reached JPY1.55-2.12 trillion under this scenario. Although implementing decontamination of all forested areas provides some major reductions in the external radiation dose for the average inhabitant, decontamination costs could potentially exceed JPY16 trillion. These results indicate that technologies for reducing the volume of decontamination waste and removed soil should be considered to reduce storage costs and that further discussions about forest decontamination policies are needed.

  7. Integrated decontamination process for metals

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Thomas S.; Whitlow, Graham A.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

  8. Tool decontamination method

    SciTech Connect

    Capella, J.A.; Fowler, D.E.

    1984-04-17

    Disclosed is a system and method for cleaning radioactively contaminated articles, including tools and like items of hardware. The system includes a cleaning chamber for receiving and sealing therein the contaminated articles, a high pressure spray gun disposed within the cleaning chamber for spraying the contaminated articles with a clean solvent to dislodge and dissolve the contaminants, and a system for decontaminating the solvent for reuse. The cleaning chamber includes a drain having the capacity to remove contaminated solvent at a rate at least as great as that at which the solvent is sprayed into the chamber, such that substantially no contaminated solvent collects in the cleaning chamber.

  9. Modification of the Decontamination Facility at the Kruemmel NPP - 13451

    SciTech Connect

    Klute, Stefan; Kupke, Peter

    2013-07-01

    In February 2009, Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH was awarded the contract for the design, manufacture, delivery and construction of a new Decontamination Facility in the controlled area for Kruemmel NPP. The new decontamination equipment has been installed according to the state of art of Kruemmel NPP. The existing space required the following modification, retrofitting and reconstruction works: - Demounting of the existing installation: to create space for the new facility it was necessary to dismantle the old facility. The concrete walls and ceilings were cut into sizes of no more than 400 kg for ease of handling. This enabled decontamination so largest possible amount could be released for recycling. All steel parts were cut into sizes fitting for iron-barred boxes, respecting the requirement to render the parts decontaminable and releasable. - Reconstructing a decontamination facility: Reconstruction of a decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies was conducted using pressurized air with abrasives (glass beads or steel shots). The walls were equipped with sound protection, the inner walls were welded gap-free to prevent the emergence of interstices and were equipped with changeable wear and tear curtains. Abrasive processing unit positioned underneath the dry blasting box adjacent to the two discharge hoppers. A switch has been installed for the separation of the glass beads and the steel shot. The glass beads are directed into a 200 l drum for the disposal. The steel shot was cleaned using a separator. The cleaned steel shot was routed via transportation devices to the storage container, making it available for further blasting operations. A decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies using high pressure water technology was provided by new construction. Water pressures between 160 bar and 800 bar can be selected. The inner

  10. Testing and evaluation of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, D.W.; Harris, M.T.; Ally, M.R.

    1996-10-01

    The goals and objectives of the technical task plan (TTP) are to (1) describe the nature and extent of concrete contamination within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and emerging and commercial technologies applicable to these problems; (2) to match technologies to the concrete problems and recommend up to four demonstrations; (3) to initiate recommended demonstrations; and (4) to continue investigation and evaluation of the application of electrokinetic decontamination processes to concrete. This document presents findings of experimental and theoretical studies of the electrokinetic decontamination (EK) process and their implications for field demonstrations. This effort is an extension of the work performed under TTP 142005, ``Electroosmotic Concrete Decontamination. The goals of this task were to determine the applicability of EK for treating contaminated concrete and, if warranted, to evaluate EK as a potential technology for demonstration. 62 refs.

  11. Application of Ultrasonic for Decontamination of Contaminated Soil - 13142

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilyev, A.P.; Lebedev, N.M.; Savkin, A.E.

    2013-07-01

    The trials of soil decontamination were carried out with the help of a pilot ultrasonic installation in different modes. The installation included a decontamination bath equipped with ultrasonic sources, a precipitator for solution purification from small particles (less than 80 micrometer), sorption filter for solution purification from radionuclides washing out from soil, a tank for decontamination solution, a pump for decontamination solution supply. The trials were carried out on artificially contaminated sand with specific activity of 4.5 10{sup 5} Bk/kg and really contaminated soil from Russian Scientific Center 'Kurchatovsky Institute' (RSC'KI') with specific activity of 2.9 10{sup 4} Bk/kg. It was established that application of ultrasonic intensify the process of soil reagent decontamination and increase its efficiency. The decontamination factor for the artificially contaminated soil was ∼200 and for soil from RSC'KI' ∼30. The flow-sheet diagram has been developed for the new installation as well as determined the main technological characteristics of the equipment. (authors)

  12. Large area cold plasma applicator for decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konesky, G. A.

    2008-04-01

    Cold plasma applicators have been used in the Medical community for several years for uses ranging from hemostasis ("stop bleeding") to tumor removal. An added benefit of this technology is enhanced wound healing by the destruction of infectious microbial agents without damaging healthy tissue. The beam is typically one millimeter to less than a centimeter in diameter. This technology has been adapted and expanded to large area applicators of potentially a square meter or more. Decontamination applications include both biological and chemical agents, and assisting in the removal of radiological agents, with minimal or no damage to the contaminated substrate material. Linear and planar multiemitter array plasma applicator design and operation is discussed.

  13. Enabling Technology for Lunar Surface Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Beaman, B.; Choi, M.; Cooper, L.; Feng, S.; King, R.; Leshin, L.; Lewis, R.; Yeh, P. S.; Young, E.; Lorenz, J.

    2009-03-01

    Implementation of Lunar Exploration Initiative goals will require deployment of science packages at sites with the appropriate vantage point for obtaining the desired measurements and remote from potential (human) sources of contamination, thus requiring stand alone operation. Chief instruments/instrument package candidates include those which could provide long-term monitoring of the surface and subsurface environments for fundamental lunar science and crew safety. The major challenge such packages face will be operating during long periods of darkness in extreme cold potentially without the Pu238 based power and thermal systems available to Apollo era packages (ALSEP). The initial attempt to design a 10 instrument environmental monitoring package with a solar/battery based power system led to a package with a unacceptably large mass (500 kg) of which over half was battery mass. We achieved considerable reduction in this mass, first through the introduction of high performance electronics capable of operating at far lower temperature, reducing the initial mass estimate by a factor of 2, and then through the use of innovative thermal balance strategies involving the use of multi-layer thin materials and gravity-assisted heat pipes, reducing the initial mass estimate by a factor of 5. Yet to be implemented are strategies involving the universal incorporation of ULT/ULP (Ultra Low Temperature/Ultra Low Power) digital and analog electronics, distributed or non-conventionally packaged power systems, and state of the art solar power technology. These strategies will be required to meet the far more challenging thermal requirements of operating through a normal 28 day diurnal cycle. Limited battery survival temperature range remains the largest obstacle.

  14. Efficacy of scalp hair decontamination following exposure to vapours of sulphur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide and methyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Prevost, Philippe; Maloni, Pascal; Torre, Franck; Asia, Laurence; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Chemical warfare agents are an actual threat and victims' decontamination is a main concern when mass exposure occurs. Skin decontamination with current protocols has been widely documented, as well as surface decontamination. However, considering hair ability to trap chemicals in vapour phase, we investigated hair decontamination after exposure to sulphur mustard simulants methyl salicylate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide. Four decontamination protocols were tested on hair, combining showering and emergency decontamination (use of Fuller's earth or Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion RSDL(®)). Both simulants were recovered from hair after treatment, but contents were significantly reduced (42-85% content allowance). Showering alone was the least efficient protocol. Concerning 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide, protocols did not display significant differences in decontamination efficacy. For MeS, use of emergency decontaminants significantly increased showering efficacy (10-20% rise), underlining their usefulness before thorough decontamination. Our results highlighted the need to extensively decontaminate hair after chemical exposure. Residual amounts after decontamination are challenging, as their release from hair could lead to health issues. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice

    PubMed Central

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the “ladder-pipe system” for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination. PMID:27442794

  16. Decontamination of human and rabbit skin experimentally contaminated with 99mTc radionuclide using the active components of "Shudhika"-a skin decontamination kit.

    PubMed

    Rana, Sudha; Dutta, Mita; Soni, Nakshe L; Chopra, Mahendra K; Kumar, Vinod; Goel, Rajeev; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Sultana, Sarwat; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Radioactive contamination can occur as a result of accidental or intentional release of radioactive materials (RM) into the environment. RM may deposit on clothing, skin, or hair. Decontamination of contaminated persons should be done as soon as possible to minimize the deleterious health effects of radiation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the decontamination efficiency (for residual contaminant) of the active components of "Shudhika," an indigenously developed skin decontamination kit. The study kit is for external radioactive decontamination of intact skin. Decontamination efficiency was evaluated on the skin surface of rabbit (n = 6) and human volunteers (n = 13). 99mTc sodium pertechnetate (200-250 μCi) was used as the radio-contaminant. Skin surface area (5 × 5 cm2) of thoracic abdominal region of the rabbit and the forearm and the palm of human volunteers were used for the study. Decontamination was performed by using cotton swabs soaked with chemical decontamination agents of the kit. Decontamination efficiency (% of the contaminant removed) was calculated for each component of the study. Overall effectiveness of the kit was calculated to be 85% ± 5% in animal and 92% ± 3% in human skin surfaces. Running water and liquid soap with water was able to decontaminate volunteers' hand and animal skin up to 70% ± 5%. Chemical decontamination agents were applied only for trace residues (30% ± 5%). Efficiency of all the kit components was found up to be 20% ± 3% (animal) and 28% ± 2 (human), respectively. Residual contamination after final decontamination attempt for both the models was observed to be 12% ± 3% and 5% ± 2%. After 24 and 48 hours of the decontamination procedure, skin was found to be normal (no redness, erythema and edema were observed). Decontaminants of the study kit were effective in removal of localized radioactive skin contamination when water is ineffective for further decontamination. By using the chemical decontaminants of

  17. A review of plant decontamination methods: 1988 Update: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Remark, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    This document updates the state-of-the-art in decontamination technology since the publication of the previous review (EPRI NP- 1128) in May 1981. A brief description of the corrosion-film characteristics is presented as well as corrosion film differences between a BWR and PWR. The generation transportation, activation, and deposition of the radioisotopes found throughout the reactor coolant system is also discussed. Successful, well executed, decontamination campaigns are always preceded by meticulous planning and careful procedure preparation which include contingency operations. The Decontamination Planning and Preparation Section describes the technical planning steps as well as the methodology that should be followed in order to select the optimum decontamination technique for a specific application. A review of a number of the decontamination methods commercialized since 1980 is presented. The basic mechanism for each process is described as well as specific applications of the technology in the fields. Where possible, results obtained in the field are presented. The information was obtained from industry vendors as well as personnel at the plant locations that have utilized the technology. 72 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. Change of Rainfall-runoff event hysteresis in suspended sediments due to surface decontamination in the area affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Y.; Yoshimura, K.; Taniguchi, K.; Kubo, T.; Smith, H.; Brake, W.; Kuramoto, T.; Sato, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) on March 2011 accident released massive amounts of radiocesium into the terrestrial environment such as Cs-137 and Cs-134. Where deposition density of Cs-137 exceeds loughly 500 kBq/m2, evacuation has been ordered, and the cropland and paddy field have become grassland in the summer of 2011.A large scale government funded research program has been started (Saito and Onda, 2015) to monitor the amount of radiocesium wash off from the catchments started June, 2011 (Yamashiki et al 2013) starting initial 6 sites in the Abukuma river watershed in the nested structure. Two stations were installed on the main river channel (Iwanuma; 5313 km2 and Fushiguro; 3645 km2), and the more highly-contaminated Kuchibuto sub-basin (Mizusakai; 7.5km2, Kuchibuto Upstream; 21.4 km2, Kuchibuto middle stream; 63 km2, Kuchibuto downstream; 135 km2) was selected for detailed monitoring. The sites are increased to 30 sites (Yoshimura et al., 2015) to cover the most of the area within 80 km from the FDNPP in 2013.Continuous measurements of flow and turbidity (for estimating suspended sediment concentration) were made at each monitoring station. Turbidity meters (Analyte turbidity meter, MacVan 3000-NTU) calibrated with bottom sediment of the Horai reservoir upstream the Abukuma river, and water level gauges (RuggedTROLL100) . During our monitoring of topsoil up to 5 cm and replaced with lower part of the soil taken nearby in the two upstream catchments (Kuchibuto upstream, Mizusakai ) mainly in 2014 to 2015.The change of rainfall-runoff event hysteresis in suspended sediments before and after the decontamination was significant. From 2011 to 2013. Most of the response of suspended sediment occurs before the rainfall peak. However, after 2014, the response occurs after the runoff events, and suspended sediment concentration has been increased especially in the stations where decontamination area ratio are high.

  19. Nuclear reactor cooling system decontamination reagent regeneration. [PWR; BWR

    DOEpatents

    Anstine, L.D.; James, D.B.; Melaika, E.A.; Peterson, J.P. Jr.

    1980-06-06

    An improved method for decontaminating the coolant system of water-cooled nuclear power reactors and for regenerating the decontamination solution is described. A small amount of one or more weak-acid organic complexing agents is added to the reactor coolant, and the pH is adjusted to form a decontamination solution which is circulated throughout the coolant system to dissolve metal oxides from the interior surfaces and complex the resulting metal ions and radionuclide ions. The coolant containing the complexed metal ions and radionuclide ions is passed through a strong-base anion exchange resin bed which has been presaturated with a solution containing the complexing agents in the same ratio and having the same pH as the decontamination solution. As the decontamination solution passes through the resin bed, metal-complexed anions are exchanged for the metal-ion-free anions on the bed, while metal-ion-free anions in the solution pass through the bed, thus removing the metal ions and regenerating the decontamination solution.

  20. Los Alamos DP West Plutonium Facility decontamination project, 1978-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Garde, R.; Cox, E.J.; Valentine, A.M.

    1982-09-01

    The DP West Plutonium Facility operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico was decontaminated between April 1978 and April 1981. The facility was constructed in 1944 to 1945 to produce plutonium metal and fabricate parts for nuclear weapons. It was continually used as a plutonium processing and research facility until mid-1978. Decontamination operations included dismantling and removing gloveboxes and conveyor tunnels; removing process systems, utilities, and exhaust ducts; and decontaminating all remaining surfaces. This report describes glovebox and conveyor tunnel separations, decontamination techniques, health and safety considerations, waste management procedures, and costs of the operation.

  1. Bioinspired Functional Surfaces for Technological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vipul; Kumar, Suneel; Reddy, Kumbam Lingeshwar; Bahuguna, Ashish; Krishnan, Venkata

    2016-08-01

    Biological matters have been in continuous encounter with extreme environmental conditions leading to their evolution over millions of years. The fittest have survived through continuous evolution, an ongoing process. Biological surfaces are the important active interfaces between biological matters and the environment, and have been evolving over time to a higher state of intelligent functionality. Bioinspired surfaces with special functionalities have grabbed attention in materials research in the recent times. The microstructures and mechanisms behind these functional biological surfaces with interesting properties have inspired scientists to create artificial materials and surfaces which possess the properties equivalent to their counterparts. In this review, we have described the interplay between unique multiscale (micro- and nano-scale) structures of biological surfaces with intrinsic material properties which have inspired researchers to achieve the desired wettability and functionalities. Inspired by naturally occurring surfaces, researchers have designed and fabricated novel interfacial materials with versatile functionalities and wettability, such as superantiwetting surfaces (superhydrophobic and superoleophobic), omniphobic, switching wettability and water collecting surfaces. These strategies collectively enable functional surfaces to be utilized in different applications such as fog harvesting, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), catalysis, sensing and biological applications. This paper delivers a critical review of such inspiring biological surfaces and artificial bioinspired surfaces utilized in different applications, where material science and engineering have merged by taking inspiration from the natural systems.

  2. Surface reactions in microelectronics process technology.

    PubMed

    Levitin, Galit; Hess, Dennis W

    2011-01-01

    Current integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing consists of more than 800 process steps, nearly all of which involve reactions at surfaces that significantly impact device yield and performance. From initial surface preparation through film deposition, patterning, etching, residue removal, and metallization, an understanding of surface reactions and interactions is critical to the successful continuous scaling, yield, and reliability of electronic devices. In this review, some of the most important surface reactions that drive the development of microelectronic device fabrication are described. The reactions discussed do not constitute comprehensive coverage of this topic in IC manufacture but have been selected to demonstrate the importance of surface/interface reactions and interactions in the development of new materials, processing sequences, and process integration challenges. Specifically, the review focuses on surface reactions related to surface cleaning/preparation, semiconductor film growth, dielectric film growth, metallization, and etching (dry and wet).

  3. Skin decontamination: principles and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heidi P; Zhai, Hongbo; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-11-01

    Skin decontamination is the primary intervention needed in chemical, biological and radiological exposures, involving immediate removal of the contaminant from the skin performed in the most efficient way. The most readily available decontamination system on a practical basis is washing with soap and water or water only. Timely use of flushing with copious amounts of water may physically remove the contaminant. However, this traditional method may not be completely effective, and contaminants left on the skin after traditional washing procedures can have toxic consequences. This article focuses on the principles and practices of skin decontamination.

  4. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials for hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.E.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolytic removal of plutonium and americium from stainless steel and uranium surfaces has been demonstrated. Preliminary experiments were performed on the electrochemically based decontamination of type 304L stainless steel in sodium nitrate solutions to better understand the metal removal effects of varying cur-rent density, pH, and nitrate concentration parameters. Material removal rates and changes in surface morphology under these varying conditions are reported. Experimental results indicate that an electropolishing step before contamination removes surface roughness, thereby simplifying later electrolytic decontamination. Sodium nitrate based electrolytic decontamination produced the most uniform stripping of material at low to intermediate pH and at sodium nitrate concentrations of 200 g L{sup -1} and higher. Stirring was also observed to increase the uniformity of the stripping process.

  5. Decontamination Efficacy Testing of COTS SteriFx Prodcuts for Mass Personnel and Casualty Decontamination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    strong oxidants that can harm skin and eyes . A safe, easily disseminated and effective alternative biological decontamination agent is needed to address...J.R. 2002. Wound Healing in an Equine Model with SteriFx Technology. Final report, DARPA SBIR Office, contract # DAAH01‐02‐C‐R173. McKillip, J...in spite of its low pH, strong compatibility with animal tissue. In each area for consideration, skin, inhalation, ingestion, and eyes , the

  6. Stainless steel decontamination manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Three, large-volume coverage manipulator systems were designed and built for the Defense Water Processing Facility at the Savannah River Laboratory. These stainless steel systems will be used for high-pressure spray decontamination of waste containers and large process equipment modules. Each system has a manipulator arm, folding boom, and vertical drive and guide structure. Handling capacity is 45 kg, horizontal reach is 4.6 m with a 180-deg swing motion, and the vertical travel is 6 m. The system is remotely removable and replaceable in modules using an overhead crane and an impact wrench. The manipulator arm has seven motions: Shoulder rotation and pivot, elbow pivot, wrist pivot and rotation, and grip open-close. All motions are variable speed and are slip-clutch protected to prevent overloading from external forces (collisions).

  7. Granulated decontamination formulations

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2007-10-02

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  8. Macroscopic surface cleaning using a high repetition rate ultraviolet laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, H. M.; Baldwin, D.; Edelson, M. C.

    The aim of the Ames Laboratory Laser Decontamination Project is to explore new decontamination methods to reduce waste volumes and achieve sufficiently high decontamination factors to permit the unrestricted release of metals for commercial use. This paper presents a discussion of recent experimental work designed to test the capabilities of ultraviolet lasers for large surface area (approximately m(sup 2)) cleaning. The potential benefits of applying laser technology to decontamination are the elimination of solvents, the potential for remote operation to reduce exposure of personnel and expensive equipment to radiation hazards, and the minimization of secondary wastes. High-repetition rate lasers can clean large surfaces (approximately m(sup 2)) in a reasonable amount of time. Proper selection of laser pulse energy, wavelength, repetition rate, and focusing lens is mandated to optimize process efficiency.

  9. Conceptual design for a land decontamination robot

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, G.P.

    1989-11-01

    This study investigates the development of a machine for the cleanup and/or treatment of land areas contaminated by a nuclear accident. This system of hardware components could remove radioactive, fallout-type contamination from rolling terrain, such as agricultural farm. This mobile system is remotely operable. This system could be referred to as a land decontamination robot.'' A survey of vendors has identified a set of hardware components which are commercially available and not special development items. These components include a large vacuum loader unit, a vehicle for moving the unit around the contaminated area, an industrial robot arm for moving the vacuum nozzle over the contaminated surface, an electronic remote control system, and a position determination system to assist with steering the vehicle on subsequent passes around the contaminated area. Cost estimates were developed for each component. Two versions of the decontamination robot'' were considered: (1) a truck-mounted vacuum loader unit, and (2) a trailer-mounted unit pulled by a bulldozer-type crawler. The costs of the hardware components for the truck-mounted unit are about $450,000; the trailer-mounted unit is about 10% more expensive. These costs are only the hardware costs; the costs associated with integrating this hardware into an operating decontamination system have not been included. Also not included are the costs of programming the sweeping motion of the robot arm and of any computer equipment or software necessary to process and display information relating to the vehicle's position within the contaminated area. It is assumed that these costs will at least equal the cost of the hardware and will thus move the total cost for the complete land decontamination robot system to a minimum of $1,000,000. 25 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF{sub 6}. This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible.

  11. Electric Arc and Electrochemical Surface Texturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Snyder, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    Surface texturing of conductive materials can readily be accomplished by means of a moving electric arc which produces a plasma from the environmental gases as well as from the vaporized substrate and arc electrode materials. As the arc is forced to move across the substrate surface, a condensate from the plasma re-deposits an extremely rough surface which is intimately mixed and attached to the substrate material. The arc textured surfaces produce greatly enhanced thermal emittance and hold potential for use as high temperature radiator surfaces in space, as well as in systems which use radiative heat dissipation such as computer assisted tomography (CAT) scan systems. Electrochemical texturing of titanium alloys can be accomplished by using sodium chloride solutions along with ultrasonic agitation to produce a random distribution of craters on the surface. The crater size and density can be controlled to produce surface craters appropriately sized for direct bone in-growth of orthopaedic implants. Electric arc texturing and electrochemical texturing techniques, surface properties and potential applications will be presented.

  12. Ozone decontamination of bioclean rooms.

    PubMed Central

    Masaoka, T; Kubota, Y; Namiuchi, S; Takubo, T; Ueda, T; Shibata, H; Nakamura, H; Yoshitake, J; Yamayoshi, T; Doi, H; Kamiki, T

    1982-01-01

    To establish a convenient method for decontaminating bioclean rooms, the effect of ozone at 80 mg/m3 for 72 h was compared with formaldehyde vaporization at an initial concentration of 150 mg/m3 with a gradual decrease to 20 mg/m3 during 72 h. Ozone was found to be inferior to formaldehyde in activity. When the bioclean room was decontaminated twice with ozone, the mean colony count per 10 cm2 was decreased to about the same level as when formaldehyde was used. Ozone had a strong caustic effect upon rubber materials. Despite these disadvantages, ozone decontamination was demonstrated to be superior to formaldehyde vaporization because of convenience, insignificant inhalation of the disinfectant by the hospital staff, and very rapid expulsion of the gas after ventilation. Because the disadvantages of ozone can be easily controlled, this study suggests that ozone decontamination is a promising method for maintaining bioclean rooms. PMID:6803668

  13. Decontamination of Subway Infrastructure Materials ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report This report provides the results of an assessment to determine the decontamination efficacy of methyl bromide (MB) fumigant in inactivating Bacillus anthracis (B.a.; causative agent for anthrax) spores on materials typically found in subway system infrastructure. To facilitate future decontaminations employing MB in a subway environment, this investigation focused on finding efficacious conditions when using MB at temperatures that may be encountered in an underground subway system (i.e., temperatures lower than used in previous studies).

  14. Effectiveness of Spray-Based Decontamination Methods for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report The objective of this project was to assess the effectiveness of spray-based common decontamination methods for inactivating Bacillus (B.) atrophaeus (surrogate for B. anthracis) spores and bacteriophage MS2 (surrogate for foot and mouth disease virus [FMDV]) on selected test surfaces (with or without a model agricultural soil load). Relocation of viable viruses or spores from the contaminated coupon surfaces into aerosol or liquid fractions during the decontamination methods was investigated. This project was conducted to support jointly held missions of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Within the EPA, the project supports the mission of EPA’s Homeland Security Research Program (HSRP) by providing relevant information pertinent to the decontamination of contaminated areas resulting from a biological incident.

  15. Effectiveness of Spray-Based Decontamination Methods for ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report The objective of this project was to assess the effectiveness of spray-based common decontamination methods for inactivating Bacillus (B.) atrophaeus (surrogate for B. anthracis) spores and bacteriophage MS2 (surrogate for foot and mouth disease virus [FMDV]) on selected test surfaces (with or without a model agricultural soil load). Relocation of viable viruses or spores from the contaminated coupon surfaces into aerosol or liquid fractions during the decontamination methods was investigated. This project was conducted to support jointly held missions of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Within the EPA, the project supports the mission of EPA’s Homeland Security Research Program (HSRP) by providing relevant information pertinent to the decontamination of contaminated areas resulting from a biological incident.

  16. Automated Single Cell Data Decontamination Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Tennessen, Kristin; Pati, Amrita

    2014-03-21

    Recent technological advancements in single-cell genomics have encouraged the classification and functional assessment of microorganisms from a wide span of the biospheres phylogeny.1,2 Environmental processes of interest to the DOE, such as bioremediation and carbon cycling, can be elucidated through the genomic lens of these unculturable microbes. However, contamination can occur at various stages of the single-cell sequencing process. Contaminated data can lead to wasted time and effort on meaningless analyses, inaccurate or erroneous conclusions, and pollution of public databases. A fully automated decontamination tool is necessary to prevent these instances and increase the throughput of the single-cell sequencing process

  17. Electrochemical Decontamination of Painted and Heavily Corroded Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Marczak, S.; Anderson, J.; Dziewinski, J.

    1998-09-08

    The radioactive metal wastes that are generated from nuclear fuel plants and radiochemical laboratories are mainly contaminated by the surface deposition of radioactive isotopes. There are presently several techniques used in removing surface contamination involving physical and chemical processes. However, there has been very little research done in the area of soiled, heavily oxidized, and painted metals. Researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory have been developing electrochemical procedures for the decontamination of bare and painted metal objects. These methods have been found to be effective on highly corroded as well as relatively new metals. This study has been successful in decontaminating projectiles and shrapnel excavated during environmental restoration projects after 40+ years of exposure to the elements. Heavily corroded augers used in sampling activities throughout the area were also successfully decontaminated. This process has demonstrated its effectiveness and offers several advantages over the present metal decontamination practices of media blasting and chemical solvents. These advantages include the addition of no toxic or hazardous chemicals, low operating temperature and pressure, and easily scaleable equipment. It is in their future plans to use this process in the decontamination of gloveboxes destined for disposal as TRU waste.

  18. Radiological decontamination, survey, and statistical release method for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwill, M.E.; Lively, J.W.; Morris, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    Earth-moving vehicles (e.g., dump trucks, belly dumps) commonly haul radiologically contaminated materials from a site being remediated to a disposal site. Traditionally, each vehicle must be surveyed before being released. The logistical difficulties of implementing the traditional approach on a large scale demand that an alternative be devised. A statistical method for assessing product quality from a continuous process was adapted to the vehicle decontamination process. This method produced a sampling scheme that automatically compensates and accommodates fluctuating batch sizes and changing conditions without the need to modify or rectify the sampling scheme in the field. Vehicles are randomly selected (sampled) upon completion of the decontamination process to be surveyed for residual radioactive surface contamination. The frequency of sampling is based on the expected number of vehicles passing through the decontamination process in a given period and the confidence level desired. This process has been successfully used for 1 year at the former uranium millsite in Monticello, Utah (a cleanup site regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act). The method forces improvement in the quality of the decontamination process and results in a lower likelihood that vehicles exceeding the surface contamination standards are offered for survey. Implementation of this statistical sampling method on Monticello projects has resulted in more efficient processing of vehicles through decontamination and radiological release, saved hundreds of hours of processing time, provided a high level of confidence that release limits are met, and improved the radiological cleanliness of vehicles leaving the controlled site.

  19. Beryllium decontamination with different solvents on different structures.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, A; Dion, C; Viau, S; Perrault, G

    2009-10-01

    The objective of the present work was to estimate the efficiency of moistened wipes in removing beryllium with different solutions including Citranox, Alconox, NaCl 5%, Resolve, and Ledizolv on various types of surfaces such as unpainted metal, wood frames, painted metal, concrete, painted concrete, and Plexiglas from three different occupational settings. Of the three plants that were investigated, only surfaces in the aluminium smelter were decontaminated down to the clearance reference level of 0.2 microg 100 cm(-2), with all the solvents used. In the machine tooling and milling department, the clearance level of 0.2 microg 100 cm(-2) was reached after the three decontaminations, with all the solvents. In the machine plant for the military, aerospace, and telecommunications industries, the beryllium concentrations on the concrete wall, before decontamination with the high-pressure gun, were usually >3 microg 100 cm(-2), and concentrations as high as 31 microg 100 cm(-2) were measured. After the high-pressure cleanup, the beryllium concentrations were sometimes reduced by a factor of 10, but never reached the clearance level. Beryllium compounds that had adhered to most types of structures that we attempted to decontaminate were reduced to below the clearance reference value except on concrete floors. There did not seem to be any difference between the decontamination actions for all the solvents used in this study.

  20. A Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Study: Use of Energetic Methods to Decontaminate Filtering Facepiece Respirators Contaminated with H1N1 Aerosols and Droplets (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    of avian influenza viruses, noted that many technologies can effectively in- activate viruses. However, we could find no report on the decontamination...lower-temperature applications are typically effective. Avian influenza virus was shown to be com- pletely inactivated after a 5-minute treatment at 628C...inanimate surfaces? A systematic review. BMC Infect Dis 2006;6:130-7.18. Benedictis PD, Beato MS, Capua I. Inactivation of avian influenza viruses by

  1. Fuel cell technology for lunar surface operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deronck, Henry J.

    1992-02-01

    Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells have been shown, in several NASA and contractor studies, to be an enabling technology for providing electrical power for lunar bases, outposts, and vehicles. The fuel cell, in conjunction with similar electrolysis cells, comprises a closed regenerative energy storage system, commonly referred to as a regenerative fuel cell (RFC). For stationary applications, energy densities of 1,000 watt-hours per kilograms an order of magnitude over the best rechargeable batteries, have been projected. In this RFC, the coupled fuel cell and electrolyzer act as an ultra-light battery. Electrical energy from solar arrays 'charges' the system by electrolyzing water into hydrogen and oxygen. When an electrical load is applied, the fuel cell reacts the hydrogen and oxygen to 'discharge' usable power. Several concepts for utilizing RFC's, with varying degrees of integration, have been proposed, including both primary and backup roles. For mobile power needs, such as rovers, an effective configuration may be to have only the fuel cell located on the vehicle, and to use a central electrolysis 'gas station'. Two fuel cell technologies are prime candidates for lunar power system concepts: alkaline electrolyte and proton exchange membrane. Alkaline fuel cells have been developed to a mature production power unit in NASA's Space Shuttle Orbiter. Recent advances in materials offer to significantly improve durability to the level needed for extended lunar operations. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are receiving considerable support for hydrospace and terrestrial transportation applications. This technology promises durability, simplicity, and flexibility.

  2. Fuel cell technology for lunar surface operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deronck, Henry J.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells have been shown, in several NASA and contractor studies, to be an enabling technology for providing electrical power for lunar bases, outposts, and vehicles. The fuel cell, in conjunction with similar electrolysis cells, comprises a closed regenerative energy storage system, commonly referred to as a regenerative fuel cell (RFC). For stationary applications, energy densities of 1,000 watt-hours per kilograms an order of magnitude over the best rechargeable batteries, have been projected. In this RFC, the coupled fuel cell and electrolyzer act as an ultra-light battery. Electrical energy from solar arrays 'charges' the system by electrolyzing water into hydrogen and oxygen. When an electrical load is applied, the fuel cell reacts the hydrogen and oxygen to 'discharge' usable power. Several concepts for utilizing RFC's, with varying degrees of integration, have been proposed, including both primary and backup roles. For mobile power needs, such as rovers, an effective configuration may be to have only the fuel cell located on the vehicle, and to use a central electrolysis 'gas station'. Two fuel cell technologies are prime candidates for lunar power system concepts: alkaline electrolyte and proton exchange membrane. Alkaline fuel cells have been developed to a mature production power unit in NASA's Space Shuttle Orbiter. Recent advances in materials offer to significantly improve durability to the level needed for extended lunar operations. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are receiving considerable support for hydrospace and terrestrial transportation applications. This technology promises durability, simplicity, and flexibility.

  3. RSDL decontamination of human skin contaminated with the nerve agent VX.

    PubMed

    Thors, L; Lindberg, S; Johansson, S; Koch, B; Koch, M; Hägglund, L; Bucht, A

    2017-03-05

    also influenced the degradation rate since the degradation of VX was significantly faster when the NMR analysis was performed in the organic solvent acetonitrile compared to water. In conclusion, we have applied the in vitro flow-through diffusion cell for evaluation of skin decontamination procedures of human epidermis exposed to OPCs. It was demonstrated that early decontamination is crucial for efficient mitigation of epidermal penetration of VX and that almost complete removal of the nerve agent from the skin surface is possible. Our data also indicate that the pH of RSDL together with the solubility of OPC in RSDL are of primary importance for the decontamination efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Functionalising surfaces at the nanoscale using plasma technology.

    PubMed

    Moore, R

    2009-01-01

    Plasma technology offers a highly effective toolbox for nanoscale surface engineering of materials. The potential variety of nanoscale features and new properties that can be achieved are reviewed here.

  5. Implementing Cleaner Printed Wiring Board Technologies: Surface Finishes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the problems, solutions, and time and effort involved in implementing alternative surface finish technologies, and this guide is produced as part of the DfE Printed Wiring Board Project

  6. Decontamination formulations for disinfection and sterilization

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Engler, Daniel E.

    2007-09-18

    Aqueous decontamination formulations that neutralize biological pathogens for disinfection and sterilization applications. Examples of suitable applications include disinfection of food processing equipment, disinfection of areas containing livestock, mold remediation, sterilization of medical instruments and direct disinfection of food surfaces, such as beef carcasses. The formulations include at least one reactive compound, bleaching activator, inorganic base, and water. The formulations can be packaged as a two-part kit system, and can have a pH value in the range of 7-8.

  7. Lasers for the radioactive decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, N.S.; Flesher, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    The use of lasers for removing radioactive contamination from concrete surfaces is being investigated at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. A major advantage of a laser decontamination process is that no additional waste is generated. Test results using 50- and 600-W YAG (yttrium-aluminum-garnet) lasers have been extrapolated to more powerful commercially available units. The minimum removal rate for concrete in air is estimated at 420 cm{sup 2}/h (0.45 ft{sup 2}/h) to a depth of 0.64 cm (0.25 in.); underwater rates would be considerably reduced.

  8. Process for Descaling and Decontaminating Metals

    DOEpatents

    Baybarz, R. D.

    1961-04-25

    The oxide scale on the surface of stainless steels and similar metals is removed by contacting the metal under an inert atmosphere with a dilute H/sub 2/ SO/sub 4/ solution containing CrSO/sub 4/. The removed oxide scale is either dissolved or disintegrated into a slurry by the solution. Preferred reagent concentrations are 0.3 to 0.5 M CrSO/sub 4/ and 0.5 to 0.6 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The process is particularly applicable to decontamination of aqueous homogeneous nuclear reactor systems. (AEC)

  9. Systems analysis of decontamination options for civilian vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Foltz, Greg W.; Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this project, which was supported by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) Chemical and Biological Division (CBD), was to investigate options for the decontamination of the exteriors and interiors of vehicles in the civilian setting in order to restore those vehicles to normal use following the release of a highly toxic chemical. The decontamination of vehicles is especially challenging because they often contain sensitive electronic equipment, multiple materials some of which strongly adsorb chemical agents, and in the case of aircraft, have very rigid material compatibility requirements (i.e., they cannot be exposed to reagents that may cause even minor corrosion). A systems analysis approach was taken examine existing and future civilian vehicle decontamination capabilities.

  10. Surface contamination analysis technology team overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, H. Dewitt

    1995-01-01

    A team was established which consisted of representatives from NASA (Marshall Space Flight Center and Langley Research Center), Thiokol Corporation, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, AC Engineering, SAIC, Martin Marietta, and Aerojet. The team's purpose was to bring together the appropriate personnel to determine what surface inspection techniques were applicable to multiprogram bonding surface cleanliness inspection. In order to identify appropriate techniques and their sensitivity to various contaminant families, calibration standards were developed. Producing standards included development of consistent low level contamination application techniques. Oxidation was also considered for effect on inspection equipment response. Ellipsometry was used for oxidation characterization. Verification testing was then accomplished to show that selected inspection techniques could detect subject contaminants at levels found to be detrimental to critical bond systems of interest. Once feasibility of identified techniques was shown, selected techniques and instrumentation could then be incorporated into a multipurpose inspection head and integrated with a robot for critical surface inspection. Inspection techniques currently being evaluated include optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE); near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy utilizing fiber optics; Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy; and ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence. Current plans are to demonstrate an integrated system in MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex within five years from initiation of this effort in 1992 assuming appropriate funding levels are maintained. This paper gives an overview of work accomplished by the team and future plans.

  11. BNL Building 650 lead decontamination and treatment feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.D.; Cowgill, M.G.; Milian, L.W.

    1995-10-01

    Lead has been used extensively at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for radiation shielding in numerous reactor, accelerator and other research programs. A large inventory of excess lead (estimated at 410,000 kg) in many shapes and sizes is currently being stored. Due to it`s toxicity, lead and soluble lead compounds are considered hazardous waste by the Environmental Protection Agency. Through use at BNL, some of the lead has become radioactive, either by contamination of the surface or through activation by neutrons or deuterons. This study was conducted at BNL`s Environmental and Waste Technology Center for the BNL Safety and Environmental Protection Division to evaluate feasibility of various treatment options for excess lead currently being stored. The objectives of this effort included investigating potential treatment methods by conducting a review of the literature, developing a means of screening lead waste to determine the radioactive characteristics, examining the feasibility of chemical and physical decontamination technologies, and demonstrating BNL polyethylene macro-encapsulation as a means of treating hazardous or mixed waste lead for disposal. A review and evaluation of the literature indicated that a number of physical and chemical methods are available for decontamination of lead. Many of these techniques have been applied for this purpose with varying degrees of success. Methods that apply mechanical techniques are more appropriate for lead bricks and sheet which contain large smooth surfaces amenable to physical abrasion. Lead wool, turnings, and small irregularly shaped pieces would be treated more effectively by chemical decontamination techniques. Either dry abrasion or wet chemical methods result in production of a secondary mixed waste stream that requires treatment prior to disposal.

  12. Technology for robotic surface inspection in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volpe, Richard; Balaram, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents on-going research in robotic inspection of space platforms. Three main areas of investigation are discussed: machine vision inspection techniques, an integrated sensor end-effector, and an orbital environment laboratory simulation. Machine vision inspection utilizes automatic comparison of new and reference images to detect on-orbit induced damage such as micrometeorite impacts. The cameras and lighting used for this inspection are housed in a multisensor end-effector, which also contains a suite of sensors for detection of temperature, gas leaks, proximity, and forces. To fully test all of these sensors, a realistic space platform mock-up has been created, complete with visual, temperature, and gas anomalies. Further, changing orbital lighting conditions are effectively mimicked by a robotic solar simulator. In the paper, each of these technology components will be discussed, and experimental results are provided.

  13. Decontamination of 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide using titanate nanoscrolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinhammes, Alfred; Wagner, George W.; Kulkarni, Harsha; Jia, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qi; Qin, Lu-Chang; Wu, Yue

    2005-08-01

    Titanate nanoscrolls, a recently discovered variant of TiO 2 nanocrystals, are tested as reactive sorbent for chemical warfare agent (CWA) decontamination. The large surface area of the uncapped tubules provides the desired rapid absorption of the contaminant while water molecules, intrinsic constituents of titanate nanoscrolls, provide the necessary chemistry for hydrolytic reaction. In this study the decomposition of 2-chloroethyl ethylsulfide (CEES), a simulant for the CWA mustard, was monitored using 13C NMR. The NMR spectra reveal reaction products as expected from the hydrolysis of CEES. This demonstrates that titanate nanoscrolls could potentially be employed as a decontaminant for CWAs.

  14. Concrete decontamination by Electro-Hydraulic Scabbling (EHS)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    EHS is being developed for decontaminating concrete structures from radionuclides, organic substances, and hazardous metals. EHS involves the generation of powerful shock waves and intense cavitation by a strong pulsed electric discharge in a water layer at the concrete surface; high impulse pressure results in stresses which crack and peel off a concrete layer of controllable thickness. Scabbling produces contaminated debris of relatively small volume which can be easily removed, leaving clean bulk concrete. Objective of Phase I was to prove the technical feasibility of EH for controlled scabbling and decontamination of concrete. Phase I is complete.

  15. Comparison of eggshell surface sanitization technologies and impacts on consumer acceptability.

    PubMed

    Al-Ajeeli, Morouj N; Taylor, T Matthew; Alvarado, Christine Z; Coufal, Craig D

    2016-05-01

    Shell eggs can be contaminated with many types of microorganisms, including bacterial pathogens, and thus present a risk for the transmission of foodborne disease to consumers. Currently, most United States egg processors utilize egg washing and sanitization systems to decontaminate surfaces of shell eggs prior to packaging. However, previous research has indicated that current shell egg sanitization technologies employed in the commercial egg industry may not completely eliminate bacteria from the surface of eggshells, and thus alternative egg sanitization technologies with the potential for increased microbial reductions on eggshells should be investigated. The objectives of this study were to compare the antimicrobial efficacy and consumer sensory attributes of industry-available eggshell sanitization methods (chlorine and quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) applied via spray) to various alternative egg sanitization technologies. Eggs (White Leghorn hens; n=195) were obtained for evaluation of sanitizer-induced reduction in mesophilic aerobic bacteria (n=90) or inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) reduction (n=105). Sanitizing treatments evaluated in this experiment were: chlorine spray (100 ppm available chlorine), QAC spray (200 ppm), peracetic acid spray (PAA; 135 ppm) alone or in combination with ultraviolet light (UV; 254 nm), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 3.5% solution) spray in combination with UV (H2O2+UV). For enumeration of aerobic bacteria, eggs were sampled at 0, 7, and 14 days of storage at 4°C; surviving SE cells from inoculated eggs were enumerated by differential plating. Sensory trials were conducted to determine consumer liking of scrambled eggs made from eggs sanitized with chlorine, QAC, H2O2+UV, or no treatment (control). The H2O2 and UV treatment resulted in the greatest reductions in eggshell aerobic plate counts compared to other treatments throughout egg storage (P<0.05). All treatments utilized reduced SE below the limit of

  16. Novel photoreactive surface modification technology for fabricated devices.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, T; Inoue, K

    1990-01-01

    A novel surface process technology was developed to improve biocompatibility of fabricated devices, such as artificial blood pumps. The developed technology is based on photochemistry of a phenyl azide group, which is capable of covalently binding a synthetic polymer or protein to substrate surfaces upon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The photoreactive co-polymers or proteins, which were grafted or modified with phenyl azide groups, were successfully chemically fixed to surfaces. Photoreactive, hydrophilic copolymers with poly(dimethyl acrylamide) and albumin, both of which were chemically fixed on surfaces, were found effective for blood compatible surfaces; a fibronectin-bound surface was suitable for providing tissue compatibility. The quartz optical fiber guided UV irradiation system enables one to provide desired biocompatibility to a specific part of a fabricated device.

  17. Evaluation of peracetic acid fog for the inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spore surrogates in a large decontamination chamber.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joseph P; Calfee, Michael Worth; Clayton, Matthew; Griffin-Gatchalian, Nicole; Touati, Abderrahmane; Egler, Kim

    2013-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sporicidal (inactivation of bacterial spores) effectiveness and operation of a fogging device utilizing peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide (PAA). Experiments were conducted in a pilot-scale 24 m(3) stainless steel chamber using either biological indicators (BIs) or bacterial spores deposited onto surfaces via aerosolization. Wipe sampling was used to recover aerosol-deposited spores from chamber surfaces and coupon materials before and after fogging to assess decontamination efficacy. Temperature, relative humidity, and hydrogen peroxide vapor levels were measured during testing to characterize the fog environment. The fog completely inactivated all BIs in a test using a 60 mL solution of PAA (22% hydrogen peroxide/4.5% peracetic acid). In tests using aerosol-deposited bacterial spores, the majority of the post-fogging spore levels per sample were less than 1 log colony forming units, with a number of samples having no detectable spores. In terms of decontamination efficacy, a 4.78 log reduction of viable spores was achieved on wood and stainless steel. Fogging of PAA solutions shows potential as a relatively easy to use decontamination technology in the event of contamination with Bacillus anthracis or other spore-forming infectious disease agents, although additional research is needed to enhance sporicidal efficacy.

  18. Laboratory evaluation of large-scale decontamination approaches.

    PubMed

    Calfee, M W; Ryan, S P; Wood, J P; Mickelsen, L; Kempter, C; Miller, L; Colby, M; Touati, A; Clayton, M; Griffin-Gatchalian, N; McDonald, S; Delafield, R

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of two spray-based decontamination methods for surface contamination reduction and to determine the potential for contamination spread by these methods. Material coupons (treated plywood and concrete) were contaminated with c. 1 × 10(7) spores of Bacillus atrophaeus by aerosol deposition. Decontaminants (pH-adjusted bleach or Spor-Klenz(®) RTU) were applied to coupons by either backpack sprayer or gas-powered sprayer. Contact time, reapplication frequency and rinse method were also varied. In addition to surface removal efficacy, partitioning of contamination between the rinsate and aerosol fractions was determined. Results indicated that pH-adjusted bleach was effective (≥6 logs reduction) when two applications and a 30 min contact time were administered, regardless of the decontaminant application method or material. Spor-Klenz(®) RTU was effective on wood, but achieved ≤3 logs reduction on concrete. A shortened application procedure with pH-adjusted bleach resulted in lower efficacy on wood, and a greater apparent potential for contamination spread. Consideration of material surface type is important when selecting a decontaminant. Also, achieving conditions that effectively inactivate surface biological contamination are critical to preventing the spread of contamination. Results presented here are intended to help development of remediation plans following a biological contamination incident. © 2012 Arcadis Geraghty & Miller Inc. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Decontamination of Subway Railcar and Related Materials ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report In the event of a biological incident in a transportation hub such as a subway system, effective remediation of railcars, subway tunnels and stations will require the use of various decontamination approaches. One potential decontamination tool that could be used in such an event is the fogging of sporicidal liquids. The study described in this report builds on previous fogging decontamination research, but with a focus on decontaminating subway railcars and related materials.

  20. Decontamination of Subway Railcar and Related Materials ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report In the event of a biological incident in a transportation hub such as a subway system, effective remediation of railcars, subway tunnels and stations will require the use of various decontamination approaches. One potential decontamination tool that could be used in such an event is the fogging of sporicidal liquids. The study described in this report builds on previous fogging decontamination research, but with a focus on decontaminating subway railcars and related materials.

  1. Facility decontamination for reuse at West Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Gessner, R.F.; Tundo, D.; Lawrence, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project has been created to decontaminate and decommission a civilian fuel reprocessing plant. This activity involves decontamination of the former facility for installation of high- and low-level liquid waste processing equipment. About 70% of the plant has been decontaminated and liquid waste processing equipment installed. The decontamination effort utilized both contact and remote practices and a variety of commonplace and unique tools and equipment. Lessons learned during the cleanup are reviewed in this paper.

  2. The decontamination and decommissioning debate

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, A.J.; Goo, M.L.

    1994-04-01

    DEcontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of radioactively contaminated sites is one of the major issues in radioactive waste management. Emerging developments in this area involving the USNRC, the USEPA, the USDOE, and the USDOD, the states and the publish will soon result in generic regulatory programs determining who must decontaminated, to what level and how, when decontamination will take place, how much radioactive waste will be generated by D&D, and the conditions for disposal of such waste. This article discusses the process of setting guidelines for D&D and the potential for interagency conflict, duplicative regulation and infeasible control standards. Topics covered include: recent D&D developments at the NRC and EPA; the NRC`s D&D rulemaking; the EPA`s D&D efforts; additional Agency Interplay; history - the Uranium Mill Tailing Experience; Dual Regulation under UMTRCA; Dual regulation under the Clean Air Acts.

  3. Large scale, urban decontamination; developments, historical examples and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R.L.

    2007-07-01

    Recent terrorist threats and actions have lead to a renewed interest in the technical field of large scale, urban environment decontamination. One of the driving forces for this interest is the prospect for the cleanup and removal of radioactive dispersal device (RDD or 'dirty bomb') residues. In response, the United States Government has spent many millions of dollars investigating RDD contamination and novel decontamination methodologies. The efficiency of RDD cleanup response will be improved with these new developments and a better understanding of the 'old reliable' methodologies. While an RDD is primarily an economic and psychological weapon, the need to cleanup and return valuable or culturally significant resources to the public is nonetheless valid. Several private companies, universities and National Laboratories are currently developing novel RDD cleanup technologies. Because of its longstanding association with radioactive facilities, the U. S. Department of Energy National Laboratories are at the forefront in developing and testing new RDD decontamination methods. However, such cleanup technologies are likely to be fairly task specific; while many different contamination mechanisms, substrate and environmental conditions will make actual application more complicated. Some major efforts have also been made to model potential contamination, to evaluate both old and new decontamination techniques and to assess their readiness for use. There are a number of significant lessons that can be gained from a look at previous large scale cleanup projects. Too often we are quick to apply a costly 'package and dispose' method when sound technological cleaning approaches are available. Understanding historical perspectives, advanced planning and constant technology improvement are essential to successful decontamination. (authors)

  4. Quality control of decontaminating agents.

    PubMed

    Arancegui, N; Cabanillas, M; Martinez, A; Funosas, E; Maestri, L; Hermida Lucena, P

    1999-01-01

    The present study evaluates the efficiency of the following decontaminating agents for the multiresistant, locally circulating bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa: glutaraldehyde 2%--makes A and B-, glutaraldehyde-formaldehyde; povidone-iodine-makes A, B and C-; sodium hypochloride; chloroxylenol--makes A and B-; and lapire chloride. The 9027 ATCC strain was used as a standard. A modification of the method of Kelsey and Sykes (1) was used to evaluate decontaminating efficiency. Highly satisfactory results were obtained with glutaraldehide 2% A and B, glutaraldehyde-formaldehyde and sodium hypochlorite. The results for povidone-iodine A, B and C were satisfactory but were unsatisfactory for chloroxylenol and lapirium chloride.

  5. YNPS main coolant system decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, E.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Yankee Nuclear Power Station (YNPS) located in Rowe, Massachusetts, is a four-loop pressurized water reactor that permanently ceased power operation on February 26, 1992. Decommissioning activities, including steam generator removal, reactor internals removal, and system dismantlement, have been in progress since the shutdown. One of the most significant challenges for YNPS in 1996 was the performance of the main coolant system chemical decontamination. This paper describes the objectives, challenges, and achievements involved in the planning and implementation of the chemical decontamination.

  6. A remotely operated robot for decontamination tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Dudar, A.M.; Vandewalle, R.C.

    1994-02-01

    Engineers in the Robotics Development Group at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) have developed a robot which will be used to decontaminate a pipe gallery of a tank farm used for nuclear waste storage. Personnel access is required into this pipe gallery to inspect existing pipes and perform repairs to secondary containment walls around the tank farm. Presently, the pipe gallery is littered with debris of various sizes and its surface is contaminated with activity levels up to 2.5E6 DPM (disintegrations per minute) alpha and exposure levels as high as 20 Rad/hr. Cleaning up this pipe gallery win be the mission of an all-hydraulic robotic vehicle developed in-house at WSRC caged the ``Remote Decon`` robot. The Remote Decon is a tracked vehicle which utilizes skid steering and features a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) manipulator arm, a five-DOF front end loader type bucket with a rotating brush for scrubbing and decontaminating surfaces, and a three-DOF pan/tilt mechanism with cameras and lights. The Remote Decon system is connected to a control console via a 200 foot tethered cable. The control console was designed with ergonomics and simplicity as the main design factors and features three joysticks, video monitors, LED panels, and audible alarms.

  7. Technology of Strengthening Steel Details by Surfacing Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, V. G.; Bataev, A. A.; Rakhimyanov, Kh M.; Mul, D. O.

    2016-04-01

    The article considers the problem of forming wear resistant meal ceramic coatings on steel surfaces using the results of our own investigations and the analysis of achievements made in the country and abroad. Increasing the wear resistance of surface layers of steel details is achieved by surfacing composite coatings with carbides or borides of metals as disperse particles in the strengthening phase. The use of surfacing on wearing machine details and mechanisms has a history of more than 100 years. But still engineering investigations in this field are being conducted up to now. The use of heating sources which provide a high density of power allows ensuring temperature and time conditions of surfacing under which composites with peculiar service and functional properties are formed. High concentration of energy in the zone of melt, which is created from powder mixtures and the hardened surface layer, allows producing the transition zone between the main material and surfaced coating. Surfacing by the electron beam directed from vacuum to the atmosphere is of considerable technological advantages. They give the possibility of strengthening surface layers of large-sized details by surfacing powder mixtures without their preliminary compacting. A modified layer of the main metal with ceramic particles distributed in it is created as a result of heating surfaced powders and the detail surface layer by the electron beam. Technology of surfacing allows using powders of refractory metals and graphite in the composition of powder mixtures. They interact with one another and form the particles of the hardening phase of the composition coating. The chemical composition of the main and surfaced materials is considered to be the main factor which determines the character of metallurgical processes in local zones of melt as well as the structure and properties of surfaced composition.

  8. IV INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ATOM AND MOLECULAR PULSED LASERS (AMPL'99): Surface oxide removal by a XeCl laser for decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentis, M. L.; Delaporte, Ph; Marine, W.; Uteza, O.

    2000-06-01

    The laser ablation performed with an automated excimer XeCl laser unit is used for large surface cleaning. The study focuses on metal surfaces that are oxidised and are representative of contaminated surfaces with radionuclides in a context of nuclear power plant maintenance. The unit contains an XeCl laser, the beam delivery system, the particle collection cell, and the system for real-time control of cleaning processes. The interaction of laser radiation with a surface is considered, in particular, the surface damage caused by cleaning radiation. The beam delivery system consists of an optical fibre bundle of 5 m long and allows delivering 150 W at 308 nm for laser surface cleaning. The cleaning process is controlled by analysing in real time the plasma electric field evolution. The system permits the cleaning of 2 to 6 m2 h-1 of oxides with only slight substrate modifications.

  9. Contactless decontamination of hair samples: cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Restolho, José; Barroso, Mário; Saramago, Benilde; Dias, Mário; Afonso, Carlos A M

    2017-02-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have already been shown to provide efficient extraction media for several systems, and to capture volatile compounds, namely opiates. In this work, a novel, contactless, artefact-free extraction procedure for the removal of Δ(9) -tetrahrydrocannabinol (THC) from the surface of human hair is presented. To prepare in vitro cannabinoids-contaminated hair, samples were flushed with hashish smoke for 7 h. The decontamination experiments were carried at 100 °C for 24 h, according to the procedure previously described. Fifty-three ILs were screened and presented decontamination efficiencies ranging from 0 to 96 %. Although the majority of the ILs presented efficiencies above 90%, the 1-ethanol-3-methyl tetrafluoroborate (96%) was chosen for further process optimization. The Design of Experiments results demonstrated that all studied variables were significant for the process and the obtained optimum conditions were: 100 °C, 13 h and 175 mg of IL. In the work of Perrotin-Brunel et al. (J. Mol. Struct. 2011, 987, 67), it is demonstrated that, at 100 °C, full conversion of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into THC is obtained after 60 min. Since our decontamination takes place over 13 h at 100 °C, full conversion of THCA into THC is expected. Additionally, our method was compared with the method proposed by Cairns et al. (Forensic Sci. Int. 2004, 145, 97), through the analysis of 15 in vitro contaminated hair samples. The results demonstrated that with our method a mean extraction efficiency of 11 % higher was obtained. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Electric Power System Technology Options for Lunar Surface Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the President announced a 'Vision for Space Exploration' that is bold and forward-thinking, yet practical and responsible. The vision explores answers to longstanding questions of importance to science and society and will develop revolutionary technologies and capabilities for the future, while maintaining good stewardship of taxpayer dollars. One crucial technology area enabling all space exploration is electric power systems. In this paper, the author evaluates surface power technology options in order to identify leading candidate technologies that will accomplish lunar design reference mission three (LDRM-3). LDRM-3 mission consists of multiple, 90-day missions to the lunar South Pole with 4-person crews starting in the year 2020. Top-level power requirements included a nominal 50 kW continuous habitat power over a 5-year lifetime with back-up or redundant emergency power provisions and a nominal 2-kW, 2-person unpressurized rover. To help direct NASA's technology investment strategy, this lunar surface power technology evaluation assessed many figures of merit including: current technology readiness levels (TRLs), potential to advance to TRL 6 by 2014, effectiveness of the technology to meet the mission requirements in the specified time, mass, stowed volume, deployed area, complexity, required special ground facilities, safety, reliability/redundancy, strength of industrial base, applicability to other LDRM-3 elements, extensibility to Mars missions, costs, and risks. For the 50-kW habitat module, dozens of nuclear, radioisotope and solar power technologies were down-selected to a nuclear fission heat source with Brayton, Stirling or thermoelectric power conversion options. Preferred energy storage technologies included lithium-ion battery and Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). Several AC and DC power management and distribution architectures and component technologies were defined consistent with the preferred habitat

  11. Decontamination analysis of the NUWAX-83 accident site using DECON

    SciTech Connect

    Tawil, J.J.

    1983-11-01

    This report presents an analysis of the site restoration options for the NUWAX-83 site, at which an exercise was conducted involving a simulated nuclear weapons accident. This analysis was performed using a computer program deveoped by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The computer program, called DECON, was designed to assist personnel engaged in the planning of decontamination activities. The many features of DECON that are used in this report demonstrate its potential usefulness as a site restoration planning tool. Strategies that are analyzed with DECON include: (1) employing a Quick-Vac option, under which selected surfaces are vacuumed before they can be rained on; (2) protecting surfaces against precipitation; (3) prohibiting specific operations on selected surfaces; (4) requiring specific methods to be used on selected surfaces; (5) evaluating the trade-off between cleanup standards and decontamination costs; and (6) varying of the cleanup standards according to expected exposure to surface.

  12. Decontamination and size reduction of plutonium contaminated process exhaust ductwork and glove boxes

    SciTech Connect

    LaFrate, P.; Elliott, J.; Valasquez, M.

    1996-11-15

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Program has decontaminated and demolished two filter plenum buildings at Technical Area 21 (TA-21). During the project a former hot cell was retrofitted to perform decontamination and size reduction of highly Pu contaminated process exhaust (1,100 ft) and gloveboxes. Pu-238/239 concentrations were as high a 1 Ci per linear foot and averaged approximately 1 mCi/ft. The Project decontamination objective was to reduce the plutonium contamination on surfaces below transuranic levels. If possible, metal surfaces were decontaminated further to meet Science and Ecology Group (SEG) waste classification guidelines to enable the metal to be recycled at their facility in oak Ridge, Tennessee. Project surface contamination acceptance criteria for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), transuranic waste, and SEG waste acceptance criteria will be presented. Ninety percent of all radioactive waste for the project was characterized as LLRW. Twenty percent of this material was shipped to SEG. Process exhaust and glove boxes were brought to the project decontamination area, an old hot cell in Building 4 North. This paper focuses on process exhaust and glovebox decontamination methodology, size reduction techniques, waste characterization, airborne contamination monitoring, engineering controls, worker protection, lessons learned, and waste minimization. Decontamination objectives are discussed in detail.

  13. Automated inspection of solder joints for surface mount technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Robert M.; Park, Hyun Soo; Fan, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at NASA/GSFC evaluated various automated inspection systems (AIS) technologies using test boards with known defects in surface mount solder joints. These boards were complex and included almost every type of surface mount device typical of critical assemblies used for space flight applications: X-ray radiography; X-ray laminography; Ultrasonic Imaging; Optical Imaging; Laser Imaging; and Infrared Inspection. Vendors, representative of the different technologies, inspected the test boards with their particular machine. The results of the evaluation showed limitations of AIS. Furthermore, none of the AIS technologies evaluated proved to meet all of the inspection criteria for use in high-reliability applications. It was found that certain inspection systems could supplement but not replace manual inspection for low-volume, high-reliability, surface mount solder joints.

  14. ONLINE MEASUREMENT OF THE PROGRESS OF DECONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    In order to determine if the sensor technology and the decontamination technology will face problems once integrated, a feasibility study (see Appendix B) was produced in which the effect of motion on the efficiency of a radiation sensor was measured. It was found that the effect is not negligible; however, it is not catastrophic, and if the sensors are properly calibrated, this obstacle can be overcome. During the first year of this project, many important tasks have been accomplished. The search for radiation sensors provided knowledge on the technologies commercially available. This, in turn, allowed for a proper assessment of the properties, limitations, different methods of measurement, and requirements of a large number of sensors. The best possible characterization and data collection instrument and decontamination technologies were chosen using the requirement information in Appendix A. There are technical problems with installing sensors within the blasting head, such as steel shot and dust interference. Therefore, the sensor array is placed so that it will measure the radioactivity after the blasting. Sensors are rather sensitive, and therefore it is not feasible to place the sensor windows in such an abrasive environment. Other factors, such as the need for radiation hardening in extreme cases, and the possible interference of gamma rays with the radio frequency modem, have been considered. These factors are expected to be negligible and can be revisited at the time of prototype production. Factors that need to be addressed are the vibrations of the blasting unit and how to isolate the sensor array from these. In addition, an electromagnetic survey must be performed to ensure there will be no interference with the electronic component that will be integrated. The integration design is shown in section 4.0.

  15. Thermal Stability Studies of Candidate Decontamination Agents for Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant Plutonium-Contaminated Gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; Cooper, Thurman D.; Jones, Susan A.; Ewalt, John R.; Compton, James A.; Trent, Donald S.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.

    2005-09-29

    This report provides the results of PNNL's and Fluor's studies of the thermal stabilities of potential wastes arising from decontamination of Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant's plutonium contaminated gloveboxes. The candidate wastes arising from the decontamination technologies ceric nitrate/nitric acid, RadPro, Glygel, and Aspigel.

  16. ORNL decontamination and decommissioning program

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    A program has been initiated at ORNL to decontaminate and decommission surplus or abandoned nuclear facilities. Program planning and technical studies have been performed by UCC-ND Engineering. A feasibility study for decommissioning the Metal Recovery Facility, a fuel reprocessing pilot plant, has been completed.

  17. Novel Protection and Decontamination Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    Novel Protection and Decontamination Strategies Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. June 2016...development of novel rationally designed virus inactivation strategies and novel environmentally benign disinfection systems. The virus inactivation...1.2  Peptide  phage  display  –  mutagenesis  and  selection   studies ......................................................... 6

  18. Decontamination processes for waste glass canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.

    1981-06-01

    The process which will be used to decontaminate waste glass canisters at the Savannah River Plant consists of: decontamination (slurry blasting); rinse (high-pressure water); and spot decontamination (high-pressure water plus slurry). No additional waste will be produced by this process because glass frit used in decontamination will be mixed with the radioactive waste and fed into the glass melter. Decontamination of waste glass canisters with chemical and abrasive blasting techniques was investigated. The ability of a chemical technique with HNO/sub 3/-HF and H/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/ to remove baked-on contamination was demonstrated. A correlation between oxide removal and decontamination was observed. Oxide removal and, thus, decontamination by abrasive blasting techniques with glass frit as the abrasive was proposed and demonstrated.

  19. A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, barmac K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA s Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of supportability, in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test and Verification, Maintenance and Repair, and Scavenging and Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set

  20. A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, Barmac K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA's Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of "supportability", in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in a environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test & Verification, Maintenance & Repair, and Scavenging & Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set of

  1. Concrete decontamination by electro-hydraulic scabbling (EHS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    Contamination of concrete structures by radionuclides, hazardous metals and organic substances (including PCB`s) occurs at many DOE sites. The contamination of concrete structures (walls, floors, ceilings, etc.) varies in type, concentration, and especially depth of penetration into the concrete. In many instances, only the surface layer of concrete is contaminated, up to a depth of one inch, according to estimates provided in the R and D ID document. Then, removal of the concrete surface layer (scabbling) is considered to be the most effective decontamination method. Textron Systems Corp. (TSC) has developed a scabbling concept based on electro-mechanical phenomena accompanying strong electric pulses generated by applying high voltage at the concrete/water interface. Depending on the conditions, the electric discharge may occur either through a waste layer or through the concrete body itself. This report describes the development, testing, and results of this electro-mechanical process. Phase 1 demonstrated the feasibility of the process for the controlled removal of a thin layer of contaminated concrete. Phase 2 designed, fabricated, and tested an integrated subscale unit. This was tested at Fernald. In Phase 3, the scabbling unit was reconfigured to increase its power and processing rate. Technology transfer to an engineering contracting company is continuing.

  2. Decontamination efficacy of three commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) sporicidal disinfectants on medium-sized panels contaminated with surrogate spores of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Jason M; Sabol, Jonathan P; Rastogi, Vipin K

    2014-01-01

    In the event of a wide area release and contamination of a biological agent in an outdoor environment and to building exteriors, decontamination is likely to consume the Nation's remediation capacity, requiring years to cleanup, and leading to incalculable economic losses. This is in part due to scant body of efficacy data on surface areas larger than those studied in a typical laboratory (5×10-cm), resulting in low confidence for operational considerations in sampling and quantitative measurements of prospective technologies recruited in effective cleanup and restoration response. In addition to well-documented fumigation-based cleanup efforts, agencies responsible for mitigation of contaminated sites are exploring alternative methods for decontamination including combinations of disposal of contaminated items, source reduction by vacuuming, mechanical scrubbing, and low-technology alternatives such as pH-adjusted bleach pressure wash. If proven effective, a pressure wash-based removal of Bacillus anthracis spores from building surfaces with readily available equipment will significantly increase the readiness of Federal agencies to meet the daunting challenge of restoration and cleanup effort following a wide-area biological release. In this inter-agency study, the efficacy of commercial-of-the-shelf sporicidal disinfectants applied using backpack sprayers was evaluated in decontamination of spores on the surfaces of medium-sized (∼1.2 m2) panels of steel, pressure-treated (PT) lumber, and brick veneer. Of the three disinfectants, pH-amended bleach, Peridox, and CASCAD evaluated; CASCAD was found to be the most effective in decontamination of spores from all three panel surface types.

  3. Decontamination Efficacy of Three Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Sporicidal Disinfectants on Medium-Sized Panels Contaminated with Surrogate Spores of Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Sabol, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    In the event of a wide area release and contamination of a biological agent in an outdoor environment and to building exteriors, decontamination is likely to consume the Nation’s remediation capacity, requiring years to cleanup, and leading to incalculable economic losses. This is in part due to scant body of efficacy data on surface areas larger than those studied in a typical laboratory (5×10-cm), resulting in low confidence for operational considerations in sampling and quantitative measurements of prospective technologies recruited in effective cleanup and restoration response. In addition to well-documented fumigation-based cleanup efforts, agencies responsible for mitigation of contaminated sites are exploring alternative methods for decontamination including combinations of disposal of contaminated items, source reduction by vacuuming, mechanical scrubbing, and low-technology alternatives such as pH-adjusted bleach pressure wash. If proven effective, a pressure wash-based removal of Bacillus anthracis spores from building surfaces with readily available equipment will significantly increase the readiness of Federal agencies to meet the daunting challenge of restoration and cleanup effort following a wide-area biological release. In this inter-agency study, the efficacy of commercial-of-the-shelf sporicidal disinfectants applied using backpack sprayers was evaluated in decontamination of spores on the surfaces of medium-sized (∼1.2 m2) panels of steel, pressure-treated (PT) lumber, and brick veneer. Of the three disinfectants, pH-amended bleach, Peridox, and CASCAD evaluated; CASCAD was found to be the most effective in decontamination of spores from all three panel surface types. PMID:24940605

  4. Cost Savings through Innovation in Decontamination, Decommissioning, and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Neal A. Yancey

    2003-02-27

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost effective technologies for the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsored large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs) to help bring new technologies into the D&D programs. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) LSDDP generated a list of needs defining specific problems where improved technologies could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. The needs fell into 5 major categories--characterization, dismantlement, safety, material dispositioning, and decontamination. Technologies were carefully selected that provide a large benefit for a small investment. The technologies must provide significant improvements in cost, safety, radiation exposure, waste volume reduction, or schedule savings and widely applicable throughout the DOE complex. The LSDDP project provided training for the new technologies and worked with technology suppliers to resolve any questions that arose. Since 1998, 26 technologies have been demonstrated or deployed through the LSDDP for the D&D program at the INEEL. Of the 26 demonstrated and deployed technologies, 14 were in characterization, 3 were in decontamination, 4 were in dismantlement, 3 were in safety, and 2 were in material dispositioning. To promote the use of these technologies at other sites within the DOE complex, the LSDDP team published fact sheets, videos, technology summary reports, articles in INEEL star newspaper, posters, and maintained an internet home page on the project. As a result, additional deployments have taken place at the Hanford, Mound, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Ashtabula, and West Valley. Eight of the 26 technologies evaluated were developed in foreign countries. The technologies demonstrated have been shown to be faster, less expensive, and/or safer. The

  5. The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owczarczyk, H. B.; Migdał, W.; K ȩdzia, B.

    2000-03-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.

  6. Decontamination efficiency of high power ultrasound in the fruit and vegetable industry, a review.

    PubMed

    Bilek, Seda Ersus; Turantaş, Fulya

    2013-08-16

    Decontamination of fresh fruits and vegetables is an important unsolved technological problem. The main focus of this review is to summarize and synthesize the results of studies and articles about ultrasonic processing which can be adapted to the wash water decontamination process for fruits and vegetables. This review will also provide an overview about the importance of an effective wash water decontamination process in fruits and vegetables, the increase of foodborne outbreaks caused by fresh fruits and vegetables, microbial inactivation using ultrasound, and an interpretation of the high power ultrasound results in the fruits and vegetable industry. In addition, the limitations of ultrasonic processing in commercial applications have also been introduced.

  7. Surgical Treatment of Severe Peri-Implantitis Using a Round Titanium Brush for Implant Surface Decontamination: A Case Report With Clinical Reentry.

    PubMed

    An, Yin-Zhe; Lee, Jae-Hong; Heo, Young-Ku; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Ui-Won; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2017-06-01

    The most common cause of peri-implantitis is the accumulation of plaque and the formation of a biofilm on the implant surface. Terminating the development of the disease requires the biofilm to be removed from the implant surface. This paper describes 2 cases of severe peri-implantitis lesions treated through surgical approaches. Complete mechanical debridement with a round titanium brush was mainly performed to detoxify and modify the affected implant surface. A regenerative approach was then performed. In both cases, the surgical procedure was effective in arresting the peri-implantitis, and clinical reentry revealed uneventful healing of the existing bone defect. No further radiographic bone loss was observed over the 2-year follow-up period. This technique has the advantage of effective cleaning the contaminated implant surface, producing positive clinical and radiological results. However, further studies involving more cases are necessary to verify the reliability and validity of this technique.

  8. Chemical decontamination of façade cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etzold, Merlin A.; Landel, Julien R.; Dalziel, Stuart B.

    2016-11-01

    The problem of cleaning and decontamination of buildings arises in the context of chemical spillages, terrorist attacks, industrial applications and in day-to-day situations such as the removal of graffiti. A common feature of all buildings is the existence of cracks and fissures, which act as contaminant traps. This contribution reports experiments and modelling of the removal of a water-soluble contaminant from the bottom of an idealised V-shaped crack. The contaminant is dissolved in a polymer thickened droplet. The surface washing techniques commonly used in industrial decontamination induce a flow in the crack which is mostly controlled by the crack geometry. Rinsing with pure water is compared against the situation in which a neutralising chemical is present. The cleaning process is modelled by solving the time-dependent diffusion equation within the droplet coupled to the steady state advection-diffusion equation outside the droplet. This approach is similar to the work of Landel et al. on decontaminating plane surfaces beneath falling films. Our results indicate that the proposed model describes successfully the earlier stages of decontamination. In later stages the dissolution of the thickened matrix may contribute to the process.

  9. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000 l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3 min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  10. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  11. Effectiveness of three decontamination treatments against influenza virus applied to filtering facepiece respirators.

    PubMed

    Lore, Michael B; Heimbuch, Brian K; Brown, Teanne L; Wander, Joseph D; Hinrichs, Steven H

    2012-01-01

    Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) are recommended for use as precautions against airborne pathogenic microorganisms; however, during pandemics demand for FFRs may far exceed availability. Reuse of FFRs following decontamination has been proposed but few reported studies have addressed the feasibility. Concerns regarding biocidal efficacy, respirator performance post decontamination, decontamination cost, and user safety have impeded adoption of reuse measures. This study examined the effectiveness of three energetic decontamination methods [ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), microwave-generated steam, and moist heat] on two National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-certified N95 FFRs (3M models 1860s and 1870) contaminated with H5N1. An aerosol settling chamber was used to apply virus-laden droplets to FFRs in a method designed to simulate respiratory deposition of droplets onto surfaces. When FFRs were examined post decontamination by viral culture, all three decontamination methods were effective, reducing virus load by > 4 log median tissue culture infective dose. Analysis of treated FFRs using a quantitative molecular amplification assay (quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) indicated that UVGI decontamination resulted in lower levels of detectable viral RNA than the other two methods. Filter performance was evaluated before and after decontamination using a 1% NaCl aerosol. As all FFRs displayed <5% penetration by 300-nm particles, no profound reduction in filtration performance was caused in the FFRs tested by exposure to virus and subsequent decontamination by the methods used. These findings indicate that, when properly implemented, these methods effectively decontaminate H5N1 on the two FFR models tested and do not drastically affect their filtering function; however, other considerations may influence decisions to reuse FFRs.

  12. Efficacy of decontaminants and disinfectants against Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Prerna; Poxton, Ian R

    2011-08-01

    Clostridium difficile is a common nosocomial pathogen transmitted mainly via its spores. These spores can remain viable on contaminated surfaces for several months and are resistant to most commonly used cleaning agents. Thus, effective decontamination of the environment is essential in preventing the transmission of C. difficile in health-care establishments. However, this emphasis on decontamination must also be extended to laboratories due to risk of exposure of staff to potentially virulent strains. Though few cases of laboratory-acquired infection have been reported, the threat of infection by C. difficile in the laboratory is real. Our aim was to test the efficacy of four disinfectants, Actichlor, MicroSol 3+, TriGene Advance and Virkon, and one laboratory decontaminant, Decon 90, against vegetative cells and spores of C. difficile. Five strains were selected for the study: the three most commonly encountered epidemic strains in Scotland, PCR ribotypes 106, 001 and 027, and control strains 630 and VPI 10463. MICs were determined by agar dilution and broth microdilution. All the agents tested inhibited the growth of vegetative cells of the selected strains at concentrations below the recommended working concentrations. Additionally, their effect on spores was determined by exposing the spores of these strains to different concentrations of the agents for different periods of time. For some of the agents, an exposure of 10 min was required for sporicidal activity. Further, only Actichlor was able to bring about a 3 log(10) reduction in spore numbers under clean and dirty conditions. It was also the only agent that decontaminated different hard, non-porous surfaces artificially contaminated with C. difficile spores. However, this too required an exposure time of more than 2 min and up to 10 min. In conclusion, only the chlorine-releasing agent Actichlor was found to be suitable for the elimination of C. difficile spores from the environment, making it the agent

  13. Mechanical durability of superhydrophobic surfaces: The role of surface modification technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Jing-Hui; Zhang, Li-Zhi; Yan, Yuying; Zhu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Various surface modification technologies have been used to develop superhydrophobic surface, however their durability has been recognized as the major obstacle for the real applications. Here a quantitative investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of different surface modification methods on the surfaces' mechanical durability. The superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared by the combination of two surface roughing methods (etching and sandblasting) with chemical modifications with four low surface energy materials: silica sol (SS), octadecanoic acid (OA), heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrodecyltrichlorosilane (HDFS) and hexadecyltriethoxysilane (HTS). XPS was used to analyze the elements composition and AFM was used to measure the roughness of the surfaces. The durability of these surfaces was tested by a sandpaper abrasion experiment. The collective results showed that the low surface energy materials had significant effects on the surface roughness, which would then play an important role in the durability of these rough surfaces. The SS modified rough surfaces possessed higher roughness and better durability than the surfaces modified by other three low surface energy materials. SS modified rough surfaces could bear 60 cycles of abrasion with 10 g weights on 1500 CW sandpaper.

  14. Surface chemistry: key to control and advance myriad technologies.

    PubMed

    Yates, John T; Campbell, Charles T

    2011-01-18

    This special issue on surface chemistry is introduced with a brief history of the field, a summary of the importance of surface chemistry in technological applications, a brief overview of some of the most important recent developments in this field, and a look forward to some of its most exciting future directions. This collection of invited articles is intended to provide a snapshot of current developments in the field, exemplify the state of the art in fundamental research in surface chemistry, and highlight some possibilities in the future. Here, we show how those articles fit together in the bigger picture of this field.

  15. Surface chemistry: Key to control and advance myriad technologies

    PubMed Central

    Yates, John T.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    This special issue on surface chemistry is introduced with a brief history of the field, a summary of the importance of surface chemistry in technological applications, a brief overview of some of the most important recent developments in this field, and a look forward to some of its most exciting future directions. This collection of invited articles is intended to provide a snapshot of current developments in the field, exemplify the state of the art in fundamental research in surface chemistry, and highlight some possibilities in the future. Here, we show how those articles fit together in the bigger picture of this field. PMID:21245359

  16. Multi-layer enhancement to polysilicon surface-micromachining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.

    1997-10-01

    A multi-level polysilicon surface-micromachining technology consisting of 5 layers of polysilicon is presented. Surface topography and film mechanical stress are the major impediments encountered in the development of a multilayer surface-micromachining process. However, excellent mechanical film characteristics have been obtained through the use of chemical-mechanical polishing for planarization of topography and by proper sequencing of film deposition with thermal anneals. Examples of operating microactuators, geared power-transfer mechanisms, and optical elements demonstrate the mechanical advantages of construction with 5 polysilicon layers.

  17. Development of Biodegradable Isosaccharinate-Containing Foams for Decontamination of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Dhanpat; Rao, Linfeng; Moore, R.C.; Hess, Nancy J.; Tucker, Mark D.

    2003-09-11

    The objective of this project is to develop fundamental information that will lead to the development of a new, more environmentally acceptable technology for decontaminating Pu and other actinides. The key component of this technology is isosaccharinate (ISA), a degradation product of cellulose materials that is biodegradable and binds strongly with tetravalent actinides. We are developing fundamental constants for (1) the effect of a wide range in pH and Ca concentrations on the speciation and thermodynamic reactions of ISA and (2) thermodynamic and kinetic reactions of ISA with tetravalent actinides and other competing ions such as Fe(III). We have successfully formulated and tested several ISA containing foams and gels for their effectiveness in removing tetravalent actinides from concrete and steel surfaces. These data along with a comprehensive thermodynamic mo del developed for Np(IV) and Ca(II) and applicable to a wide range in pH, ISA concentrations, and ionic strengths, will be presented.

  18. Research of the tritium saturation, isotope diffusion and decontamination of stainless steel using magnetic microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Markin, A. I.; Azizov, E. A.; Siromyatnikov, N. I.; Cherkovets, V. E.; Rivkis, L. A.; Semenov, A. A.; Prikina, I. G.

    2008-07-15

    The investigations of the tritium distribution in a surface layer and in the depth of samples using a magnetic microscope were carried out. The dependence of a saturation level in the boundary layer for hydrogen was established from a preliminary examination of samples. Conservation of the tritium distribution profile in the depth of the stainless steel samples after completion of their saturation and cooling was assigned. For Inconel-625 substantial tritium redistribution and release during storage (300 K, 15 and 28 months) were experimentally ascertained to a greater degree satisfies the classical characteristics of the diffusion process. The 'braking' effect of tritium diffusion was found by preliminary saturation of samples by hydrogen. Research in tritium decontamination effects for samples saturated with tritium with various technological preparation was carried out and essential increase of its efficiency was founded. The experiments emulated a model of technological operation cycle of the thermonuclear reactor. (authors)

  19. Water decontamination via the removal of Pb (II) using a new generation of highly energetic surface nano-material: Co(+2)Mo(+6) LDH.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Mohsen S; Bakr, Al-Sayed A; El Naggar, Ahmed M A; Sultan, El-Sayed A

    2016-01-01

    CoMo(CO3(2-)) layered double hydroxide of a highly energetic surface, as a new LDH consisting of divalent and hexavalent cations (M(+2)/M(+6)-LDH), was prepared by a homogeneous co-precipitation method. The structure and morphology of the prepared material was confirmed by several analytical techniques namely; X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The highly energetic surface of the prepared LDH was demonstrated via the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface energy is due to the formation of +4 surface charges in the brucite layer between Co(+2) and Mo(+6). The prepared LDH was applied as a novel adsorbent for the removal of Pb (II) from its aqueous solution at different experimental conditions of time, temperature and initial Pb (II) concentrations. The change of the Pb (II) concentrations; due to adsorption, was monitored by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The maximum uptake of Pb (II) by the Co Mo LDH was (73.4 mg/g) at 298 K. The Pb (II) adsorption was found to follow Langmuir isotherm and pseudo second order model. The adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The interference of other cations on the removal of the Pb (II) was studied. Na(+) and K(+) were found to increase the adsorption capacity of the Co Mo LDH toward Pb (II) while it was slightly decreased by the presence of Mn(+2) and Cu(+2). The synthesized LDH showed a great degree of recoverability (7 times) while completely conserving its parental morphology and adsorption capacity. The mechanism of the lead ions removal had exhibited more reliability through a surface adsorption by the coordination between the Mo(+6) of the brucite layers and the oxygen atoms of the nitrates counter ions.

  20. A Survey and Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent-Decontaminants and Decontamination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-15

    have been incorporated into the M258/258AI decontamination kit to detoxify HD and V (7, 16). By mixing the chloramine-T with a VX simulant, malathion ...that up to 99.5% of the malathion was destroyed within I minute in the temperature range of 5° through 45° C. This report shows that chloramine-T...testing was con- ducted by spraying the chloramine-T-SADS II solution on a malathion -contaminated painted aluminum surface. It was found that approximately

  1. NOVEL EXCAVATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMIC SURFACE MINING

    SciTech Connect

    Vladislav Kecojevic; Samuel Frimpong

    2005-05-01

    Ground excavation constitutes a significant component of production costs in any surface mining operation. The excavation process entails material digging and removal in which the equipment motion is constrained by the workspace geometry. A major excavation problem is the variability of material properties, resulting in varying mechanical energy input and stress loading of shovel dipper-and-tooth assembly across the working bench. This variability has a huge impact on the shovel dipper and tooth assembly in hard formations. With this in mind, the primary objectives of the project were to (i) provide the theoretical basis to develop the Intelligent Shovel Excavation (ISE) technology to solve the problems associated with excavation in material formations; (ii) advance knowledge and frontiers in shovel excavation through intelligent navigation; and (iii) submit proposal for the design, development and implementation of the ISE technology for shovel excavation at experimental surface mining sites. The mathematical methods were used to (i) develop shovel's kinematics and dynamics, and (ii) establish the relationship between shovel parameters and the resistive forces from the material formation during excavation process. The ADAMS simulation environment was used to develop the hydraulic and cable shovel virtual prototypes. Two numerical examples are included to test the theoretical hypotheses and the obtained results are discussed. The area of sensor technology was studied. Application of specific wrist-mounted sensors to characterize the material, bucket and frame assembly was determined. Data acquisition, display and control system for shovel loading technology was adopted. The concept of data acquisition and control system was designed and a shovel boom stresses were simulated. A multi-partner collaboration between research organizations, shovel manufacturer, hardware and sensor technology companies, and surface mining companies is proposed to test design features

  2. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  3. New Waste Calcining Facility Non-radioactive Process Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Michael Clair

    2001-09-01

    This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre-decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with hotographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

  4. New Waste Calcining Facility Non-Radioactive Process Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Michael C.

    2001-09-30

    This report documents the results of a test of the New Calcining Facility (NWCF) process decontamination system. The decontamination system test occurred in December 1981, during non-radioactive testing of the NWCF. The purpose of the decontamination system test was to identify equipment whose design prevented effective calcine removal and decontamination. Effective equipment decontamination was essential to reduce radiation fields for in-cell work after radioactive processing began. The decontamination system test began with a pre-decontamination inspection of the equipment. The pre- decontamination inspection documented the initial condition and cleanliness of the equipment. It provided a basis for judging the effectiveness of the decontamination. The decontamination consisted of a series of equipment flushes using nitric acid and water. A post-decontamination equipment inspection determined the effectiveness of the decontamination. The pre-decontamination and post-decontamination equipment inspections were documented with photographs. The decontamination system was effective in removing calcine from most of the NWCF equipment as evidenced by little visible calcine residue in the equipment after decontamination. The decontamination test identified four areas where the decontamination system required improvement. These included the Calciner off-gas line, Cyclone off-gas line, fluidizing air line, and the Calciner baffle plates. Physical modifications to enhance decontamination were made to those areas, resulting in an effective NWCF decontamination system.

  5. Review of the MDF-LSA 100 Spray Decontamination System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Review of the MDF -LSA 100 Spray Decontamination System Rodi Sferopoulos Human Protection and Performance Division...and performance of the Modec Decontamination Foam ( MDF )-LSA 100 Spray Decontamination System as well as information regarding the decontamination...RELEASE UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Review of the MDF -LSA 100 Spray Decontamination System Executive Summary DSTO were

  6. Soil Washing Experiment for Decontamination of Contaminated NPP Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Son, J.K.; Kang, K.D.; Kim, K.D.; Ha, J.H.; Song, M.J.

    2006-07-01

    The preliminary experiment was performed to obtain the operating conditions of soil washing decontamination process such as decontamination agent, decontamination temperature, decontamination time and ratio of soil and decontamination agent. To estimate decontamination efficiency, particle size of soil was classified into three categories; {>=} 2.0 mm, 2.0 {approx} 0.21 mm and {<=} 0.21 mm. Major target of this experiment was decontamination of Cs-137. The difference of decontamination efficiency using water and neutral salts as decontamination agent is not high. It is concluded that the best temperature of decontamination agent is normal temperature and the best decontamination time was about 60 minutes. And the best ratio of soil and decontamination agent is 1:10. In case of Cs decontamination for fine soils, the decontamination results using neutral salts such as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} shows some limits while using strong acid such as sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid shows high decontamination efficiency ({>=}90%). But we conclude that decontamination using strong acid is also inappropriate because of the insufficiency of decontamination efficiency for highly radioactive fine soils and the difficulty for treatment of secondary liquid waste. It is estimated that the best decontamination process is to use water as decontamination agent for particles which can be decontaminated to clearance level, after particle size separation. (authors)

  7. Ultra-smooth finishing of aspheric surfaces using CAST technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, John; Young, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    Growing applications for astronomical ground-based adaptive systems and air-born telescope systems demand complex optical surface designs combined with ultra-smooth finishing. The use of more sophisticated and accurate optics, especially aspheric ones, allows for shorter optical trains with smaller sizes and a reduced number of components. This in turn reduces fabrication and alignment time and costs. These aspheric components include the following: steep surfaces with large aspheric departures; more complex surface feature designs like stand-alone off-axis-parabola (OAP) and free form optics that combine surface complexity with a requirement for ultra-high smoothness, as well as special optic materials such as lightweight silicon carbide (SiC) for air-born systems. Various fabrication technologies for finishing ultra-smooth aspheric surfaces are progressing to meet these growing and demanding challenges, especially Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) and ion-milling. These methods have demonstrated some good success as well as a certain level of limitations. Amongst them, computer-controlled asphere surface-finishing technology (CAST), developed by Precision Asphere Inc. (PAI), plays an important role in a cost effective manufacturing environment and has successfully delivered numerous products for the applications mentioned above. One of the most recent successes is the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), the world's most powerful planet-hunting instrument, with critical aspheric components (seven OAPs and free form optics) made using CAST technology. GPI showed off its first images in a press release on January 7, 2014 . This paper reviews features of today's technologies in handling the ultra-smooth aspheric optics, especially the capabilities of CAST on these challenging products. As examples, three groups of aspheres deployed in astronomical optics systems, both polished and finished using CAST, will be discussed in detail.

  8. Change in tensile properties of neoprene and nitrile gloves after repeated exposures to acetone and thermal decontamination.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pengfei; Tomasovic, Beth

    2005-11-01

    This study investigated the change in tensile properties of neoprene and nitrile gloves after repeated cycles of exposure to acetone, followed by thermal decontamination. The glove was exposed to acetone (outer surface in contact with chemical), subjected to thermal decontamination, and tested for the tensile strength and the ultimate elongation. Thermal decontamination was carried out inside an oven for 16 hours at 100 degrees C. The exposure/decontamination procedure was repeated for a maximum of 10 cycles. For neoprene versus acetone, the mean tensile strength consistently decreased after each exposure/decontamination cycle. Multiple comparisons indicated that the mean tensile strengths between the new swatches and each exposure/decontamination group were significantly different (p < 0.05). The loss of either tensile strength or ultimate elongation was less than 23% compared with new swatches after four exposure/decontamination cycles. Swatches with out acetone exposure were then cycled through the oven in the same manner. It was found that both the heat used for thermal decontamination and acetone exposure significantly affected the tensile strength and ultimate elongation. For nitrile gloves exposed to acetone, the mean tensile strength remained virtually unchanged (p > 0.05). The mean tensile strength for the new swatches was 37.1 MPa and the mean tensile strength after nine exposure/decontamination cycles was 36.0 MPa, with a loss less than 3%. The largest single cycle loss for ultimate elongation occurred during the first exposure/decontamination cycle for both glove materials. In our previous study, decisions regarding the effectiveness of the decontamination process were based on having no discernible change in the breakthrough time and steady-state permeation rate. The results of this study indicate that the effectiveness of the decontamination process cannot be based on permeation parameters alone but must also take into account the change in physical

  9. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2008-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Articles and reports in this issue include: D and D technical paper summaries; The role of nuclear power in turbulent times, by Tom Chrisopher, AREVA, NP, Inc.; Enthusiastic about new technologies, by Jack Fuller, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; It's important to be good citizens, by Steve Rus, Black and Veatch Corporation; Creating Jobs in the U.S., by Guy E. Chardon, ALSTOM Power; and, and, An enviroment and a community champion, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovations article is titled Best of the best TIP achievement 2008, by Edward Conaway, STP Nuclear Operating Company.

  10. Pesticides water decontamination in oxygen-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Suciu, Nicoleta Alina; Ferrari, Federico; Vasileiadis, Sotirios; Merli, Annalisa; Capri, Ettore; Trevisan, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a laboratory bioreactor, with a functioning principle similar with that of biobed systems but working in oxygen-limited conditions, suitable for decontaminating wastewater mixtures with pesticides. The system is composed by two cylindrical plastic containers. The first one, where the pesticides solution is collected, is open, whereas the second one, where the biomass is disposed, is closed. The pesticides solution was pumped at the biomass surface and subsequently recollected and disposed in the first container. Four pesticides with different physical-chemical characteristics were tested. The results obtained showed a relatively good capacity of the developed prototype to decontaminate waste water containing the mixture of pesticides. The time of the experiment, the number of cycles that the solution made in the system and the environmental temperature have a significantly influence for the decontamination of acetochlor and chlorpyrifos whereas for the decontamination of terbuthylazine and metalaxyl no significant influence was observed. Even if the present prototype could represent a valid solution to manage the water pesticides residues in a farm and to increase the confidence of bystanders and residents, the practical difficulties when replacing the biomass could represent a limit of the system.

  11. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.O.; Campbell, G.M.; Parker, J.L.; Getty, R.H.; Hergert, T.R.; Lindahl, K.A.; Peppers, L.G.

    1993-10-01

    Using the electrolytic method, the authors have demonstrated removal of Pu from contaminated conductive material. At EG&G Rocky Flats, they electrolytically decontaminated stainless steel. Results from this work show removal of fixed contamination, including the following geometries: planar, large radius, bolt holes, glove ports, and protruding studs. More specifically, fixed contamination was reduced from levels ranging > 1,000,000 counts per minute (cpm) down to levels ranging from 1,500 to < 250 cpm with the electrolytic method. More recently, the electrolytic work has continued at LANL as a joint project with EG&G. Impressively, electrolytic decontamination experiments on removal of Pu from oralloy coupons have shown decreases in swipable contamination that initially ranged from 500,000 to 1,500,000 disintegrations per minute (dpm) down to 0--2 dpm.

  12. Decontamination of metal substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, L.D.

    1998-12-31

    A brief look at the history of surface corrosion and contamination of steel is important for understanding the best approach to proper cleaning of substrates prior to surface preparation and application of coatings and linings, particularly in immersion conditions such as encountered in railroad hopper and tank cars. All contaminants contribute to reduction of the coating or lining`s capacity to either protect the substrate or prevent contamination of the liquid cargo. This paper will explore the types of tests available to determine the levels of contamination, particularly sulfides, sulfates and chlorides, along with suggested methods to reduce theses contaminants to acceptable levels.

  13. Development of exosome surface display technology in living human cells.

    PubMed

    Stickney, Zachary; Losacco, Joseph; McDevitt, Sophie; Zhang, Zhiwen; Lu, Biao

    2016-03-25

    Surface display technology is an emerging key player in presenting functional proteins for targeted drug delivery and therapy. Although a number of technologies exist, a desirable mammalian surface display system is lacking. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that facilitate cell-cell communication and can be engineered as nano-shuttles for cell-specific delivery. In this study, we report the development of a novel exosome surface display technology by exploiting mammalian cell secreted nano-vesicles and their trans-membrane protein tetraspanins. By constructing a set of fluorescent reporters for both the inner and outer surface display on exosomes at two selected sites of tetraspanins, we demonstrated the successful exosomal display via gene transfection and monitoring fluorescence in vivo. We subsequently validated our system by demonstrating the expected intracellular partitioning of reporter protein into sub-cellular compartments and secretion of exosomes from human HEK293 cells. Lastly, we established the stable engineered cells to harness the ability of this robust system for continuous production, secretion, and uptake of displayed exosomes with minimal impact on human cell biology. In sum, our work paved the way for potential applications of exosome, including exosome tracking and imaging, targeted drug delivery, as well as exosome-mediated vaccine and therapy.

  14. Development of exosome surface display technology in living human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stickney, Zachary Losacco, Joseph McDevitt, Sophie Zhang, Zhiwen Lu, Biao

    2016-03-25

    Surface display technology is an emerging key player in presenting functional proteins for targeted drug delivery and therapy. Although a number of technologies exist, a desirable mammalian surface display system is lacking. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that facilitate cell–cell communication and can be engineered as nano-shuttles for cell-specific delivery. In this study, we report the development of a novel exosome surface display technology by exploiting mammalian cell secreted nano-vesicles and their trans-membrane protein tetraspanins. By constructing a set of fluorescent reporters for both the inner and outer surface display on exosomes at two selected sites of tetraspanins, we demonstrated the successful exosomal display via gene transfection and monitoring fluorescence in vivo. We subsequently validated our system by demonstrating the expected intracellular partitioning of reporter protein into sub-cellular compartments and secretion of exosomes from human HEK293 cells. Lastly, we established the stable engineered cells to harness the ability of this robust system for continuous production, secretion, and uptake of displayed exosomes with minimal impact on human cell biology. In sum, our work paved the way for potential applications of exosome, including exosome tracking and imaging, targeted drug delivery, as well as exosome-mediated vaccine and therapy.

  15. Decontamination of viable Streptococcus mutans from orthodontic tungsten carbide debonding burs. An in vitro microbiological study.

    PubMed

    Sheriteh, Zahra; Hassan, Tasnim; Sherriff, Martyn; Cobourne, Martyn; Cobourne, Martin; Riley, Peter

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of currently recommended decontamination procedures on tungsten carbide debonding burs (TCDBs). In vitro microbiological study. St George's Hospital NHS Trust, UK. A total of 240 extracted tooth surfaces were bonded with orthodontic brackets, debonded to leave residual composite and artificially contaminated with Streptococcus mutans. Sterilized TCDBs in a slow handpiece were used to remove this composite before random allocation into one of six different decontamination groups of 40 burs each. These included a control group that was not decontaminated and a further five that underwent different methods of presterilization cleaning within the decontamination process (none, manual, ultrasonic, washer disinfector and enzyme soak) followed by sterilization in a vacuum phase autoclave at 134 degrees C for 3 min. The burs were placed in brain heart infusion (BHI) broths, incubated for 48 h. Following this the broths were inspected for turbidity and microbiological analysis was carried out to detect viable bacterial growth. Data were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test for single ordered data. S. mutans was recovered from 39 out of 40 burs in the control group and no burs from the decontamination groups, which was statistically significant (P = 0.001). No differences were found between decontamination groups (P = 0.271). However, skin flora contamination was noted in 17 broths. The five methods of decontaminating TCDBs investigated in this study were effective in removing viable S. mutans. Other investigations are required to determine if TCDBs can be successfully cleaned of blood and protein residue prior reuse.

  16. Response surface modeling for hot, humid air decontamination of materials contaminated with Bacillus anthracis ∆Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Response surface methodology using a face-centered cube design was used to describe and predict spore inactivation of Bacillus anthracis ∆Sterne and Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores after exposure of six spore-contaminated materials to hot, humid air. For each strain/material pair, an attempt was made to fit a first or second order model. All three independent predictor variables (temperature, relative humidity, and time) were significant in the models except that time was not significant for B. thuringiensis Al Hakam on nylon. Modeling was unsuccessful for wiring insulation and wet spores because there was complete spore inactivation in the majority of the experimental space. In cases where a predictive equation could be fit, response surface plots with time set to four days were generated. The survival of highly purified Bacillus spores can be predicted for most materials tested when given the settings for temperature, relative humidity, and time. These predictions were cross-checked with spore inactivation measurements. PMID:24949256

  17. Proceedings: Decommissioning, Decontamination, ALARA, and Worker Safety Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    2000-09-01

    This workshop on decontamination, ALARA, and worker safety was the sixth in a series initiated by EPRI to aid utility personnel in assessing the technologies for decommissioning nuclear power plants. The workshop focused on specific aspects of decommissioning related to the management of worker radiation exposure and safety. The information presented will help individual utilities assess benefits of programs in these areas for their projects, including their potential to reduce decommissioning costs.

  18. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes - An emerging technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1987-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation. These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  19. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes: An emerging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalvins, T.

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation). These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  20. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes - An emerging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalvins, T.

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation. These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  1. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes - An emerging technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1987-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation. These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  2. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes: An emerging technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalvins, T.

    1986-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation). These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  3. Guidelines for Cold Weather Mass Decontamination During a Terrorist Chemical Agent Incident, Revision 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Figure 4-5. Outdoor Decontamination with Enclosure A decontamination corridor can be set up near the entranceway to a facility such as a hospital or...a hotel. Victims should discard their outer layer of clothing before entering and showering. Hospitals and hotels have access to large quantities...between two objects in direct contact • Convection − heat gain or loss to air or water moving over the body surface • Radiation − heat exchange between

  4. The use of chemical gel for decontamination during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurau, Daniela; Deju, Radu

    2015-01-01

    A technical research study was developed for testing the decontamination using chemical gels. The study was realized for different type of samples, systems often encountered in the VVR-S nuclear research reactor from Magurele-Romania. The results obtained in the study have demonstrated that the decontamination gels could be an efficient way to reduce or to eliminate the surface contamination of buildings or equipment's, minimizing the potential for spreading contamination during decommissioning activities.

  5. Irradiation as a method for decontaminating food. A review.

    PubMed

    Farkas, J

    1998-11-10

    for human consumption. Microorganisms surviving low- and medium-dose radiation treatment are more sensitive to environmental stresses or subsequent food processing treatments than the microflora of unirradiated products. Radiation treatment is an emerging technology in an increasing number of countries and more-and-more clearances on radiation decontaminated foods are issued or expected to be granted in the near future.

  6. Fluid mechanics of biological surfaces and their technological application.

    PubMed

    Bechert, D W; Bruse, M; Hage, W; Meyer, R

    2000-04-01

    A survey is given on fluid-dynamic effects caused by the structure and properties of biological surfaces. It is demonstrated that the results of investigations aiming at technological applications can also provide insights into biophysical phenomena. Techniques are described both for reducing wall shear stresses and for controlling boundary-layer separation. (a) Wall shear stress reduction was investigated experimentally for various riblet surfaces including a shark skin replica. The latter consists of 800 plastic model scales with compliant anchoring. Hairy surfaces are also considered, and surfaces in which the no-slip condition is modified. Self-cleaning surfaces such as that of lotus leaves represent an interesting option to avoid fluid-dynamic deterioration by the agglomeration of dirt. An example of technological implementation is discussed for riblets in long-range commercial aircraft. (b) Separation control is also an important issue in biology. After a few brief comments on vortex generators, the mechanism of separation control by bird feathers is described in detail. Self-activated movable flaps (= artificial bird feathers) represent a high-lift system enhancing the maximum lift of airfoils by about 20%. This is achieved without perceivable deleterious effects under cruise conditions. Finally, flight experiments on an aircraft with laminar wing and movable flaps are presented.

  7. Decontamination of a canyon crane at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, D A; Moore, D B; Bowers, J W; Brown, D L

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination of the crane is reviewed in terms of the health physics aspects, controls during decontamination efforts, and the resultant radiation exposure rates for decontamination efforts. 17 figs., (ACR)

  8. Biodecontamination of concrete surfaces: Occupational and environmental benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.; Rogers, R.; Hamilton, M.; Nelson, L.; Benson, J.; Green, M.

    1996-12-31

    Managers and engineers around the globe are presently challenged by high estimated costs for the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities which are no longer needed or are abandoned. It has been estimated that more than 73 Km{sup 2} of contaminated concrete currently exists in the USDOE complex and is increased many fold when similar facilities are accounted for in other countries. Needs for the decontamination of concrete have been identified as: more cost effective decontamination methods, reduction of secondary wastes, minimized worker radiation exposures and, contaminant containment. Recently environmental microbes have been harnessed to remove the surface of concrete as a technique for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). This biodecontamination technology has been tested by INEL and BNFL scientists and engineers in both US and United Kingdom nuclear facilities. Biodecontamination field tests at a shutdown nuclear reactor facility (EBR-I) have shown radioactively contaminated surface removed at rates of 4--8 mm/yr, thus validating the feasibility of this technology. Engineering economic analyses indicate two attractive benefits embedded in this approach to concrete D and D: (1) due to the passive nature of the technique, a cost savings of more than an order of magnitude is projected compared to the current labor intensive physical decontamination techniques; and (2) the exposure to humans and the natural environment is greatly reduced due to the unattended, highly contained biodecontamination process.

  9. Properties and solidification of decontamination wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.S.; Piciulo, P.L.; Bowerman, B.S.; Adams, J.W.; Milian, L.

    1983-01-01

    LWRs will require one or more chemical decontaminations to achieve their designed lifetimes. Primary system decontamination is designed to lower radiation fields in areas where plant maintenance personnel must work. Chemical decontamination methods are either hard (concentrated chemicals, approximately 5 to 25 weight percent) or soft (dilute chemicals less than 1 percent by weight). These methods may have different chemical reagents, some tailor-made to the crud composition and many methods are and will be proprietary. One factor common to most commercially available processes is the presence of organic acids and chelates. These types of organic reagents are known to enhance the migration of radionuclides after disposal in a shallow land burial site. The NRC sponsors two programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory that are concerned with the management of decontamination wastes which will be generated by the full system decontamination of LWRs. These two programs focus on potential methods for degrading or converting decontamination wastes to more acceptable forms prior to disposal and the impact of disposing of solidified decontamination wastes. The results of the solidification of simulated decontamination resin wastes will be presented. Recent results on combustion of simulated decontamintion wastes will be described and procedures for evaluating the release of decontamination reagents from solidified wastes will be summarized.

  10. Effects of decontamination work on riverine radiocaesium activity concentrations in Fukushima affected area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, K.; Onda, Y.; Yoshimura, K.; Smith, H.; Brake, W.; Kubo, T.; Kuramoto, T.; Sato, T.; Onuma, S.

    2016-12-01

    Radionuclides such as Cs-134 and Cs-137 were widely distributed in the area affected by the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The radionuclides were deposited on the surface, absorbed by soil particles, and transported via river systems to Pacific Ocean due to rainfall events. In order to reduce air dose rate surrounding residential area, decontamination works have been conducted between 2013 and 2016 Fiscal Years. In paddy field and farmland contaminated by the fallout, 5 cm of surface soil was stripped, and then clean sands put on the surface. This work could reduce radiocaesium inventory, while the coverage of vegetation was significantly decreased. Therefore, runoff characteristics in the decontaminated area were different before and after the decontamination. Activity concentrations of particulate Cs-137 were measured in Abukuma river system and 8 small catchments located in coastal zone of Fukushima affected area. In all monitoring sites, Cs-137 concentrations have decreased over an entire monitoring period. Kuchibuto river, which is a tributary of Abukuma river showed significant effect of decontamination. In Yamakiya district, in the watershed of the tributary, the decontamination work had conducted from 2013 FY to December 2015. Particulate Cs-137 concentration at two monitoring sites located in the district showed around 30% of decline in the beginning of 2014 FY whereas the decline was not so significant at sites in lower reach of the tributary. Decontaminated paddy field and farmland can be judged as the important source of suspended sediments in the tributary.

  11. International Symposium on Interfacial Joining and Surface Technology (IJST2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    Interfacial joining (bonding) is a widely accepted welding process and one of the environmentally benign technologies used in industrial production. As the bonding temperature is lower than the melting point of the parent materials, melting of the latter is kept to a minimum. The process can be based on diffusion bonding, pressure welding, friction welding, ultrasonic bonding, or brazing-soldering, all of which offer many advantages over fusion welding. In addition, surface technologies such as surface modification, spraying, coating, plating, and thin-film formation are necessary for advanced manufacturing, fabrication, and electronics packaging. Together, interfacial joining and surface technology (IJST) will continue to be used in various industrial fields because IJST is a very significant form of environmentally conscious materials processing. The international symposium of IJST 2013 was held at Icho Kaikan, Osaka University, Japan from 27-29 November, 2013. A total of 138 participants came from around the world to attend 56 oral presentations and 36 posters presented at the symposium, and to discuss the latest research and developments on interfacial joining and surface technologies. This symposium was also held to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Technical Commission on Interfacial Joining of the Japan Welding Society. On behalf of the chair of the symposium, it is my great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE). Among the presentations, 43 papers are published here, and I believe all of the papers have provided the welding community with much useful information. I would like to thank the authors for their enthusiastic and excellent contributions. Finally, I would like to thank all members of the committees, secretariats, participants, and everyone who contributed to this symposium through their support and invaluable effort for the success of IJST 2013. Yasuo Takahashi Chair of IJST 2013

  12. Technical Improvements to an Absorbing Supergel for Radiological Decontamination in Tropical Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Michael D.; Mertz, Carol J.; Kivenas, Nadia; demmer, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) developed a superabsorbing gel-based process (SuperGel) for the decontamination of cesium from concrete and other porous building materials. Here, we report on results that tested the gel decontamination technology on specific concrete and ceramic formulations from a coastal city in Southeast Asia, which may differ significantly from some U.S. sources. Results are given for the evaluation of americium and cesium sequestering agents that are commercially available at a reasonable cost; the evaluation of a new SuperGel formulation that combines the decontamination properties of cesium and americium; the variation of the contamination concentration to determine the effects on the decontamination factors with concrete, tile, and brick samples; and pilot-scale testing (0.02–0.09 m2 or 6–12 in. square coupons).

  13. Novel approach to the microbial decontamination of strawberries: chlorophyllin-based photosensitization.

    PubMed

    Luksiene, Z; Paskeviciute, E

    2011-05-01

    This study is focused on the possibility to control microbial contamination of strawberries by chlorophyllin (Na-Chl)-based photosensitization. Moreover, photosensitization-induced effects on key quality attributes of treated strawberries was evaluated.   Strawberries were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATC(L3) C 7644, soaked in 1mmol l(-1) Na-Chl for 5 min and illuminated for 30 min with visible light (λ = 400 nm, energy density 12 mW cm(-2) ). Results indicated that the decontamination of strawberries using photosensitization was 98% compared to control sample. Naturally occurring yeasts/microfungi and mesophiles were inhibited by 86 and 97%, respectively. The shelf life of treated strawberries was extended by 2 days. The total antioxidant activity of treated strawberries increased by 19%. No impact on the amount of phenols, anthocyanins or surface colour was detected.   Photosensitization may be an effective, nonthermal and environmentally friendly microbial decontamination technique which expands the shelf life of strawberries without any negative impact on antioxidant activity, and phenols, anthocyanins or colour formation. Experimental data support the idea that Na-Chl-based photosensitization can be a useful tool for the future development of nonthermal food preservation technology. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. The surface chemistry of rutile in technologically relevant environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Anqi

    The surface science of titanium dioxide, TiO2, has attracted great amount of attention due to its high profile applications. This dissertation shows the development of well-controlled rutile (110) surfaces that provide a platform for studying the chemical and photochemical reactivity of rutile in technologically relevant environments, including air and solutions. Near-perfect rutile (110) surfaces characterized by atomically flat terraces and straight steps were produced using basic peroxide solutions. The reaction produced straight steps with a different orientation, different structure, and different reactivity from those prepared in ultrahigh vacuum. The morphology was explained by a site-specific model of rutile (110) etching based on metal oxo coordination chemistry. This work shows that one of the important roles of peroxo ligands in etching and growth reactions is to destabilize neighboring bonds and increase their lability. The peroxo ligands add a degree of reversibility to the growth reaction, leading to the formation of well-ordered crystals. In addition, this near-perfect rutile (110) surface is an ideal starting point for studying surface chemistry of rutile in technologically relevant environments. Under ambient conditions atmospheric CO2 reacted with adsorbed H2O and produced a self-assembled monolayer of HCO 3 on rutile (110) surfaces. The monolayer was formed on the near-perfect rutile surfaces prepared by basic peroxide etching, indicating that surface defects, such as Ti interstitials and O vacancies, were not required. DFT calculations suggested that the nanoscale water film adsorbed on the surface solvated the adsorbates and changed the reaction energetics. The HCO 3 monolayer was very stable, even in vacuum, which was a result of the strong bidentate bonding of HCO3. The formation of the strongly bound bicarbonate monolayer suggests that HCO3, instead of CO 2, plays a key role in the photoreduction of CO2. A high-quality, self

  15. A comparative study of infrared and microwave heating for microbial decontamination of paprika powder

    PubMed Central

    Eliasson, Lovisa; Isaksson, Sven; Lövenklev, Maria; Ahrné, Lilia

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a need in developing new decontamination technologies for spices due to limitations of existing technologies, mainly regarding their effects on spices’ sensory quality. In the search of new decontamination solutions, it is of interest to compare different technologies, to provide the industry with knowledge for taking decisions concerning appropriate decontamination technologies for spices. The present study compares infrared (IR) and microwave decontamination of naturally contaminated paprika powder after adjustment of water activity to 0.88. IR respectively microwave heating was applied to quickly heat up paprika powder to 98°C, after which the paprika sample was transferred to a conventional oven set at 98°C to keep the temperature constant during a holding time up to 20 min. In the present experimental set-up microwave treatment at 98°C for 20 min resulted in a reduction of 4.8 log units of the total number of mesophilic bacteria, while the IR treatment showed a 1 log unit lower reduction for the corresponding temperature and treatment time. Microwave and IR heating created different temperature profiles and moisture distribution within the paprika sample during the heating up part of the process, which is likely to have influenced the decontamination efficiency. The results of this study are used to discuss the difficulties in comparing two thermal technologies on equal conditions due to differences in their heating mechanisms. PMID:26483783

  16. Large-Scale Urban Decontamination; Developments, Historical Examples and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer

    2007-02-01

    Recent terrorist threats and actual events have lead to a renewed interest in the technical field of large scale, urban environment decontamination. One of the driving forces for this interest is the real potential for the cleanup and removal of radioactive dispersal device (RDD or “dirty bomb”) residues. In response the U. S. Government has spent many millions of dollars investigating RDD contamination and novel decontamination methodologies. Interest in chemical and biological (CB) cleanup has also peaked with the threat of terrorist action like the anthrax attack at the Hart Senate Office Building and with catastrophic natural events such as Hurricane Katrina. The efficiency of cleanup response will be improved with these new developments and a better understanding of the “old reliable” methodologies. Perhaps the most interesting area of investigation for large area decontamination is that of the RDD. While primarily an economic and psychological weapon, the need to cleanup and return valuable or culturally significant resources to the public is nonetheless valid. Several private companies, universities and National Laboratories are currently developing novel RDD cleanup technologies. Because of its longstanding association with radioactive facilities, the U. S. Department of Energy National Laboratories are at the forefront in developing and testing new RDD decontamination methods. However, such cleanup technologies are likely to be fairly task specific; while many different contamination mechanisms, substrate and environmental conditions will make actual application more complicated. Some major efforts have also been made to model potential contamination, to evaluate both old and new decontamination techniques and to assess their readiness for use. Non-radioactive, CB threats each have unique decontamination challenges and recent events have provided some examples. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as lead agency for these emergency

  17. Restoration of rolling-contact-fatigued surfaces via nanoskin technology.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Young Sik; Kim, Jun Hyong; Kayumov, Ravil; He, Yinsheng; Shin, Kee Sam

    2013-09-01

    Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) is known as the dominant factor determining the service life of bearing materials. In this work, the fatigue life of the typical bearing alloy was significantly improved by introducing a nanoskin layer on the surfaces of the test specimens. The nanoskin layer structure was obtained by means of the ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) technology. The microstructure of the nanoskin was analyzed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). SUJ2 and SUJ3 bearings at different states of fatigue were subjected to UNSM treatment. For SUJ2 a rotary-bending fatigue (RBF) life average for three untreated specimens was chosen as 100% life, and then several untreated specimens were fatigued to 25%, 50% and 75% of life with subsequent UNSM treatment. This way used bearing conditions were simulated. The rotary-bending fatigue (RBF) tests of fatigue+UNSM SUJ2 specimens have shown 377-430% improvement of fatigue life, comparing to untreated specimens. For SUJ3 a RCF life untreated specimen was chosen as 100% life, and then several specimens were fatigued to approximately 100% of surface damage with subsequent UNSM treatment. Thus damaged surface conditions were simulated. The RCF tests of fatigue+UNSM SUJ3 specimens have shown 218% improvement of fatigue life, comparing to untreated specimens. This indicates the possibility of the restoration of the RCF life of bearing alloys by means of nanoskin treatment via UNSM technology.

  18. Hot, humid air decontamination of a C-130 aircraft contaminated with spores of two acrystalliferous Bacillus thuringiensis strains, surrogates for Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Buhr, T L; Young, A A; Bensman, M; Minter, Z A; Kennihan, N L; Johnson, C A; Bohmke, M D; Borgers-Klonkowski, E; Osborn, E B; Avila, S D; Theys, A M G; Jackson, P J

    2016-04-01

    To develop test methods and evaluate survival of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki cry(-) HD-1 and B. thuringiensis Al Hakam spores after exposure to hot, humid air inside of a C-130 aircraft. Bacillus thuringiensis spores were either pre-inoculated on 1 × 2 or 2 × 2 cm substrates or aerosolized inside the cargo hold of a C-130 and allowed to dry. Dirty, complex surfaces (10 × 10 cm) swabbed after spore dispersal showed a deposition of 8-10 log10 m(-2) through the entire cargo hold. After hot, humid air decontamination at 75-80°C, 70-90% relative humidity for 7 days, 87 of 98 test swabs covering 0·98 m(2) , showed complete spore inactivation. There was a total of 1·67 log10 live CFU detected in 11 of the test swabs. Spore inactivation in the 98 test swabs was measured at 7·06 log10 m(-2) . Laboratory test methods for hot, humid air decontamination were scaled for a large-scale aircraft field test. The C-130 field test demonstrated that hot, humid air can be successfully used to decontaminate an aircraft. Transition of a new technology from research and development to acquisition at a Technology Readiness Level 7 is unprecedented. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Multijunction Solar Cell Technology for Mars Surface Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.; Mardesich, Nick; Ewell, Richard C.; Mueller, Robert L.; Endicter, Scott; Aiken, Daniel; Edmondson, Kenneth; Fetze, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Solar cells used for Mars surface applications have been commercial space qualified AM0 optimized devices. Due to the Martian atmosphere, these cells are not optimized for the Mars surface and as a result operate at a reduced efficiency. A multi-year program, MOST (Mars Optimized Solar Cell Technology), managed by JPL and funded by NASA Code S, was initiated in 2004, to develop tools to modify commercial AM0 cells for the Mars surface solar spectrum and to fabricate Mars optimized devices for verification. This effort required defining the surface incident spectrum, developing an appropriate laboratory solar simulator measurement capability, and to develop and test commercial cells modified for the Mars surface spectrum. This paper discusses the program, including results for the initial modified cells. Simulated Mars surface measurements of MER cells and Phoenix Lander cells (2007 launch) are provided to characterize the performance loss for those missions. In addition, the performance of the MER rover solar arrays is updated to reflect their more than two (2) year operation.

  20. Decontamination of Anthrax spores in critical infrastructure and critical assets.

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, Raymond M.; Crown, Kevin K.; Tucker, Mark David; Hankins, Matthew Granholm

    2010-05-01

    Decontamination of anthrax spores in critical infrastructure (e.g., subway systems, major airports) and critical assets (e.g., the interior of aircraft) can be challenging because effective decontaminants can damage materials. Current decontamination methods require the use of highly toxic and/or highly corrosive chemical solutions because bacterial spores are very difficult to kill. Bacterial spores such as Bacillus anthracis, the infectious agent of anthrax, are one of the most resistant forms of life and are several orders of magnitude more difficult to kill than their associated vegetative cells. Remediation of facilities and other spaces (e.g., subways, airports, and the interior of aircraft) contaminated with anthrax spores currently requires highly toxic and corrosive chemicals such as chlorine dioxide gas, vapor- phase hydrogen peroxide, or high-strength bleach, typically requiring complex deployment methods. We have developed a non-toxic, non-corrosive decontamination method to kill highly resistant bacterial spores in critical infrastructure and critical assets. A chemical solution that triggers the germination process in bacterial spores and causes those spores to rapidly and completely change to much less-resistant vegetative cells that can be easily killed. Vegetative cells are then exposed to mild chemicals (e.g., low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, quaternary ammonium compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, etc.) or natural elements (e.g., heat, humidity, ultraviolet light, etc.) for complete and rapid kill. Our process employs a novel germination solution consisting of low-cost, non-toxic and non-corrosive chemicals. We are testing both direct surface application and aerosol delivery of the solutions. A key Homeland Security need is to develop the capability to rapidly recover from an attack utilizing biological warfare agents. This project will provide the capability to rapidly and safely decontaminate critical facilities and assets to return them to