Science.gov

Sample records for surface finishes team

  1. Surface finishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzler, J. A.; Hefferman, J. T.; Fehrenkamp, L. G.; Lee, W. S. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A surface of an article adapted for relative motion with a fluid environment is finished by coating the surface with a fluid adhesive, covering the adhesive with a sheet of flexible film material under tension on the film material whereby the tensioned film material is bonded to the surface by the adhesive.

  2. Fractal surface finish

    SciTech Connect

    Church, E.L.

    1988-04-15

    Surface finish measurements are usually fitted to models of the finish correlation function which are parametrized in terms of root-mean-square roughnesses, sigma, and correlation lengths, l. Highly finished optical surfaces, however, are frequently better described by fractal models, which involve inverse power-law spectra and are parametrized by spectral strengths, K/sub n/, and spectral indices, n. Analyzing measurements of fractal surfaces in terms of sigma and l gives results which are not intrinsic surface parameters but which depend on the bandwidth parameters of the measurement process used. This paper derives expressions for these pseudoparameters and discusses the errors involved in using them for the characterization and specification of surface finish.

  3. Fractal surface finish

    SciTech Connect

    Church, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    Surface finish measurements are usually fitted to models of the finish correlation function which are parameterized in terms of root-mean-square roughness, sigma, and correlation lengths, l. Highly-finished optical surfaces, however, are frequently better described by fractal models, which involve inverse-power-law spectra and are parameterized by spectral strengths, K/sub n/, and spectral indices, n. Analyzing measurements of fractal surfaces in terms of sigma and l gives results which are not intrinsic surface parameters but which depend on the bandwidth parameters of the measurement process used. This paper derives expressions for these pseudo parameters and discusses the errors involved in using them for the characterization and specification of surface finish. 30 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Surface finishing. [for aircraft wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzler, J. A.; Heffernan, J. T.; Fehrenkamp, L. G.; Lee, W. S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A surface of an article adapted for relative motion with a fluid environment is finished by coating the surface with a fluid adhesive. The adhesive is covered with a sheet of flexible film material under tension, and the adhesive is set while maintaining tension on the film material.

  5. NCMS PWB program report surface finishes team task WBS No. 3.1.1: Phase 1, Etching Studies: Chemical etching of copper for improved solderability

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.O.; Guilinger, T.R.; Hosking, F.M.; Yost, F.G.; Sorensen, N.R.

    1995-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with consortium members of the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) to develop fundamental generic technology in the area of printed wiring board materials and surface finishes. Improved solderability of copper substrates is an important component of the Sandia-NCMS program. We are investigating the effects of surface roughness on the wettability and solderability behavior of several different types of copper board finishes. In this paper, we present roughness and solderability characterizations for a variety of chemically-etched copper substrates. Initial testing on six chemical etches demonstrate that surface roughness can be greatly enhanced through chemical etching. Noticeable improvements in solder wettability were observed to accompany increases in roughness. A number of different algorithms and measures of roughness were used to gain insight into surface morphologies that lead to improved solderability.

  6. Surface Finish after Laser Metal Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rombouts, M.; Maes, G.; Hendrix, W.; Delarbre, E.; Motmans, F.

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of metal parts through layerwise deposition and laser induced melting of metal powder. The poor surface finish presents a major limitation in LMD. This study focuses on the effects of surface inclination angle and strategies to improve the surface finish of LMD components. A substantial improvement in surface quality of both the side and top surfaces has been obtained by laser remelting after powder deposition.

  7. Effect of Burnishing Parameters on Surface Finish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirsat, Uddhav; Ahuja, Basant; Dhuttargaon, Mukund

    2016-06-01

    Burnishing is cold working process in which hard balls are pressed against the surface, resulting in improved surface finish. The surface gets compressed and then plasticized. This is a highly finishing process which is becoming more popular. Surface quality of the product improves its aesthetic appearance. The product made up of aluminum material is subjected to burnishing process during which kerosene is used as a lubricant. In this study factors affecting burnishing process such as burnishing force, speed, feed, work piece diameter and ball diameter are considered as input parameters while surface finish is considered as an output parameter In this study, experiments are designed using 25 factorial design in order to analyze the relationship between input and output parameters. The ANOVA technique and F-test are used for further analysis.

  8. APPROACHING ZERO DISCHARGE IN SURFACE FINISHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides guidance to surface finishing manufacturers on control technologies and process changes for approaching zero discharge (AZD). AZD is a key theme underlying the Strategic Goals Program (SGP). The SGP is a cooperative effort between the EPA nd the American El...

  9. Lathe Attachment Finishes Inner Surface of Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancki, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Extremely smooth finishes are machined on inside surfaces of tubes by new attachment for a lathe. The relatively inexpensive accessory, called a "microhone," holds a honing stone against workpiece by rigid tangs instead of springs as in conventional honing tools. Inner rod permits adjustment of microhoning stone, while outer tube supports assembly. Outer tube is held between split blocks on lathe toolpost. Microhoning can be done with either microhone or workpiece moving and other member stationary.

  10. Laser Window Surface Finishing and Coating Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    IKlf il fie. r . *ttt\\ mil nlrol’ly h\\ lllm k Itumhvr ■ LasLr windows. Surface finishing, Thin films , Antireflection coatings , 10.6...Zuccaro) During the course of our program it is our objective to prepare antireflection (AR) film coatings for candidate infrared laser window...antireflection coatings under UHV conditions and to compare; these films with (.host- prepared under ordinary vacuum conditions. a. Experimental Results

  11. Surface quality control in diamond abrasive finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, Yuriy D.; Sidorko, Volodymyr I.; Filatov, Olexandr Yu.; Yaschuk, Vasil P.; Heisel, Uwe; Storchak, Michael

    2009-06-01

    The paper presents a procedure for measuring laser radiation reflection and scattering coefficients of polished surface. A relation between the scattered light intensity and the polished surface roughness is studied. It is demonstrated that colorimetric characteristics of non-metallic materials can be determined from the light scattering and reflection coefficients. This work has demonstrated a possibility of and created prerequisites for the development of an express method for tentative assessment of polished surface roughness. Of interest is the use of the β(Rz) function for the purposes of quality inspection of polished surfaces of natural and synthetic stone and other non-metallic materials. It was established that the most relevant parameter of roughness, which can be defined by the light reflection is Rz. The Dependency of the reflection factor from parameter of roughness Rz was approximated by formula with inaccuracy 5-10%. Inaccuracy of the determination of roughness Rz has formed 1%. It was shown that method of the surface roughness control using the light reflection factor is the most efficient for surfaces with roughness Rz <0.3 microns, typical for finish diamond-abrasive machining.

  12. 30 CFR 18.33 - Finish of surface joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Finish of surface joints. 18.33 Section 18.33 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... Requirements § 18.33 Finish of surface joints. Flat surfaces between bolt holes that form any part of a...

  13. 30 CFR 18.33 - Finish of surface joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Finish of surface joints. 18.33 Section 18.33 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... Requirements § 18.33 Finish of surface joints. Flat surfaces between bolt holes that form any part of a...

  14. 30 CFR 18.33 - Finish of surface joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Finish of surface joints. 18.33 Section 18.33 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... Requirements § 18.33 Finish of surface joints. Flat surfaces between bolt holes that form any part of a...

  15. 30 CFR 18.33 - Finish of surface joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Finish of surface joints. 18.33 Section 18.33 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... Requirements § 18.33 Finish of surface joints. Flat surfaces between bolt holes that form any part of a...

  16. 30 CFR 18.33 - Finish of surface joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Finish of surface joints. 18.33 Section 18.33 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... Requirements § 18.33 Finish of surface joints. Flat surfaces between bolt holes that form any part of a...

  17. Implementing Cleaner Printed Wiring Board Technologies: Surface Finishes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the problems, solutions, and time and effort involved in implementing alternative surface finish technologies, and this guide is produced as part of the DfE Printed Wiring Board Project

  18. Finishing of enamel surfaces after debonding of orthodontic attachments.

    PubMed

    Retief, D H; Denys, F R

    1979-01-01

    The finishing of enamel surfaces after removal of directly bonded attachments is essential. The following procedures are suggested: 1. The bonding of mesh-backed stainless steel brackets with a lightly filled resin system. 2. Debonding of attachments with a direct bonding bracket remover. 3. Removal of the bulk of the remaining resin with a 12-bladed tungsten carbide bur operated at high speed with adequate air cooling. 4. Finishing of the residual resin and underlying enamel with graded polishing discs or Ceramisté wheels used with light pressure and adequate air cooling. 5. Final finishing with a rubber cup and a water slurry of pumice.

  19. Solder flow over fine line PWB surface finishes

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Hernandez, C.L.

    1998-08-01

    The rapid advancement of interconnect technology has stimulated the development of alternative printed wiring board (PWB) surface finishes to enhance the solderability of standard copper and solder-coated surfaces. These new finishes are based on either metallic or organic chemistries. As part of an ongoing solderability study, Sandia National Laboratories has investigated the solder flow behavior of two azole-based organic solderability preservations, immersion Au, immersion Ag, electroless Pd, and electroless Pd/Ni on fine line copper features. The coated substrates were solder tested in the as-fabricated and environmentally-stressed conditions. Samples were processed through an inerted reflow machine. The azole-based coatings generally provided the most effective protection after aging. Thin Pd over Cu yielded the best wetting results of the metallic coatings, with complete dissolution of the Pd overcoat and wetting of the underlying Cu by the flowing solder. Limited wetting was measured on the thicker Pd and Pd over Ni finishes, which were not completely dissolved by the molten solder. The immersion Au and Ag finishes yielded the lowest wetted lengths, respectively. These general differences in solderability were directly attributed to the type of surface finish which the solder came in contact with. The effects of circuit geometry, surface finish, stressing, and solder processing conditions are discussed.

  20. Specifying the surface finish of x-ray mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1993-12-31

    Our measurements of x-ray mirrors at Brookhaven indicate that the power spectral densities of their finish errors have inverse power-law or fractal forms, rather than being flat at low frequencies as is usually assumed. This paper reviews these data and discusses how this apparent divergent behavior leads to finite but unconventional effects in imaging. Results are then used to develop more rational and realistic surface-finish specifications.

  1. Enhancing Surface Finish of Additively Manufactured Titanium and Cobalt Chrome Elements Using Laser Based Finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gora, Wojciech S.; Tian, Yingtao; Cabo, Aldara Pan; Ardron, Marcus; Maier, Robert R. J.; Prangnell, Philip; Weston, Nicholas J.; Hand, Duncan P.

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers the possibility of creating a complex free form object as a single element, which is not possible using traditional mechanical machining. Unfortunately the typically rough surface finish of additively manufactured parts is unsuitable for many applications. As a result AM parts must be post-processed; typically mechanically machined and/or and polished using either chemical or mechanical techniques (both of which have their limitations). Laser based polishing is based on remelting of a very thin surface layer and it offers potential as a highly repeatable, higher speed process capable of selective area polishing, and without any waste problems (no abrasives or liquids). In this paper an in-depth investigation of CW laser polishing of titanium and cobalt chrome AM elements is presented. The impact of different scanning strategies, laser parameters and initial surface condition on the achieved surface finish is evaluated.

  2. Surface finishing of resin-modified glass ionomer.

    PubMed

    Liporoni, Priscila; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu; Paradella, Thais Cachute

    2003-01-01

    This study utilized spectrophotometry to evaluate in vitro superficial dye deposition on resin-modified glass ionomer, following different surface finishing and polishing treatments. Materials that were photocured adjacent to the mylar strip produced the surfaces with the lowest mean after superficial staining. A restorative technique without excesses resulted in a smoother surface and prolonged the life of the restoration. The resin-modified glass ionomers tested offer adequate clinical performance.

  3. Effect of panel alignment and surface finish on bond strength

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.M.; Doe, P.J.; Baker, W.E.

    1991-10-01

    The flexural strength of bonded acrylic is tested as a function of panel alignment and bond surface finish. Bond strength was shown to be highly dependent on both parameters with only a narrow range of values yielding a high strength bond. This study was performed for the heavy water-containing acrylic vessel for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory detector.

  4. Ultra-smooth finishing of aspheric surfaces using CAST technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, John; Young, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    Growing applications for astronomical ground-based adaptive systems and air-born telescope systems demand complex optical surface designs combined with ultra-smooth finishing. The use of more sophisticated and accurate optics, especially aspheric ones, allows for shorter optical trains with smaller sizes and a reduced number of components. This in turn reduces fabrication and alignment time and costs. These aspheric components include the following: steep surfaces with large aspheric departures; more complex surface feature designs like stand-alone off-axis-parabola (OAP) and free form optics that combine surface complexity with a requirement for ultra-high smoothness, as well as special optic materials such as lightweight silicon carbide (SiC) for air-born systems. Various fabrication technologies for finishing ultra-smooth aspheric surfaces are progressing to meet these growing and demanding challenges, especially Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) and ion-milling. These methods have demonstrated some good success as well as a certain level of limitations. Amongst them, computer-controlled asphere surface-finishing technology (CAST), developed by Precision Asphere Inc. (PAI), plays an important role in a cost effective manufacturing environment and has successfully delivered numerous products for the applications mentioned above. One of the most recent successes is the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), the world's most powerful planet-hunting instrument, with critical aspheric components (seven OAPs and free form optics) made using CAST technology. GPI showed off its first images in a press release on January 7, 2014 . This paper reviews features of today's technologies in handling the ultra-smooth aspheric optics, especially the capabilities of CAST on these challenging products. As examples, three groups of aspheres deployed in astronomical optics systems, both polished and finished using CAST, will be discussed in detail.

  5. Reflective fiber optic probe for surface finish survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzyniuk, Leszek

    1995-06-01

    The Report relates to verification of the design of refractive fiber optic probes designed for checking surface finish condition and provides a description of tests on the models of such probes. Presented in the paper are the results of performance tests of a bifurcated probe to the concept of application of a non-random bundle of light guides for identification of surfaces representing different CLA values (0.32, 0.63, 1.25, 2.50 micrometers).

  6. Surface profiling in mating parts by combined nonabrasive finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolentsev, EV; Fedonin, ON; Smolentsev, VP

    2017-02-01

    Nonabrasive finishing of precision mating surfaces in locking devices with the use of a combined erosion-chemical process at the first stage of the processing and with the use of anodic dissolution by alternating low-voltage current at the final stage of a refinement operation till gapless joints obtaining is considered. It is shown that the application of electro-erosion, electrochemical and combined nonabrasive finishing in mating parts opens up a possibility to ensure stable impermeability in locking devices on a macro- and micro-level through the method of a substantiated purpose of technological modes. A procedure is created for the development of such modes, and on their basis technological processes for the obtaining of gapless mating surfaces meeting the performance requirements for locking devices are developed. For this purpose, qualitative devices resistant to hostile environment are manufactured that is urgent for the mechanical engineering including repetition work for the equipment of petrochemical industry, transport and household machinery.

  7. Effect of longitudinal surface finish on elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, T. A.; Kannel, J. W.; Parker, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of longitudinal-lay surface finish on the elastohydrodynamic film thickness and the percentage of film between rolling disks in contact were evaluated using a rolling disk apparatus. Film thickness was measured by transmitted X-rays, and percentage of film was monitored by an alternating-current continuity circuit. Disk finish was varied on both the crowned upper disk and the cylindrical lower disk. A type-2 ester and a synthetic paraffinic oil were used as lubricants. It was shown that the roughness with longitudinal lay has a deleterious effect on both film thickness and percentage of film. Measured film thicknesses for the two lubricants were comparable at equivalent test conditions. The percentage of film where a change in surface topography was observed was approximately 20 percent for the synthetic paraffinic oil and 10 percent for the type-2 ester.

  8. Comparison of Wyko and TIS measurements of surface finish

    SciTech Connect

    Church, E.L.; Sanger, G.M.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1987-01-01

    Profile and area measurements of the roughness of a given surface will generally be different since the two measurement techniques are sensitive to different areas of surface-frequency space. This paper explores the magnitudes of these differences by calculating the ratio of rms roughness values, sigma (TIS)/sigma(Wyko), using strawman models of a Wyko profiling microscope and a Talandic integrating scatterometer applied to surfaces having different roughness power spectra. As expected, the results show that this ratio can vary widely about unity, with values depending on the magnification of the objective used in the Wyko microscope and the ''color'' of the surface spectrum. An amazing counter example appears to occur for surfaces having an approximately ''1/theta/sup 2/'' BRDF, or equivalently, a 1/f profile power spectrum - shapes which are frequently observed for non-metallic mirror surfaces. In this case the predicted TIS and Wyko roughness values are essentially identical and independent of the Wyko magnification. This equality, however, comes from a curious mathematical-numerical coincidence and does not mean that these apparently ''universal'' values represent any intrinsic finish parameters of the surface being measured. In fact, if the Wyko data are filtered to remove the contributions from surface wavelengths longer than those included in the TIS measurements in order to more nearly match the instrumental bandwidths, the calculated ratio of measured rms roughness values increases to 1.5 to 5, depending on the Wyko parameters used. These results illustrate the fact that any realistic comparison of profile and area measurements of surface finish requires a knowledge of both the instrumental transfer functions and the form of the power spectrum of the surface being measured. The present paper discusses these issues and provides analytic machinery for the detailed quantitative comparison of profile, TIS and BRDF measurements.

  9. Polymer micromolds with near optical quality surface finishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiu, Pun-Pang; Knopf, George K.; Nikumb, Suwas

    2012-03-01

    Disposable microfluidic systems are used to avoid sample contamination in a variety of medical and environmental monitoring applications. A contactless hot intrusion (HI) process for fabricating reusable polymer micromolds with near "optical quality" surface finishes is described in this paper. A metallic hot intrusion mask with the desired microchannels and related passive components is first machined using a tightly focused beam from a diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser. The polymer mold master is then created by pressing the 2D metallic mask onto a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrate. Since it is a contactless fabrication process the resultant 3D micro-reliefs have near optical quality surface finishes. Unfortunately, the desired micro-relief dimensions (height and width) are not easily related to the hot intrusion process parameters of pressure, temperature, and time exposure profile. A finite element model is introduced to assist the manufacturing engineer in predicting the behavior of the PMMA substrate material as it deforms under heat and pressure during micromold manufacture. The FEM model assumes that thermo-plastics like PMMA become "rubber like" when heated to a temperature slightly above the glass transition temperature. By controlling the material temperature and maintaining its malleable state, it is possible to use the stress-strain relationship to predict the profile dimensions of the imprinted microfeature. Examples of curved microchannels fabricated using PMMA mold masters are presented to illustrate the proposed methodology and verify the finite element model. In addition, the non-contact formation of the micro-reliefs simplifies the demolding process and helps to preserve the high quality surface finishes.

  10. Adaptive control of surface finish in automated turning processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Plaza, E.; Núñez, P. J.; Martín, A. R.; Sanz, A.

    2012-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to design and develop an on-line control system of finished surfaces in automated machining process by CNC turning. The control system consisted of two basic phases: during the first phase, surface roughness was monitored through cutting force signals; the second phase involved a closed-loop adaptive control system based on data obtained during the monitoring of the cutting process. The system ensures that surfaces roughness is maintained at optimum values by adjusting the feed rate through communication with the PLC of the CNC machine. A monitoring and adaptive control system has been developed that enables the real-time monitoring of surface roughness during CNC turning operations. The system detects and prevents faults in automated turning processes, and applies corrective measures during the cutting process that raise quality and reliability reducing the need for quality control.

  11. Survey of the finish characteristics of machined optical surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1984-08-01

    This paper reports the findings of a survey of the finished characteristics of machined optical surfaces. The names, addresses, points of contact and telephone numbers of each of the nine participating suppliers are listed alphabetically. The machining parameters provided by and/or derived from information supplied by the manufacturer are summarized. These parameters include: surface material; machine feeds and speeds; tool-mark spacing (d); tool tip radius (R); and ideal RMS surface roughness computed using the expression (Comments) section includes general remarks about the sample or its measurement. For example: discoloration, scratches, graininess, excrescences, homogeneity. Several measurements were made on each sample at different positions. The present report includes data from one such measurement. For surfaces turned off-center, this position is generally at the center of the sample. For surfaces turned on-center, this position is somewhere near the edge. Data are presented in the form of two pages for each measurement, consisting of two graphs of the surface profile on one page and two graphs of the periodogram on the second page.

  12. Finishing tooth-colored restorations in vitro: an index of surface alteration and finish-line destruction.

    PubMed

    Schmidlin, Patrick R; Göhring, Till N

    2004-01-01

    Many studies have evaluated the surface characteristics of finishing and polishing instruments on different restorative materials using two- and three-dimensional models based on mechanical and optical techniques. However, only limited data are available regarding the problem of marginal causing detectable surface alterations such as scratches or grooves may also cause marginal damage. This study aimed to correlate the smooth-surface polishing efficacy of different instruments with their potential for destructive effects on restoration margins and enamel finish lines. An index was created that will help to evaluate future polishing instruments and select suitable ones for different clinical situations. A planar inlay system with a 100 microm wide defined gap was simulated in vitro. Pre-fabricated ceramic (n = 40) and composite blocks (n = 40) were connected to bovine enamel without luting material. After standardized pre-polishing, mean surface roughness and marginal quality were assessed using a profilometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Enamel and restorative surfaces were colored, and subsequently prepared using one of 10 different finishing and polishing instruments. Four specimens per instrument and material were evaluated, resulting in eight interfaces for each test group. Surface roughness (Ra) and marginal quality (expressed as the percentage fracture-free margin) were measured and compared statistically using unpaired t-tests and two-way ANOVA, respectively. The level of significance was set at 0.05 Eight-micrometer diamond burs and 40-fluted tungsten carbide finishers produced smoother surfaces and less finishing-line destructions than the other instruments under evaluation. The index values developed will prove helpful in evaluating and selecting appropriate instruments.

  13. Deburring and surface finishing: The past ten years and projections for the next ten years

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1990-09-01

    The 1970s were a decade of significant growth in deburring and surface finishing. In the 1980s progress was made in robotic finishing, burr formation models, surface finish measurement, new processes, equipment and tooling. The centers of burr and surface related research changed. The decade of the 1990s will bring greater competition, environmental restrictions, more processes, more automation, and better characterization and simulation of processes.

  14. The topographic development and areal parametric characterization of a stratified surface polished by mass finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Karl; Blunt, Liam; Fleming, Leigh

    2015-09-01

    Mass finishing is amongst the most widely used finishing processes in modern manufacturing, in applications from deburring to edge radiusing and polishing. Processing objectives are varied, ranging from the cosmetic to the functionally critical. One such critical application is the hydraulically smooth polishing of aero engine component gas-washed surfaces. In this, and many other applications the drive to improve process control and finish tolerance is ever present. Considering its widespread use mass finishing has seen limited research activity, particularly with respect to surface characterization. The objectives of the current paper are to; characterise the mass finished stratified surface and its development process using areal surface parameters, provide guidance on the optimal parameters and sampling method to characterise this surface type for a given application, and detail the spatial variation in surface topography due to coupon edge shadowing. Blasted and peened square plate coupons in titanium alloy are wet (vibro) mass finished iteratively with increasing duration. Measurement fields are precisely relocated between iterations by fixturing and an image superimposition alignment technique. Surface topography development is detailed with ‘log of process duration’ plots of the ‘areal parameters for scale-limited stratified functional surfaces’, (the Sk family). Characteristic features of the Smr2 plot are seen to map out the processing of peak, core and dale regions in turn. These surface process regions also become apparent in the ‘log of process duration’ plot for Sq, where lower core and dale regions are well modelled by logarithmic functions. Surface finish (Ra or Sa) with mass finishing duration is currently predicted with an exponential model. This model is shown to be limited for the current surface type at a critical range of surface finishes. Statistical analysis provides a group of areal parameters including; Vvc, Sq, and Sdq

  15. An ultra-low surface finish process for 6061-Al mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamboldt, Leonard; Roy, Brian; Crifasi, Joseph; Stephens, Shane; Hanninen, Derek; Woodard, Kenneth; Felock, Robert; Cunha-Vasconcelos, Sofia; Polczwartek, Stephen; Parenteau, Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    An ultra-low surface finishing process for 6061 T6 type aluminum has been developed by Corning Incorporated, Specialty Materials Division, and has been successfully applied to mirrors up to 13 inches in diameter. This paper presents finish and figure data achieved from the mirror finishing process. Mirror stability is demonstrated through Pre and post thermal cycle surface figure measurements; temperature range of cycle -55°C to +70°C. As an added benefit, the process enables the use of deterministic finishing and enhances the reflective optics resistance to corrosion. Survivability of the reflective optic is evaluated through extended humidity testing.

  16. Study for Reduction of Outgassing Property of Adsorbed Water Gas for Improved Surface Finished Titanium Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Masatoshi; Kurisu, Hiroki; Uchida, Takashi; Yamamoto, Setsuo; Ishizawa, Katsunobu; Nomura, Takeru; Eda, Takahiro; Murashige, Nobuyuki

    This paper addresses the development of the surface finishing for a titanium material and the study for the reduction of outgassing property of adsorbed water (H2O) molecules. Developed surface finishing is composed of the buffing for the reduction of the surface roughness and improved chemical polishing for the thick surface oxide layer compared with the chemical polishing so far. The surface roughness of the surface finished titanium material is reduced 35% and the thickness of the surface oxide layer increases by 30%. The total amount of thermal desorbed H2O gas for the new surface finished titanium is reduced 30%. It is considered that the origin for the decrease of the amount of desorption H2O gas is the reduction of the adsorption sites due to the decrease of the surface roughness and the reduction of adsorption energy of H2O gas due to the strong surface oxidation for a titanium material.

  17. Wear analysis and finishing of bioceramic implant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Denkena, Berend; Reichstein, Martin; van der Meer, Marijke; Ostermeier, Sven; Hurschler, Christof

    2008-01-01

    A primary cause for revision operations of joint replacements is the implant loosening, due to immune reactions resulting from the agglomeration of polyethylene wear debris. Motivated by the successful application of bioceramic materials in hip joint prostheses, a trend towards the development of hard implant materials has occurred. Nonetheless in the area of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), modern efforts have still utilized polyethylene as the tibial-inlay joint component. The use of bioceramic hard-hard-pairings for total knee arthroplasty has been prevented by the complex kinematics and geometries required. Ceramics cannot cope with non-uniform loads, which suggests the need for new designs appropriate to the material. Furthermore, biomechanical requirements should be considered. A rolling-gliding wear simulator, which reproduces the movements and stresses of the knee joint on specimens of simplified geometry, has therefore been developed. High-precision machining processes for free formed bioceramic surfaces, with suitable grinding and polishing tools which adjust to constantly changing contact conditions, are essential. The goal is to put automated finishing in one clamping with five simultaneous controlled axes into practice. The developed manufacturing technologies will allow the advantageous bioceramic materials to be applied and accepted for more complex joint replacements such as knee prostheses.

  18. Surface Fatigue Lives of Case-Carburized Gears With an Improved Surface Finish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Alanou, M. P.; Evans, H. P.; Snidle, R. W.; Krantz, T. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Previous research provides qualitative evidence that an improved surface finish can increase the surface fatigue lives of gears. To quantify the influence of surface roughness on life, a set of AISI 93 10 steel gears was provided with a nearmirror finish by superfinishing. The effects of the superfinishing on the quality of the gear tooth surfaces were determined using data from metrology, profilometry, and interferometric microscope inspections. The superfinishing reduced the roughness average by about a factor of 5. The superfinished gears were subjected to surface fatigue testing at 1.71 -GPa (248-ksi) Hertz contact stress, and the data were compared with the NASA Glenn gear fatigue data base. The lives of gears with superfinished teeth were about four times greater compared with the lives of gears with ground teeth but with otherwise similar quality.

  19. Surface texture of resin-modified glass ionomer cements: effects of finishing/polishing time.

    PubMed

    Yap, A U J; Ong, S B; Yap, W Y; Tan, W S; Yeo, J C

    2002-01-01

    This study compared the surface texture of resin-modified glass ionomer cements after immediate and delayed finishing with different finishing/polishing systems. Class V preparations were made on the buccal and lingual/palatal surfaces of 64 freshly extracted teeth. The cavities on each tooth were restored with Fuji II LC (GC) and Photac-Fil Quick (3M-ESPE) according to manufacturers' instructions. Immediately after light-polymerization, gross finishing was done with 8-fluted tungsten carbide burs. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups of 16 teeth. Half of the teeth in each group were finished immediately, while the remaining half were finished after one-week storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C. The following finishing/polishing systems were employed: (a) Robot Carbides; (b) Super-Snap system; (c) OneGloss and (d) CompoSite Polishers. The mean surface roughness (microm; n=8) in vertical (RaV) and horizontal (RaH) axis was measured using a profilometer. Data was subjected to ANOVA/Scheffe's tests and Independent Samples t-test at significance level 0.05. Ra values were generally lower in both vertical and horizontal axis with delayed finishing/polishing. Although significant differences in RaV and RaH values were observed among several systems with immediate finishing/polishing, only one (Fuji II LC: RaH - Super-Snap < Robot Carbides) was observed with delayed finishing.

  20. Surface finish and subsurface damage in polycrystalline optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafrir, Shai Negev

    We measure and describe surface microstructure and subsurface damage (SSD) induced by microgrinding of hard metals and hard ceramics used in optical applications. We examine grinding of ceramic materials with bonded abrasives, and, specifically, deterministic microgrinding (DMG). DMG, at fixed nominal infeed rate and with bound diamond abrasive tools, is the preferred technique for optical fabrication of ceramic materials. In DMG material removal is by microcracking. DMG provides cost effective high manufacturing rates, while attaining higher strength and performance, i.e., low level of subsurface damage (SSD). A wide range of heterogeneous materials of interest to the optics industry were studied in this work. These materials include: A binderless tungsten carbide, nonmagnetic Ni-based tungsten carbides, magnetic Co-based tungsten carbides, and, in addition, other hard optical ceramics, such as aluminum oxynitride (Al23O27N5/ALON), polycrystalline alumina (Al2O3/PCA), and chemical vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (Si4C/SiC). These materials are all commercially available. We demonstrate that spots taken with magnetorheological finishing (MRF) platforms can be used for estimating SSD depth induced by the grinding process. Surface morphology was characterized using various microscopy techniques, such as: contact interferometer, noncontact white light interferometer, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The evolution of surface roughness with the amount of material removed by the MRF process, as measured within the spot deepest point of penetration, can be divided into two stages. In the first stage the induced damaged layer and associated SSD from microgrinding are removed, reaching a low surface roughness value. In the second stage we observe interaction between the MRF process and the material's microstructure as MRF exposes the subsurface without introducing new damage. Line scans taken parallel to the MR

  1. Evaluation of finishing and polishing techniques on surface roughness of chromium-cobalt castings.

    PubMed

    Aydin, A K

    1991-06-01

    The effect of finishing and polishing techniques on surface roughness of a chromium-cobalt alloy was evaluated by means of a stylus profile instrumentation and scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron micrographs, surface profile tracings, surface roughness recordings, and statistical analysis of data support the finding that the best surface finish is obtained when sandblasting, hard stone, medium abrasive disk, second sandblasting, electropolishing, hard rubber point, hard felt disk with pumice slurry, and felt disk and soft brush with polishing paste are used progressively. The results of this study indicate that the finishing procedure should be carried out in a logical, systematic sequence of steps.

  2. 77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of public..., concerning information that may inform the regulatory review of the uncovered finished water...

  3. The Tiger Team Process in the Rebaselining of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    BAILEY, R.W.

    2000-02-01

    This paper will describe the integrated, teaming approach and planning process utilized by the Tiger Team in the development of the IPMP. This paper will also serve to document the benefits derived from this implementation process.

  4. Analysis of the influence of electrolyte on surface finish in electropolished stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernando, M.; Núñez, P. J.; García, E.; Trujillo, R.

    2012-04-01

    Electropolishing is a surface finishing process of metals and alloys that enhances brilliant surface finishes with low surface roughness values. The most widely used electrolytes for the electropolishing of stainless steel are varying concentrations of phosphoric and sulphuric acid, and occasionally additives such as chromic acid. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of three commonly used industrial electrolytes in terms of the surface finish of electropolished stainless steel AISI 316L. Each electrolyte had varying sulphuric-phosphoric acid combinations with or without chromic acid. The following electropolishing conditions were assessed: current density, bath temperature, electropolishing time, and initial surface texture. The results revealed that adding chromic acid to the electrolyte did not significantly enhance surface finish, and electropolishing ranges were quite similar for all three electrolytes.

  5. Effect of interior surface finish on the break-up of commercial shaped charge liners

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E L; Schwartz, A J

    1999-08-11

    A series of experiments aimed at understanding the influence of the liner interior surface finish on the break-up of shaped charge jets has been completed. The experiments used a standard 81-mm shaped charge design, loaded with LX-14 high explosive; incorporating high-precision copper shaped charged liners. The results indicate that a significant reduction of jet break-up time occurs between a surface finish of 99.30 microinches and 375.65 microinches. Surface finishes of 4.78, 44.54 and 99.30 microinches produced significantly better ductility and associated break-up times than the 375.65-microinch finish. The baseline production process high-precision liners were measured to have an average surface finish of 44.54 microinches. The results show that for the shaped charge warhead geometry and explosive combination investigated, some care must be taken in respect to surface finish, but that very fine surface finishes do not significantly improve the jet ductility and associated break-up times.

  6. Effects of Tooth Coating Material and Finishing Agent on Bleached Enamel Surfaces by KTP Laser

    PubMed Central

    Kameda, Ayumi; Masuda, Yoshiko Murakami; Teruo, Toko; Yamada, Yoshishige; Kimura, Yuichi; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth coating material and finishing agent on bleached enamel surfaces after using KTP laser with 27% hydrogen peroxide. Background data: There have been few reports on the effects of tooth coating materials and finishing agents after bleaching. Methods: After 40 crowns of human extracted maxillary incisors were bleached by KTP laser, bleached enamels were finished with fluoride only or both of fluoride and nano-hydroxyapatite as a finishing agent. After application(s) of fluoride and/or finishing agent, the enamel surfaces were divided into 2 groups, which were covered with the coating material or without coating material. After application of coating materials, all specimens were kept for 2 weeks at 37°C of 100% humidity. After removing the coating material, color changing was measured and enamel surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: SEM observation of enamel surfaces treated the fluoride gel, finishing agent and coating material showed the most flattered surface compared to other groups. By measuring the color changing, few color changing was observed on the enamel surfaces treated the fluoride gel, finishing agents and coating material. Conclusion: These results suggested that applications of fluoride gel, finishing agent and coating material made the enamel-surfaces flattered and kept effects of bleaching, could prevent the re-coloration. After applications of fluoride gel and finishing agent, covering the bleached-enamel surfaces with the coating material enhanced the keeping whiteness. It would give the patients satisfaction of whiteness. PMID:24155557

  7. Study on surface finish of AISI 2080 steel based on the Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalcinkaya, S.; Şahin, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Surface finish and dimensional accuracy play a vital role in manufacturing engineering applications. Grinding is one of the most important methods for producing a better surface quality. This paper describes a study of the influences of cutting parameters such as table speed, depth of cut and feed rate on surface finish of AISI 2080 steels, based on the Taguchi (L27) method. The experimental results showed that the table speed was the machining parameter, which had a greater effect on the surface finish, followed by depth of cut, whereas feed rate showed no significant effect. Analysis of variance indicated that a better surface finish was obtained at 190 m/min speed, 0.003 mm depth of cut and 0.08 mm/rev feed rate.

  8. Surface contamination analysis technology team overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, H. Dewitt, Jr.

    1996-11-01

    The surface contamination analysis technology (SCAT) team was originated as a working roup of NASA civil service, Space Shuttle contractor, and university groups. Participating members of the SCAT Team have included personnel from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processes Laboratory and Langley Research Center's Instrument Development Group; contractors-Thiokol Corporation's Inspection Technology Group, AC Engineering support contractor, Aerojet, SAIC, and Lockheed MArtin/Oak Ridge Y-12 support contractor and Shuttle External Tank prime contractor; and the University of Alabama in Huntsville's Center for Robotics and Automation. The goal of the SCAT team as originally defined was to develop and integrate a multi-purpose inspection head for robotic application to in-process inspection of contamination sensitive surfaces. One area of interest was replacement of ozone depleting solvents currently used for surface cleanliness verification. The team approach brought together the appropriate personnel to determine what surface inspection techniques were applicable to multi-program surface cleanliness inspection. Major substrates of interest were chosen to simulate space shuttle critical bonding surface or surfaces sensitive to contamination such as fuel system component surfaces. Inspection techniques evaluated include optically stimulated electron emission or photoelectron emission; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; near infrared fiber optic spectroscopy; and, ultraviolet fluorescence. Current plans are to demonstrate an integrated system in MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex within five years from initiation of this effort in 1992. Instrumentation specifications and designs developed under this effort include a portable diffuse reflectance FTIR system built by Surface Optics Corporation and a third generation optically stimulated electron emission system built by LaRC. This paper will discuss the evaluation of the various techniques on a

  9. CONTROL OF CHELATOR-BASED UPSETS IN SURFACE FINISHING SHOP WASTE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Actual surface finishing shop examples are used to illustrate the use of process chemistry understanding and analyses to identify immediate, interim and permanent response options for industrial waste water treatment plant (IWTP) upset problems caused by chelating agents. There i...

  10. Effect of Plasma Surface Finish on Wettability and Mechanical Properties of SAC305 Solder Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Koike, Junichi; Yoon, Jeong-Won; Yoo, Sehoon

    2016-12-01

    The wetting behavior, interfacial reactions, and mechanical reliability of Sn-Ag-Cu solder on a plasma-coated printed circuit board (PCB) substrate were evaluated under multiple heat-treatments. Conventional organic solderability preservative (OSP) finished PCBs were used as a reference. The plasma process created a dense and highly cross-linked polymer coating on the Cu substrates. The plasma finished samples had higher wetting forces and shorter zero-cross times than those with OSP surface finish. The OSP sample was degraded after sequential multiple heat treatments and reflow processes, whereas the solderability of the plasma finished sample was retained after multiple heat treatments. After the soldering process, similar microstructures were observed at the interfaces of the two solder joints, where the development of intermetallic compounds was observed. From ball shear tests, it was found that the shear force for the plasma substrate was consistently higher than that for the OSP substrate. Deterioration of the OSP surface finish was observed after multiple heat treatments. Overall, the plasma surface finish was superior to the conventional OSP finish with respect to wettability and joint reliability, indicating that it is a suitable material for the fabrication of complex electronic devices.

  11. An improved evaluation of surface finish with a three dimensional tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    GRANDADAM; PREBET; RIOUT

    1980-01-01

    The design and programming of an automated three dimensional surface finish tester is described. The device produces a three dimensional image of the microscopic texture of the examined surface. The surface finish tester presents the following advantages over conventional profilometry: (1) more complete exploration of surface texture by successive probe sweeps; (2) automation of measuring and calculating; (3) more accurate representation of the derived parameters; (4) analysis of the degree of homogeneity of the surface; (5) three dimensional graphic representation accurately depicting the state of the surface; (6) detection of local imperfections; and (7) detection of scoring that occurred during machining.

  12. SURFACE FINISHES ON STAINLESS STEEL REDUCE BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT AND EARLY BIOFILM FORMATION: SCANNING ELECTRON AND ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three common finishing treatments of stainless steel that are used for equipment during poultry processing were tested for resistance to bacterial contamination. Methods were developed to measure attached bacteria and to identify factors that make surface finishes susceptible or ...

  13. Surface contamination analysis technology team overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, H. Dewitt

    1995-01-01

    A team was established which consisted of representatives from NASA (Marshall Space Flight Center and Langley Research Center), Thiokol Corporation, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, AC Engineering, SAIC, Martin Marietta, and Aerojet. The team's purpose was to bring together the appropriate personnel to determine what surface inspection techniques were applicable to multiprogram bonding surface cleanliness inspection. In order to identify appropriate techniques and their sensitivity to various contaminant families, calibration standards were developed. Producing standards included development of consistent low level contamination application techniques. Oxidation was also considered for effect on inspection equipment response. Ellipsometry was used for oxidation characterization. Verification testing was then accomplished to show that selected inspection techniques could detect subject contaminants at levels found to be detrimental to critical bond systems of interest. Once feasibility of identified techniques was shown, selected techniques and instrumentation could then be incorporated into a multipurpose inspection head and integrated with a robot for critical surface inspection. Inspection techniques currently being evaluated include optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE); near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy utilizing fiber optics; Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy; and ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence. Current plans are to demonstrate an integrated system in MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex within five years from initiation of this effort in 1992 assuming appropriate funding levels are maintained. This paper gives an overview of work accomplished by the team and future plans.

  14. Surface treatment and finishing of aluminum and its alloys. Volumes 1 and 2 (5th revised and enlarged edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Sheasby, P.G.; Wernick, S.; Pinner, R.

    1987-01-01

    Currently available technologies for treating and finishing Al and Al-alloy surfaces are surveyed in an introduction and reference handbook. Chapters are devoted to the properties, alloys, and finishes of Al; mechanical treatments and finishes; electrolytic and chemical polishing; chemical cleaning and etching; chemical conversion coatings; theoretical models of anodizing; decorative and protective anodizing; and anodizing in architecture. Also included are: hard anodizing, coloring anodic oxide coatings (AOCs) with dyes and pigments, sealing AOCs, properties and tests of AOCs, plating on Al, organic finishing, vitreous enameling, and effluents from Al-finishing operations. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, photographs, micrographs, and tables of national finish specifications are provided.

  15. [Relation of surface texture of fine finishing diamond point for composite resin and polished surface of composite resin].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, A; Yamauchi, M; Yamamoto, K; Sakai, M; Noda, S; Yamaguchi, S; Kawano, J; Kimura, K

    1989-05-01

    Distribution of diamond grain size of seven fine finishing diamond points was measured by a digital image analyzer. Also influence of diamond grain size of fine finishing diamond points on finished surface of two types of visible light cured composite resins (semihybrid type and submicron filler type) were investigated. Diamond grain size was almost from 10 to 100 microns 2 in area. Diamond grain size was closely related to the surface roughness of semihybrid type composite resin, although it was not related to that of submicron filler type composite resin. Surface roughness of a submicron filler type composite resin finished at a low speed was less than that at a high speed. Grain size of diamond point and revolution speed may play an important role in surface texture of composite resin.

  16. Effects of surface finish and mechanical training on Ni-Ti sheets for elastocaloric cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Tušek, Jaka; Sanna, Simone; Eriksen, Dan; Mishin, Oleg V.; Bahl, Christian R. H.; Pryds, Nini

    2016-06-01

    Elastocaloric cooling has emerged as a promising alternative to vapor compression in recent years. Although the technology has the potential to be more efficient than current technologies, there are many technical challenges that must be overcome to realize devices with high performance and acceptable durability. We study the effects of surface finish and training techniques on dog bone shaped polycrystalline samples of NiTi. The fatigue life of several samples with four different surface finishes was measured and it was shown that a smooth surface, especially at the edges, greatly improved fatigue life. The effects of training both on the structure of the materials and the thermal response to an applied strain was studied. The load profile for the first few cycles was shown to change the thermal response to strain, the structure of the material at failure while the final structure of the material was weakly influenced by the surface finish.

  17. Study of the influence of reference system in surface finishing parameters evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, A.; Fernández, R.; Pindado, S.; Núñez, P.

    2012-04-01

    In the present paper the influence of the reference system with regard to the characterization of the surface finishing is analyzed. The effect of the reference system's choice on the most representative surface finishing parameters (e.g. roughness average Ra and root mean square values Rq) is studied. The study can also be applied to their equivalent parameters in waviness and primary profiles. Based on ISO and ASME standards, three different types of regression lines (central, mean and orthogonal) are theoretically and experimentally analyzed, identifying the validity and applicability fields of each one depending on profile's geometry.

  18. Effect of Blade-surface Finish on Performance of a Single-stage Axial-flow Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Jason J; Serovy, George, K

    1951-01-01

    A set of modified NACA 5509-34 rotor and stator blades was investigated with rough-machine, hand-filed, and highly polished surface finishes over a range of weight flows at six equivalent tip speeds from 672 to 1092 feet per second to determine the effect of blade-surface finish on the performance of a single-stage axial-flow compressor. Surface-finish effects decreased with increasing compressor speed and with decreasing flow at a given speed. In general, finishing blade surfaces below the roughness that may be considered aerodynamically smooth on the basis of an admissible-roughness formula will have no effect on compressor performance.

  19. Chemical milling solution produces smooth surface finish on aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzen, H. C.

    1966-01-01

    Elementary sulfur mixed into a solution of caustic soda and salts produces an etchant which will chemically mill end-grain surfaces on aluminum plate. This composition results in the least amount of thickness variation and pitting.

  20. Mathematical modeling of surface roughness in magnetic abrasive finishing of BK7 optical glass.

    PubMed

    Pashmforoush, Farzad; Rahimi, Abdolreza; Kazemi, Mehdi

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) is one of the advanced machining processes efficiently used to finish hard-to-machine materials. Simulation and modeling of the process is of particular importance to understand the mechanics of material removal and consequently achieve a high-quality surface with a minimum of surface defects. Hence, in this paper, we performed a numerical-experimental study to mathematically model the surface roughness during the MAF of BK7 optical glass. For this purpose, the initial roughness profile was estimated using fast Fourier transform (FFT) and a Gaussian filter. We obtained the final surface profile based on the material removal mechanisms and the corresponding chipping depth values evaluated by finite element analysis. We then validated experimentally the simulation results in terms of the arithmetic average surface roughness (R(a ). The comparison between the obtained results demonstrates that the theoretical and experimental findings are in good agreement when predicting the parameters' effect on surface roughness behavior.

  1. Surface texture of resin-modified glass ionomer cements: effects of finishing/polishing systems.

    PubMed

    Yap, Adrian U J; Tan, W S; Yeo, J C; Yap, W Y; Ong, S B

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the surface texture of two resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs) in the vertical and horizontal axis after treatment with different finishing/polishing systems. Class V preparations were made on the buccal and lingual/palatal surfaces of freshly extracted teeth. The cavities on each tooth were restored with Fuji II LC (GC) and Photac-Fil Quick (ESPE) according to manufacturers' instructions. Immediately after light-polymerization, gross finishing was done with 8-flute tungsten carbide burs. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups and finished/polished with (a) Robot Carbides (RC); (b) Super-Snap system (SS); (c) OneGloss (OG) and (d) CompoSite Points (CS). The sample size for each material-finishing/polishing system combination was eight. The mean surface roughness (microm) in vertical (RaV) and horizontal (RaH) axis was measured using a profilometer. Data was subjected to ANOVA/Scheffe's tests and Independent Samples t-test at significance level 0.05. Mean RaV ranged from 0.59-1.31 and 0.83-1.52, while mean RaH ranged from 0.80-1.43 and 0.85-1.58 for Fuji II LC and Photac-Fil, respectively. Results of statistical analysis were as follows: Fuji II LC: RaV-RC, SSfinished with RC. The use of carbides (RC) and one-step rubber abrasive system (OG) for finishing/polishing of RMGICs is not recommended. Graded abrasive disk (SS) or two-step rubber abrasive (CS) systems should be used instead.

  2. Effect of processing parameters on surface finish for fused deposition machinable wax patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, F. E., III

    1995-01-01

    This report presents a study on the effect of material processing parameters used in layer-by-layer material construction on the surface finish of a model to be used as an investment casting pattern. The data presented relate specifically to fused deposition modeling using a machinable wax.

  3. Evaluation of ENEPIG and Immersion Silver Surface Finishes Under Drop Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearl, Adam; Osterman, Michael; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The effect of printed circuit board surface finish on the drop loading reliability of ball grid array (BGA) solder interconnects has been examined. The finishes examined include electroless nickel/electroless palladium/immersion gold (ENEPIG) and immersion silver (ImAg). For the ENEPIG finish, the effect of the Pd plating layer thickness was evaluated by testing two different thicknesses: 0.05 μm and 0.15 μm. BGA components were assembled onto the boards using either eutectic Sn-Pb or Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) solder. Prior to testing, the assembled boards were aged at 100°C for 24 h or 500 h. The boards were then subjected to multiple 1500-g drop tests. Failure analysis indicated the primary failure site for the BGAs to be the solder balls at the board-side solder interface. Cratering of the board laminate under the solder-attached pads was also observed. In all cases, isothermal aging reduced the number of drops to failure. The components soldered onto the boards with the 0.15- μm-Pd ENEPIG finish with the SAC305 solder had the highest characteristic life, at 234 drops to failure, compared with the other finish-solder combinations.

  4. Color change of some aesthetic dental materials: Effect of immersion solutions and finishing of their surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Sarkis, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this research was to evaluate the color change of five aesthetic dental materials, before and after immersion in distilled water and blue food color solution for 7 and 21 days, and to study the effect of finishing the surfaces on any color change. Methods Disc shaped samples of five types of light curing composite (A2) (n = 10 samples/composite) were prepared and all samples were light-cured with a Plasma Arc light cure unit for ten seconds. One side of each sample disc was finished and polished with a Super-Snap system all samples. After 24 h, color measurements of each sample were conducted using a digital spectrophotometer. Five sample discs from each composite group were immersed in 30 ml of food color solution for 7 and 21 days, while the remaining five sample discs were immersed in 30 ml of distilled water as a control. Color measurements were repeated for all samples at 7 and 21 days after immersion. The color changes were statistically analyzed using t-tests within the same group. A result was considered statistically significant at α = 0.05. Results The color differences (ΔE) ranged from 0.4 to 4.66 and statistically significant differences on the finished and unfinished surfaces were observed after immersion in the food color solution for 7 days. No significant differences were found in any group after immersion in the food color solution for 21 days. The Tetric EvoCeram and Arabesk groups showed less color differences after 7 and 21 days than other composites. Conclusion Finished composite surfaces showed less coloration than unfinished surfaces after 7 days, but all surfaces (finished and unfinished) were highly colored for all composite types after 21 days. PMID:23960534

  5. Influence of surface finish on the plasma formation at the skin explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datsko, I. M.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Rybka, D. V.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Khishchenko, K. V.

    2016-11-01

    The paper reports on experiments to investigate how the quality of surface finish, i.e., surface roughness, influences the plasma formation in a skin explosion of conductors. The experiments were performed on a MIG terawatt generator with a current amplitude of up to 2.5 MA and current rise time of 100 ns. The plasma formation at the conductor surface and the evolution of the plasma boundary was recorded using a four-frame optical camera with an exposure time of 3 ns per frame. It is shown that the quality of surface finish little affects the onset of plasma formation in a skin explosion of stainless steel and St3 steel conductors at a magnetic field of up to 400 T.

  6. Finishing and Inspection of Model Surfaces for Boundary Layer Transition Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, Max E.; Darsow, John F.

    1959-01-01

    Techniques which have been used for finishing and quantitatively specifying surface roughness on boundary-layer-transition models are reviewed. The appearance of a surface as far as roughness is concerned can be misleading when viewed either by the eye or with the aid of a microscope. The multiple-beam interferometer and the wire shadow method provide the best simple means of obtaining quantitative measurements.

  7. Effect finishing and polishing procedures on the surface roughness of IPS Empress 2 ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Rodrigo; Elossais, André Afif; Lima, Darlon Martins; Reis, José Mauricio Santos Nunes; Campos, Edson Alves; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the surface roughness of IPS Empress 2 ceramic when treated with different finishing/polishing protocols. Materials and methods. Sixteen specimens of IPS Empress 2 ceramic were made from wax patterns obtained using a stainless steel split mold. The specimens were glazed (Stage 0–S0, control) and divided into two groups. The specimens in Group 1 (G1) were finished/polished with a KG Sorensen diamond point (S1), followed by KG Sorensen siliconized points (S2) and final polishing with diamond polish paste (S3). In Group 2 (G2), the specimens were finished/polished using a Shofu diamond point (S1), as well as Shofu siliconized points (S2) and final polishing was performed using Porcelize paste (S3). After glazing (S0) and following each polishing procedure (S1, S2 or S3), the surface roughness was measured using TALYSURF Series 2. The average surface roughness results were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey post-hoc tests (α = 0.01) Results. All of the polishing procedures yielded higher surface roughness values when compared to the control group (S0). S3 yielded lower surface roughness values when compared to S1 and S2. Conclusions. The proposed treatments negatively affected the surface roughness of the glazed IPS Empress 2 ceramic. PMID:22724660

  8. Assessment of circuit board surface finishes for electronic assembly with lead-free solders

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, U.; Artaki, I.; Finley, D.W.; Wenger, G.M.; Pan, T.; Blair, H.D.; Nicholson, J.M.; Vianco, P.T.

    1996-10-01

    The suitability of various metallic printed wiring board surface finishes was assessed for new technology applications that incorporate assembly with Lead-free solders. The manufacture of a lead-free product necessitates elimination of lead (Pb) from the solder, the circuit board as well as the component lead termination. It is critical however for the selected interconnect Pb-free solder and the corresponding printed wiring board (PWB) and component lead finishes to be mutually compatible. Baseline compatibility of select Pb-free solders with Pb containing PWB surface finish and components was assessed. This was followed by examining the compatibility of the commercially available CASTIN{trademark} (SnAgCuSb) Pb-free solder with a series of PWB metallic finishes: Ni/Au, Ni/Pd, and Pd/Cu. The compatibility was assessed with respect to assembly performance, solder joint integrity and long term attachment reliability. Solder joint integrity and mechanical behavior of representative 50 mil pitch 20I/O SOICs was determined before and after thermal stress. Mechanical pull test studies demonstrated that the strength of SnAgCuSb solder interconnections is notably greater than that of SnPb interconnections.

  9. Pb-free surface-finishing on electronic components' terminals for Pb-free soldering assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Hitoshi; Tanimoto, Morimasa; Matsuda, Akira; Uno, Takeo; Kurihara, Masaaki; Shiga, Shoji

    1999-11-01

    Pb-free solderable surface finishing is essential to implement Pb-free solder assembly in order to meet with the growing demand of environmental consciousness to eliminate Pb from electronic products. Two types of widely applicable Pb-free surface finishing technologies are developed. One is the multilayer-system including Pd with Ni undercoat. Heat-resistance of Pd enables whole-surface-plating on to leadframe before IC-assembling process. The other is the double-layer-system with low-melting-point-materials, for example, thicker Sn underlayer and thinner Sn-Bi alloy overlayer, dilutes Sn-Bi alloy's defects of harmful reactivity along with substrate metal and mechanical brittleness with keeping its advantages of solder-wettability and no whisker.

  10. The influence of surface finishing methods on touch-sensitive reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukhta, M. S.; Sokolov, A. P.; Krauinsh, P. Y.; Kozlova, A. D.; Bouchard, C.

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the modern technological development trends in jewelry design. In the jewelry industry, new trends, associated with the introduction of updated non-traditional materials and finishing techniques, are appearing. The existing information-oriented society enhances the visual aesthetics of new jewelry forms, decoration techniques (depth and surface), synthesis of different materials, which, all in all, reveal a bias towards positive effects of visual design. Today, the jewelry industry includes not only traditional techniques, but also such improved techniques as computer-assisted design, 3D-prototyping and other alternatives to produce an updated level of jewelry material processing. The authors present the specific features of ornamental pattern designing, decoration types (depth and surface) and comparative analysis of different approaches in surface finishing. Identifying the appearance or the effect of jewelry is based on proposed evaluation criteria, providing an advanced visual aesthetics basis is predicated on touch-sensitive responses.

  11. Effect of Gold on the Corrosion Behavior of an Electroless Nickel/Immersion Gold Surface Finish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Q. V.; Nam, N. D.; Yoon, J. W.; Choi, D. H.; Kar, A.; Kim, J. G.; Jung, S. B.

    2011-09-01

    The performance of surface finishes as a function of the pH of the utilized plating solution was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization tests in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. In addition, the surface finishes were examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the contact angle of the liquid/solid interface was recorded. NiP films on copper substrates with gold coatings exhibited their highest coating performance at pH 5. This was attributed to the films having the highest protective efficiency and charge transfer resistance, lowest porosity value, and highest contact angle among those examined as a result of the strongly preferred Au(111) orientation and the improved surface wettability.

  12. Experimental study of the surface roughness in metals with different surface finishing by two-dimensional correlation of speckle pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmad, Miguel; Baldwin, Guillermo; Maczeyzik, Cordula; Mendoza, Fernando; Perez-Lopez, Carlos

    2005-02-01

    In this work we use an experimental set-up implemented in the Optical Physics Laboratory of PUCP, in order to study and to measure the roughness of different surfaces. The surfaces have different finishing obtained in different mechanic process (milling, turning, etc). The measurement method is based on a two-dimensional scan of scattered light from a rough metal surface illuminated by laser light. The light is scattered as speckle pattern and it is captured by the CCD of a digital camera in two different configurations, with and without an imaging lens and under different angles of illumination. Using two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform it has been possible to compute the angular correlation between speckle pattern images and find out the relationship between surface roughness and speckle patterns decorrelation for different metal surface finishing.

  13. The Influence of Machined Surface Microgeometry on Mechanical Hydraulic Removal Mechanism at Ultrasonically Aided EDM Finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiculescu, D.; Marinescu, N.; Ganatsios, S.; Popa, L.; Seritan, G.

    2016-11-01

    The paper deals with Finite Element Method (FEM) of mechanical-hydraulic component of material removal mechanism at electrical discharge machining aided by ultrasonics (EDM+US) finishing. The influence of two types of crater shapes - produced by commanded and relaxation pulses - is analyzed. Based on FEM results, the ratio between depth and crater diameter is correlated with the consumed power on ultrasonic chain in order to minimize the EDMed surface roughness.

  14. New vibration-assisted magnetic abrasive polishing (VAMAP) method for microstructured surface finishing.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiang; Kum, Chun Wai; Au, Ka Hing; Tan, Zhi'En Eddie; Wu, Hu; Liu, Kui

    2016-06-13

    In order to polish microstructured surface without deteriorating its profile, we propose a new vibration-assisted magnetic abrasive polishing (VAMAP) method. In this method, magnetic force guarantees that the magnetic abrasives can well contact the microstructured surface and access the corners of microstructures while vibration produces a relative movement between microstructures and magnetic abrasives. As the vibration direction is parallel to the microstructures, the profile of the microstructures will not be deteriorated. The relation between vibration and magnetic force was analyzed and the feasibility of this method was experimentally verified. The results show that after polishing, the surface finish around microstructures was significantly improved while the profile of microstructures was well maintained.

  15. Corrosion of RoHS-Compliant Surface Finishes in Corrosive Mixed Flowing Gas Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannigan, K.; Reid, M.; Collins, M. N.; Dalton, E.; Xu, C.; Wright, B.; Demirkan, K.; Opila, R. L.; Reents, W. D.; Franey, J. P.; Fleming, D. A.; Punch, J.

    2012-03-01

    Recently, the corrosion resistance of printed wiring board (PWB) finishes has generated considerable interest due to field failures observed in various parts of the world. This study investigates the corrosion issues associated with the different lead-free PWB surface finishes. Corrosion products on various PWB surface finishes generated in mixed flowing gas (MFG) environments were studied, and analysis techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray, x-ray diffraction, focused ion beam, and scanning Auger microscopy were used to quantify the corrosion layer thickness and determine the composition of corrosion products. The corrosion on organic solderability preservative samples shows similar corrosion products to bare copper and is mainly due to direct attack of copper traces by corrosive gases. The corrosion on electroless nickel immersion gold occurs primarily through the porosity in the film and is accelerated by the galvanic potential between gold and copper; similar results were observed on immersion silver. Immersion tin shows excellent corrosion resistance due to its inherent corrosion resistance in the MFG environment as well as the opposite galvanic potential between tin and copper compared with gold or silver and copper.

  16. Effect of overglazed and polished surface finishes on the compressive fracture strength of machinable ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tetsuya; Kazama, Ryunosuke; Fukushima, Masayoshi; Okiji, Takashi

    2010-11-01

    Controversy prevails over the effect of overglazing on the fracture strength of ceramic materials. Therefore, the effects of different surface finishes on the compressive fracture strength of machinable ceramic materials were investigated in this study. Plates prepared from four commercial brands of ceramic materials were either surface-polished or overglazed (n=10 per ceramic material for each surface finish), and bonded to flat surfaces of human dentin using a resin cement. Loads at failure were determined and statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni test. Although no statistical differences in load value were detected between polished and overglazed groups (p>0.05), the fracture load of Vita Mark II was significantly lower than those of ProCAD and IPS Empress CAD, whereas that of IPS e.max CAD was significantly higher than the latter two ceramic materials (p<0.05). It was concluded that overglazed and polished surfaces produced similar compressive fracture strengths irrespective of the machinable ceramic material tested, and that fracture strength was material-dependent.

  17. Evaluation of surface finish and polish of eight provisional restorative materials using acrylic bur and abrasive disk with and without pumice.

    PubMed

    Maalhagh-Fard, Ahmad; Wagner, Warren C; Pink, Frank E; Neme, Ann Marie

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two finishing techniques and pumice polishing on the surface roughness of eight different provisional materials. Provisional materials included polymethylmethacrylate-based Alike, Snap, Trim and Jetand composite-based provisional materials Temphase, Protemp 3 Garant, Luxatemp and Integrity. Baseline surface roughness was measured by a profilometer, then the provisional materials were finished using extra fine acrylic burs or medium abrasive disks. The surface roughness of each sample was measured following finishing using a profilometer as previously stated. Each surface was then polished with pumice and the surface roughness was measured again. The data were analyzed using repeated measures of ANOVA and Bonferroni pairwise comparisons (alpha = 0.05). The results indicated that with composite provisional materials, the unfinished surfaces are smoother than with bur or abrasive-disk finished surfaces. Pumice application did not smooth the surface finish for all materials. The different types of provisional materials required different finishing techniques to produce the smoothest finishes.

  18. The effects of surface finish and grain size on the strength of sintered silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    You, Y. H.; Kim, Y. W.; Lee, J. G.; Kim, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of surface treatment and microstructure, especially abnormal grain growth, on the strength of sintered SiC were studied. The surfaces of sintered SiC were treated with 400, 800 and 1200 grit diamond wheels. Grain growth was induced by increasing the sintering times at 2050 C. The beta to alpha transformation occurred during the sintering of beta-phase starting materials and was often accompanied by abnormal grain growth. The overall strength distributions were established using Weibull statistics. The strength of the sintered SiC is limited by extrinsic surface flaws in normal-sintered specimens. The finer the surface finish and grain size, the higher the strength. But the strength of abnormal sintering specimens is limited by the abnormally grown large tabular grains. The Weibull modulus increases with decreasing grain size and decreasing grit size for grinding.

  19. Magnetorheological Finishing for Imprinting Continuous Phase Plate Structure onto Optical Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, J A; Dixit, S N; Genin, F Y; Brocious, W F

    2004-01-05

    Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) techniques have been developed to manufacture continuous phase plates (CPP's) and custom phase corrective structures on polished fused silica surfaces. These phase structures are important for laser applications requiring precise manipulation and control of beam-shape, energy distribution, and wavefront profile. The MRF's unique deterministic-sub-aperture polishing characteristics make it possible to imprint complex topographical information onto optical surfaces at spatial scale-lengths approaching 1 mm. In this study, we present the results of experiments and model calculations that explore imprinting two-dimensional sinusoidal structures. Results show how the MRF removal function impacts and limits imprint fidelity and what must be done to arrive at a high quality surface. We also present several examples of this imprinting technology for fabrication of phase correction plates and CPPs for use at high fluences.

  20. The Effect of Composition on the Surface Finish of PS400: A New High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Stanford, malcolm K.; Thomas, Fransua; Edmonds, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    A new composite, multi-constituent, solid lubricant coating, NASA PS400, developed for high temperature tribological applications, exhibits a smoother surface finish after grinding and polishing than its predecessors PS200 and PS300. In this paper, the baseline composition of PS400 is modified to investigate each individual constituent s role on the achievable surface finish through a series of coating deposition, grinding, and polishing experiments. Furthermore, to explore the limits of compositional tailoring for improved tribological performance, several PS400 coatings were doped with additional solid lubricants (graphite, MoS2 and BN) and tribologically tested. The test results clearly showed that, compared to PS300 coatings, PS400 achieves a smoother surface finish via a reduced lubricant content. Coatings prepared with higher than the baseline level (10 wt%) of lubricants exhibited higher final surface roughness than the earlier generation PS300 coatings. Reducing or eliminating the one or both lubricants (fluorides or silver) did not further improve the surface finish suggesting that the current composition of PS400 is near optimal with respect to surface finish. Lastly, attempts to improve the poor initial room temperature tribological behavior of PS400 via the addition of traditional solid lubricants were unsuccessful. Based upon this work and earlier results it is expected that future research will concentrate on developing methods to produce a lubricious glaze on the rubbing surface during break in to ensure that low friction and wear are rapidly achieved.

  1. Laser engineered net shaping (LENS{trademark}) process: Optimization of surface finish and microstructural properties

    SciTech Connect

    Smugeresky, J.E.; Keicher, D.M.; Romero, J.A.; Griffith, M.L.; Harwell, L.D.

    1997-11-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) has revolutionized the approach to fabricating geometrically complex hardware from a CAD solid model. The various RP techniques allow component designers to directly fabricate conceptual models in plastics and polymer coated metals; however, each of the techniques requires additional processes, e.g. investment casting, to allow the fabrication of functional metallic hardware. This limitation has provided the impetus for further development of solid freeform fabrication technologies which enable fabrication of functional metallic hardware directly from the CAD solid model. The Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{trademark}) process holds promise in satisfying this need. This newly emerging technology possesses the capability to fabricate fully dense components with good dimensional accuracy and with unique materials properties. Relatively complex geometrical shapes have been fabricated using this technology. In continuing to develop the LENS{trademark} process, further advancements are required. The functional dependence of the component surface finish and microstructural characteristics on process parameters including power size and size distribution are being evaluated. A set of statistically designed experiments is being used to sort through the various process parameters and identify significant process variables for improving surface finish and achieving optimum material microstructural properties.

  2. An evaluation of wear of human enamel opposed by ceramics of different surface finishes

    PubMed Central

    Mulay, Gauri; Dugal, Ramandeep; Buhranpurwala, Murtuza

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Surface of porcelain restoration is a matter of clinical concern because of its abrasive action on the opposing enamel. Purpose: This study comparatively evaluated wear of enamel when opposed by three different surface finishes of ceramic. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 metal-ceramic discs (10 mm × 2 mm) with different surface finishes were fabricated. They were divided into four groups of autoglazed ceramic surface, over glazed ceramic surface, ceramic surface polished with Shofu polishing kit and ceramic surface polished with DFS polishing wheels and paste. Each group comprised of 15 discs. Sixty human teeth samples were prepared from freshly extracted, unrestored, caries free, nonattrited maxillary first premolars. Each tooth sample was weighed before wear testing using AT200 Mettler Toledo electronic analytical balance of 0.0001 g accuracy. Occlusal surfaces of these teeth were then abraded against the substrates in a wear machine for a total of 10,000 cycles. Each tooth sample was weighed after 5000 cycles and after the total of 10,000 cycles, respectively, using the same balance. Differences in weight of tooth samples before and after wear testing were evaluated statistically using one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's correction for multiple group comparisons. Results: The values obtained for percentage weight loss after 10,000 cycles for over glazed ceramic surface were marginally higher than values obtained for autoglazed surface. It was observed that values obtained for percentage weight loss by polished ceramic after 10,000 cycles were statistically less as compared to the values obtained with autoglazed and over glazed ceramic surface (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the values obtained by polished ceramic surfaces of two different groups. Conclusion: Enamel wear produced by polished porcelain is substantially less than autoglazed and over glazed porcelain. No significant

  3. The influence of proximal stem geometry and surface finish on the fixation of a double-tapered cemented femoral stem.

    PubMed

    Sangiorgio, Sophia N; Longjohn, Donald B; Dorr, Lawrence D; Ebramzadeh, Edward

    2011-01-04

    In this study, the in vitro fixation of four otherwise identical double-tapered stem-types, varying only in surface finish (polished or matte) and proximal stem geometry (with or without flanges) were compared under two conditions. First, four specimens of each stem type were tested with initially bonded stem-cement interfaces, representing early post-operative conditions. Then, simulating conditions a few weeks to months later, stems were implanted in unused synthetic femurs, with a thin layer coating the stem to prevent stem-cement adhesion. Per-cycle motions were measured at both cement interfaces throughout loading. Overall, surface finish had the smallest relative effect on fixation compared to flanges. Flanges increased axial fixation by 22 μm per-cycle, regardless of surface finish (P=0.01). Further, all stems moved under dynamic load at the stem-cement interface during the first few cycles of loading, even without a thin film. The results indicate that flanges have a greater effect on fixation than surface finish, and therefore adverse findings about matte surfaces should not necessarily apply to all double-tapered stems. Specifically, dorsal flanges enhance the stability of a tapered cemented femoral stem, regardless of surface finish.

  4. Surface Roughness, Microhardness, and Microleakage of a Silorane-Based Composite Resin after Immediate or Delayed Finishing/Polishing

    PubMed Central

    Lins, Fernanda Carvalho Rezende; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Silveira, Rodrigo Richard; Pereira, Carolina Nemésio Barros; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira; Magalhães, Claudia Silami

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated the effect of immediate or delayed finishing/polishing using different systems on the surface roughness, hardness, and microleakage of a silorane-based composite. Material and Methods. Specimens were made with silorane-based composite (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE) and assigned to the treatments: control (light-cured); aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex, 3M ESPE); diamond-impregnated silicone tips (Astropol, Ivoclar Vivadent); aluminum oxide-impregnated silicone tips (Enhance, Dentsply). Half of the specimens were finished/polished immediately and the rest after 7 days. Surface roughness (Ra, μm; n = 20) and Vickers microhardness (50 g; 45 s; n = 10) were measured. Cavities were prepared in bovine incisors and filled with Filtek P90. The fillings received immediate or delayed finishing/polishing (n = 10) and were subjected to dye penetration test (0.5% basic fuchsin, 24 h). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests (p < 0.05). Results. The finishing/polishing system significantly influenced roughness and microhardness (p < 0.0001). For enamel, microleakage was not affected by the finishing/polishing system (p = 0.309). For dentin, Sof-Lex discs and Astropol points promoted greater microleakage than Enhance points (p = 0.033). Conclusion. Considering roughness, microhardness, and microleakage together, immediate finishing/polishing of a silorane-based composite using aluminum oxide discs may be recommended. PMID:26977150

  5. Three-dimensional evaluation of surface roughness of resin composites after finishing and polishing

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Veena S; Sainudeen, Shan; Padmanabhan, Prabeesh; Vijayashankar, L V; Sujathan, Unu; Pillai, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to investigate the effects of finishing and polishing procedures on four novel resin composites using three-dimensional optical profilometer. Materials and Methods: Four composites classified according to their filler size, were selected: Filtek™ Z350 XT/Nanofill (3M™ ESPE™), Esthet-X HD/Hybrid (Dentsply Caulk), Te Econom/Microfill (Ivoclar Vivadent®), Tetric EvoCeram® /Nanohybrid (Ivoclar Vivadent®). Composite specimens were made in Plexiglass mold and polished with Soflex (3M ESPE), Enhance + Pogo (Dentsply Caulk). Both the systems were used according to the manufacturers’ instructions, and the polished surfaces were assessed with an optical profilometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal-Wallis test and further pairwise comparison were performed by Mann-Whitney test. Results: The smoothest surfaces for all the resin composites tested were obtained from the Mylar strip; statistically significant differences were observed among them (P = 0.001). The order of composites was ranked from the lowest to highest surface roughness; Filtek Z350 XT < Te Econom < Tetric EvoCeram < Esthet XHD. Pairwise multiple comparison with Mann-Whitney test showed Filtek Z350 to have the smoothest surface and the least with Teric EvoCeram. Among the polishing systems, Soflex showed the smoothest surface and was significantly different from Pogo (P = 0.046). Conclusions: The effectiveness of the polishing systems seems to be dependent on the material used, treatment modality and also on the filler particle size. PMID:26957802

  6. Evaluation of the polished surface characteristic of cobalt-chrome castings subsequent to various finishing and polishing techniques.

    PubMed

    Ponnanna, A A; Joshi, S M; Bhat, S; Shetty, P

    2001-01-01

    Finishing and Polishing constitutes an essential requisite after the fabrication of removable partial dentures. Improper finishing and polishing of cast framework will adversely affect the quality of functional units of partial dentures due to reduced dimensions. In this study the polished surface characteristic and loss of weight of the casting were evaluated and compared following different finishing and polishing techniques. A total number of thirty test specimens were cast and each surface finishing and polishing technique was carried out with a high speed polishing motor and an electropolishing unit under standardised conditions. Surface roughness was evaluated by means of a surface roughness analyzing instrument, Perthometer. The loss of weight due to the metal lost was observed on a sensitive electronic balance. The results of polishing technique employed with G3 group revealed better surface characteristic. It may be understood that sandblasting causes initial roughness and the sequence of coarse cylindrical abrasive, Black hard rubber polisher (coarse grit-Dentauram), Grey hard rubber polisher (Med-grit-Dentauram), Green hard rubber polisher (Fine-grit-Dentauram), Grey flexible rubber polisher (Fine grit-Renfert), felt buff with pumice slurry and felt buff with green polishing compound (Degussa) produced improved surface in this case. The loss of weight due to metal lost show concern with technique groups G4, G5, G6. It can be avoided by judicious sandblasting and application of proper grit of abrasive agents.

  7. Leg lesions and cleanliness of finishing bulls kept in housing systems with different lying area surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schulze Westerath, H; Gygax, L; Mayer, C; Wechsler, B

    2007-07-01

    The influence of the quality of different lying surfaces on lesions and swellings at the joints as well as on the cleanliness of finishing bulls throughout the fattening period was studied. On 17 farms (623 bulls), pens with fully slatted concrete floors (CONCRETE), with rubber coated slats (RUBBER), with cubicles (CUBICLES, provided with five different types of soft lying mat) and with a littered lying area (STRAW) were compared. Bulls kept on STRAW developed the smallest lesion scores at the joints. In CUBICLES, there was a huge variability in the lesion scores depending on the type of lying mat, ranging from values comparable to STRAW up to and greater than the values for CONCRETE. The highest lesion scores at the carpal joints were found on CONCRETE, with intermediate values on RUBBER and in CUBICLES. At the tarsal joints, lesion scores were similar on CONCRETE and RUBBER and in the same range or worse on most mats in the CUBICLES. Swelling scores were highest on CONCRETE and intermediate on RUBBER and in CUBICLES compared to STRAW. In general, there was a steady increase in the lesion scores of the leg joints throughout the fattening period on CONCRETE, RUBBER and STRAW, whereas on some of the mats in CUBICLES these scores were at a high level from early on in the fattening period. Animals in all the housing systems were clean over the whole fattening period. Littering the lying area in CUBICLES affected neither the lesion scores nor the swelling scores at the joints nor animal cleanliness. In conclusion, both rubber coated slats and cubicles provided with soft lying mats were favourable with regard to the levels of lesions and swellings of the leg joints of finishing bulls compared to concrete slats. However, these levels were even lower in pens with a straw bedded lying area.

  8. Coating and surface finishing definition for the Solar Orbiter/METIS inverted external occulter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landini, Federico; Romoli, Marco; Vives, Sebastien; Baccani, Cristian; Escolle, Clement; Pancrazzi, Maurizio; Focardi, Mauro; Da Deppo, Vania; Moses, John D.; Fineschi, Silvano

    2014-07-01

    The METIS coronagraph aboard the Solar Orbiter mission will undergo extreme environmental conditions (e.g., a thermal excursion of about 350 degrees throughout the various mission phases), due to the peculiar spacecraft trajectory that will reach a perihelion of 0.28 AUs. METIS is characterized by an innovative design for the occultation system that allows to halve the thermal load inside the instrument while guaranteeing the stray light reduction that is required for a solar coronagraph. The Inverted External Occulter (IEO) concept revolutionizes the classical scheme, by exchanging the usual positions of the entrance aperture (that is now the outermost element of the instrument facing the Sun) with the actual occulter (that is a spherical mirror inside the coronagraph boom). The chosen material for the IEO manufacturing is Titanium, as a trade o_ between light weight, strength and low thermal expansion coefficient. A 2 years long test campaign has been run to define the IEO geometry, and its results are addressed in previous dedicated papers. This work describes the results of a further campaign aimed at defining the IEO surface and edge finishing, the support flange geometry and the Titanium coating. Various edge finishing were installed on a prototype of the instrument occulting system and their performance in stray light reduction were compared. The support flange geometry was designed in order to reduce the overall weight, to control the thermal load and to accentuate its stray light suppression performance. The coating is a particularly delicate issue. A black coating is necessary in order to assess the stray light issues, typically critical for visible coronagraphs. Black coating of Titanium is not a standard process, thus several space qualified black coatings were experimented on Titanium and characterized. The impact of the IEO coatings was evaluated, the reflectivity and the BRDFs were measured and are addressed in the paper.

  9. Experimental and theoretical analysis of defocused CO2 laser microchanneling on PMMA for enhanced surface finish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Shashi; Kumar, Subrata

    2017-02-01

    The poor surface finish of CO2 laser-micromachined microchannel walls is a major limitation of its utilization despite several key advantages, like low fabrication cost and low time consumption. Defocused CO2 laser beam machining is an effective solution for fabricating smooth microchannel walls on polymer and glass substrates. In this research work, the CO2 laser microchanneling process on PMMA has been analyzed at different beam defocus positions. Defocused processing has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally, and the depth of focus and beam diameter have been determined experimentally. The effect of beam defocusing on the microchannel width, depth, surface roughness, heat affected zone and microchannel profile were examined. A previously developed analytical model for microchannel depth prediction has been improved by incorporating the threshold energy density factor. A semi-analytical model for predicting the microchannel width at different defocus positions has been developed. A semi-empirical model has also been developed for predicting microchannel widths at different defocusing conditions for lower depth values. The developed models were compared and verified by performing actual experiments. Multi-objective optimization was performed to select the best optimum set of input parameters for achieving the desired surface roughness.

  10. Printed Circuit Board Surface Finish and Effects of Chloride Contamination, Electric Field, and Humidity on Corrosion Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conseil-Gudla, Hélène; Jellesen, Morten S.; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-02-01

    Corrosion reliability is a serious issue today for electronic devices, components, and printed circuit boards (PCBs) due to factors such as miniaturization, globalized manufacturing practices which can lead to process-related residues, and global usage effects such as bias voltage and unpredictable user environments. The investigation reported in this paper focuses on understanding the synergistic effect of such parameters, namely contamination, humidity, PCB surface finish, pitch distance, and potential bias on leakage current under different humidity levels, and electrochemical migration probability under condensing conditions. Leakage currents were measured on interdigitated comb test patterns with three different types of surface finish typically used in the electronics industry, namely gold, copper, and tin. Susceptibility to electrochemical migration was studied under droplet conditions. The level of base leakage current (BLC) was similar for the different surface finishes and NaCl contamination levels up to relative humidity (RH) of 65%. A significant increase in leakage current was found for comb patterns contaminated with NaCl above 70% to 75% RH, close to the deliquescent RH of NaCl. Droplet tests on Cu comb patterns with varying pitch size showed that the initial BLC before dendrite formation increased with increasing NaCl contamination level, whereas electrochemical migration and the frequency of dendrite formation increased with bias voltage. The effect of different surface finishes on leakage current under humid conditions was not very prominent.

  11. Comparison of Roller Burnishing Method with Other Hole Surface Finishing Processes Applied on AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkurt, Adnan

    2011-08-01

    Component surface quality and selection of the optimum material are the main factors determining the performance of components used in machine manufacturing. The level of hole surface quality can be evaluated by the measurements regarding surface roughness, micro-hardness, and cylindricity. In this study, data had been obtained for different hole drilling methods. The characteristics of materials obtained after applications were compared for different hole-finishing processes to identify best hole drilling method. AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel material was used. Surface finishing of holes were performed using drilling, turning, reaming, grinding, honing, and roller burnishing methods. The results of the study show that the roller burnishing method gives the best results for mechanical, metallurgical properties, and hole surface quality of the material. On the other hand, the worst characteristics were obtained in the drilling method.

  12. Effect of Substrate Surface Finish on the Lubrication and Failure Mechanisms of Molybdenum Disulfide Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    An optical microscope was used to study the lubrication and failure mechanisms of rubbed (burnished) MoS2 films applied to three substrate surface finishes - polished, sanded, and sandblasted - as a function of sliding distance. The lubrication mechanism was the plastic flow of thin films of MoS2 between flat plateaus on the rider and on the metallic substrate. If the substrates were rough, flat plateaus were created during 'run in' and the MoS2 flowed across them. Wear life was extended by increasing surface roughness since valleys in the roughened substrate served as reservoirs for MoS2 and a deposit site for wear debris. In moist air, the failure mechanism was the transformation of metallic colored MoS2 films to a black, powdery material that was found by X ray diffraction to consist primarily of alpha iron and MoO3 powders. In dry argon, the failure mechanism was the gradual depletion of the MoS2 film from the contact region by transverse flow. Analysis of the wear debris on the wear track at failure showed it consisted mainly of alpha iron and some residual MoS2. No molybdenum oxides were found.

  13. Effect of substrate surface finish on the lubrication and failure mechanisms of molybdenum disulfide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    An optical microscope was used to study the lubrication and failure mechanisms of rubbed (burnished) MoS2 films applied to three substrate surface finishes - polished, sanded, and sandblasted - as a function of sliding distance. The lubrication mechanism was the plastic flow of thin films of MoS2 between flat plateaus on the rider and on the metallic substrate. If the substrate was rough, flat plateaus were created during 'run-in' and the MoS2 flowed across them. Wear life was extended by increasing surface roughness since valleys in the roughened substrate served as reservoirs for MoS2 and a deposit site for wear debris. In moist air, the failure mechanism was the transformation of metallic-colored MoS2 films to a black, powdery material that was found by X-ray diffraction to consist primarily of alpha-iron and MoO3 powders. In dry argon, the failure mechanism was the gradual depletion of the MoS2 film from the contact region by transverse flow. Analysis of the wear debris on the wear track at failure showed it consisted mainly of alpha-iron and some residual MoS2. No molybdenum oxides were found.

  14. Investigation of surface finishing of carbon based coated tools for dry deep drawing of aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, J.; Andreas, K.; Merklein, M.

    2016-11-01

    Global trends like growing environmental awareness and demand for resource efficiency motivate an abandonment of lubricants in metal forming. However, dry forming evokes increased friction and wear. Especially, dry deep drawing of aluminum alloys leads to intensive interaction between tool and workpiece due to its high adhesion tendency. One approach to improve the tribological behavior is the application of carbon based coatings. These coatings are characterized by high wear resistance. In order to investigate the potential of carbon based coatings for dry deep drawing, friction and wear behavior of different coating compositions are evaluated in strip drawing tests. This setup is used to model the tribological conditions in the flange area of deep drawing operations. The tribological behavior of tetrahedral amorphous (ta-C) and hydrogenated amorphous carbon coatings with and without tungsten modification (a-C:H:W, a-C:H) is investigated. The influence of tool topography is analyzed by applying different surface finishing. The results show reduced friction with decreased roughness for coated tools. Besides tool topography the coating type determines the tribological conditions. Smooth tools with ta-C and a-C:H coatings reveal low friction and prevent adhesive wear. In contrast, smooth a-C:H:W coated tools only lead to slight improvement compared to rough, uncoated specimen.

  15. Fatigue performance of metastable β titanium alloys: Effects of microstructure and surface finish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocan, Marcin; Wagner, Lothar; Rack, H. J.

    2005-12-01

    This investigation examined the role of microstructure and surface finish on the high cycle fatigue (HCF) performance of TIMETAL LCB (Ti-6.8Mo-4.5Fe-1.5Al). The as-received microstructure of LCB consisted of elongated β grains with a semicontinuous grain boundary α layer. In contrast, a fine equiaxed β + spheroidized α LCB microstructure was achieved by hot swaging and solution (recrystallization) anneal. The latter modification of the prior β grain structure, together with the size, morphology, and distribution of the primary α phase, resulted in a significant enhancement in the tensile and HCF properties. Furthermore, prestraining (PS), as would be expected during the fabrication of an automotive coil spring, and prior to aging for 30 min at temperatures between 500 and 550 °C, led to additional increases in tensile strength. In contrast, the HCF performance was always reduced when PS prior to aging was included in the overall processing procedure. Finally, shot-peening and roller-burnishing both resulted in an increased fatigue life in the finite life regimen; however, significant reductions in the 107 cycle fatigue strengths were observed when these procedures were used. These observations have been explained by including the effect of process-induced residual tensile stresses in the fatigue analysis, resulting in subsurface fatigue crack nucleation.

  16. 3D printed glass: surface finish and bulk properties as a function of the printing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Susanne; Avery, Michael P.; Richardson, Robert; Bartlett, Paul; Frei, Regina; Simske, Steven

    2015-03-01

    It is impossible to print glass directly from a melt, layer by layer. Glass is not only very sensitive to temperature gradients between different layers but also to the cooling process. To achieve a glass state the melt, has to be cooled rapidly to avoid crystallization of the material and then annealed to remove cooling induced stress. In 3D-printing of glass the objects are shaped at room temperature and then fired. The material properties of the final objects are crucially dependent on the frit size of the glass powder used during shaping, the chemical formula of the binder and the firing procedure. For frit sizes below 250 μm, we seem to find a constant volume of pores of less than 5%. Decreasing frit size leads to an increase in the number of pores which then leads to an increase of opacity. The two different binders, 2- hydroxyethyl cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt, generate very different porosities. The porosity of samples with 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose is similar to frit-only samples, whereas carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt creates a glass foam. The surface finish is determined by the material the glass comes into contact with during firing.

  17. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Stone, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping, earth-surface process investigations, and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2006 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Mojave Desert, the Colorado Plateau region of northern Arizona, and the Pacific Northwest. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. This compilation gives the bibliographical citations for 123 new publications, most of which are available online using the hyperlinks provided.

  18. An Overview of Surface Finishes and Their Role in Printed Circuit Board Solderability and Solder Joint Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.

    1998-10-15

    A overview has been presented on the topic of alternative surface finishes for package I/Os and circuit board features. Aspects of processability and solder joint reliability were described for the following coatings: baseline hot-dipped, plated, and plated-and-fused 100Sn and Sn-Pb coatings; Ni/Au; Pd, Ni/Pd, and Ni/Pd/Au finishes; and the recently marketed immersion Ag coatings. The Ni/Au coatings appear to provide the all-around best option in terms of solderability protection and wire bondability. Nickel/Pal ftishes offer a slightly reduced level of performance in these areas that is most likely due to variable Pd surface conditions. It is necessmy to minimize dissolved Au or Pd contents in the solder material to prevent solder joint embrittlement. Ancillary aspects that included thickness measurement techniques; the importance of finish compatibility with conformal coatings and conductive adhesives; and the need for alternative finishes for the processing of non-Pb bearing solders were discussed.

  19. TEAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents materials covering the television campaign against drunk driving called "TEAM" (Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management). It is noted that TEAM's purpose is to promote effective alcohol management in public facilities and other establishments that serve alcoholic beverages. TEAM sponsors are listed, including…

  20. On the properties of two binary NiTi shape memory alloys. Effects of surface finish on the corrosion behaviour and in vitro biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Es-Souni, Mohammed; Es-Souni, Martha; Fischer-Brandies, Helge

    2002-07-01

    The present paper compares the transformation behaviour and mechanical properties of two orthodontic wires of close chemical compositions. The effects of surface topography and surface finish residues on the potentiodynamic corrosion behaviour and biocompatibility are also reported. The cytotoxicity tests were performed on both alloys in fibroblast cell cultures from human gingiva using the MTT test. It is shown that the surface finish and the amounts of surface finish residues affect dramatically the corrosion resistance. Bad surface finish results in lower corrosion resistance. The in vitro biocompatibility, though not affected to the extent of corrosion resistance, is also reduced as the surface roughness and the amounts of residues increase. This is thought to be due to surface effects on corrosion and metallic ions release.

  1. Effect of gold immersion time on the electrochemical migration property of electroless nickel/immersion gold surface finishing.

    PubMed

    Bui, Q V; Yoon, Jeong-Won; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the electrochemical performance of an electroless nickel/immersion gold (ENIG) surface finish was evaluated as a function of the Au immersion time by the water immersion migration test. As the Au plating time increased, the electroless nickel phosphorous (EN-P) changed from amorphous to crystalline and then increased in crystallinity. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to evaluate the crystallinity of the plating layer. The electrical resistance of the electrodes was tracked as the sample was immersed in water with a 5 V bias. The microstructures of the electrodes after the electrochemical migration test were observed by using secondary electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). As the Au immersion time increased, the EN-P's crystallinity and Au thickness increased. This enhanced the electrochemical migration protection of the surface finish layer.

  2. History of magnetorheological finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Daniel C.

    2011-06-01

    Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a deterministic method for producing complex optics with figure accuracy <50 nm and surface roughness <1 nm. MRF was invented at the Luikov Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer in Minsk, Belarus in the late 1980s by a team led by William Kordonski. When the Soviet Union opened up, New York businessman Lowell Mintz was invited to Minsk in 1990 to explore possibilities for technology transfer. Mintz was told of the potential for MRF, but did not understand whether it had value. Mintz was referred to Harvey Pollicove at the Center for Optics Manufacturing of the University of Rochester. As a result of their conversation, they sent Prof. Steve Jacobs to visit Minsk and evaluate MRF. From Jacobs' positive findings, and with support from Lowell Mintz, Kordonski and his colleagues were invited in 1993 to work at the Center for Optics Manufacturing with Jacobs and Don Golini to refine MRF technology. A "preprototype" finishing machine was operating by 1994. Prof. Greg Forbes and doctoral student Paul Dumas developed algorithms for deterministic control of MRF. In 1996, Golini recognized the commercial potential of MRF, secured investment capital from Lowell Mintz, and founded QED Technologies. The first commercial MRF machine was unveiled in 1998. It was followed by more advanced models and by groundbreaking subaperture stitching interferometers for metrology. In 2006, QED was acquired by and became a division of Cabot Microelectronics. This paper recounts the history of the development of MRF and the founding of QED Technologies.

  3. DOD Initiatives to Rapidly Transition Advanced Coating and Surface Finishing Technologies for Military Turbine Engine Manufacture and Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-21

    of PEWG Projects Involving Plating, Coating, and Surface Finishing • Advanced thermal spray coatings (HVOF) • Electrospark deposition • Laser...EWI, GEAE, P&W, Rolls-Royce FUNDING SOURCES RTOC STATUS OC-ALC request for FY06 Funding 3/21/2005 22 Other Technologies • Electrospark Deposition for...Aircraft Engines PEWG MANAGER Chuck Alford, Anteon Corp TECHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITY ADVANTAGES: Kinetic spray technologies deposit thick coatings with a

  4. Surface Treatment of Anti-Crease Finished Cotton Fabric Based on Sol-Gel Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chaoxia; Chen, Li

    The silica sol was applied onto 1, 2, 3, 4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) finished cotton fabrics with the attempt to improve the physical properties especially the tensile strength which had a big loss in the previous anti-crease finishing processing. The parameters including the dosage of the coupling agent, the concentration and pH of the sol and the processing methods were studied in detail. Compared to the sample finished with BTCA, 11.8% of the increase in the crease recovery angle and 18.6% of the enhancement in the tensile strength of the cotton fabric also treated with silica sol in the better selected conditions were obtained. The abrasion resistance was also improved.

  5. Laser damage initiation and growth of antireflection coated S-FAP crystal surfaces prepared by pitch lap and magnetorheological finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Menapace, J A; Schaffers, K I; Bibeau, C; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2005-10-31

    Antireflection (AR) coatings typically damage at the interface between the substrate and coating. Therefore the substrate finishing technology can have an impact on the laser resistance of the coating. For this study, AR coatings were deposited on Yb:S-FAP [Yb{sup 3+}:Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F] crystals that received a final polish by both conventional pitch lap finishing as well as magnetorheological finishing (MRF). SEM images of the damage morphology reveals laser damage originates at scratches and at substrate coating interfacial absorbing defects. Previous damage stability tests on multilayer mirror coatings and bare surfaces revealed damage growth can occur at fluences below the initiation fluence. The results from this study suggest the opposite trend for AR coatings. Investigation of unstable HR and uncoated surface damage morphologies reveals significant radial cracking that is not apparent with AR damage due to AR delamination from the coated surface with few apparent cracks at the damage boundary. Damage stability tests show that coated Yb:S-FAP crystals can operate at 1057 nm at fluences around 20 J/cm{sup 2} at 10 ns; almost twice the initiation damage threshold.

  6. Effects of Aging Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Sn-58Bi Epoxy Solder on ENEPIG-Surface-Finished PCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Myung, Woo-Ram; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2016-11-01

    The mechanical properties of Sn-58Bi epoxy solder were evaluated by low-speed shear testing as functions of aging time and temperature. To determine the effects of epoxy, the interfacial reaction and mechanical properties of both Sn-58Bi and Sn-58Bi epoxy solder were investigated after aging treatment. The chemical composition and growth kinetics of the intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the interface between Sn-58Bi solder and electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG) surface finish were analyzed. Sn-58Bi solder paste was applied by stencil-printing on flame retardant-4 substrate, then reflowed. Reflowed samples were aged at 85°C, 95°C, 105°C, and 115°C for up to 1000 h. (Ni,Pd)3Sn4 IMC formed between Sn-58Bi solder and ENEPIG surface finish after reflow. Ni3Sn4 and Ni3P IMCs formed at the interface between (Ni,Pd)3Sn4 IMC and ENEPIG surface finish after aging at 115°C for 300 h. The overall IMC growth rate of Sn-58Bi solder joint was higher than that of Sn-58Bi epoxy solder joint during aging. The shear strength of Sn-58Bi epoxy solder was about 2.4 times higher than that of Sn-58Bi solder due to the blocking effect of epoxy, and the shear strength decreased with increasing aging time.

  7. Inkjet-printed gold nanoparticulate patterns for surface finish in electronic package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seonhee; Cho, Hyejin; Kang, Seongkoo; Oh, Sungil; Kim, Donghoon

    2011-11-01

    Gold (Au) pads for surface finish in electronic package were developed by the inkjet printing method. The Au ink for printing was prepared by Au nanoparticles (NPs) coated with capping molecules of dodecylamine (C12H25NH2). The microstructures of the inkjet-printed Au films were characterized after sintering in various gas flows. The film sintered in air showed that bonding between NPs was not enough for further grain growth due to the incomplete decomposition of the capping layer. The film sintered under nitrogen (N2) had NPs existing on the surface and the bottom which did not participate in sintering. When the film was sintered under N2-bubbled through formic acid (FA/N2), a large portion of the pores were observed to make a holey pancake-like structure of the film. The microstructures of the inkjet-printed Au film became denser with grain growth when Au NPs were sintered under mixed gas flows of FA/N2 and N2. The resistivity of film was 4.79 μΩ cm, about twice the bulk value. Organic analysis showed that about 0.43% of residual organics was left in the film. Therefore, this Au film was chosen for solder ball shear test because the microstructure was denser compared to the films sintered under other gasses such as N2 or FA/N2 and less organic residue was found from organic analyses. Even though the film sintered under N2 showed the best electrical property (4.35 μΩ cm), it was not adopted in the shear test because NPs remaining on the bottom of the film could lead to the poor adhesion between the film and substrate and show low shear strength. The shear force was 8.04 newton (N) on average and the strength was 64 MPa. This shear strength is good enough to substitute the inkjet-printed Au nanoparticulate film for electroplating in electronic package.

  8. Effects of different surface finishing procedures on the change in surface roughness and color of a polymer infiltrated ceramic network material

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Merve; Türker, Nurullah; Barutcigil, Kubilay

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Polymer infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) materials, also called hybrid ceramics, are new materials in dental market. The manufacturer of the PICN material VITA Enamic suggests 3 different finishing procedures for this new material. In the present study, surface roughness and color differences caused from different finishing procedures of VITA Enamic were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS 120 specimens were prepared in dimensions 2 × 10 × 12 mm from VITA Enamic hybrid ceramic blocks with 'high translucency' and 'translucency 2M2' shades. The specimens were divided into 8 groups. For each group, different finishing procedures suggested by the manufacturer were performed. Surface roughness values were determined by a tactile portable profilometer. Color changes were evaluated using a clinical spectrophotometer. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc comparison. The significance level was set at α=0.05. RESULTS The roughest surfaces were observed in Glaze Groups. Their surface roughness values were similar to that of the control group. Clinical Kit and Technical Kit groups did not show a statistically significant difference regarding surface roughness (P>.05). The largest color difference regarding ΔE00 was observed in Clinical Kit finishing groups. There were also statistically significant color changes between the groups (P<.05). However, all the groups showed clinically acceptable color change (ΔE00<2.25) except Clinical Kit Groups (ΔE00>2.25). CONCLUSION Within the limitations of the present study, it may be suggested that finishing the VITA Enamic restorations by Technical Kit instead of Glaze and Clinical Kit gives better clinical performance in regard to surface roughness and shade matching. PMID:26949483

  9. 36 CFR 13.460 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation traditionally employed by local rural... of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation traditionally... this chapter, the use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface...

  10. 36 CFR 13.460 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation traditionally employed by local rural... of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation traditionally... this chapter, the use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface...

  11. 36 CFR 13.460 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation traditionally employed by local rural... of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation traditionally... this chapter, the use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface...

  12. 36 CFR 13.460 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation traditionally employed by local rural... of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation traditionally... this chapter, the use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface...

  13. 36 CFR 13.460 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation traditionally employed by local rural... of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation traditionally... this chapter, the use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface...

  14. NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team: Lunar Surface Exploration Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob P.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s agency wide Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has been developing Design Reference Missions (DRMs) to support the ongoing effort to characterize NASA s future human exploration strategy. The DRM design effort includes specific articulations of transportation and surface elements, technologies and operations required to enable future human exploration of various destinations including the moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars as well as interim cis-lunar targets. In prior architecture studies, transportation concerns have dominated the analysis. As a result, an effort was made to study the human utilization strategy at each specific destination and the resultant impacts on the overall architecture design. In particular, this paper considers various lunar surface strategies as representative scenarios that could occur in a human lunar return, and demonstrates their alignment with the internationally developed Global Exploration Roadmap (GER).

  15. Correlating tool wear, tool life, surface roughness and tool vibration in finish turning with coated carbide tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, M. E. R.; Diniz, A. E.

    1994-04-01

    Experiments have been carried out in an attempt to monitor the change of workpiece surface roughness caused by the increase of tool wear, through the variation of the vibration in finish turning, under different cutting conditions. The vibration was measured by two accelerometers attached to the tool and the parameter used to make the correlation with surface roughness was the r.m.s. of the signal. The tool of one experiment was photographed at different stages of the cut in order to explain the wear formation and the behaviour of surface roughness as the cutting time elapsed. The material machined was AISI 4340 steel and the tool was coated carbide inserts. The results show that vibration of the tool can be a good way to monitor on-line the growth of surface roughness in finish turning and, therefore, it can be useful for establishing the end of tool life in these operations. Another conclusion is that, when coated tools are used, the behaviour of surface roughness as cutting time elapses is very different from that when uncoated tools are used.

  16. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Powell, Charles L.

    2000-01-01

    The Western Earth Surfaces Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey, Geologic Division (USGS, GD), conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth- science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis currently include southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, and the Pacific Northwest. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 1999 as well as additional 1997 and 1998 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-file Report 99-302). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects.

  17. Evaluation of the Effect of Surface Finish on High-Cycle Fatigue of SLM-IN718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    The surface finish of parts produced by additive manufacturing processes is much rougher than the surface finish generated by machining processes, and a rougher surface can reduce the fatigue strength of a part. This paper discusses an effort to quantify that reduction of strength in high-cycle fatigue for selective laser melt (SLM) coupons. A high-cycle fatigue (HCF) knockdown factor was estimated for Inconel 718, manufactured with the SLM process. This factor is the percentage reduction from the maximum stress in fatigue for low-stress ground (LSG) specimens to the maximum stress of those left with the original surface condition at the same fatigue life. Specimens were provided by a number of vendors, free to use their "best practice"; only one heat treat condition was considered; and several test temperatures were characterized, including room temperature, 800F, 1000F, and 1200F. The 1000F data had a large variance, and was omitted from consideration in this document. A first method used linear approximations extracted from the graphs, and only where data was available for both. A recommended knockdown factor of the as-built surface condition (average roughness of approximately 245 micro-inches/inch) versus low-stress ground condition (roughness no more than 4 micro-inches/inch) was established at approximately 1/3 or 33%. This is to say that for the as-built surface condition, a maximum stress of 2/3 of the stress for LSG can be expected to produce a similar life in the as-built surface condition. In this first evaluation, the knockdown factor did not appear to be a function of temperature. A second approach, the "KP method", incorporated the surface finish measure into a new parameter termed the pseudo-stress intensity factor, Kp, which was formulated to be similar to the fracture mechanics stress intensity factor. Using Kp, the variance seemed to be reduced across all sources, and knockdown factors were estimated using Kp over the range where data occurred. A

  18. Characterization of load bearing metrological parameters in reptilian exuviae in comparison to precision-finished cylinder liner surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aal, H. A.; El Mansori, M.

    2014-10-01

    Design of precise functional surfaces is essential for many future applications. In the technological realm, the accumulated experience with construction of such surfaces is not sufficient. Nature provides many examples of dynamic surfaces worthy of study and adoption, at least in concept, within human engineering. This work probes the load-bearing metrological features of the ventral skin in snakes. We examine the structure of two snake species that mainly move by rectilinear locomotion. These are Python regius (Pythonidae) and Bitis gabonica (Vipridae). To this end, we focus on the load-bearing characteristics of the ventral skin surface (i.e., the Sk family of parameters). Therefore, detailed comparison is drawn between the metrological structure of the reptilian surfaces and two sets of technological data. The first set pertains to an actual commercial cylinder liner, whereas the second set is a summary of recommended surface finish metrological values for several commercial cylinder liner manufacturers. The results highlight several similarities between the two types of surfaces. In particular, it is shown that there is a striking correspondence between the sense of texture morphology within both surfaces (although their construction evolved along entirely different paths). It is also shown that reptilian surfaces manifest a high degree of specialization with respect to habitat constraints on wear resistance and adhesive effects. In particular, their surface displays a high degree of pre-conditioning to functional requirements, which eliminates the need for a running-in period.

  19. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles; Graymer, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2001 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, and the Las Vegas urban corridor. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2002 as well as additional 1998 and 2001 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-File Report 00-215, USGS Open-File Report 01-198, and USGS Open-File Report 02-269). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS open-file reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information. Information on ordering USGS publications can be found on the World Wide Web or by calling 1-888-ASK-USGS. The U.S. Geological Survey’s web server for geologic information in the western United States is located at http

  20. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Stone, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2000 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, the Las Vegas urban corridor, and selected National Park lands. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2000 as well as additional 1999 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-file Report 00-215). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these Web publications are USGS open-file reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information.

  1. Publications of Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, II; Graymer, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth-science studies in the Western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues, such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2001 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, and the Las Vegas urban corridor. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the Western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2001, as well as additional 1999 and 2000 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-File Report 00–215 and USGS Open-File Report 01–198). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS Open-File Reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information.

  2. Specification of the surface figure and finish of optical elements in terms of system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1992-09-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is the site of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); an electron synchrotron which is an intense source of hard and soft x-rays. Since there are no effective refracting elements for x rays, this radiation must be manipulated and focused by mirrors configured to give high reflectivity. This paper describes methods of predicting the degradation of the performance of a simple imaging system in terms of the statistics of the shape errors of the focusing element, and conversely, of specifying those statistics in terms of requirements on image quality. Results are illustrated for a normal-incidence x-ray mirrors having figure errors plus conventional and/or fractal finish errors.

  3. Nanometric Finishing on Biomedical Implants by Abrasive Flow Finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Kavithaa Thirumalai; Balashanmugam, Natchimuthu; Shashi Kumar, Panaghra Veeraiah

    2016-01-01

    Abrasive flow finishing (AFF) is a non-conventional finishing technique that offers better accuracy, efficiency, consistency, economy in finishing of complex/difficult to machine materials/components and provides the possibility of effective automation as aspired by the manufacturing sector. The present study describes the finishing of a hip joint made of ASTM grade Co-Cr alloy by Abrasive Flow Machining (AFM) process. The major input parameters of the AFF process were optimized for achieving nanometric finishing of the component. The roughness average (Ra) values were recorded during experimentation using surface roughness tester and the results are discussed in detail. The surface finished hip joints were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and residual stress analysis using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The discussion lays emphasis on the significance, efficacy and versatile nature of the AFF process in finishing of bio-medical implants.

  4. Publications of the Western Earth Surfaces Processes Team 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles; Stone, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping, earth-surface process investigations, and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2005 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Mojave Desert, the Colorado Plateau region of northern Arizona, and the Pacific Northwest. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2005 as well as additional 2002, 2003, and 2004 publications that were not included in the previous lists (USGS Open-File Reports 03-363, 2004- 1267, 2005-1362). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS Open-File reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information. Information on ordering USGS publications can be found on the World Wide Web at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod/, or by calling 1-888-ASK-USGS. The U.S. Geological Survey's web

  5. Drop Reliability of Epoxy-contained Sn-58 wt.%Bi Solder Joint with ENIG and ENEPIG Surface Finish Under Temperature and Humidity Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Woo-Ram; Kim, Yongil; Kim, Kyung-Yeol; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2016-07-01

    The influence of two kinds of surface finish, namely electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) and electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG), on the interfacial reactions and drop reliability of epoxy-enhanced Sn-58 wt.%Bi solder has been investigated after temperature-humidity storage tests. The chemical composition and morphology of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Also, the mechanical reliability of solder joints was evaluated using board-level drop tests. The Sn-Bi epoxy solder/ENEPIG joint exhibited higher IMC growth rate than the Sn-Bi epoxy solder/ENIG joint. After 500 h at 85°C/85% RH storage condition, new IMCs were formed on the Ni3Sn4 layer in samples with both surface finishes. The results of board-level drop tests showed that the number of drops was higher for the ENIG than the ENEPIG surface finish. Solder joint fracture occurred along the interface between the solder and IMC layer for the ENIG surface finish. However, with the ENEPIG surface finish, the crack propagated between the IMCs.

  6. Surface integrity evolution from main cut mode to finish trim cut mode in W-EDM of shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. F.; Li, L.; Guo, Y. B.

    2014-07-01

    Shape memory alloys such as Nitinol are widely used in medical, aerospace, actuator, and machine tool industries. However, Nitinol is a very difficult-to-machine material due to the superelasticity, high ductility, and severe strain-hardening. The machined surface should have tailored micro texture to enhance cell adhesion. This study explores the process capability of W-EDM (DI-water based dielectric) in machining Ni50.8Ti49.2 by one main cut (MC) mode followed by four trim cut (TC) modes. Experimental results show that the 6-sigma distributions of Ra are very different between MC mode and finish TC mode. Thick white layers (2-8 μm) with microcracks in MC mode and very thin white layers (0-2 μm) free of those defects in finish TC mode can be observed. However, microcracks would not propagate into the heat affected zone (HAZ) below the white layer. The microhardness of white layer by TC mode is about 50% higher than that by MC mode. In addition, Ni is the dominant element for the measured microhardness.

  7. NON-POLLUTING METAL SURFACE FINISHING PRETREATMENT AND PRETREATMENT/CONVERSION COATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Picklex, a proprietary formulation, is an alterantive to conventional metal surface pretreatments and is claimed not to produce waste or lower production or lower performance. A laboratory program was designed to evaluate Picklex in common, large scale, polluting surface finishin...

  8. Effect of Pd Interlayer on Electrochemical Properties of ENIG Surface Finish in 3.5 wt.% NaCl Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, N. D.; Bui, Q. V.; Nhan, H. T.; Phuong, D. V.; Bian, M. Z.

    2014-09-01

    The corrosion resistance of a multilayered (NiP-Pd-Au) coating with various thicknesses of palladium (Pd) interlayer deposited on copper by an electroless method was investigated using electrochemical techniques including potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the surface finish was examined by x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy, and the contact angle of the liquid-solid interface was recorded. The corrosion resistance of the copper substrate was considerably improved by Pd interlayer addition. Increase of the thickness of the Pd interlayer enhanced the performance of the Cu-NiP-Pd-Au coating due to low porosity, high protective efficiency, high charge-transfer resistance, and contact angle. These are attributed to the diffusion of layers in the Cu-NiP-Pd-Au coating acting as a physical barrier layer, leading to the protection provided by the coating.

  9. Relevance of roughness parameters of surface finish in precision hard turning.

    PubMed

    Jouini, Nabil; Revel, Philippe; Bigerelle, Maxence

    2014-01-01

    Precision hard turning is a process to improve the surface integrity of functional surfaces. Machining experiments are carried out on hardened AISI 52100 bearing steel under dry condition using c-BN cutting tools. A full factorial experimental design is used to characterize the effect of cutting parameters. As surface topography is characterized by numerous roughness parameters, their relative relevance is investigated by statistical indices of performance computed by combining the analysis of variance, discriminant analysis and the bootstrap method. The analysis shows that the profile Length ratio (Lr) and the Roughness average (Ra) are the relevant pair of roughness parameters which best discriminates the effect of cutting parameters and enable the classification of surfaces which cannot be distinguished by one parameter: low profile length ratio Lr (Lr = 100.23%) is clearly distinguished from an irregular surface corresponding to a profile length ratio Lr (Lr = 100.42%), whereas the roughness average Ra values are nearly identical.

  10. Drywall Finishing Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengert, Gerald

    This manual, a self-study guide for apprentices in the drywall finishing trade in British Columbia, attempts to establish standards for the trade. It tells how to produce a properly taped and filled drywall surface and describes what that surface should look like. The standards emphasize quality work that can be realistically achieved on the job.…

  11. Recent developments in finishing of deep concave, aspheric, and plano surfaces utilizing the UltraForm 5-axes computer controlled system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambrick, Scott; Bechtold, Mike; DeFisher, Scott; Mohring, David; Meisenzahl, Joe

    2009-05-01

    OptiPro Systems has developed a robust 5-axes computer controlled platform, for implementation of the sub-aperture UltraForm Finishing (UFF) process specifically focused on finishing AlON, spinel and transparent polycrystalline alumina (PCA) steep concave, convex and ogive shaped infrared domes and aspheres. Traditional manufacturing of optical components typically involves a three-stage process: grinding, lapping and polishing. The lapping and polishing stages are focused at reducing the surface roughness while preserving the integrity of the form acquired during grinding. Polishing of non spherical and irregular shapes is nearly impossible using traditional full aperture techniques. However, finishing these non-spherical and irregular shapes is possible using UltraForm Finishing. A brief description of the evolution of the UltraForm hardware and processes will be presented, with the current hardware developments. A review of the results with regard to form/figure and roughness improvements on glass, AlON and transparent PCA will be presented using a variety of grinding and finishing abrasives. Differences in the abrasive materials, some bound, and others loose in a slurry have a large impact on the process cycle time and resultant surface roughness.

  12. Plasma-deposited fluorocarbon polymer films on titanium for preventing cell adhesion: a surface finishing for temporarily used orthopaedic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, B.; Testrich, H.; Rebl, H.; Walschus, U.; Schlosser, M.; Zietz, C.; Staehlke, S.; Nebe, J. B.; Weltmann, K. D.; Meichsner, J.; Polak, M.

    2016-06-01

    The design of a titanium implant surface should ideally support its later application in clinical use. Temporarily used implants have to fulfil requirements different from permanent implants: they should ensure the mechanical stabilization of the bone stock but in trauma surgery they should not be integrated into the bone because they will be removed after fracture healing. Finishing of the implant surface by a plasma-fluorocarbon-polymer (PFP) coating is a possible approach for preventing cell adhesion of osteoblasts. Two different low pressure gas-discharge plasma processes, microwave (MW 2.45 GHz) and capacitively coupled radio frequency (RF 13.56 MHz) plasma, were applied for the deposition of the PFP film using a mixture of the precursor octafluoropropane (C3F8) and hydrogen (H2). The thin films were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurements. Cell culture experiments show that cell adhesion and spreading of MG-63 osteoblasts were clearly reduced or nonexistent on these surfaces, also after 24 h of storage in the cell culture medium. In vivo data demonstrated that the local inflammatory tissue response for the PFP films deposited in MW and RF plasma were comparable to uncoated controls.

  13. Evaluation of magnesium alloys with alternative surface finishing for the proliferation and chondro-differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinidad, J.; Arruebarrena, G.; Sáenz De Argandoña, E.; Ruiz De Eguino, G.; Infante, A.; Rodríguez, C. I.

    2010-11-01

    Articular cartilage has little capacity for self-repair. As a result, continuous mechanical stress can lead to the degradation of articular cartilage, culminating in progressive damage and joint degeneration. Tissue engineering has arisen as a promising therapeutic approach to cartilage repair. Magnesium alloys are one of the most important metallic biomaterials emerging in this area due to their biocompatibility, bio-absorbability and especially to their mechanical properties. These properties make magnesium alloys a promising biomaterial in the regeneration of cartilage tissue. Objective. This study was undertaken to analyze the influence of surface characteristics of magnesium alloys in the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Methods. Two commercial magnesium alloys (AZ31B and ZM21) were subjected to different treatments in order to obtain four different surfaces in each alloy. Human MSCs were seeded into the magnesium alloys and analyzed for their proliferation and chondrogenesis differentiation ability. Results. Human MSCs showed a greater proliferation and chondro-differentiation when cultured in the ZM21 magnesium alloy with a surface finishing of fine sanding, polishing, and etching.

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Surface Finish on High-Cycle Fatigue for SLM-IN718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    A high-cycle fatigue (HCF) knockdown factor was estimated for Inconel 718, manufactured with the selective laser melt (SLM) process. This factor is the reduction at a common fatigue life from the maximum stress in fatigue for low-stress ground (LSG) specimens to the maximum stress of those left with the original surface condition. Various vendors provided specimens. To reduce the number of degrees-of-freedom, only one heat treat condition was evaluated. Testing temperatures included room temperature, 800F, 1000F, and 1200F. The two surface conditions were compared at constant lives, where data was available. The recommended knockdown factor of the as-built surface condition (average roughness of approximately 245 micro-inches/inch) versus low-stress ground condition (roughness <= 4 micro-inches/inch) is approximately 1/3 or 33%. This is to say that for the as-built surface condition, a maximum stress of 2/3 of the stress for LSG can be expected to produce the same life in the as built surface condition. As an alternative method, the surface finish was incorporated into a new parameter with the maximum stress. The new parameter was formulated to be similar to the fracture mechanics stress intensity factor, and it was named the pseudo stress intensity factor, Kp. Using Kp, the variance seemed acceptable across all sources, and the knockdown factor was estimated over the range of data identified by Kp where data occurred. A plot of the results suggests that the knockdown factor is a function of temperature, and that for low lives the knockdown is greater than the knockdown observed above about one million cycles, where it stabilizes. One data point at room temperature was clearly different, and the sparsity of data in the higher life region reduces the value of these results. The method does appear to provide useful results, and further characterization of the method is suggested.

  15. Surface finish quality of the outer AXAF mirror pair based on x ray measurements of the VETA-I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, John P.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Vanspeybroeck, Leon; Zhao, Ping

    1992-01-01

    We employ the X-ray measurements of the VETA-I taken at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to extract information about the surface finish quality of the outermost pair of AXAF mirrors. The particular measurements we consider are one dimensional scans of the core of the point response function (PRF) (full width half maximum (FWHM) scans), the encircled energy as a function of radius, and one dimensional scans of the wings of the PRF. We discuss briefly our ray trace model which incorporates the numerous effects present in the VETA-I test, such as the finite source distance, the size and shape of the X-ray source, the residual gravitational distortions of the optic, the despace of the VETA-I, and particulate contamination. We show how the data constrain the amplitude of mirror surface deviations for spatial frequencies greater than about 0.1 mm(exp -1). Constraints on the average amplitude of circumferential slope errors are derived as well.

  16. The Effect of Surface Finish on the Fatigue Performance of Certain Propeller Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-12-01

    also strengthensthe surface while electropolish - ing does not. --.- ,--,., -. .—.— -=—.. . . .., -. ., , INTRODUCTION ,,... “ . . .-.. .—., Aircraft...X4130 steel in hoi–rolled5/8-ir-ichdiameter %arsfrom Carnegie-Illinois, Steel CompanyHeat No. 182983. The other steelwas 4140-,,hot rolled to ~/&inch...the 4140 analysisby Battelle Momor-ia2Institute. ... . Steel : . . .x4igo.——— . 4140 ~ercent) (~ercent~.—.--——-- — —— --- Carbon Manganese Phosphorus

  17. Space processing applications of ion beam technology. [surface finishing, welding, milling and film deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, P. G.

    1977-01-01

    Ion thruster engines for spacecraft propulsion can serve as ion beam sources for potential space processing applications. The advantages of space vacuum environments and the possible gravity effects on thruster ion beam materials operations such as thin film growth, ion milling, and surface texturing were investigated. The direct gravity effect on sputter deposition and vapor deposition processes are discussed as well as techniques for cold and warm welding.

  18. NREL Team Creates High-Activity, Durable Platinum Extended Surface Catalyst for Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    Researchers with NREL's Fuel Cell team showed that platinum can replace copper nanowires in such a way that high-surface-area and high-specific-activity catalysts are produced, potentially allowing for lower-cost catalysts.

  19. Surface Mobility Technology (SMT) Team members and Students and Faculty from Case Western Reserve Un

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Surface Mobility Technology (SMT) Team members and Students and Faculty from Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) with the Modular Mobility Technology Demonstrator (MMTD) in the Simulated Lunar Operations (SLOPE) Laboratory

  20. Surface Mobility Technology (SMT) Team member with Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) Students a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Surface Mobility Technology (SMT) Team member with Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) Students and Faculty in the Control Room of the Simulated Lunar Operations (SLOPE) Laboratory for the Modular Mobility Technology Demonstrator (MMTD)

  1. Ion beam technology applications study. [ion impact, implantation, and surface finishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.; Zafran, S.; Komatsu, G. K.

    1978-01-01

    Specific perceptions and possible ion beam technology applications were obtained as a result of a literature search and contact interviews with various institutions and individuals which took place over a 5-month period. The use of broad beam electron bombardment ion sources is assessed for materials deposition, removal, and alteration. Special techniques examined include: (1) cleaning, cutting, and texturing for surface treatment; (2) crosslinking of polymers, stress relief in deposited layers, and the creation of defect states in crystalline material by ion impact; and (3) ion implantation during epitaxial growth and the deposition of neutral materials sputtered by the ion beam. The aspects, advantages, and disadvantages of ion beam technology and the competitive role of alternative technologies are discussed.

  2. CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

  3. UltraForm finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, E.; Schoen, J.; Bechtold, M.; Mohring, D.

    2005-05-01

    A new compliant sub-aperture optical finishing technique is being investigated for the removal of mid-spatial frequency artifacts and smoothing of hard polycrystalline infrared ceramics for aspheric applications and conformal shaped optics. The UltraForm concept was developed by OptiPro Systems, Ontario, NY, and is a joint process development effort with the Center for Optics manufacturing (COM). The UltraForm tool is a pressurized, elastomeric bladder in the shape of a toroid. Finishing pads are attached to the periphery, allowing the use of a wide variety of pad materials and abrasive selections. Experimentation has been conducted using both slurry mixes and fixed abrasive pads. The toroidal tool is rotated while the compliant tool is compressed into contact with the surface. Currently this process has specific interest for the finishing of conformal ALON Domes. Also to be discussed will be new versions of the UltraForm Tools which are currently be developed and tested.

  4. Experimental Investigation of the Heat-Transfer Rate to a Series of 20 deg Cones of Various Surface Finishes at a Mach Number of 4.95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jim J.

    1959-01-01

    The heat-transfer rates were measured on a series of cones of various surface finishes at a Mach number of 4.95 and Reynolds numbers per foot varying from 20 x 10(exp 6) to 100 x 10(exp 6). The range of surface finish was from a very smooth polish to smooth machining with no polish (65 micro inches rms). Some laminar boundary-layer data were obtained, since transition was not artificially tripped. Emphasis, however, is centered on the turbulent boundary layer. The results indicated that the turbulent heat-transfer rate for the highest roughness tested was only slightly greater than that for the smoothest surface. The laminar-sublayer thickness was calculated to be about half the roughness height for the roughest model at the highest value of unit Reynolds number tested.

  5. Reflow soldering and isothermal solid-state aging of Sn-Ag eutectic solder on Au/Ni surface finish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. M.; Ho, C. E.; Chen, W. T.; Kao, C. R.

    2001-09-01

    The reaction between the eutectic Sn-3.5Ag solder and the Au/Ni surface finish during reflow as well as during isothermal aging was studied. The Au layer was electroplated and had a thickness of the one μm. The peak reflow temperature was fixed at 250 C while the reflow time was varied between 10 sec and one h. Samples that went through 90 sec reflow time were then subjected to 160 C isothermal aging for up to 875 h. It was found that during reflow the Au layer reacted very quickly with the solder to form AuSn4. One μm of Au layer was consumed in less than 10 sec. As the aging time increased, AuSn4 grains began to separate themselves from the Ni layer at the roots of the grains and started to fall into the solder. When, the reflow time reached 30 sec, all the Au intermetallic head left the interface, and Ni3Sn4 started, to form at the interface. The Ni3Sn4 growth rate followed linear kinetics initially (<240 sec), but the growth rate slowed down afterward. During the isothermal aging, only a small amount of (AuxNi1-x)Sn4 resettled back to the interface, and a continuous (Au0.45Ni0.55)Sn4 layer did not form at the interface, unlike the case for the Sn-37Pb solder. This is an important advantage for Sn-3.5 Ag over Sn-37Pb because a continuous (Au0.45Ni0.55)Sn4 layer inevitably will weaken a solder joint. Our observation indicated that many (AuxNi1-x)Sn4 particles were trapped by the Ag3Sn particles, and were hindered from resettling back to the interface.

  6. Concentration Data for Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Ground Water, Surface Water, and Finished Water of Selected Community Water Systems in the United States, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2001 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems (CWSs) in the United States. As used for SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well prior to water treatment (for ground water) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water), and finished water is the water that is treated and ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished water is collected before entering the distribution system. SWQA studies are conducted in two phases, and the objectives of SWQA studies are twofold: (1) to determine the occurrence and, for rivers, seasonal changes in concentrations of a broad list of anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) in aquifers and rivers that have some of the largest withdrawals for drinking-water supply (phase 1), and (2) for those AOCs found to occur most frequently in source water, characterize the extent to which these compounds are present in finished water (phase 2). These objectives were met for SWQA studies by collecting ground-water and surface-water (source) samples and analyzing these samples for 258 AOCs during phase 1. Samples from a subset of wells and surface-water sites located in areas with substantial agricultural production in the watershed were analyzed for 19 additional AOCs, for a total of 277 compounds analyzed for SWQA studies. The 277 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and

  7. Enamel and Dentin Surface Finishing Influence on the Roughness and Microshear Bond Strength of a Lithium Silicate Glass-Ceramic for Laminate Veneers

    PubMed Central

    Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Bravo, Ruth Peggy; Pavelski, Thiago Vinícius; Garcia, Paula Pontes; Correr, Gisele Maria; Leonardi, Denise Piotto; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the influence of cavity surface finishing with diamond burs of different grit mounted on high-speed turbine and ultrasound on the roughness and microshear bond strength (MBS) of a lithium silicate glass-ceramic to enamel and dentin. Methods. Enamel and dentin specimens were divided into seven groups, according to the type of surface finishing: 1200-grit sandpaper (control), two different brands of medium-grit and fine-grit diamond burs in a high-speed turbine; medium-grit and fine-grit CVD (chemical vapor deposition) tips in an ultrasonic device. Roughness parameters (n = 5) and MSBS to a glass-ceramic (n = 10) were determined. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 5%). Results. Control group showed lower mean roughness readings and groups that used medium-grit diamond burs showed the highest mean roughness values. Regarding MSBS, there was no statistical difference when comparing the groups gritted with the same brand of medium- and fine-grit burs and tips. Conclusions. Cavity surface finishing influenced the roughness parameters and MSBS of a glass-ceramic to enamel and dentin. Medium-grit diamond burs in high-speed turbine showed the highest mean roughness values. Fine-grit CVD tips in ultrasound presented the highest MSBS values for both enamel and dentin. PMID:27347507

  8. Enamel and Dentin Surface Finishing Influence on the Roughness and Microshear Bond Strength of a Lithium Silicate Glass-Ceramic for Laminate Veneers.

    PubMed

    Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Bravo, Ruth Peggy; Pavelski, Thiago Vinícius; Garcia, Paula Pontes; Correr, Gisele Maria; Leonardi, Denise Piotto; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the influence of cavity surface finishing with diamond burs of different grit mounted on high-speed turbine and ultrasound on the roughness and microshear bond strength (MBS) of a lithium silicate glass-ceramic to enamel and dentin. Methods. Enamel and dentin specimens were divided into seven groups, according to the type of surface finishing: 1200-grit sandpaper (control), two different brands of medium-grit and fine-grit diamond burs in a high-speed turbine; medium-grit and fine-grit CVD (chemical vapor deposition) tips in an ultrasonic device. Roughness parameters (n = 5) and MSBS to a glass-ceramic (n = 10) were determined. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 5%). Results. Control group showed lower mean roughness readings and groups that used medium-grit diamond burs showed the highest mean roughness values. Regarding MSBS, there was no statistical difference when comparing the groups gritted with the same brand of medium- and fine-grit burs and tips. Conclusions. Cavity surface finishing influenced the roughness parameters and MSBS of a glass-ceramic to enamel and dentin. Medium-grit diamond burs in high-speed turbine showed the highest mean roughness values. Fine-grit CVD tips in ultrasound presented the highest MSBS values for both enamel and dentin.

  9. Concentration data for anthropogenic organic compounds in groundwater, surface water, and finished water of selected community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Delzer, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2001 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems in the United States. As used in SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well before water treatment (for groundwater) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water), and finished water is the water that has been treated and is ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished-water samples are collected before the water enters the distribution system. The primary objective of SWQAs is to determine the occurrence of more than 250 anthropogenic organic compounds in source water used by community water systems, many of which currently are unregulated in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A secondary objective is to understand recurrence patterns in source water and determine if these patterns also occur in finished water before distribution. SWQA studies were conducted in two phases for most studies completed by 2005, and in one phase for most studies completed since 2005. Analytical results are reported for a total of 295 different anthropogenic organic compounds monitored in source-water and finished-water samples collected during 2002-10. The 295 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and combustion-derived compounds; (10) personal-care and domestic-use products; (11) plant- or animal-derived biochemicals; (12) refrigerants and

  10. 50 CFR 36.12 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface transportation traditionally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams... Subsistence Uses § 36.12 Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface transportation... provision of subchapter C of title 50 CFR the use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means...

  11. 50 CFR 36.12 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface transportation traditionally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams... Subsistence Uses § 36.12 Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface transportation... provision of subchapter C of title 50 CFR the use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means...

  12. 50 CFR 36.12 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface transportation traditionally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams... Subsistence Uses § 36.12 Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface transportation... provision of subchapter C of title 50 CFR the use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means...

  13. 50 CFR 36.12 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface transportation traditionally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams... Subsistence Uses § 36.12 Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface transportation... provision of subchapter C of title 50 CFR the use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means...

  14. 50 CFR 36.12 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface transportation traditionally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams... Subsistence Uses § 36.12 Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface transportation... provision of subchapter C of title 50 CFR the use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means...

  15. A novel magnetic field-assisted polishing method using magnetic compound slurry and its performance in mirror surface finishing of miniature V-grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youliang; Wu, Yongbo; Mitsuyoshi, Nomura

    2016-05-01

    A novel magnetic field-assisted polishing technique was proposed for finishing 3D structured surface using a magnetic compound (MC) slurry. The MC slurry was prepared by blending carbonyl-iron-particles, abrasive grains and α-cellulose into a magnetic fluid which contains nano-scale magnetite particles. An experimental setup was constructed firstly by installing an oscillation worktable and a unit onto a polishing machine. Then, experimental investigations were conducted on oxygen-free copper workpiece with parallel distributed linear V-grooves to clarify the influence of the polishing time and abrasive impact angle on the grooves surface qualities. It was found that (1) the groove form accuracy, i.e. the form retention rate η varied with the polishing locations. Although the form retention rate η deteriorated during the polishing process, the final η was greater than 99.4%; (2) the effective impact angle θm affected the material removal and form accuracy seriously. An increase of the absolute value θm resulted with an increase of material removal rate and a decrease of the form accuracy; (3) the work-surface roughness decreased more than 6 times compared with the original surface after MC slurry polishing. These results confirmed the performance of the proposed new magnetic field-assisted polishing method in the finishing of 3D-structured surface.

  16. U.S. Army Toxic Metal Reduction Program: Demonstrating Alternatives to Hexavalent Chromium and Cadmium in Surface Finishing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-18

    used in pretreatments 75% reduction in Cd associated with Cr(VI) finishes Reduction in toxic materials/waste (e.g., cyanide , phosphate sludge) 7...II Cadmium Oxide, Sodium Cyanide , Cadmium, Nickel Chloride, Iridite Hard Chrome Plate SAE AMS-QQ-C-320 Chromic Acid Copper Plating ASTM 2418F...Copper Cyanide , Sodium Cyanide , Sodium Dichromate Electroless Nickel AMS2404F Nickel Chloride Magnesium Anodize - Conversion Coating AMS-M-3171 Type

  17. Synthetic rubber surface as an alternative to concrete to improve welfare and performance of finishing beef cattle reared on fully slatted flooring.

    PubMed

    Brscic, M; Ricci, R; Prevedello, P; Lonardi, C; De Nardi, R; Contiero, B; Gottardo, F; Cozzi, G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a fully slatted concrete floor (concrete slatted (CS)) with the same floor on which synthetic rubber slats were placed on the concrete slats (rubber slatted (RS)) as housing solution for finishing beef cattle. The present study involved five commercial beef cattle farms in which the floor of at least three pens was kept as fully slatted, and in an equal number of pens a rubber cover was placed on the floor, tightly matching the gap profile of the concrete slats to allow the drainage of manure. A total of 326 finishing beef bulls were used (153 on CS and 173 on RS), and regardless of the floor treatment animals were housed in groups of 6 to 12 bulls/pen with a space allowance of 3.1 ± 0.2 m2/bull. Bulls had similar initial live weights (422.3 kg on CS and 425.0 kg on RS), but bulls on RS were heavier at the end of the finishing period with a higher average daily gain than bulls kept on CS (1.53 v. 1.46 kg/day; P<0.05). The proportion of bulls treated for locomotor problems was lower in RS pens compared with CS. Rubber covering prevented the occurrence of bursitis, but it increased the odds for hoof overgrowth at end of the finishing period. Hoof overgrowth detected in vivo in bulls on RS was confirmed at the slaughterhouse by the longer dorsal wall and diagonal lengths of the hoof as well as by a more acute toe angle. Compared with bulls on CS, bulls on RS showed less inactivity and resting time, increased social interactions, decreased abnormal lying down and unsuccessful attempts to lie down, as well as shortened the time for lying down. Bulls in RS pens were dirtier compared with those in CS pens, likely due to the draining gaps being reduced to 11.6 ± 1.2% of the total pen surface compared with the 16.9 ± 1.7% in CS pens. This study gave further evidence about the positive effects of the RS floor on growth performance and welfare of finishing beef cattle, although compromising cleanliness and hoof overgrowth.

  18. Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Tool Life of HSS Tool (S400) and Surface Finish of the Material in Turning of SS304

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradeep, A. V.; Prasad, S. V. Satya; Suryam, L. V.; Kesava Rao, Y.; Kesava, D.

    2016-09-01

    Tool steels are the most widely used components for the single point cutting tool in the turning process. Therefore the characterization of the properties of these tool materials has a great significance when turning is carried out. Alteration and improvement of the properties of these tool steels will enhance the machining process. The present work explores the effect of cryogenic treatment done on a single point cutting tool (HSS) which helps in machining different tool materials with a better surface finish and increased tool life. Turning operation is done on commercial grade material SS304 by using both cryogenically treated and non-treated HSS tool bits at three different speeds (180, 300 & 530 rpm) with the time interval of 3 minutes until the nose fracture is observed. The graphs were plotted between the tool wear and time interval for each speed comparing both the tool lives and it is found that the cryogenically treated tool has sustained for more time than non-cryogenically treated tool at any given speeds standing with more tool life. Also the forces generated during the operation were observed by tool force dynamometer and found to be more in NTT than CTT and even the surface finish of the work piece got enhanced when CT tool is used at any given speeds.

  19. Investigation of crystal surface finish and geometry on single LYSO scintillator detector performance for depth-of-interaction measurement with silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bircher, Chad; Shao, Yiping

    2012-11-01

    Depth of Interaction (DOI) information can improve quality of reconstructed images acquired from Positron Emission Tomography (PET), especially in high resolution and compact scanners dedicated for breast, brain, or small animal imaging applications. Additionally, clinical scanners with time of flight capability can also benefit from DOI information. One of the most promising methods of determining DOI in a crystal involves reading the signal from two ends of a scintillation crystal, and calculating the signal ratio between the two detectors. This method is known to deliver a better DOI resolution with rough crystals compared to highly polished crystals. However, what is still not well studied is how much of a tradeoff is involved between spatial, energy, temporal, and DOI resolutions as a function of the crystal surface treatment and geometry with the use of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) as the photo detectors. This study investigates the effects of different crystal surface finishes and geometries on energy, timing and DOI resolutions at different crystal depths. The results show that for LYSO scintillators of 1.5×1.5×20 mm3 and 2×2×20 mm3 with their surfaces finished from 0.5 to 30 μm roughness, almost the same energy and coincidence timing resolutions were maintained, around 15% and 2.4 ns, respectively across different crystal depths, while the DOI resolutions were steadily improved from worse than 5 mm to better than 2 mm. They demonstrate that crystal roughness, with proper surface preparing, does not have a significant effect on the energy and coincidence timing resolutions in the crystals examined, and there does not appear to be a tradeoff between improving DOI resolution and degrading other detector performances. These results will be valuable to guide the selection of crystal surface conditions for developing a DOI measurable PET detector with a full array of LYSO scintillators coupled to SiPM arrays.

  20. Investigation of Crystal Surface Finish and Geometry on Single LYSO Scintillator Detector Performance for Depth-of-Interaction Measurement with Silicon Photomultipliers.

    PubMed

    Bircher, Chad; Shao, Yiping

    2012-11-21

    Depth of Interaction (DOI) information can improve quality of reconstructed images acquired from Positron Emission Tomography (PET), especially in high resolution and compact scanners dedicated for breast, brain, or small animal imaging applications. Additionally, clinical scanners with time of flight capability can also benefit from DOI information. One of the most promising methods of determining DOI in a crystal involves reading the signal from two ends of a scintillation crystal, and calculating the signal ratio between the two detectors. This method is known to deliver a better DOI resolution with rough crystals compared to highly polished crystals. However, what is still not well studied is how much of a tradeoff is involved between spatial, energy, temporal, and DOI resolutions as a function of the crystal surface treatment and geometry with the use of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) as the photo detectors. This study investigates the effects of different crystal surface finishes and geometries on energy, timing and DOI resolutions at different crystal depths. The results show that for LYSO scintillators of 1.5×1.5×20 mm(3) and 2×2×20 mm(3) with their surfaces finished from 0.5 to 30 micron roughness, almost the same energy and coincidence timing resolutions were maintained, around 15% and 2.4 ns respectively across different crystal depths, while the DOI resolutions were steadily improved from worse than 5 mm to better than 2 mm. They demonstrate that crystal roughness, with proper surface preparing, does not have a significant effect on the energy and coincidence timing resolutions in the crystals examined, and there does not appear to be a tradeoff between improving DOI resolution and degrading other detector performances. These results will be valuable to guide the selection of crystal surface conditions for developing a DOI measurable PET detector with a full array of LYSO scintillators coupled to SiPM arrays.

  1. COMPARISON OF SCANNING ELECTRON AND ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY OF SURFACE FINISHES ON STAINLESS STEEL THAT REDUCE BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacteria adhere to food products and processing surfaces that can cross-contaminate other products and work surfaces (Arnold, 1998). Using materials for food processing surfaces that are resistant to bacterial contamination could enhance food safety. Stainless steel, although sus...

  2. Reduction of Surface Errors over a Wide Range of Spatial Frequencies Using a Combination of Electrolytic In-Process Dressing Grinding and Magnetorheological Finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunimura, Shinsuke; Ohmori, Hitoshi

    We present a rapid process for producing flat and smooth surfaces. In this technical note, a fabrication result of a carbon mirror is shown. Electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID) grinding with a metal bonded abrasive wheel, then a metal-resin bonded abrasive wheel, followed by a conductive rubber bonded abrasive wheel, and finally magnetorheological finishing (MRF) were performed as the first, second, third, and final steps, respectively in this process. Flatness over the whole surface was improved by performing the first and second steps. After the third step, peak to valley (PV) and root mean square (rms) values in an area of 0.72 x 0.54 mm2 on the surface were improved. These values were further improved after the final step, and a PV value of 10 nm and an rms value of 1 nm were obtained. Form errors and small surface irregularities such as surface waviness and micro roughness were efficiently reduced by performing ELID grinding using the above three kinds of abrasive wheels because of the high removal rate of ELID grinding, and residual small irregularities were reduced by short time MRF. This process makes it possible to produce flat and smooth surfaces in several hours.

  3. Simulated studies of wear and friction in total hip prosthesis components with various ball sizes and surface finishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swikert, M. A.; Johnson, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on a newly designed total hip joint simulator. The apparatus closely simulates the complex motions and loads of the human hip in normal walking. The wear and friction of presently used appliance configurations and materials were determined. A surface treatment of the metal femoral ball specimens was applied to influence wear. The results of the investigation indicate that wear can be reduced by mechanical treatment of metal femoral ball surfaces. A metallographic examination and surface roughness measurements were made.

  4. Properties of M40J Carbon/PMR-II-50 Composites Fabricated with Desized and Surface Treated Fibers. Characterization of M40J Desized and Finished Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Ronald E.; Gosau, Jan M.; Shin, E. Eugene; McCorkle, Linda S.; Sutter, James K.; OMalley, Michelle; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    To increase performance and durability of high temperature composites for potential rocket engine components, it is necessary to optimize wetting and interfacial bonding between high modulus carbon fibers and high temperature polyimide resins. It has been previously demonstrated that the electro-oxidative shear treatments used by fiber manufacturers are not effective on higher modulus fibers that have fewer edge and defect sites in the surface crystallites. In addition, sizings commercially supplied on most carbon fibers are not compatible with polyimides. This study was an extension of prior work characterizing the surface chemistry and energy of high modulus carbon fibers (M40J and M60J, Torray) with typical fluorinated polyimide resins, such as PMR-II-50. A continuous desizing system which utilizes environmentally friendly chemical- mechanical processes was developed for tow level fiber and the processes were optimized based on weight loss behavior, surface elemental composition (XPS) and morphology (FE-SEM) analyses, and residual tow strength of the fiber, and the similar approaches have been applied on carbon fabrics. Both desized and further treated with a reactive finish were investigated for the composite reinforcement. The effects of desizing and/or subsequent surface retreatment on carbon fiber on composite properties and performance including fiber-matrix interfacial mechanical properties, thermal properties and blistering onset behavior will be discussed in this presentation.

  5. Agile robotic edge finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, M.

    1996-08-01

    Edge finishing processes have seemed like ideal candidates for automation. Most edge finishing processes are unpleasant, dangerous, tedious, expensive, not repeatable and labor intensive. Estimates place the cost of manual edge finishing processes at 12% of the total cost of fabricating precision parts. For small, high precision parts, the cost of hand finishing may be as high as 305 of the total part cost. Up to 50% of this cost could be saved through automation. This cost estimate includes the direct costs of edge finishing: the machining hours required and the 30% scrap and rework rate after manual finishing. Not included in these estimates are the indirect costs resulting from cumulative trauma disorders and retraining costs caused by the high turnover rate for finishing jobs.. Despite the apparent economic advantages, edge finishing has proven difficult to automate except in low precision and/or high volume production environments. Finishing automation systems have not been deployed successfully in Department of Energy defense programs (DOE/DP) production, A few systems have been attempted but have been subsequently abandoned for traditional edge finishing approaches: scraping, grinding, and filing the edges using modified dental tools and hand held power tools. Edge finishing automation has been an elusive but potentially lucrative production enhancement. The amount of time required for reconfiguring workcells for new parts, the time required to reprogram the workcells to finish new parts, and automation equipment to respond to fixturing errors and part tolerances are the most common reasons cited for eliminating automation as an option for DOE/DP edge finishing applications. Existing automated finishing systems have proven to be economically viable only where setup and reprogramming costs are a negligible fraction of overall production costs.

  6. Effects of Microstructure and Loading on Fracture of Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu Joints on Cu Substrates with ENIG Surface Finish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Kumar, P.; Dutta, I.; Sidhu, R.; Renavikar, M.; Mahajan, R.

    2014-12-01

    When dropped, electronic packages often undergo failure by propagation of an interfacial crack in solder joints under a combination of tensile and shear loading. Hence, it is crucial to understand and predict the fracture behavior of solder joints under mixed-mode high-rate loading conditions. In this work, the effects of the loading conditions (strain rate and loading angle) and microstructure [interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) morphology and solder yield strength] on the mixed-mode fracture toughness of Sn-3.8 wt.%Ag-0.7 wt.%Cu solder joints sandwiched between two Cu substrates with electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) metallization have been studied, and compared with the fracture behavior of joints attached to bare Cu. Irrespective of the surface finish, the fracture toughness of the solder joints decreased monotonically with strain rate and mode-mixity, both resulting in increased fracture proportion through the interfacial IMC layer. Furthermore, the proportion of crack propagation through the interfacial IMC layer increased with increase in the thickness and the roughness of the interfacial IMC layer and the yield strength of the solder, resulting in a decrease in the fracture toughness of the joint. However, under most conditions, solder joints with ENIG finish showed higher resistance to fracture than joints attached directly to Cu substrates without ENIG metallization. Based on the experimental observations, a fracture mechanism map is constructed correlating the yield strength of the solder, the morphology and thickness of the interfacial IMC, and the fracture mechanisms as well as the fracture toughness values for different solder joints under mode I loading.

  7. Effects of three different bleaching agents on microhardness and roughness of composite sample surfaces finished with different polishing techniques

    PubMed Central

    Yikilgan, İhsan; Akgul, Sinem; Ozcan, Suat; Bala, Oya

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of different polishing methods and whitening agents on surface hardness and roughness of nano-hybrid composite resin. Material and Methods In total, one hundred twenty disc-shaped specimens were prepared to nano-hybrid composite (Charisma Diamond). 60 samples were used for microhardness measurements and the others were used for the evaluation of surface roughness. Samples were divided randomly into two subgroups (n = 30 each). In first group a low-viscosity liquid polishing agent (Biscover LV) was applied. In the second group, nothing was applied. All the samples were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h. After initial measurements were completed, samples were divided randomly into three subgroups for bleaching application. 10% carbamide peroxide (Opalescence PF), 45% carbamide peroxide (Opalescence PF Quick), 38% hydrogen peroxide (Opalescence Boost) was applied. Then microhardness and surface roughness measurements of samples were repeated and data were recorded as final values for each sample. Results When the polishing techniques were compared, no signicant difference was observed in surface hardness and roughness. When the bleaching agents were compared, the 10% carbamide peroxide and 38% hydrogen peroxide containing bleaching agent groups showed statistically significant differences between pre- and post-procedure hardness values (p<0.05). Conclusions Office-type bleaching agent containing CP was observed to be more secure for composite resins than other bleaching agents. No negative effect of glaze materials on the protection of surface roughness and hardness of composite resin was observed. Key words:Composite resin, bleaching, surface hardness, surface roughness. PMID:28298992

  8. Effect of Isothermal Aging on the Long-Term Reliability of Fine-Pitch Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Ag Solder Interconnects With and Without Board-Side Ni Surface Finish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Duh, Jeng-Gong

    2014-11-01

    The combined effects on long-term reliability of isothermal aging and chemically balanced or unbalanced surface finish have been investigated for fine-pitch ball grid array packages with Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) (wt.%) and Sn-3.5Ag (SnAg) (wt.%) solder ball interconnects. Two different printed circuit board surface finishes were selected to compare the effects of chemically balanced and unbalanced structure interconnects with and without board-side Ni surface finish. NiAu/solder/Cu and NiAu/solder/NiAu interconnects were isothermally aged and thermally cycled to evaluate long-term thermal fatigue reliability. Weibull plots of the combined effects of each aging condition and each surface finish revealed lifetime for NiAu/SAC305/Cu was reduced by approximately 40% by aging at 150°C; less degradation was observed for NiAu/SAC305/NiAu. Further reduction of characteristic life-cycle number was observed for NiAu/SnAg/NiAu joints. Microstructure was studied, focusing on its evolution near the board and package-side interfaces. Different mechanisms of aging were apparent under the different joint configurations. Their effects on the fatigue life of solder joints are discussed.

  9. Centrifugal Barrel Finishing Of Turbine-Blade "Fir Trees"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Johnny L.

    1990-01-01

    Modified centrifugal barrel-finishing machine imparts desired residual compressive stresses to "fir trees" of turbine blades. Centrifugal forces generate compressive stresses, which are transmitted to turbine blades through abrasive slurries in which suspended. Eliminates need for shot peening, rounding of edges and burrs caused by shot peening and, consequently, need for mass finishing operations to remove burrs. Improves surface finish of "fir trees".

  10. Post Processing Methods used to Improve Surface Finish of Products which are Manufactured by Additive Manufacturing Technologies: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhar, N. N.; Mulay, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes open the possibility to go directly from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to a physical prototype. These prototypes are used as test models before it is finalized as well as sometimes as a final product. Additive Manufacturing has many advantages over the traditional process used to develop a product such as allowing early customer involvement in product development, complex shape generation and also save time as well as money. Additive manufacturing also possess some special challenges that are usually worth overcoming such as Poor Surface quality, Physical Properties and use of specific raw material for manufacturing. To improve the surface quality several attempts had been made by controlling various process parameters of Additive manufacturing and also applying different post processing techniques on components manufactured by Additive manufacturing. The main objective of this work is to document an extensive literature review in the general area of post processing techniques which are used in Additive manufacturing.

  11. Effect of Weight Percentage and Cutting Parameter on Surface Finish of SiC Reinforced Aluminium Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadadevaramath, R. S.; Kotresh, M. C.; Srinivasan, D.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, aluminium alloy of series 1100 is selected as a matrix material and SiC of 45 microns as reinforcement. The composites are synthesized by 2 stage stir casting route, by varying a weight % of reinforcement from 6 % and 10%. The surface roughness of prepared composite were examined after plain turning operation. The machining parameters like speed, feed, DOC, SiC Wt. % are varied at 3 different levels. In order to minimize the time, cost and material a taguchi L9 orthogonal array was used for experiment. From the studies it was observed that the roughness value will increase with the increasing in reinforcement percentage.

  12. Peripheral snap-fit locking mechanisms and smooth surface finish of tibial trays reduce backside wear in fixed-bearing total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Łapaj, Łukasz; Mróz, Adrian; Kokoszka, Paweł; Markuszewski, Jacek; Wendland, Justyna; Helak-Łapaj, Celina; Kruczyński, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — Severe backside wear, observed in older generations of total knee replacements (TKRs), led to redesign of locking mechanisms to reduce micromotions between tibial tray and inlay. Since little is known about whether this effectively reduces backside wear in modern designs, we examined backside damage in retrievals of various contemporary fixed-bearing TKRs. Patients and methods — A consecutive series of 102 inlays with a peripheral (Stryker Triathlon, Stryker Scorpio, DePuy PFC Sigma, Aesculap Search Evolution) or dovetail locking mechanism (Zimmer NexGen, Smith and Nephew Genesis II) was examined. Articular and backside surface damage was evaluated using the semiquantitative Hood scale. Inlays were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine backside wear mechanisms. Results — Mean Hood scores for articular (A) and backside (B) surfaces were similar in most implants—Triathlon (A: 46, B: 22), Genesis II (A: 55, B: 24), Scorpio (A: 57, B: 24), PFC (A: 52, B: 20); Search (A: 56, B: 24)—except the NexGen knee (A: 57, B: 60), which had statistically significantly higher backside wear scores. SEM studies showed backside damage caused by abrasion related to micromotion in designs with dovetail locking mechanisms, especially in the unpolished NexGen trays. In implants with peripheral liner locking mechanism, there were no signs of micromotion or abrasion. Instead, “tray transfer” of polyethylene and flattening of machining was observed. Interpretation — Although this retrieval study may not represent well-functioning TKRs, we found that a smooth surface finish and a peripheral locking mechanism reduce backside wear in vivo, but further studies are required to determine whether this actually leads to reduced osteolysis and lower failure rates. PMID:27781667

  13. Digital map and situation surface: a team-oriented multidisplay workspace for network enabled situation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Geisler, Jürgen; Bader, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    System concepts for network enabled image-based ISR (intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance) is the major mission of Fraunhofer IITB's applied research in the area of defence and security solutions. For the TechDemo08 as part of the NATO CNAD POW Defence against terrorism Fraunhofer IITB advanced a new multi display concept to handle the shear amount and high complexity of ISR data acquired by networked, distributed surveillance systems with the objective to support the generation of a common situation picture. Amount and Complexity of ISR data demands an innovative man-machine interface concept for humans to deal with it. The IITB's concept is the Digital Map & Situation Surface. This concept offers to the user a coherent multi display environment combining a horizontal surface for the situation overview from the bird's eye view, an attached vertical display for collateral information and so-called foveatablets as personalized magic lenses in order to obtain high resolved and role-specific information about a focused areaof- interest and to interact with it. In the context of TechDemo08 the Digital Map & Situation Surface served as workspace for team-based situation visualization and analysis. Multiple sea- and landside surveillance components were connected to the system.

  14. Imprinting high-gradient topographical structures onto optical surfaces using magnetorheological finishing: Manufacturing corrective optical elements for high-power laser applications

    DOE PAGES

    Menapace, Joseph A.; Ehrmann, Paul E.; Bayramian, Andrew J.; ...

    2016-03-15

    Corrective optical elements form an important part of high-precision optical systems. We have developed a method to manufacture high-gradient corrective optical elements for high-power laser systems using deterministic magnetorheological finishing (MRF) imprinting technology. Several process factors need to be considered for polishing ultraprecise topographical structures onto optical surfaces using MRF. They include proper selection of MRF removal function and wheel sizes, detailed MRF tool and interferometry alignment, and optimized MRF polishing schedules. Dependable interferometry also is a key factor in high-gradient component manufacture. A wavefront attenuating cell, which enables reliable measurement of gradients beyond what is attainable using conventional interferometry,more » is discussed. The results of MRF imprinting a 23 μm deep structure containing gradients over 1.6 μm / mm onto a fused-silica window are presented as an example of the technique’s capabilities. As a result, this high-gradient element serves as a thermal correction plate in the high-repetition-rate advanced petawatt laser system currently being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.« less

  15. Effects of Zn-Containing Flux on Sn-3.5Ag Soldering with an Electroless Ni-P/Au Surface Finish: Microstructure and Wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Hitoshi; Baated, Alongheng; Lee, Kiju; Kim, Seongjun; Kim, Keun-Soo; Kukimoto, Youichi; Kumamoto, Seishi; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2010-12-01

    The microstructure resulting from Sn-3.5Ag soldering on an electroless Ni-P/Au pad using flux containing Zn(II) stearate was investigated. The content of zinc compound in the flux was 0 wt.% (Z-0), 20 wt.% (Z-20) or 50 wt.% (Z-50). A study of the interfacial microstructure revealed that both Z-20 and Z-50 fluxes yielded a thinner P-rich layer at the interface than did the Z-0 flux. In addition, compared with the bulky Ni-Sn intermetallics of the Z-0 joint interface, refined interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were observed when using Zn-containing fluxes, Z-20 and Z-50. Based on qualitative analyses of both Z-20 and Z-50 joint interfaces, it was presumed that their intermetallic layers would consist of Ni, Zn, and Sn. Additionally, the Ni content in the IMC layer of the Z-50 joint was lower than that of the Z-20 joint. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of the initial Z-50 joint interface revealed Zn in the interfacial reaction layer, suggesting that Zn participated in the reaction between solder and the surface finish at an early stage of soldering. Consequently, the supply of Zn from the flux diminished Ni diffusion into the molten solder during heating. This effect may have caused a thin P-rich layer to form at the joint interface.

  16. Imprinting high-gradient topographical structures onto optical surfaces using magnetorheological finishing: Manufacturing corrective optical elements for high-power laser applications

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, Joseph A.; Ehrmann, Paul E.; Bayramian, Andrew J.; Bullington, Amber; Di Nicola, Jean -Michel G.; Haefner, Constantin; Jarboe, Jeffrey; Marshall, Christopher; Schaffers, Kathleen I.; Smith, Cal

    2016-03-15

    Corrective optical elements form an important part of high-precision optical systems. We have developed a method to manufacture high-gradient corrective optical elements for high-power laser systems using deterministic magnetorheological finishing (MRF) imprinting technology. Several process factors need to be considered for polishing ultraprecise topographical structures onto optical surfaces using MRF. They include proper selection of MRF removal function and wheel sizes, detailed MRF tool and interferometry alignment, and optimized MRF polishing schedules. Dependable interferometry also is a key factor in high-gradient component manufacture. A wavefront attenuating cell, which enables reliable measurement of gradients beyond what is attainable using conventional interferometry, is discussed. The results of MRF imprinting a 23 μm deep structure containing gradients over 1.6 μm / mm onto a fused-silica window are presented as an example of the technique’s capabilities. As a result, this high-gradient element serves as a thermal correction plate in the high-repetition-rate advanced petawatt laser system currently being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  17. Micro-finish hard anodized coatings on aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.

    1992-03-01

    The production of thin hard anodized coatings on Single Point Diamond Turned (SPDT) 6061-T6 aluminum has been studied. The investigation centered on producing a surface finish of less than 10 microinch after anodizing. By starting with a 2 microinch (AA) surface finish and controlling time, temperature, current density and solution chemistry, coatings with surface finishes of 8 microinch and a thickness of .0003 inch, are obtained. Surface roughness from several anodizing solutions is compared. The operational life of a PTFE sliding seal against a coated cylinder bore is used as verification of finish quality.

  18. Wall Finishes; Carpentry: 901895.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is designed to provide instruction in selecting, preparing, and installing wall finishing materials. Prerequisites for the course include mastery of building construction plans, foundations and walls, and basic mathematics. Intended for use in grades 11 and 12, the course contains five blocks of study totaling 135 hours of…

  19. Future Planetary Surface Imager Development by the Beagle 2 Stereo Camera System Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, A. D.; Coates, A. J.; Josset, J.-L.; Paar, G.

    2004-03-01

    The Stereo Camera System provided Beagle 2 with wide-angle multi-spectral stereo imaging (IFOV=0.043°). The SCS team plans to build on this design heritage to provide improved stereo capabilities to the Pasteur payload of the Aurora ExoMars rover.

  20. [Team and team work].

    PubMed

    Richer, E

    1990-01-01

    The coordinator draws conclusions on the symposium day devoted to the teams. After defining "team" he gives several thoughts on the team's work its advantages and its difficulties. During this day the teams talked about their questions and their certainties in the various fields of their work. They also discussed their hard ships and their need of psychological support which the hospital departments do not have the means to satisfy.

  1. Research on the use of particles coming from almond husk as fillers for vinyl plastisols to manufacture hollow pieces with similar surface finishing than wood by using a rotational moulding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo Amoros, Jose Enrique

    PVC pastes or plasticized PVC offer great possibilities in the industrial field in which this research work has been developed since they show great relevance in plastic processing. On one hand, it is important to study these materials from different points of view: quality improvement, wide range of performance, high versatility, low costs,.... On the other hand, most of the industrial fields that usually employ these polymeric materials are characterized by developing products on which aesthetic considerations and surface finishing acquire special relevance. These industrial fields include all those on which new designs require complex shapes and new and novelty surface finishing such as interior design (furniture, wood products,...) toys industry, houseware, shoe industry,.... The main aim of this work is to improve the use of PVC plastisols in these industrial fields by optimizing formulations with new additives (low toxicity plasticizers) and fillers (lignocellulosic wastes) to obtain new materials that minimize damages to environment. In this work, we have developed new plastisol formulations based on the use of low toxicity plasticizers to obtain more ecological plastisols. We have used a biodegradable plasticizer DINCH which is a derivative of a dicarboxilate as substitute of traditional plasticizers based on phthalates. As we are working with relatively new plasticizers (specially at industrial level) we have performed a whole study of its properties by using different experimental analysis techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamical-mechanical analysis (DMA) and espectrofotometric techniques (visible and infrared). Furthermore a complete mechanical characterization has been carried out to analyze the most important parameters that influence on materials properties such as processing parameters (temperature and time) and plastisol formulations (mainly plasticizer content). We have also performed a

  2. Urolithiasis in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maes, D G D; Vrielinck, J; Millet, S; Janssens, G P J; Deprez, P

    2004-11-01

    Urolithiasis in sows and neonatal pigs is well-known, but information on its occurrence and impact in finishing pigs is sparse. This study reports three outbreaks of urolithiasis in finishing pigs. In one herd, no symptoms were observed, whereas in the other herds the presence of calculi caused obstruction of the urinary tract resulting in death. Using infra-red spectroscopy, the predominant mineral-type found in the uroliths was calcium carbonate (calcite). Only small amounts of calcium oxalate (< 1%) could be detected. A high urinary pH, small abnormalities in the mineral composition of the feed and insufficient drinking water were the most important risk factors identified. To prevent urolithiasis, it is important to ensure adequate water intake, to provide a balanced mineral diet, and to avoid urinary tract infections.

  3. UltraForm finishing; Techical Digest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, Edward; Schoen, John; Bechtold, Michael; Mohring, D.

    2005-05-01

    A new compliant sub-aperture optical finishing technique is being investigated for the removal of mid-spatial frequency artifacts and smoothing of hard polycrystalline infrared ceramics for aspheric applications and conformal shaped optics. The UltraForm concept was developed by OptiPro Systems, Ontario, NY, and is a joint process development effort with the Center for Optics Manufacturing (COM). The UltraForm tool is a pressurized, elastomeric bladder in the shape of a toroid. Finishing pads are attached to the periphery, allowing the use of a wide variety of pad materials and abrasive selections. Experimentation has been conducted using both slurry mixes and fixed abrasive pads. The toroidal tool is rotated while the compliant tool is compressed into contact with the surface. Currently this process has specific interest for the finishing of conformal ALON domes. Also to be discussed will be new versions of the UltraForm Tool, which are currently being developed and tested.

  4. Improved Surface and Tropospheric Temperatures Determined Using Only Shortwave Channels: The AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The Goddard DISC has generated products derived from AIRS/AMSU-A observations, starting from September 2002 when the AIRS instrument became stable, using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 retrieval algorithm. The AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval algorithm will be finalized in September 2011. This paper describes some of the significant improvements contained in the Version-6 retrieval algorithm, compared to that used in Version-5, with an emphasis on the improvement of atmospheric temperature profiles, ocean and land surface skin temperatures, and ocean and land surface spectral emissivities. AIRS contains 2378 spectral channels covering portions of the spectral region 650 cm(sup -1) (15.38 micrometers) - 2665 cm(sup -1) (3.752 micrometers). These spectral regions contain significant absorption features from two CO2 absorption bands, the 15 micrometers (longwave) CO2 band, and the 4.3 micrometers (shortwave) CO2 absorption band. There are also two atmospheric window regions, the 12 micrometer - 8 micrometer (longwave) window, and the 4.17 micrometer - 3.75 micrometer (shortwave) window. Historically, determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures from satellite observations was performed using primarily observations in the longwave window and CO2 absorption regions. According to cloud clearing theory, more accurate soundings of both surface skin and atmospheric temperatures can be obtained under partial cloud cover conditions if one uses observations in longwave channels to determine coefficients which generate cloud cleared radiances R(sup ^)(sub i) for all channels, and uses R(sup ^)(sub i) only from shortwave channels in the determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures. This procedure is now being used in the AIRS Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm. Results are presented for both daytime and nighttime conditions showing improved Version-6 surface and atmospheric soundings under partial cloud cover.

  5. Structural Definition and Mass Estimation of Lunar Surface Habitats for the Lunar Architecture Team Phase 2 (LAT-2) Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.; Wu, K, Chauncey; Smith, Russell W.

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Architecture Team Phase 2 study defined and assessed architecture options for a Lunar Outpost at the Moon's South Pole. The Habitation Focus Element Team was responsible for developing concepts for all of the Habitats and pressurized logistics modules particular to each of the architectures, and defined the shapes, volumes and internal layouts considering human factors, surface operations and safety requirements, as well as Lander mass and volume constraints. The Structures Subsystem Team developed structural concepts, sizing estimates and mass estimates for the primary Habitat structure. In these studies, the primary structure was decomposed into a more detailed list of components to be sized to gain greater insight into concept mass contributors. Structural mass estimates were developed that captured the effect of major design parameters such as internal pressure load. Analytical and empirical equations were developed for each structural component identified. Over 20 different hard-shell, hybrid expandable and inflatable soft-shell Habitat and pressurized logistics module concepts were sized and compared to assess structural performance and efficiency during the study. Habitats were developed in three categories; Mini Habs that are removed from the Lander and placed on the Lunar surface, Monolithic habitats that remain on the Lander, and Habitats that are part of the Mobile Lander system. Each category of Habitat resulted in structural concepts with advantages and disadvantages. The same modular shell components could be used for the Mini Hab concept, maximizing commonality and minimizing development costs. Larger Habitats had higher volumetric mass efficiency and floor area than smaller Habitats (whose mass was dominated by fixed items such as domes and frames). Hybrid and pure expandable Habitat structures were very mass-efficient, but the structures technology is less mature, and the ability to efficiently package and deploy internal subsystems

  6. Acidic magnetorheological finishing of infrared polycrystalline materials

    DOE PAGES

    Salzman, S.; Romanofsky, H. J.; West, G.; ...

    2016-10-12

    Here, chemical-vapor–deposited (CVD) ZnS is an example of a polycrystalline material that is difficult to polish smoothly via the magnetorheological–finishing (MRF) technique. When MRF-polished, the internal infrastructure of the material tends to manifest on the surface as millimeter-sized “pebbles,” and the surface roughness observed is considerably high. The fluid’s parameters important to developing a magnetorheological (MR) fluid that is capable of polishing CVD ZnS smoothly were previously discussed and presented. These parameters were acidic pH (~4.5) and low viscosity (~47 cP). MRF with such a unique MR fluid was shown to reduce surface artifacts in the form of pebbles; however,more » surface microroughness was still relatively high because of the absence of a polishing abrasive in the formulation. In this study, we examine the effect of two polishing abrasives—alumina and nanodiamond—on the surface finish of several CVD ZnS substrates, and on other important IR polycrystalline materials that were finished with acidic MR fluids containing these two polishing abrasives. Surface microroughness results obtained were as low as ~28 nm peak-to-valley and ~6-nm root mean square.« less

  7. Acidic magnetorheological finishing of infrared polycrystalline materials

    SciTech Connect

    Salzman, S.; Romanofsky, H. J.; West, G.; Marshall, K. L.; Jacobs, S. D.; Lambropoulos, J. C.

    2016-10-12

    Here, chemical-vapor–deposited (CVD) ZnS is an example of a polycrystalline material that is difficult to polish smoothly via the magnetorheological–finishing (MRF) technique. When MRF-polished, the internal infrastructure of the material tends to manifest on the surface as millimeter-sized “pebbles,” and the surface roughness observed is considerably high. The fluid’s parameters important to developing a magnetorheological (MR) fluid that is capable of polishing CVD ZnS smoothly were previously discussed and presented. These parameters were acidic pH (~4.5) and low viscosity (~47 cP). MRF with such a unique MR fluid was shown to reduce surface artifacts in the form of pebbles; however, surface microroughness was still relatively high because of the absence of a polishing abrasive in the formulation. In this study, we examine the effect of two polishing abrasives—alumina and nanodiamond—on the surface finish of several CVD ZnS substrates, and on other important IR polycrystalline materials that were finished with acidic MR fluids containing these two polishing abrasives. Surface microroughness results obtained were as low as ~28 nm peak-to-valley and ~6-nm root mean square.

  8. Advanced cleaning by mass finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, M. W.

    1983-10-01

    The effectiveness of vibratory finishing for removing a variety of radioactively contaminated soils was investigated by measuring the radiation levels of the test material, the lining of the vibratory finishing tub, and the media. Many soils including corrosion products, scale, oil, grease and paint were removed from steels, aluminum, polyvinyl chloride, plexiglass, glass and flexible materials such as rubber. Zinc, copper, and lead were not cleaned. Results indicate that vibratory finishing should be an effective cleaning process or a variety of manufacturing operations.

  9. Characterization of the Martian surface deposits by the Mars Pathfinder rover, Sojourner. Rover Team.

    PubMed

    1997-12-05

    Sojourner, the Mars Pathfinder rover, discovered pebbles on the surface and in rocks that may be sedimentary-not volcanic-in origin. Surface pebbles may have been rounded by Ares flood waters or liberated by weathering of sedimentary rocks called conglomerates. Conglomerates imply that water existed elsewhere and earlier than the Ares flood. Most soil-like deposits are similar to moderately dense soils on Earth. Small amounts of dust are currently settling from the atmosphere.

  10. Influence of finishing on the electrochemical properties of dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, T; Hattori, M; Hasegawa, K; Yoshinari, M; Kawada, E; Oda, Y

    2000-05-01

    Dental alloy surface finishing procedures of may influence their electrochemical behavior, which is used to evaluate their corrosion resistance. We examined the polarization resistance and potentiodynamic polarization profile of the precious-metal alloys, Type 4 gold alloy and silver-palladium alloy, and the base-metal alloys, nickel-chromium alloy, cobalt-chromium alloy, and CP-titanium. Three types of finishing procedure were examined: mirror-finishing using 0.05 micron alumina particles, polishing using #600 abrasive paper and sandblasting. Dissolution of the alloy elements in 0.9% NaCl solution was also measured and compared with the electrochemical evaluation. The corrosion resistance of the dental alloys was found to relate to finishing as follows: The polarization resistance and potentiodynamic polarization behavior revealed that the corrosion resistance improved in the order of sandblasting, #600-abrasive-paper polishing, and mirror-finishing. While the corrosion potential, critical current density and passive current density varied depending on the type of finishing, the transpassive potential remained unchanged. The influence of finishing on the corrosion resistance of precious-metal alloys was less significant than on that of base-metal alloys. A mirror-finishing specimen was recommended for use in evaluation of the corrosion resistance of various dental alloys.

  11. Effect of sand versus grass training surfaces during an 8-week pre-season conditioning programme in team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Binnie, Martyn John; Dawson, Brian; Arnot, Mark Alexander; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the use of sand and grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme in well-trained female team sport athletes (n = 24). Performance testing was conducted pre- and post-training and included measures of leg strength and balance, vertical jump, agility, 20 m speed, repeat speed (8 × 20 m every 20 s), as well as running economy and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Heart rate (HR), training load (rating of perceived exertion (RPE) × duration), movement patterns and perceptual measures were monitored throughout each training session. Participants completed 2 × 1 h conditioning sessions per week on sand (SAND) or grass (GRASS) surfaces, incorporating interval training, sprint and agility drills, and small-sided games. Results showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) HR and training load in the SAND versus GRASS group throughout each week of training, plus some moderate effect sizes to suggest lower perceptual ratings of soreness and fatigue on SAND. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in VO2max were measured for SAND compared to GRASS. These results suggest that substituting sand for grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme can significantly increase the relative exercise intensity and training load, subsequently leading to superior improvements in aerobic fitness.

  12. A Gold Medal Finish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    During the summer of 1999, Darryl Mitchell of Goddard Space Flight Center's Technology Commercialization Office (TCO) met with the U.S. Olympic Committee at the official training facility in Colorado Springs, Colorado, to offer assistance in transferring NASA technologies applicable to Olympic sports. Following the meeting with the Olympic committee, Mitchell was approached by U.S. Speedskating Long Track Program Director Finn Halvorsen, who eagerly voiced his interest in working with NASA to identify a means of improving performance for his team. According to Halvorsen, 'If (NASA) can put a man on the moon, surely they can help our skaters.' Mitchell and Halvorsen went to work uncovering NASA technologies that could boost the U.S. team's skating capabilities. Mitchell received a crash course in speedskating, and as a result, generated a lengthy list of promising NASA developments that could benefit the sport. From this list, he and his Goddard TCO partner, Joe Famiglietti, deliberated over whether a NASA mirror-polishing technique could possibly be adapted to the athletes speedskates. The polishing technique, developed by Jim Lyons, a 16-year optical engineering veteran of Goddard, was derived from the same principles used to create the optics for NASA's science observatories, such as the Hubble Space Telescope (highly polished optics are required by NASA to obtain sharp, clear images in space).

  13. NICE3 Textile Finishing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, S.

    1999-01-29

    This new energy-saving approach to fabric finishing can help our domestic textile industry compete in an increasingly competitive global market. Learn how this new technology can lower your maintenance costs and increase your productivity.

  14. Effect of the finishing treatment of a gallium arsenide surface on the spectrum of electron states in n-GaAs (100)

    SciTech Connect

    Bezryadin, N. N. Kotov, G. I.; Arsentyev, I. N.; Vlasov, Yu. N.; Starodubtsev, A. A.

    2012-06-15

    Deep level transient spectroscopy has been used to study the effect of substrate pretreatment on the spectrum of electron states in Au/n-GaAs(100) Schottky diodes. Two bands of energy-distributed states have been found near the metal/semiconductor interface. The first band appears in the spectra at temperatures of 200-300 K because elemental arsenic accumulates on the surface in clusters in the course of oxide formation in samples exposed to air. Surface disorder in the course of selective etching gives rise to the second band at 100-250 K. Annealing in selenium vapor heals defects in the surface region and removes both bands from the spectra. Samples annealed in Se{sub 2} contain only the set of levels characteristic of bulk GaAs.

  15. Buffered Electropolishing – A New Way for Achieving Extremely Smooth Surface Finish on Nb SRF Cavities to be Used in Particle Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Hui Tian, Charles Reece, Michael Kelley

    2009-05-01

    Future accelerators require unprecedented cavity performance, which is strongly influenced by interior surface nano-smoothness. Electropolishing (EP) is the technique of choice to be developed for high-field superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and related techniques point to the electropolishing mechanism of Nb in a sulphuric and hydrofluoric acid electrolyte controlled by a compact surface salt film under F- diffusion-limited mass transport control. These and other findings are guiding a systematic characterization to form the basis for cavities process optimization.

  16. The effect of three finishing systems on four esthetic restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Hoelscher, D C; Neme, A M; Pink, F E; Hughes, P J

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the finishing and smoothness of composite and traditional glass-ionomer restorations, but few have included resin-modified glass-ionomer cements or more recent finishing systems. The results of using three different finishing systems (Sof-Lex, Enhance, finishing burs) on two composites (Silux, Prisma TPH), a traditional glass ionomer (Ketac-Fil), and a resin-modified glass ionomer (Fuji II LC) were studied. Sixty samples were condensed into sectioned acrylic tubes, covered with a Mylar matrix plus a glass slide at each surface, then cured as per the manufacturers' instructions. Samples were randomized to three groups of five for each material and testing with a Surfanalyzer 4000 of unfinished samples (cured with Mylar matrix) was done to obtain baseline average surface roughness (Ra). Samples were then finished as per the manufacturers' instructions using polishing disks, abrasive impregnated disks, and finishing burs before further surface testing. Samples finished with burs and with abrasive impregnated disks were further polished using polishing paste (Prisma Gloss) and again tested. Data were analyzed with ANOVA testing and Tukey's HSD pairwise comparison. Initial testing after randomization to groups showed no significant difference in surface roughness (P = 0.24). Two-factor analysis revealed no significant difference between materials (P = 0.34), a significant difference in method of finish (P < or = 0.00), with no significant interaction between type of material and method of finish (P = 0.11). Aluminum oxide disk and impregnated disk systems provided the best finish for microfilled composite and both glass-ionomer materials (P < or = 0.00). No significant difference in method of finish existed with the hybrid composite (P = 0.07). Overall, esthetic restorative material finishing is best accomplished using abrasive impregnated disks or aluminum oxide disks. Finishing burs gave a significantly rougher surface than the

  17. Environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textiles finished with siloxane sulfopropylbetaine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Shaojun; Jiang, Song; Xiong, Meiling; Luo, Junxuan; Tang, Jiaoning; Ge, Zaochuan

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports a novel environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textile finished with reactive siloxane sulfopropylbetaine(SSPB). The results show that SSPB can be covalently bound onto the cotton textile surface, imparting perdurable antibacterial activity. The textiles finished with SSPB have been investigated systematically from the mechanical properties, thermal stability, hydrophilic properties and antibacterial properties. It is found that the hydrophilicity and breaking strength are improved greatly after the cotton textiles are finished with SSPB. Additionally, the cotton textiles finished with SSPB exhibit good antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus, ATCC 6538), gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E.coli, 8099) and fungi Candida albicans (C.albicans, ATCC 10231). Moreover, SSPB is nonleachable from the textiles, and it does not induce skin stimulation and is nontoxic to animals. Thus, SSPB is ideal candidate for environmentally friendly antibacterial textile applications.

  18. Curriculum change: the importance of team role.

    PubMed

    Broomfield, D; Bligh, J

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes a study examining aspects of team role in the management of curriculum change. The Belbin Team Role Self-Perception Inventory was completed by 25 members (83%) of a faculty curriculum development team. Overall the group showed a preference for the implementer and shaper roles, whilst the completer-finisher role was relatively weakly represented, ranking fifth out of eight possible roles. Older and more senior team members favoured the co-ordinator role, whilst younger and more junior members favoured the team-worker and completer-finisher roles. Some implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the current trend for widespread change in undergraduate medical curricula and the challenges faced by medical schools in a resource constrained environment.

  19. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z. ); Church, E.L. . Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center)

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Fundamentals of figure control and fracture-'free' finishing for high aspect ratio laser optics

    SciTech Connect

    Suratwala, Tayyab

    2014-10-01

    The high level objectives of the this work were to: 1) scientifically understand critical phenomena affecting the surface figure during full aperture finishing; 2) utilize these fundamentals to more deterministically control the surface figure during finishing; 3) successfully polish under rogue particle-‘free’ environments during polishing by understanding/preventing key sources of rogue particles.

  1. Team Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, David

    1999-01-01

    Explains how a team cleaning approach can be cost-effective and efficient means of school maintenance. Assigning staffing responsibilities and work schedules are addressed and the advantages of using a team system are explained. (GR)

  2. Simulation of Magnetic Field Assisted Finishing (MFAF) Process Utilizing Smart MR Polishing Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Anwesa; Das, Manas

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic field assisted finishing process is an advanced finishing process. This process is capable of producing nanometer level surface finish. In this process magnetic field is applied to control the finishing forces using magnetorheological polishing medium. In the current study, permanent magnet is used to provide the required magnetic field in the finishing zone. The working gap between the workpiece and the magnet is filled with MR fluid which is used as the polishing brush to remove surface undulations from the top surface of the workpiece. In this paper, the distribution of magnetic flux density on the workpiece surface and behaviour of MR polishing medium during finishing are analyzed using commercial finite element packages (Ansys Maxwell® and Comsol®). The role of magnetic force in the indentation of abrasive particles on the workpiece surface is studied. A two-dimensional simulation study of the steady, laminar, and incompressible MR fluid flow behaviour during finishing process is carried out. The material removal and surface roughness modelling of the finishing process are also presented. The indentation force by a single active abrasive particle on the workpiece surface is modelled during simulation. The velocity profile of MR fluid with and without application of magnetic field is plotted. It shows non-Newtonian property without application of magnetic field. After that the total material displacement due to one abrasive particle is plotted. The simulated roughness profile is in a good agreement with the experimental results. The conducted study will help in understanding the fluid behavior and the mechanism of finishing during finishing process. Also, the modelling and simulation of the process will help in achieving better finishing performance.

  3. Simulation of Magnetic Field Assisted Finishing (MFAF) Process Utilizing Smart MR Polishing Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Anwesa; Das, Manas

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic field assisted finishing process is an advanced finishing process. This process is capable of producing nanometer level surface finish. In this process magnetic field is applied to control the finishing forces using magnetorheological polishing medium. In the current study, permanent magnet is used to provide the required magnetic field in the finishing zone. The working gap between the workpiece and the magnet is filled with MR fluid which is used as the polishing brush to remove surface undulations from the top surface of the workpiece. In this paper, the distribution of magnetic flux density on the workpiece surface and behaviour of MR polishing medium during finishing are analyzed using commercial finite element packages (Ansys Maxwell® and Comsol®). The role of magnetic force in the indentation of abrasive particles on the workpiece surface is studied. A two-dimensional simulation study of the steady, laminar, and incompressible MR fluid flow behaviour during finishing process is carried out. The material removal and surface roughness modelling of the finishing process are also presented. The indentation force by a single active abrasive particle on the workpiece surface is modelled during simulation. The velocity profile of MR fluid with and without application of magnetic field is plotted. It shows non-Newtonian property without application of magnetic field. After that the total material displacement due to one abrasive particle is plotted. The simulated roughness profile is in a good agreement with the experimental results. The conducted study will help in understanding the fluid behavior and the mechanism of finishing during finishing process. Also, the modelling and simulation of the process will help in achieving better finishing performance.

  4. Dimensioning, Tolerancing, and Machine Finishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, George C.

    Intended for use with the vocational education student interested in technical drawing, this guide provides answers to questions relating to dimensioning and tolerancing machine drawings. It also gives examples of standard dimensioning practices, tolerancing applications, and finish applications. The problems and examples presented are based on…

  5. Concrete Finisher Program. Apprenticeship Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the concrete finishing program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee structure; local…

  6. Team Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John

    Chapter 5 of a volume on school leadership, this chapter reviews the literature to define and explain management teams and to describe several successful management team arrangements. The author begins by noting that team management has recently enjoyed a resurgence as a response to collective negotiations, but beyond this function can have value…

  7. Chemically Accelerated Vibratory Surface Finishing (CAVSF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Starting pH A v e r a g e e n d r o u g h n e s s...roughness versus starting pH for 0.34 M ammonium oxalate solutions with oxalic acid. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5...curves with standard deviations from 5 runs Average roughness versus acid time in the 0.28 m vibrating bowl 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

  8. Surface-Finish Measurement with Interference Microscopes,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    illuminated with white light in the M2 -M’, Figure 4. THE TWYMAN -GREEN INTERFEROMETER . (This Instrument Uses a Point Source, the Light is...vertical specimens mounted on a machine spindle. The double-beam microscope is a Twyman -Green interferometer in which microscope objectives have...characteristics of each instrument: the double and multiple-beam interferometer , the FECO fringe interferometer , and the Nomarski polarization contrast

  9. Team Development of Virtual Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyoung

    2004-01-01

    Advanced technologies, globalization, the competitiveness of business, flexible working practices, and other rapid changes in the nature of work have all led to the booming of "virtual teams." This paper will provide an overview of virtual teams, including a description of their emergence, a definition and typology of the term "virtual team," an…

  10. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  11. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  12. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  13. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  14. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  15. The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, C.S.; Selleck, C.B.

    1990-08-01

    The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories is developing four areas of technology required for automated deburring, chamfering, and blending of machined edges: (1) the automatic programming of robot trajectories and deburring processes using information derived from a CAD database, (2) the use of machine vision for locating the workpiece coupled with force control to ensure proper tool contact, (3) robotic deburring, blending, and machining of precision chamfered edges, and (4) in-process automated inspection of the formed edge. The Laboratory, its components, integration, and results from edge finishing experiments to date are described here. Also included is a discussion of the issues regarding implementation of the technology in a production environment. 24 refs., 17 figs.

  16. 16 CFR 1509.8 - Construction and finishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.8 Construction and finishing. (a) All wood surfaces of non-full-size baby cribs shall be smooth and free from splinters. (b) All wood parts of non-full-size baby cribs shall be free from splits, cracks, or other defects that might lead to...

  17. 16 CFR 1509.8 - Construction and finishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.8 Construction and finishing. (a) All wood surfaces of non-full-size baby cribs shall be smooth and free from splinters. (b) All wood parts of non-full-size baby cribs shall be free from splits, cracks, or other defects that might lead to...

  18. UltraForm finishing process for optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, E.; Schoen, J.; Bechtold, M.; Mohring, D.; Bouvier, C.

    2005-09-01

    A new compliant sub-aperture optical finishing technique is being investigated for the removal of mid-spatial frequency artifacts and smoothing of hard polycrystalline infrared ceramics for aspheric applications and conformal shaped optics. The UltraForm concept was developed by OptiPro Systems, Ontario, NY, and is a joint process development effort with the Center for Optics Manufacturing (COM). The latest version of the UltraForm tool "V3" is of a belted design whereby a belt of finishing material is passed over a toroidal elastomeric wheel. Finishing materials used include a wide variety of pad materials and abrasive selections. Experimentation has been conducted using both slurry mixes and fixed abrasive bands. The toroidal wheel is rotated while the compliant tool is compressed into contact with the optical surface. Presented will be the current results in optical glasses and crystalline ceramics such as ALON, Spinel and Polycrystalline Alumina.

  19. Team Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Recounts one Montessori teacher's experience team teaching in a secondary Montessori classroom. Illustrates how a conflict over decision making with a co-teacher helped to create better relationships with students in the classroom and better communication on the teaching team. Contends that resolving issues of conflict between teachers is vital…

  20. Yea, Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinn, Fauneil J.; Weir, Sybil B.

    1984-01-01

    Four problems in higher education are identified: hardening curriculum, graying faculty, shrinking budget, and disappearing students. Team teaching is suggested as one solution. A conceptual framework for types of team teaching is presented and practical suggestions to those who want to work within that framework are provided. (Author/MLW)

  1. Team Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Experience shows that teamwork produces powerful results. Working in a team environment, however, presents its own set of challenges. This handbook provides U.S. Department of Education managers and employees with guidance to develop high-performing teams. Based on input from agency employees throughout the country, the handbook was designed to…

  2. A new seamless, smooth, interior, absorptive finishing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antonio, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Government architecture typically employs classic forms of vaults, domes and other focusing or reflective shapes, usually created with hard materials like concrete and plaster. The use of conventional porous absorption is typically rejected as an acoustical surface material for aesthetic reasons. Hence, many of these new and existing facilities have compromised speech intelligibility and music quality. Acousticians have sought a field-applied, absorptive finishing system that resembles a smooth plaster or painted drywall surface, since the dawn of architectural acoustics. Some success has been achieved using sprayed cellulose or cementitious materials, but surface smoothness has been a challenge. A new approach utilizing a thin microporous layer of mineral particles applied over a mineral wool panel will be described. This material can be applied to almost any shape surface, internally pigmented to match almost any color and renovated. Because of these unique characteristics the new seamless, absorptive, finishing system is being specified for many new and renovated spaces. Application examples will be presented.

  3. Exploring the Integration of Field Portable Instrumentation into Real-Time Surface Science Operations with the RIS4E SSERVI Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Rogers, D.; Garry, W. B.; McAdam, A.; Scheidt, S. P.; Carter, L. M.; Glotch, T. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Remote, In Situ, and Synchrotron Studies for Science (RIS4E) team represents one node of the Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) program. While the RIS4E team consists of four themes, each dedicated to a different aspect of airless body exploration, this submission details the RIS4E work underway to maximize an astronaut's effectiveness while conducting surface science. The next generation of surface science operations will look quite different than the EVAs (extravehicular activities) conducted during Apollo. Astronauts will possess data of much higher resolution than the Apollo reconnaissance data, and the EVAs will thus be designed to answer targeted science questions. Additionally, technological advancements over the last several decades have made it possible to conduct in situ analyses of a caliber much greater than was achievable during Apollo. For example, lab techniques such as x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, and multi-spectral imaging are now available in field portable formats, meaning that astronauts can gain real-time geochemical awareness during sample collection. The integration of these instruments into EVA operations, however, has not been widely tested. While these instruments will provide the astronaut with a high-resolution look at regional geochemistry and structure, their implementation could prove costly to the already constrained astronaut EVA timeline. The RIS4E team, through fieldwork at the December 1974 lava flow at Kilauea Volcano, HI, investigates the incorporation of portable technologies into planetary surface exploration and explores the relationship between science value added from these instruments and the cost associated with integrating them into an EVA timeline. We also consider what an appropriate instrumentation suite would be for the exploration of a volcanic terrain using this ideal terrestrial analog (see Rogers et al., Young et al., Bleacher et al., and Yant et al., this meeting).

  4. Functional finishes of stretch cotton fabrics.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, N A; Amr, A; Eid, B M; Almetwally, A A; Mourad, M M

    2013-11-06

    Functionalized cotton cellulose/spandex woven fabrics with different structures namely plain (1/1), twill (2/2) and satin were produced. Factors affecting the imparted functional properties such as weave structure and constituents of the finishing formulations including ether or ester cross-linker and catalyst type, silicone-micro-emulsion, water/oil repellent, Ag-NP(,)s and TiO2-NP(,)s were studied. The treated fabrics were found to have easy care property together with one or more of the imparted functional properties such as soft-handle, water/oil repellence, antibacterial, UV-protection and self cleaning. The effectiveness of the imparted properties is not seriously affected even after 10 washing cycles. Surface modifications as well as the composition of certain samples were confirmed by SEM images and EDX spectra. Mode of interactions was also suggested.

  5. Virtuoso teams.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Bill; Boynton, Andy

    2005-01-01

    Managing a traditional team seems pretty straightforward: Gather up whoever's available, give them time and space to do their jobs, and make sure they all play nicely together. But these teams produce results that are often as unremarkable as the teams themselves. When big change and high performance are required, a virtuoso team is far more likely to deliver outstanding and innovative results. Virtuoso teams are fundamentally different from the garden-variety work groups that most organizations form to pursue more modest goals. They comprise the top experts in their particular fields, are specially convened for ambitious projects, work with frenetic rhythm, and emanate a discernible energy. Not surprisingly, however, the superstars who make up these teams are renowned for being elitist, temperamental, egocentric, and difficult to work with. As a result, many managers fear that if they force such people to interact on a high-stakes project, the group just might implode. In this article, Bill Fischer and Andy Boynton put the inner workings of highly successful virtuoso teams on full display through three examples: the creative group behind West Side Story, the team of writers for Sid Caesar's 1950s-era television hit Your Show of Shows, and the high-powered technologists who averted an investor-relations crisis for Norsk Hydro, the Norwegian energy giant. Each of these teams accomplished enormous goals and changed their businesses, their customers, even their industries. And they did so by breaking all the conventional rules of collaboration--from the way they recruited the best members to the way they enforced their unusual processes, and from the high expectations they held to the exceptional results they produced.

  6. International innovations in optical finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2004-10-01

    Every few years new polishing technologies attempt to make the transition from the research laboratory into the commercial sector. Success awaits any process that is well controlled and predictable (e.g., deterministic), rapid, capable of smoothing to sub-nm rms roughness levels while removing damage from grinding, affordable, and easily implemented. Applicability to different optical materials and a variety of part sizes and shapes is extremely important, but may not be required for a new technology to succeed in a niche market. This paper reviews six innovations in polishing of precision optics: Canon"s Super-Smooth Polisher (CSSP) that uses a sub-aperture pitch lap - a relatively mature but important base-line technology; Nikon / Osaka University"s RF Plasma Chemical Vaporization Machining (CVM); Epion"s Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) Process; the IOM University of Leipzig / NTGL Ion Beam Finishing (IBF) Technology; Zeeko"s "Precessions" Process with a sub-aperture section of an inflatable pad; and QED Technology"s Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) with a magnetic fluid ribbon. The removal mechanism and some recent achievements for each process are discussed.

  7. Virtual Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    Virtual work teams scattered around the globe are becoming a feature of corporate workplaces. Although most people prefer face-to-face meetings and interactions, reality often requires telecommuting. (JOW)

  8. Aerobraking Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Group and team photos of Langely's Aerobraking teams. These photo's were taken right after the 75 day aerobraking phase. People in the photographs include: Paul V. Tartabini, Mary Kae Lockwood, Richard W. Powell, Eric M. Queen, Bob Tolson, Alicia Dwyer, Jill Hanna, Michelle Munk, Zack Q. Chavis, dick Wilmoth, Naru Takashima, Ruth Amundsen, John Aguirre, Allison Roberts, Loreyna Young, Charles W. Davis, John Dec, Joe Gasbarre, Scott Striepe, Paul Escalera and G. M. Keating.

  9. Comparative evaluation of different thermally modified wood samples finishing with UV-curable and waterborne coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, René; Muszyńska, Monika; Krystofiak, Tomasz; Labidi, Jalel

    2015-12-01

    Thermally modified wood has been developed as an industrial method to improve durability and dimensional stability of wood and thus extends the range of uses and service life of wood-based products. Despite the improvements gained by treatment, surface finishing using coatings prevents esthetical changes such as color degradation or occasional growth of mold adding protection in outdoor use and extending the service life of products. The wood finishing process was carried out with commercially available waterborne and UV-curable coatings on industrially modified at 192, 200, 212 °C and unmodified European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) wood, using an industrial rollers system and a laboratory brushing system. Changes caused by thermal treatment which could affect the surface finish were measured and compared with control samples, such as water uptake, wettability and acidity. Following the wood finishing, surface properties and esthetic changes were evaluated; as well as the coatings performance. Thermally modified wood presented improved adherence compared with unmodified wood with a significant improvement in samples modified at 212 °C, which also present the highest hardness when UV-cured. Finishes with UV-curing maintain the hydrophobic effect of thermally modified wood, whereas waterborne finishes increase the surface wettability. Thermal modification did not negatively influence on the elastic properties of the coated substrate and thus allows this material to be finished with different coating systems in the same conditions as unmodified wood.

  10. Improved Methodology for Surface and Atmospheric Soundings, Error Estimates, and Quality Control Procedures: the AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2014-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 AIRS/AMSU retrieval algorithm is now operational at the Goddard DISC. AIRS Version-6 level-2 products are generated near real-time at the Goddard DISC and all level-2 and level-3 products are available starting from September 2002. This paper describes some of the significant improvements in retrieval methodology contained in the Version-6 retrieval algorithm compared to that previously used in Version-5. In particular, the AIRS Science Team made major improvements with regard to the algorithms used to 1) derive surface skin temperature and surface spectral emissivity; 2) generate the initial state used to start the cloud clearing and retrieval procedures; and 3) derive error estimates and use them for Quality Control. Significant improvements have also been made in the generation of cloud parameters. In addition to the basic AIRS/AMSU mode, Version-6 also operates in an AIRS Only (AO) mode which produces results almost as good as those of the full AIRS/AMSU mode. This paper also demonstrates the improvements of some AIRS Version-6 and Version-6 AO products compared to those obtained using Version-5.

  11. Roughness Analysis on Composite Materials (Microfilled, Nanofilled and Silorane) After Different Finishing and Polishing Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Pettini, Francesco; Corsalini, Massimo; Savino, Maria Grazia; Stefanachi, Gianluca; Venere, Daniela Di; Pappalettere, Carmine; Monno, Giuseppe; Boccaccio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The finishing and polishing of composite materials affect the restoration lifespan. The market shows a variety of finishing and polishing procedures and the choice among them is conditioned by different factors such as the resulting surface roughness. In the present study, 156 samples were realized with three composite materials, -microfilled, nanofilled and silorane-, and treated with different finishing and polishing procedures. Profilometric analyses were carried out on the samples’ surface, the measured roughness values were submitted to statistical analysis. A complete factorial plan was drawn up and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to investigate whether the following factors affect the values of roughness: (i) material; (ii) polishing/finishing procedure. Tukey post-hoc test was also conducted to evaluate any statistically significant differences between the material/procedure combinations. The results show that the tested materials do not affect the resulting surface quality but roughness values depend on the finishing/polishing procedure adopted. The procedures that involve: (a) the finishing with medium Sof-Lex discs and (b) the finishing with two tungsten carbide multi-blade milling cutters Q series and UF series are those that allow the lowest values of roughness to be obtained. PMID:26734113

  12. Team Learning and Team Composition in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmermans, Olaf; Van Linge, Roland; Van Petegem, Peter; Elseviers, Monique; Denekens, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore team learning activities in nursing teams and to test the effect of team composition on team learning to extend conceptually an initial model of team learning and to examine empirically a new model of ambidextrous team learning in nursing. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative research utilising exploratory…

  13. New finishing possibilities for producing durable multifunctional cotton/wool and viscose/wool blended fabrics.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, N A; El-Zairy, M R; Eid, B M; El-Zairy, E M R; Emam, E M

    2015-03-30

    This research work focuses on the development of a one-bath functional finishing procedure for imparting durable multifunctional properties such as easy care, soft-hand, antibacterial and/or ultra violet (UV) protection to cotton/wool and viscose/wool blends using diverse finishing combinations and formulations. In this study finishing agents such as reactant resin, silicon softeners, 4-hydroxybenzophenone, triclosan, and pigment colorant were selected using magnesium chloride/citric acid as a mixed catalyst and the pad-dry microwave fixation technique. The results reveal that enhancement in the imparted functional properties are governed by type of the finished substrate as well as nature and concentration of finishing formulation components. The finished fabrics still retained high level of functionalities even after 15 consecutive laundering. Surface morphology and composition of selected samples were investigated using scan electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The mode of interactions was also investigated. Practical applications for multifunctionlization of cellulose/wool blended fabrics are possible using these sorts of proper finishing formulations and unique finishing application method.

  14. METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFPPT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Tool (MFFPPT) is being developed to allow the metal finishing industry an easy method to evaluate potential pollution prevention options. In order to reduce the quantity of pollutants generated by a process, the sources of pollutants within ...

  15. 25 CFR 301.8 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finish. 301.8 Section 301.8 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.8 Finish. All silver is to be hand polished....

  16. 25 CFR 301.8 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finish. 301.8 Section 301.8 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.8 Finish. All silver is to be hand polished....

  17. 25 CFR 301.8 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finish. 301.8 Section 301.8 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.8 Finish. All silver is to be hand polished....

  18. 25 CFR 301.8 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finish. 301.8 Section 301.8 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.8 Finish. All silver is to be hand polished....

  19. 25 CFR 301.8 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finish. 301.8 Section 301.8 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.8 Finish. All silver is to be hand polished....

  20. JSC Metal Finishing Waste Minimization Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Erica

    2003-01-01

    THe paper discusses the following: Johnson Space Center (JSC) has achieved VPP Star status and is ISO 9001 compliant. The Structural Engineering Division in the Engineering Directorate is responsible for operating the metal finishing facility at JSC. The Engineering Directorate is responsible for $71.4 million of space flight hardware design, fabrication and testing. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility processes flight hardware to support the programs in particular schedule and mission critical flight hardware. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility is operated by Rothe Joint Venture. The Facility provides following processes: anodizing, alodining, passivation, and pickling. JSC Metal Finishing Facility completely rebuilt in 1998. Total cost of $366,000. All new tanks, electrical, plumbing, and ventilation installed. Designed to meet modern safety, environmental, and quality requirements. Designed to minimize contamination and provide the highest quality finishes.

  1. A new seamless, smooth, interior, absorptive finishing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antonio, Peter

    2003-04-01

    Architects and acousticians have sought a field-applied, absorptive finishing system that resembles a smooth plaster or painted drywall surface, since the dawn of architectural acoustics. Some success has been achieved using sprayed cellulose or cementitious materials, but surface smoothness has been a challenge. A new approach utilizing a thin microporous layer of mineral particles applied over a mineral wool panel will be described. This material can be applied to almost any shape surface, internally pigmented to match almost any color and renovated. It is currently finding application in many architectural applications, including museums. A recent installation in the New Pinakothek Museum in Munich will be illustrated.

  2. Team building

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, C.

    1993-04-01

    Power plants are particularly complicated projects with abundant opportunities for disputes. Efforts are beginning in the power industry to change the way the industry does business. Key elements of a comprehensive team-building approach include partnering, constructability, use of incentives, and the disputes review board.

  3. Team Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begg, Roddy

    2005-01-01

    A personal reminiscence of the events surrounding the establishment of Tertiary Education and Management (TEAM), the journal of the European Association for Institutional Research EAIR, the European Higher Education Society--and its development over its first decade, by the founding Editor, at the time of his retirement from the post.

  4. FON: From Start to Finish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakuliak, L. K.; Andruk, V. M.; Golovnia, V. V.; Shatokhina, S. V.; Yizhakevych, O. M.; Ivanov, G. A.; Yatsenko, A. I.; Sergeeva, T. P.

    Almost 40-year history of FON project ended with the creation of the whole northern sky catalog of objects down to B ≤ 16.5m. The idea of 4-fold overlapping of the northern sky with 6 wide-field astrographs has not been realized in full. For historical reasons it has been transformed into the 2-fold overlapping observational program of MAO NAS of Ukraine, resulted in three versions of the multimillion catalog of positions, proper motions, and B-magnitudes of stars. The first version of 1.2 million stars had been finished before the 2000s and is based on the AC object list. The measurements of plates were made by automatic measuring complex PARSEC, specially developed for massive photographic reviews. As the input list was limited by AC objects, the most part of stars on the FON plates remained unmeasured. Principles of workflow organization of such works formed the basis for the further development of the project using the latest IT-technologies. For the creation of the second and the third versions of the catalog, the list of objects was obtained as a result of total digitizing of plates and their image processing. The final third version contains 19.5 million stars and galaxies with the maximum possible for the photographic astrometry accuracy. The collection of plates, obtained in other observatories - participants of the project, are partially safe and can be used for the same astrometric tasks.

  5. Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan

    SciTech Connect

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-05-24

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

  6. SU-C-BRD-02: A Team Focused Clinical Implementation and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis of HDR Skin Brachytherapy Using Valencia and Leipzig Surface Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Sayler, E; Harrison, A; Eldredge-Hindy, H; Dinome, J; Munro, S; Anne, R; Comber, E; Lockamy, V

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: and Leipzig applicators (VLAs) are single-channel brachytherapy surface applicators used to treat skin lesions up to 2cm diameter. Source dwell times can be calculated and entered manually after clinical set-up or ultrasound. This procedure differs dramatically from CT-based planning; the novelty and unfamiliarity could lead to severe errors. To build layers of safety and ensure quality, a multidisciplinary team created a protocol and applied Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) to the clinical procedure for HDR VLA skin treatments. Methods: team including physicists, physicians, nurses, therapists, residents, and administration developed a clinical procedure for VLA treatment. The procedure was evaluated using FMEA. Failure modes were identified and scored by severity, occurrence, and detection. The clinical procedure was revised to address high-scoring process nodes. Results: Several key components were added to the clinical procedure to minimize risk probability numbers (RPN): -Treatments are reviewed at weekly QA rounds, where physicians discuss diagnosis, prescription, applicator selection, and set-up. Peer review reduces the likelihood of an inappropriate treatment regime. -A template for HDR skin treatments was established in the clinical EMR system to standardize treatment instructions. This reduces the chances of miscommunication between the physician and planning physicist, and increases the detectability of an error during the physics second check. -A screen check was implemented during the second check to increase detectability of an error. -To reduce error probability, the treatment plan worksheet was designed to display plan parameters in a format visually similar to the treatment console display. This facilitates data entry and verification. -VLAs are color-coded and labeled to match the EMR prescriptions, which simplifies in-room selection and verification. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary planning and FMEA increased delectability and

  7. Two North Carolina Sears Stores Among Top Finishers in EPA's Energy Star Battle of the Buildings Competition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Sears Stores in Asheville and Hickory, N.C. were recognized this week by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of a top finishing team in the agency's fifth-annual Energy Star Battle of the Buildings Competition. These sto

  8. Asteroid team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to support asteroid research and the operation of an Asteroid Team within the Earth and Space Sciences Division at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The Asteroid Team carries out original research on asteroids in order to discover, better characterize and define asteroid properties. This information is needed for the planning and design of NASA asteroid flyby and rendezvous missions. The asteroid Team also provides scientific and technical advice to NASA and JPL on asteroid related programs. Work on asteroid classification continued and the discovery of two Earth-approaching M asteroids was published. In the asteroid photometry program researchers obtained N or Q photometry for more than 50 asteroids, including the two M-earth-crossers. Compositional analysis of infrared spectra (0.8 to 2.6 micrometer) of asteroids is continuing. Over the next year the work on asteroid classification and composition will continue with the analysis of the 60 reduced infrared spectra which we now have at hand. The radiometry program will continue with the reduction of the N and Q bandpass data for the 57 asteroids in order to obtain albedos and diameters. This year the emphasis will shift to IRAS follow-up observations; which includes objects not observed by IRAS and objects with poor or peculiar IRAS data. As in previous year, we plan to give top priority to any opportunities for observing near-Earth asteroids and the support (through radiometric lightcurve observations from the IRTF) of any stellar occultations by asteroids for which occultation observation expeditions are fielded. Support of preparing of IRAS data for publication and of D. Matson for his participation in the NASA Planetary Astronomy Management and Operations Working Group will continue.

  9. Investigation on Multi-Physics Simulation-Based Virtual Machining System for Vibratory Finishing of Integrally Bladed Rotors (IBRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achiamah-Ampomah, N.; Cheng, Kai

    2016-02-01

    An investigation was carried out to improve the slow surface finishing times of integrally bladed rotors (IBRs) in the aerospace industry. Traditionally they are finished by hand, or more currently by abrasive flow machining. The use of a vibratory finishing technique to improve process times has been suggested; however as a largely empirical process, very few studies have been done to improve and optimize the cycle times, showing that critical and ongoing research is still needed in this area. An extensive review of the literature was carried out, and the findings used to identify the key parameters and model equations which govern the vibratory process. Recommendations were made towards a multi-physics-based simulation model, as well as projections made for the future of vibratory finishing and optimization of surface finishes and cycle times.

  10. Team Tune-Up: Examining Team Transcripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a worksheet that can be used to examine documentation of team meetings in light of goals the team has established. Materials for this worksheet include copies of team transcripts, yellow and pink highlighters, and pencils. Directions for examining team transcripts are presented.

  11. Cammp Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evertt, Shonn F.; Collins, Michael; Hahn, William

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Configuration Analysis Modeling and Mass Properties (CAMMP) Team is presenting a demo of certain CAMMP capabilities at a Booz Allen Hamilton conference in San Antonio. The team will be showing pictures of low fidelity, simplified ISS models, but no dimensions or technical data. The presentation will include a brief description of the contract and task, description and picture of the Topology, description of Generic Ground Rules and Constraints (GGR&C), description of Stage Analysis with constraints applied, and wrap up with description of other tasks such as Special Studies, Cable Routing, etc. The models include conceptual Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Lunar Lander images and animations created for promotional purposes, which are based entirely on public domain conceptual images from public NASA web sites and publicly available magazine articles and are not based on any actual designs, measurements, or 3D models. Conceptual Mars rover and lander are completely conceptual and are not based on any NASA designs or data. The demonstration includes High Fidelity Computer Aided Design (CAD) models of ISS provided by the ISS 3D CAD Team which will be used in a visual display to demonstrate the capabilities of the Teamcenter Visualization software. The demonstration will include 3D views of the CAD models including random measurements that will be taken to demonstrate the measurement tool. A 3D PDF file will be demonstrated of the Blue Book fidelity assembly complete model with no vehicles attached. The 3D zoom and rotation will be displayed as well as random measurements from the measurement tool. The External Configuration Analysis and Tracking Tool (ExCATT) Microsoft Access Database will be demonstrated to show its capabilities to organize and track hardware on ISS. The data included will be part numbers, serial numbers, historical, current, and future locations, of external hardware components on station. It includes dates of

  12. Space Shuttle Propulsion Finishing Strong

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James W.; Singer, Jody

    2011-01-01

    Numerous lessons have been documented from the Space Shuttle Propulsion elements. Major events include loss of the SRB's on STS-4 and shutdown of an SSME during ascent on STS- 51F. On STS-112 only half the pyrotechnics fired to release the vehicle from the launch pad, a testament for redundancy. STS-91 exhibited freezing of a main combustion chamber pressure measurement and on STS-93 nozzle tube ruptures necessitated a low liquid level oxygen cut off of the main engines. A number of on pad aborts were experienced during the early program resulting in delays. And the two accidents, STS-51L and STS-107, had unique heritage in history from early Program decisions and vehicle configuration. Following STS-51L significant resources were invested in developing fundamental physical understanding of solid rocket motor environments and material system behavior. Human rating of solid rocket motors was truly achieved. And following STS-107, the risk of ascent debris was better characterized and controlled. Situational awareness during all mission phases improved, and the management team instituted effective risk assessment practices. These major events and lessons for the future are discussed. The last 22 flights of the Space Shuttle, following the Columbia accident, were characterized by remarkable improvement in safety and reliability. Numerous problems were solved in addition to reduction of the ascent debris hazard. The propulsion system elements evolved to high reliability and heavy lift capability. The Shuttle system, though not a operable as envisioned in the 1970's, successfully assembled the International Space Station (ISS) and provided significant logistics and down mass for ISS operations. By the end of the Program, the remarkable Space Shuttle Propulsion system achieved very high performance, was largely reusable, exhibited high reliability, and is a heavy lift earth to orbit propulsion system. The story of this amazing system is discussed in detail in the paper.

  13. Improvements in Sand Mold/Core Technology: Effects on Casting Finish

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. John J. Lannutti; Prof. Carroll E. Mobley

    2005-08-30

    In this study, the development and impact of density gradients on metal castings were investigated using sand molds/cores from both industry and from in-house production. In spite of the size of the castings market, almost no quantitative information about density variation within the molds/cores themselves is available. In particular, a predictive understanding of how structure and binder content/chemistry/mixing contribute to the final surface finish of these products does not exist. In this program we attempted to bridge this gap by working directly with domestic companies in examining the issues of surface finish and thermal reclamation costs resulting from the use of sand molds/cores. We show that these can be substantially reduced by the development of an in-depth understanding of density variations that correlate to surface finish. Our experimental tools and our experience with them made us uniquely qualified to achieve technical progress.

  14. Durable hydrophobic sol-gel finishing for textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vihodceva, S.; Kukle, S.; Bitenieks, J.

    2015-03-01

    The surface of cotton textile was modified to create a water-repellent finishing by depositing a modifying coatings using the sol-gel technique. Treated textiles evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD). The wettability of treated fabrics was characterized by water contact angle and drop test. The results showed that the cotton textile treated with 7.5 wt.% zinc acetate dihydrate sol showed excellent hydrophobic properties, water contact angle could reach 145°C without decreasing after 50 hydrothermal treatment cycles.

  15. Effect of Finishing Time on Microleakage at the Composite-Repair Interface

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Berahman, Nazanin; Niazi, Elmira

    2016-01-01

    Background: Repair is a conservative treatment of defective composite restoration. Sealing the repair interface is a critical factor to achieve successful repaired restorations. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluatethe effect of three finishing times on the microleakage at the composite-repair interface. Method: Eighty composite specimens (Z250) were made and aged for eight weeks in water. They were randomly divided into four groups. In the control group, repairing was done with no surface treatment and using bonding agent. In groups 2 to 4, the specimens were repaired following roughening, etching and use of Adper Single Bond, and finished immediately, after 20 minutes and after 24 hours, respectively. After thermocycling, the microleakage at the repair interface was assessed using dye-penetration technique. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). Results: There was a significant difference among the four groups (P<0.001). The control group with the highest leakage showed a significant difference with the other groups (P<0.05). Immediate finishing showed a significantly higher leakage compared to 20-minute and 24-hour delayed finishing time (P<0.001). The two latter groups had no difference. Conclusion: Immediate finishing of the repaired restorations negatively affect the sealing at the repair interface, while 20-minute and 24-hour delayed finishing had no adverse effect on the interface sealing. PMID:27733876

  16. Effects of finishing/polishing techniques on microleakage of resin-modified glass ilonomer cement restorations.

    PubMed

    Yap, Adrian U J; Yap, W Y; Yeo, Egwin J C; Tan, Jane W S; Ong, Debbie S B

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of finishing/polishing techniques on the microleakage of resin-modified glass ionomer restorations. Class V preparations were made on the buccal and lingual/palatal surfaces of freshly extracted teeth. The cavities on each tooth were restored with Fuji II LC (FT [GC]) and Photac-Fil Quick (PF [3M-ESPE]) according to manufacturers' instructions. Immediately after light-polymerization, gross finishing was done with eight-fluted tungsten carbide burs. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups and finishing/polishing was done with one of the following systems: (a) Robot Carbides (RC); (b) Super-Snap system (SS); (c) OneGloss (OG) and (d) CompoSite Polishers (CS). The sample size for each material-finishing/polishing system combination was eight. After finishing/polishing, the teeth were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for one week. The root apices were then sealed with acrylic and two coats of varnish was applied 1 mm beyond the restoration margins. The teeth were subsequently subjected to dye penetration testing (0.5% basic fuchsin), sectioned and scored. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at a significance level of 0.05. Results of statistical analysis were as follows: Enamel margins: PF-OGfinishing/polishing technique, leakage at dentin margins was significantly greater than at enamel margins for FT. For PF, no significant difference in leakage scores was observed between dentin and enamel with the exception of finishing/polishing with OG. FT restorations had significantly less enamel and dentin leakage than PF restorations when treated with OG. The effect of finishing/polishing techniques on microleakage was both tissue and material dependent.

  17. AMMONIA EMISSION FACTORS FROM SWINE FINISHING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents results from two new studies at swine finishing facilities. (NOTE: Concentrated anaimal feeding operations (CAFOs) are being examined in several regions of the U.S. as major sources of ammonia and particulate matter precursors. EPA's National Risk Management Re...

  18. AMMONIA EMISSION FACTORS FROM SWINE FINISHING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents results from two new studies at swine finishing facilities. (NOTE: Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are being examined in several regions of the U,.S. as major sources of ammonia and particulate matter precursors. EPA's National Risk Management Re...

  19. Drywall Finishing Apprenticeship. Course Outline (C-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengert, Gerald

    This course outline was prepard to help apprentice drywall installers and teachers of drywall finishing courses to learn or teach the skills necessary for the apprenticeship course in British Columbia. The course outline consists of 11 tracks (units) that cover the following topics: estimating, job inspection, safety, applying bead, filling…

  20. Why Do Photo Finish Images Look Weird?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregorcic, Bor; Planinsic, Gorazd

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with effects that appear on photographs of rotating objects when taken by a photo finish camera, a rolling shutter camera or a computer scanner. These effects are very similar to Roget's palisade illusion. A simple quantitative analysis of the images is also provided. The effects are explored using a computer scanner in a way that…

  1. Finishing technologies for processing of optical microelectronic items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratov, K. R.; Ablyaz, T. R.; Gashev, E. A.; Khanov, A. M.; Varlamov, N. V.

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses comparative studies of the influence of specific pressure and speed of relative motion of tool and item on polishing capacity and quality of processed surface of lithium niobate single crystal. The equation for calculation of total depth of layer destroyed upon finishing and time of polishing required for its removal. Analysis of polishing tool has accounted for strength properties of the polishing material, removal capacity, and quality of processed surface of lithium niobate single crystal. It is experimentally established that upon basic pressure both for woven and unwoven polishers with the highest capacity the lower limit of grain coarseness of polishing suspension is 1/0.5 μm. A reserve of increase in shape accuracy and polishing quality is the use of polishers with equal thickness and structure of working surface.

  2. Employability Development Teams: Team Member Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Mary L.; Lewis, Meharry H.

    1972-01-01

    The authors point out that team roles are designed to be complementary, but much of the frustration that develops among team members is due to lack of role definition and too much overlapping of responsibility. (Author)

  3. Finishing procedures in orthodontic-surgical cases.

    PubMed

    Brunel, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    To ensure optimal results, we must do our utmost to achieve targets based on order, symmetry and precision, our ultimate aim being to strive towards the desired harmony, planned contrast and exact proportions. Orthodontic-surgical treatments require specific finishing procedures, which most often call for multidisciplinary, or even transdisciplinary, collaboration. Finishing will involve the dental arches just as much as the orofacial environment. Above all, treatment of this kind demands a highly targeted approach in combination with well-defined and perfectly executed techniques. To finish a case satisfactorily, reasonable targets should be aimed for to ensure they are achieved. One must be ambitious and yet wise. A tight alliance of surgeon and orthodontist will nurture convincing and achievable projects and good, lifelong outcomes. Following the consolidation phase, roughly 4 to 6 weeks post-surgery, we can initiate the final orthodontic treatment, which, in effect, constitutes a mini-treatment in its own right. "Details make perfection, but perfection is not a detail" (Leonardo Da Vinci). "A lucid mind is the ante-chamber of intelligence" (Léo Ferré). In the order of life, every form of unity is always unique, and if each of us is unique, it is because everyone else is too. Ambition, wisdom, lucidity and efficiency will guarantee a successful result, the successful result. We must not be mere observers of our treatments, but the architect, project manager and site foreman at one and the same time. One could talk ad infinitum about finishing orthodontic-surgical cases because everything else leads up to the case-finishing and even the fullest description could never be exhaustive.

  4. Permanent flame retardant finishing of textiles by allyl-functionalized polyphosphazenes.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Gall, Thomas; Knittel, Dierk; Gutmann, Jochen S; Opwis, Klaus

    2015-05-13

    Despite their excellent flame retardant properties, polyphosphazenes are currently not used as flame retardant agents for textile finishing, because a permanent fixation on the substrate surface has failed so far. Here, we present the successful synthesis and characterization of a noncombustible and foam-forming polyphosphazene derivative, that can be immobilized durably on cotton and different cotton/polyester blended fabrics using photoinduced grafting reactions. The flame retardant properties are improved, a higher limiting oxygen index is found, and the modified textiles pass several standardized flammability tests. As flame retardant mechanism a synergistic effect between the immobilized polyphosphazene and the textile substrate was observed. The polyphosphazene finishing induces an earlier decomposition of the material with a reduced mass loss in thermogravimetric analysis. The decomposition of cotton and polyester leads to the formation of phosphorus oxynitride, which forms a protecting barrier layer on the fiber surface. In addition, the permanence of the flame retardant finishing was proven by laundry and abrasion tests.

  5. Evaluation of Some Finishing Properties of Oil Palm Particleboard for Furniture Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnasingam, J.; Nyugen, V.; Ioras, F.

    The finishing properties of particleboard made from the Empty-Fruit Bunch (EFB) of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were evaluated for its suitability for furniture applications, using different coating and overlay materials. The results found that the thick plastic-formica overlay provided the best surface finish, in terms of surface smoothness, adhesion strength and impact resistance. Although the polyurethane lacquer provided an acceptable finish, its quality and performance is not comparable to that of the thick plastic overlay. Despite the fact that the use of such overlay material may render the material not aesthetically appealing and limit it to concealed applications or where the thick overlay material is tolerated, its cost competitiveness and environmental friendliness may be able to position the oil palm particleboard as a substitute for the conventional wood-based particleboard in the furniture manufacturing industry.

  6. Adopting Team Contracts to Initiate Team Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcellino, Patricia Ann

    2008-01-01

    Creighton, Harris and Coleman (2005) suggest that educational leadership instructors introduce aspiring administrators to a sound knowledge base. Currently, engaging in teams is recommended for high performance and problem-solving. Bolton (1999) recommends that instructors coach teams so teaming skills are improved. But, oftentimes, there are team…

  7. Flame retardant finishing of cotton fabric based on synergistic compounds containing boron and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kongliang; Gao, Aiqin; Zhang, Yongsheng

    2013-10-15

    Boric acid and compound containing nitrogen, 2,4,6-tri[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl-ammonium)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine chloride (Tri-HTAC) were used to finish cotton fabric. The flame retardant properties of the finished cotton fabrics and the synergetic effects of boron and nitrogen elements were investigated and evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI) method. The mechanism of cross-linking reaction among cotton fiber, Tri-HTAC, and boric acid was discussed by FTIR and element analysis. The thermal stability and surface morphology of the finished cotton fabrics were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The finishing system of the mixture containing boron and nitrogen showed excellent synergistic flame retardancy for cotton fabric. The cotton fabric finished with mixture system had excellent flame retardancy. The LOI value of the treated cotton fabric increased over 27.5. Tri-HTAC could form covalent bonds with cellulose fiber and boric acid. The flame retardant cotton fabric showed a slight decrease in tensile strength and whiteness. The surface morphology of flame retardant cotton fiber was smooth.

  8. FINISHED CASTINGS ARE ONLY GROUND BEFORE THEY ARE SHIPPED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FINISHED CASTINGS ARE ONLY GROUND BEFORE THEY ARE SHIPPED TO CUSTOMERS WHO COMPLETE THE FINISHING IN THEIR OWN MACHINE SHOPS. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Grinding & Shipping, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  9. CANVAS FINISH TO REMOVE FLOAT MARKS. View is to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CANVAS FINISH TO REMOVE FLOAT MARKS. View is to the northwest of deck finishing operations - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  10. Team Learning in Teacher Teams: Team Entitativity as a Bridge between Teams-in-Theory and Teams-in-Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vangrieken, Katrien; Dochy, Filip; Raes, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate team learning in the context of teacher teams in higher vocational education. As teacher teams often do not meet all criteria included in theoretical team definitions, the construct "team entitativity" was introduced. Defined as the degree to which a group of individuals possesses the quality of being a…

  11. PREI in Tampa, Fla. Among Top Finishers in EPA's Energy Star Battle of the Buildings Competition/The competition saves $50 million, prevents 250,000 metric tons of GHG emissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - PREI Team A in Tampa, Fla. was recognized this week by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of a top finishing team in the agency's fifth-annual Energy Star Battle of the Buildings Competition. These stores-together with

  12. Team coordination dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jamie C; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Cooke, Nancy J

    2010-07-01

    Team coordination consists of both the dynamics of team member interaction and the environmental dynamics to which a team is subjected. Focusing on dynamics, an approach is developed that contrasts with traditional aggregate-static concepts of team coordination as characterized by the shared mental model approach. A team coordination order parameter was developed to capture momentary fluctuations in coordination. Team coordination was observed in three-person uninhabited air vehicle teams across two experimental sessions. The dynamics of the order parameter were observed under changes of a team familiarity control parameter. Team members returned for the second session to either the same (Intact) or different (Mixed) team. 'Roadblock' perturbations, or novel changes in the task environment, were introduced in order to probe the stability of team coordination. Nonlinear dynamic methods revealed differences that a traditional approach did not: Intact and Mixed team coordination dynamics looked very different; Mixed teams were more stable than Intact teams and explored the space of solutions without the need for correction. Stability was positively correlated with the number of roadblock perturbations that were overcome successfully. The novel and non-intuitive contribution of a dynamical analysis was that Mixed teams, who did not have a long history working together, were more adaptive. Team coordination dynamics carries new implications for traditional problems such as training adaptive teams.

  13. 9 CFR 381.309 - Finished product inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Finished product inspection. (a) Finished product inspections must be handled according to: (1) A HACCP.... (b)-(c) (d) Procedures for finished product inspections where the HACCP plan for thermally...

  14. Nearly Finished Genomes Produced Using Gel Microdroplet Culturing (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Fitzsimmons, Michael [LANL

    2016-07-12

    Michael Fitzsimmons from Los Alamos National Laboratory gives a talk titled "Nearly Finished Genomes Produced Using Gel Microdroplet Culturing" at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  15. Sequence finishing and mapping of Drosophila melanogasterheterochromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, Roger A.; Carlson, Joseph W.; Kennedy, Cameron; Acevedo,David; Evans-Holm, Martha; Frise, Erwin; Wan, Kenneth H.; Park, Soo; Mendez-Lago, Maria; Rossi, Fabrizio; Villasante, Alfredo; Dimitri,Patrizio; Karpen, Gary H.; Celniker, Susan E.

    2007-06-15

    Genome sequences for most metazoans are incomplete due tothe presence of repeated DNA in the pericentromeric heterochromatin. Theheterochromatic regions of D. melanogaster contain 20 Mb of sequenceamenable to mapping, sequence assembly and finishing. Here we describethe generation of 15 Mb of finished or improved heterochromatic sequenceusing available clone resources and assembly and mapping methods. We alsoconstructed a BAC-based physical map that spans approximately 13 Mb ofthe pericentromeric heterochromatin, and a cytogenetic map that positionsapproximately 11 Mb of BAC contigs and sequence scaffolds in specificchromosomal locations. The integrated sequence assembly and maps greatlyimprove our understanding of the structure and composition of this poorlyunderstood fraction of a metazoan genome and provide a framework forfunctional analyses.

  16. Exploring Individual Creativity from Network Structure Perspective: Comparison of Task Force Team and R&D Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kun Chang; Chae, Seong Wook; Seo, Young Wook

    The objectives of this paper are to empirically investigate the fact that the factors affecting individual creativity differ depending on team characteristics and the fact that its practical implications are plentiful, especially for those who are concerned with how to design team network structures with a bid to motivate individual creativity. From previous studies, this paper suggests crucial factors for facilitating individual creativity: intrinsic motivation, organizational learning culture, and network structure. To maximize practical implications, we divide team characteristics into two types: task force teams and R&D teams. A task force team is organized with a clear mission to be completed within a rather short period. In contrast, an R&D team exists for a long time with numerous projects to finish with various terms and conditions. Empirical results reveal that individual creativity in the task force team should be controlled by adjusting the organizational learning culture and degree centrality, while individual creativity in the R&D team must be administered in a way that the individual's intrinsic motivation is stimulated and encouraged through the use of a structural hole through which external information from outside team is available.

  17. Agile robotic edge finishing system research

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes a new project undertaken by Sandia National Laboratories to develop an agile, automated, high-precision edge finishing system. The project has a two-year duration and was initiated in October, 1994. This project involves re-designing and adding additional capabilities to an existing finishing workcell at Sandia; and developing intelligent methods for automating process definition and for controlling finishing processes. The resulting system will serve as a prototype for systems that will be deployed into highly flexible automated production lines. The production systems will be used to produce a wide variety of products with limited production quantities and quick turnaround requirements. The prototype system is designed to allow programming, process definition, fixture re-configuration, and process verification to be performed off-line for new products. CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing) models of the part will be used to assist with the automated process development and process control tasks. To achieve Sandia`s performance goals, the system will be employ advanced path planning, burr prediction expert systems, automated process definition, statistical process models in a process database, and a two-level control scheme using hybrid position-force control and fuzzy logic control. In this paper, we discuss the progress and the planned system development under this project.

  18. Instructional Design Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, Judith A.; Collins, Keith

    1974-01-01

    An instructional design team, composed of experts in nursing, education, and media production, is used at the University of Wisconsin School of Nursing, Madison, to produce instructional units for a new curriculum. The authors summarize steps of team/faculty communications, team methodology, and factors influencing the team's effectiveness. (EA)

  19. TeamXchange: A Team Project Experience Involving Virtual Teams and Fluid Team Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dineen, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    TeamXchange, an online team-based exercise, is described. TeamXchange is consistent with the collaborative model of learning and provides a means of fostering enhanced student learning and engagement through collaboration in virtual teams experiencing periodic membership changes. It was administered in an undergraduate Organizational Behavior…

  20. Speeding Up Team Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Amy; Bohmer, Richard; Pisano, Gary

    2001-01-01

    A study of 16 cardiac surgery teams looked at how the teams adapted to new ways of working. The challenge of team management is to implement new processes as quickly as possible. Steps for creating a learning team include selecting a mix of skills and expertise, framing the challenge, and creating an environment of psychological safety. (JOW)

  1. Sports Teams Extend Reach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    Unlike traditional high school athletic teams, Unified Sports teams are designed to immerse students with intellectual disabilities in a facet of school culture that has largely eluded them. Nationwide, more than 2,000 schools in 42 states have the teams, where the ideal is for about half the athletes on each team to be students with intellectual…

  2. Student Team Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    Three Student Team Learning techniques have been extensively researched and found to significantly increase student learning. In Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD), teams are made up of high, average, and low performing students of both genders and different racial and ethnic backgrounds. Team members study worksheets, work problems in…

  3. The Discipline of Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzenbach, Jon R.; Smith, Douglas K.

    1993-01-01

    Teams share commitment, translate purpose into performance goals, and have members be accountable with and to their teammates. Types of teams are those that recommend, make or do things, and run things. The distinction between teams and other working groups is performance: an effective team is worth more than the sum of its parts. (SK)

  4. Assessing Team Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimble, Susan; Rottier, Jerry

    Interdisciplinary middle school level teams capitalize on the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Administrators and team members can maximize the advantages of teamwork using team assessments to increase the benefits for students, teachers, and the school environment. Assessing team performance can lead to high performing…

  5. Developing Your Dream Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatlin, Kenda

    2005-01-01

    Almost anyone has held various roles on a team, be it a family unit, sports team, or a project-oriented team. As an educator, one must make a conscious decision to build and invest in a team. Gathering the best team possible will help one achieve one's goals. This article explores some of the key reasons why it is important to focus on the team…

  6. The discipline of teams.

    PubMed

    Katzenbach, J R; Smith, D K

    1993-01-01

    Groups don't become teams because that is what someone calls them. Nor do teamwork values by themselves ensure team performance. So what is a team? How can managers know when the team option makes sense and what they can do to ensure team success? In this article, drawn from their recent book The Wisdom of Teams, McKinsey partners Jon Katzenbach and Douglas Smith answer these questions and outline the discipline that makes a real team. The essence of a team is shared commitment. Without it, groups perform as individuals; with it, they become a powerful unit of collective performance. The best teams invest a tremendous amount of time shaping a purpose that they can own. The best teams also translate their purpose into specific performance goals. And members of successful teams pitch in and become accountable with and to their teammates. The fundamental distinction between teams and other forms of working groups turns on performance. A working group relies on the individual contributions of its members for group performance. But a team strives for something greater than its members could achieve individually. In short, an effective team is always worth more than the sum of its parts. Katzenbach and Smith identify three basic types of teams: teams that recommend things--task forces or project groups; teams that make or do things--manufacturing, operations, or marketing groups; and teams that run things--groups that oversee some significant functional activity. For managers, the key is knowing where in the organization real teams should be encouraged. Team potential exists anywhere hierarchy or organizational boundaries inhibit good performance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Percent recoveries of anthropogenic organic compounds with and without the addition of ascorbic acid to preserve finished-water samples containing free chlorine, 2004-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Bender, David A.; Price, Curtis V.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents finished-water matrix-spike recoveries of 270 anthropogenic organic compounds with and without the addition of ascorbic acid to preserve water samples containing free chlorine. Percent recoveries were calculated using analytical results from a study conducted during 2004-10 for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The study was intended to characterize the effect of quenching on finished-water matrix-spike recoveries and to better understand the potential oxidation and transformation of 270 anthropogenic organic compounds. The anthropogenic organic compounds studied include those on analytical schedules 1433, 2003, 2033, 2060, 2020, and 4024 of the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory. Three types of samples were collected from 34 NAWQA locations across the Nation: (1) quenched finished-water samples (not spiked), (2) quenched finished-water matrix-spike samples, and (3) nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples. Percent recoveries of anthropogenic organic compounds in quenched and nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples are presented. Comparisons of percent recoveries between quenched and nonquenched spiked samples can be used to show how quenching affects finished-water samples. A maximum of 18 surface-water and 34 groundwater quenched finished-water matrix-spike samples paired with nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples were analyzed. Percent recoveries for the study are presented in two ways: (1) finished-water matrix-spike samples supplied by surface-water or groundwater, and (2) by use (or source) group category for surface-water and groundwater supplies. Graphical representations of percent recoveries for the quenched and nonquenched finished-water matrix-spike samples also are presented.

  8. Carcass quality and meat tenderness of Hawaii pasture-finished cattle and Hawaii-originated, mainland feedlot-finished cattle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Soo; Fukumoto, Glen Kazumi; Kim, Sunae

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the carcass quality and meat tenderness of Hawaii cattle finished on subtropical pasture with those of mainland US feedlot-finished cattle that were shipped from Hawaii after weaning. Rib-eye steak samples were collected from 30 feedlot-finished cattle harvested at a slaughter house in Washington State, USA and from 13 subtropical pasture-finished cattle harvested at a local slaughter house in Hawaii, then shipped to meat science laboratory at the University of Hawaii, Manoa. Samples were aged for 2 weeks at 4°C and frozen for later proximate analysis and meat tenderness measurement. Feedlot-finished cattle had significantly heavier carcass weight (353 vs 290 kg) and thicker backfat (13.5 vs 6.6 mm), but no significant difference was observed in rib-eye area between the two groups. Marbling score (Small) and United States Department of Agriculture quality grade (Choice) of the pasture-finished beef were not significantly (P < 0.05) different from those of feedlot-finished beef. The shear force value of pasture-finished beef (5.18 kg) was not statistically different (P < 0.05) from that of feedlot-finished beef (4.40 kg). In conclusion, results of this study suggest that Hawaii cattle finished on subtropical pasture produced as tender beef as mainland feedlot-finished cattle with less intramuscular fat.

  9. Team Effectiveness and Team Development in CSCL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fransen, Jos; Weinberger, Armin; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    There is a wealth of research on computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) that is neglected in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) research. CSCW research is concerned with contextual factors, however, that may strongly influence collaborative learning processes as well, such as task characteristics, team formation, team members'…

  10. Team training/simulation.

    PubMed

    Clark, Erin A S; Fisher, Janet; Arafeh, Julia; Druzin, Maurice

    2010-03-01

    Obstetrical emergencies require the rapid formation of a team with clear communication, strong leadership, and appropriate decision-making to ensure a positive patient outcome. Obstetric teams can improve their emergency response capability and efficiency through team and simulation training. Postpartum hemorrhage is an ideal model for team and simulation training, as postpartum hemorrhage requires a multidisciplinary team with the capability to produce a protocol-driven, rapid response. This article provides an overview of team and simulation training and focuses on applications within obstetrics, particularly preparation for postpartum hemorrhage.

  11. Research on reducing the edge effect in magnetorheological finishing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hao; Dai, Yifan; Peng, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianmin

    2011-03-20

    The edge effect could not be avoided in most optical manufacturing methods based on the theory of computer controlled optical surfacing. The difference between the removal function at the workpiece edge and that inside it is also the primary cause for edge effect in magnetorheological finishing (MRF). The change of physical dimension and removal ratio of the removal function is investigated through experiments. The results demonstrate that the situation is different when MRF "spot" is at the leading edge or at the trailing edge. Two methods for reducing the edge effect are put into practice after analysis of the processing results. One is adopting a small removal function for dealing with the workpiece edge, and the other is utilizing the removal function compensation. The actual processing results show that these two ways are both effective on reducing the edge effect in MRF.

  12. Geriatric assessment teams.

    PubMed

    Campbell, L J; Cole, K D

    1987-02-01

    In geriatric care, a form of teamwork is the recommended modality because of the complex biopsychosocial needs of the patient. The goal of geriatric assessment programs is to establish an intensive assessment of older adults which requires the competencies of several coordinated disciplines. Not only do teams have the capacity to assess patients in much greater depth but also patients share different information with different providers. The composition of the team is dictated by the needs of the patient population in accordance with resources available. Next, one must identify a method of team practice in order for interactions to take place. The method of functioning determines what kind of team it is, ranging from independent functioning with minimal formal interfacing to interdependent activity interspersed with formal and informal interactions. In initiating a geriatric assessment program, one needs to determine which tasks demand interdisciplinary collaboration, which require interdisciplinary consultation, and which can be performed using a matrix or extended team model. In this model, the core team is supplemented by other disciplines as determined by the team, predicated on patient problems. Teams can profit from training, which can help with choosing an appropriate model, establishing a manual of procedure, and managing interactive issues and problems. This can occur early in the team's formation, or when a team takes on new members. The minimal level of team development would include establishing program goals, delineating professional responsibilities and roles, and implementing a system for exchanging and documenting information about patient plans. Saving input to share only in team meeting is inefficient, so health care teams need to recognize the importance of informal interchanges. It is still a matter of conjecture about what team works best with which patients under what circumstances or conditions. Multiple randomized clinical trials with teams

  13. Radiation Oncology Treatment Team

    MedlinePlus

    ... patients to be advocates. View more information Treatment Team Quick Links Meet the Treatment Team Radiation Oncologist ... as medical oncologists and surgeons to maximize radiation’s effectiveness. Radiation oncologists are the only physicians with the ...

  14. Tiger Team audits

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, G.T.

    1992-03-01

    This paper will address the purpose, scope, and approach of the Department of Energy Tiger Team Assessments. It will use the Tiger Team Assessment experience of Sandia National Laboratories at Albuquerque, New Mexico, as illustration.

  15. Tiger Team audits

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, G.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will address the purpose, scope, and approach of the Department of Energy Tiger Team Assessments. It will use the Tiger Team Assessment experience of Sandia National Laboratories at Albuquerque, New Mexico, as illustration.

  16. Finishing bacterial genome assemblies with Mix

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Motivation Among challenges that hamper reaping the benefits of genome assembly are both unfinished assemblies and the ensuing experimental costs. First, numerous software solutions for genome de novo assembly are available, each having its advantages and drawbacks, without clear guidelines as to how to choose among them. Second, these solutions produce draft assemblies that often require a resource intensive finishing phase. Methods In this paper we address these two aspects by developing Mix , a tool that mixes two or more draft assemblies, without relying on a reference genome and having the goal to reduce contig fragmentation and thus speed-up genome finishing. The proposed algorithm builds an extension graph where vertices represent extremities of contigs and edges represent existing alignments between these extremities. These alignment edges are used for contig extension. The resulting output assembly corresponds to a set of paths in the extension graph that maximizes the cumulative contig length. Results We evaluate the performance of Mix on bacterial NGS data from the GAGE-B study and apply it to newly sequenced Mycoplasma genomes. Resulting final assemblies demonstrate a significant improvement in the overall assembly quality. In particular, Mix is consistent by providing better overall quality results even when the choice is guided solely by standard assembly statistics, as is the case for de novo projects. Availability Mix is implemented in Python and is available at https://github.com/cbib/MIX, novel data for our Mycoplasma study is available at http://services.cbib.u-bordeaux2.fr/mix/. PMID:24564706

  17. Team Evolution and Maturation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    Ifor NGFS and ASW teams. These efforts have provided an unparalleled set of observations concerning the nature of training-induced changes in team...Variations in TRAEX/SELEX performance scores across teams or over time provide indications of gross changes in the nature of training or of the...of effective communication behaviors increased significantly more for the "posted" teams curing the Last phase of training. There were insufficient

  18. Team Building [in HRD].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    These five papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by Susan Dougherty at the 1995 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD). "The Relationship between Productivity and Work Team Autonomy and Team Process Effectiveness" (Candice L. Phelan) reports that correlation analysis of results of a study of 21 work teams revealed…

  19. A Genuine TEAM Player

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Qualtech Systems, Inc. developed a complete software system with capabilities of multisignal modeling, diagnostic analysis, run-time diagnostic operations, and intelligent interactive reasoners. Commercially available as the TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System) tool set, the software can be used to reveal unanticipated system failures. The TEAMS software package is broken down into four companion tools: TEAMS-RT, TEAMATE, TEAMS-KB, and TEAMS-RDS. TEAMS-RT identifies good, bad, and suspect components in the system in real-time. It reports system health results from onboard tests, and detects and isolates failures within the system, allowing for rapid fault isolation. TEAMATE takes over from where TEAMS-RT left off by intelligently guiding the maintenance technician through the troubleshooting procedure, repair actions, and operational checkout. TEAMS-KB serves as a model management and collection tool. TEAMS-RDS (TEAMS-Remote Diagnostic Server) has the ability to continuously assess a system and isolate any failure in that system or its components, in real time. RDS incorporates TEAMS-RT, TEAMATE, and TEAMS-KB in a large-scale server architecture capable of providing advanced diagnostic and maintenance functions over a network, such as the Internet, with a web browser user interface.

  20. Who Owns Your Team?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisen, Kathy; Love, Phyllis

    1988-01-01

    Feelings of team ownership promote team cohesiveness which yields better performance. Coaches should implement strategies that encourage team members to share with the coach responsibility for morale, skill-building, play improvement, and decision making. Maturity level of athletes influences the degree of ownership allowed. Strategies for…

  1. The "A" Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Larry D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Academic Team (A Team) program at Plano (Texas) Senior High School provides academic enrichment for talented students in grades 9-12. Outstanding A Team students are recognized with trophies and scholarships. The school district and the high school have found the program an excellent means of encouraging academic achievement. (MCG)

  2. Leadership of Creative Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined leadership in 16 research and 16 nonresearch teams in various manufacturing, aerospace, and health services companies. It concluded that research team leaders need to be able to fulfill a public relations or boundary management role. Engineering research teams, however, showed leadership patterns suggesting different needs for…

  3. Tracking dynamic team activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tambe, M.

    1996-12-31

    AI researchers are striving to build complex multi-agent worlds with intended applications ranging from the RoboCup robotic soccer tournaments, to interactive virtual theatre, to large-scale real-world battlefield simulations. Agent tracking - monitoring other agent`s actions and inferring their higher-level goals and intentions - is a central requirement in such worlds. While previous work has mostly focused on tracking individual agents, this paper goes beyond by focusing on agent teams. Team tracking poses the challenge of tracking a team`s joint goals and plans. Dynamic, real-time environments add to the challenge, as ambiguities have to be resolved in real-time. The central hypothesis underlying the present work is that an explicit team-oriented perspective enables effective team tracking. This hypothesis is instantiated using the model tracing technology employed in tracking individual agents. Thus, to track team activities, team models are put to service. Team models are a concrete application of the joint intentions framework and enable an agent to track team activities, regardless of the agent`s being a collaborative participant or a non-participant in the team. To facilitate real-time ambiguity resolution with team models: (i) aspects of tracking are cast as constraint satisfaction problems to exploit constraint propagation techniques; and (ii) a cost minimality criterion is applied to constrain tracking search. Empirical results from two separate tasks in real-world, dynamic environments one collaborative and one competitive - are provided.

  4. Quality Work Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Lori Jo

    1995-01-01

    A growing number of schools and districts are considering using teams to handle all types of decision making and advisory activities. The term "teams" can be applied to a wide spectrum of groups with various purposes or powers. This bulletin was designed to assist those who want to create efficient, successful teams. It provides…

  5. [Experimental analysis of finishing lines in ceramometal restorations].

    PubMed

    Gascón, F; Gil, J A; Fons, A; Badal, R

    1990-11-01

    The preparation is the first step of any tooth reconstruction. The biological integration of the protesis is depending on the marginal adaptation (finish line of the preparation), occlusal adaptation (occlusal reduction), longevity of the restoration (retention and luting) and esthetics. The effect the two finish line of the preparation is studied using experimental design. In porcelain-fused-to-metal the finish line of the preparation in chanfer is superior at the beveled shoulder, because proportioning better marginal adaptation.

  6. 11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish and woodwork details - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  7. Detection of Protozoa in Surface and Finished Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are known to be the host to approximately 1500 infectious agents, out of which 66 are protozoa and 287 are helminths. Therefore, from a global perspective helminths and protozoan parasites account for approximately one fourth of the total infectious diseases of humans. A s...

  8. Prophylometric and SEM analyses of four different finishing methods

    PubMed Central

    CHIODERA, G.; CERUTTI, F.; CERUTTI, A.; PUTIGNANO, A.; MANGANI, F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Adhesion is the pivot of the modern restorative dentistry. Inlays, onlays and veneers have become a valid alternative to the traditional prosthetic treatments even in the rehabilitation of extremely damaged teeth, allowing a consistent saving of sound tooth tissues. Composite resins and dental adhesive are continously investigated and improved, nevertheless the optimization of the tooth-adhesive interface has to be considered: in fact, the long-term stability of adhesion between tooth and composite material depends on the treatment of the amelo-dentinal surfaces. This study investigated the quality of the occlusal walls of a cavity prepared to receive an inlay and finished with four different systems: thin and extra-thin diamond coated burs, a 12-blades carbide burs and a diamond-coated tip driven by sonic instrument. Consequently, prophylometric and SEM analyses were performed on the samples. The average roughness values recorded by the prophylometer were expressed by the parameters Ra and RZ: there is a correspondence between the numeric values and the pictures of the SEM. The results show a better quality (low roughness values) of the surface treated with multi-blade burs, followed by the this and extra-thin diamond coated burs. The 25 micron diamond-coated tip of the sonic instrument obtains the roughest surface and a sensibly higher amount of smear layer than the other tested systems. PMID:23741601

  9. [Finishing and detailing, stability and harmony].

    PubMed

    Fourquet, Lucile; Göttle, Magalie; Bounoure, Guy

    2014-03-01

    The finishing and detailing phase, the last stage of active orthodontic treatment, makes it possible to perfect the occlusion, by adhering to criteria defined by various authors and to improve the esthetic result, while achieving the treatment objectives made during the pre-planning phase. The reliability of end of treatment results cannot be ensured without an initial individualized analysis of the risk factors for relapse specific to each patient. It is only after this analysis, that the orthodontist will be able to determine how to comply with these criteria for stability, common in any treatment, and to individually choose and implement reliable procedures. When planning for stability as the treatment objective, orthodontic patients are able to achieve stable alignment. This course of action is the necessary process to help ensure equilibrium and alignment. Eight different methods of alignment, already frequently discussed in the literature, will be described and analyzed in this paper.

  10. Team Cognition in Experienced Command-and-Control Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Duran, Jasmine L.; Taylor, Amanda R.

    2007-01-01

    Team cognition in experienced command-and-control teams is examined in an UAV (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle) simulation. Five 3-person teams with experience working together in a command-and-control setting were compared to 10 inexperienced teams. Each team participated in five 40-min missions of a simulation in which interdependent team members…

  11. Occurrence of neonicotinoid insecticides in finished drinking water and fate during drinking water treatment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klarich, Kathryn L.; Pflug, Nicholas C.; DeWald, Eden M.; Hladik, Michelle; Kolpin, Dana W.; Cwiertny, David M.; LeFevre, Gergory H.

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widespread in surface waters across the agriculturally-intensive Midwestern US. We report for the first time the presence of three neonicotinoids in finished drinking water and demonstrate their general persistence during conventional water treatment. Periodic tap water grab samples were collected at the University of Iowa over seven weeks in 2016 (May-July) after maize/soy planting. Clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam were ubiquitously detected in finished water samples and ranged from 0.24-57.3 ng/L. Samples collected along the University of Iowa treatment train indicate no apparent removal of clothianidin and imidacloprid, with modest thiamethoxam removal (~50%). In contrast, the concentrations of all neonicotinoids were substantially lower in the Iowa City treatment facility finished water using granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Batch experiments investigated potential losses. Thiamethoxam losses are due to base-catalyzed hydrolysis at high pH conditions during lime softening. GAC rapidly and nearly completely removed all three neonicotinoids. Clothianidin is susceptible to reaction with free chlorine and may undergo at least partial transformation during chlorination. Our work provides new insights into the persistence of neonicotinoids and their potential for transformation during water treatment and distribution, while also identifying GAC as an effective management tool to lower neonicotinoid concentrations in finished drinking water.

  12. Salmonella infection and immune response in finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Finishing pigs infected with Salmonella pose significant food safety risks by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. A study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in finishing pigs, and the immunological alterations that occur in Salmonella-carrier pigs, by longitudinally com...

  13. 16 CFR 1508.7 - Construction and finishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Construction and finishing. 1508.7 Section 1508.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.7 Construction and finishing. (a) All wood...

  14. 16 CFR 1508.7 - Construction and finishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Construction and finishing. 1508.7 Section 1508.7 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1508.7 Construction and finishing. (a) All wood...

  15. NATIONAL METAL FINISHING ENVIRONMENTAL R&D PLAN - AN UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an update to the National Metal Finishing Environmental R&D Plan (EPA/600/R-97/095), dated September 1997. The 1997 Plan and Update are available on the National Metal Finishing Resource Center's web site, www.nmfrc.org. The primary purpose in preparing an up...

  16. EPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL - 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help metal finishing facilities meet the goal of profitable pollution prevention, the USEPA is developing the Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Prevention Tool (MFFP2T), a computer program that estimates the rate of solid, liquid waste generation and air emissions. This progr...

  17. [Automatic polishing of dental prostheses. 1. Development of a centrifugal barrel finishing apparatus].

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Y; Miyazaki, T; Aoyama, N; Suzuki, E; Miyaji, T

    1990-09-01

    A centrifugal barrel finishing apparatus with a variable turn table rotational speed (250-1,000 rpm) was newly developed and barrel finishing of Ni-Cr casting plates (10 x 10 x 2 mm) was performed using alumina base chips. When using the sample with a mirror face the amount of polishing and the surface roughness increased and the surface gloss decreased with the increase in rotation speed. A high rotational speed was useful for coarse polishing and low rotational speed was useful for fine polishing. The continuous barrel polishing was trially performed using the sample prepared by the carborundum wheel under variable rotational speed. Automatic polishing to fine polishing could be done using this apparatus.

  18. Managing multicultural teams.

    PubMed

    Brett, Jeanne; Behfar, Kristin; Kern, Mary C

    2006-11-01

    Multicultural teams offer a number of advantages to international firms, including deep knowledge of different product markets, culturally sensitive customer service, and 24-hour work rotations. But those advantages may be outweighed by problems stemming from cultural differences, which can seriously impair the effectiveness of a team or even bring itto a stalemate. How can managers best cope with culture-based challenges? The authors conducted in-depth interviews with managers and members of multicultural teams from all over the world. Drawing on their extensive research on dispute resolution and teamwork and those interviews, they identify four problem categories that can create barriers to a team's success: direct versus indirect communication, trouble with accents and fluency, differing attitudes toward hierarchy and authority, and conflicting norms for decision making. If a manager--or a team member--can pinpoint the root cause of the problem, he or she is likelier to select an appropriate strategy for solving it. The most successful teams and managers, the authors found, dealt with multicultural challenges in one of four ways: adaptation (acknowledging cultural gaps openly and working around them), structural intervention (changing the shape or makeup of the team), managerial intervention (setting norms early or bringing in a higher-level manager), and exit (removing a team member when other options have failed). Which strategy is best depends on the particular circumstances--and each has potential complications. In general, though, managers who intervene early and set norms; teams and managers who try to engage everyone on the team; and teams that can see challenges as stemming from culture, not personality, succeed in solving culture-based problems with good humor and creativity. They are the likeliest to harvest the benefits inherent in multicultural teams.

  19. Phosphorus requirement of finishing feedlot calves.

    PubMed

    Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Brink, D; Orth, M W; Whittet, K M

    2002-06-01

    Dietary P supplied to feedlot cattle is important because an inadequate supply will compromise performance, whereas excess P may harm the environment. However, P requirements of feedlot cattle are not well documented. Therefore, 45 steer calves (265.2+/-16.6 kg) were individually fed to determine the P required for gain and bone integrity over a 204-d finishing period. The basal diet consisted of 33.5% high-moisture corn, 30% brewers grits, 20% corn bran, 7.5% cottonseed hulls, 3% tallow, and 6% supplement. Treatments consisted of 0.16 (no supplemental inorganic P), 0.22, 0.28, 0.34, and 0.40% P (DM basis). Supplemental P was provided by monosodium phosphate top-dressed to the daily feed allotment. Blood was sampled every 56 d to assess P status. At slaughter, phalanx and metacarpal bones were collected from the front leg to determine bone ash and assess P resorption from bone. Dry matter intake and ADG did not change linearly (P > 0.86) or quadratically (P > 0.28) due to P treatment. Feed efficiency was not influenced (P > 0.30) by P treatment and averaged 0.169. Plasma inorganic P averaged across d 56 to 204 responded quadratically, with calves fed 0.16% P having the lowest concentration of plasma inorganic P. However, plasma inorganic P concentration (5.7 mg/dL) for steers fed 0.16% P is generally considered adequate. Total bone ash weight was not influenced by dietary P for phalanx (P = 0.19) or metacarpal bones (P = 0.37). Total P intake ranged from 14.2 to 35.5 g/d. The NRC (1996) recommendation for these calves was 18.7 g/d, assuming 68% absorption. Based on performance results, P requirements for finishing calves is < 0.16% of diet DM or 14.2 g/d. Based on these observations, we suggest that typical grain-based feedlot cattle diets do not require supplementation of inorganic mineral P to meet P requirements.

  20. The Role of Nanodiamonds in the Polishing Zone During Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF)

    SciTech Connect

    DeGroote, J.E.; Marino, A.E.; WIlson, J.P.; Bishop, A.L.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2008-01-07

    In this work we discuss the role that nanodiamond abrasives play in magnetorheological finishing. We hypothesize that, as the nanodiamond MR fluid is introduced to the magnetic field, the micron sized spherical carbonyl iron (CI) particles are pulled down towards the rotating wheel, leaving a thin layer of nanodiamonds at the surface of the stiffened MR fluid ribbon. Our experimental results shown here support this hypothesis. We also show that surface roughness values inside MRF spots show a strong correlation with the near surface mechanical properties of the glass substrates and with drag force.

  1. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

  2. Metal finishing wastewater pressure filter optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Norford, S.W.; Diener, G.A.; Martin, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    The 300-M Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an end-of-pipe industrial wastewater treatment facility, that uses precipitation and filtration which is the EPA Best Available Technology economically achievable for a Metal Finishing and Aluminum Form Industries. The LETF consists of three close-coupled treatment facilities: the Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF), which uses wastewater equalization, physical/chemical precipitation, flocculation, and filtration; the Chemical Treatment Facility (CTF), which slurries the filter cake generated from the DETF and pumps it to interim-StatuS RCRA storage tanks; and the Interim Treatment/Storage Facility (IT/SF) which stores the waste from the CTF until the waste is stabilized/solidified for permanent disposal, 85% of the stored waste is from past nickel plating and aluminum canning of depleted uranium targets for the SRS nuclear reactors. Waste minimization and filtration efficiency are key to cost effective treatment of the supernate, because the waste filter cake generated is returned to the IT/SF. The DETF has been successfully optimized to achieve maximum efficiency and to minimize waste generation.

  3. Metal finishing wastewater pressure filter optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Norford, S.W.; Diener, G.A.; Martin, H.L.

    1992-12-31

    The 300-M Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an end-of-pipe industrial wastewater treatment facility, that uses precipitation and filtration which is the EPA Best Available Technology economically achievable for a Metal Finishing and Aluminum Form Industries. The LETF consists of three close-coupled treatment facilities: the Dilute Effluent Treatment Facility (DETF), which uses wastewater equalization, physical/chemical precipitation, flocculation, and filtration; the Chemical Treatment Facility (CTF), which slurries the filter cake generated from the DETF and pumps it to interim-StatuS RCRA storage tanks; and the Interim Treatment/Storage Facility (IT/SF) which stores the waste from the CTF until the waste is stabilized/solidified for permanent disposal, 85% of the stored waste is from past nickel plating and aluminum canning of depleted uranium targets for the SRS nuclear reactors. Waste minimization and filtration efficiency are key to cost effective treatment of the supernate, because the waste filter cake generated is returned to the IT/SF. The DETF has been successfully optimized to achieve maximum efficiency and to minimize waste generation.

  4. Longer sleep durations are positively associated with finishing place during a national multi-day netball competition.

    PubMed

    Juliff, Laura E; Halson, Shona L; Hebert, Jeffrey; Forsyth, Peta L; Peiffer, Jeremiah J

    2017-01-20

    Sleep is often regarded as the single best recovery strategy available to an athlete, yet little is known about the quality and quantity of sleep in athletes during multi-day competitions. The present study objectively evaluated sleep characteristics of athletes during a national netball tournament. Using wrist actigraphy monitors and sleep diaries 42 netballers from four state teams were monitored for the duration of a tournament (6 days) and 12 days prior in home environments. Significant differences were found between teams based on final competition standings, suggesting enhanced sleep characteristics in athlete's whose team finished higher in the tournament standings. The top two placed teams when compared with the lower two placed teams slept longer (8:02 ± 36:43; 7:01 ± 27:33), had greater time in bed (9:03 ± 0:52; 7:59 ± 0:54) and reported enhanced subjective sleep ratings (2.6 ± 0.5; 2.3 ± 0.6). Sleep efficiency was no different between teams. A strong correlation (r = -0.68) was found indicating longer sleep durations during competition were associated with higher final tournament positions. Encouraging athletes to aim for longer sleep durations in competition, where possible, may influence the outcome in tournament style competitions.

  5. Automated finishing of diamond turned dies for hard x-ray and EUV optics replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaucamp, Anthony T. H.; Namba, Yoshiharu; Freeman, Richard R.

    2012-10-01

    Ultra-precision diamond turning can deliver very accurate form, often less than 100nm P-V. A possible manufacturing method for thin Wolter type-1 mirrors in hard X-ray space telescopes thus involves generating electroless nickel plated mandrels by diamond turning, before coating them with a reflective film and substrate. However, the surface texture after turning falls far short from the requirements of X-ray and EUV applications. The machining marks need to be removed, with hand polishing still widely employed. There is thus a compelling need for automated finishing of turned dies. A two step finishing method is presented that combines fluid jet and precessed bonnet polishing on a common 7-axis CNC platform. This method is capable of finishing diamond turned electroless nickel plated dies down to 0.28nm rms roughness, while deterministically improving form error down to 30nm P-V. The fluid jet polishing process, which consists of pressurizing water and abrasive particles for delivery through a nozzle, has been specially optimized with a newly designed slurry delivery unit and computer simulations, to remove diamond turning marks without introducing another waviness signature. The precessed bonnet polishing method, which consists of an inflated membrane rotated at an angle from the local normal to the surface and controlled by geometrical position relative to the work-piece, is subsequently employed with a novel control algorithm to deliver scratch-free surface roughness down to 0.28 nm rms. The combination of these two deterministic processes to finish aspheric and freeform dies promises to unlock new frontiers in X-ray and EUV optics fabrication.

  6. Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals: nonaqueous fluids development, optical finish, and laser damage performance at 1064 nm and 532 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, J A; Ehrmann, P R; Bickel, R C

    2009-11-05

    Over the past year we have been working on specialized MR fluids for polishing KDP crystals. KDP is an extremely difficult material to conventionally polish due to its water solubility, low hardness, and temperature sensitivity. Today, KDP crystals are finished using single-point diamond turning (SPDT) tools and nonaqueous lubricants/coolants. KDP optics fabricated using SPDT, however, are limited to surface corrections due to tool/method characteristics with surface quality driven by microroughness from machine pitch, speed, force, and diamond tool character. MRF polishing offers a means to circumvent many of these issues since it is deterministic which makes the technique practical for surface and transmitted wavefront correction, is low force, and is temperature independent. What is lacking is a usable nonaqueous MR fluid that is chemically and physically compatible with KDP which can be used for polishing and subsequently cleaned from the optical surface. In this study, we will present the fluid parameters important in the design and development of nonaqueous MR fluid formulations capable of polishing KDP and how these parameters affect MRF polishing. We will also discuss requirements peculiar to successful KDP polishing and how they affect optical figure/finish and laser damage performance at 1064 nm and 532 nm.

  7. TEAM Electron Microscope Animation

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    The TEAM Electron Microscope, a device that enables atomic-scale imaging in 3-D, has a rotating stage that can hold and position samples inside electron microscopes with unprecedented stability, position-control accuracy, and range of motion.The TEAM Stage makes one of the world's most powerful electron microscopes even better, and enables previously impossible experiments.

  8. Team Based Work. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on team-based work in human resource development (HRD). "Toward Transformational Learning in Organizations: Effects of Model-II Governing Variables on Perceived Learning in Teams" (Blair K. Carruth) summarizes a study that indicated that, regardless of which Model-II variable (valid…

  9. Making Science Teams Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2004-01-01

    Science teachers, likely have more experience with students working together than teachers in any other subject area due to teaming students for hands-on activities. While the importance of teamwork is emphasized in the National Science Education Standards, getting teams to actually work-meaning getting students to share equally in the academic…

  10. Interactive Team Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Myers, Christopher W.; Duran, Jasmine L.

    2013-01-01

    Cognition in work teams has been predominantly understood and explained in terms of shared cognition with a focus on the similarity of static knowledge structures across individual team members. Inspired by the current zeitgeist in cognitive science, as well as by empirical data and pragmatic concerns, we offer an alternative theory of team…

  11. Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelsen, Larry K.; Sweet, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL), when properly implemented, includes many, if not all, of the common elements of evidence-based best practices. To explain this, a brief overview of TBL is presented. The authors examine the relationship between the best practices of evidence-based teaching and the principles that constitute team-based learning. (Contains…

  12. Reaching Out: Team AETHER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-01-01

    Embry Riddle Aeronautical University's Daytona Beach Campus Lunabotics Team took the opportunity to share the love of space, engineering and technology through the educational outreach portion of the competition. Through visits to elementary schools and high schools, and through support of science fairs and robotics competitions, younger generations were introduced to space, engineering and robotics. This report documents the outreach activities of team Aether.

  13. Team Learning Beliefs and Behaviours in Response Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Anne; Raes, Elisabeth; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Teams, teamwork and team learning have been the subject of many research studies over the last decades. This article aims at investigating and confirming the Team Learning Beliefs and Behaviours (TLB&B) model within a very specific population, i.e. police and firemen teams. Within this context, the paper asks whether the team's…

  14. Measuring Team Learning Behaviours through Observing Verbal Team Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Elisabeth; Boon, Anne; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore, as an answer to the observed lack of knowledge about actual team learning behaviours, the characteristics of the actual observed basic team learning behaviours and facilitating team learning behaviours more in-depth of three project teams. Over time, team learning in an organisational context has been…

  15. Leading Teams of Leaders: What Helps Team Member Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Monica; Young, Lissa; Weiner, Jennie; Wlodarczyk, Steven

    2010-01-01

    School districts are moving toward a new form of management in which superintendents need to form and nurture leadership teams. A study of 25 such teams in Connecticut suggests that a team's effectiveness is maximized when the team members are coached by other team members, not the superintendent, and when they are coached on task-related…

  16. Groups Meet . . . Teams Improve: Building Teams That Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Janet; Dunn-Jensen, Linda M.

    2013-01-01

    Although most business students participate in team-based projects during undergraduate or graduate course work, the team experience does not always teach team skills or capture the team members' potential: Students complete the task at hand but the explicit process of becoming a team is often not learned. Drawing from organizational learning…

  17. The Problems Facing Multidisciplinary Teams: As Perceived by Team Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the problems team members perceive to exist on multidisciplinary teams. Results indicated the two major areas of concern for urban, multidisciplinary team members were: too constrictive a set of team roles and goals, and teams functioning under extensive pressure with minimal support. (Author)

  18. Team Psychological Safety and Team Learning: A Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauwelier, Peter; Ribière, Vincent M.; Bennet, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if the concept of team psychological safety, a key driver of team learning and originally studied in the West, can be applied in teams from different national cultures. The model originally validated for teams in the West is applied to teams in Thailand to evaluate its validity, and the views team…

  19. An overview of plastic optical fiber end finishers at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Mishina, M.; Lindenmeyer, C.; Korienek, J.

    1993-11-01

    Several years ago the need for equipment to precisely finish the ends of plastic optical fibers was recognized. Many high energy physics experiments use thousands of these fibers which must be polished on one or both ends. A fast, easy-to-operate machine yielding repeatable finishes was needed. Three types of machines were designed and constructed that are in daily use at Fermilab, all finish the fiber ends by flycutting with a diamond tool. Althrough diamond flycutting of plastic is not new, the size and fragility of plastic optical fibers present several challenges.

  20. Citations and Team Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2017-02-01

    I explore whether small or large teams produce the most important astronomical results, on average, using citation counts as our metric. I present evidence that citation counts indicate the importance of papers. For the 1343 papers published in A&A, ApJ, and MNRAS in 2012 January-February, I considered 4.5 years worth of citations. In each journal, there are larger citation counts for papers from large teams than from small teams by a factor of about 2. To check whether the results from 2012 were unusual, I collected data from 2013 for A&A and found it to be the same as that for 2012. Could the preponderance of papers by large teams be due to self-citations (i.e., citing and cited papers sharing one or more authors)? To answer this, I looked at 136 papers with one to 266 authors and discovered a linear relation that ranges from a 12.7% self-citation rate for single-author papers to a 45.9% self-citation rate for papers with 100 authors. Correcting for these factors is not enough to explain the predominance of the papers with large teams. Then I computed citations per author. While large teams average more citations than small ones by a factor of 2, individuals on small teams average more citations than individuals on large teams by a factor of 6. The papers by large teams often have far more data, but those by small teams tend to discuss basic physical processes.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of cleft lip/palate: The surface rendered oro-palatal (SROP) view of the fetal lips and palate, a tool to improve information-sharing within the orofacial team and with the parents.

    PubMed

    Levaillant, Jean-Marc; Nicot, Romain; Benouaiche, Laurence; Couly, Gérard; Rotten, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    The ultrasonographic surface rendered oro-palatal (SROP) view is a 3D reconstructed view of the fetal perioral region, which combines ultrasound insonation in a trans oral, upward directed axial direction and the surface rendered mode. It allows the simultaneous visualization on a single scan of the superior lip, alveolar ridge and secondary palate. It corresponds prenatally to the submental intra oral photography of the palate of neonates. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the benefice of using the SROP view in the management of cleft lip with or without cleft palate, uni- or bi-lateral, diagnosed prenatally (22-28 gestational weeks). The SROP view allowed the representation on a single view of the characteristics of the defect useful to the different members of the orofacial team to exactly evaluate the difformity and to plan the ulterior therapeutic steps (e.g. side, extension of the cleft to the secondary palate, tooth organization). Also, being easier to read by lay people thanks to the use of a surface rendered representation rather than the usual multiplanar reconstructions in the three traditional orthogonal planes, the SROP view makes it easier to bring exact information to the parents about the malformation and its consequences.

  2. 40 CFR 463.30 - Applicability; description of the finishing water subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Finishing... the finishing water subcategory are processes where water comes in contact with the plastic...

  3. 40 CFR 463.30 - Applicability; description of the finishing water subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Finishing... the finishing water subcategory are processes where water comes in contact with the plastic...

  4. TEAM - Titan Exploration Atmospheric Microprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Conor; Esper, Jaime; Aslam, Shahid; Quilligan, Gerald

    2016-10-01

    The astrobiological potential of Titan's surface hydrocarbon liquids and probable interior water ocean has led to its inclusion as a destination in NASA's "Ocean Worlds" initiative, and near-term investigation of these regions is a high-level scientific goal. TEAM is a novel initiative to investigate the lake and sea environs using multiple dropsondes -scientific probes derived from an existing cubesat bus architecture (CAPE - the Cubesat Application for Planetary Exploration) developed at NASA GSFC. Each 3U probe will parachute to the surface, making atmospheric structure and composition measurements during the descent, and photographing the surface - land, shoreline and seas - in detail. TEAM probes offer a low-cost, high-return means to explore multiple areas on Titan, yielding crucial data about the condensing chemicals, haze and cloud layers, winds, and surface features of the lakes and seas. These microprobes may be included on a near-term New Frontiers class mission to the Saturn system as additional payload, bringing increased scientific return and conducting reconnaissance for future landing zones. In this presentation we describe the probe architecture, baseline payload, flight profile and the unique engineering and science data that can be returned.

  5. Improved Soft Abrasive Flow Finishing Method Based on Turbulent Kinetic Energy Enhancing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, Jun; JI, Shiming; TAN, Dapeng

    2017-03-01

    Soft abrasive flow(SAF) finishing can process the irregular geometric surfaces, but with the matter of low processing efficiency. To address the issue, an improved SAF finishing method based on turbulent kinetic energy enhancing is proposed. A constrained flow passage with serration cross-section is constructed to increase the turbulence intensity. Taking the constrained flow passage as the objective, a two-phase fluid dynamic model is set up by using particle trajectory model and standard k-ɛ turbulence model, and the flow field characteristics of the flow passage are acquired. The numerical results show that the serration flow passage can enhance the turbulence intensity, uniform the particles distribution, and increase the particle concentration near the bottom wall. The observation results by particle image velocimetry(PIV) show that the internal vortex structures are formed in flow passage, and the abrasive flow takes on turbulence concentrating phenomenon in near-wall region. The finishing experiments prove that the proposed method can obtain better surface uniformity, and the processing efficiency can be improved more 35%. This research provides an abrasive flow modeling method to reveal the particle motion regulars, and can offer references to the technical optimization of fluid-based precision processing.

  6. Teams without Roles: Empowering Teams for Greater Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Mitch

    1995-01-01

    Criticizes Belbin's team role theory on the basis that roles are appropriate only in static organizations. Argues that most teams have no set roles and members interchange them. Suggests that all team members be trained to manage teamwork effectively. (SK)

  7. Classification and storage of wastewater from floor finish removal operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Charles E.

    1996-05-01

    This study evaluates the wastewater generated from hard surface floor finish removal operations at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in order to determine if this wastewater is a hazardous waste, either by statistical evaluation, or other measurable regulatory guidelines established in California Regulations. This research also comparatively evaluates the 55 gallon drum and other portable tanks, all less than 1,000 gallons in size in order to determine which is most effective for the management of this waste stream at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The statistical methods in SW-846 were found to be scientifically questionable in their application to hazardous waste determination. In this statistical evaluation, the different data transformations discussed in the regulatory guidance document were applied along with the log transformation to the population of 18 samples from 55 gallon drums. Although this statistical evaluation proved awkward in its application, once the data is collected and organized on a spreadsheet this statistical analysis can be an effective tool which can aid the environmental manager in the hazardous waste classification process.

  8. Performance and carcass traits of finishing heifers fed crude glycerin.

    PubMed

    Parsons, G L; Shelor, M K; Drouillard, J S

    2009-02-01

    Crossbred heifers (n = 373; 421.6 kg +/- 28.9) were fed finishing diets containing 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, or 16% crude glycerin (DM basis). Diets consisted of steam-flaked corn with 6% alfalfa hay and 1.2% urea and provided 300 mg of monensin, 90 mg of tylosin, and 0.5 mg of melengestrol acetate per animal daily. Cattle were stratified by BW and allocated randomly, within strata, to concrete-surfaced feedlot pens each containing 6 to 7 heifers, with 9 pens per dietary treatment. Cattle were transitioned from the control diet to diets containing increasing proportions of glycerin over a period of 10 d. Cattle had ad libitum access to feed, and diets were delivered once daily throughout the 85-d trial period. As the concentration of glycerin increased, DMI decreased linearly (P < 0.001). Heifers fed 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16% glycerin had ADG of 1.19, 1.34, 1.29, 1.25, 1.17, and 1.03 kg, respectively (linear, P = 0.013; quadratic, P = 0.010). Feeding glycerin had a quadratic effect on G:F, and G:F was optimal when glycerin was fed at 2% of the diet (quadratic, P = 0.046). Glycerin increased the final BW by 12.7, 8.1, and 5.3 kg when fed at 2, 4, and 8% of the diet, respectively, but reduced the final BW by 1.9 and 14.3 kg when included at 12 and 16% of the diet (linear, P = 0.009; quadratic, P = 0.006). Similarly, HCW increased by 8.1, 5.1, and 3.3 kg when glycerin was fed at 2, 4, and 8% of the diet, respectively, but were 1.2 and 9.1 kg less than controls when glycerin was fed at 12 and 16%, respectively (linear, P = 0.009; quadratic, P = 0.006). Longissimus muscle area decreased linearly as glycerin concentrations increased (P < 0.013). Feeding glycerin resulted in linear decreases in subcutaneous fat over the 12th rib and marbling scores (P = 0.045). Glycerin tended to decrease the percentage of cattle grading USDA Choice (P = 0.084) and increase the percentage of cattle grading USDA Select. Adding glycerin to cattle-finishing diets improved BW gain and feed efficiency

  9. 2. DETAIL VIEW OF JOURNAL LATHE, AXLE FINISHING AREA. Grinding ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL VIEW OF JOURNAL LATHE, AXLE FINISHING AREA. Grinding bearing diameters on locomotive axle. Norton grinder, 1942 (dated). Melvin Grassmeyer, operator. - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  10. 3. DETAIL VIEW OF JOURNAL LATHE, AXLE FINISHING AREA. Grinding ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL VIEW OF JOURNAL LATHE, AXLE FINISHING AREA. Grinding bearing diameters on locomotive axle. Norton grinder, 1942 (dated). Melvin Grassmeyer, operator. - Juniata Shops, Machine Shop No. 1, East of Fourth Avenue at Third Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  11. 6. INTERIOR OF BASEMENT UNDER KITCHEN SHOWING FINISHED SECTION. OPEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR OF BASEMENT UNDER KITCHEN SHOWING FINISHED SECTION. OPEN DOOR TO UNFINISHED SECTION IS VISIBLE AT RIGHT PHOTO CENTER. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  12. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    SciTech Connect

    ENTROP, G.E.

    1999-12-03

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the plutonium finishing plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas.

  13. LARGE DIAMETER WATER TEST MACHINE, TEST FINISHED, PIPE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LARGE DIAMETER - WATER TEST MACHINE, TEST FINISHED, PIPE ON CAR. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Pipe Casting & Testing Area, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  14. CHARACTERISTICS OF KLEBSIELLA FROM TEXTILE FINISHING PLANT EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Klebsiella strains are found in abnormally high numbers in a stream receiving wastewater from a textile finishing plant. Representative strains are randomly selected to determine biochemical, serotype, and virulence patterns. All strains conform to the commonly accepted biochemic...

  15. VIEW FROM DOWN STREAM OF ARCH IN ELEVATION. NOTE FINISHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM DOWN STREAM OF ARCH IN ELEVATION. NOTE FINISHED INTERIOR ARCH. SSW BY 205 DEGREES - Chasm Brook Bridge, Spanning Chasm Brook on West Sargent Mountain Carriage Road, Bar Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  16. Teams make it work: how team work engagement mediates between social resources and performance in teams.

    PubMed

    Torrente, Pedro; Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2012-02-01

    In this study we analyze the mediating role of team work engagement between team social resources (i.e., supportive team climate, coordination, teamwork), and team performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role performance) as predicted by the Job Demands-Resources Model. Aggregated data of 533 employees nested within 62 teams and 13 organizations were used, whereas team performance was assessed by supervisor ratings. Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, team work engagement plays a mediating role between social resources perceived at the team level and team performance as assessed by the supervisor.

  17. Making Teamwork Work: Team Knowledge for Team Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Guchait, Priyanko; Lei, Puiwa; Tews, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two types of team knowledge on team effectiveness. The study assessed the impact of taskwork knowledge and teamwork knowledge on team satisfaction and performance. A longitudinal study was conducted with 27 service-management teams involving 178 students in a real-life restaurant setting. Teamwork knowledge was found to impact both team outcomes. Furthermore, team learning behavior was found to mediate the relationships between teamwork knowledge and team outcomes. Educators and managers should therefore ensure these types of knowledge are developed in teams along with learning behavior for maximum effectiveness.

  18. Building the team for team science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Read, Emily K.; O'Rourke, M.; Hong, G. S.; Hanson, P. C.; Winslow, Luke A.; Crowley, S.; Brewer, C. A.; Weathers, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to effectively exchange information and develop trusting, collaborative relationships across disciplinary boundaries is essential for 21st century scientists charged with solving complex and large-scale societal and environmental challenges, yet these communication skills are rarely taught. Here, we describe an adaptable training program designed to increase the capacity of scientists to engage in information exchange and relationship development in team science settings. A pilot of the program, developed by a leader in ecological network science, the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON), indicates that the training program resulted in improvement in early career scientists’ confidence in team-based network science collaborations within and outside of the program. Fellows in the program navigated human-network challenges, expanded communication skills, and improved their ability to build professional relationships, all in the context of producing collaborative scientific outcomes. Here, we describe the rationale for key communication training elements and provide evidence that such training is effective in building essential team science skills.

  19. 8. Finish line, marked by white poles, as viewed from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Finish line, marked by white poles, as viewed from infield tote board. Shown are all the best locations for viewing the finish line, including the Clubhouse on the left and Original Grandstand on the right. For a similar view taken in 1939 by a photographer for the Seattle Post-Intelligencer newspaper, see photo WA-201-24. (August 1993) - Longacres, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  20. Hardening/finishing treatment of compressor blades using a machine with planetary container motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpatakovskii, A. F.

    A process for the hardening and finishing of high-pressure compressor blades for aircraft powerplants is described whereby the blades are placed in containers that move along a planetary path in a hardening medium consisting of steel balls. The extent of surface hardening, surface roughness, and residual stresses are determined for specimens of U8A steel and blades of EP718VD alloy treated under different conditions. The efficiency of the treatment in terms of increased blade durability and productivity is estimated.

  1. How to Collaborate through Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Teachers are spending more of their time and making more decisions within teams. Effective teacher-based teams provide academic and behavioral support for students as well as professional development for teachers. Learn how the best teams function.

  2. Effect of Various Finishing Procedures on the Reflectivity (Shine) of Tooth Enamel – An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Chitko, Shrikant Shrinivas; Kerudi, Veerendra Virupaxappa; Maheshwari, Amit Ratanlal; Patil, Neeraj Suresh; Tekale, Pawankumar Dnyandeo; Gore, Ketan Ashorao; Zope, Amit Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reflectivity of an object is a good parameter for surface finish. As the patient evaluates finishing as a function of gloss/reflectivity/shine an attempt is made here to evaluate changes in surface finish with custom made reflectometer. Aim The aim of the present study was to study the effect of various procedures during orthodontic treatment on the shine of enamel, using a custom made reflectometer. Materials and Methods Sixty one extracted premolars were collected and each tooth was mounted on acrylic block. Reflectivity of the teeth was measured as compared to standard before any procedure. One tooth was kept as standard throughout the study. Sixty teeth were acid etched. Reflectivity was measured on custom made reflectometer and readings recorded. Same procedure was repeated after debonding. Then 60 samples were divided into three groups: Group 1 - Tungsten Carbide, Group 2 - Astropol, Group 3- Sof-Lex disc depending upon the finishing method after debonding and reflectivity was measured. Results The mean percentage of reflectivity after acid etching was 31.4%, debonding 45.5%, Tungsten carbide bur finishing (Group 1) was 58.3%, Astropol (Group 2) 72.8%, and Sof-Lex disc (Group 3) 84.4% as that to the standard. There was statistically very highly significant (p<0.001) difference in reflectivity restored by the three finishing materials in the study. Thus, the light reflection was better in Group 3> Group 2> Group 1. Conclusion The primary goal was to restore the enamel to its original state after orthodontic treatment. The methods tested in this study could not restore the original enamel reflectivity. PMID:27656557

  3. Effect of temperature and O-ring gland finish on sealing ability of Viton V747-75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lach, Cynthia L.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of the redesign project of the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor (SRM) following the Challenger accident, the field joint was redesigned to minimize the relative joint motion caused by internal motor pressurization during ignition. The O-ring seals and glands for the field joint were designed both to accommodate structural deflections and to promote pressure-assisted sealing. Tests were conducted in various face seal fixtures to evaluate the ability of Viton V747-75 O-rings to seal for a range of temperatures and surface finishes of the redesigned O-ring gland. The effect of surface finish on the sealing performance and wear characteristics of the O-rings was evaluated during simulated launch conditions that included low-frequency vibrations, gap openings, and rapid pressurizations. The effect of contamination on the sealing performance was also investigated. The O-rings sealed throughout the 75 deg F leak check test and for the seal tests from 50 deg F to 120 deg F for the range of surface finishes investigated. Although abrasions were found in the O-rings from pressurization against the rougher finishes, these abrasions were not detrimental to sealing. Below 50 deg F, Viton V747-75 O-rings were insufficiently resilient to track the test gap opening.

  4. JPL web team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) WEB Team activities were reported for activities which were directed toward identifying and attacking areas in the growth of dendritic web ribbon, to complement the program at Westinghouse Electric Corp.

  5. PPB | Study Team

    Cancer.gov

    The Pleuropulmonary Blastoma (PPB) DICER1 Syndrome Study team is made up of researchers from the National Cancer Institute, Children¹s National Medical Center, the International Pleuropulmonary Blastoma Registry, and Washington University in St. Louis.

  6. Environmental Response Team

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This website will serve as a resource directory of the Environmental Response Team's roles and capabilities as well as list contacts for each discipline to provide information to EPA personnel and the public.

  7. What is Team X?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warfield, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Team X is a concurrent engineering team for rapid design and analysis of space mission concepts. It was developed in 1995 by JPL to reduce study time and cost. More than 1100 studies have been completed It is institutionally endorsed and it has been emulated by many institutions. In Concurrent Engineering (i.e., Parallel) diverse specialists work in real time, in the same place, with shared data, to yield an integrated design

  8. Optimizing use of distillers grains in finishing diets containing steam-flaked corn.

    PubMed

    Depenbusch, B E; Loe, E R; Sindt, J J; Cole, N A; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2009-08-01

    Two hundred ninety-nine crossbred yearling steers (363 +/- 15 kg initial BW) were fed for an average of 114 d in a finishing study comparing 7 diets in which steam-flaked corn was used as the principal energy source. Forty-nine pens were used in this study with 7 BW blocks, 7 pens per treatment, and 5 to 7 steers per pen. A control diet with no distillers grains with solubles (DGS) was compared with 6 diets containing 15% DGS (DM basis). The diets contained wet sorghum DGS with 0 or 6% alfalfa hay, dried sorghum DGS with 0 or 6% alfalfa hay, wet corn DGS with 6% alfalfa hay, or dried corn DGS with 6% alfalfa hay. Apparent total tract digestibilities were calculated by total collection of fecal material from the concrete-surfaced pens over a 72-h period. Dry matter intake, ADG, G:F, and carcass characteristics were similar (P > or = 0.18) for steers fed finishing diets with or without 15% DGS. However, apparent total tract digestibilities of DM and OM were 2.8% less (P < or = 0.03) for finishing diets containing 15% DGS (DM basis). Dry matter intake, ADG, G:F, apparent total tract digestibility, and carcass characteristics were not different (P > or = 0.09) for steers fed finishing diets containing sorghum or corn DGS. Dry matter intake, ADG, G:F, apparent total tract digestibility, and carcass characteristics also were not different (P > or = 0.10) for steers fed finishing diets containing wet or dried DGS. Steers fed sorghum DGS with 6% hay consumed more DM (P < 0.01) and gained more BW (P < 0.01) than steers fed diets without hay, but G:F were not different (P > 0.78). Sorghum DGS diets containing alfalfa hay were 4% less (P = 0.01) digestible than sorghum DGS diets containing no hay. Carcasses of steers fed sorghum DGS diets without hay were lighter, leaner, and had decreased USDA yield grades (P = 0.01) compared with steers fed sorghum DGS diets containing hay. Feeding moderate levels (i.e., 15%, DM basis) of DGS resulted in growth performance and carcass

  9. TEAMS Model Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tijidjian, Raffi P.

    2010-01-01

    The TEAMS model analyzer is a supporting tool developed to work with models created with TEAMS (Testability, Engineering, and Maintenance System), which was developed by QSI. In an effort to reduce the time spent in the manual process that each TEAMS modeler must perform in the preparation of reporting for model reviews, a new tool has been developed as an aid to models developed in TEAMS. The software allows for the viewing, reporting, and checking of TEAMS models that are checked into the TEAMS model database. The software allows the user to selectively model in a hierarchical tree outline view that displays the components, failure modes, and ports. The reporting features allow the user to quickly gather statistics about the model, and generate an input/output report pertaining to all of the components. Rules can be automatically validated against the model, with a report generated containing resulting inconsistencies. In addition to reducing manual effort, this software also provides an automated process framework for the Verification and Validation (V&V) effort that will follow development of these models. The aid of such an automated tool would have a significant impact on the V&V process.

  10. A Data Scheduling and Management Infrastructure for the TEAM Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andelman, S.; Baru, C.; Chandra, S.; Fegraus, E.; Lin, K.; Unwin, R.

    2009-04-01

    currently partnering with the San Diego Super Computer Center to build the data management infrastructure. Data collected from the three core protocols as well as others are currently made available through the TEAM Network portal, which provides the content management framework, the data scheduling and management framework, an administrative framework to implement and manage TEAM sites, collaborative tools and a number of tools and applications utilizing Google Map and Google Earth products. A critical element of the TEAM Network data management infrastructure is to make the data publicly available in as close to real-time as possible (the TEAM Network Data Use Policy: http://www.teamnetwork.org/en/data/policy). This requires two essential tasks to be accomplished, 1) A data collection schedule has to be planned, proposed and approved for a given TEAM site. This is a challenging process since TEAM sites are geographically distributed across the tropics and hence have different seasons where they schedule field sampling for the different TEAM protocols. Capturing this information and ensuring that TEAM sites follow the outlined legal contract is key to the data collection process and 2) A stream-lined and efficient information management system to ensure data collected from the field meet the minimum data standards (i.e. are of the highest scientific quality) and are securely transferred, archived, processed and be rapidly made publicaly available, as a finished consumable product via the TEAM Network portal. The TEAM Network is achieving these goals by implementing an end-to-end framework consisting of the Sampling Scheduler application and the Data Management Framework. Sampling Scheduler The Sampling Scheduler is a project management, calendar based portal application that will allow scientists at a TEAM site to schedule field sampling for each of the TEAM protocols implemented at that site. The sampling scheduler addresses the specific requirements established in the

  11. Expertise of Team Leaders in Analysing Team Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupprecht, Maria; Strasser, Josef; Gruber, Hans; Harteis, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Team leaders are expected to adequately analyse team conflicts. Both content and analytical depth of cognitive processes determine team leaders' performance and are assumed to differ with level of expertise. A study is reported in which team leaders at four different levels of expertise (novices, semi-experts, experts, mediators) were compared in…

  12. The Effects of a Team Charter on Student Team Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, Joshua R.; McDowell, William C.; Herdman, Andrew O.

    2014-01-01

    The authors contribute to growing evidence that team charters contribute positively to performance by empirically testing their effects on key team process outcomes. Using a sample of business students in a team-based task requiring significant cooperative and coordinative behavior, the authors compare emergent team norms under a variety of team…

  13. Increasing Student-Learning Team Effectiveness with Team Charters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Phillip; Pavett, Cynthia; Hunsaker, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Because teams are a ubiquitous part of most organizations today, it is common for business educators to use team assignments to help students experientially learn about course concepts and team process. Unfortunately, students frequently experience a number of problems during team assignments. The authors describe the results of their research and…

  14. Skills Inventory for Teams (SIFT): A Resource for Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Corinne; And Others

    The Skills Inventory for Teams (SIFT) was developed for early intervention practitioners from a variety of disciplines to help them evaluate their ability to work as part of an early intervention team in identifying and serving young children with disabilities. The Team Member section is designed to help individual team members identify the skills…

  15. Team Talk: Communication Skills for Early Intervention Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Margaret H.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses ways that early intervention team members can improve their communication, qualities of effective teams, roles that members assume on teams, a step-by-step process for creating a transdisciplinary team, verbal and nonverbal skills necessary for successful communicative interaction, and behaviors that serve as barriers to…

  16. Team Teaching from the Perspective of Team Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Julia L.

    This study examined advantages and disadvantages of team teaching and elements of successful teams from the perspective of eight teachers and a principal at one elementary school. The teachers were all participants in several types of school teams. During individual interviews, they discussed their thoughts and feelings about team teaching. Their…

  17. 40 CFR 433.10 - Applicability; description of the metal finishing point source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metal finishing point source category. 433.10 Section 433.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) METAL FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Metal Finishing Subcategory § 433.10 Applicability; description of the metal finishing...

  18. 40 CFR 433.10 - Applicability; description of the metal finishing point source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metal finishing point source category. 433.10 Section 433.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS METAL FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Metal Finishing Subcategory § 433.10 Applicability; description of the metal finishing point source category....

  19. 40 CFR 433.10 - Applicability; description of the metal finishing point source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metal finishing point source category. 433.10 Section 433.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) METAL FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Metal Finishing Subcategory § 433.10 Applicability; description of the metal finishing...

  20. EcoCAR Challenge: Finish Line

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The EcoCAR Challenege is a competition that challenges participating students from across North America to re-engineer a vehicle donated by General Motors. With the goal of minimizing the vehicle's fuel consumption and emissions, while maintaining its utility, safety and performance, teams had to find the best combination of cutting-edge technologies to meet these objectives. In the final year, the vehicles ran through a series of safety and technical tests at GM's Proving Ground in Milford, Michigan very similar to those GM's own production vehicles undergo. As EcoCAR wraps up, it is only the beginning for the next chapter in the DOE's 23-year history of advanced vehicle technology competitions. In April, Assistant Secretary for Policy and International Affairs David Sandalow announced the launch of EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future http://www.ecocar2.org/index.html . We look forward to seeing the new and innovative designs that students bring to this challenge and know they will find a way to exceed even our highest expectations.

  1. EcoCAR Challenge: Finish Line

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The EcoCAR Challenege is a competition that challenges participating students from across North America to re-engineer a vehicle donated by General Motors. With the goal of minimizing the vehicle's fuel consumption and emissions, while maintaining its utility, safety and performance, teams had to find the best combination of cutting-edge technologies to meet these objectives. In the final year, the vehicles ran through a series of safety and technical tests at GM's Proving Ground in Milford, Michigan very similar to those GM's own production vehicles undergo. As EcoCAR wraps up, it is only the beginning for the next chapter in the DOE's 23-year history of advanced vehicle technology competitions. In April, Assistant Secretary for Policy and International Affairs David Sandalow announced the launch of EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future http://www.ecocar2.org/index.html . We look forward to seeing the new and innovative designs that students bring to this challenge and know they will find a way to exceed even our highest expectations.

  2. Orthodontic treatment outcomes obtained by application of a finishing protocol

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Flórez, Alvaro; Barbosa-Lis, Diana María; Zapata-Noreña, Oscar Arturo; Marín-Velásquez, Julissa Andrea; Afanador-Bayona, Sergio Andrés

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the results of a finishing protocol implemented in patients treated in the Orthodontics graduate program at Universidad de Antioquia. Evaluation was carried out by means of the criteria set by the Objective Grading System (OGS) of the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO). Methods: Cast models and panoramic radiographs of 34 patients were evaluated. The intervention group (IG) consisted of 17 patients (19.88 ± 4.4 years old) treated under a finishing protocol. This protocol included training in finishing, application of a finishing guide, brackets repositioning and patient's follow-up. Results of the IG were compared to a control group of 17 patients (21.88 ± 7.0 years old) selected by stratified randomization without finishing intervention (CG). Results: The scores for both CG and IG were 38.00 ± 9.0 and 31.41 ± 9.6 (p = 0.048), respectively. The score improved significantly in the IG group, mainly regarding marginal ridges (CG: 5.59 ± 2.2; IG: 3.65 ± 1.8) (p = 0.009) and root angulation (CG: 7.59 ± 2.8; IG: 4.88 ± 2.6) (p = 0.007). Criteria that did not improve, but had the highest scores were: alignment (CG: 6.35 ± 2.7; IG: 6.82 ± 2.8) (p = 0.62) and buccolingual inclination (CG: 3.6 ± 5.88; IG: 5.29 ± 3.9) (p = 0.65). Conclusions: Standardization and implementation of a finishing protocol contributed to improve clinical performance in the Orthodontics graduate program, as expressed by occlusal outcomes. Greater emphasis should be given on the finishing phase to achieve lower scores in the ABO grading system. PMID:27275620

  3. Team members' emotional displays as indicators of team functioning.

    PubMed

    Homan, Astrid C; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Sanchez-Burks, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Emotions are inherent to team life, yet it is unclear how observers use team members' emotional expressions to make sense of team processes. Drawing on Emotions as Social Information theory, we propose that observers use team members' emotional displays as a source of information to predict the team's trajectory. We argue and show that displays of sadness elicit more pessimistic inferences regarding team dynamics (e.g., trust, satisfaction, team effectiveness, conflict) compared to displays of happiness. Moreover, we find that this effect is strengthened when the future interaction between the team members is more ambiguous (i.e., under ethnic dissimilarity; Study 1) and when emotional displays can be clearly linked to the team members' collective experience (Study 2). These studies shed light on when and how people use others' emotional expressions to form impressions of teams.

  4. Relation between social cohesion and team performance in soccer teams.

    PubMed

    Tziner, Aharon; Nicola, Nicola; Rizac, Anis

    2003-02-01

    Investigations of the influence on team performance of team composition, in terms of task-related attributes, e.g., personality traits, cognitive abilities, often assumes this relation to be mediated by the strength (intensity) of the interpersonal relations (social cohesion) among team members. However, there has been little empirical examination of how much social cohesion actually affects team outcomes. This preliminary study sought to examine this issue using soccer teams, which have been held to resemble workplace teams. Perceptions of team cohesion were collected from 198 Israeli soccer players (comprising 36 national league teams) during the week preceding their weekly games. A significant correlation was found between the perceptions of social cohesion and the results of the soccer matches, indicating a link between team social cohesion and team performance. Implications of the results, as well as the study's limitations, are discussed, and avenues for research are suggested.

  5. Finished Prokaryotic Genome Assemblies from a Low-cost Combination of Short and Long Reads (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Yin, Shuangye (Broad Institute)

    2016-07-12

    Shuangye Yin on "Finished prokaryotic genome assemblies from a low-cost combination of short and long reads" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  6. Finished Prokaryotic Genome Assemblies from a Low-cost Combination of Short and Long Reads (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Shuangye

    2012-06-01

    Shuangye Yin on "Finished prokaryotic genome assemblies from a low-cost combination of short and long reads" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  7. The role of team goal monitoring in the curvilinear relationship between team efficacy and team performance.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Tammy L; Bachrach, Daniel G; Rapp, Adam A; Mullins, Ryan

    2014-09-01

    In this research, we apply a team self-regulatory perspective to build and test theory focusing on the relationships between team efficacy and 2 key team performance criteria: a performance behavior (i.e., team effort) and a performance outcome (i.e., objective team sales). We theorize that rather than having a linear association, the performance benefits of team efficacy reach a point of inflection, reflective of too much of a good thing. Further, in an effort to establish a boundary condition of the inverted-U shaped relationship we predict, we also test the moderating role played by team goal monitoring in the nonmonotonic relationship between team efficacy and team performance. The results from a lagged field test, in which we collect multisource data from 153 technology sales teams, reveal a significant curvilinear association that is moderated by team goal monitoring behavior. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  8. Predictors of Team Work Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlyn-Harris, James H.; Hurst, Barbara J.; von Baggo, Karola; Bayley, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to work in teams is an attribute highly valued by employers of information technology (IT) graduates. For IT students to effectively engage in team work tasks, the process of working in teams should be satisfying for the students. This work explored whether university students who were involved in compulsory team work were satisfied…

  9. Creativity and Creative Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Hunter, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    A review of the linkage between knowledge, creativity, and design is presented and related to the best practices of multidisciplinary design teams. The discussion related to design and design teams is presented in the context of both the complete aerodynamic design community and specifically the work environment at the NASA Langley Research Center. To explore ways to introduce knowledge and creativity into the research and design environment at NASA Langley Research Center a creative design activity was executed within the context of a national product development activity. The success of the creative design team activity gave rise to a need to communicate the experience in a straightforward and managed approach. As a result the concept of creative potential its formulated and assessed with a survey of a small portion of the aeronautics research staff at NASA Langley Research Center. The final section of the paper provides recommendations for future creative organizations and work environments.

  10. Learning to work in teams.

    PubMed

    Schoonbeek, Sue; Henderson, Amanda

    2014-06-01

    Optimum individual and team functioning can be progressed through organizational learning. Organizational learning is facilitated through positive team interactions. However, the process of shifting and shaping team behavior is not simple. This article offers strategies to help teams modify their interactions to better engage with and learn from each other. The effectiveness of these strategies in continuing staff development is evidenced in the development of highly functioning teams.

  11. Autonomous mobile robot teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agah, Arvin; Bekey, George A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes autonomous mobile robot teams performing tasks in unstructured environments. The behavior and the intelligence of the group is distributed, and the system does not include a central command base or leader. The novel concept of the Tropism-Based Cognitive Architecture is introduced, which is used by the robots in order to produce behavior transforming their sensory information to proper action. The results of a number of simulation experiments are presented. These experiments include worlds where the robot teams must locate, decompose, and gather objects, and defend themselves against hostile predators, while navigating around stationary and mobile obstacles.

  12. Science Application Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the science application team activities. Science Application team are: (1) Represent the diversity of NASA onboard computing of the future. (2) Drive architecture and system software requirements. (3) Demonstrate the benefit of highly capable computing onboard. (4) Study the birth of the first galaxies. (5) Study formation of stars. (6) Discusses the next generation space telescope hardware/software requirement: image processing and on-board optical calibration. Also discusses gamma ray large area space telescope; orbital thermal imaging spectrometer; solar terrestrial probe program; autonomous Mars rover;fault tolerance and errors.

  13. Effects of Team Emotional Authenticity on Virtual Team Performance.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Catherine E; Turel, Ofir

    2016-01-01

    Members of virtual teams lack many of the visual or auditory cues that are usually used as the basis for impressions about fellow team members. We focus on the effects of the impressions formed in this context, and use social exchange theory to understand how these impressions affect team performance. Our pilot study, using content analysis (n = 191 students), suggested that most individuals believe that they can assess others' emotional authenticity in online settings by focusing on the content and tone of the messages. Our quantitative study examined the effects of these assessments. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis (n = 81 student teams) suggested that team-level trust and teamwork behaviors mediate the relationship between team emotional authenticity and team performance, and illuminate the importance of team emotional authenticity for team processes and outcomes.

  14. NASA Team Collaboration Pilot: Enabling NASA's Virtual Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prahst, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Most NASA projects and work activities are accomplished by teams of people. These teams are often geographically distributed - across NASA centers and NASA external partners, both domestic and international. NASA "virtual" teams are stressed by the challenge of getting team work done - across geographic boundaries and time zones. To get distributed work done, teams rely on established methods - travel, telephones, Video Teleconferencing (NASA VITS), and email. Time is our most critical resource - and team members are hindered by the overhead of travel and the difficulties of coordinating work across their virtual teams. Modern, Internet based team collaboration tools offer the potential to dramatically improve the ability of virtual teams to get distributed work done.

  15. Effects of Team Emotional Authenticity on Virtual Team Performance

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, Catherine E.; Turel, Ofir

    2016-01-01

    Members of virtual teams lack many of the visual or auditory cues that are usually used as the basis for impressions about fellow team members. We focus on the effects of the impressions formed in this context, and use social exchange theory to understand how these impressions affect team performance. Our pilot study, using content analysis (n = 191 students), suggested that most individuals believe that they can assess others' emotional authenticity in online settings by focusing on the content and tone of the messages. Our quantitative study examined the effects of these assessments. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis (n = 81 student teams) suggested that team-level trust and teamwork behaviors mediate the relationship between team emotional authenticity and team performance, and illuminate the importance of team emotional authenticity for team processes and outcomes. PMID:27630605

  16. Employee Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: Effects of Team Diversity, Emergent States, and Team Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Jae Hang

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge sharing in work teams is one of the critical team processes. Without sharing of knowledge, work teams and organizations may not be able to fully utilize the diverse knowledge brought into work teams by their members. The purpose of this study was to investigate antecedents and underlying mechanisms influencing the extent to which team…

  17. Putting the "Team" in the Fine Arts Team: An Application of Business Management Team Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses current challenges to the idea of teamwork in fine arts teams, redefines the terms team and collaboration using a business management perspective, discusses the success of effective teams in the business world and the characteristics of those teams, and proposes the implementation of the business model of…

  18. Studies on Application of Aroma Finish on Silk Fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipparagi, Sanganna Aminappa; Srinivasa, Thirumalappa; Das, Brojeswari; Naik, Subhas Venkatappa; Purushotham, Serampur Parappa

    2016-10-01

    Aromatic treatments on textiles have gained importance in the recent years. In the present article work has been done on fragrance finish application on silk material. Silk is an expensive natural fibre used for apparel purpose and known for its feel and appeal. Incorporation of fragrance material in silk product, will add more value to it. Present work focuses to impart durable aroma finish for silk products to be home washed or subjected to dry cleaning. Microencapsulated aroma chemical has been used for the treatment. Impregnation method, Exhaust method, Dip-Pad-Dry method and Spray method have been used to see the influence of application method on the uptake and performance. Evaluation of the aroma treated material has been done through subjective evaluation as per Odor Intensity Reference Scaling (OIRS). Effect of the aroma finishing on the physical properties of the fabric has also been studied. No adverse effect has been observed on the stiffness of the fabric after the aroma treatment.

  19. Overcoming asymmetric goals in teams: the interactive roles of team learning orientation and team identification.

    PubMed

    Pearsall, Matthew J; Venkataramani, Vijaya

    2015-05-01

    Although members of teams share a common, ultimate objective, they often have asymmetric or conflicting individual goals that shape the way they contribute to, and pursue, the shared goal of the team. Compounding this problem, they are frequently unaware of the nature of these goal asymmetries or even the fact that such differences exist. Drawing on, and integrating, social interdependence and representational gaps theories, we identify 2 emergent states that combine interactively to enable teams to overcome asymmetric goals: team identification and team learning orientation. Using data from long-term, real-life teams that engaged in a computer simulation designed to create both asymmetric goals and representational gaps about those goals, we found that teams were most effective when they had a high learning orientation coupled with high team identification and that this effect was mediated by teams' ability to form more accurate team goal mental models and engage in effective planning processes. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  20. Personality and community prevention teams: Dimensions of team leader and member personality predicting team functioning.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Mark E; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Greenberg, Mark T

    2008-11-01

    The predictors and correlates of positive functioning among community prevention teams have been examined in a number of research studies; however, the role of personality has been neglected. In this study, we examined whether team member and leader personality dimensions assessed at the time of team formation predicted local prevention team functioning 2.5-3.5 years later. Participants were 159 prevention team members in 14 communities participating in the PROSPER study of prevention program dissemination. Three aspects of personality, aggregated at the team level, were examined as predictors: Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. A series of multivariate regression analyses were performed that accounted for the interdependency of five categories of team functioning. Results showed that average team member Openness was negatively, and Conscientiousness was positively linked to team functioning. The findings have implications for decisions about the level and nature of technical assistance support provided to community prevention teams.

  1. Model of Team Organization and Behavior and Team Description Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    vr’rs ion re’ Ii’rsto fle , final vers iot de’veloped at’ the end of the’ first year oil fit #-4’,I lerI lot ;t elH’ hsversit’on should not he Ce...observation and study of real-world ’Army) teams and teem missionq. Unlike many previous team performance/team behavior models, the m•del described...team research to date.. Most studies of teams and team performance to date have been baiic and .exploratory: attempts to describe and exxolain the

  2. Integrated Safety Analysis Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jonathan C.

    2008-01-01

    Today's complex systems require understanding beyond one person s capability to comprehend. Each system requires a team to divide the system into understandable subsystems which can then be analyzed with an Integrated Hazard Analysis. The team must have both specific experiences and diversity of experience. Safety experience and system understanding are not always manifested in one individual. Group dynamics make the difference between success and failure as well as the difference between a difficult task and a rewarding experience. There are examples in the news which demonstrate the need to connect the pieces of a system into a complete picture. The Columbia disaster is now a standard example of a low consequence hazard in one part of the system; the External Tank is a catastrophic hazard cause for a companion subsystem, the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The interaction between the hardware, the manufacturing process, the handling, and the operations contributed to the problem. Each of these had analysis performed, but who constituted the team which integrated this analysis together? This paper will explore some of the methods used for dividing up a complex system; and how one integration team has analyzed the parts. How this analysis has been documented in one particular launch space vehicle case will also be discussed.

  3. Selecting Team Captains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Aubrey; Todd, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors conducted a study to investigate how high school athletes perceive leadership as well as how coaches decide in selecting team captains. In their investigation, they found out what kind of leaders adolescent athletes sought. Among other things, they make recommendations for all high school coaches to consider when…

  4. Leading Strategic Leader Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-25

    engage in productive vice non-productive task conflict.71 A common assessment tool such as the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) can demonstrate...assigning an individual to observe and critique alternatives which are discussed.81 These process designs can be used to counteract the risk of teams

  5. Critical Care Team

    MedlinePlus

    ... patient, the family and the care team. A registered nurse (RN) who is certified in critical care is ... certified by the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses. Pharmacist: An expert in ... Registered dietitian: A caregiver trained and licensed in nutrition ...

  6. Heterogeneity and Work Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyaram, Lata; Kamalanabhan, T. J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to extend and contribute to the domestic diversity literature by presenting a comprehensive model that takes into consideration the Indian work set up. It proposes to examine the effects of the composition of information systems development teams in Indian firms. Besides the conventional demographics which were studied…

  7. Aircrew team management program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margerison, Charles; Mccann, Dick; Davies, Rod

    1987-01-01

    The key features of the Aircrew Team Management Workshop which was designed for and in consultation with Trans Australia Airlines are outlined. Five major sections are presented dealing with: (1) A profile of the airline and the designers; (2) Aircrew consultation and involvement; (3) Educational design and development; (4) Implementation and instruction; and (5) Evaluation and assessment. These areas are detailed.

  8. Making This Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitler, Alan; Bushong, Delores; Reid, Al

    2004-01-01

    As the sponsors of the Cohort at Wakefield High School in Arlington, Virginia--a program to increase the number of minority male students in Advanced Placement (AP) classes--the authors view their work with the young men in this program as very similar to coaching a team. The Cohort asks these young men to challenge and push themselves; to test…

  9. Materials Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-08-01

    Roadmap identifying the efforts of the Materials Technical Team (MTT) to focus primarily on reducing the mass of structural systems such as the body and chassis in light-duty vehicles (including passenger cars and light trucks) which enables improved vehicle efficiency regardless of the vehicle size or propulsion system employed.

  10. High Involvement Work Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These three papers were presented at a symposium on high-involvement work teams moderated by Michael Leimbach at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Beyond Training to the New Learning Environment: Workers on the High-Involvement Frontline" (Joseph Anthony Ilacqua, Carol Ann Zulauf) shows the link between…

  11. The Administrative Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Association of Elementary School Principals, Westerville.

    Although needs of school districts vary with size, degree of teacher negotiation procedures, and type of community involvement, the administrative team model is presented as an effective, appropriate administrative organization. Based on an assumption that each level of authority in a school district possesses and exercises expertise and unique…

  12. Team Collaboration Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Schrock, Mitchell; Baldwin, John R.; Borden, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    The Ground Resource Allocation and Planning Environment (GRAPE 1.0) is a Web-based, collaborative team environment based on the Microsoft SharePoint platform, which provides Deep Space Network (DSN) resource planners tools and services for sharing information and performing analysis.

  13. National Response Team

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Response planning and coordination (not direct response itself) is accomplished at the federal level through the U.S. National Response Team (NRT), an interagency group co-chaired by EPA and U.S. Coast Guard. NRT distributes information, plans, and trains.

  14. Imagery Integration Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Tracy; Melendrez, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office (KX) provides leadership for NASA's Imagery Integration (Integration 2) Team, an affiliation of experts in the use of engineering-class imagery intended to monitor the performance of launch vehicles and crewed spacecraft in flight. Typical engineering imagery assessments include studying and characterizing the liftoff and ascent debris environments; launch vehicle and propulsion element performance; in-flight activities; and entry, landing, and recovery operations. Integration 2 support has been provided not only for U.S. Government spaceflight (e.g., Space Shuttle, Ares I-X) but also for commercial launch providers, such as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corporation, servicing the International Space Station. The NASA Integration 2 Team is composed of imagery integration specialists from JSC, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), who have access to a vast pool of experience and capabilities related to program integration, deployment and management of imagery assets, imagery data management, and photogrammetric analysis. The Integration 2 team is currently providing integration services to commercial demonstration flights, Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), and the Space Launch System (SLS)-based Exploration Missions (EM)-1 and EM-2. EM-2 will be the first attempt to fly a piloted mission with the Orion spacecraft. The Integration 2 Team provides the customer (both commercial and Government) with access to a wide array of imagery options - ground-based, airborne, seaborne, or vehicle-based - that are available through the Government and commercial vendors. The team guides the customer in assembling the appropriate complement of imagery acquisition assets at the customer's facilities, minimizing costs associated with market research and the risk of purchasing inadequate assets. The NASA Integration 2 capability simplifies the process of securing one

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Different Finishing and Polishing Devices on Nanofilled, Microfilled, and Hybrid Composite: A Scanning Electron Microscopy and Profilometric Study.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rishi D; Raisingani, Deepak; Jindal, Divya; Mathur, Rachit

    2016-01-01

    The continuous development of esthetically acceptable adhesive restorative material has made a variety of tooth-colored materials available for clinical use. The advent of visible light polymerizing resin and the use of finer filler particles permit resin composites to be polished to higher degree. The effect of polishing systems on surface finish has been reported to be material-dependent, and the effectiveness of these systems was mostly product-dependent. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of finishing and polishing systems on the surface roughness of nanofilled, microfilled, and hybrid composite restorative materials available in the market.

  16. Sounds like Team Spirit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    I recently accompanied my son Dan to one of his guitar lessons. As I sat in a separate room, I focused on the music he was playing and the beautiful, robust sound that comes from a well-played guitar. Later that night, I woke up around 3 am. I tend to have my best thoughts at this hour. The trouble is I usually roll over and fall back asleep. This time I was still awake an hour later, so I got up and jotted some notes down in my study. I was thinking about the pure, honest sound of a well-played instrument. From there my mind wandered into the realm of high-performance teams and successful projects. (I know this sounds weird, but this is the sort of thing I think about at 3 am. Maybe you have your own weird thoughts around that time.) Consider a team in relation to music. It seems to me that a crack team can achieve a beautiful, perfect unity in the same way that a band of brilliant musicians can when they're in harmony with one another. With more than a little satisfaction I have to admit, I started to think about the great work performed for you by the Knowledge Sharing team, including this magazine you are reading. Over the past two years I personally have received some of my greatest pleasures as the APPL Director from the Knowledge Sharing activities - the Masters Forums, NASA Center visits, ASK Magazine. The Knowledge Sharing team expresses such passion for their work, just like great musicians convey their passion in the music they play. In the case of Knowledge Sharing, there are many factors that have made this so enjoyable (and hopefully worthwhile for NASA). Three ingredients come to mind -- ingredients that have produced a signature sound. First, through the crazy, passionate playing of Alex Laufer, Michelle Collins, Denise Lee, and Todd Post, I always know that something startling and original is going to come out of their activities. This team has consistently done things that are unique and innovative. For me, best of all is that they are always

  17. [Team work in a family health care program: the team process concept and operational teams].

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Cinira Magali; Mishima, Silvana Martins; Matumoto, Silvia; Pereira, Maria José Bistafa

    2005-01-01

    This work is a theoretical revision of team work in a family Health Care Program. We define team work in the health care field as a relationship network among people, power, knowledge, affection, and wishes, when there is a possibility of identifying group processes. We deal with concepts of Operational Group from the Argentinean School, which might help health professionals to get training in team work. We have visible (spoken) and invisible (unspoken) tasks within teams, which are modified and need to be combined and known. Communication, learning, the feeling of belonging, the atmosphere, the actions' pertinence for the team's purpose and power relations may help the team to get to know and analyze each other and to build a team. External supervision may help the team to turn itself into an operational team, working towards a life care project.

  18. DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN SOURCE AND FINISHED WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have occurred with the most notable being the 1993 episode in Milwaukee. As a result, the past decade has seen a massive effort expended on the development of methods to detect Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in source and finish...

  19. Exposure to organic solvents during cosmetic finishing of cars.

    PubMed

    Bråtveit, M; Moen, B E

    2001-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the exposure to organic solvents during degreasing, washing and polishing of cars, and to obtain information about acute health symptoms in car-finishing workers. Fifteen car shops participated in this study, and at these locations 36 workers had car finishing as their main working task. All 36 car-finishing workers and 17 randomly selected office workers from six of these car shops completed questionnaires on acute health symptoms. Personal monitoring of exposure to organic solvents was carried out in three representative shops. The highest exposure levels were found during degreasing of new cars, the median level of aliphatic hydrocarbons (C9-C13) being 22 p.p.m. (range 7-215 p.p.m.). This exposure level represents 50% (range 20-540%) of the Norwegian 8 h limit value for additive factor for these compounds. Only 28% of the workers used gas respirators regularly during this process. Very low exposure levels were detected during washing of second-hand cars and during polishing processes. The present study shows that car-finishing workers are exposed to high levels of organic solvents only for short periods of time. It seems that they are not adequately protected during these periods. However, the presence of acute symptoms was low, i.e. comparable to the prevalences in the reference group.

  20. Graphic Arts: The Press and Finishing Processes. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan

    This document contains teacher and student materials for a course in graphic arts concentrating on printing presses and the finishing process for publications. Seven units of instruction cover the following topics: (1) offset press systems; (2) offset inks and dampening chemistry; (3) offset press operating procedures; (4) preventive maintenance…

  1. Plutonium Finishing Plant assessment of confinement system bypass leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, J.D.

    1996-09-30

    The purpose of this report is to document walk-through`s of the safety class confinement systems at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). In addition this document outlines the actions taken to assess the confinement system for bypass leakage as well as establishing disposition for discovered deficiencies at the PFP.

  2. Almost finished: the complete genome sequence of Mycosphaerella graminicola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella graminicola causes septoria tritici blotch of wheat. An 8.9x shotgun sequence of bread wheat strain IPO323 was generated through the Community Sequencing Program of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Joint Genome Institute (JGI), and was finished at the Stanford Human Genome Center. The ...

  3. Method and means for producing fluorocarbon finishes on fibrous structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toy, Madeline S. (Inventor); Stringham, Roger S. (Inventor); Fogg, Lawrence C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An improved process and apparatus is provided for imparting chemically bonded fluorocarbon finishes to textiles. In the process, the textiles are contacted with a gaseous mixture of fluoroolefins in an inert diluent gas in the presence of ultraviolet light under predetermined conditions.

  4. 7 CFR 58.525 - Storage of finished product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION... distribution and storage prior to sale the product should be maintained at a temperature of 45 °F. or lower... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Storage of finished product. 58.525 Section...

  5. Early Childhood Education in Eritrea, Proceeding as We Would Finish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreoni, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Describes the success of early childhood education programs in Eritrea which are based on the principle "we should proceed in the way we wish to finish." Identifies the social, cultural, and developmental factors an educator must consider. Notes how multilingualism and multiculturalism are of special importance in Eritrean early…

  6. Interior Finishes. Floors, Walls, Ceilings: Performance Criteria. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    A research program and the testing methods it developed are described, indicating the performance criteria of interior finishes for walls, ceilings and floors. Material exposure criteria are given with the probability of damage ratings for--(1) physical impact, (2) chemical damage, (3) biological, food and water damage. The relationship of…

  7. Crossing the Finish Line: Completing College at America's Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, William G.; Chingos, Matthew M.; McPherson, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    The United States has long been a model for accessible, affordable education, as exemplified by the country's public universities. And yet less than 60 percent of the students entering American universities today are graduating. Why is this happening, and what can be done? "Crossing the Finish Line" provides the most detailed exploration…

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF THE METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enhancement of the US Environmental Protection Agency's
    Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool (MFFRST)

    William M. Barrett Jr, Ph.D., P.E. , P.E.; Paul Harten, Ph.D.1, Matt Lorber , Charles Peck , and Steve Schwartz, P.E., Q.E.P.3

    Recently, the US Environ...

  9. THE USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL (MFFRST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmetal ProtectionAgenccy's Metal Finishing
    Facility Risk Screening Tool (MFFRST)

    William M. Barrett Jr, Ph.D. , P.E. ; Paul Harten, Ph.D.1, and Matthew Lorber

    The US Environmental Protection Agency completed the development of the first version of...

  10. Carpentry and Finishing Procedures. Building Maintenance. Module II. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Sam; Brunk, Art

    This curriculum guide, keyed to the building maintenance competency profile developed by industry and education professionals, provides three units on carpentry and finishing procedures. The first unit, Exterior Carpentry, contains the following lessons: carpentry safety procedures, ladder and scaffolding safety, door installation/repair,…

  11. Finishing lambs and kids on pasture in Appalachia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional sheep, hair sheep and meat goat industries are growing rapidly in the Appalachian Region, particularly on small farms, to help produce meats for ethnic markets. Numerous forage types and qualities are used in small ruminant finishing systems. With the expansion of non-traditional lamb ...

  12. 21 CFR 106.30 - Finished product evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finished product evaluation. 106.30 Section 106.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES Quality Control Procedures...

  13. Course in Carpentry: Interior Finish. Workbook and Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strazicich, Mirko, Ed.

    Designed for use in carpentry apprenticeship classes, this workbook contains nine units on carpentry skills in the area of interior finish, lists of recommended and required instructional materials, and nine unit tests. Each instructional unit includes a listing of performance statements and text covering skills addressed in individual performance…

  14. 9 CFR 318.309 - Finished product inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... be handled according to: (1) A HACCP plan for canned product that addresses hazards associated with... this section. (b)-(c) (d) Procedures for handling finished product inspections where the HACCP plan...

  15. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Finishing and Distribution Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the finishing and distribution cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards…

  16. A survey of grass-finished beef producers in Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To meet our goal of quantifying the environmental impacts of grass-finished beef production, data on production practices in Pennsylvania were collected at the farm level via visits and online surveys. Twenty-three responses represented a total of 1,055 animals on 2,155 acres of land. Farms were rel...

  17. Understanding medical practice team roles.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Do you believe that the roles your employees play on your medical practice team are identical to their job titles or job descriptions? Do you believe that team roles are determined by personality type? This article suggests that a more effective way to build and manage your medical practice team is to define team roles through employee behaviors. It provides 10 rules of behavioral team roles that can help practice managers to select and build high-performing teams, build more productive team relationships, improve the employee recruitment process, build greater team trust and understanding; and increase their own effectiveness. This article describes in detail Belbin's highly regarded and widely used team role theory and summarizes four additional behavioral team role theories and systems. It offers lessons learned when applying team role theory to practice. Finally, this article offers an easy-to-implement method for assessing current team roles. It provides a simple four-question checklist that will help practice managers balance an imbalanced medical practice team.

  18. Team Learning: Collective Reflection Processes in Teacher Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlsson, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to further studies of theoretical and conceptual understanding of teachers' team learning processes, with a main focus on team work, team atmosphere, and collective reflections. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical study was designed as a multi-case study in a research and development…

  19. Team Machine: A Decision Support System for Team Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergey, Paul; King, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the cross-disciplinary research that resulted in a decision-support tool, Team Machine (TM), which was designed to create maximally diverse student teams. TM was used at a large United States university between 2004 and 2012, and resulted in significant improvement in the performance of student teams, superior overall balance…

  20. Cohesion in Online Student Teams versus Traditional Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have found that the electronic methods in use for online team communication today increase communication quality in project-based work situations. Because communication quality is known to influence group cohesion, the present research examined whether online student project teams are more cohesive than traditional teams. We tested…

  1. Team Entitativity and Teacher Teams in Schools: Towards a Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vangrieken, Katrien; Dochy, Filip; Raes, Elisabeth; Kyndt, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this article we summarise research that discusses "teacher teams?. The central questions guiding this study are "How is the term teacher team" used and defined in previous research? And "What types of teacher teams has previous research identified or explored?" We attempted to answer these questions by searching…

  2. Engaging in Collaboration: A Team of Teams Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Carol; Hill, Rachel; Morris, Greg; Woods, Fabiola

    2016-01-01

    Adapting a Team of Teams model to a school environment provides a framework for a collaborative team culture based on trust, common vision, purposeful conversations, and interconnectivity. School leaders facilitate collaboration by modeling teamwork, as well as transparency and adaptability, to create a positive school culture and thereby improve…

  3. Team Profiles and Team Performance in a Business Management Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, C.; Delahaye, B.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the effects of team roles on the success of teams in business simulations found, contrary to expectation, that teams analyzing data on the basis of beliefs and values rather than logic were more successful. Implications for use of simulation in management education are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  4. The Team Boat Exercise: Enhancing Team Communication Midsemester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Pamela L.; Friedman, Barry A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the Team Boat Exercise, which was developed to provide students with a mechanism for addressing team problems and enhancing team communication midsemester. The inspiration for the exercise came from a video by Prentice Hall, Inc. (2001). Part III of the video, entitled "Corporate Coaching," shows senior staff members from the…

  5. Teams Do It Better!

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Toni C.

    2015-01-01

    I propose that interdisciplinarity and respectful team science become the norm for studying human development. This is not as simple a wish as it may seem because we tend to be trained in a single discipline. We tend to know much less about the theory, methods and findings of other disciplines. We often respect them less and minimize their contributions. It is now abundantly clear, however, that humans develop on multiple levels. Human development occurs from neurons to neighborhoods, cells to societies, and genes to geography. It is fundamentally evident that every level influences the others and all combine to constitute human development. While we may specialize, certainly a reasonable personal choice, it is critical to recognize and respect the contributions of other disciplines to the study of human development. This may best be achieved by recognizing the contributions of other disciplines and working in multidisciplinary teams. PMID:26877719

  6. Implementation team activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, F.

    2002-12-01

    The implementation Team (IT) is a body reporting to the SCSB,. It has been assigned the task of preparing and harmonising policy, standards and specification proposals for evaluation, qualification and quality control, thus enabling a coherent and cost-effective ESCC Specification System for the procurement of EEE space components. Among the 10 recommendations issued by the SCAHC, 7 have been studied under the auspices of the Implementation Team. Its main activities have been the updating and modernising of the ESA/SCC system in order to meet user needs and to be compatible with market trends. In particular it updated the technical aspects of generic specifications for the different component families and introduced the QML concept into the SCC system. It has also studied and discussed other topics such as procurement standards, a reliability system, mutual recognition, databases and the preferred parts list. A summary of the progress made in all these fields will be presented below.

  7. Team Leader System description

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.J.; Lundeen, T.F.; Moon, B.D.

    1996-10-01

    Purpose of the project is to design, develop, and demonstrate an advanced, prototype computer system to support on-site inspections. The system is a highly portable field computer with on-line access to facilities information, real-time communications, positioning information, and an electronic notebook for data capture. The Team Leader System provides an inspection team with a suite of advanced communication, data gathering, and data analysis tools and can be implemented on many PC-based hardware platforms. The suitcase unit is a transportable system for on-site support in a vehicle or at a stationary location at an inspection site; the personal unit is a wearable computer for in-facility or on-foot inspections.

  8. Team Participation in Environmental Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, A. J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes experiments on the nutrition of weevils suitable for student teams, each team replicating the same experiment or experiments. Gives step by step experimental procedures and useful background information on weevils. Designed to introduce students to teamwork in science. (EB)

  9. Essentials of surface preparation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This book presents the latest and most effective surface preparation techniques through a compilation of 15 standards (including NACE/SSPC joint standards), articles, and reports. The book is conveniently sold in a looseleaf, tabbed binder so other material can be added. The four sections included cover Abrasive Blasting; Surface Contamination and Cleanliness; Profile, Finishing, Inspection, and Performance; and Concrete and Metallic Coatings.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Different Finishing and Polishing Devices on Nanofilled, Microfilled, and Hybrid Composite: A Scanning Electron Microscopy and Profilometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rishi D; Raisingani, Deepak; Mathur, Rachit

    2016-01-01

    The continuous development of esthetically acceptable adhesive restorative material has made a variety of tooth-colored materials available for clinical use. The advent of visible light polymerizing resin and the use of finer filler particles permit resin composites to be polished to higher degree. The effect of polishing systems on surface finish has been reported to be material-dependent, and the effectiveness of these systems was mostly product-dependent. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of finishing and polishing systems on the surface roughness of nanofilled, microfilled, and hybrid composite restorative materials available in the market. How to cite this article Yadav RD, Raisingani D, Jindal D, Mathur R. A Comparative Analysis of Different Finishing and Polishing Devices on Nanofilled, Microfilled, and Hybrid Composite: A Scanning Electron Microscopy and Profilometric Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):201-208. PMID:27843250

  11. Building Team Belay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Disaster responders are exposed to continuous periods of intense stress, and as a consequence, some suffer mental or emotional adverse effects . In...mental or emotional adverse effects . In recognition of critical stress as a valid concern, many emergency service providers have attempted...2.  Current Principles and Policy: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health , U.S. National Response Team, RAND Recommendations, and

  12. Cooperative Team Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    organized, either by design or by natural evolution, into structured relationships that are governed by interactions that involve power, influence, and...purpose, and differentiated member roles. Teams are organized, either by design or by natural evolution, into structured relationships that are governed...success etc. The panel discussed whether the existing structures could be used to predict success or improve task assignments. Chjan Lim (RPI

  13. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Higdon, S.; Balonek, T. J.; Haynes, M. P.; Giovanelli, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team is a consortium of 16 institutions engaged in an NSF-sponsored program to promote undergraduate research within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project. In the first two years of the program, more than three dozen undergraduate students have been closely involved in ALFALFA science, observing, and data analysis. A total of 34 students have attended the annual undergraduate workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, their peers, ALFALFA experts, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 26 summer research projects and 14 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. Students and faculty have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and to national meetings to present their results. Eight Team schools have joined to work collaboratively to analyze HI properties of galaxy groups within the ALFALFA volume. (See O'Brien et al., O'Malley et al., and Odekon et al. posters, this meeting.) Students involved in this program are learning how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a major legacy survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918, AST-0725267, and AST-0725380.

  14. Nutrition in team sports.

    PubMed

    Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M

    2010-01-01

    Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance.

  15. Toward a Naval Team Taxonomy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    process model was then advanced, such that salient team variables, interactions among categories, and subcomponents are identified under the superordinate... model . While many team variables (e.g., team size, member proficiencies, task difficulty, and task type) are easily measured, the paucity of valid and...an attempt will be made to correlate variations in team performance with variations along specific dimensions of the model . In view of the limited

  16. Structuring Successful Global Virtual Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    task interdependence, and team-based rewards in virtual teams. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology , 13(1), 1–28. Hinsz, V. B...performance in virtual teams. Journal of Managerial Psychology , 20, 261–274. doi:10.1108/02683940510589046. Rosen, B., Furst, S., & Blackburn, R...public release; distribution is unlimited. Structuring Successful Global Virtual Teams The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are

  17. Leading and working in teams.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Helen; Moneypenny, Michael J; McKimm, Judy

    2015-05-01

    This article considers the role of the clinical leader as a team member and leader and explores how an understanding of the purpose and functions of teams can help doctors work more effectively in the various teams with which they are involved.

  18. The Academic Evolution of Teaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Spencer D.

    2009-01-01

    Developing interdisciplinary teams that function properly should be the goal of every school leader who is interested in promoting middle level reform. To accomplish that goal, individual team members should not be left on their own to sink or swim with the teaming concept, but must be guided through a transformational process that teaches them to…

  19. Team Based Engineering Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective was encompassed in the research question driving the inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…

  20. Team Based Engineering Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore design thinking among teams of high school students. This objective is encompassed in the research question driving this inquiry: How do teams of high school students allocate time across stages of design? Design thinking on the professional level typically occurs in a team environment. Many…

  1. Enabling Team Learning in Healthcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boak, George

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on a study of learning processes within 35 healthcare therapy teams that took action to improve their services. The published research on team learning is introduced, and the paper suggests it is an activity that has similarities with action research and with those forms of action learning where teams address collective…

  2. Team Projects and Peer Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, John Kevin; Meeker, Ralph D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors assign semester- or quarter-long team-based projects in several Computer Science and Finance courses. This paper reports on our experience in designing, managing, and evaluating such projects. In particular, we discuss the effects of team size and of various peer evaluation schemes on team performance and student learning. We report…

  3. Team effectiveness in academic primary health care teams.

    PubMed

    Delva, Dianne; Jamieson, Margaret; Lemieux, Melissa

    2008-12-01

    Primary health care is undergoing significant organizational change, including the development of interdisciplinary health care teams. Understanding how teams function effectively in primary care will assist training programs in teaching effective interprofessional practices. This study aimed to explore the views of members of primary health care teams regarding what constitutes a team, team effectiveness and the factors that affect team effectiveness in primary care. Focus group consultations from six teams in the Department of Family Medicine at Queen's University were recorded and transcribed and qualitative analysis was used to identify themes. Twelve themes were identified that related to the impact of dual goals/obligations of education and clinical/patient practice on team relationships and learners; the challenges of determining team membership including nonattendance of allied health professionals except nurses; and facilitators and barriers to effective team function. This study provides insight into some of the challenges of developing effective primary care teams in an academic department of family medicine. Clear goals and attention to teamwork at all levels of collaboration is needed if effective interprofessional education is to be achieved. Future research should clarify how best to support the changes required for increasingly effective teamwork.

  4. Team perfectionism and team performance: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew P; Stoeber, Joachim; Brown, Anna; Appleton, Paul R

    2014-06-01

    Perfectionism is a personality characteristic that has been found to predict sports performance in athletes. To date, however, research has exclusively examined this relationship at an individual level (i.e., athletes' perfectionism predicting their personal performance). The current study extends this research to team sports by examining whether, when manifested at the team level, perfectionism predicts team performance. A sample of 231 competitive rowers from 36 boats completed measures of self-oriented, team-oriented, and team-prescribed perfectionism before competing against one another in a 4-day rowing competition. Strong within-boat similarities in the levels of team members' team-oriented perfectionism supported the existence of collective team-oriented perfectionism at the boat level. Two-level latent growth curve modeling of day-by-day boat performance showed that team-oriented perfectionism positively predicted the position of the boat in midcompetition and the linear improvement in position. The findings suggest that imposing perfectionistic standards on team members may drive teams to greater levels of performance.

  5. Comparison of nitrate levels in raw water and finished water from historical monitoring data on Iowa municipal drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Peter J; Smith, Brian J; Feng, Zhen-Fang; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Riley, David G

    2006-05-01

    Nitrate contamination of water sources is a concern where large amounts of nitrogen fertilizers are regularly applied to soils. Ingested nitrate from dietary sources and drinking water can be converted to nitrite and ultimately to N-nitroso compounds, many of which are known carcinogens. Epidemiologic studies of drinking water nitrate and cancer report mixed findings; a criticism is the use of nitrate concentrations from retrospective drinking water data to assign exposure levels. Residential point-of-use nitrate data are scarce; gaps in historical data for municipal supply finished water hamper exposure classification efforts. We used generalized linear regression models to estimate and compare historical raw water and finished water nitrate levels (1960s-1990s) in single source Iowa municipal supplies to determine whether raw water monitoring data could supplement finished water data to improve exposure assessment. Comparison of raw water and finished water samples (same sampling date) showed a significant difference in nitrate levels in municipalities using rivers; municipalities using other surface water or alluvial groundwater had no difference in nitrate levels. A regional aggregation of alluvial groundwater municipalities was constructed based on results from a previous study showing regional differences in nitrate contamination of private wells; results from this analysis were mixed, dependent upon region and decade. These analyses demonstrate using historical raw water nitrate monitoring data to supplement finished water data for exposure assessment is appropriate for individual Iowa municipal supplies using alluvial groundwater, lakes or reservoirs. Using alluvial raw water data on a regional basis is dependent on region and decade.

  6. Immunological, physiological and behavioral effects of Salmonella enterica carriage and shedding in experimentally infected finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Finishing pigs infected with Salmonella pose significant food safety risks by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. This study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in finishing pigs, and associated immunological, physiological, and behavioral alterations, by longitudinally ...

  7. 77 FR 61025 - Certain Prepregs, Laminates, and Finished Circuit Boards: Notice of Institution of Formal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Prepregs, Laminates, and Finished Circuit Boards: Notice of Institution of Formal... States after importation of certain prepregs, laminates, and finished circuit boards that...

  8. Super-smooth processing x-ray telescope application research based on the magnetorheological finishing (MRF) technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xianyun; Hou, Xi; Yang, Jinshan

    2016-09-01

    Nickel is the unique material in the X-ray telescopes. And it has the typical soft material characteristics with low hardness high surface damage and low stability of thermal. The traditional fabrication techniques are exposed to lots of problems, including great surface scratches, high sub-surface damage and poor surface roughness and so on. The current fabrication technology for the nickel aspheric mainly adopt the single point diamond turning(SPDT), which has lots of advantages such as high efficiency, ultra-precision surface figure, low sub-surface damage and so on. But the residual surface texture of SPDT will cause great scattering losses and fall far short from the requirement in the X-ray applications. This paper mainly investigates the magnetorheological finishing (MRF) techniques for the super-smooth processing on the nickel optics. Through the study of the MRF polishing techniques, we obtained the ideal super-smooth polishing technique based on the self-controlled MRF-fluid NS-1, and finished the high-precision surface figure lower than RMS λ/80 (λ=632.8nm) and super-smooth roughness lower than Ra 0.3nm on the plane reflector and roughness lower than Ra 0.4nm on the convex cone. The studying of the MRF techniques makes a great effort to the state-of-the-art nickel material processing level for the X-ray optical systems applications.

  9. Leading Teams of Higher Education Administrators: Integrating Goal Setting, Team Role, and Team Life Cycle Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posthuma, Richard; Al-Riyami, Said

    2012-01-01

    Leaders of higher education institutions can create top management teams of academic administrators to guide and improve their organizations. This study illustrates how the leadership of top management teams can be accomplished successfully through a combination of goal setting (Doran, 1981; Locke & Latham, 1990), understanding of team roles…

  10. Social Capital, Team Efficacy and Team Potency: The Mediating Role of Team Learning Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Emmerik, Hetty; Jawahar, I. M.; Schreurs, Bert; de Cuyper, Nele

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Drawing on social capital theory and self-identification theory, this study aims to examine the associations of two indicators of social capital, personal networks and deep-level similarity, with team capability measures of team efficacy and team potency. The central focus of the study is to be the hypothesized mediating role of team…

  11. Roles of the Team Physician.

    PubMed

    Kinderknecht, James

    2016-07-01

    The roles of the team physician are much more than providing medical coverage at a sport's event. The team physician has numerous administrative and medical responsibilities. The development of an emergency action plan is an essential administrative task as an example. The implementation of the components of this plan requires the team physician to have the necessary medical knowledge and skill. An expertise in returning an athlete to play after an injury or other medical condition is a unique attribute of the trained team physician. The athlete's return to participation needs to start with the athlete's safety and best medical interests but not inappropriately restrict the individual from play. The ability to communicate on numerous levels needs to be a characteristic of the team physician. There are several potential ethical conflicts the team physician needs to control. These conflicts can create unique medicolegal issues. The true emphasis of the team physician is to focus on what is best for the athlete.

  12. Building a rapid response team.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  13. Networking emergency teams in Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Yanay, Uri; Benjamin, Sharon; Yamin, Hanna Gimmon

    2011-01-01

    With the recent upsurge in terrorism, more and more attention is being directed at examining the effectiveness and efficiency of emergency teams. These teams tend to focus on their areas of expertise without necessarily communicating, cooperating or coordinating their operations. Research suggests that improved interpersonal communication and coordination enhances the overall work of each emergency team, and that their combined effort is far in excess of the sum of their individual endeavours. This paper outlines attempts made in Jerusalem to improve the performance of emergency teams and to help the helpers by holding training workshops, setting up a forum of co-workers and encouraging dialogue among various emergency teams in the city. A planned intervention programme was designed to enable informal networking between team leaders. The programme had an impact on team workers and resulted in a more coordinated and effective service delivery during emergencies.

  14. Effect of Finishing System on Subcutaneous Fat Melting Point and Fatty Acid Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-cross steers (n = 69) were used to determine the effect of finishing system on subcutaneous fat melting point and fatty acid composition. Three finishing systems were evaluated: 1) mixed pasture for 134 d [MP], 2) mixed pasture for 93 d and alfalfa for 41 d [AL], or 3) concentrate finishing f...

  15. School Building Finishing and Economy. The School Building Economy Series, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford.

    Materials, elements, and methods of economical school construction are illustrated through explanatory outlines and accompany photographs and diagrams. Finishing elements covered include--(1) finished floorings, (2) ceilings and acoustical finishes, (3) carpentry and millwork, (4) chalkboards and tackboards, (5) toilet partitions, (6) finishing…

  16. 40 CFR 63.5395 - How do I measure the density of a finish?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... must be entered on the finish log for each type of finish applied. You are not required to test the materials that you use, but the Administrator may require a test using EPA Method 24 (or another approved... section for each finish when you perform one of the actions listed in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of...

  17. Geospatial Information Response Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witt, Emitt C.

    2010-01-01

    Extreme emergency events of national significance that include manmade and natural disasters seem to have become more frequent during the past two decades. The Nation is becoming more resilient to these emergencies through better preparedness, reduced duplication, and establishing better communications so every response and recovery effort saves lives and mitigates the long-term social and economic impacts on the Nation. The National Response Framework (NRF) (http://www.fema.gov/NRF) was developed to provide the guiding principles that enable all response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies. The NRF provides five key principles for better preparation, coordination, and response: 1) engaged partnerships, 2) a tiered response, 3) scalable, flexible, and adaptable operations, 4) unity of effort, and 5) readiness to act. The NRF also describes how communities, tribes, States, Federal Government, privatesector, and non-governmental partners apply these principles for a coordinated, effective national response. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has adopted the NRF doctrine by establishing several earth-sciences, discipline-level teams to ensure that USGS science, data, and individual expertise are readily available during emergencies. The Geospatial Information Response Team (GIRT) is one of these teams. The USGS established the GIRT to facilitate the effective collection, storage, and dissemination of geospatial data information and products during an emergency. The GIRT ensures that timely geospatial data are available for use by emergency responders, land and resource managers, and for scientific analysis. In an emergency and response capacity, the GIRT is responsible for establishing procedures for geospatial data acquisition, processing, and archiving; discovery, access, and delivery of data; anticipating geospatial needs; and providing coordinated products and services utilizing the USGS' exceptional pool of

  18. Manufacturing aspheric mirrors made of zero thermal expansion cordierite ceramics using Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Jun; Maloney, Chris

    2016-07-01

    NEXCERATM cordierite ceramics, which have ultra-low thermal expansion properties, are perfect candidate materials to be used for light-weight satellite mirrors that are used for geostationary earth observation and for mirrors used in ground-based astronomical metrology. To manufacture the high precision aspheric shapes required, the deterministic aspherization and figure correction capabilities of Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) are tested. First, a material compatibility test is performed to determine the best method for achieving the lowest surface roughness of RMS 0.8nm on plano surfaces made of NEXCERATM ceramics. Secondly, we will use MRF to perform high precision figure correction and to induce a hyperbolic shape into a conventionally polished 100mm diameter sphere.

  19. 26. A battery of calender presses at work finishing magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. A battery of calender presses at work finishing magazine paper. After the coated paper has been dried and put into rolls, as shown in the preceding pictures, it is brought to the room shown here. A roll is put in the reel at the man's shoulder in the foreground and started through the machine. It passes between the two top rollers and then in and out between the succeeding rollers, until it reaches the bottom. Many tons' pressure have ironed it before it comes out and is rolled up again. This process gives it the finish that the National Geographic must have to maintain its high standard. (p.240.) - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  20. Farmer and Public Attitudes Toward Lamb Finishing Systems.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Grahame; Jongman, Ellen; Greenfield, L; Hemsworth, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To develop research and policy on the welfare of lambs in intensive finishing systems, it is important to understand public and sheep farmers' attitudes. The aim of this research was to identify and compare farmer and community attitudes relevant to the intensification of lamb finishing. The majority of respondents in the community sample expressed concern about all listed welfare issues, but particularly about feedlotting of lambs and the associated confinement. These attitudes correlated with community views on the importance of welfare issues including social contact and freedom to roam. Farmers expressed much lower levels of concern than did the general public except with regard to the health of lambs, disease control, access to shade, and lack of access to clean water.

  1. Method and system for processing optical elements using magnetorheological finishing

    DOEpatents

    Menapace, Joseph Arthur; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene; Bayramian, Andrew James; Molander, William A

    2012-09-18

    A method of finishing an optical element includes mounting the optical element in an optical mount having a plurality of fiducials overlapping with the optical element and obtaining a first metrology map for the optical element and the plurality of fiducials. The method also includes obtaining a second metrology map for the optical element without the plurality of fiducials, forming a difference map between the first metrology map and the second metrology map, and aligning the first metrology map and the second metrology map. The method further includes placing mathematical fiducials onto the second metrology map using the difference map to form a third metrology map and associating the third metrology map to the optical element. Moreover, the method includes mounting the optical element in the fixture in an MRF tool, positioning the optical element in the fixture; removing the plurality of fiducials, and finishing the optical element.

  2. The finished DNA sequence of human chromosome 12.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Steven E; Muzny, Donna M; Buhay, Christian J; Chen, Rui; Cree, Andrew; Ding, Yan; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Gill, Rachel; Gunaratne, Preethi; Harris, R Alan; Hawes, Alicia C; Hernandez, Judith; Hodgson, Anne V; Hume, Jennifer; Jackson, Andrew; Khan, Ziad Mohid; Kovar-Smith, Christie; Lewis, Lora R; Lozado, Ryan J; Metzker, Michael L; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Miner, George R; Montgomery, Kate T; Morgan, Margaret B; Nazareth, Lynne V; Scott, Graham; Sodergren, Erica; Song, Xing-Zhi; Steffen, David; Lovering, Ruth C; Wheeler, David A; Worley, Kim C; Yuan, Yi; Zhang, Zhengdong; Adams, Charles Q; Ansari-Lari, M Ali; Ayele, Mulu; Brown, Mary J; Chen, Guan; Chen, Zhijian; Clerc-Blankenburg, Kerstin P; Davis, Clay; Delgado, Oliver; Dinh, Huyen H; Draper, Heather; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L; Havlak, Paul; Jackson, Laronda R; Jacob, Leni S; Kelly, Susan H; Li, Li; Li, Zhangwan; Liu, Jing; Liu, Wen; Lu, Jing; Maheshwari, Manjula; Nguyen, Bao-Viet; Okwuonu, Geoffrey O; Pasternak, Shiran; Perez, Lesette M; Plopper, Farah J H; Santibanez, Jireh; Shen, Hua; Tabor, Paul E; Verduzco, Daniel; Waldron, Lenee; Wang, Qiaoyan; Williams, Gabrielle A; Zhang, Jingkun; Zhou, Jianling; Allen, Carlana C; Amin, Anita G; Anyalebechi, Vivian; Bailey, Michael; Barbaria, Joseph A; Bimage, Kesha E; Bryant, Nathaniel P; Burch, Paula E; Burkett, Carrie E; Burrell, Kevin L; Calderon, Eliana; Cardenas, Veronica; Carter, Kelvin; Casias, Kristal; Cavazos, Iracema; Cavazos, Sandra R; Ceasar, Heather; Chacko, Joseph; Chan, Sheryl N; Chavez, Dean; Christopoulos, Constantine; Chu, Joseph; Cockrell, Raynard; Cox, Caroline D; Dang, Michelle; Dathorne, Stephanie R; David, Robert; Davis, Candi Mon'Et; Davy-Carroll, Latarsha; Deshazo, Denise R; Donlin, Jeremy E; D'Souza, Lisa; Eaves, Kristy A; Egan, Amy; Emery-Cohen, Alexandra J; Escotto, Michael; Flagg, Nicole; Forbes, Lisa D; Gabisi, Abdul M; Garza, Melissa; Hamilton, Cerissa; Henderson, Nicholas; Hernandez, Omar; Hines, Sandra; Hogues, Marilyn E; Huang, Mei; Idlebird, DeVincent G; Johnson, Rudy; Jolivet, Angela; Jones, Sally; Kagan, Ryan; King, Laquisha M; Leal, Belita; Lebow, Heather; Lee, Sandra; LeVan, Jaclyn M; Lewis, Lakeshia C; London, Pamela; Lorensuhewa, Lorna M; Loulseged, Hermela; Lovett, Demetria A; Lucier, Alice; Lucier, Raymond L; Ma, Jie; Madu, Renita C; Mapua, Patricia; Martindale, Ashley D; Martinez, Evangelina; Massey, Elizabeth; Mawhiney, Samantha; Meador, Michael G; Mendez, Sylvia; Mercado, Christian; Mercado, Iracema C; Merritt, Christina E; Miner, Zachary L; Minja, Emmanuel; Mitchell, Teresa; Mohabbat, Farida; Mohabbat, Khatera; Montgomery, Baize; Moore, Niki; Morris, Sidney; Munidasa, Mala; Ngo, Robin N; Nguyen, Ngoc B; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi O; Nwokenkwo, Stanley; Obregon, Melissa; Oguh, Maryann; Oragunye, Njideka; Oviedo, Rodolfo J; Parish, Bridgette J; Parker, David N; Parrish, Julia; Parks, Kenya L; Paul, Heidie A; Payton, Brett A; Perez, Agapito; Perrin, William; Pickens, Adam; Primus, Eltrick L; Pu, Ling-Ling; Puazo, Maria; Quiles, Miyo M; Quiroz, Juana B; Rabata, Dina; Reeves, Kacy; Ruiz, San Juana; Shao, Hongmei; Sisson, Ida; Sonaike, Titilola; Sorelle, Richard P; Sutton, Angelica E; Svatek, Amanda F; Svetz, Leah Anne; Tamerisa, Kavitha S; Taylor, Tineace R; Teague, Brian; Thomas, Nicole; Thorn, Rachel D; Trejos, Zulma Y; Trevino, Brenda K; Ukegbu, Ogechi N; Urban, Jeremy B; Vasquez, Lydia I; Vera, Virginia A; Villasana, Donna M; Wang, Ling; Ward-Moore, Stephanie; Warren, James T; Wei, Xuehong; White, Flower; Williamson, Angela L; Wleczyk, Regina; Wooden, Hailey S; Wooden, Steven H; Yen, Jennifer; Yoon, Lillienne; Yoon, Vivienne; Zorrilla, Sara E; Nelson, David; Kucherlapati, Raju; Weinstock, George; Gibbs, Richard A

    2006-03-16

    Human chromosome 12 contains more than 1,400 coding genes and 487 loci that have been directly implicated in human disease. The q arm of chromosome 12 contains one of the largest blocks of linkage disequilibrium found in the human genome. Here we present the finished sequence of human chromosome 12, which has been finished to high quality and spans approximately 132 megabases, representing approximately 4.5% of the human genome. Alignment of the human chromosome 12 sequence across vertebrates reveals the origin of individual segments in chicken, and a unique history of rearrangement through rodent and primate lineages. The rate of base substitutions in recent evolutionary history shows an overall slowing in hominids compared with primates and rodents.

  3. The Analysis of Metal Finishing Solutions by Ion Chromatography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    traditional chemical methods now in use. This report describes procedures for the analysis of solutions for chromium plating, acid finishing, metal...samples and standards must have similar acid -base characteristics. These methods are an improvement to standard methods now in practice and have been...CITED ............................... 195 iv LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Ionization Constants of Acids (12) . 29 Table 2. Common Anion Eluents

  4. Preliminary study on atmospheric-pressure plasma-based chemical dry figuring and finishing of reaction-sintered silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xinmin; Deng, Hui; Zhang, Xiaonan; Peng, Kang; Yamamura, Kazuya

    2016-10-01

    Reaction-sintered silicon carbide (RS-SiC) is a research focus in the field of optical manufacturing. Atmospheric-pressure plasma-based chemical dry figuring and finishing, which consist of plasma chemical vaporization machining (PCVM) and plasma-assisted polishing (PAP), were applied to improve material removal rate (MRR) in rapid figuring and ameliorate surface quality in fine finishing. Through observing the processed RS-SiC sample in PCVM by scanning white-light interferometer (SWLI), the calculated peak-MRR and volume-MRR were 0.533 μm/min and 2.78×10-3 mm3/min, respectively. The comparisons of surface roughness and morphology of the RS-SiC samples before and after PCVM were obtained by the scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. It could be found that the processed RS-SiC surface was deteriorated with surface roughness rms 382.116 nm. The evaluations of surface quality of the processed RS-SiC sample in PAP corresponding to different collocations of autorotation speed and revolution speed were obtained by SWLI measurement. The optimal surface roughness rms of the processed RS-SiC sample in PAP was 2.186 nm. There were no subsurface damages, scratches, or residual stresses on the processed sample in PAP. The results indicate that parameters in PAP should be strictly selected, and the optimal parameters can simultaneously obtain high MRR and smooth surface.

  5. Loading and Unloading Finishing Pigs: Effects of Bedding Types, Ramp Angle, and Bedding Moisture

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Arlene; McGlone, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Current guidelines suggest the use of ramps below 20 degrees to load and unload pigs; however, they do not suggest the use of any specific bedding. Bedding types (nothing, feed, sand, wood shavings, and hay) were tested with finishing pigs (70–120 kg) to determine which was most effective in reducing slips, falls, and vocalizations at three ramp angles, two moisture levels, over two seasons. Slips, falls, and vocalizations were summed to establish a scoring system for the types of beddings. Heart rate and the total time it took to load and unload pigs, increased as the slope increased. Bedding, bedding moisture, season, and ramp slope interacted to impact the total time it took for finishing pigs to load and unload the ramp. Selection of the best bedding depends on ramp slope, season, and wetness of bedding. Abstract The use of non-slip surfaces during loading and unloading of finishing pigs plays an important role in animal welfare and economics of the pork industry. Currently, the guidelines available only suggest the use of ramps with a slope below 20 degrees to load and unload pigs. However, the total time it takes to load and unload animals and slips, falls, and vocalizations are a welfare concern. Three ramp angles (0, 10 or 20 degrees), five bedding materials (nothing, sand, feed, wood shavings or wheat straw hay), two moistures (dry or wet bedding, >50% moisture) over two seasons (>23.9 °C summer, <23.9 °C winter) were assessed for slips/falls/vocalizations (n = 2400 pig observations) and analyzed with a scoring system. The use of bedding during summer or winter played a role in the total time it took to load and unload the ramp (p < 0.05). Bedding, bedding moisture, season, and slope significantly interacted to impact the total time to load and unload finishing pigs (p < 0.05). Heart rate and the total time it took to load and unload the ramp increased as the slope of the ramp increased (p < 0.05). Heart rates were higher during the

  6. Marathon finishers and pre-race drop-outs.

    PubMed Central

    Clough, P J; Shepherd, J; Maughan, R J

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal questionnaire study was to investigate the effects of participation or non participation in a marathon race on future running behaviour. The majority (70 per cent) of the participants who intended to run a future marathon actually did so and only 11 per cent stopped running altogether. Fewer of the pre-race drop-outs (31 per cent) who indicated their intention to run a future marathon actually did so (P less than 0.001) and more of them (24 per cent) stopped running altogether (P less than 0.001) compared with the runners in the finishers' sample. These results suggest that the experience of running in a marathon does not negatively influence future running habits. However, failure to run in a race for which an entry has been made may lead to a reduced involvement in running. The present study also examined the reasons for pre-race drop-out. Injury (36 per cent), lack of training (31 per cent) and illness (12 per cent) were the most frequently given reasons for drop-out. Few differences were found between the pre-race drop-outs and the finishers, but the drop-outs did feel that running was less important (P less than 0.001), reported a greater number of longer term injuries (P less than 0.001) and did significantly less training (P less than 0.001) than the finishers. Images p101-a PMID:2605449

  7. Development of laser finishing for non-circular profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, K.W.; Sheng, P.S.

    1995-03-01

    A laser-based technique for finishing of non-circular cylindrical parts is presented. In this process, the frequency characteristics of a desired non-circular shape is extracted from a CAD through a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm and implemented through a CO{sub 2} laser machining system. A galvanometer-based scanner is used in the process to achieve programmable beam trajectories and high-speed finishing. An error estimation scheme can be developed to determine the final dimensional error of the non-circular profile. This process can be selected as both a batch production tool and a rapid prototyping tool based on the designated processing rate and precision. Initial experimental results include the production of two- and three-lobed profiles, as well as definition of part feature using higher-order harmonics, in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with corresponding R{sub a} values of less than 1 {mu}m. The machine tool elements and general procedure for non-circular laser finishing are also presented.

  8. Dust control technology usage patterns in the drywall finishing industry.

    PubMed

    Young-Corbett, Deborah E; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2009-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to quantify drywall finishing industry usage rates of dust control technology, identify barriers to technology adoption, and explore firm owner perception of risk. Industry use of the following technologies was described: wet methods, respiratory protection, pole sanders, ventilated sanders, and low-dust joint compound. A survey instrument composed of both Likert-type scaled items and open-ended items was developed and administered by telephone to the census population of the owners of member firms of trade associations: Finishing Contractors Association and Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industries. Of 857 firms, 264 interviews were completed. Along with descriptive statistics, results were analyzed to examine effects of firm size and union affiliation on responses. Responses to open-ended items were analyzed using content analysis procedures. Firm owners rated the risk of dust to productivity and customer satisfaction as low-moderate. Half rated the dust as having some impact on worker health, with higher impacts indicated by owners of small firms. Among the available control technologies, respiratory protection was used most frequently. Several barriers to implementation of the more effective control technologies were identified. Barriers associated with technology usability, productivity, and cost, as well as misperceptions of risk, should be addressed to improve dust control in the drywall finishing industry.

  9. Fundamental studies of tin whiskering in microelectronics finishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinol, Lesly Agnes

    Common electronics materials, such as tin, copper, steel, and brass, are ambient reactive under common use conditions, and as such are prone to corrosion. During the early 1940s, reports of failures due to electrical shorting of components caused by 'whisker' (i.e., filamentary surface protrusion) growth on many surface types---including the aforementioned metals---began to emerge. Lead alloying of tin (3--10% by weight, typically in the eutectic proportion) eliminated whiskering risk for decades, until the July 2006 adoption of the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive was issued by the European Union. This directive, which has since been adopted by California and parts of China, severely restricted the use of lead (<1000 ppm) in all electrical and electronics equipment being placed on the EU market, imposing the need for developing reliable new "lead-free" alternatives to SnPb. In spite of the abundance of modern-day anecdotes chronicling whisker-related failures in satellites, nuclear power stations, missiles, pacemakers, and spacecraft navigation equipment, pure tin finishes are still increasingly being employed today, and the root cause(s) of tin whiskering remains elusive. This work describes a series of structured experiments exploring the fundamental relationships between the incidence of tin whiskering (as dependent variable) and numerous independent variables. These variables included deposition method (electroplating, electroless plating, template-based electrochemical synthesis, and various physical vapor deposition techniques, including resistive evaporation, electron beam evaporation, and sputtering), the inclusion of microparticles and organic contamination, the effects of sample geometry, and nanostructuring. Key findings pertain to correlations between sample geometry and whisker propensity, and also to the stress evolution across a series of 4"-diameter silicon wafers of varying thicknesses with respect to the degree of post

  10. Improving Palliative Care Team Meetings: Structure, Inclusion, and "Team Care".

    PubMed

    Brennan, Caitlin W; Kelly, Brittany; Skarf, Lara Michal; Tellem, Rotem; Dunn, Kathleen M; Poswolsky, Sheila

    2016-07-01

    Increasing demands on palliative care teams point to the need for continuous improvement to ensure teams are working collaboratively and efficiently. This quality improvement initiative focused on improving interprofessional team meeting efficiency and subsequently patient care. Meeting start and end times improved from a mean of approximately 9 and 6 minutes late in the baseline period, respectively, to a mean of 4.4 minutes late (start time) and ending early in our sustainability phase. Mean team satisfaction improved from 2.4 to 4.5 on a 5-point Likert-type scale. The improvement initiative clarified communication about patients' plans of care, thus positively impacting team members' ability to articulate goals to other professionals, patients, and families. We propose several recommendations in the form of a team meeting "toolkit."

  11. Transformational leadership and team innovation: integrating team climate principles.

    PubMed

    Eisenbeiss, Silke A; van Knippenberg, Daan; Boerner, Sabine

    2008-11-01

    Fostering team innovation is increasingly an important leadership function. However, the empirical evidence for the role of transformational leadership in engendering team innovation is scarce and mixed. To address this issue, the authors link transformational leadership theory to principles of M. A. West's (1990) team climate theory and propose an integrated model for the relationship between transformational leadership and team innovation. This model involves support for innovation as a mediating process and climate for excellence as a moderator. Results from a study of 33 research and development teams confirmed that transformational leadership works through support for innovation, which in turn interacts with climate for excellence such that support for innovation enhances team innovation only when climate for excellence is high.

  12. Analysis and control on changeable wheel tool system of hybrid grinding and polishing machine tool for blade finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qiuwei; Lv, Xingming; Wang, Xin; Qu, Xingtian; Zhao, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Blade is the key component in the energy power equipment of turbine, aircraft engines and so on. Researches on the process and equipment for blade finishing become one of important and difficult point. To control precisely tool system of developed hybrid grinding and polishing machine tool for blade finishing, the tool system with changeable wheel for belt polishing is analyzed in this paper. Firstly, the belt length and wrap angle of each wheel in different position of tension wheel swing angle in the process of changing wheel is analyzed. The reasonable belt length is calculated by using MATLAB, and relationships between wrap angle of each wheel and cylinder expansion amount of contact wheel are obtained. Then, the control system for changeable wheel tool structure is developed. Lastly, the surface roughness of blade finishing is verified by experiments. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that reasonable belt length and wheel wrap angle can be obtained by proposed analysis method, the changeable wheel tool system can be controlled precisely, and the surface roughness of blade after grinding meets the design requirements.

  13. Innovation in healthcare team feedback.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Christine; Beard, Leslie; Fonzo, Anthony Di; Tommaso, Michael Di; Mujawaz, Yaman; Serra-Julia, Marcel; Morra, Dante

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare delivery is evolving from individual, autonomous practice to collaborative team practice. However, barriers such as professional autonomy, time constraints and the perception of error as failure preclude learning behaviours that can facilitate organizational learning and improvement. Although experimentation, engaging in questions and feedback, discussing errors and reflecting on results can facilitate learning and promote effective performance, the cultural barriers within healthcare can prevent or inhibit this type of behaviour among teams. At the University Health Network's Centre for Innovation in Complex Care, we realize the need for a tool that facilitates learning behaviour and is sensitive to the risk-averse nature of the clinical environment. The vehicle for the Team Feedback Tool is a web-based application called Rypple (www.rypple.com), which allows team members to provide anonymous, rapid-fire feedback on team processes and performance. Rypple facilitates communication, elicits feedback and provokes discussion. The process enables follow-up face-to-face team discussions and encourages teams to create actionable solutions for incremental changes to enhance team health and performance. The Team Feedback Tool was implemented and piloted in general internal medicine at the University Health Network's Toronto General Hospital from early May 2009 to July 2009 to address the issues of teamwork and learning behaviour in the clinical environment. This article explores the opportunities and barriers associated with the implementation of the Team Feedback Tool.

  14. Individual and team performance in team-handball: a review.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Herbert; Finkenzeller, Thomas; Würth, Sabine; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2014-12-01

    Team handball is a complex sport game that is determined by the individual performance of each player as well as tactical components and interaction of the team. The aim of this review was to specify the elements of team-handball performance based on scientific studies and practical experience, and to convey perspectives for practical implication. Scientific studies were identified via data bases of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, SPORT Discus, Google Scholar, and Hercules. A total of 56 articles met the inclusion criteria. In addition, we supplemented the review with 13 additional articles, proceedings and book sections. It was found that the specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, team-handball techniques, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors specify the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. Although we found comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex or age, there is a lack of studies, particularly for team-handball specific training, as well as cognition and social factors. Key PointsThe specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, specific skills, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors define the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition.To increase individual and team performance in team-handball specific training based on these determinants have been suggested.Although there are comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex, or age are published, there is a lack of training studies, particularly for team-handball specific techniques and endurance, as well as cognition and social factors.

  15. Individual and Team Performance in Team-Handball: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Herbert; Finkenzeller, Thomas; Würth, Sabine; von Duvillard, Serge P.

    2014-01-01

    Team handball is a complex sport game that is determined by the individual performance of each player as well as tactical components and interaction of the team. The aim of this review was to specify the elements of team-handball performance based on scientific studies and practical experience, and to convey perspectives for practical implication. Scientific studies were identified via data bases of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, SPORT Discus, Google Scholar, and Hercules. A total of 56 articles met the inclusion criteria. In addition, we supplemented the review with 13 additional articles, proceedings and book sections. It was found that the specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, team-handball techniques, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors specify the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. Although we found comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex or age, there is a lack of studies, particularly for team-handball specific training, as well as cognition and social factors. Key Points The specific characteristics of team-handball with frequent intensity changes, specific skills, hard body confrontations, mental skills and social factors define the determinants of coordination, endurance, strength and cognition. To increase individual and team performance in team-handball specific training based on these determinants have been suggested. Although there are comprehensive studies examining individual performance in team-handball players of different experience level, sex, or age are published, there is a lack of training studies, particularly for team-handball specific techniques and endurance, as well as cognition and social factors. PMID:25435773

  16. Run-in finishing and tribological performance evaluation of ceramic bearings. Final report, 1 September 1991--31 December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O.O.; Wedeven, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to assist in the development of ceramic bearing technology, particularly hybrid bearings. The focus was to address major obstacles to the implementation and use of hybrid bearings. The two areas addressed were cost reduction and qualification of hybrid bearings systems. The effort was divided into three task areas: (1) The development of run-in finishing procedures to address cost reduction by finishing Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} rolling elements and the steel race ways of bearing in-situ; (2) Chemical conditioning of surfaces to improve the tribological performance of hybrid contacts under boundary lubrication conditions; (3) Assessment of tribological attributes of a hybrid contact under conditions relevant to bearing operation.

  17. Finishing of display glass for mobile electronics using 3M Trizact diamond tile abrasive pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lianbin; Fletcher, Tim; Na, Tee Koon; Sventek, Bruce; Romero, Vince; Lugg, Paul S.; Kim, Don

    2010-10-01

    This paper will describe a new method being used during the finishing of glass displays for mobile electronics including mobile hand held devices and notebook computers. The new method consists of using 3M TrizactTM Diamond Tile Abrasive Pads. TrizactTM Diamond Tile is a structured fixed abrasive grinding technology developed by 3M Company. The TrizactTM Diamond Tile structured abrasive pad consists of an organic (polymeric binder) - inorganic (abrasive mineral, i.e., diamond) composite that is used with a water-based coolant. TrizactTM Diamond Tile technology can be applied in both double and single side grinding applications. A unique advantage of TrizactTM Diamond Tile technology is the combination of high stock removal and low sub-surface damage. Grinding results will be presented for both 9 micron and 20 micron grades of TrizactTM Diamond Tile abrasive pads used to finish several common display glasses including Corning GorillaTM glass and Soda Lime glass.

  18. Report on EUVL Mask Substrate Development: Low-Expansion Substrate Finishing II

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, W.M.; Taylor, J.S.; Hector, S.D.; Shell, M.

    1999-12-08

    This report is a continuation of our assessment of the finishing of low thermal expansion material wafers obtained through three different commercial pathways. This quarter we have patterned and printed a ULE{reg_sign} wafer (Rodel 1) and saw no difference between its images and those from silicon wafer substrates. This further demonstrated that ULE{reg_sign} can be used as the EUVL mask substrate material. We have also evaluated substrates produced by three vendors: Hoya, General Optics, and Rodel. Consistent with our results reported last quarter, surface roughness of the bare substrates from all three companies does not depend on the position. For Hoya, the wafers it produced had a low roughness than those from last quarter. However, the cleanliness of the wafers needs to be improved. For General Optics, the wafer roughness has increased, and it was only able to deliver one wafer this quarter. General Optics will be replaced by Schott ML next quarter. For Rodel, one of its wafers (Rodel 1) that had been cleaned in-house showed excellent finishing and was selected to be patterned. We also observed that the sleeks on the substrates were smoothed by the ML coating. The other two Rodel wafers (Rodel 2 and Rodel 4) had too many defects and the roughness values derived from AFM are not reliable.

  19. Investigating Team Learning in a Military Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veestraeten, Marlies; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2014-01-01

    As teams have become fundamental parts of today's organisations, the need for these teams to function and learn efficiently and effectively is widely emphasised. Also in military contexts team learning is vital. The current article examines team learning behaviour in military teams as it aims to cross-validate a team learning model that was…

  20. Academic family health teams

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, June C.; Talbot, Yves; Permaul, Joanne; Tobin, Anastasia; Moineddin, Rahim; Blaine, Sean; Bloom, Jeff; Butt, Debra; Kay, Kelly; Telner, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore patients’ perceptions of primary care (PC) in the early development of academic family health teams (aFHTs)—interprofessional PC teams delivering care where family medicine and other health professional learners are trained—focusing on patients’ perceptions of access and patients’ satisfaction with services. Design Self-administered survey. Setting Six aFHTs in Ontario. Participants Adult patients attending appointments and administrators at each of the aFHTs. Main outcome measures Answers to questions about access from the Primary Care Assessment Tool Adult Expanded Version, the Primary Care Assessment Survey, and research team questions. Results The response rate was 47.3% (1026 of 2167). The mean (SD) Primary Care Assessment Tool first-contact accessibility score was 2.28 (0.36) out of 4, with 96.5% of patients rating access less than 3, which was the minimum expected level of care. Two-thirds (66.6%) indicated someone from their aFHTs would definitely or probably see them the same day if they were sick, 56.8% could definitely or probably get advice quickly by telephone, and 14.5% indicated it was definitely or probably difficult to be seen by their primary health care provider (HCP). Additionally, 46.9% indicated they would like to get medical advice by e-mail. For a routine or follow-up visit, 73.4% would be willing to see another aFHT physician if their regular provider were unavailable, while only 48.3% would see a nonphysician HCP. If sick, 88.2% would see another aFHT physician and 55.2% would see a nonphysician HCP. Most (75.3%) were satisfied with access to their regular HCP. Conclusion Although patients are generally satisfied with care, there is room for improvement in access. Strategies are needed to enhance access to care, including addressing appropriate roles and scopes of practice for nonphysician HCPs. The accessibility challenges for aFHTs will likely affect new family physicians and other HCPs training in