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Sample records for surface hardening

  1. Surface Fatigue Resistance with Induction Hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis; Turza, Alan; Chapman, Mike

    1996-01-01

    Induction hardening has been used for some years to harden the surface and improve the strength and service life of gears and other components. Many applications that employ induction hardening require a relatively long time to finish the hardening process and controlling the hardness of the surface layer and its depth often was a problem. Other surface hardening methods, ie., carbonizing, take a very long time and tend to cause deformations of the toothing, whose elimination requires supplementary finishing work. In double-frequency induction hardening, one uses a low frequency for the preheating of the toothed wheel and a much higher frequency for the purpose of rapidly heating the surface by way of surface hardening.

  2. Laser Surface Hardening of Groove Edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, A.; Hamdani, A. H.; Akhter, R.; Aslam, M.

    2013-06-01

    Surface hardening of groove-edges made of 3Cr13 Stainless Steel has been carried out using 500 W CO2 laser with a rectangular beam of 2.5×3 mm2. The processing speed was varied from 150-500 mm/min. It was seen that the hardened depth increases with increase in laser interaction time. A maximum hardened depth of around 1mm was achieved. The microhardness of the transformed zone was 2.5 times the hardness of base metal. The XRD's and microstructural analysis were also reported.

  3. Surface hardening of titanium alloys with melting depth controlled by heat sink

    DOEpatents

    Oden, Laurance L.; Turner, Paul C.

    1995-01-01

    A process for forming a hard surface coating on titanium alloys includes providing a piece of material containing titanium having at least a portion of one surface to be hardened. The piece having a portion of a surface to be hardened is contacted on the backside by a suitable heat sink such that the melting depth of said surface to be hardened may be controlled. A hardening material is then deposited as a slurry. Alternate methods of deposition include flame, arc, or plasma spraying, electrodeposition, vapor deposition, or any other deposition method known by those skilled in the art. The surface to be hardened is then selectively melted to the desired depth, dependent on the desired coating thickness, such that a molten pool is formed of the piece surface and the deposited hardening material. Upon cooling a hardened surface is formed.

  4. Combined surface hardening and laser patterning approach for functionalising stainless steel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Giron, A.; Romano, J. M.; Liang, Y.; Dashtbozorg, B.; Dong, H.; Penchev, P.; Dimov, S. S.

    2018-05-01

    The paper reports a laser patterning method for producing surfaces with dual scale topographies on ferritic stainless steel plates that are hardened by low temperature plasma surface alloying. Nitrogen and carbon based gasses were used in the alloying process to obtain surface layers with an increased hardness from 172 HV to 1001 HV and 305 HV, respectively. Then, a nanosecond infrared laser was used to pattern the plasma treated surfaces and thus to obtain super-hydrophobicity, by creating cell- or channel-like surface structures. The combined surface hardening and laser patterning approach allowed super-hydrophobic surfaces to be produced on both nitrided and carburised stainless steel plates with effective contact angles higher than 150°. The hardened layers on nitrided samples had cracks and was delaminated after the laser patterning while on plasma carburised samples remained intact. The results showed that by applying the proposed combined approach it is possible to retain the higher hardness of the nitrided stainless steel plates and at the same time to functionalise them to obtain super-hydrophobic properties.

  5. Generation Mechanism of Work Hardened Surface Layer in Metal Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikiji, Rikio; Kondo, Eiji; Kawagoishi, Norio; Arai, Minoru

    Finish machining used to be carried out in grinding, but it is being replaced by cutting with very small undeformed chip thickness. In ultra precision process, the effects of the cutting conditions and the complicated factors on the machined surface integrity are the serious problems. In this research, work hardened surface layer was dealt with as an evaluation of the machined surface integrity and the effect of the mechanical factors on work hardening was investigated experimentally in orthogonal cutting. As a result, it was found that work hardened surface layer was affected not only by the shear angle varied under the cutting conditions and the thrust force of cutting resistance, but also by the thrust force acting point, the coefficient of the thrust force and the compressive stress equivalent to the bulk hardness. Furthermore, these mechanical factors acting on the depth of the work hardened surface layer were investigated with the calculation model.

  6. Process for hardening the surface of polymers

    DOEpatents

    Mansur, Louis K.; Lee, Eal H.

    1992-01-01

    Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them is generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface and improved wear resistance.

  7. Process for hardening the surface of polymers

    DOEpatents

    Mansur, L.K.; Lee, E.H.

    1992-07-14

    Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them is generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface and improved wear resistance. 1 figure.

  8. The surface fatigue life of contour induction hardened AISI 1552 gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Turza, Alan; Chaplin, Mike

    1995-07-01

    Two groups of spur gears manufactured from two different materials and heat treatments were endurance tested for surface fatigue life. One group was manufactured from AISI 1552 and was finished ground to a 0.4 micron (16 micro-in.) rms surface finish and then dual frequency contour induction hardened. The second group was manufactured from CEVM AISI 9310 and was carburized, hardened, and ground to a 0.4 micron (16 micro-in.) rms surface finish. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm (3.5 in.). Test conditions were a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 ksi), a bulk gear temperature of approximately 350 K (170 F) and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The lubricant used for the tests was a synthetic paraffinic oil with an additive package. The test results showed that the 10 percent surface fatigue (pitting) life of the contour hardened AISI 1552 test gears was 1.7 times that of the carburized and hardened AISI 9310 test gears. Also there were two early failures of the AISI 1552 gears by bending fatigue.

  9. The Surface Fatigue Life of Contour Induction Hardened AISI 1552 Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Turza, Alan; Chaplin, Mike

    1995-01-01

    Two groups of spur gears manufactured from two different materials and heat treatments were endurance tested for surface fatigue life. One group was manufactured from AISI 1552 and was finished ground to a 0.4 micron (16 micro-in.) rms surface finish and then dual frequency contour induction hardened. The second group was manufactured from CEVM AISI 9310 and was carburized, hardened, and ground to a 0.4 micron (16 micro-in.) rms surface finish. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm (3.5 in.). Test conditions were a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 ksi), a bulk gear temperature of approximately 350 K (170 F) and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The lubricant used for the tests was a synthetic paraffinic oil with an additive package. The test results showed that the 10 percent surface fatigue (pitting) life of the contour hardened AISI 1552 test gears was 1.7 times that of the carburized and hardened AISI 9310 test gears. Also there were two early failures of the AISI 1552 gears by bending fatigue.

  10. Influence of Cooling Condition on the Performance of Grinding Hardened Layer in Grind-hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. C.; Chen, J.; Xu, G. Y.; Li, X.

    2018-02-01

    45# steel was grinded and hardened on a surface grinding machine to study the effect of three different cooling media, including emulsion, dry air and liquid nitrogen, on the microstructure and properties of the hardened layer. The results show that the microstructure of material surface hardened with emulsion is pearlite and no hardened layer. The surface roughness is small and the residual stress is compressive stress. With cooling condition of liquid nitrogen and dry air, the specimen surface are hardened, the organization is martensite, the surface roughness is also not changed, but high hardness of hardened layer and surface compressive stress were obtained when grinding using liquid nitrogen. The deeper hardened layer grinded with dry air was obtained and surface residual stress is tensile stress. This study provides an experimental basis for choosing the appropriate cooling mode to effectively control the performance of grinding hardened layer.

  11. Rapid surface hardening and enhanced tribological performance of 4140 steel by friction stir processing

    DOE PAGES

    Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta; Ajayi, Oyelayo O.

    2015-06-06

    Tribological performance of steel materials can be substantially enhanced by various thermal surface hardening processes. For relatively low-carbon steel alloys, case carburization is often used to improve surface performance and durability. If the carbon content of steel is high enough (>0.4%), thermal treatments such as induction, flame, laser, etc. can produce adequate surface hardening without the need for surface compositional change. This paper presents an experimental study of the use of friction stir processing (FSP) as a means to hardened surface layer in AISI 4140 steel. The impacts of this surface hardening process on the friction and wear performance weremore » evaluated under both dry and lubricated contact conditions in reciprocating sliding. FSP produced the same level of hardening and superior tribological performance when compared to conventional thermal treatment, using only 10% of the energy and without the need for quenching treatments. With FSP surface hardness of about 7.8 GPa (62 Rc) was achieved while water quenching conventional heat treatment produced about 7.5 GPa (61 Rc) hardness. Microstructural analysis showed that both FSP and conventional heat treatment produced martensite. Although the friction behavior for FSP treated surfaces and the conventional heat treatment were about the same, the wear in FSP processed surfaces was reduced by almost 2× that of conventional heat treated surfaces. Furthermore, the superior performance is attributed to the observed grain refinement accompanying the FSP treatment in addition to the formation of martensite. As it relates to tribological performance, this study shows FSP to be an effective, highly energy efficient, and environmental friendly (green) alternative to conventional heat treatment for steel.« less

  12. An Evaluation of the Corrosion and Mechanical Performance of Interstitially Surface Hardened Stainless Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-10

    Performance of Interstitially Surface Hardened Stainless Steel 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jones, Jennifer Lynn...interstitial carbon atoms into stainless steel surfaces without the formation of carbides. Surface hardening of machine elements such as impellors or...the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel is retained, rather than degraded, is of particular interest for marine applications. This project

  13. Surface hardening of Al alloys through controlled ball-milling and sintering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seek Hyeoun; Kim, Yong Jin; Ahn, Jung-Ho

    2012-07-01

    One of the drawbacks of aluminum and its alloys is the lack of proper heat-treatment for surface-hardening. In the present work, a new and simple method of hardening the surface of aluminum and its alloys was developed. Low-energy ball-milling using specific process control agents (PCAs) was employed, using subsequent sintering in a controlled atmosphere. The PCAs in the present work were very effective both for milling and the formation of hard nanocrystalline dispersoids during sintering. The residual oxygen in a sintering atmosphere also played an important role in the formation of AIN or Al-O-N dispersoids. Through the proper control of the processing atmosphere and PCAs, the hardness and thickness of the hardened layers could be adjusted. The results of the wear test showed that the present aluminum alloys can be effectively utilized as light-weight components with a good wear resistance. Furthermore, the present method involves a simple forming process of die-compaction and sintering.

  14. Comparison of single and consecutive dual frequency induction surface hardening of gear wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barglik, J.; Ducki, K.; Kukla, D.; Mizera, J.; Mrówka-Nowotnik, G.; Sieniawski, J.; Smalcerz, A.

    2018-05-01

    Mathematical modelling of single and consecutive dual - frequency induction surface hardening systems are presented and compared. The both models are solved by the 3D FEM-based professional software supported by a number of own numerical procedures. The methodology is illustrated with some examples of surface induction hardening of a gear wheel made of steel 41Cr4. The computations are in a good accordance with experiments provided on the laboratory stand.

  15. Features of surface phase formation during case-hardening of iron- and titanium-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vintaikin, B. E.; Kamynin, A. V.; Kraposhin, V. S.; Smirnov, A. E.; Terezanova, K. V.; Cherenkova, S. A.; Sheykina, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    The article provides a detailed analysis of formation features for surface phases in technical iron and Cr20-Ni80 alloy samples that undergo case-hardening at a temperature of 850°C for 2, 4 and 6 hours of saturation in two different environments: acetylene, and molten salt consisting of sodium tetraborate and amorphous boron. We carried out an X-ray phase analysis to determine the phase structure of surface material layers that formed as a result of the case-hardening process. We discovered that after carburising it was possible to detect Fe3C and Fe-α phases on the surface of technical iron samples, and after boriding we found FeB, Fe2B and Fe3B phases; we noted a lack of characteristic Fe-α and Fe-γ peaks on the X-ray diffraction pattern. We detected many different phases in the Cr20-Ni80 alloy after the same type of case-hardening. Titanium oxides appeared after case-hardening of titanium in air at 800°C. We provide data on surface structure of samples subjected to vacuum carburising: over a 2 to 6 hour interval, the layer thickness is a parabolic function of time. When carrying out electrolysis-free liquid boriding, increasing exposure time from 2 to 6 hours alters the thickness of the strengthened layer only slightly, so, when carrying out case-hardening, it is less efficient to increase saturation time in molten salt containing sodium tetraborate and amorphous boron.

  16. Surface hardening of 30CrMnSiA steel using continuous electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yulei; Hu, Jing; Shen, Xianfeng; Wang, Yingying; Zhao, Wansheng

    2017-11-01

    30CrMnSiA high strength low alloy (HSLA) carbon structural steel is typically applied in equipment manufacturing and aerospace industries. In this work, the effects of continuous electron beam treatment on the surface hardening and microstructure modifications of 30CrMnSiA are investigated experimentally via a multi-purpose electron beam machine Pro-beam system. Micro hardness value in the electron beam treated area shows a double to triple increase, from 208 HV0.2 on the base metal to 520 HV0.2 on the irradiated area, while the surface roughness is relatively unchanged. Surface hardening parameters and mechanisms are clarified by investigation of the microstructural modification and the phase transformation both pre and post irradiation. The base metal is composed of ferrite and troostite. After continuous electron beam irradiation, the micro structure of the electron beam hardened area is composed of acicular lower bainite, feathered upper bainite and part of lath martensite. The optimal input energy density for 30CrMnSiA steel in this study is of 2.5 kJ/cm2 to attain the proper hardened depth and peak hardness without the surface quality deterioration. When the input irradiation energy exceeds 2.5 kJ/cm2 the convective mixing of the melted zone will become dominant. In the area with convective mixing, the cooling rate is relatively lower, thus the micro hardness is lower. The surface quality will deteriorate. Chemical composition and surface roughness pre and post electron beam treatment are also compared. The technology discussed give a picture of the potential of electron beam surface treatment for improving service life and reliability of the 30CrMnSiA steel.

  17. Heat Flow In Cylindrical Bodies During Laser Surface Transformation Hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandven, Ole A.

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model for the transient heat flow in cylindrical specimens is presented. The model predicts the temperature distribution in the vicinity of a moving ring-shaped laser spot around the periphery of the outer surface of a cylinder, or the inner surface of a hollow cylinder. It can be used to predict the depth of case in laser surface transformation hardening. The validity of the model is tested against experimental results obtained on SAE 4140 steel.

  18. Method of Electrolyte-Plasma Surface Hardening of 65G and 20GL Low-Alloy Steels Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhadilov, Bauyrzhan; Zhurerova, Laila; Pavlov, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    This work is devoted to formation of modified surface layers in 65G and 20GL steels which using for the manufacture of railway transport parts, as well as the study of influence of the parametersof electrolyte-plasma surface hardening methodon the changes in structural-phase states, improving of wear-resistance. The process of electrolyte-plasma surface hardening of 65G and 20GL steels samples conducted in the electrolyte from water solution of 20% sodium carbonate, in the mode ~850°C - 2 seconds, ∼⃒1200°C - 3 seconds. It is established that in the initial state 20GL steel has ferrite-pearlite structure, and the 60G steel consists of pearlite and cement structure. After application of electrolyte-plasma surface hardening is observed the formation of carbides particles and martensite phase components in the structure of 20GL and 60G steels. It is determined that after electrolyte-plasma surface hardening with heating time - 2 seconds, the abrasive wear-resistance of 65G and 20GL steels increased to 1.3 times and 1.2 times, respectively, and the microhardness is increased to 1.6 times and 1.3 times, respectively.

  19. Kinematic hardening of a porous limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheatham, J. B.; Allen, M. B.; Celle, C. C.

    1984-10-01

    A concept for a kinematic hardening yield surface in stress space for Cordova Cream limestone (Austin Chalk) developed by Celle and Cheatham (1981) has been improved using Ziegler's modification of Prager's hardening rule (Ziegler, 1959). Data to date agree with the formulated concepts. It is shown how kinematic hardening can be used to approximate the yield surface for a wide range of stress states past the initial yield surface. The particular difficulty of identifying the yield surface under conditions of unloading or extension is noted. A yield condition and hardening rule which account for the strain induced anisotropy in Cordova Cream Limestone were developed. Although the actual yield surface appears to involve some change of size and shape, it is concluded that true kinematic hardening provides a basis for engineering calculations.

  20. Comparison of linear and square superposition hardening models for the surface nanoindentation of ion-irradiated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xiazi; Yu, Long

    2018-05-01

    Linear and square superposition hardening models are compared for the surface nanoindentation of ion-irradiated materials. Hardening mechanisms of both dislocations and defects within the plasticity affected region (PAR) are considered. Four sets of experimental data for ion-irradiated materials are adopted to compare with theoretical results of the two hardening models. It is indicated that both models describe experimental data equally well when the PAR is within the irradiated layer; whereas, when the PAR is beyond the irradiated region, the square superposition hardening model performs better. Therefore, the square superposition model is recommended to characterize the hardening behavior of ion-irradiated materials.

  1. SURFACE HARDENING OF TITANIUM BY TREATMENT IN MOLTEN BORAX

    SciTech Connect

    Minkevich, A.N.; Shul'ga, Yu.N.

    1957-01-01

    The surface hardening of titanium and titanium alloys by treatment in molten borax was investigated. Commercial titanium, a titanium-tungsten alloy, and an aluminum-chromium-titanium alloy were used for the experiments. To prevent oxidation of the titanium and to protect the surface, electro-chemical protection was applied, the current density being 0.1 amp/cm/sup 2/ and the the specimens were coated with a thin layer of borax. The results showed that treatment in molten borax is an effective method of increasing surface hardness. However, the strength, mmalleabiltiy, and toughness of the hardness increase is discussed. (J.S.R.)

  2. Investigations on the Influence of Parameters During Electron Beam Surface Hardening Using the Flash Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafe, S.; Hengst, P.; Buchwalder, A.; Zenker, R.

    2018-06-01

    The electron beam hardening (EBH) process is one of today’s most innovative industrial technologies. Due to the almost inertia-free deflection of the EB (up to 100 kHz), the energy transfer function can be adapted locally to the component geometry and/or loading conditions. The current state-of-the-art technology is that of EBH with continuous workpiece feed. Due to the large range of parameters, the potentials and limitations of EBH using the flash technique (without workpiece feed) have not been investigated sufficiently to date. The aim of this research was to generate surface isothermal energy transfer within the flash field. This paper examines the effects of selected process parameters on the EBH surface layer microstructure and the properties achieved when treating hardened and tempered C45E steel. When using constant point distribution within the flash field and a constant beam current, surface isothermal energy input was not generated. However, by increasing the deflection frequency, point density and beam current, a more homogeneous EBH surface layer microstructure could be achieved, along with higher surface hardness and greater surface hardening depths. Furthermore, using temperature-controlled power regulation, surface isothermal energy transfer could be realised over a larger area in the centre of the sample.

  3. Experimental investigation into effect of cutting parameters on surface integrity of hardened tool steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, K.; Alkali, A. U.; Elmunafi, M. H. S.; Yusof, N. M.

    2018-04-01

    Recent trend in turning hardened materials have gained popularity because of its immense machinability benefits. However, several machining processes like thermal assisted machining and cryogenic machining have reveal superior machinability benefits over conventional dry turning of hardened materials. Various engineering materials have been studied. However, investigations on AISI O1 tool steel have not been widely reported. In this paper, surface finish and surface integrity dominant when hard turning AISI O1 tool steel is analysed. The study is focused on the performance of wiper coated ceramic tool with respect to surface roughness and surface integrity of hardened tool steel. Hard turned tool steel was machined at varying cutting speed of 100, 155 and 210 m/min and feed rate of 0.05, 0.125 and 0.20mm/rev. The depth of cut of 0.2mm was maintained constant throughout the machining trials. Machining was conducted using dry turning on 200E-axis CNC lathe. The experimental study revealed that the surface finish is relatively superior at higher cutting speed of 210m/min. The surface finish increases when cutting speed increases whereas surface finish is generally better at lower feed rate of 0.05mm/rev. The experimental study conducted have revealed that phenomena such as work piece vibration due to poor or improper mounting on the spindle also contributed to higher surface roughness value of 0.66Ra during turning at 0.2mm/rev. Traces of white layer was observed when viewed with optical microscope which shows evidence of cutting effects on the turned work material at feed rate of 0.2 rev/min

  4. Relation between the fracture laws and the fatigue life of a surface-hardened pseudo-α titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagmutov, V. P.; Vodop'yanov, V. I.; Zakharov, I. N.; Denisevich, D. S.

    2016-07-01

    The laws of fracture and fatigue life of the PT-3V pseudo-α titanium alloy subjected to surface hardening using electromechanical, ultrasonic, and combined treatment are studied. Fracture mechanisms and the structures of crack nucleation and growth zones are described using the results of metallographic and fractographic analysis of samples after fatigue tests. It is shown that the existence of a thin hardened layer on the sample surface changes the crack nucleation time and the state of fracture surface in the crack nucleation zone. This surface is characterized by signs of brittle or ductile fracture, which substantially affects the fatigue life of the sample.

  5. Surface Hardening of Composite Material by the Centrifugal-Casting Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidelman, E. D.; Durnev, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of rotation flow emerging under centrifugal casting on the first-order phase transition, i.e., crystallization, has been studied using the example of producing a gradient composite material of AK12 aluminum alloy in a mixture with basalt fibers. It has been shown that a material with a hardened surface can be created. Distribution of admixtures in the main material when there is macroscopic motion has been found.

  6. Steels with controlled hardenability for induction hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepelyakovskii, K. Z.

    1980-07-01

    Steels of the CH and LH type developed in the Soviet Union permit the use of a new method of induction hardening — bulk-surface hardening — and efficient utilization of the high-strength conditions (σb = 230-250 kgf/mm2). These steels make it possible to improve the structural strength, operating characteristics, service life, and reliability of critical heavily loaded machine parts. At the same time, CH steels make it possible to reduce by a factor of 2-3 the quantity of alloying elements, reduce the electrical energy for heat treatment, and completely exclude the cost of quenching oil for heat treatment in automatic equipment with high labor productivity, while retaining good working conditions. All this leads to substantial savings in production and operation. For example, when transmission gears (cylindrical and conical) are manufactured from LH steels the annual savings amount to more than 700,000 rubles at two automobile plants. Machine parts of CH steels — half axles and bearings in railway cars —have saved respectively six and four million rubles annually. The introduction of controlled-hardenability steels for induction hardening is a necessary condition for technological progress in machine construction and metallurgy.

  7. Surface hardening of cutting elements agricultural machinery vibro arc plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifullin, S. N.; Adigamov, N. R.; Adigamov, N. N.; Solovev, R. Y.; Arakcheeva, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    At present, the state technical policy aimed at the modernization of worn equipment, including agriculture, based on the use of high-performance technology called nanotechnology. By upgrading worn-out equipment meant restoring it with the achievement of the above parameters passport. The existing traditional technologies are not suitable for the repair of worn-out equipment modernization. This is especially true of imported equipment. Out here alone - is the use of high-performance technologies. In this paper, we consider the use of vibro arc plasma for surface hardening of cutting elements of agricultural machinery.

  8. Properties and Commercial Application of Manual Plasma Hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotkov, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    A new method and a device for plasma hardening of various parts are considered. Installation of the new device does not require too much investment (the active mechanical productions are appropriate for its accommodation) and special choice of personnel (welders train to use it without difficulty). Plasma hardening does not deform and worsen the smoothness of the surface, which makes it possible to employ many hardened parts without finishing mechanical treatment required after bulk or induction hardening. The hardened layer (about 1 mm) produced by plasma hardening exhibits better wear resistance than after bulk hardening with tempering, which prolongs the service life of the parts.

  9. Method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.

    2010-08-31

    The invention includes a method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of B, C, Si and P. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The metal strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from two to seven additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  10. Analysis of the Effect of Cooling Intensity Under Volume-Surface Hardening on Formation of Hardened Structures in Steel 20GL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evseev, D. G.; Savrukhin, A. V.; Neklyudov, A. N.

    2018-01-01

    Computer simulation of the kinetics of thermal processes and structural and phase transformations in the wall of a bogie side frame produced from steel 20GL is performed with allowance for the differences in the cooling intensity under volume-surface hardening. The simulation is based on the developed method employing the diagram of decomposition of austenite at different cooling rates. The data obtained are used to make conclusion on the effect of the cooling intensity on propagation of martensite structure over the wall section.

  11. Surface hardening of steels with a strip-shaped beam of a high-power CO{sub 2} laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dubovskii, P.E.; Kovsh, I.B.; Strekalova, M.S.

    1994-12-01

    A comparative analysis was made of the surface hardening of steel 45 by high-power CO{sub 2} laser beams with a rectangular strip-like cross section and a traditional circular cross section. This was done under various conditions. The treatment with the strip-like beam ensured a higher homogeneity of the hardened layer and made it possible to increase the productivity by a factor of 2-4 compared with the treatment by a beam of the same power but with a circular cross section. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Surface hardening using cw CO2 laser: laser heat treatment, modelation, and experimental work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniz, German; Alum, Jorge

    1996-02-01

    In the present work are given the results of the application of laser metal surface hardening techniques using a cw carbon dioxide laser as an energy source on steel 65 G. The laser heat treatment results are presented theoretically and experimentally. Continuous wave carbon dioxide laser of 0.6, 0.3, and 0.4 kW were used. A physical model for the descriptions of the thermophysical laser metal interactions process is given and a numerical algorithm is used to solve this problem by means of the LHT code. The results are compared with the corresponding experimental ones and a very good agreement is observed. The LHT code is able to do predictions of transformation hardening by laser heating. These results will be completed with other ones concerning laser alloying and cladding presented in a second paper.

  13. Work Hardening Behavior of 1020 Steel During Cold-Beating Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CUI, Fengkui; LING, Yuanfei; XUE, Jinxue; LIU, Jia; LIU, Yuhui; LI, Yan

    2017-03-01

    The present research of cold-beating formation mainly focused on roller design and manufacture, kinematics, constitutive relation, metal flow law, thermo-mechanical coupling, surface micro-topography and microstructure evolution. However, the research on surface quality and performance of workpieces in the process of cold-beating is rare. Cold-beating simulation experiment of 1020 steel is conducted at room temperature and strain rates ranging from 2000 to 4000 s-1 base on the law of plastic forming. According to the experimental data, the model of strain hardening of 1020 steel is established, Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM) is conducted, the mechanism of the work hardening of 1020 steel is clarified by analyzing microstructure variation of 1020 steel. It is found that the strain rate hardening effect of 1020 steel is stronger than the softening effect induced by increasing temperatures, the process of simulation cold-beating cause the grain shape of 1020 steel significant change and microstructure elongate significantly to form a fibrous tissue parallel to the direction of deformation, the higher strain rate, the more obvious grain refinement and the more hardening effect. Additionally, the change law of the work hardening rate is investigated, the relationship between dislocation density and strain, the relationship between work hardening rate and dislocation density is obtained. Results show that the change trend of the work hardening rate of 1020 steel is divided into two stages, the work hardening rate decreases dramatically in the first stage and slowly decreases in the second stage, finally tending toward zero. Dislocation density increases with increasing strain and strain rate, work hardening rate decreases with increasing dislocation density. The research results provide the basis for solving the problem of improving the surface quality and performance of workpieces under cold-beating formation of 1020 steel.

  14. Microstructural changes and strain hardening effects in abrasive contacts at different relative velocities and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Rojacz, H., E-mail: rojacz@ac2t.at

    2016-08-15

    Strain hardening is commonly used to reach the full potential of materials and can be beneficial in tribological contacts. 2-body abrasive wear was simulated in a scratch test, aimed at strain hardening effects in various steels. Different working conditions were examined at various temperatures and velocities. Strain hardening effects and microstructural changes were analysed with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), micro hardness measurements and nanoindentation. Statistical analysing was performed quantifying the influence of different parameters on microstructures. Results show a crucial influence of temperature and velocity on the strain hardening in tribological contacts. Increased velocitymore » leads to higher deformed microstructures and higher increased surface hardness at a lower depth of the deformed zones at all materials investigated. An optimised surface hardness can be achieved knowing the influence of velocity (strain rate) and temperature for a “tailor-made” surface hardening in tribological systems aimed at increased wear resistance. - Highlights: •Hardening mechanisms and their intensity in tribological contacts are dependent on relative velocity and temperature. •Beneficial surface hardened zones are formed at certain running-in conditions; the scientific background is presented here. •Ferritic-pearlitic steels strain hardens via grain size reduction and decreasing interlamellar distances in pearlite. •Austenitic steels show excellent surface hardening (120% hardness increase) by twinning and martensitic transformation. •Ferritic steels with hard phases harden in the ferrite phase as per Hall-Petch equation and degree of deformation.« less

  15. Effect of preheating on fatigue resistance of gears in spin induction coil hardening process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Aggarwal, M. L.

    2018-02-01

    Spin hardening inductors are typically used for fine-sized teeth gear geometry. With the proper selection of several design parameters, only the gear teeth can be case surface hardened without affecting the other surface of gear. Preheating may be done to reach an adapted high austenitizing temperature in the root circle to avoid overheating of the tooth tip during final heating. The effect of preheating of gear on control of compressive residual stresses and case hardening has been experimentally discussed in this paper. Present work is about analysing single frequency mode, preheat hardening treatment and compressive residual stresses field for hardening process of spur gear using spin hardening inductors.

  16. Effect of shot peening on the microstructure of laser hardened 17-4PH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhou; Jiang, Chuanhai; Gan, Xiaoyan; Chen, Yanhua

    2010-12-01

    In order to investigate the influence of shot peening on microstructure of laser hardened steel and clarify how much influence of initial microstructure induced by laser hardening treatment on final microstructure of laser hardened steel after shot peening treatment, measurements of retained austenite, measurements of microhardness and microstructural analysis were carried out on three typical areas including laser hardened area, transitional area and matrix area of laser hardened 17-4PH steel. The results showed that shot peening was an efficient cold working method to eliminate the retained austenite on the surface of laser hardened samples. The surface hardness increased dramatically when shot peening treatments were carried out. The analyses of microstructure of laser hardened 17-4PH after shot peening treatment were carried out in matrix area and laser hardened area via Voigt method. With the increasing peening intensity, the influence depth of shot peening on hardness and microstructure increased but the surface hardness and microstructure did not change when certain peening intensity was reached. Influence depth of shot peening on hardness was larger than influence depth of shot peening on microstructure due to the kinetic energy loss along the depth during shot peening treatment. From the microstructural result, it can be shown that the shot peening treatment can influence the domain size and microstrain of treated samples but laser hardening treatment can only influence the microstrain of treated samples.

  17. Prediction and Optimization of Phase Transformation Region After Spot Continual Induction Hardening Process Using Response Surface Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xunpeng; Gao, Kai; Zhu, Zhenhua; Chen, Xuliang; Wang, Zhou

    2017-09-01

    The spot continual induction hardening (SCIH) process, which is a modified induction hardening, can be assembled to a five-axis cooperating computer numerical control machine tool to strengthen more than one small area or relatively large area on complicated component surface. In this study, a response surface method was presented to optimize phase transformation region after the SCIH process. The effects of five process parameters including feed velocity, input power, gap, curvature and flow rate on temperature, microstructure, microhardness and phase transformation geometry were investigated. Central composition design, a second-order response surface design, was employed to systematically estimate the empirical models of temperature and phase transformation geometry. The analysis results indicated that feed velocity has a dominant effect on the uniformity of microstructure and microhardness, domain size, oxidized track width, phase transformation width and height in the SCIH process while curvature has the largest effect on center temperature in the design space. The optimum operating conditions with 0.817, 0.845 and 0.773 of desirability values are expected to be able to minimize ratio (tempering region) and maximize phase transformation width for concave, flat and convex surface workpieces, respectively. The verification result indicated that the process parameters obtained by the model were reliable.

  18. Effect of distribution of striated laser hardening tracks on dry sliding wear resistance of biomimetic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Wei; Zhou, Ti; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hong; Li, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Some biological surfaces were proved to have excellent anti-wear performance. Being inspired, Nd:YAG pulsed laser was used to create striated biomimetic laser hardening tracks on medium carbon steel samples. Dry sliding wear tests biomimetic samples were performed to investigate specific influence of distribution of laser hardening tracks on sliding wear resistance of biomimetic samples. After comparing wear weight loss of biomimetic samples, quenched sample and untreated sample, it can be suggested that the sample covered with dense laser tracks (3.5 mm spacing) has lower wear weight loss than the one covered with sparse laser tracks (4.5 mm spacing); samples distributed with only dense laser tracks or sparse laser tracks (even distribution) were proved to have better wear resistance than samples distributed with both dense and sparse tracks (uneven distribution). Wear mechanisms indicate that laser track and exposed substrate of biomimetic sample can be regarded as hard zone and soft zone respectively. Inconsecutive striated hard regions, on the one hand, can disperse load into small branches, on the other hand, will hinder sliding abrasives during wear. Soft regions with small range are beneficial in consuming mechanical energy and storing lubricative oxides, however, soft zone with large width (>0.5 mm) will be harmful to abrasion resistance of biomimetic sample because damages and material loss are more obvious on surface of soft phase. As for the reason why samples with even distributed bionic laser tracks have better wear resistance, it can be explained by the fact that even distributed laser hardening tracks can inhibit severe worn of local regions, thus sliding process can be more stable and wear extent can be alleviated as well.

  19. An Anisotropic Hardening Model for Springback Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Danielle; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-08-01

    As more Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) are heavily used for automotive body structures and closures panels, accurate springback prediction for these components becomes more challenging because of their rapid hardening characteristics and ability to sustain even higher stresses. In this paper, a modified Mroz hardening model is proposed to capture realistic Bauschinger effect at reverse loading, such as when material passes through die radii or drawbead during sheet metal forming process. This model accounts for material anisotropic yield surface and nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening behavior. Material tension/compression test data are used to accurately represent Bauschinger effect. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated by comparison of numerical and experimental springback results for a DP600 straight U-channel test.

  20. Surface Roughness Optimization Using Taguchi Method of High Speed End Milling For Hardened Steel D2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazza Faizi Al-Hazza, Muataz; Ibrahim, Nur Asmawiyah bt; Adesta, Erry T. Y.; Khan, Ahsan Ali; Abdullah Sidek, Atiah Bt.

    2017-03-01

    The main challenge for any manufacturer is to achieve higher quality of their final products with maintains minimum machining time. In this research final surface roughness analysed and optimized with maximum 0.3 mm flank wear length. The experiment was investigated the effect of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut on the final surface roughness using D2 as a work piece hardened to 52-56 HRC, and coated carbide as cutting tool with higher cutting speed 120-240 mm/min. The experiment has been conducted using L9 design of Taguchi collection. The results have been analysed using JMP software.

  1. Simulating the influence of scatter and beam hardening in dimensional computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, J. J.; Carmignato, S.

    2017-10-01

    Cone-beam x-ray computed tomography (XCT) is a radiographic scanning technique that allows the non-destructive dimensional measurement of an object’s internal and external features. XCT measurements are influenced by a number of different factors that are poorly understood. This work investigates how non-linear x-ray attenuation caused by beam hardening and scatter influences XCT-based dimensional measurements through the use of simulated data. For the measurement task considered, both scatter and beam hardening are found to influence dimensional measurements when evaluated using the ISO50 surface determination method. On the other hand, only beam hardening is found to influence dimensional measurements when evaluated using an advanced surface determination method. Based on the results presented, recommendations on the use of beam hardening and scatter correction for dimensional XCT are given.

  2. Surface nanocrystalline and hardening effects of Ti-Al-V alloy by electropulsing ultrasonic shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiaoxin

    2015-04-01

    The effect of electropulsing ultrasonic shock (EUS) on the surface hardening and microstructure of Ti6Al4V alloy was studied. It was found that electropulsing improved the microhardness dramatically both in the influential depth and maximum value, compared with the only ultrasonic-shocked sample. It's indicated that refined surface layer with nanocrystalline and improved microhardness were obtained on account of surface severe plastic deformation, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and phase change, which was implemented at relative low temperature and high strain rate/capacity due to the coupling of the thermal and athermal effects of EUS. It's different from conventional experiments and theory. It's discussed that the positive contributions of EPT in the thermodynamics and kinetics of microstructure and properties change were attributed to the reduction of nucleation energy barrier and acceleration of atomic diffusion. Therefore, it's supposed that EUS is an energy-saving and high-efficiency method of surface treatment technique with the help of high-energy electropulses, which is promising in cost reduction of the surface engineering and energy management.

  3. Laser hardening techniques on steam turbine blade and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Zhang, Qunli; Kong, Fanzhi; Ding, Qingming

    Different laser surface hardening techniques, such as laser alloying and laser solution strengthening were adopted to perform modification treatment on the local region of inset edge for 2Cr13 and 17-4PH steam turbine blades to prolong the life of the blades. The microstructures, microhardness and anti-cavitation properties were investigated on the blades after laser treatment. The hardening mechanism and technique adaptability were researched. Large scale installation practices confirmed that the laser surface modification techniques are safe and reliable, which can improve the properties of blades greatly with advantages of high automation, high quality, little distortion and simple procedure.

  4. Helium-induced hardening effect in polycrystalline tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fanhang; Qu, Miao; Yan, Sha; Zhang, Ailin; Peng, Shixiang; Xue, Jianming; Wang, Yugang

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, helium induced hardening effect of tungsten was investigated. 50 keV He2+ ions at fluences vary from 5 × 1015 cm-2 to 5 × 1017 cm-2 were implanted into polycrystalline tungsten at RT to create helium bubble-rich layers near the surface. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the irradiated specimens were studied by TEM and nano-indentor. Helium bubble rich layers are formed in near surface region, and the layers become thicker with the rise of fluences. Helium bubbles in the area of helium concentration peak are found to grow up, while the bubble density is almost unchanged. Obvious hardening effect is induced by helium implantation in tungsten. Micro hardness increases rapidly with the fluence firstly, and more slowly when the fluence is above 5 × 1016 cm-2. The hardening effect of tungsten can be attributed to helium bubbles, which is found to be in agreement with the Bacon-Orowan stress formula. The growing diameter is the major factor rather than helium bubbles density (voids distance) in the process of helium implantation at fluences below 5 × 1017 cm-2.

  5. Surface nanocrystalline and hardening effects of Ti-Al-V alloy by electropulsing ultrasonic shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiaoxin; Tang, Guoyi

    2015-03-01

    The effect of electropulsing ultrasonic shock (EUS) on the surface hardening and microstructure of Ti6Al4V alloy was studied. It was found that electropulsing improved the microhardness dramatically both in the influential depth and maximum value, compared with the only ultrasonic-shocked sample. It's indicated that refined surface layer with nanocrystalline and improved microhardness were obtained on account of surface severe plastic deformation, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and phase change, which was implemented at relative low temperature and high strain rate/capacity due to the coupling of the thermal and athermal effects of EUS. It's different from conventional experiments and theory. It's discussed that the positive contributions of EPT in the thermodynamics and kinetics of microstructure and properties change were attributed to the reduction of nucleation energy barrier and acceleration of atomic diffusion. Therefore, it's supposed that EUS is an energy-saving and high-efficiency method of surface treatment technique with the help of high-energy electropulses, which is promising in cost reduction of the surface engineering and energy management. The work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 50571048) and Shenzhen science and technology research funding project of China (No. SGLH20121008144756946).

  6. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Surface hardening of steels with a strip-shaped beam of a high-power CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovskii, P. E.; Kovsh, Ivan B.; Strekalova, M. S.; Sisakyan, I. N.

    1994-12-01

    A comparative analysis was made of the surface hardening of steel 45 by high-power CO2 laser beams with a rectangular strip-like cross section and a traditional circular cross section. This was done under various conditions. The treatment with the strip-like beam ensured a higher homogeneity of the hardened layer and made it possible to increase the productivity by a factor of 2-4 compared with the treatment by a beam of the same power but with a circular cross section.

  7. Fractography of induction-hardened steel fractured in fatigue and overload

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, C.G.; Laird, C.

    1997-07-01

    The fracture surfaces of induction-hardened steel specimens obtained from an auto axle were characterized, macroscopically and microscopically, after being fractured in fatigue and monotonic overload. Specimens were tested in cyclic three-point bending under load control, and the S-N curve was established for specimens that had been notched by spark machining to facilitate fractography. Scanning electron microscopy of the fractured surfaces obtained for lives spanning the range 17,000 to 418,000 cycles revealed diverse fracture morphologies, including intergranular fracture and transgranular fatigue fracture. The results are being offered to assist in the analysis of complex field failures in strongly hardened steel.

  8. Estimating surface hardening profile of blank for obtaining high drawing ratio in deep drawing process using FE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. J.; Aslian, A.; Honarvar, B.; Puborlaksono, J.; Yau, Y. H.; Chong, W. T.

    2015-12-01

    We constructed an FE axisymmetric model to simulate the effect of partially hardened blanks on increasing the limiting drawing ratio (LDR) of cylindrical cups. We partitioned an arc-shaped hard layer into the cross section of a DP590 blank. We assumed the mechanical property of the layer is equivalent to either DP980 or DP780. We verified the accuracy of the model by comparing the calculated LDR for DP590 with the one reported in the literature. The LDR for the partially hardened blank increased from 2.11 to 2.50 with a 1 mm depth of DP980 ring-shaped hard layer on the top surface of the blank. The position of the layer changed with drawing ratios. We proposed equations for estimating the inner and outer diameters of the layer, and tested its accuracy in the simulation. Although the outer diameters fitted in well with the estimated line, the inner diameters are slightly less than the estimated ones.

  9. Improvement in surface fatigue life of hardened gears by high-intensity shot peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.

    1992-04-01

    Two groups of carburized, hardened, and ground spur gears that were manufactured from the same heat vacuum induction melted vacuum arc melted (VIM VAR) AISI 9310 steel were endurance tested for surface fatigue. Both groups were manufactured with a standard ground 16 rms surface finish. One group was subjected to a shot peening (SP) intensity of 7 to 9A, and the second group was subjected to a SP intensity of 15 to 17A. All gears were honed after SP to a surface finish of 16 rms. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm. Test conditions were a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa, a gear temperature of 350 K, and a speed of 10000 rpm. The lubricant used for the tests was a synthetic paraffinic oil with an additive package. The following results were obtained: The 10 pct. surface fatigue (pitting) life of the high intensity (15 to 17A) SPed gears was 2.15 times that of the medium intensity (7 to 9A) SPed gears, the same as that calculated from measured residual stress at a depth of 127 microns. The measured residual stress for the high intensity SPed gears was 57 pct. higher than that for the medium intensity SPed gears at a depth of 127 microns and 540 pct. higher at a depth of 51 microns.

  10. Improvement in surface fatigue life of hardened gears by high-intensity shot peening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.

    1992-01-01

    Two groups of carburized, hardened, and ground spur gears that were manufactured from the same heat vacuum induction melted vacuum arc melted (VIM VAR) AISI 9310 steel were endurance tested for surface fatigue. Both groups were manufactured with a standard ground 16 rms surface finish. One group was subjected to a shot peening (SP) intensity of 7 to 9A, and the second group was subjected to a SP intensity of 15 to 17A. All gears were honed after SP to a surface finish of 16 rms. The gear pitch diameter was 8.89 cm. Test conditions were a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa, a gear temperature of 350 K, and a speed of 10000 rpm. The lubricant used for the tests was a synthetic paraffinic oil with an additive package. The following results were obtained: The 10 pct. surface fatigue (pitting) life of the high intensity (15 to 17A) SPed gears was 2.15 times that of the medium intensity (7 to 9A) SPed gears, the same as that calculated from measured residual stress at a depth of 127 microns. The measured residual stress for the high intensity SPed gears was 57 pct. higher than that for the medium intensity SPed gears at a depth of 127 microns and 540 pct. higher at a depth of 51 microns.

  11. Microstructure-property relationships and constitutive response of plastically graded case hardened steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klecka, Michael A.

    Case hardened materials, popularly used in many demanding engineering applications such as bearings, gears, and wear/impact surfaces, have high surface hardness and a gradient in material properties (hardness, yield strength, etc.) as a function of depth; therefore, they behave as plastically graded materials. In the current study, two different commercially available case carburized steels along with two through hardened steels are characterized to obtain relationships among the volume fraction of subsurface carbides, indentation hardness, elastic modulus, and yield strength as a function of depth. A variety of methods including microindentation, nanoindentation, ultrasonic measurements, compression testing, rule of mixtures, and upper and lower bound models are used to determine the relationships for elastic modulus and compare the experimental results with model predictions. In addition, the morphology, composition, and properties of the carbide particles are also determined. The gradient in hardness with depth in graded materials is commonly determined using microindentation on the cross-section of the material which contains the gradation in microstructure or composition. In the current study, a novel method is proposed to predict the hardness gradient profile using solely surface indentations at a range of loads. The method does not require the graded material to be sectioned, and has practical utility in the surface heat-treatment industry. For a material with a decreasing gradient in hardness, higher indent loads result in a lower measured hardness due to the influence of the softer subsurface layers. A power-law model is presented which relates the measured surface indentation hardness under increasing load to the subsurface gradient in hardness. A coordinated experimental and numerical study is presented to extract the constitutive response of graded materials, utilizing relationships between hardness, plastic deformation, and strain hardening response

  12. Surface fatigue life of CBN and vitreous ground carburized and hardened AISI 9310 spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Patel, P. R.

    1988-01-01

    Spur gear surface endurance tests were conducted to investigate CBN ground AISI 9310 spur gears for use in aircraft applications, to determine their endurance characteristics and to compare the results with the endurance of standard vitreous ground AISI 9310 spur gears. Tests were conducted with VIM-VAR AISI 9310 carburized and hardened gears that were finish ground with either CBN or vitreous grinding methods. Test conditions were an inlet oil temeprature of 320 K (116 F), an outlet oil temperature of 350 K (170 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 ksi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. The CBN ground gears exhibited a surface fatigue life that was slightly better than the vitreous ground gears. The subsurface residual stress of the CBN ground gears was approximately the same as that for the standard vitreous ground gears for the CBN grinding method used.

  13. An evolving effective stress approach to anisotropic distortional hardening

    DOE PAGES

    Lester, B. T.; Scherzinger, W. M.

    2018-03-11

    A new yield surface with an evolving effective stress definition is proposed for consistently and efficiently describing anisotropic distortional hardening. Specifically, a new internal state variable is introduced to capture the thermodynamic evolution between different effective stress definitions. The corresponding yield surface and evolution equations of the internal variables are derived from thermodynamic considerations enabling satisfaction of the second law. A closest point projection return mapping algorithm for the proposed model is formulated and implemented for use in finite element analyses. Finally, select constitutive and larger scale boundary value problems are solved to explore the capabilities of the model andmore » examine the impact of distortional hardening on constitutive and structural responses. Importantly, these simulations demonstrate the tractability of the proposed formulation in investigating large-scale problems of interest.« less

  14. An evolving effective stress approach to anisotropic distortional hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, B. T.; Scherzinger, W. M.

    A new yield surface with an evolving effective stress definition is proposed for consistently and efficiently describing anisotropic distortional hardening. Specifically, a new internal state variable is introduced to capture the thermodynamic evolution between different effective stress definitions. The corresponding yield surface and evolution equations of the internal variables are derived from thermodynamic considerations enabling satisfaction of the second law. A closest point projection return mapping algorithm for the proposed model is formulated and implemented for use in finite element analyses. Finally, select constitutive and larger scale boundary value problems are solved to explore the capabilities of the model andmore » examine the impact of distortional hardening on constitutive and structural responses. Importantly, these simulations demonstrate the tractability of the proposed formulation in investigating large-scale problems of interest.« less

  15. Influence of Heat Treatment on Mercury Cavitation Resistance of Surface Hardened 316LN Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steven J; Hsu, Julia

    2010-11-01

    The cavitation-erosion resistance of carburized 316LN stainless steel was significantly degraded but not destroyed by heat treatment in the temperature range 500-800 C. The heat treatments caused rejection of some carbon from the carburized layer into an amorphous film that formed on each specimen surface. Further, the heat treatments encouraged carbide precipitation and reduced hardness within the carburized layer, but the overall change did not reduce surface hardness fully to the level of untreated material. Heat treatments as short as 10 min at 650 C substantially reduced cavitation-erosion resistance in mercury, while heat treatments at 500 and 800 C weremore » found to be somewhat less detrimental. Overall, the results suggest that modest thermal excursions perhaps the result of a weld made at some distance to the carburized material or a brief stress relief treatment will not render the hardened layer completely ineffective but should be avoided to the greatest extent possible.« less

  16. Hardening [Chapter 12

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis

    2009-01-01

    To promote survival and growth following outplanting, nursery stock must undergo proper hardening. Without proper hardening, plants do not store well over winter and are likely to grow poorly or die on the outplanting site. It is important to understand that native plant nurseries are different from traditional horticultural systems in that native plants must endure an...

  17. System-Level Radiation Hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Although system-level radiation hardening can enable the use of high-performance components and enhance the capabilities of a spacecraft, hardening techniques can be costly and can compromise the very performance designers sought from the high-performance components. Moreover, such techniques often result in a complicated design, especially if several complex commercial microcircuits are used, each posing its own hardening challenges. The latter risk is particularly acute for Commercial-Off-The-Shelf components since high-performance parts (e.g. double-data-rate synchronous dynamic random access memories - DDR SDRAMs) may require other high-performance commercial parts (e.g. processors) to support their operation. For these reasons, it is essential that system-level radiation hardening be a coordinated effort, from setting requirements through testing up to and including validation.

  18. Study on boring hardened materials dryly by ultrasonic vibration cutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiangzhong; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Yue

    2011-05-01

    It has been one of the difficulties that high-precision hole on hardened materials is machined. The supersonic vibration boring acoustic system in the lathe in which supersonic wave energy is applied on tool is introduced to create pulse power on the cutting process. The separation vibration cutting is achieved by the pulse force. The comparative tests on boring accuracy and surface quality are carried. The quality of surface machined by this method is compared to that by grinding. This cutting is the green cutting. The boring process system is stability. Under the condition that the cutting speed is less than or equal to 1/3 the tool vibration speed, the cutting force is pulse force and the Cutting energy is of high concentration in time, space and direction. The pulse energy effects on the cutting unit in less than one ten-thousandth second. Traditional cutting of irregular movement elastic compression are eliminated. The cutting force is greatly reduced. The cutting temperature is at room temperature. The tool life is greatly increased. Shape precision and surface quality is greatly improved. The regulations of the ultrasonic vibration boring dry cutting of hardened material are also summarized. The test results show that the ultrasonic vibration cutting tool boring is of very superior cutting mechanism and is a high-precision deep-hole machining of hardened materials, efficient cutting methods.

  19. Effect of cutting parameters on strain hardening of nickel–titanium shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guijie; Liu, Zhanqiang; Ai, Xing; Huang, Weimin; Niu, Jintao

    2018-07-01

    Nickel–titanium shape memory alloy (SMA) has been widely used as implant materials due to its good biocompatibility, shape memory property and super-elasticity. However, the severe strain hardening is a main challenge due to cutting force and temperature caused by machining. An orthogonal experiment of nickel–titanium SMA with different milling parameters conditions was conducted in this paper. On the one hand, the effect of cutting parameters on work hardening is obtained. It is found that the cutting speed has the most important effect on work hardening. The depth of machining induced layer and the degree of hardening become smaller with the increase of cutting speed when the cutting speed is less than 200 m min‑1 and then get larger with further increase of cutting speed. The relative intensity of diffraction peak increases as the cutting speed increase. In addition, all of the depth of machining induced layer, the degree of hardening and the relative intensity of diffraction peak increase when the feed rate increases. On the other hand, it is found that the depth of machining induced layer is closely related with the degree of hardening and phase transition. The higher the content of austenite in the machined surface is, the higher the degree of hardening will be. The depth of the machining induced layer increases with the degree of hardening increasing.

  20. Experimental investigation of edge hardening and edge cracking sensitivity of burr-free parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senn, Sergei; Liewald, Mathias

    2018-05-01

    This experimental study is focused on characterisation of edge hardening of sheet metal and remaining formability of differently prepared cutted edges. Edge cracking sensitivity of counter cutted, shear cutted, recutted and water-jet cutted components are compared and evaluated. Subsequently, edge hardening and hole expansion ratio were correlated for material HC420 LA with sheet thickness of t = 2 mm. As other studies show, the cutting edge surface quality influences the hole expansion ratio: a high clear cut surface increases formability of cutting edges, whereas micro cracks and rough surfaces result into a large fracture surface, which impact remaining formability noticeably. Thus, cutting edges with lower edge hardening behaviour in conjunction with a higher clear cut surface exhibit higher hole expansion ratios. Counter cutting and the recutting do show a similar effect on edge hardening. Using the hole expansion test, it was possible to prove that counter cutted components show a significantly lower edge cracking sensitivity in comparison to conventionally shear cutted components. The hole expansion ratio of counter cutted specimens looks balanced and is comparable to the hole expansion ratio measured from specimens with recutted or water jet cutted edges. The significant difference of the investigated cutting processes is characterized by size of clear cutting area. This area of recutted edges emerges larger than the area of counter cutted specimens, which evidently leads to an increased hole expansion ratio of recutted specimens compared to conventionally shear cutted ones. However, it is important to note that the hole expansion ratio of counter cutted and recutted specimens appear fairly balanced, but counter cutted samples indeed can be produced burr-free. Using counter cutting technology, it is possible to produce burr free surfaces with high edge formability.

  1. Laser quench hardening of steel: Effects of superimposed elastic pre-stress on the hardness and residual stress distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meserve, Justin

    Cold drawn AISI 4140 beams were LASER surface hardened with a 2 kW CO2 LASER. Specimens were treated in the free state and while restrained in a bending fixture inducing surface tensile stresses of 94 and 230 MPa. Knoop hardness indentation was used to evaluate the through thickness hardness distribution, and a layer removal methodology was used to evaluate the residual stress distribution. Results showed the maximum surface hardness attained was not affected by pre-stress during hardening, and ranged from 513 to 676 kg/mm2. The depth of effective hardening varied at different magnitudes of pre-stress, but did not vary proportionately to the pre-stress. The surface residual stress, coinciding with the maximum compressive residual stress, increased as pre-stress was increased, from 1040 MPa for the nominally treated specimens to 1270 MPa for specimens pre-stressed to 230 MPa. The maximum tensile residual stress observed in the specimens decreased from 1060 MPa in the nominally treated specimens to 760 MPa for specimens pre-stressed to 230 MPa. Similarly, thickness of the compressive residual stress region increased and the depth at which maximum tensile residual stress occurred increased as the pre-stress during treatment was increased Overall, application of tensile elastic pre-stress during LASER hardening is beneficial to the development of compressive residual stress in AISI 4140, with minimal impact to the hardness attained from the treatment. The newly developed approach for LASER hardening may support efforts to increase both the wear and fatigue resistance of parts made from hardenable steels.

  2. Analysis of the regimes in the scanner-based laser hardening process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, S.; Lamikiz, A.; Ukar, E.; Calleja, A.; Arrizubieta, J. A.; Lopez de Lacalle, L. N.

    2017-03-01

    Laser hardening is becoming a consolidated process in different industrial sectors such as the automotive industry or in the die and mold industry. The key to ensure the success in this process is to control the surface temperature and the hardened layer thickness. Furthermore, the development of reliable scanners, based on moving optics for guiding high power lasers at extremely fast speeds allows the rapid motion of laser spots, resulting on tailored shapes of swept areas by the laser. If a scanner is used to sweep a determined area, the laser energy density distribution can be adapted by varying parameters such us the scanning speed or laser power inside this area. Despite its advantages in terms of versatility, the use of scanners for the laser hardening process has not yet been introduced in the thermal hardening industry because of the difficulty of the temperature control and possible non-homogeneous hardness thickness layers. In the present work the laser hardening process with scanning optics applied to AISI 1045 steel has been studied, with special emphasis on the influence of the scanning speed and the results derived from its variation, the evolution of the hardened layer thickness and different strategies for the control of the process temperature. For this purpose, the hardened material has been studied by measuring microhardness at different points and the shape of the hardened layer has also been evaluated. All tests have been performed using an experimental setup designed to keep a nominal temperature value using a closed-loop control. The tests results show two different regimes depending on the scanning speed and feed rate values. The experimental results conclusions have been validated by means of thermal simulations at different conditions.

  3. Contact allergy to epoxy hardeners.

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Suuronen, Katri; Kuuliala, Outi; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Jolanki, Riitta

    2014-09-01

    Diglycidylether of bisphenol A resin is the most important sensitizer in epoxy systems, but a minority of patients develop concomitant or solitary contact allergy to epoxy hardeners. At the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, several in-house test substances of epoxy hardeners have been tested in a special epoxy compound patch test series. To analyse the frequency and clinical relevance of allergic reactions to different epoxy hardeners. Test files (January 1991 to March 2013) were screened for contact allergy to different epoxy hardeners, and the clinical records of patients with allergic reactions were analysed for occupation, concomitant allergic reactions, and exposure. The most commonly positive epoxy hardeners were m-xylylenediamine (n = 24), 2,4,6-tris-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol (tris-DMP; n = 14), isophorone-diamine (n = 12), and diethylenetriamine (n = 9). Trimethylhexamethylenediamine (n = 7), tetraethylenepentamine (n = 4), and triethylenetetramine (n = 2) elicited some reactions, although most patients were found to have no specific exposure. Allergic reactions to hexamethylenetetramine, dimethylaminopropylamine and ethylenediamine dihydrochloride were not related to epoxy products. Tris-DMP is an important sensitizer in epoxy hardeners, and should be included in the patch test series of epoxy chemicals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Numerical analysis of drilling hole work-hardening effects in hole-drilling residual stress measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Liu, Y. H.

    2008-11-01

    The hole-drilling strain gage method is an effective semi-destructive technique for determining residual stresses in the component. As a mechanical technique, a work-hardening layer will be formed on the surface of the hole after drilling, and affect the strain relaxation. By increasing Young's modulus of the material near the hole, the work-hardening layer is simplified as a heterogeneous annulus. As an example, two finite rectangular plates submitted to different initial stresses are treated, and the relieved strains are measured by finite element simulation. The accuracy of the measurement is estimated by comparing the simulated residual stresses with the given initial ones. The results are shown for various hardness of work-hardening layer. The influence of the relative position of the gages compared with the thickness of the work-hardening layer, and the effect of the ratio of hole diameter to work-hardening layer thickness are analyzed as well.

  5. Chip formation and surface integrity in high-speed machining of hardened steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishawy, Hossam Eldeen A.

    Increasing demands for high production rates as well as cost reduction have emphasized the potential for the industrial application of hard turning technology during the past few years. Machining instead of grinding hardened steel components reduces the machining sequence, the machining time, and the specific cutting energy. Hard turning Is characterized by the generation of high temperatures, the formation of saw toothed chips, and the high ratio of thrust to tangential cutting force components. Although a large volume of literature exists on hard turning, the change in machined surface physical properties represents a major challenge. Thus, a better understanding of the cutting mechanism in hard turning is still required. In particular, the chip formation process and the surface integrity of the machined surface are important issues which require further research. In this thesis, a mechanistic model for saw toothed chip formation is presented. This model is based on the concept of crack initiation on the free surface of the workpiece. The model presented explains the mechanism of chip formation. In addition, experimental investigation is conducted in order to study the chip morphology. The effect of process parameters, including edge preparation and tool wear on the chip morphology, is studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The dynamics of chip formation are also investigated. The surface integrity of the machined parts is also investigated. This investigation focusses on residual stresses as well as surface and sub-surface deformation. A three dimensional thermo-elasto-plastic finite element model is developed to predict the machining residual stresses. The effect of flank wear is introduced during the analysis. Although residual stresses have complicated origins and are introduced by many factors, in this model only the thermal and mechanical factors are considered. The finite element analysis demonstrates the significant effect of the heat generated

  6. Product surface hardening in non-self-sustained glow discharge plasma before synthesis of superhard coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, P. S.; Metel, A. S.; Nay, H. A.

    2017-05-01

    Before the synthesis of superhard coating, the product surface is hardened by means of plasma nitriding, which prevents the surface deformations and the coating brittle rupture. The product heating by ions accelerated from plasma by applied to the product bias voltage leads to overheating and blunting of the product sharp edges. To prevent the blunting, it is proposed to heat the products with a broad beam of fast nitrogen molecules. The beam injection into a working vacuum chamber results in filling of the chamber with quite homogeneous plasma suitable for nitriding. Immersion in the plasma of the electrode and heightening of its potential up to 50-100 V initiate a non-self-sustained glow discharge between the electrode and the chamber. It enhances the plasma density by an order of magnitude and reduces its spatial nonuniformity down to 5-10%. When a cutting tool is isolated from the chamber, it is bombarded by plasma ions with an energy corresponding to its floating potential, which is lower than the sputtering threshold. Hence, the sharp edges are sputtered only by fast nitrogen molecules with the same rate as other parts of the tool surface. This leads to sharpening of the cutting tools instead of blunting.

  7. Model Identification and FE Simulations: Effect of Different Yield Loci and Hardening Laws in Sheet Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, P.; Duchêne, L.; Lelotte, T.; Bouffioux, C.; El Houdaigui, F.; Van Bael, A.; He, S.; Duflou, J.; Habraken, A. M.

    2005-08-01

    The bi-axial experimental equipment developed by Flores enables to perform Baushinger shear tests and successive or simultaneous simple shear tests and plane-strain tests. Such experiments and classical tensile tests investigate the material behavior in order to identify the yield locus and the hardening models. With tests performed on two steel grades, the methods applied to identify classical yield surfaces such as Hill or Hosford ones as well as isotropic Swift type hardening or kinematic Armstrong-Frederick hardening models are explained. Comparison with the Taylor-Bishop-Hill yield locus is also provided. The effect of both yield locus and hardening model choice will be presented for two applications: Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) and a cup deep drawing.

  8. Investigation of the Effect of Small Hardening Spots Created on the Sample Surface by Laser Complex with Solid-State Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozdrina, O.; Zykov, I.; Melnikov, A.; Tsipilev, V.; Turanov, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation of the effect of small hardening spots (about 1 mm) created on the surface of a sample by laser complex with solid-state laser. The melted area of the steel sample is not exceed 5%. Steel microhardness change in the region subjected to laser treatment is studied. Also there is a graph of the deformation of samples dependence on the tension. As a result, the yield plateau and plastic properties changes were detected. The flow line was tracked in the series of speckle photographs. As a result we can see how mm surface inhomogeneity can influence on the deformation and strength properties of steel.

  9. Radiation Hardened Electronics for Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Watson, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project consists of a series of tasks designed to develop and mature a broad spectrum of radiation hardened and low temperature electronics technologies. Three approaches are being taken to address radiation hardening: improved material hardness, design techniques to improve radiation tolerance, and software methods to improve radiation tolerance. Within these approaches various technology products are being addressed including Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA), MEMS Serial Processors, Reconfigurable Processors, and Parallel Processors. In addition to radiation hardening, low temperature extremes are addressed with a focus on material and design approaches.

  10. A Study on Low-Cost Case Hardening of Mild and Alloy Steels Utilizing Cassava Leaf Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Renee Erica

    Conventional case hardening processes have major drawbacks in being expensive and hazardous to perform. A novel cyaniding technique has been developed to case harden steel which involves the use of cassava leaf. Cassava is ideal for use in this process as it contains varying degrees of cyanogenic glucoside (15-1000 mg of HCN per kg of cassava). The entire hardening process involves direct thermal decomposition of the HCN, which produced C and N gas that then diffused into the steel creating a hardened surface. Pulverized cassava leaf was involved in the pack-cyaniding of AISI 1018 and Nitralloy 135 within three varying process atmospheres. The use of barium carbonate (BaCO3) as an energizer was employed at the high temperature regime while barium chloride (BaCl2) was utilized at low temperatures. Vickers microhardness testing, microstructural characterization, and diffraction techniques were utilized for analysis. While no improvement was observed at low temperatures, processing within the high temperature regime showed significant hardening. The addition of BaCO3 to pulverized cassava leaf accelerated the hardening process by substantially increasing the resident surface microhardness while generating a shallow case layer distance. Diffusion theory was used to identify changes experienced with the variation in parameters. The presence of barium carbonate during processing decreased the diffusivity of hardening agents. This manifested in a very large, initial mass transfer of diffusing species localized in the case region followed by a minimum of any further increase in case depths, even as treatment time intervals were increased. The level of influence each parameter delivered was assessed using stepwise regression analysis and a unified model was constructed.

  11. Investigations on Surface Milling of Hardened AISI 4140 Steel with Pulse Jet MQL Applicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Mahmood Al; Mia, Mozammel; Dhar, Nikhil Ranjan

    2018-06-01

    In this article, an experimental investigation was performed in milling hardened AISI 4140 steel of hardness 40 HRC. The machining was performed in both dry and minimal quantity lubricant (MQL) conditions, as part of neat machining, to make a strong comparison of the undertaken machining environments. The MQL was impinged int the form of pulse jet, by using the specially developed pulse-jet-attachment, to ensure that the cutting fluid can be applied in different timed pulses and quantities at critical zones. The tool wear, cutting force and surface roughness were taken as the quality responses while cutting speed, table feed rate and flow rate of the pulse were considered as influential factors. The depth of cut was kept constant at 1.50 mm because of its less significant effects and the straight oil was adopted as cutting fluid in pulse-jet-MQL. The effects of different factors, on the quality responses, are analyzed using ANOVA. It is observed that MQL applicator system exhibits overall better performance when compared to dry milling by reducing surface roughness, cutting force and prolonging tool life but a flow rate of 150 ml/h has tremendous effects on the responses. This investigation and afterward results are expected to aid the industrial practitioner and researcher to adopt the pulse-MQL in high speed milling to prolong tool life, reduce tool wear, diminish cutting force generation and promote better surface finish.

  12. Investigations on Surface Milling of Hardened AISI 4140 Steel with Pulse Jet MQL Applicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Mahmood Al; Mia, Mozammel; Dhar, Nikhil Ranjan

    2016-06-01

    In this article, an experimental investigation was performed in milling hardened AISI 4140 steel of hardness 40 HRC. The machining was performed in both dry and minimal quantity lubricant (MQL) conditions, as part of neat machining, to make a strong comparison of the undertaken machining environments. The MQL was impinged int the form of pulse jet, by using the specially developed pulse-jet-attachment, to ensure that the cutting fluid can be applied in different timed pulses and quantities at critical zones. The tool wear, cutting force and surface roughness were taken as the quality responses while cutting speed, table feed rate and flow rate of the pulse were considered as influential factors. The depth of cut was kept constant at 1.50 mm because of its less significant effects and the straight oil was adopted as cutting fluid in pulse-jet-MQL. The effects of different factors, on the quality responses, are analyzed using ANOVA. It is observed that MQL applicator system exhibits overall better performance when compared to dry milling by reducing surface roughness, cutting force and prolonging tool life but a flow rate of 150 ml/h has tremendous effects on the responses. This investigation and afterward results are expected to aid the industrial practitioner and researcher to adopt the pulse-MQL in high speed milling to prolong tool life, reduce tool wear, diminish cutting force generation and promote better surface finish.

  13. Microstructure, Tensile Properties and Work Hardening Behavior of GTA-Welded Dual-Phase Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafi, H.; Shamanian, M.; Emadi, R.; Saeidi, N.

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, microstructure, tensile properties and work hardening behavior of a DP700 steel after gas tungsten arc welding were investigated. Formation of bainite in the fusion zone resulted in a hardness increase compared to that for the base metal (BM), whereas tempering of the pre-existing martensite in the subcritical heat-affected zone (HAZ) led to softening. The GTA-welded joint exhibited a continuous yielding behavior and a yield strength close to that for the BM, while its ultimate tensile strength and total elongation were lower than those for the BM owing to the formation of soft zone in the HAZ. A joint efficiency of about 81% was obtained for the GTA-welded joint, and it failed in the softened HAZ. Analysis of work hardening based on the Kocks-Mecking approach showed one stage of hardening behavior corresponding to the stage III for both the DP700 BM and welded sample. It was also revealed that the DP700 BM has larger values of work hardening exponent and magnitude of work hardening compared with the welded sample. Analysis of fractured surfaces showed that the dominant fracture mode for both the DP700 BM and welded joint was ductile.

  14. Materials science. Modeling strain hardening the hard way.

    PubMed

    Gumbsch, Peter

    2003-09-26

    The plastic deformation of metals results in strain hardening, that is, an increase in the stress with increasing strain. Materials engineers can provide a simple approximate description of such deformation and hardening behavior. In his perspective, Gumbsch discusses work by Madec et al. who have undertaken the formidable task of computing the physical basis for the development of strain hardening by individually following the fate of all the dislocations involved. Their simulations show that the collinear dislocation interaction makes a substantial contribution to strain hardening. It is likely that such simulations will play an important role in guiding the development of future engineering descriptions of deformation and hardening.

  15. Recent developments in turning hardened steels - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaraman, V.; Prakash, S.

    2017-05-01

    Hard materials ranging from HRC 45 - 68 such as hardened AISI H13, AISI 4340, AISI 52100, D2 STL, D3 STEEL Steel etc., need super hard tool materials to machine. Turning of these hard materials is termed as hard turning. Hard turning makes possible direct machining of the hard materials and also eliminates the lubricant requirement and thus favoring dry machining. Hard turning is a finish turning process and hence conventional grinding is not required. Development of the new advanced super hard tool materials such as ceramic inserts, Cubic Boron Nitride, Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride etc. enabled the turning of these materials. PVD and CVD methods of coating have made easier the production of single and multi layered coated tool inserts. Coatings of TiN, TiAlN, TiC, Al2O3, AlCrN over cemented carbide inserts has lead to the machining of difficult to machine materials. Advancement in the process of hard machining paved way for better surface finish, long tool life, reduced tool wear, cutting force and cutting temperatures. Micro and Nano coated carbide inserts, nanocomposite coated PCBN inserts, micro and nano CBN coated carbide inserts and similar developments have made machining of hardened steels much easier and economical. In this paper, broad literature review on turning of hardened steels including optimizing process parameters, cooling requirements, different tool materials etc., are done.

  16. Role of copper in precipitation hardening of high-alloy Cr-Ni cast steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajewski, Mirosław

    2006-02-01

    The mechanism of strengthening with second-phase particles that results from heat treatment, i.e., precipitate hardening, plays an important role in modern alloys. The strengthening effect of such particles can result from their coherence with the matrix, inhibition of dislocation slip, inhibition of grain boundary slip, as well as hampering recovery processes due to dislocation network pinning. The results of investigations into high-alloy Cr-Ni-Cu cast steels precipitate hardened with highly dispersed ɛ phase particles are presented within. The influence of heat treatment on changes in microstructure, mechanical properties, and morphology of fracture surfaces obtained under loading have been analyzed. It has been demonstrated that, with the appropriate selection of heat treatment parameters, it is possible to control the precipitation of the hardening ɛ phase and, thus, to change the final mechanical and functional properties.

  17. Strain Hardening of Hadfield Manganese Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, P. H.; Olson, G. B.; Owen, W. S.

    1986-10-01

    The plastic flow behavior of Hadfield manganese steel in uniaxial tension and compression is shown to be greatly influenced by transformation plasticity phenomena. Changes in the stress-strain (σ-ɛ) curves with temperature correlate with the observed extent of deformation twinning, consistent with a softening effect of twinning as a deformation mechanism and a hardening effect of the twinned microstructure. The combined effects give upward curvature to the σ-ɛ curve over extensive ranges of plastic strain. A higher strain hardening in compression compared with tension appears to be consistent with the observed texture development. The composition dependence of stacking fault energy computed using a thermodynamic model suggests that the Hadfield composition is optimum for a maximum rate of deformation twinning. Comparisons of the Hadfield steel with a Co-33Ni alloy exhibiting similar twinning kinetics, and an Fe-21Ni-lC alloy deforming by slip indicate no unusual strain hardening at low strains where deformation is controlled by slip, but an unusual amount of structural hardening associated with the twin formation in the Hadfield steel. A possible mechanism of anomalous twin hardening is discussed in terms of modified twinning behavior (pseudotwinning) in nonrandom solid solutions.

  18. Modeling and Analysis of Deformation for Spiral Bevel Gear in Die Quenching Based on the Hardenability Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingtao; Wang, Gang; Shi, Wankai; Yang, Lin; Li, Zhichao

    2017-07-01

    Spiral bevel gears are widely used to transmit energy between intersecting axes. The strength and fatigue life of the gears are improved by carburizing and quenching. A die quenching process is used to control the deformation of the gear. The deformation is determined by the variations in the hardenability for a certain die quenching process. The relationship between hardenability, phase transformation and deformation needs to be studied to minimize deformation during the adjustment of the die quenching process parameters. In this paper, material properties for 22CrMoH steel are determined by the results of Jominy tests, dilatometry experiments and static mechanical property tests. The material models were built based on testing results under the consideration of hardenability variation. An finite element analysis model was developed to couple the phase transformation and deformation history of the complete carburizing and die quenching process for the spiral bevel gears. The final microstructures in the gear were bainite for low hardenability steel and a mixture of bainite and ferrite for high hardenability steel. The largest buckling deformation at the gear bottom surface is 0.375 mm at the outer circle for the low hardenability gear and 0.091 mm at the inner circle for the high hardenability gear.

  19. 7 CFR 58.622 - Hardening and storage rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hardening and storage rooms. 58.622 Section 58.622....622 Hardening and storage rooms. Hardening and storage rooms for frozen desserts shall be constructed... insure adequate storage temperature (−10° or lower). Air shall be circulated to maintain uniform...

  20. 7 CFR 58.622 - Hardening and storage rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hardening and storage rooms. 58.622 Section 58.622....622 Hardening and storage rooms. Hardening and storage rooms for frozen desserts shall be constructed... insure adequate storage temperature (−10° or lower). Air shall be circulated to maintain uniform...

  1. 7 CFR 58.622 - Hardening and storage rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hardening and storage rooms. 58.622 Section 58.622....622 Hardening and storage rooms. Hardening and storage rooms for frozen desserts shall be constructed... insure adequate storage temperature (−10° or lower). Air shall be circulated to maintain uniform...

  2. Structural heredity influence upon principles of strain wave hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiricheck, A. V.; Barinov, S. V.; Yashin, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    It was established experimentally that by penetration of a strain wave through material hardened not only the technological modes of processing, but also a technological heredity - the direction of the fibers of the original macrostructure have an influence upon the diagram of microhardness. By penetration of the strain wave along fibers, the degree of hardening the material is less, however, a product is hardened throughout its entire section mainly along fibers. In the direction of the strain waves across fibers of the original structure of material, the degree of material hardening is much higher, the depth of the hardened layer with the degree of hardening not less than 50% makes at least 3 mm. It was found that under certain conditions the strain wave can completely change the original structure of the material. Thus, a heterogeneously hardened structure characterized by the interchange of harder and more viscous areas is formed, which is beneficial for assurance of high operational properties of material.

  3. Precipitation and Hardening in Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Jian-Feng

    2012-11-01

    Magnesium alloys have received an increasing interest in the past 12 years for potential applications in the automotive, aircraft, aerospace, and electronic industries. Many of these alloys are strong because of solid-state precipitates that are produced by an age-hardening process. Although some strength improvements of existing magnesium alloys have been made and some novel alloys with improved strength have been developed, the strength level that has been achieved so far is still substantially lower than that obtained in counterpart aluminum alloys. Further improvements in the alloy strength require a better understanding of the structure, morphology, orientation of precipitates, effects of precipitate morphology, and orientation on the strengthening and microstructural factors that are important in controlling the nucleation and growth of these precipitates. In this review, precipitation in most precipitation-hardenable magnesium alloys is reviewed, and its relationship with strengthening is examined. It is demonstrated that the precipitation phenomena in these alloys, especially in the very early stage of the precipitation process, are still far from being well understood, and many fundamental issues remain unsolved even after some extensive and concerted efforts made in the past 12 years. The challenges associated with precipitation hardening and age hardening are identified and discussed, and guidelines are outlined for the rational design and development of higher strength, and ultimately ultrahigh strength, magnesium alloys via precipitation hardening.

  4. High-Performance, Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Watson, Michael D.; Frazier, Donald O.; Adams, James H.; Johnson, Michael A.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project endeavors to advance the current state-of-the-art in high-performance, radiation-hardened electronics and processors, ensuring successful performance of space systems required to operate within extreme radiation and temperature environments. Because RHESE is a project within the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP), RHESE's primary customers will be the human and robotic missions being developed by NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in partial fulfillment of the Vision for Space Exploration. Benefits are also anticipated for NASA's science missions to planetary and deep-space destinations. As a technology development effort, RHESE provides a broad-scoped, full spectrum of approaches to environmentally harden space electronics, including new materials, advanced design processes, reconfigurable hardware techniques, and software modeling of the radiation environment. The RHESE sub-project tasks are: SelfReconfigurable Electronics for Extreme Environments, Radiation Effects Predictive Modeling, Radiation Hardened Memory, Single Event Effects (SEE) Immune Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) (SIRF), Radiation Hardening by Software, Radiation Hardened High Performance Processors (HPP), Reconfigurable Computing, Low Temperature Tolerant MEMS by Design, and Silicon-Germanium (SiGe) Integrated Electronics for Extreme Environments. These nine sub-project tasks are managed by technical leads as located across five different NASA field centers, including Ames Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Langley Research Center, and Marshall Space Flight Center. The overall RHESE integrated project management responsibility resides with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Initial technology development emphasis within RHESE focuses on the hardening of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA)s and Field Programmable Analog

  5. Radiation Hardened DDR2 SDRAM Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pierre-Xiao; Sellier, Charles

    2016-08-01

    The Radiation Hardened (RH) DDR2 SDRAM Solution is a User's Friendly, Plug-and-Play and Radiation Hardened DDR2 solution, which includes the radiation tolerant stacking DDR2 modules and a radiation intelligent memory controller (RIMC) IP core. It provides a high speed radiation hardened by design DRAM solution suitable for all space applications such as commercial or scientific geo-stationary missions, earth observation, navigation, manned space vehicles and deep space scientific exploration. The DDR2 module has been guaranteed with SEL immune and TID > 100Krad(Si), on the other hand the RIMC IP core provides a full protection against the DDR2 radiation effects such as SEFI and SEU.

  6. Simulation of surface hardening in the deep rolling process by means of an axial symmetric nodal averaged finite element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrev, P. G.; Gordon, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    Surface hardening by deep rolling can be considered as the axial symmetric problem in some special events (namely, when large R and small r radii of the deforming roller meet the requirement R>> r). An axisymmetric nodal averaged stabilized finite element is formulated. The formulation is based on a variational principle with a penalty (stabilizing) item in order to involve large elastic-plastic strain and near to incompressible materials. The deep rolling process for a steel rod is analyzed. Axial residual stress, yield stress, and Odkvist’s parameter are calculated. The residual stress is compared with the data obtained by other authors using a three-dimensional statement of the problem. The results obtained demonstrate essential advantages of the newly developed finite element.

  7. A simulation-based study on the influence of beam hardening in X-ray computed tomography for dimensional metrology.

    PubMed

    Lifton, Joseph J; Malcolm, Andrew A; McBride, John W

    2015-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a radiographic scanning technique for visualising cross-sectional images of an object non-destructively. From these cross-sectional images it is possible to evaluate internal dimensional features of a workpiece which may otherwise be inaccessible to tactile and optical instruments. Beam hardening is a physical process that degrades the quality of CT images and has previously been suggested to influence dimensional measurements. Using a validated simulation tool, the influence of spectrum pre-filtration and beam hardening correction are evaluated for internal and external dimensional measurements. Beam hardening is shown to influence internal and external dimensions in opposition, and to have a greater influence on outer dimensions compared to inner dimensions. The results suggest the combination of spectrum pre-filtration and a local gradient-based surface determination method are able to greatly reduce the influence of beam hardening in X-ray CT for dimensional metrology.

  8. 7 CFR 58.641 - Hardening and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hardening and storage. 58.641 Section 58.641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.641 Hardening and storage. Immediately after the semifrozen product is placed in its intended...

  9. 7 CFR 58.641 - Hardening and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hardening and storage. 58.641 Section 58.641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.641 Hardening and storage. Immediately after the semifrozen product is placed in its intended...

  10. 7 CFR 58.641 - Hardening and storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hardening and storage. 58.641 Section 58.641 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.641 Hardening and storage. Immediately after the semifrozen product is placed in its intended...

  11. Multipurpose hardened spacecraft insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steimer, Carlos H.

    1990-01-01

    A Multipurpose Hardened Spacecraft Multilayer Insulation (MLI) system was developed and implemented to meet diverse survivability and performance requirements. Within the definition and confines of a MLI assembly (blanket), the design: (1) provides environmental protection from natural and induced nuclear, thermal, and electromagnetic radiation; (2) provides adequate electrostatic discharge protection for a geosynchronous satellite; (3) provides adequate shielding to meet radiated emission needs; and (4) will survive ascent differential pressure loads between enclosed volume and space. The MLI design is described which meets these requirements and design evolution and verification is discussed. The application is for MLI blankets which closeout the area between the laser crosslink subsystem (LCS) equipment and the DSP spacecraft cabin. Ancillary needs were implemented to ease installation at launch facility and to survive ascent acoustic and vibration loads. Directional venting accommodations were also incorporated to avoid contamination of LCS telescope, spacecraft sensors, and second surface mirrors (SSMs).

  12. Interior Fracture Mechanism Analysis and Fatigue Life Prediction of Surface-Hardened Gear Steel under Axial Loading.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Deng, Hailong; Liu, Pengfei

    2016-10-18

    The interior defect-induced fracture of surface-hardened metallic materials in the long life region has become a key issue on engineering design. In the present study, the axial loading test with fully reversed condition was performed to examine the fatigue property of a surface-carburized low alloy gear steel in the long life region. Results show that this steel represents the duplex S-N (stress-number of cycles) characteristics without conventional fatigue limit related to 10⁷ cycles. Fatigue cracks are all originated from the interior inclusions in the matrix region due to the inhabitation effect of carburized layer. The inclusion induced fracture with fisheye occurs in the short life region below 5 × 10⁵ cycles, whereas the inclusion induced fracture with fine granular area (FGA) and fisheye occurs in the long life region beyond 10⁶ cycles. The stress intensity factor range at the front of FGA can be regarded as the threshold value controlling stable growth of interior long crack. The evaluated maximum inclusion size in the effective damage volume of specimen is about 27.29 μm. Considering the size relationships between fisheye and FGA, and inclusion, the developed life prediction method involving crack growth can be acceptable on the basis of the good agreement between the predicted and experimental results.

  13. Blasting and Passivation Treatments for ASTM F139 Stainless Steel for Biomedical Applications: Effects on Surface Roughness, Hardening, and Localized Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboza, Adriana L. Lemos; Kang, Kyung Won; Bonetto, Rita D.; Llorente, Carlos L.; Bilmes, Pablo D.; Gervasi, Claudio A.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the combination of good biofunctionality and biocompatibility at low cost, AISI 316 low carbon vacuum melting (LVM) stainless steel, as considered in ASTM F139 standard, is often the first choice for medical implants, particularly for use in orthopedic surgery. Proper surface finish must be provided to ensure adequate interactions of the alloy with human body tissues that in turn allows the material to deliver the desired performance. Preliminary studies performed in our laboratory on AISI 316LVM stainless steel surfaces modified by glass bead blasting (from industrial supplier) followed by different nitric acid passivation conditions disclosed the necessity to extend parameters of the surface treatments and to further consider roughness, pitting corrosion resistance, and surface and subsurface hardening measurements, all in one, as the most effective characterization strategy. This was the approach adopted in the present work. Roughness assessment was performed by means of amplitude parameters, functional parameters, and an estimator of the fractal dimension that characterizes surface topography. We clearly demonstrate that the blasting treatment should be carried out under controlled conditions in order to obtain similar surface and subsurface properties. Otherwise, a variation in one of the parameters could modify the surface properties, exerting a profound impact on its application as biomaterial. A passivation step is necessary to offset the detrimental effect of blasting on pitting corrosion resistance.

  14. Beam hardening and partial beam hardening of the bowtie filter: Effects on dosimetric applications in CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Rendon, X.; Zhang, G.; Bosmans, H.; Oyen, R.; Zanca, F.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To estimate the consequences on dosimetric applications when a CT bowtie filter is modeled by means of full beam hardening versus partial beam hardening. Method: A model of source and filtration for a CT scanner as developed by Turner et. al. [1] was implemented. Specific exposures were measured with the stationary CT X-ray tube in order to assess the equivalent thickness of Al of the bowtie filter as a function of the fan angle. Using these thicknesses, the primary beam attenuation factors were calculated from the energy dependent photon mass attenuation coefficients and used to include beam hardening in the spectrum. This was compared to a potentially less computationally intensive approach, which accounts only partially for beam hardening, by giving the photon spectrum a global (energy independent) fan angle specific weighting factor. Percentage differences between the two methods were quantified by calculating the dose in air after passing several water equivalent thicknesses representative for patients having different BMI. Specifically, the maximum water equivalent thickness of the lateral and anterior-posterior dimension and of the corresponding (half) effective diameter were assessed. Results: The largest percentage differences were found for the thickest part of the bowtie filter and they increased with patient size. For a normal size patient they ranged from 5.5% at half effective diameter to 16.1% for the lateral dimension; for the most obese patient they ranged from 7.7% to 19.3%, respectively. For a complete simulation of one rotation of the x-ray tube, the proposed method was 12% faster than the complete simulation of the bowtie filter. Conclusion: The need for simulating the beam hardening of the bow tie filter in Monte Carlo platforms for CT dosimetry will depend on the required accuracy.

  15. Control of the surface quality parameters of machine components during static pulsed treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komkov, V. A.; Rabinskii, L. N.; Kokoreva, O. G.; Kuprikov, N. M.

    2016-12-01

    A technique is developed to determine the homogeneity of the structure in a surface layer subjected to strain hardening. Static pulsed treatment is found to be one of the most effective surface plastic deformation methods that can be used to control the uniformity of hardening a surface layer. This treatment makes it possible to create a hardened surface layer to a depth of 10 mm with a homogeneous or heterogeneous structure.

  16. Microscopic Origin of Strain Hardening in Methane Hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Jihui; Liang, Yunfeng; Tsuji, Takeshi; Murata, Sumihiko; Matsuoka, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported for a long time that methane hydrate presents strain hardening, whereas the strength of normal ice weakens with increasing strain after an ultimate strength. However, the microscopic origin of these differences is not known. Here, we investigated the mechanical characteristics of methane hydrate and normal ice by compressive deformation test using molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that methane hydrate exhibits strain hardening only if the hydrate is confined to a certain finite cross-sectional area that is normal to the compression direction. For normal ice, it does not present strain hardening under the same conditions. We show that hydrate guest methane molecules exhibit no long-distance diffusion when confined to a finite-size area. They appear to serve as non-deformable units that prevent hydrate structure failure, and thus are responsible for the strain-hardening phenomenon. PMID:27009239

  17. Technology Developments in Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Howell, Joe T.

    2008-01-01

    The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project consists of a series of tasks designed to develop and mature a broad spectrum of radiation hardened and low temperature electronics technologies. Three approaches are being taken to address radiation hardening: improved material hardness, design techniques to improve radiation tolerance, and software methods to improve radiation tolerance. Within these approaches various technology products are being addressed including Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), Field Programmable Analog Arrays (FPAA), MEMS, Serial Processors, Reconfigurable Processors, and Parallel Processors. In addition to radiation hardening, low temperature extremes are addressed with a focus on material and design approaches. System level applications for the RHESE technology products are discussed.

  18. Effects of Medium Temperature and Industrial By-Products on the Key Hardened Properties of High Performance Concrete.

    PubMed

    Safiuddin, Md; Raman, Sudharshan N; Zain, Muhammad Fauzi Mohd

    2015-12-10

    The aim of the work reported in this article was to investigate the effects of medium temperature and industrial by-products on the key hardened properties of high performance concrete. Four concrete mixes were prepared based on a water-to-binder ratio of 0.35. Two industrial by-products, silica fume and Class F fly ash, were used separately and together with normal portland cement to produce three concrete mixes in addition to the control mix. The properties of both fresh and hardened concretes were examined in the laboratory. The freshly mixed concrete mixes were tested for slump, slump flow, and V-funnel flow. The hardened concretes were tested for compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity after exposing to 20, 35 and 50 °C. In addition, the initial surface absorption and the rate of moisture movement into the concretes were determined at 20 °C. The performance of the concretes in the fresh state was excellent due to their superior deformability and good segregation resistance. In their hardened state, the highest levels of compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity were produced by silica fume concrete. In addition, silica fume concrete showed the lowest level of initial surface absorption and the lowest rate of moisture movement into the interior of concrete. In comparison, the compressive strength, dynamic modulus of elasticity, initial surface absorption, and moisture movement rate of silica fume-fly ash concrete were close to those of silica fume concrete. Moreover, all concretes provided relatively low compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity when they were exposed to 50 °C. However, the effect of increased temperature was less detrimental for silica fume and silica fume-fly ash concretes in comparison with the control concrete.

  19. Effects of Medium Temperature and Industrial By-Products on the Key Hardened Properties of High Performance Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Safiuddin, Md.; Raman, Sudharshan N.; Zain, Muhammad Fauzi Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work reported in this article was to investigate the effects of medium temperature and industrial by-products on the key hardened properties of high performance concrete. Four concrete mixes were prepared based on a water-to-binder ratio of 0.35. Two industrial by-products, silica fume and Class F fly ash, were used separately and together with normal portland cement to produce three concrete mixes in addition to the control mix. The properties of both fresh and hardened concretes were examined in the laboratory. The freshly mixed concrete mixes were tested for slump, slump flow, and V-funnel flow. The hardened concretes were tested for compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity after exposing to 20, 35 and 50 °C. In addition, the initial surface absorption and the rate of moisture movement into the concretes were determined at 20 °C. The performance of the concretes in the fresh state was excellent due to their superior deformability and good segregation resistance. In their hardened state, the highest levels of compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity were produced by silica fume concrete. In addition, silica fume concrete showed the lowest level of initial surface absorption and the lowest rate of moisture movement into the interior of concrete. In comparison, the compressive strength, dynamic modulus of elasticity, initial surface absorption, and moisture movement rate of silica fume-fly ash concrete were close to those of silica fume concrete. Moreover, all concretes provided relatively low compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity when they were exposed to 50 °C. However, the effect of increased temperature was less detrimental for silica fume and silica fume-fly ash concretes in comparison with the control concrete. PMID:28793732

  20. Recycling polyethylene terephthalate wastes as short fibers in Strain-Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCC).

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiuyi; Yu, Jing; Li, Hedong; Lam, Jeffery Y K; Shih, Kaimin; Sham, Ivan M L; Leung, Christopher K Y

    2018-05-26

    As an important portion of the total plastic waste bulk but lack of reuse and recycling, the enormous amounts of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) solid wastes have led to serious environmental issues. This study explores the feasibility of recycling PET solid wastes as short fibers in Strain-Hardening Cementitious Composites (SHCCs), which exhibit strain-hardening and multiple cracking under tension, and therefore have clear advantages over conventional concrete for many construction applications. Based on micromechanical modeling, fiber dispersion and alkali resistance, the size of recycled PET fibers was first determined. Then the hydrophobic PET surface was treated with NaOH solution followed by a silane coupling agent to achieve the dual purpose of improving the fiber/matrix interfacial frictional bond (from 0.64 MPa to 0.80 MPa) and enhancing the alkali resistance for applications in alkaline cementitious environment. With surface treatment, recycling PET wastes as fibers in SHCCs is a promising approach to significantly reduce the material cost of SHCCs while disposing hazardous PET wastes in construction industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanism of work hardening in Hadfield manganese steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dastur, Y. N.; Leslie, W. C.

    1981-05-01

    When Hadfield manganese steel in the single-phase austenitic condition was strained in tension, in the temperature range - 25 to 300 °C, it exhibited jerky (serrated) flow, a negative (inverse) strain-rate dependence of flow stress and high work hardening, characteristic of dynamic strain aging. The strain rate-temperature regime of jerky flow was determined and the apparent activation energies for the appearance and disappearance of serrations were found to be 104 kJ/mol and 146 kJ/mol, respectively. The high work hardening cannot be a result of mechanical twinning because at -50 °C numerous twins were produced, but the work hardening was low and no twins were formed above 225 °C even though work hardening was high. The work hardening decreased above 300 °C because of the cessation of dynamic strain aging and increased again above 400 °C because of precipitation of carbides. An apparent activation energy of 138 kJ/mol was measured for static strain aging between 300 and 400 °C, corresponding closely to the activation energies for the disapperance of serrations and for the volume diffusion of carbon in Hadfield steel. Evidence from the present study, together with the known effect of manganese on the activity of carbon in austenite and previous internal friction studies of high-manganese steels, lead to the conclusion that dynamic strain aging, brought about by the reorientation of carbon members of C-Mn couples in the cores of dislocations, is the principal cause of rapid work hardening in Hadfield steel.

  2. Radiation-Hardened Electronics for the Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Watson, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    RHESE covers a broad range of technology areas and products. - Radiation Hardened Electronics - High Performance Processing - Reconfigurable Computing - Radiation Environmental Effects Modeling - Low Temperature Radiation Hardened Electronics. RHESE has aligned with currently defined customer needs. RHESE is leveraging/advancing SOA space electronics, not duplicating. - Awareness of radiation-related activities through out government and industry allow advancement rather than duplication of capabilities.

  3. Decline in Radiation Hardened Microcircuit Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Two areas of radiation hardened microcircuit infrastructure will be discussed: 1) The availability and performance of radiation hardened microcircuits, and, and 2) The access to radiation test facilities primarily for proton single event effects (SEE) testing. Other areas not discussed, but are a concern include: The challenge for maintaining radiation effects tool access for assurance purposes, and, the access to radiation test facilities primarily for heavy ion single event effects (SEE) testing. Status and implications will be discussed for each area.

  4. Research on SEU hardening of heterogeneous Dual-Core SoC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kun; Hu, Keliu; Deng, Jun; Zhang, Tao

    2017-08-01

    The implementation of Single-Event Upsets (SEU) hardening has various schemes. However, some of them require a lot of human, material and financial resources. This paper proposes an easy scheme on SEU hardening for Heterogeneous Dual-core SoC (HD SoC) which contains three techniques. First, the automatic Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) technique is adopted to harden the register heaps of the processor and the instruction-fetching module. Second, Hamming codes are used to harden the random access memory (RAM). Last, a software signature technique is applied to check the programs which are running on CPU. The scheme need not to consume additional resources, and has little influence on the performance of CPU. These technologies are very mature, easy to implement and needs low cost. According to the simulation result, the scheme can satisfy the basic demand of SEU-hardening.

  5. Hardening of ODS ferritic steels under irradiation with high-energy heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Z. N.; Zhang, C. H.; Yang, Y. T.; Song, Y.; Kimura, A.; Jang, J.

    2017-09-01

    Influence of the nanoscale oxide particles on mechanical properties and irradiation resistance of oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels is of critical importance for the use of the material in fuel cladding or blanket components in advanced nuclear reactors. In the present work, impact of structures of oxide dispersoids on the irradiation hardening of ODS ferritic steels was studied. Specimens of three high-Cr ODS ferritic steels containing oxide dispersoids with different number density and average size were irradiated with high-energy Ni ions at about -50 °C. The energy of the incident Ni ions was varied from 12.73 MeV to 357.86 MeV by using an energy degrader at the terminal so that a plateau of atomic displacement damage (∼0.8 dpa) was produced from the near surface to a depth of 24 μm in the specimens. A nanoindentor (in constant stiffness mode with a diamond Berkovich indenter) and a Vickers micro-hardness tester were used to measure the hardeness of the specimens. The Nix-Gao model taking account of the indentation size effect (ISE) was used to fit the hardness data. It is observed that the soft substrate effect (SSE) can be diminished substantially in the irradiated specimens due to the thick damaged regions produced by the Ni ions. A linear correlation between the nano-hardeness and the micro-hardness was found. It is observed that a higher number density of oxide dispersoids with a smaller average diameter corresponds to an increased resistance to irradiation hardening, which can be ascribed to the increased sink strength of oxides/matrix interfaces to point defects. The rate equation approach and the conventional hardening model were used to analyze the influence of defect clusters on irradiation hardening in ODS ferritic steels. The numerical estimates show that the hardening caused by the interstitial type dislocation loops follows a similar trend with the experiment data.

  6. Radiation-hardened backside-illuminated 512 x 512 charge-coupled device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Philip A.; Levine, Peter A.; Sauer, Donald J.; Hsueh, Fu-Lung; Shallcross, Frank V.; Smeltzer, Ronald K.; Meray, Grazyna M.; Taylor, Gordon C.; Tower, John R.

    1995-04-01

    A four-port 512 X 512 charge coupled device (CCD) imager hardened against proton displacement damage and total dose degradation has been fabricated and tested. The device is based upon an established thinned, backside illuminated, triple polysilicon, buried channel CCD process technology. The technology includes buried blooming drains. A three step approach has been taken to hardening the device. The first phase addressed hardening against proton displacement damage. The second phase addressed hardening against both proton displacement damage and total dose degradation. The third phase addresses final optimization of the design. Test results from the first and second phase efforts are presented. Plans for the third phase are discussed.

  7. Induction hardening treatment and simulation for a grey cast iron used in engine cylinder liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos-Leal, E. L.; Miranda, D. A.; Coy, A. E.; Barrero, J. G.; González, J. A.; Vesga Rueda, O. P.

    2017-01-01

    In this research, a technical study of induction hardening in a grey cast iron used in engine cylinder liners manufactured by LAVCO Ltda., a Colombian foundry company, was carried out. Metallurgical parameters such as austenitization temperature, cooling rate, and quenching severity were determined. These factors are exclusively dependent on chemical composition and initial microstructure of grey cast iron. Simulations of induction heating through finite elements method were performed and, the most appropriate experimental conditions to achieve the critical transformation temperature was evaluated to reach a proper surface hardening on the piece. Preliminary results revealed an excellent approximation between simulation and heating test performed with a full bridge inverter voltage adapted with local technology.

  8. Hardening fertilization and nutrient loading of conifer seedlings

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese

    2003-01-01

    Continuing to fertilize bareroot and container seedlings during the hardening process (from cessation of height growth until lifting) can improve seedling viability. The process of fertilizing during hardening has many names, but in the last decade a new term, nutrient loading, has come into use. The process of nutrient loading seedlings leads to luxury consumption...

  9. Scintillation-Hardened GPS Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    CommLargo, Inc., has developed a scintillation-hardened Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that improves reliability for low-orbit missions and complies with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standards. A software-defined radio (SDR) implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio or as a GPS receiver, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS) and high-value remote sensing platforms. The innovation's flexible SDR implementation reduces cost, weight, and power requirements. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and variability. In Phase I, CommLargo refactored an open-source GPS software package with Kalman filter-based tracking loops to improve performance during scintillation and also demonstrated improved navigation during a geomagnetic storm. In Phase II, the company generated a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based GPS waveform to demonstrate on NASA's Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) test bed.

  10. Extracting material response from simple mechanical tests on hardening-softening-hardening viscoplastic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Nisha

    Compliant foams are usually characterized by a wide range of desirable mechanical properties. These properties include viscoelasticity at different temperatures, energy absorption, recoverability under cyclic loading, impact resistance, and thermal, electrical, acoustic and radiation-resistance. Some foams contain nano-sized features and are used in small-scale devices. This implies that the characteristic dimensions of foams span multiple length scales, rendering modeling their mechanical properties difficult. Continuum mechanics-based models capture some salient experimental features like the linear elastic regime, followed by non-linear plateau stress regime. However, they lack mesostructural physical details. This makes them incapable of accurately predicting local peaks in stress and strain distributions, which significantly affect the deformation paths. Atomistic methods are capable of capturing the physical origins of deformation at smaller scales, but suffer from impractical computational intensity. Capturing deformation at the so-called meso-scale, which is capable of describing the phenomenon at a continuum level, but with some physical insights, requires developing new theoretical approaches. A fundamental question that motivates the modeling of foams is `how to extract the intrinsic material response from simple mechanical test data, such as stress vs. strain response?' A 3D model was developed to simulate the mechanical response of foam-type materials. The novelty of this model includes unique features such as the hardening-softening-hardening material response, strain rate-dependence, and plastically compressible solids with plastic non-normality. Suggestive links from atomistic simulations of foams were borrowed to formulate a physically informed hardening material input function. Motivated by a model that qualitatively captured the response of foam-type vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) pillars under uniaxial compression [2011,"Analysis of

  11. Different Techniques For Producing Precision Holes (>20 mm) In Hardened Steel—Comparative Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, R. T.; Tanikawa, S. T.

    2009-11-01

    High speed machining (HSM), or high performance machining, has been one of the most recent technological advances. When applied to milling operations, using adequate machines, CAM programs and tooling, it allows cutting hardened steels, which was not feasible just a couple of years ago. The use of very stiff and precision machines has created the possibilities of machining holes in hardened steels, such as AISI H13 with 48-50 HRC, using helical interpolations, for example. Such process is particularly useful for holes with diameter bigger than normal solid carbide drills commercially available, around 20 mm, or higher. Such holes may need narrow tolerances, fine surface finishing, which can be obtained just by end milling operations. The present work compares some of the strategies used to obtain such holes by end milling, and also some techniques employed to finish them, by milling, boring and also by fine grinding at the same machine. Results indicate that it is possible to obtain holes with less than 0.36 m in circularity, 7.41 m in cylindricity and 0.12 m in surface roughness Ra. Additionally, there is less possibilities of obtaining heat affected layers when using such technique.

  12. Work-hardening behaviour of Mg single crystals oriented for basal slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, B.; Niewczas, M.

    2011-06-01

    Work-hardening behaviour of Mg single crystals oriented for basal slip was studied by means of tensile tests carried out at 4, 78 and 295 K. The crystals show critical resolved shear stress values (CRSS) for a {0001} ? basal slip system in the range 1-1.5 MPa. The samples exhibit two-stage work hardening characteristics consisting of a long easy glide stage and a stage of rapid hardening terminated by failure. The onset of the plastic flow up to the point of fracture is accompanied by a low work-hardening rate in the range 5 × 10-5-5 × 10-4 µ, corresponding to the hardening rate in Stage I of copper single crystals. The analysis of thermally activated glide parameters suggests that forest interactions are rate-controlling processes. The very low value of the activation distance found at 4 K, ∼0.047 b, is attributed to zero-point energy effects. The failure of crystals occurs well before their hardening capacity is exhausted by mechanisms which are characteristic of deformation temperature.

  13. Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence

    SciTech Connect

    Neugebauer, R.; Professorship for Machine Tools and Forming Technology, TU Chemnitz; Schieck, F.

    Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steelmore » sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.« less

  14. Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, R.; Schieck, F.; Rautenstrauch, A.

    2011-05-01

    Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

  15. Laser-Hardened and Ultrasonically Peened Surface Layers on Tool Steel AISI D2: Correlation of the Bearing Curves' Parameters, Hardness and Wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesyk, D. A.; Martinez, S.; Mordyuk, B. N.; Dzhemelinskyi, V. V.; Lamikiz, A.; Prokopenko, G. I.; Grinkevych, K. E.; Tkachenko, I. V.

    2018-02-01

    This paper is focused on the effects of the separately applied laser heat treatment (LHT) and ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) and the combined LHT + UIT process on the wear and friction behaviors of the hardened surface layers of the tool steel AISI D2. In comparison with the initial state, wear losses of the treated specimens after long-term wear tests were decreased by 68, 41, and 77% at the LHT, UIT, and combined LHT + UIT processes, respectively. The Abbott-Firestone bearing curves were used to analyze the material ratio and functional characterization (bearing capacity and oil capacitance) of the studied surface specimens. The wear losses registered after short (15 min) tests correlate well with the changes in experimental surface roughness Ra, and the predictive Rpk, and bearing capacity B C parameters, respectively, evaluated using the Abbott-Firestone curves and Kragelsky-Kombalov formula. The wear losses after the long-term (45 min) tests are in good correlation with the reciprocal surface microhardness HV and with the W L and W P wear parameters, respectively, estimated using Archard-Rabinowicz formula and complex roughness-and-strength approach. The observed HV increase is supported by nanotwins (LHT), by dense dislocation nets (UIT), and by dislocation cells/nanograins fixed with fine carbides (LHT + UIT) formed in the surface layers of the steel.

  16. Laser Transformation Hardening of Firing Zone Cutout Cams.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    bath nitriding to case harden firing zone cutout cams for the Mk 10 Guided Missile Launcher System (GMLS). These cams, machined of 4340 steel ...salt bath nitriding to case harden firing zone cutout cams for the Mk 10 Guided Missile Launcher System (GMLS). These cams, machined of 4340 steel ...Patterns ........ ................ 8 9 Laser Beam Step Pattern ...... .................. .. 10 10 Hardness Profile, 4340 Steel

  17. Production and Precipitation Hardening of Beta-Type Ti-35Nb-10Cu Alloy Foam for Implant Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu, Ilven; Yeniyol, Sinem; Oktay, Enver

    2016-04-01

    In this study, beta-type Ti-35Nb-10Cu alloy foams were produced by powder metallurgy method for dental implant applications. 35% Nb was added to stabilize the beta-Ti phase with low Young's modulus. Cu addition enhanced sinterability and gave precipitation hardening capacity to the alloy. Sintered specimens were precipitation hardened in order to enhance the mechanical properties. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of the specimens was examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in artificial saliva. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results indicated that the oxide film on the surface of foam is a bi-layer structure consisting of outer porous layer and inner barrier layer. Impedance values of barrier layer were higher than porous layer. Corrosion resistance of specimens decreased at high fluoride concentrations and at low pH of artificial saliva. Corrosion resistance of alloys was slightly decreased with aging. Mechanical properties, microstructure, and surface roughness of the specimens were also examined.

  18. Structure and properties of steel case-hardened by non-vacuum electron-beam cladding of carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losinskaya, A. A.; Lozhkina, E. A.; Bardin, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    At the present time, the actual problem of materials science is the increase in the steels performance characteristics. In the paper some mechanical properties of the case-hardened materials received by non-vacuum electron-beam cladding of carbon fibers are determined. The depth of the hardened layers varies from 1.5 to 3 mm. The impact strength of the samples exceeds 50 J/cm2. The wear resistance of the coatings obtained exceeds the properties of steel 20 after cementation and quenching with low tempering. The results of a study of the microhardness of the resulting layers and the microstructure are also given. The hardness of the surface layers exceeds 5700 MPa.

  19. Strain hardening behavior during manufacturing of tube shapes by hydroforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyun Kyu; Yi, Hyae Kyung; Van Tyne, Chester J.; Moon, Young Hoon

    2009-12-01

    Safe and robust process design relies on knowledge of the evolution of the mechanical properties in a tube during hydroforming. The manufacturing of tubular shapes generally consists of three main stages: bending, preforming, and expansion. The latter is usually called hydroforming. As a result of these three steps, the final product's strain hardening history is nonlinear. In the present study, the strain hardening behavior during hydroforming was experimentally investigated. The variation of local flow stress and/or local hardness was used as an index of the strain hardening during the various steps and the local flow stress and/or local hardness were used with respective correlations to determine the effective strain. The strain hardening behavior during hydroforming after preforming has been successfully analyzed by using the relationships between hardness, flow stress, and effective strain for variable pre-strains prior to hydroforming. The comparison of predicted hardness with measured hardness confirms that the methodology used in this study is feasible, and that the strain hardening behavior can be quantitatively estimated with good accuracy.

  20. Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of Hardening-Treated 13Cr Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Li-Bin; Ishitake, Hisamitsu; Izumi, Sakae; Shiokawa, Kunio; Yamashita, Mitsuo; Sakai, Yoshihiro

    2018-03-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of the hardening-treated materials of 13Cr stainless steel was examined with SSRT tests and constant load tests. In the simulated geothermal water and even in the test water without addition of impurities, the hardening-treated materials showed a brittle intergranular fracture due to the sensitization, which was caused by the present hardening-treatments.

  1. Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Frazier, Donald O.; Patrick, Marshall C.; Watson, Michael D.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation Environmental Modeling is crucial to proper predictive modeling and electronic response to the radiation environment. When compared to on-orbit data, CREME96 has been shown to be inaccurate in predicting the radiation environment. The NEDD bases much of its radiation environment data on CREME96 output. Close coordination and partnership with DoD radiation-hardened efforts will result in leveraged - not duplicated or independently developed - technology capabilities of: a) Radiation-hardened, reconfigurable FPGA-based electronics; and b) High Performance Processors (NOT duplication or independent development).

  2. Comparative Study of Hardening Mechanisms During Aging of a 304 Stainless Steel Containing α'-Martensite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S. W.; Kang, U. G.; Choi, J. Y.; Nam, W. J.

    2012-09-01

    Strain aging and hardening behaviors of a 304 stainless steel containing deformation-induced martensite were investigated by examining mechanical properties and microstructural evolution for different aging temperature and time. Introduced age hardening mechanisms of a cold rolled 304 stainless steel were the additional formation of α'-martensite, hardening of α'-martensite, and hardening of deformed austenite. The increased amount of α'-martensite at an aging temperature of 450 °C confirmed the additional formation of α'-martensite as a hardening mechanism in a cold rolled 304 stainless steel. Additionally, the increased hardness in both α'-martensite and austenite phases with aging temperature proved that hardening of both α'-martensite and austenite phases would be effective as hardening mechanisms in cold rolled and aged 304 stainless steels. The results suggested that among hardening mechanisms, hardening of an α'-martensite phase, including the diffusion of interstitial solute carbon atoms to dislocations and the precipitation of fine carbide particles would become a major hardening mechanism during aging of cold rolled 304 stainless steels.

  3. Design and characterization of cellulose nanocrystal-enhanced epoxy hardeners

    Treesearch

    Shane X. Peng; Robert J. Moon; Jeffrey P. Youngblood

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are renewable, sustainable, and abundant nanomaterial widely used as reinforcing fillers in the field of polymer nanocomposites. In this study, two-part epoxy systems with CNC-enhanced hardeners were fabricated. Three types of hardeners, Jeffamine D400 (JD400), diethylenetriamine (DETA), and (±)-trans-1,2- diaminocyclohexane (DACH), were...

  4. Hall coefficient measurement for residual stress assessment in precipitation hardened IN718 nickel-base superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velicheti, Dheeraj; Nagy, Peter B.; Hassan, Waled

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the feasibility of residual stress assessment based on Hall coefficient measurements in precipitation hardened IN718 nickel-base superalloy. As a first step, we studied the influence of microstructural variations on the galvanomagnetic properties of IN718 nickel-base superalloy. We found that the Hall coefficient of IN718 increases from ≈ 8.0×10-11 m3/C in its fully annealed state of 15 HRC Rockwell hardness to ≈ 9.4×10-11 m3/C in its fully hardened state of 45 HRC. We also studied the influence of cold work, i.e., plastic deformation, at room temperature and found that cold work had negligible effect on the Hall coefficient of fully annealed IN718, but significantly reduced it in hardened states of the material. For example, measurements conducted on fully hardened IN718 specimens showed that the Hall coefficient decreased more or less linearly with cold work from its peak value of ≈ 9.4×10-11 m3/C in its intact state to ≈ 9.0×10-11 m3/C in its most deformed state of 22% plastic strain. We also studied the influence of applied stress and found that elastic strain significantly increases the Hall coefficient of IN718 regardless of the state of hardening. The relative sensitivity of the Hall coefficient to elastic strain was measured as a unitless gauge factor K that is defined as the ratio of the relative change of the Hall coefficient ΔRH/RH divided by the axial strain ɛ = σ/E, where σ is the applied uniaxial stress and E is the Young's modulus of the material. We determined that the galvanomagnetic gauge factor of IN718 is κ ≈ 2.6 - 2.9 depending on the hardness level. Besides the fairly high value of the gauge factor, it is important that it is positive, which means that compressive stress in surface-treated components decreases the Hall coefficient in a similar way as plastic deformation does, therefore the unfortunate cancellation that occurs in fully hardened IN718 in the case of electric conductivity measurements will not

  5. Skin hardening effect in patients with polymorphic light eruption: comparison of UVB hardening in hospital with a novel home UV-hardening device.

    PubMed

    Franken, S M; Genders, R E; de Gruijl, F R; Rustemeyer, T; Pavel, S

    2013-01-01

    An effective prophylactic treatment of patients with polymorphic light eruption (PLE) consists of repeated low, gradually increasing exposures to UVB radiation. This so-called UV(B) hardening induces better tolerance of the skin to sunlight. SunshowerMedical company (Amsterdam) has developed an UV (B) source that can be used during taking shower. The low UV fluence of this apparatus makes it an interesting device for UV hardening. In a group of PLE patients, we compared the effectiveness of the irradiation with SunshowerMedical at home with that of the UVB treatment in the hospital. The PLE patients were randomized for one of the treatments. The hospital treatment consisted of irradiations with broad-band UVB (Waldmann 85/UV21 lamps) twice a week during 6 weeks. The home UV-device was used each day with the maximal irradiation time of 6 min. The outcome assessment was based on the information obtained from patients' dermatological quality of life (DLQI) questionnaires, the ability of both phototherapies to reduce the provocation reaction and from the patients' evaluation of the long-term benefits of their phototherapies. Sixteen patients completed treatment with SunshowerMedical and thirteen completed treatment in hospital. Both types of phototherapy were effective. There was a highly significant improvement in DLQI with either treatment. In most cases, the hardening reduced or even completely suppressed clinical UV provocation of PLE. The patients using SunshowerMedical at home were, however, much more content with the treatment procedure than the patients visiting the dermatological units. Both treatments were equally effective in the induction of skin tolerance to sunlight in PLE patients. However, the home treatment was much better accepted than the treatment in the hospital. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  6. idRHa+ProMod - Rail Hardening Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, L.

    2016-03-01

    idRHa+ProMod is the process control system developed by Primetals Technologies to foresee the thermo-mechanical evolution and micro-structural composition of rail steels subjected to slack quenching into idRHa+ Rail Hardening equipments in a simulation environment. This tool can be used both off-line or in-line, giving the user the chance to test and study the best cooling strategies or letting the automatic control system free to adjust the proper cooling recipe. Optimization criteria have been tailored in order to determine the best cooling conditions according to the metallurgical requirements imposed by the main rail standards and also taking into account the elastoplastic bending phenomena occurring during all stages of the head hardening process. The computational core of idRHa+ProMod is a thermal finite element procedure coupled with special algorithms developed to work out the main thermo-physical properties of steel, to predict the non-isothermal austenite decomposition into all the relevant phases and subsequently to evaluate the amount of latent heat of transformation released, the compound thermal expansion coefficient and the amount of plastic deformation in the material. Air mist and air blades boundary conditions have been carefully investigated by means of pilot plant tests aimed to study the jet impingement on rail surfaces and the cooling efficiency at all working conditions. Heat transfer coefficients have been further checked and adjusted directly on field during commissioning. idRHa+ is a trademark of Primetals Technologies Italy Srl

  7. Effects of Ce additions on the age hardening response of Mg–Zn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Langelier, Brian, E-mail: langelb@mcmaster.ca; Esmaeili, Shahrzad

    2015-03-15

    The effects of Ce additions on the precipitation hardening behaviour of Mg–Zn are examined for a series of alloys, with Ce additions at both alloying and microalloying levels. The alloys are artificially aged, and studied using hardness measurement and X-ray diffraction, as well as optical and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the age-hardening effect is driven by the formation of fine precipitates, the number density of which is related to the Zn content of the alloy. Conversely, the Ce content is found to slightly reduce hardening. When the alloy content of Ce is high, large secondary phase particlesmore » containing both Ce and Zn are present, and remain stable during solutionizing. These particles effectively reduce the amount of Zn available as solute for precipitation, and thereby reduce hardening. Combining hardness results with thermodynamic analysis of alloy solute levels also suggests that Ce can have a negative effect on hardening when present as solutes at the onset of ageing. This effect is confirmed by designing a pre-ageing heat treatment to preferentially remove Ce solutes, which is found to restore the hardening capability of an Mg–Zn–Ce alloy to the level of the Ce-free alloy. - Highlights: • The effects of Ce additions on precipitation in Mg–Zn alloys are examined. • Additions of Ce to Mg–Zn slightly reduce the age-hardening response. • Ce-rich secondary phase particles deplete the matrix of Zn solute. • Hardening is also decreased when Ce is present in solution. • Pre-ageing to preferentially precipitate out Ce restores hardening capabilities.« less

  8. The influence of Span-20 surfactant and micro-/nano-Chromium (Cr) Powder Mixed Electrical Discharge Machining (PMEDM) on the surface characteristics of AISI D2 hardened steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosni, N. A. J.; Lajis, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    The application of powder mixed dielectric to improve the efficiency of electrical discharge machining (EDM) has been extensively studied. Therefore, PMEDM have attracted the attention of many researchers since last few decades. Improvement in EDM process has resulted in the use of span-20 surfactant and Cr powder mixed in dielectric fluid, which results in increasing machiniability, better surface quality and faster machining time. However, the study of powder suspension size of surface charateristics in EDM field is still limited. This paper presents the improvement of micro-/nano- Cr powder size on the surface characteristics of the AISI D2 hardened steels in PMEDM. It has found that the reacst layer in PMEDM improved by as high as 41-53 % compared to conventional EDM. Also notably, the combination of added Cr powder and span-20 surfactant reduced the recast layer thickness significantly especially in nano-Cr size. This improvement was great potential adding nano-size Cr powder to dielectric for machining performance.

  9. Beam-hardening correction by a surface fitting and phase classification by a least square support vector machine approach for tomography images of geological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, F.; Enzmann, F.; Kersten, M.

    2015-12-01

    In X-ray computed microtomography (μXCT) image processing is the most important operation prior to image analysis. Such processing mainly involves artefact reduction and image segmentation. We propose a new two-stage post-reconstruction procedure of an image of a geological rock core obtained by polychromatic cone-beam μXCT technology. In the first stage, the beam-hardening (BH) is removed applying a best-fit quadratic surface algorithm to a given image data set (reconstructed slice), which minimizes the BH offsets of the attenuation data points from that surface. The final BH-corrected image is extracted from the residual data, or the difference between the surface elevation values and the original grey-scale values. For the second stage, we propose using a least square support vector machine (a non-linear classifier algorithm) to segment the BH-corrected data as a pixel-based multi-classification task. A combination of the two approaches was used to classify a complex multi-mineral rock sample. The Matlab code for this approach is provided in the Appendix. A minor drawback is that the proposed segmentation algorithm may become computationally demanding in the case of a high dimensional training data set.

  10. Segmentation-free empirical beam hardening correction for CT.

    PubMed

    Schüller, Sören; Sawall, Stefan; Stannigel, Kai; Hülsbusch, Markus; Ulrici, Johannes; Hell, Erich; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2015-02-01

    The polychromatic nature of the x-ray beams and their effects on the reconstructed image are often disregarded during standard image reconstruction. This leads to cupping and beam hardening artifacts inside the reconstructed volume. To correct for a general cupping, methods like water precorrection exist. They correct the hardening of the spectrum during the penetration of the measured object only for the major tissue class. In contrast, more complex artifacts like streaks between dense objects need other techniques of correction. If using only the information of one single energy scan, there are two types of corrections. The first one is a physical approach. Thereby, artifacts can be reproduced and corrected within the original reconstruction by using assumptions in a polychromatic forward projector. These assumptions could be the used spectrum, the detector response, the physical attenuation and scatter properties of the intersected materials. A second method is an empirical approach, which does not rely on much prior knowledge. This so-called empirical beam hardening correction (EBHC) and the previously mentioned physical-based technique are both relying on a segmentation of the present tissues inside the patient. The difficulty thereby is that beam hardening by itself, scatter, and other effects, which diminish the image quality also disturb the correct tissue classification and thereby reduce the accuracy of the two known classes of correction techniques. The herein proposed method works similar to the empirical beam hardening correction but does not require a tissue segmentation and therefore shows improvements on image data, which are highly degraded by noise and artifacts. Furthermore, the new algorithm is designed in a way that no additional calibration or parameter fitting is needed. To overcome the segmentation of tissues, the authors propose a histogram deformation of their primary reconstructed CT image. This step is essential for the proposed

  11. Segmentation-free empirical beam hardening correction for CT

    SciTech Connect

    Schüller, Sören; Sawall, Stefan; Stannigel, Kai

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The polychromatic nature of the x-ray beams and their effects on the reconstructed image are often disregarded during standard image reconstruction. This leads to cupping and beam hardening artifacts inside the reconstructed volume. To correct for a general cupping, methods like water precorrection exist. They correct the hardening of the spectrum during the penetration of the measured object only for the major tissue class. In contrast, more complex artifacts like streaks between dense objects need other techniques of correction. If using only the information of one single energy scan, there are two types of corrections. The first one ismore » a physical approach. Thereby, artifacts can be reproduced and corrected within the original reconstruction by using assumptions in a polychromatic forward projector. These assumptions could be the used spectrum, the detector response, the physical attenuation and scatter properties of the intersected materials. A second method is an empirical approach, which does not rely on much prior knowledge. This so-called empirical beam hardening correction (EBHC) and the previously mentioned physical-based technique are both relying on a segmentation of the present tissues inside the patient. The difficulty thereby is that beam hardening by itself, scatter, and other effects, which diminish the image quality also disturb the correct tissue classification and thereby reduce the accuracy of the two known classes of correction techniques. The herein proposed method works similar to the empirical beam hardening correction but does not require a tissue segmentation and therefore shows improvements on image data, which are highly degraded by noise and artifacts. Furthermore, the new algorithm is designed in a way that no additional calibration or parameter fitting is needed. Methods: To overcome the segmentation of tissues, the authors propose a histogram deformation of their primary reconstructed CT image. This step is essential

  12. Alloy solution hardening with solute pairs

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, John W.

    1976-08-24

    Solution hardened alloys are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice. Copper containing equal atomic percentages of aluminum and palladium is an example.

  13. Mössbauer study on the deformed surface of high-manganese steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasu, S.; Tanimoto, H.; Fujita, F. E.

    1990-07-01

    Conversion electron, X-ray backscattering and conventional transmission57Fe Mössbauer measurements have been performed to investigate the origin of the remarkable work hardening at the surface of a high-manganese steel which is called Hadfield steel. Mössbauer results show that α' martensite has no relation to work hardening. From the comparison of conversion electron to X-ray backscattering spectra, the occurrence of decarbonization is suggested at the surface. The transmission Mössbauer spectrum at 20 K for deformed specimen shows the existence of ɛ martensite which could be related to the work hardening of Hadfield steel.

  14. Yield surface evolution for columnar ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Shujuan; Mu, Yanhu; Zhao, Shunpin; Li, Guoyu

    A series of triaxial compression tests, which has capable of measuring the volumetric strain of the sample, were conducted on columnar ice. A new testing approach of probing the experimental yield surface was performed from a single sample in order to investigate yield and hardening behaviors of the columnar ice under complex stress states. Based on the characteristic of the volumetric strain, a new method of defined the multiaxial yield strengths of the columnar ice is proposed. The experimental yield surface remains elliptical shape in the stress space of effective stress versus mean stress. The effect of temperature, loading rate and loading path in the initial yield surface and deformation properties of the columnar ice were also studied. Subsequent yield surfaces of the columnar ice have been explored by using uniaxial and hydrostatic paths. The evolution of the subsequent yield surface exhibits significant path-dependent characteristics. The multiaxial hardening law of the columnar ice was established experimentally. A phenomenological yield criterion was presented for multiaxial yield and hardening behaviors of the columnar ice. The comparisons between the theoretical and measured results indicate that this current model is capable of giving a reasonable prediction for the multiaxial yield and post-yield properties of the columnar ice subjected to different temperature, loading rate and path conditions.

  15. Statistical thermodynamics of strain hardening in polycrystalline solids

    DOE PAGES

    Langer, James S.

    2015-09-18

    This paper starts with a systematic rederivation of the statistical thermodynamic equations of motion for dislocation-mediated plasticity proposed in 2010 by Langer, Bouchbinder, and Lookman. The paper then uses that theory to explain the anomalous rate-hardening behavior reported in 1988 by Follansbee and Kocks and to explore the relation between hardening rate and grain size reported in 1995 by Meyers et al. A central theme is the need for physics-based, nonequilibrium analyses in developing predictive theories of the strength of polycrystalline materials.

  16. The Effect of Grain Size on the Strain Hardening Behavior for Extruded ZK61 Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Wencong; Chen, Wenzhen; Duan, Junpeng; Wang, Wenke; Wang, Erde

    2017-12-01

    The effects of grain size on the tensile and compressive strain hardening behaviors for extruded ZK61 alloys have been investigated by uniaxial tensile and compressive tests along the extrusion directions. Cylindrical tension and compression specimens of extruded ZK61 alloys with various sized grain were fabricated by annealing treatments. Tensile and compressive tests at ambient temperature were conducted at a strain rate of 0.5 × 10-3 s-1. The results indicate that both tensile strain hardening and compressive strain hardening of ZK61 alloys with different grain sizes have an athermal regime of dislocation accumulation in early deformation. The threshold stress value caused dynamic recovery is predominantly related to grain size in tensile strain hardening, but the threshold stress values for different grain sizes are almost identical in compressive strain hardening. There are obvious transition points on the tensile strain hardening curves which indicate the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization (DRX). The tensile strain hardening rate of the coarse-grained alloy obviously decreases faster than that of fine-grained alloys before DRX and the tensile strain hardening curves of different grain sizes basically tend to parallel after DRX. The compressive strain hardening rate of the fine-grained alloy obviously increases faster than that of coarse-grained alloy for twin-induced strain hardening, but compressive strain hardening curves also tend to parallel after twinning is exhausted.

  17. Enhancement of bronze alloy surface properties by FSP second-phase particle incorporation

    DOE PAGES

    Ajayi, O. O.; Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta

    2017-06-15

    This study presents results of an experimental study to evaluate friction stir processing (FSP) with and without hard second-phase particle incorporation as a means to enhance surface properties and wear performance of C86300 manganese bronze alloy. FSP of flat bronze alloy specimens was conducted with hardened H-13 tool steel to create a 3-mm-thick processed surface layer. The process was also used to incorporate B 4C particles, thereby creating a metal-matrix composite layer on the alloy surface. FSP alone was observed to produce substantial reduction in grain size (from an initial value of 350 mu m to 1-5 μm). FSP withoutmore » particle incorporation resulted in modest surface hardening due to grain refinement and dispersion hardening. Under lubricated contact in block-on-ring testing with a hardened steel counter face, FSP produced substantial reduction (about 3X) in bronze wear after polishing of processing surface roughening. FSP with hard B 4C second-phase particle incorporation further reduced wear by up to 20X. The improvement in wear behavior is attributed to grain refinement and load shielding by second-phase particles, as determined by wear mechanism analysis.« less

  18. The Strain-Hardening Behavior of TZAV-30 Alloy After Various Heat Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, S. X.; Yin, L. X.; Zheng, L. Y.; Ma, M. Z.; Liu, R. P.

    2016-02-01

    The Ti-Zr-Al-V series titanium alloys with excellent mechanical properties and low density exhibit tremendous application potential as structural materials in aviation, automotive, and navigation industries. The strain-hardening behavior of Ti-30Zr-5Al-3V (wt.%, TZAV-30) alloy with various heat treatments is investigated in this study. Experimental results show that strain-hardening behavior of the examined alloy depends on the heat treatment process. The average strain-hardening exponent, n, is approximately 0.061 for WA specimen (825 °C/0.5 h/water quenching + 600 °C/4 h/air cooling), 0.068 for FC (850 °C/0.5 h/furnace cooling), 0.121 for AC (850 °C/0.5 h/air cooling), and 0.412 for WQ (850 °C/0.5 h/water quenching). Analysis of strain-hardening rate versus true strain curves indicates that higher n of AC specimen results from the lower degradation rate of strain-hardening rate with strain, and the ultrahigh n of WQ specimen is attributed to the evident increase in strain-hardening rate at the true strain from 0.04 to 0.06. Phase constitution and microstructural analyses reveal that the n of the examined alloy with α + β phases increases with the increase in the relative content of the retained β phase but is independent of average thickness of α plates. The increase in strain-hardening rate in WQ specimen depends on metastable α″ martensite and martensitic transition induced by tensile stress.

  19. Study on the Strain Hardening Behaviors of TWIP/TRIP Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T. T.; Dan, W. J.; Zhang, W. G.

    2017-10-01

    Due to the complex coupling of twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP), transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP), and dislocation glide in TWIP/TRIP steels, it is difficult as well as essential to build a comprehensive strain hardening model to describe the interactions between different deformation mechanisms ( i.e., deformation twinning, martensitic transformation, and dislocation glide) and the resulted strain hardening behaviors. To address this issue, a micromechanical model is established in this paper to predict the deformation process of TWIP/TRIP steels considering both TWIP and TRIP effects. In the proposed model, the generation of deformation twinning and martensitic transformation is controlled by the stacking fault energy (SFE) of the material. In the thermodynamic calculation of SFE, deformation temperature, chemical compositions, microstrain, and temperature rise during deformation are taken into account. Varied by experimental results, the developed model can predict the stress-strain response and strain hardening behaviors of TWIP/TRIP steels precisely. In addition, the improved strength and enhanced strain hardening in Fe-Mn-C TWIP/TRIP steels due to the increased carbon content is also analyzed, which consists with literature.

  20. Reconstruction of radial thermal conductivity depth profile in case hardened steel rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celorrio, Ricardo; Mendioroz, Arantza; Apiñaniz, Estibaliz; Salazar, Agustín; Wang, Chinhua; Mandelis, Andreas

    2009-04-01

    In this work the surface thermal-wave field (ac temperature) of a solid cylinder illuminated by a modulated light beam is calculated first in two cases: a multilayered cylinder and a cylinder the radial thermal conductivity of which varies continuously. It is demonstrated numerically that, using a few layers of different thicknesses, the surface thermal-wave field of a cylindrical sample with continuously varying radial thermal conductivity can be calculated with high accuracy. Next, an inverse procedure based on the multilayered model is used to reconstruct the radial thermal conductivity profile of hardened C1018 steel rods, the surface temperature of which was measured by photothermal radiometry. The reconstructed thermal conductivity depth profile has a similar shape to those found for flat samples of this material and shows a qualitative anticorrelation with the hardness depth profile.

  1. Forming an age hardenable aluminum alloy with intermediate annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kaifeng; Carsley, John E.; Stoughton, Thomas B.; Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Lianhong; He, Baiyan

    2013-12-01

    A method to improve formability of aluminum sheet alloys by a two-stage stamping process with intermediate annealing was developed for a non-age hardenable Al-Mg alloy where the annealing heat treatment provided recovery of cold work from the initial stamping and recrystallization of the microstructure to enhance the forming limits of the material. This method was extended to an age hardenable, Al-Mg-Si alloy, which is complicated by the competing metallurgical effects during heat treatment including recovery (softening effect) vs. precipitation (hardening effect). An annealing heat treatment process condition was discovered wherein the stored strain energy from an initial plastic deformation can be sufficiently recovered to enhance formability in a second deformation; however, there is a deleterious effect on subsequent precipitation hardening. The improvement in formability was quantified with uniaxial tensile tests as well as with the forming limit diagram. Since strain-based forming limit curves (FLC) are sensitive to pre-strain history, both stress-based FLCs and polar-effective-plastic-strain (PEPS) FLCs, which are path-independent, were used to evaluate the forming limits after preform annealing. A technique was developed to calculate the stress-based FLC in which a residual-effective-plastic-strain (REPS) was determined by overlapping the hardening curve of the pre-strained and annealed material with that of the simply-annealed- material. After converting the strain-based FLCs using the constant REPS method, it was found that the stress-based FLCs and the PEPS FLCs of the post-annealed materials were quite similar and both tools are applicable for evaluating the forming limits of Al-Mg-Si alloys for a two-step stamping process with intermediate annealing.

  2. Comparison of air void content measurements in fresh versus hardened concretes.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1990-01-01

    This study compares the air content of freshly mixed and hardened concretes. At the fresh stage, pressure meters (Types A and B) and a volumetric meter were used to determine the air content. At the hardened stage, the air content was calculated usin...

  3. Physico-chemical studies of hardened cement paste structure with micro-reinforcing fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Steshenko, Aleksei, E-mail: steshenko.alexey@gmail.com; Kudyakov, Aleksander; Konusheva, Viktoriya

    The results of physico-chemical studies of modified hardened cement paste with micro-reinforcing fibers are given in this article. The goal was to study the reasons of the increase of strength properties of modified hardened cement paste by the method of X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. It is shown that the use of mineral fibers in the production of cement based material has positive effect on its properties. The study found out that the increase in the strength of the hardened cement paste with micro-reinforcing fibers is due to the increase of the rate of hydration of cement without a significantmore » change in the phase composition in comparison with hardened cement paste without additive. The results of microstructure investigation (of control samples and samples of the reinforced hardened cement paste) have shown that introduction of mineral fibers in the amount of 0.1-2 % by weight of cement provides the structure of the homogeneous microporous material with uniform distribution of the crystalline phase provided by densely packed hydrates.« less

  4. Induction of a Hardening Phenomenon and Quantitative Changes of Ceramides in Stratum Corneum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sook Young; Kim, Jin Hye; Cho, Soo Ick; Kim, Kyeong Il; Cho, Hee Jin; Park, Chun Wook; Lee, Cheol Heon

    2014-01-01

    Background Hardening phenomenon of human skin after repeated exposure to the irritants is well-known, but the precise mechanism remains elusive. Objective To modify the previous experimental model of hardening phenomenon by repeated applications of two different concentrations of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) solutions to Korean healthy volunteers and to investigate the quantitative changes of ceramides in stratum corneum before and after chronic repeated irritation. Methods Eight hundred microliters of distilled water containing 0.1% and 2% SLS was applied for 10 minutes on the forearm of 41 healthy volunteers for 3 weeks. After an intervening 3-week rest, 24-hour patch tests with 1% SLS were conducted on previously irritated sites. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema index and quantity of ceramide were measured in the stratum corneum before and after irritation. Results TEWL values on the sites preirritated with 2% SLS were lower than those with 0.1% SLS. Hardening phenomenon occurred in 24 volunteers at day 44. The changes in ceramide levels were not significantly higher in the hardened skin than in the non-hardened skin. Conclusion Repetitive stimulation with a higher concentration of SLS can more easily trigger skin hardening. PMID:24648684

  5. Precipitation hardening austenitic superalloys

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1985-01-01

    Precipitation hardening, austenitic type superalloys are described. These alloys contain 0.5 to 1.5 weight percent silicon in combination with about 0.05 to 0.5 weight percent of a post irradiation ductility enhancing agent selected from the group of hafnium, yttrium, lanthanum and scandium, alone or in combination with each other. In addition, when hafnium or yttrium are selected, reductions in irradiation induced swelling have been noted.

  6. Plant resistance to cold stress: mechanisms and environmental signals triggering frost hardening and dehardening.

    PubMed

    Beck, Erwin H; Heim, Richard; Hansen, Jens

    2004-12-01

    This introductory overview shows that cold, in particular frost, stresses a plant in manifold ways and that the plant's response, being injurious or adaptive, must be considered a syndrome rather than a single reaction. In the course of the year perennial plants of the temperate climate zones undergo frost hardening in autumn and dehardening in spring. Using Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a model plant the environmental signals inducing frost hardening and dehardening, respectively, were investigated. Over 2 years the changes in frost resistance of Scots pine needles were recorded together with the annual courses of day-length and ambient temperature. Both act as environmental signals for frost hardening and dehardening. Climate chamber experiments showed that short day-length as a signal triggering frost hardening could be replaced by irradiation with far red light, while red light inhibited hardening. The involvement of phytochrome as a signal receptor could be corroborated by respective night-break experiments. More rapid frost hardening than by short day or far red treatment was achieved by applying a short period (6 h) of mild frost which did not exceed the plant's cold resistance. Both types of signals were independently effective but the rates of frost hardening were not additive. The maximal rate of hardening was - 0.93 degrees C per day and frost tolerance of less than < - 72 degrees C was achieved. For dehardening, temperature was an even more effective signal than day-length.

  7. Assessment of the microstructure and torsional fatigue performance of an induction hardened vanadium microalloyed medium-carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothleutner, Lee M.

    -martensitic transformation products in the induction-hardened case. In the total case region, vanadium reduced the total case depth by inhibiting austenite formation at low austenitizing temperatures; however, the non-martensitic constituents in the case microstructure and the reduced total case depth of the vanadium microalloyed steel did not translate directly to a degradation of torsional fatigue properties. In general, vanadium microalloying was not found to affect torsional fatigue performance significantly with one exception. In the 25 pct effective case depth condition, the 10V45 steel had a ~75 pct increase in fatigue life at all shear stress amplitudes when compared to the 1045 steel. The improved fatigue performance is likely a result of the significantly higher case hardness this condition exhibited compared to all other conditions. The direct influence of vanadium on the improved fatigue life of the 25 pct effective case depth condition is confounded with the slightly higher carbon content of the 10V45 steel. In addition, the 10V45 conditions showed a consistently higher case hardness than the in 1045 conditions. The increased hardness of the 10V45 steel did not increase the compressive residual stresses at the surface. Induction hardening parameters were more closely related to changes in residual stress than vanadium microalloying additions. Torsional fatigue data from the current study as well as from literature were used to develop an empirical multiple linear regression model that accounts for case depth as well as carbon content when predicting torsional fatigue life of induction hardened medium-carbon steels.

  8. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points.

  9. Assessment of BART Fire-Hardening Programs.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-09-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of the Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) vehicle fire hardening. The report assesses the overall effort to improve the fire safety of the current BART vehicles through the removal of prospective ...

  10. Developments in Radiation-Hardened Electronics Applicable to the Vision for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Frazier, Donald O.; Patrick , Marshall C.; Watson, Michael D.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Exploration (RHESE) project develops the advanced technologies required to produce radiation hardened electronics, processors, and devices in support of the anticipated requirements of NASA's Constellation program. Methods of protecting and hardening electronics against the encountered space environment are discussed. Critical stages of a spaceflight mission that are vulnerable to radiation-induced interruptions or failures are identified. Solutions to mitigating the risk of radiation events are proposed through the infusion of RHESE technology products and deliverables into the Constellation program's spacecraft designs.

  11. Update on radiation-hardened microcomputers for robotics and teleoperated systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sias, F.R. Jr.; Tulenko, J.S.

    1993-12-31

    Since many programs sponsored by the Department of Defense are being canceled, it is important to select carefully radiation-hardened microprocessors for projects that will mature (or will require continued support) several years in the future. At the present time there are seven candidate 32-bit processors that should be considered for long-range planning for high-performance radiation-hardened computer systems. For Department of Energy applications it is also important to consider efforts at standardization that require the use of the VxWorks operating system and hardware based on the VMEbus. Of the seven processors, one has been delivered and is operating and other systemsmore » are scheduled to be delivered late in 1993 or early in 1994. At the present time the Honeywell-developed RH32, the Harris RH-3000 and the Harris RHC-3000 are leading contenders for meeting DOE requirements for a radiation-hardened advanced 32-bit microprocessor. These are all either compatible with or are derivatives of the MIPS R3000 Reduced Instruction Set Computer. It is anticipated that as few as two of the seven radiation-hardened processors will be supported by the space program in the long run.« less

  12. Study of Fresh and Hardening Process Properties of Gypsum with Three Different PCM Inclusion Methods

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Susana; Barreneche, Camila; Navarro, Antonia; Haurie, Laia; Fernandez, A. Inés; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2015-01-01

    Gypsum has two important states (fresh and hardened states), and the addition of phase change materials (PCM) can vary the properties of the material. Many authors have extensively studied properties in the hardened state; however, the variation of fresh state properties due to the addition of Micronal® DS 5001 X PCM into gypsum has been the object of few investigations. Properties in fresh state define the workability, setting time, adherence and shrinkage, and, therefore the possibility of implementing the material in building walls. The aim of the study is to analyze, compare and evaluate the variability of fresh state properties after the inclusion of 10% PCM. PCM are added into a common gypsum matrix by three different methods: adding microencapsulated PCM, making a suspension of PCM/water, and incorporating PCM through a vacuum impregnation method. Results demonstrate that the inclusion of PCM change completely the water required by the gypsum to achieve good workability, especially the formulation containing Micronal® DS 5001 X: the water required is higher, the retraction is lower (50% less) due to the organic nature of the PCM with high elasticity and, the adherence is reduced (up to 45%) due to the difference between the porosity of the different surfaces as well as the surface tension difference. PMID:28793584

  13. Effect of strain rate on bake hardening response of BH220 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Anindya; Tarafder, Soumitro; Sivaprasad, S.; Chakrabarti, Debalay

    2015-09-01

    This study aims at understanding the bake hardening ability of ultra low carbon BH220 steel at different strain rates. The as-received material has been pre-strained to four different levels and then deformed in tension under (a) as pre-strained state and (b) after baking at 170 ∘C for 20 minutes, at three different strain rates of 0.001, 0.1 and 100/s. In both the conditions, yield stress increased with pre-strain and strain rate, but bake hardening ability was found to decrease when strain rate was increased. The strain rate sensitivity of the material was also found to decrease with bake hardening. Generation of dislocation forests and their subsequent immobility during baking treatment enables them to act as long range obstacles during further deformation. At higher strain rates, less amount of dislocations are produced which can interact with themselves and produce hardening, because of which bake hardening ability and the strain rate drops. A dislocation based strengthening model, as proposed by Larour et al. 2011 [7], was used to predict the yield stress values obtained at different conditions. The equation produced excellent co-relation with the experimental data.

  14. Cognitive work hardening: a return-to-work intervention for people with depression.

    PubMed

    Wisenthal, Adeena; Krupa, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Mental health claims in the workplace are rising, particularly those due to depression. Associated with this is an increase in disability costs for the employer and the disability insurer, but even more important is the human suffering that results. While treatments are available for the depression there is a gap in interventions that specifically target return-to-work preparation. This paper presents cognitive work hardening, a treatment intervention that can bridge this gap by addressing the unique functional issues inherent in depression with a view to increasing return-to-work success. Cognitive work hardening applies the proven principles of classical work hardening (which has typically been applied to people with physical injuries) to the mental health domain. This paper explains how the occupational therapy principle of occupation and the core competency, enablement, are utilized and applied in cognitive work hardening. Key skills of the occupational therapist are also discussed. In addition, the paper considers the relationship of cognitive work hardening to recovery and mental illness, and the role it plays among workplace-based return-to-work interventions in the current movement toward non-clinical return-to-work interventions.

  15. Effect of Plate Hardening Behavior on the Deformation of Stainless Steel Metal Bellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zengliang; Luo, Shuyi; Zhao, He; Zhang, Chunxiang; Luo, Junting

    2017-11-01

    Tensile tests of original plate samples from three types of stainless steel metal bellows were performed at room temperature. The constitutive equations for the three hardening curves were obtained and fitted. The analysis results of the microstructure and fracture morphology of the tensile specimens show that the grain size of the plate with a high logarithmic-exponential hardening rate is uneven and the dimple of the shear fracture is elongated into an ellipse. By contrast, the grain size of the plate with a relatively low linear hardening rate is even and the dimple of the fracture is uniformly equiaxial. Finite element simulations of the hydraulic bulging and repeated limit bending deformation of the metal bellows of the three types of materials were also conducted. The repeated limit bending deformation process was tested experimentally. Although the effect of the hardening exponent on the residual stress of the metal bellows after hydraulic bulging is minimal, this exponent considerably influences the repeated limit bending deformation of the metal bellows after subsequent use. The trough hardening phenomenon is serious in the repeated limit bending process. Moreover, when the hardening exponent of the original plate is high, the resistance to bending fracture at the trough area is poor.

  16. Two Back Stress Hardening Models in Rate Independent Rigid Plastic Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Su-Jin

    In the present work, the constitutive relations based on the combination of two back stresses are developed using the Armstrong-Frederick, Phillips and Ziegler’s type hardening rules. Various evolutions of the kinematic hardening parameter can be obtained by means of a simple combination of back stress rate using the rule of mixtures. Thus, a wide range of plastic deformation behavior can be depicted depending on the dominant back stress evolution. The ultimate back stress is also determined for the present combined kinematic hardening models. Since a kinematic hardening rule is assumed in the finite deformation regime, the stress rate is co-rotated with respect to the spin of substructure obtained by incorporating the plastic spin concept. A comparison of the various co-rotational rates is also included. Assuming rigid plasticity, the continuum body consists of the elastic deformation zone and the plastic deformation zone to form a hybrid finite element formulation. Then, the plastic deformation behavior is investigated under various loading conditions with an assumption of the J2 deformation theory. The plastic deformation localization turns out to be strongly dependent on the description of back stress evolution and its associated hardening parameters. The analysis for the shear deformation with fixed boundaries is carried out to examine the deformation localization behavior and the evolution of state variables.

  17. Method for increasing the rate of compressive strength gain in hardenable mixtures containing fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Liskowitz, J.W.; Wecharatana, M.; Jaturapitakkul, C.; Cerkanowicz, A.E.

    1997-10-28

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction. The invention provides a method for increasing the rate of strength gain of a hardenable mixture containing fly ash by exposing the fly ash to an aqueous slurry of calcium oxide (lime) prior to its incorporation into the hardenable mixture. The invention further relates to such hardenable mixtures, e.g., concrete and mortar, that contain fly ash pre-reacted with calcium oxide. In particular, the fly ash is added to a slurry of calcium oxide in water, prior to incorporating the fly ash in a hardenable mixture. The hardenable mixture may be concrete or mortar. In a specific embodiment, mortar containing fly ash treated by exposure to an aqueous lime slurry are prepared and tested for compressive strength at early time points. 2 figs.

  18. Benefits of aggregates surface modification in concrete production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junak, J.; Sicakova, A.

    2017-10-01

    In our study, recycled concrete aggregates (RCA), which surfaces had been modified by geopolymer material based on coal fly ash, were used to produce the concrete samples. In these samples, fraction 4/8 mm was replaced by recycled concrete aggregate with a range of 100%. To modify the surface of RCA was “Solo” and “Triple stage” modification used. On these samples real density, total water absorption and compressive strength were examined after 28, 90, 180 and 365 days of hardening. The highest compressive strength 56.8 MPa, after 365 days hardening, reached sample which had improved RCA surface by “Triple stage mixing”.

  19. Radiation-hardened transistor and integrated circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ma, Kwok K.

    2007-11-20

    A composite transistor is disclosed for use in radiation hardening a CMOS IC formed on an SOI or bulk semiconductor substrate. The composite transistor has a circuit transistor and a blocking transistor connected in series with a common gate connection. A body terminal of the blocking transistor is connected only to a source terminal thereof, and to no other connection point. The blocking transistor acts to prevent a single-event transient (SET) occurring in the circuit transistor from being coupled outside the composite transistor. Similarly, when a SET occurs in the blocking transistor, the circuit transistor prevents the SET from being coupled outside the composite transistor. N-type and P-type composite transistors can be used for each and every transistor in the CMOS IC to radiation harden the IC, and can be used to form inverters and transmission gates which are the building blocks of CMOS ICs.

  20. Theoretical Study of the Oxidation Behavior of Precipitation Hardening Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.; Psyllaki, P.; Chrissafis, K.

    2010-01-01

    The oxidation of precipitation hardening (PH) steels is a rather unexplored area. In the present work an attempt is made is made to estimate the kinetics of a PH steel. For this purpose specimens of the material under examination were isothermally heated at 850, 900 and 950° C for 15 hr. Kinetics was based on TGA results. During heating a thick scale is formed on the substrate surface, which is composed by different oxides. The layer close to the substrate is compact and as a result it impedes corrosion. The mathematical analysis of the collected data shows that the change of the mass of the substrate per unit area versus time is described by a parabolic law.

  1. Options for Hardening FinFETS with Flowable Oxide Between Fins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    thus hardening by process is needed. Using the methodology of CV measurements on inexpensive experimental blanket oxides we have determined options...NY 10598 Abstract: A methodology using radiation-induced charge measurements by CV techniques on blanket oxides is shown to aid in the choice...of process options for hardening FinFETs. Net positive charge in flowable oxides was reduced by 50 % using a simple non -intrusive process change

  2. Impact of Scaled Technology on Radiation Testing and Hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation gives a brief overview of some of the radiation challenges facing emerging scaled digital technologies with implications on using consumer grade electronics and next generation hardening schemes. Commercial semiconductor manufacturers are recognizing some of these issues as issues for terrestrial performance. Looking at means of dealing with soft errors. The thinned oxide has indicated improved TID tolerance of commercial products hardened by "serendipity" which does not guarantee hardness or say if the trend will continue. This presentation also focuses one reliability implications of thinned oxides.

  3. The Effects of Stress State on the Strain Hardening Behaviors of TWIP Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Dan, W. J.; Zhang, W. G.

    2017-05-01

    Twinning-Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steels have received great attention due to their excellent mechanical properties as a result of austenite twinning during straining. In this paper, the effects of stress state on the strain hardening behaviors of Fe-20Mn-1.2C TWIP steel were studied. A twinning model considering stress state was presented based on the shear-band framework, and a strain hardening model was proposed by taking dislocation mixture evolution into account. The models were verified by the experimental results of uniaxial tension, simple shear and rolling processes. The strain hardening behaviors of TWIP steel under different stress states were predicted. The results show that the stress state can improve the austenite twining and benefit the strain hardening of TWIP steel.

  4. Investigation of radiation hardened SOI wafer fabricated by ion-cut technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yongwei; Wei, Xing; Zhu, Lei; Su, Xin; Gao, Nan; Dong, Yemin

    2018-07-01

    Total ionizing dose (TID) effect on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) wafers due to inherent buried oxide (BOX) is a significant concern as it leads to the degradation of electrical properties of SOI-based devices and circuits, even failures of the systems associated with them. This paper reports the radiation hardening implementation of SOI wafer fabricated by ion-cut technique integrated with low-energy Si+ implantation. The electrical properties and radiation response of pseudo-MOS transistors are analyzed. The results demonstrate that the hardening process can significantly improve the TID tolerance of SOI wafers by generating Si nanocrystals (Si-NCs) within the BOX. The presence of Si-NCs created through Si+ implantation is evidenced by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Under the pass gate (PG) irradiation bias, the anti-radiation properties of H-gate SOI nMOSFETs suggest that the radiation hardened SOI wafers with optimized Si implantation dose can perform effectively in a radiation environment. The radiation hardening process provides an excellent way to reinforce the TID tolerance of SOI wafers.

  5. Safe emergency department removal of a hardened steel penile constriction ring.

    PubMed

    Peay, Jeremy; Smithson, James; Nelson, James; Witucki, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Penile constriction devices are used for the enhancement of sexual performance. These devices have the potential to become incarcerated, leading to necrosis and amputation if not removed promptly. This article presents a step-by-step approach for the safe removal of a hardened steel penile constriction device using somewhat unorthodox tools found in a hospital. We present a case of an incarcerated hardened steel penile constriction ring that was not able to be removed with conventional techniques. We describe a novel technique using an electric grinder and laryngoscope blade. The technique described in this article is a valuable and relatively safe technique for the Emergency Physician to facilitate the timely removal of a hardened steel constriction device.

  6. Method and apparatus for welding precipitation hardenable materials

    DOEpatents

    Murray, Jr., Holt; Harris, Ian D.; Ratka, John O.; Spiegelberg, William D.

    1994-01-01

    A method for welding together members consisting of precipitation age hardened materials includes the steps of selecting a weld filler material that has substantially the same composition as the materials being joined, and an age hardening characteristic temperature age threshold below that of the aging kinetic temperature range of the materials being joined, whereby after welding the members together, the resulting weld and heat affected zone (HAZ) are heat treated at a temperature below that of the kinetic temperature range of the materials joined, for obtaining substantially the same mechanical characteristics for the weld and HAZ, as for the parent material of the members joined.

  7. Method and apparatus for welding precipitation hardenable materials

    DOEpatents

    Murray, H. Jr.; Harris, I.D.; Ratka, J.O.; Spiegelberg, W.D.

    1994-06-28

    A method for welding together members consisting of precipitation age hardened materials includes the steps of selecting a weld filler material that has substantially the same composition as the materials being joined, and an age hardening characteristic temperature age threshold below that of the aging kinetic temperature range of the materials being joined, whereby after welding the members together, the resulting weld and heat affected zone (HAZ) are heat treated at a temperature below that of the kinetic temperature range of the materials joined, for obtaining substantially the same mechanical characteristics for the weld and HAZ, as for the parent material of the members joined. 5 figures.

  8. Secondary hardening steel having improved combination of hardness and toughness

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Earl R.; Zackay, Victor F.; Bhat, Manjeshwar S.; Garrison, Jr., Warren M.

    1979-01-01

    A secondary hardening alloy steel composition consisting essentially of about 0.25-0.5% carbon, about 0.5-1.0% manganese, about 1.5-3.0% nickel, about 0-1.0% chromium, about 1.75-2.5% molybdenum, about 0-0.4% vanadium, and an additive selected from about 1-3% aluminum and a combination of at least about 1% aluminum and at least about 1% silicon for a combined Al+Si content of about 2-4%, the balance being iron and impurity elements. The present steel composition has the following characteristics: it exhibits a flat tempering response, it is hardenable upon tempering to a Rockwell C hardness of at least 50, and it has an improved combination of hardness vs. toughness properties after tempering in the secondary hardening range. A method of preparation is also described.

  9. On the Spectral Hardening at gsim300 keV in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Kong, X.; Zank, G.; Chen, Y.

    2013-05-01

    It has long been noted that the spectra of observed continuum emissions in many solar flares are consistent with double power laws with a hardening at energies gsim300 keV. It is now widely believed that at least in electron-dominated events, the hardening in the photon spectrum reflects an intrinsic hardening in the source electron spectrum. In this paper, we point out that a power-law spectrum of electrons with a hardening at high energies can be explained by the diffusive shock acceleration of electrons at a termination shock with a finite width. Our suggestion is based on an early analytical work by Drury et al., where the steady-state transport equation at a shock with a tanh profile was solved for a p-independent diffusion coefficient. Numerical simulations with a p-dependent diffusion coefficient show hardenings in the accelerated electron spectrum that are comparable with observations. One necessary condition for our proposed scenario to work is that high-energy electrons resonate with the inertial range of the MHD turbulence and low-energy electrons resonate with the dissipation range of the MHD turbulence at the acceleration site, and the spectrum of the dissipation range ~k -2.7. A ~k -2.7 dissipation range spectrum is consistent with recent solar wind observations.

  10. Radiation Hardened 10BASE-T Ethernet Physical Layer (PHY)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Michael R. (Inventor); Petrick, David J. (Inventor); Ballou, Kevin M. (Inventor); Espinosa, Daniel C. (Inventor); James, Edward F. (Inventor); Kliesner, Matthew A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments may provide a radiation hardened 10BASE-T Ethernet interface circuit suitable for space flight and in compliance with the IEEE 802.3 standard for Ethernet. The various embodiments may provide a 10BASE-T Ethernet interface circuit, comprising a field programmable gate array (FPGA), a transmitter circuit connected to the FPGA, a receiver circuit connected to the FPGA, and a transformer connected to the transmitter circuit and the receiver circuit. In the various embodiments, the FPGA, transmitter circuit, receiver circuit, and transformer may be radiation hardened.

  11. Nd-glass laser for deep-penetration welding and hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayukov, Serguei V.; Yaresko, Sergey I.; Mikheyev, Pavel A.

    2000-04-01

    Pulsed Nd-glass lasers usually have low beam quality (200 - 300 mm-mrad), and are used only for surface hardening of metals. However, high pulse energy make them feasible for deep penetration welding if their beam quality could be improved. We investigated beam properties of Nd-glass laser with unstable resonator with semitransparent output coupler (URSOC). We had found that beam divergence of the laser with URSOC was an order of magnitude smaller than that of the laser with stable resonator. The achieved beam quality (40 - 50 mm-mrad) permitted to perform deep penetration welding with the aspect ratio of approximately 8. For beam divergence of 3 mrad melt depth of 6.3 mm was achieved with the ratio of depth to pulse energy of 0.27 mm/J.

  12. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  13. Improving precipitation hardening behavior of Mg−Zn based alloys with Ce−Ca microalloying additions

    SciTech Connect

    Langelier, B., E-mail: langelb@mcmaster.ca

    2016-10-15

    The precipitation hardening behavior of newly developed Mg−Zn−Ca−Ce alloys, with modified texture and improved ductility, is studied to delineate the microstructural characteristics that lead to effective hardening upon ageing treatments. Advanced electron microscopy and atom probe techniques are used to analyze the structural characteristics in relevance to the hardening potential. It has been found that the formation of a new basal precipitate phase, which evolves from a single atomic layer GP zone, and is finely distributed in both under-aged and peak-aged microstructures, has a significant impact in the improvement of the hardening response compared with the base Mg−Zn alloys. Itmore » has also been found that the β′{sub 1} rod precipitates, commonly formed during ageing treatments of Mg−Zn alloys, have their size and distribution significantly refined in the Ca−Ce containing alloys. The role of alloy chemistry in the formation of the fine basal plate GP zones and the refinement in β′{sub 1} precipitation and their relationships to the hardening behavior are discussed. It is proposed that Ca microalloying governs the formation of the GP zones and the enhancement of hardening, particularly in the under-aged conditions, but that this is aided by a beneficial effect from Ce. - Highlights: • Ce−Ca microalloying additions improve hardening in Mg−Zn, over Ce or Ca alone. • Improved hardening is due to refined β′{sub 1} rods, and fine basal plate precipitates. • Atom probe tomography identifies Ca in both β′{sub 1} and the fine basal plates. • The fine basal plates originate as ordered monolayer GP zones with 1:1 Zn:Ca (at.%). • With ageing GP zones become more Zn-rich and transform to the fine basal plates.« less

  14. Surface thermohardening by the fast-moving electric arch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabdrakhmanov, Az T.; Shafigullin, L. N.; Galimov, E. R.; Ibragimov, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the technology of modern engineering-plasma hardening steels and prospects of its application. It gives the opportunity to manage the process without using of cooling media, vacuum, special coatings to improve the absorptive capacity of hardened surfaces; the simplicity, the low cost, the maneuverability, a small size of the process equipment; a possibility of the automation and the robotization of technological process.

  15. Origin of honeycombs: Testing the hydraulic and case hardening hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruthans, Jiří; Filippi, Michal; Slavík, Martin; Svobodová, Eliška

    2018-02-01

    Cavernous weathering (cavernous rock decay) is a global phenomenon, which occurs in porous rocks around the world. Although honeycombs and tafoni are considered to be the most common products of this complex process, their origin and evolution are as yet not fully understood. The two commonly assumed formation hypotheses - hydraulic and case hardening - were tested to elucidate the origin of honeycombs on sandstone outcrops in a humid climate. Mechanical and hydraulic properties of the lips (walls between adjacent pits) and backwalls (bottoms of pits) of the honeycombs were determined via a set of established and novel approaches. While the case hardening hypothesis was not supported by the determinations of either tensile strength, drilling resistance or porosity, the hydraulic hypothesis was clearly supported by field measurements and laboratory tests. Fluorescein dye visualization of capillary zone, vapor zone, and evaporation front upon their contact, demonstrated that the evaporation front reaches the honeycomb backwalls under low water flow rate, while the honeycomb lips remain dry. During occasional excessive water flow events, however, the evaporation front may shift to the lips, while the backwalls become moist as a part of the capillary zone. As the zone of evaporation corresponds to the zone of potential salt weathering, it is the spatial distribution of the capillary and vapor zones which dictates whether honeycombs are created or the rock surface is smoothed. A hierarchical model of factors related to the hydraulic field was introduced to obtain better insights into the process of cavernous weathering.

  16. Effects of TEA·HCl hardening accelerator on the workability of cement-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wenhao; Ding, Zhaoyang; Chen, Yanwen

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the test is to research the influence rules of TEA·HCl on the workability of cement paste and concrete. Based on the features of the new hardening accelerator, an experimental analysis system were established through different dosages of hardening accelerator, and the feasibility of such accelerator to satisfy the need of practical engineering was verified. The results show that adding of the hardening accelerator can accelerate the cement hydration, and what’s more, when the dosage was 0.04%, the setting time was the shortest while the initial setting time and final setting time were 130 min and 180 min, respectively. The initial fluidity of cement paste of adding accelerator was roughly equivalent compared with that of blank. After 30 min, fluidity loss would decrease with the dosage increasing, but fluidity may increase. The application of the hardening accelerator can make the early workability of concrete enhance, especially the slump loss of 30 min can improve more significantly. The bleeding rate of concrete significantly decreases after adding TEA·HCl. The conclusion is that the new hardening accelerator can meet the need of the workability of cement-based materials in the optimum dosage range.

  17. Effect of thermal exposure on the residual stress relaxation in a hardened cylindrical sample under creep conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radchenko, V. P.; Saushkin, M. N.; Tsvetkov, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the effect of thermal exposure (high-temperature exposure) ( T = 675°C) on the residual creep stress relaxation in a surface hardened solid cylindrical sample made of ZhS6UVI alloy. The analysis is carried out with the use of experimental data for residual stresses after micro-shot peening and exposures to temperatures equal to T = 675°C during 50, 150, and 300 h. The paper presents the technique for solving the boundary-value creep problem for the hardened cylindrical sample with the initial stress-strain state under the condition of thermal exposure. The uniaxial experimental creep curves obtained under constant stresses of 500, 530, 570, and 600 MPa are used to construct the models describing the primary and secondary stages of creep. The calculated and experimental data for the longitudinal (axial) tensor components of residual stresses are compared, and their satisfactory agreement is determined.

  18. X-ray Diffraction Investigation of Annealing Behavior of Peened Surface Deformation Layer on Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junjie; Wang, Zhou; Gan, Jin; Yang, Ying; Huang, Feng; Wu, Gang; Meng, Qingshuai

    2018-05-01

    In order to investigate the recrystallization behavior of peened surface deformation layer of precipitation hardening stainless steel, a classic x-ray diffraction line profile analysis, Voigt method, was carried out on peened 17-4PH with different isothermal annealing temperatures. The activation energy of domain boundary migration ( Q a) and the activation energy of microstrain relaxation ( Q b) were calculated by regression analysis in different annealing temperature conditions. The results show that the value of Q a decreases with annealing temperature increasing, which is due to the influence of precipitation (ɛ-Cu) size on the movements of grain and subgrain boundaries. The maximum growth rate of ɛ-Cu particles occurs during 400 to 500 °C interval. Compared with growth behavior of domain size, microstrain relaxation behavior is less sensitive to precipitation particle size. The effects of annealing temperature and time on dislocation density are both significant when annealing temperature is lower than 500 °C. However, the effect of annealing temperature on dislocation density becomes insignificant when annealing temperature is higher than 500 °C. 300 °C annealing temperature only leads to the microstrain relaxation but nearly cannot lead to the domain size growth even if prolonging annealing time. Microstructure enhancement effect still exists in plastic deformation layer when 300 °C annealing temperature lasts for 60 min but nearly disappears when 600 °C annealing temperature lasts for 20 min.

  19. X-ray Diffraction Investigation of Annealing Behavior of Peened Surface Deformation Layer on Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junjie; Wang, Zhou; Gan, Jin; Yang, Ying; Huang, Feng; Wu, Gang; Meng, Qingshuai

    2018-04-01

    In order to investigate the recrystallization behavior of peened surface deformation layer of precipitation hardening stainless steel, a classic x-ray diffraction line profile analysis, Voigt method, was carried out on peened 17-4PH with different isothermal annealing temperatures. The activation energy of domain boundary migration (Q a) and the activation energy of microstrain relaxation (Q b) were calculated by regression analysis in different annealing temperature conditions. The results show that the value of Q a decreases with annealing temperature increasing, which is due to the influence of precipitation (ɛ-Cu) size on the movements of grain and subgrain boundaries. The maximum growth rate of ɛ-Cu particles occurs during 400 to 500 °C interval. Compared with growth behavior of domain size, microstrain relaxation behavior is less sensitive to precipitation particle size. The effects of annealing temperature and time on dislocation density are both significant when annealing temperature is lower than 500 °C. However, the effect of annealing temperature on dislocation density becomes insignificant when annealing temperature is higher than 500 °C. 300 °C annealing temperature only leads to the microstrain relaxation but nearly cannot lead to the domain size growth even if prolonging annealing time. Microstructure enhancement effect still exists in plastic deformation layer when 300 °C annealing temperature lasts for 60 min but nearly disappears when 600 °C annealing temperature lasts for 20 min.

  20. Multi-species beam hardening calibration device for x-ray microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evershed, Anthony N. Z.; Mills, David; Davis, Graham

    2012-10-01

    Impact-source X-ray microtomography (XMT) is a widely-used benchtop alternative to synchrotron radiation microtomography. Since X-rays from a tube are polychromatic, however, greyscale `beam hardening' artefacts are produced by the preferential absorption of low-energy photons in the beam path. A multi-material `carousel' test piece was developed to offer a wider range of X-ray attenuations from well-characterised filters than single-material step wedges can produce practically, and optimization software was developed to produce a beam hardening correction by use of the Nelder-Mead optimization method, tuned for specimens composed of other materials (such as hydroxyapatite [HA] or barium for dental applications.) The carousel test piece produced calibration polynomials reliably and with a significantly smaller discrepancy between the calculated and measured attenuations than the calibration step wedge previously in use. An immersion tank was constructed and used to simplify multi-material samples in order to negate the beam hardening effect of low atomic number materials within the specimen when measuring mineral concentration of higher-Z regions. When scanned in water at an acceleration voltage of 90 kV a Scanco AG hydroxyapatite / poly(methyl methacrylate) calibration phantom closely approximates a single-material system, producing accurate hydroxyapatite concentration measurements. This system can then be corrected for beam hardening for the material of interest.

  1. Temperature influence on water transport in hardened cement pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Drouet, Emeline; Poyet, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.poyet@cea.fr; Torrenti, Jean-Michel

    2015-10-15

    Describing water transport in concrete is an important issue for the durability assessment of radioactive waste management reinforced concrete structures. Due to the waste thermal output such structures would be submitted to moderate temperatures (up to 80 °C). We have then studied the influence of temperature on water transport within hardened cement pastes of four different formulations. Using a simplified approach (describing only the permeation of liquid water) we characterized the properties needed to describe water transport (up to 80 °C) using dedicated experiments. For each hardened cement paste the results are presented and discussed.

  2. Development of a Pressure-Dependent Constitutive Model with Combined Multilinear Kinematic and Isotropic Hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    The development of a pressure-dependent constitutive model with combined multilinear kinematic and isotropic hardening is presented. The constitutive model is developed using the ABAQUS user material subroutine (UMAT). First the pressure-dependent plasticity model is derived. Following this, the combined bilinear and combined multilinear hardening equations are developed for von Mises plasticity theory. The hardening rule equations are then modified to include pressure dependency. The method for implementing the new constitutive model into ABAQUS is given.

  3. Short-term hot-hardness characteristics of five case hardened steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, N. E.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1975-01-01

    Short-term hot-hardness studies were performed with carburized and hardened AISI 8620, CBS 1000, CBS 1000M, CBS 600, and Vasco X-2 steels. Case and core hardness measurements were made at temperatures from 294 to 811 K (70 to 1000 F). The data were compared with data for high-speed tool steels and AISI 52100. The materials tested can be ranked as follows in order of decreasing hot-hardness retention: (1) Vasco X-2; equivalent to through-hardened tool steels up to 644 K (700 F) above which Vasco X-2 is inferior; (2) CBS 1000, (3) CBS 1000M; (4) CBS 6000; better hardness retention at elevated temperatures than through-hardened AISI 52100; and (5) AISI 8620. For the carburized steels, the change in hardness with temperature of the case and core are similar for a given material. The short-term hot hardness of these materials can be predicted with + or - 1 point Rockwell C.

  4. Effect of Annealing on Microstructures and Hardening of Helium-Hydrogen-Implanted Sequentially Vanadium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shaoning; Wang, Zhiming

    2018-03-01

    The effect of post-irradiation annealing on the microstructures and mechanical properties of V-4Cr-4Ti alloys was studied. Helium-hydrogen-irradiated sequentially V-4Cr-4Ti alloys at room temperature (RT) were undergone post-irradiation annealing at 450 °C over periods of up to 30 h. These samples were carried out by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observation and nanoindentation test. With the holding time, large amounts of point defects produced during irradiation at RT accumulated into large dislocation loops and then dislocation nets which promoted the irradiation hardening. Meanwhile, bubbles appeared. As annealing time extended, these bubbles grew up and merged, and finally broke up. In the process, the size of bubbles increased and the number density decreased. Microstructural changes due to post-irradiation annealing corresponded to the change of hardening. Dislocations and bubbles are co-contributed to irradiation hardening. With the holding time up to 30 h, the recovery of hardening is not obvious. The phenomenon was discussed by dispersed barrier hardening model and Friedel-Kroupa-Hirsch relationship.

  5. Drought tolerance and transplanting performance of holm oak (Quercus ilex) seedlings after drought hardening in the nursery.

    PubMed

    Villar-Salvador, Pedro; Planelles, Rosa; Oliet, Juan; Peñuelas-Rubira, Juan L; Jacobs, Douglass F; González, Magdalena

    2004-10-01

    Drought stress is the main cause of mortality of holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) seedlings in forest plantations. We therefore assessed if drought hardening, applied in the nursery at the end of the growing season, enhanced the drought tolerance and transplanting performance of holm oak seedlings. Seedlings were subjected to three drought hardening intensities (low, moderate and severe) for 2.5 and 3.5 months, and compared with control seedlings. At the end of the hardening period, water relations, gas exchange and morphological attributes were determined, and survival and growth under mesic and xeric transplanting conditions were assessed. Drought hardening increased drought tolerance primarily by affecting physiological traits, with no effect on shoot/root ratio or specific leaf mass. Drought hardening reduced osmotic potential at saturation and at the turgor loss point, stomatal conductance, residual transpiration (RT) and new root growth capacity (RGC), but enhanced cell membrane stability. Among treated seedlings, the largest response occurred in seedlings subjected to moderate hardening. Severe hardening reduced shoot soluble sugar concentration and increased shoot starch concentration. Increasing the duration of hardening had no effect on water relations but reduced shoot mineral and starch concentrations. Variation in cell membrane stability, RT and RGC were negatively related to osmotic adjustment. Despite differences in drought tolerance, no differences in mortality and relative growth rate were observed between hardening treatments when the seedlings were transplanted under either mesic or xeric conditions.

  6. Synthesis of a new hardener agent for self-healing epoxy resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondo, Marialuigia; Guadagno, Liberata; Naddeo, Carlo; Longo, Pasquale; Mariconda, Annaluisa; Agovino, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Actually, the development of smart composites capable of self-repair in aeronautical structures is still at the planning stage owing to complex issues to overcome. One of the critical points in the development of self-healing epoxy resin is related to the impossibility to employ primary amines as hardeners. In this paper, the synthesis of a new hardener for self-healing resins is shown together with applicability conditions/ranges.

  7. Investigation of Thermal Hardening of the FCC Material Containing Strengthening Particles with an L12 Superstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneyko, O. I.; Kulaeva, N. A.; Kovalevskaya, C. A.; Kolupaeva, S. N.

    2015-07-01

    A mathematical model of plastic deformation of dispersion-hardened materials with an fcc matrix containing strengthening particles with an L12 superstructure having a coherent relationship with the matrix is presented. The model is based on the balance equations of deformation defects of different types with taking into account their transformation during plastic deformation. The influence of scale characteristics of the hardening phase, temperature, and deformation rate on the evolution of the dislocation subsystem and strain hardening of an alloy with an fcc matrix hardened by particles with an L12 super structure is studied. A temperature anomaly of mechanical properties is found for the materials with different fcc matrices (Al,Cu, Ni). It is shown that the temperature anomaly is more pronounced for the material with larger volume fraction of the hardening phase.

  8. Construction procedures using self hardening fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, S. I.; Parker, D. G.

    1980-07-01

    Fly ash produced in Arkansas from burning Wyoming low sulfur coal is self-hardening and can be effective as a soil stabilizing agent for clays and sands. The strength of soil-self hardening fly ash develops rapidly when compacted immediately after mixing. Seven day unconfined compressive strengths up to 1800 psi were obtained from 20% fly ash and 80% sand mixtures. A time delay between mixing the fly ash with the soil and compaction of the mixture reduced the strength. With two hours delay, over a third of the strength was lost and with four hours delay, the loss was over half. Gypsum and some commercial concrete retarders were effective in reducing the detrimental effect of delayed compaction. Adequate mixing of the soil and fly ash and rapid compaction of the mixtures were found to be important parameters in field construction of stabilized bases.

  9. Importance of calcium and magnesium in water - water hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barloková, D.; Ilavský, J.; Kapusta, O.; Šimko, V.

    2017-10-01

    Basic information about importance of calcium and magnesium in water, about their properties, effect to human health, problems what can cause under the lower (< 1 mmol/L) and higher (> 5 mmol/L) concentrations in water supply distribution systems, the most commonly used methods of water hardening are presented. The article contains the water hardening results carried out during the pilot plant experiments in WTP Hriňová and WTP Turček. For water hardening, treated water at the end of the process line, i.e., after coagulation, sedimentation and filtration, saturated with CO2 and filtrated through half-burnt dolomite material (PVD) was used. The results show that the filtration rate is 17.1 m/h in the case of WTP Hriňová and 15.2 m/h in the case of WTP Turček to achieve the recommended concentration of Ca and Mg in the treated water after the addition of CO2 and filtration through PVD. The longer the water contact time with PVD (depending on the CO2 content), the more water is enriched with magnesium, but the calcium concentration has not so much increased.

  10. Beam hardening correction for interior tomography based on exponential formed model and radon inversion transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Siyu; Zhang, Hanming; Li, Lei; Xi, Xiaoqi; Han, Yu; Yan, Bin

    2016-10-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been extensively applied in industrial non-destructive testing (NDT). However, in practical applications, the X-ray beam polychromaticity often results in beam hardening problems for image reconstruction. The beam hardening artifacts, which manifested as cupping, streaks and flares, not only debase the image quality, but also disturb the subsequent analyses. Unfortunately, conventional CT scanning requires that the scanned object is completely covered by the field of view (FOV), the state-of-art beam hardening correction methods only consider the ideal scanning configuration, and often suffer problems for interior tomography due to the projection truncation. Aiming at this problem, this paper proposed a beam hardening correction method based on radon inversion transform for interior tomography. Experimental results show that, compared to the conventional correction algorithms, the proposed approach has achieved excellent performance in both beam hardening artifacts reduction and truncation artifacts suppression. Therefore, the presented method has vitally theoretic and practicable meaning in artifacts correction of industrial CT.

  11. Nanoparticle amount, and not size, determines chain alignment and nonlinear hardening in polymer nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Varol, H. Samet; Meng, Fanlong; Hosseinkhani, Babak; Malm, Christian; Bonn, Daniel; Bonn, Mischa; Zaccone, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites—materials in which a polymer matrix is blended with nanoparticles (or fillers)—strengthen under sufficiently large strains. Such strain hardening is critical to their function, especially for materials that bear large cyclic loads such as car tires or bearing sealants. Although the reinforcement (i.e., the increase in the linear elasticity) by the addition of filler particles is phenomenologically understood, considerably less is known about strain hardening (the nonlinear elasticity). Here, we elucidate the molecular origin of strain hardening using uniaxial tensile loading, microspectroscopy of polymer chain alignment, and theory. The strain-hardening behavior and chain alignment are found to depend on the volume fraction, but not on the size of nanofillers. This contrasts with reinforcement, which depends on both volume fraction and size of nanofillers, potentially allowing linear and nonlinear elasticity of nanocomposites to be tuned independently. PMID:28377517

  12. Radiation hardening of rare-earth doped fiber amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivona, Marilena; Girard, Sylvain; Marcandella, Claude; Pinsard, Emmanuel; Laurent, Arnaud; Robin, Thierry; Cadier, Benoît; Cannas, Marco; Boukenter, Aziz; Ouerdane, Y.

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the radiation hardening of optical fiber amplifiers operating in space environments. Through a real-time analysis in active configuration, we evaluated the role of Ce in the improvement of the amplifier performance against ionizing radiations. Ce-codoping is an efficient hardening solution, acting both in the limitation of defects in the host glass matrix of RE-doped optical fibers and in the stabilization of lasing properties of the Er3+-ions. On the one hand, in the near-infrared region, radiation induced attenuation measurements show the absence of radiation induced P-related defect species in host glass matrix of the Ce-codoped active fibers; on the other hand, in the Ce-free fiber, the higher lifetime variation shows stronger local modifications around the Er3+-ions with the absence of Ce.

  13. Multi-MGy Radiation Hardened Camera for Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Girard, Sylvain; Boukenter, Aziz; Ouerdane, Youcef

    There is an increasing interest in developing cameras for surveillance systems to monitor nuclear facilities or nuclear waste storages. Particularly, for today's and the next generation of nuclear facilities increasing safety requirements consecutive to Fukushima Daiichi's disaster have to be considered. For some applications, radiation tolerance needs to overcome doses in the MGy(SiO{sub 2}) range whereas the most tolerant commercial or prototypes products based on solid state image sensors withstand doses up to few kGy. The objective of this work is to present the radiation hardening strategy developed by our research groups to enhance the tolerance to ionizing radiations ofmore » the various subparts of these imaging systems by working simultaneously at the component and system design levels. Developing radiation-hardened camera implies to combine several radiation-hardening strategies. In our case, we decided not to use the simplest one, the shielding approach. This approach is efficient but limits the camera miniaturization and is not compatible with its future integration in remote-handling or robotic systems. Then, the hardening-by-component strategy appears mandatory to avoid the failure of one of the camera subparts at doses lower than the MGy. Concerning the image sensor itself, the used technology is a CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) designed by ISAE team with custom pixel designs used to mitigate the total ionizing dose (TID) effects that occur well below the MGy range in classical image sensors (e.g. Charge Coupled Devices (CCD), Charge Injection Devices (CID) and classical Active Pixel Sensors (APS)), such as the complete loss of functionality, the dark current increase and the gain drop. We'll present at the conference a comparative study between these radiation-hardened pixel radiation responses with respect to conventional ones, demonstrating the efficiency of the choices made. The targeted strategy to develop the complete radiation hard camera

  14. Experimental investigations on cryogenic cooling by liquid nitrogen in the end milling of hardened steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, S.; Pradeep Kumar, M.

    2011-09-01

    Milling of hardened steel generates excessive heat during the chip formation process, which increases the temperature of cutting tool and accelerates tool wear. Application of conventional cutting fluid in milling process may not effectively control the heat generation also it has inherent health and environmental problems. To minimize health hazard and environmental problems caused by using conventional cutting fluid, a cryogenic cooling set up is developed to cool tool-chip interface using liquid nitrogen (LN 2). This paper presents results on the effect of LN 2 as a coolant on machinability of hardened AISI H13 tool steel for varying cutting speed in the range of 75-125 m/min during end milling with PVD TiAlN coated carbide inserts at a constant feed rate. The results show that machining with LN 2 lowers cutting temperature, tool flank wear, surface roughness and cutting forces as compared with dry and wet machining. With LN 2 cooling, it has been found that the cutting temperature was reduced by 57-60% and 37-42%; the tool flank wear was reduced by 29-34% and 10-12%; the surface roughness was decreased by 33-40% and 25-29% compared to dry and wet machining. The cutting forces also decreased moderately compared to dry and wet machining. This can be attributed to the fact that LN 2 machining provides better cooling and lubrication through substantial reduction in the cutting zone temperature.

  15. Hardened Solar Array High Temperature Adhesive.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    SHERWOOO. D SASIU.IS F3361S-0-C-201S UNCLASSI ED 1AC-SCG-IOOIIR AFVAL-TR-OL-201? NLm,,hinii EhhhEE11I1 AFWAL-TR-81- 2017 i : HARDENED SOLAR ARRAY D HIGH...Tg and as a consequence forms a film on the container and also precipitates as tacky waxlike particles, rather than the desired flocullated

  16. Hardened Dunes in Arcadia Planitia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-29

    NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter HiRISE, with its high resolution and eight years in orbit about Mars, has shown that many dunes and ripples on the planet are active. This demonstrates that in some areas sand is loose enough and winds strong enough, that significant change can occur. Nevertheless, other Martian dunes are clearly *inactive*. This image in Arcadia Planitia shows dunes in a crater. Unlike active dunes on the planet, those here are bright, and, zooming in, there are several lines of evidence indicating that the dunes have become indurated, that is, hardened into cohesive sediment or even into sandstone rock. For example, the dune field at the southern edge is cut off by a step cliff, indicating erosion of hard material. Although fine scale ripples on the original dune surface are preserved, we also see large scale fluting from southwest to northeast, a common texture associated with wind-induced sand abrasion. How these dunes became indurated is unknown. One possibility is that this area of Mars was buried and then exhumed, a process that seems to have occurred many times in the Martian past over various areas of the planet. During burial, compaction and possibly ground water circulation would have indurated the dunes, leaving them as a hard sandstone that, when exhumed, was subsequently partially eroded. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18890

  17. Development of Press Hardening Steel with High Resistance to Hydrogen Embrittlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Jian; Mohrbacher, Hardy; Lu, Hongzhou; Wang, Wenjun

    Press hardening has become the state-of-art technology in the car body manufacturing to enhance safety standard and to reduce CO2 emission of new vehicles. However the delayed cracking due to hydrogen embrittlement remains to be a critical issue. Generally press hardening steel is susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement due to ultra-high strength and martensitic microstructure. The hydrogen charging tests clearly demonstrate that only a few ppm of diffusible hydrogen is sufficient to cause such embrittlement. Currently the hydrogen embrittlement cannot be detected in the press hardened components and the embitteled components could collapse in the crash situation with fatal consequences arisen through dramatic loss in both strength and ductility. This paper introduces a new metallurgical solution to increase the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement of conventional press hardening steel based on 22MnB5 by Nb microalloying. In the hydrogen embrittlement and permeation tests the impact of Nb microalloying on the hydrogen embrittlement behavior was investigated under different hydrogen charging conditions and constant load. The test results revealed that Nb addition increases the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement due to reduced hydrogen diffusivity. The focus of this paper is to investigate the precipitation behavior of microalloying elements by using TEM and STEM and to find out the mechanisms leading to higher performance against hydrogen embrittlement of Nb alloyed steels.

  18. Influence of Microstructural and Load Wave Form Control on Fatigue Crack Growth behavior of Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    heating to temperatures below the Acl precipitates a copper -rich phase within the martensite increasing hardness and strength. The stress relieving effect...experimental approach varied the heat treatment of two precipitation hardening martensitic alloys , 17-4 PH1 and 15-b PH. Fatigue-crack growth data was...hardenable by precipitation hardening. Alloys that do harden by this mechanism have only one thing in common, this is, a decreasing solubility for one phase

  19. [Sediment transport characteristics at different erosion stages for non-hardened roads of the Shenfu Coalfield, west China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming-ming; Wang, Wen-long; Li, Jian-ming; Huang, Peng-fei; Zhu, Bao-cai; Wang, Zhen; Luo, Ting

    2015-02-01

    Non-hardened roads formed in the production of the Shenfu Coalfield have a unique condition of underlying surface. The road surface is composed of a regolith layer with a certain thickness resulted from long-term rolling and thus, is characterized by weakened anti-scourabilty and anti-erodibility. In contrast, soil layer below the regolith has a higher bulk density and anti-erodibility. The processes of soil erosion on the non-hardened roads exhibit some differences under rainfall condition. The process of sediment transport and the relationship between sediment transport rate and erosion factors at different erosion stages were studied on non-hardened roads with slope degrees ranging from 3° to 12° (3°, 6°, 9°, 12°) by a field experiment under artificial rainfall. Results showed that the first peak of sediment transport on the regolith surface was observed at the sheet erosion stage. Sheet erosion occurred only at 3° slope degree, with an average variation coefficient of 0.07 for sediment transport rate. Rills in every testing began to develop at slope degrees of 6° to 12° about 15 min after runoff initiation. At the sheet erosion stage, the process of sediment transport fluctuated considerably at rainfall intensities of > 1.5 mm · min(-1), but the differences in its variation were little at the three slope degrees, with average variation coefficients of 0.20, 0.19 and 0.16, respectively. Rainfall intensity had a more significant impact on sediment transport rate than slope degree. The process of sediment transport at the rill erosion stage fluctuated, but the fluctuation was obviously smaller than that at the sheet erosion stage, with average variation coefficients of 0.05, 0.09 and 0.10 at the three slope degrees. Many wide and shallow rills evolved at the rill erosion stage. The sediment transport rate could be well predicted by a power function of rainfall intensity and slope degree at the sheet and rill erosion stages. The stable sediment transport

  20. Nitrogen nutrition and drought hardening exert opposite effects on the stress tolerance of Pinus pinea L. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Villar-Salvador, Pedro; Peñuelas, Juan L; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2013-02-01

    Functional attributes determine the survival and growth of planted seedlings in reforestation projects. Nitrogen (N) and water are important resources in the cultivation of forest species, which have a strong effect on plant functional traits. We analyzed the influence of N nutrition on drought acclimation of Pinus pinea L. seedlings. Specifically, we addressed if high N fertilization reduces drought and frost tolerance of seedlings and whether drought hardening reverses the effect of high N fertilization on stress tolerance. Seedlings were grown under two N fertilization regimes (6 and 100 mg N per plant) and subjected to three drought-hardening levels (well-watered, moderate and strong hardening). Water relations, gas exchange, frost damage, N concentration and growth at the end of the drought-hardening period, and survival and growth of seedlings under controlled xeric and mesic outplanting conditions were measured. Relative to low-N plants, high-N plants were larger, had higher stomatal conductance (27%), residual transpiration (11%) and new root growth capacity and closed stomata at higher water potential. However, high N fertilization also increased frost damage (24%) and decreased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (9%). Drought hardening reversed to a great extent the reduction in stress tolerance caused by high N fertilization as it decreased frost damage, stomatal conductance and residual transpiration by 21, 31 and 24%, respectively, and increased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (8%). Drought hardening increased tissue non-structural carbohydrates and N concentration, especially in high-fertilized plants. Frost damage was positively related to the stability of plasmalemma to dehydration (r = 0.92) and both traits were negatively related to the concentration of reducing soluble sugars. No differences existed between moderate and strong drought-hardening treatments. Neither N nutrition nor drought hardening had any clear effect on seedling

  1. Reduction of metal artifacts: beam hardening and photon starvation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadava, Girijesh K.; Pal, Debashish; Hsieh, Jiang

    2014-03-01

    The presence of metal-artifacts in CT imaging can obscure relevant anatomy and interfere with disease diagnosis. The cause and occurrence of metal-artifacts are primarily due to beam hardening, scatter, partial volume and photon starvation; however, the contribution to the artifacts from each of them depends on the type of hardware. A comparison of CT images obtained with different metallic hardware in various applications, along with acquisition and reconstruction parameters, helps understand methods for reducing or overcoming such artifacts. In this work, a metal beam hardening correction (BHC) and a projection-completion based metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithms were developed, and applied on phantom and clinical CT scans with various metallic implants. Stainless-steel and Titanium were used to model and correct for metal beam hardening effect. In the MAR algorithm, the corrupted projection samples are replaced by the combination of original projections and in-painted data obtained by forward projecting a prior image. The data included spine fixation screws, hip-implants, dental-filling, and body extremity fixations, covering range of clinically used metal implants. Comparison of BHC and MAR on different metallic implants was used to characterize dominant source of the artifacts, and conceivable methods to overcome those. Results of the study indicate that beam hardening could be a dominant source of artifact in many spine and extremity fixations, whereas dental and hip implants could be dominant source of photon starvation. The BHC algorithm could significantly improve image quality in CT scans with metallic screws, whereas MAR algorithm could alleviate artifacts in hip-implants and dentalfillings.

  2. A Review of NASA's Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space Environments Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Patrick, Marshall C.; Johnson, Michael A.; Cressler, John D.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Exploration (RHESE) project develops the advanced technologies required to produce radiation hardened electronics, processors, and devices in support of the requirements of NASA's Constellation program. Over the past year, multiple advancements have been made within each of the RHESE technology development tasks that will facilitate the success of the Constellation program elements. This paper provides a brief review of these advancements, discusses their application to Constellation projects, and addresses the plans for the coming year.

  3. Evolution of radiation defect and radiation hardening in heat treated SA508 Gr3 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyung-Ha; Kwon, Junhyun; Shin, Chansun

    2014-01-01

    The formation of radiation defects and corresponding radiation hardening in heat-treated SA508 Gr3 steel after Fe ion irradiation were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy and a nano-indentation technique. As the residual dislocation density is increased in the matrix, the formation of radiation defects is considerably weakened. Comparison between the characteristics of the radiation defect and an evaluation of radiation hardening indicates that a large dislocation loop contributes little to the radiation hardening in the heat-treated SA508 Gr3 steel.

  4. Stress corrosion cracking evaluation of precipitation-hardening stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1970-01-01

    Accelerated test program results show which precipitation hardening stainless steels are resistant to stress corrosion cracking. In certain cases stress corrosion susceptibility was found to be associated with the process procedure.

  5. Radiation hardening of components and systems for nuclear rocket vehicle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhow, W. A.; Cheever, P. R.

    1972-01-01

    The results of the analysis of the S-2 and S-4B components, although incomplete, indicate that many Saturn 5 components and subsystems, e.g., pumps, valves, etc., can be radiation hardened to meet NRV requirements by material substitution and minor design modifications. Results of these analyses include (1) recommended radiation tolerance limits for over 100 material applications; (2) design data which describes the components of each system; (3) presentation of radiation hardening examples of systems; and (4) designing radiation effects tests to supply data for selecting materials.

  6. Age hardening of 6061/alumina-silica fiber composite

    SciTech Connect

    Khangaonkar, P.R.; Shamsul, J.B.; Azmi, R.

    1994-12-31

    Continuous alumina-silica fiber (Altex of Sumitomo) which yields high performance composites with some aluminium alloys was tried for squeeze cast 6061 based composites with volume fractions of 0.5 and 0.32, and the matrix microhardness and resistivity changes during age hardening were studied. The matrix in the composites hardened much more than the unreinforced alloy. Microhardness increases of up to 70 VPN above the solution treated condition at various aging temperatures were observed. The resistivity variation indicated an appreciable state of internal stress which continued to persist even when hardness fell by overaging. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that the regionsmore » close to the fibers had a higher silicon content than the matrix, and amorphous silica in the fiber may have a role in the formation of an enriched layer which may help the bonding and strength in the composite.« less

  7. Identifying Deformation and Strain Hardening Behaviors of Nanoscale Metallic Multilayers Through Nano-wear Testing

    DOE PAGES

    Economy, David Ross; Mara, Nathan A.; Schoeppner, R.; ...

    2016-01-13

    In complex loading conditions (e.g. sliding contact), mechanical properties, such as strain hardening and initial hardness, will dictate the long-term performance of materials systems. With this in mind, the strain hardening behaviors of Cu/Nb nanoscale metallic multilayer systems were examined by performing nanoindentation tests within nanoscratch wear boxes and undeformed, as-deposited regions. Both the architecture and substrate influence were examined by utilizing three different individual layer thicknesses (2, 20, and 100 nm) and two total film thicknesses (1 and 10 μm). After nano-wear deformation, multilayer systems with thinner layers showed less volume loss as measured by laser scanning microscopy. Additionally,more » the hardness of the deformed regions significantly rose with respect to the as-deposited measurements, which further increased with greater wear loads. Strain hardening exponents for multilayers with thinner layers (2 and 20 nm, n ≈ 0.018 and n ≈ 0.022 respectively) were less than was determined for 100 nm systems (n ≈ 0.041). These results suggest that singledislocation based deformation mechanisms observed for the thinner systems limit the extent of achievable strain hardening. This conclusion indicates that impacts of both architecture strengthening and strain hardening must be considered to accurately predict multilayer performance during sliding contact across varying length scales.« less

  8. Evaluation of the Various Drying Methods on Surface Hardness of Type IV Dental Stone

    PubMed Central

    Sudhakar, A; Srivatsa, G; Shetty, Rohit; Rajeswari, C L; Manvi, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies regarding the effect of various methods to increase the surface hardness of Type IV dental stone are not conclusive. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of air drying, micro oven drying and die hardener on surface hardness of Type IV dental stone. Materials and Methods: A standard metal die was fabricated; polyvinyl siloxane impression material was used to make the molds of metal die. A total of 120 specimens were obtained from two different die stones and were grouped as Group A (kalrock) and Group B (pearl stone), and were subjected to air drying for 24 h, micro oven drying and application of die hardener. These models were then subjected to surface hardness testing using the knoop hardness instrument. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The hardness of Group A specimens was 64 ± 0.54 Knoop hardness number (KHN) after application of die hardener, 60.47 ± 0.41 KHN after 24 h air drying, 58.2 ± 0.88 after microwave oven drying and 24.6 ± 0.4 after 1 h air drying. The hardness of Group B specimens was 45.59 ± 0.63 KHN after application of die hardener, 40.2 ± 0.63 KHN after 24 h air drying, 38.28 ± 0.55 KHN after microwave oven drying and 19.91 ± 0.64 KHN after 1 h air drying. Conclusion: Group A showed better results than Group B at all times. Application of the die hardener showed highest hardness values followed in the order by 24 h air drying, microwave oven drying and 1 h air drying in both groups. The study showed that air drying the dies for 24 h followed by application of a single layer of the die hardener produced the best surface hardness and is recommended to be followed in practice. PMID:26124610

  9. Effect of MWCNT reinforcement on the precipitation-hardening behavior of AA2219

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Shijo; Umasankar, V.

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum alloy matrix composites have found a predominant place in research, and their applications are explored in almost all industries. The aerospace industry has been using precipitation-hardenable alloys in structural applications. However, insufficient literature is available on the influence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on precipitation-hardenable alloy composite materials; thus, this work was designed to elucidate the effect on MWCNT reinforcement on AA2219 with and without precipitation hardening. Reinforcement with MWCNTs has been reported to accelerate precipitation and to achieve greater hardness within a much shorter time. The addition of 0.75wt% MWCNTs resulted in maximal hardness at 90 min, which is approximately 27% of improvement over the maximum hardness achieved by the corresponding monolithic alloy after 10 h of aging. The sample reinforced with 0.75wt% MWCNTs showed an improvement of 82% in hardness by solutionizing and aging compared to that achieved by sintering.

  10. Simulation of irradiation hardening of Zircaloy within plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yijie; Wang, Qiming; Cui, Yi; Huo, Yongzhong; Ding, Shurong

    2011-06-01

    Within plate-type dispersion nuclear fuel elements, the metal matrix and cladding attacked continuously by fast neutrons undergo irradiation hardening, which might have remarkable effects upon the mechanical behaviors within fuel elements. In this paper, with the irradiation hardening effect of metal materials mainly considered together with irradiation growth effect of the cladding, the three-dimensional large-deformation constitutive relations for the metal matrix and cladding are developed. The method of virtual temperature increase in the previous studies is further developed to model the irradiation swelling of fuel particles; the method of anisotropic thermal expansion is introduced to model irradiation growth of the cladding; and a method of multi-step-temperature loading is proposed to simulate the coupling features of irradiation-induced swelling of the fuel particles together with irradiation growth of the cladding. Above all, based on the developed relationship between irradiation growth at certain burnup and the loaded virtual temperatures, with considering that certain burnup corresponds to certain fast neutron fluence, the time-dependent constitutive relation due to irradiation hardening effect is replaced by the virtual-temperature-dependent one which is introduced into the commercial software to simulate the irradiation hardening effects of the matrix and cladding. Numerical simulations of the irradiation-induced mechanical behaviors are implemented with the finite element method in consideration of the micro-structure of the fuel meat. The obtained results indicate that when the irradiation hardening effects are introduced into the constitutive relations of the metal matrix and cladding: (1) higher maximum Mises stresses for certain burnup at the matrix exist with the equivalent plastic strains remaining almost the same at lower burnups; (2) the maximum Mises stresses for certain burnup at the cladding are enhanced while the maximum equivalent

  11. Synergetics of hardening construction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstoy, A. D.; Lesovik, V. S.; Glagolev, E. S.; Krymova, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    The study of hardening high-strength systems indicates the relation between the potential of synergetics and issues related to structure formation of aggregates produced on the basis of rationally selected construction mixes. The paper considers challenges of the general principles of synergetics and sustainable development of open dissipative systems and their use in industry, as well as their understanding as complete self-regulating nonequilibrium systems. The main objective of the study was to demonstrate that the principles of self-regulating systems development can be applied in construction technology.

  12. Characterization and Strain-Hardening Behavior of Friction Stir-Welded Ferritic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Dwivedi, Dheerendra Kumar; Jain, Pramod Kumar

    2017-12-01

    In this study, friction stir-welded joint of 3-mm-thick plates of 409 ferritic stainless steel (FSS) was characterized in light of microstructure, x-ray diffraction analysis, hardness, tensile strength, ductility, corrosion and work hardening properties. The FSW joint made of ferritic stainless steel comprises of three distinct regions including the base metal. In stir zone highly refined ferrite grains with martensite and some carbide precipitates at the grain boundaries were observed. X-ray diffraction analysis also revealed precipitation of Cr23C6 and martensite formation in heat-affected zone and stir zone. In tensile testing of the transverse weld samples, the failure eventuated within the gauge length of the specimen from the base metal region having tensile properties overmatched to the as-received base metal. The tensile strength and elongation of the longitudinal (all weld) sample were found to be 1014 MPa and 9.47%, respectively. However, in potentiodynamic polarization test, the corrosion current density of the stir zone was highest among all the three zones. The strain-hardening exponent for base metal, transverse and longitudinal (all weld) weld samples was calculated using various equations. Both the transverse and longitudinal weld samples exhibited higher strain-hardening exponents as compared to the as-received base metal. In Kocks-Mecking plots for the base metal and weld samples at least two stages of strain hardening were observed.

  13. Microstructural and Mechanical Study of Press Hardening of Thick Boron Steel Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujante, J.; Garcia-Llamas, E.; Golling, S.; Casellas, D.

    2017-09-01

    Press hardening has become a staple in the production of automotive safety components, due to the combination of high mechanical properties and form complexity it offers. However, the use of press hardened components has not spread to the truck industry despite the advantages it confers, namely affordable weight reduction without the use of exotic materials, would be extremely attractive for this sector. The main reason for this is that application of press hardened components in trucks implies adapting the process to the manufacture of thick sheet metal. This introduces an additional layer of complexity, mainly due to the thermal gradients inside the material resulting in though-thickness differences in austenitization and cooling, potentially resulting in complex microstructure and gradient of mechanical properties. This work presents a preliminary study on the press hardening of thick boron steel sheet. First of all, the evolution of the sheet metal during austenitization is studied by means of dilatometry tests and by analysing the effect of furnace dwell time on grain size. Afterwards, material cooled using different cooling strategies, and therefore different effective cooling rates, is studied in terms of microstructure and mechanical properties. Initial results from finite element simulation are compared to experimental results, focusing on the phase composition in through thickness direction. Results show that industrial-equivalent cooling conditions do not lead to gradient microstructures, even in extreme scenarios involving asymmetrical cooling.

  14. Factors contributing to enhanced freezing tolerance in wheat during frost hardening in the light.

    PubMed

    Janda, Tibor; Szalai, Gabriella; Leskó, Kornélia; Yordanova, Rusina; Apostol, Simona; Popova, Losanka Petrova

    2007-06-01

    The interaction between light and temperature during the development of freezing tolerance was studied in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Mv Emese). Ten-day-old plants were cold hardened at 5 degrees C for 12 days under normal (250 micromol m(-2)s(-1)) or low light (20 micromol m(-2)s(-1)) conditions. Some of the plants were kept at 20/18 degrees C for 12 days at high light intensity (500 micromol m(-2)s(-1)), which also increased the freezing tolerance of winter wheat. The freezing survival rate, the lipid composition, the antioxidant activity, and the salicylic acid content were investigated during frost hardening. The saturation level of hexadecanoic acid decreased not only in plants hardened at low temperature, but also, to a lesser extent, in plants kept under high light irradiation at normal growth temperature. The greatest induction of the enzymes glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2.) and ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11.) occurred when the cold treatment was carried out in normal light, but high light intensity at normal, non-hardening temperature also increased the activity of these enzymes. The catalase (EC 1.11.1.6.) activity was also higher in plants grown at high light intensity than in the controls. The greatest level of induction in the activity of the guaiacol peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7.) enzyme occurred under cold conditions with low light. The bound ortho-hydroxy-cinnamic acid increased by up to two orders of magnitude in plants that were cold hardened in normal light. Both high light intensity and low temperature hardening caused an increase in the free and bound salicylic acid content of the leaves. This increase was most pronounced in plants that were cold treated in normal light.

  15. Paving asphalts : reduction of oxidative hardening of asphalts by treatment with hydrated lime : a mechanistic study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-04-01

    This study showed that lime treatment removes polar, viscosity-building components and reduces the susceptibility of the asphalt to laboratory oxidative hardening. The beneficial effects of lime treatment in reducing asphalt oxidative hardening were ...

  16. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    DOE PAGES

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; ...

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for twomore » interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. Lastly, the co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.« less

  17. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications. PMID:26892834

  18. Multi-scale simulation of radiation damage accumulation and subsequent hardening in neutron-irradiated α-Fe

    DOE PAGES

    Dunn, Aaron; Dingreville, Remi; Capolungo, Laurent

    2015-11-27

    A hierarchical methodology is introduced to predict the effects of radiation damage and irradiation conditions on the yield stress and internal stress heterogeneity developments in polycrystalline α-Fe. Simulations of defect accumulation under displacement cascade damage conditions are performed using spatially resolved stochastic cluster dynamics. The resulting void and dislocation loop concentrations and average sizes are then input into a crystal plasticity formulation that accounts for the change in critical resolved shear stress due to the presence of radiation induced defects. The simulated polycrystalline tensile tests show a good match to experimental hardening data over a wide range of irradiation doses.more » With this capability, stress heterogeneity development and the effect of dose rate on hardening is investigated. The model predicts increased hardening at higher dose rates for low total doses. By contrast, at doses above 10 –2 dpa when cascade overlap becomes significant, the model does not predict significantly different hardening for different dose rates. In conclusion, the development of such a model enables simulation of radiation damage accumulation and associated hardening without relying on experimental data as an input under a wide range of irradiation conditions such as dose, dose rate, and temperature.« less

  19. Hardening neutron spectrum for advanced actinide transmutation experiments in the ATR.

    PubMed

    Chang, G S; Ambrosek, R G

    2005-01-01

    The most effective method for transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast test reactor in the United States, initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. Such a test facility, with a spectrum similar but somewhat softer than that of the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), has been constructed in the INEEL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The radial fission power distribution of the actinide fuel pin, which is an important parameter in fission gas release modelling, needs to be accurately predicted and the hardened neutron spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum is compared. The comparison analyses in this study are performed using MCWO, a well-developed tool that couples the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and build-up code ORIGEN-2. MCWO analysis yields time-dependent and neutron-spectrum-dependent minor actinide and Pu concentrations and detailed radial fission power profile calculations for a typical fast reactor (LMFBR) neutron spectrum and the hardened neutron spectrum test region in the ATR. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the cadmium basket used in the advanced fuel test assembly in the ATR can effectively depress the linear heat generation rate in the experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum in the test region.

  20. Ion implantation method for preparing polymers having oxygen erosion resistant surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Eal H.; Mansur, Louis K.; Heatherly, Jr., Lee

    1995-01-01

    Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them are generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface, improved wear resistance, and improved oxygen erosion resistance.

  1. SEGR- and SEB-hardened structure with DSPSOI in power MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhaohuan; Fu, Xinghua; Yang, Fashun; Tan, Kaizhou; Ma, Kui; Wu, Xue; Lin, Jiexing

    2017-12-01

    Single event irradiation-hardened power MOSFET is the most important device for DC/DC converter in space environment application. Single event gate rupture (SEGR) and single event burnout (SEB), which will degrade the running safety and reliability of spacecraft, are the two typical failure modes in power MOSFETs. In this paper, based on recombination mechanism of interface between oxide and silicon, a novel hardened power MOSFETs structure for SEGR and SEB is proposed. The structure comprises double stagger partial silicon-on-insulator (DSPSOI) layers. Results show that the safety operation area (SOA) of a 130 V N-channel power MOSFET in single event irradiation environment is enhanced by up to 50% when the linear-energy-transfer value of heavy ion is a constant of 98 MeV·cm2/mg in the whole incident track, and the other parameters are almost maintained at the same value. Thus this novel structure can be widely used in designing single event irradiation-hardened power MOSFETs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61464002), the Grand Science and Technology Special Project in Guizhou Province of China (No. [2015]6006), and the Ministry of Education Open Foundation for Semiconductor Power Device Reliability (No. 010201).

  2. Radiation hardening of optical fibers and fiber sensors for space applications: recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Pinsard, E.; Laurent, A.; Ladaci, A.; Robin, T.; Cadier, B.; Mescia, L.; Boukenter, A.

    2017-11-01

    In these ICSO proceedings, we review recent advances from our group concerning the radiation hardening of optical fiber and fiber-based sensors for space applications and compare their benefits to state-of-the-art results. We focus on the various approaches we developed to enhance the radiation tolerance of two classes of optical fibers doped with rare-earths: the erbium (Er)-doped ones and the ytterbium/erbium (Er/Yb)-doped ones. As a first approach, we work at the component level, optimizing the fiber structure and composition to reduce their intrinsically high radiation sensitivities. For the Erbium-doped fibers, this has been achieved using a new structure for the fiber that is called Hole-Assisted Carbon Coated (HACC) optical fibers whereas for the Er/Ybdoped optical fibers, their hardening was successfully achieved adding to the fiber, the Cerium element, that prevents the formation of the radiation-induced point defects responsible for the radiation induced attenuation in the infrared part of the spectrum. These fibers are used as part of more complex systems like amplifiers (Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier, EDFA or Yb-EDFA) or source (Erbium-doped Fiber Source, EDFS or Yb- EDFS), we discuss the impact of using radiation-hardened fibers on the system radiation vulnerability and demonstrate the resistance of these systems to radiation constraints associated with today and future space missions. Finally, we will discuss another radiation hardening approach build in our group and based on a hardening-by-system strategy in which the amplifier is optimized during its elaboration for its future mission considering the radiation effects and not in-lab.

  3. Shear punch and ball microhardness measurements of 14 MeV neutron irradiation hardening in five metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, K.; Lucas, G. E.; Odette, G. R.

    1985-08-01

    The irradiation hardening response of five metals irradiated in RTNS-II was investigated using a combination of ball microhardness and shear punch test techniques. The specimens were transmission electron microscopy disks of pure nickel, Ni-5wt%Si, pure iron, solution annealed prime candidate alloy (PCA) for Path A, and 40% cold worked MFE 316 stainless steel. Specimens were irradiated in RTNS-II to fluences in the range 6 × 10 16 to 6 × 10 17 n/cm 2. Only limited ball microhardness data could be obtained because of disk thickness. However, the ball microhardness data obtained were in good agreement with shear punch data. It was found that the pure metals exhibited little hardening after exposure to fluences of ~1 × 10 17 n/cm 2, but Ni-5 Si exhibited significant hardening after 6 × 10 17 n/cm 2. Hardening in PCA was similar to that observed in solution annealed 316 stainless steel; and hardening in 40% cold worked MFE 316 was relatively small after 6 × 10 17 n/cm 2. The Ni-5 Si response may be due to irradiation induced precipitation.

  4. Comparison of lead attenuation and lead hardening equivalence of materials used in respect of diagnostic X-ray shielding.

    PubMed

    Okunade, Akintunde Akangbe

    2002-12-01

    Present interest is in the shielding of diagnostic X-ray units. Numerical comparison has been made of the attenuation and hardening properties of lead and some particular alternative materials: steel, plate glass and gypsum wallboard. Results show, for particular choices of thickness, that lead and steel can be made to provide closely similar attenuation and spectral hardening, values of lead attenuation equivalent (LAE) and lead hardening equivalent (LHE) thicknesses being nearly the same. Significant differences in the attenuation and hardening properties of lead are found in comparison with plate glass and gypsum wallboard. LAE produces better matching of exposure for lead-plate glass and lead-gypsum wallboard than LHE.

  5. On the effectiveness of surface severe plastic deformation by shot peening at cryogenic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelli, M.; Fundenberger, J.-J.; Bocher, P.; Grosdidier, T.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of cryogenic temperature (CT) on the graded microstructures obtained by severe shot peening using surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) was investigated for two austenitic steels that used different mechanisms for assisting plastic deformation. For the metastable 304L steel, the depth of the hardened region increases because CT promotes the formation of strain induced martensite. Comparatively, for the 310S steel that remained austenitic, the size of the subsurface affected region decreases because of the improved strength of the material at CT but the fine twinned nanostructures results in significant top surface hardening.

  6. Ion implantation method for preparing polymers having oxygen erosion resistant surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Lee, E.H.; Mansur, L.K.; Heatherly, L. Jr.

    1995-04-18

    Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them are generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface, improved wear resistance, and improved oxygen erosion resistance. 8 figs.

  7. A radiation-hardened, computer for satellite applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gaona, J.I. Jr.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes high reliability radiation hardened computers built by Sandia for application aboard DOE satellite programs requiring 32 bit processing. The computers highlight a radiation hardened (10 kGy(Si)) R3000 executing up to 10 million reduced instruction set instructions (RISC) per second (MIPS), a dual purpose module control bus used for real-time default and power management which allows for extended mission operation on as little as 1.2 watts, and a local area network capable of 480 Mbits/s. The central processing unit (CPU) is the NASA Goddard R3000 nicknamed the ``Mongoose or Mongoose 1``. The Sandia Satellite Computer (SSC) uses Rational`smore » Ada compiler, debugger, operating system kernel, and enhanced floating point emulation library targeted at the Mongoose. The SSC gives Sandia the capability of processing complex types of spacecraft attitude determination and control algorithms and of modifying programmed control laws via ground command. And in general, SSC offers end users the ability to process data onboard the spacecraft that would normally have been sent to the ground which allows reconsideration of traditional space-grounded partitioning options.« less

  8. Reactivity of NO2 and CO2 with hardened cement paste containing activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgnies, M.; Dubois-Brugger, I.; Krou, N. J.; Batonneau-Gener, I.; Belin, T.; Mignard, S.

    2015-07-01

    The development of building materials to reduce the concentration of NO2 is growing interest in a world where the air quality in urban areas is affected by the car traffic. The main binder in concrete is the cement paste that is partly composed of calcium hydroxide. This alkaline hydrate composing the hardened cement paste shows a high BET surface area (close to 100 m2.g-1) and can absorb low-concentrations of NO2. However, the presence of CO2 in the atmosphere limits the de-polluting effect of reference cement paste, mainly due to carbonation of the alkaline hydrates (reaction leading to the formation of calcium carbonate). The results established in this paper demonstrate that the addition of activated carbon in the cement paste, because of its very high BET surface area (close to 800 m2.g-1) and its specific reactivity with NO2, can significantly improve and prolong the de-polluting effect in presence of CO2 and even after complete carbonation of the surface of the cement paste.

  9. Effect of Microstructural Evolution and Hardening in Subsurface on Wear Behavior of Mg-3Al-1Zn Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C.; Li, C.; An, J.; Yu, M.; Hu, Y. C.; Lin, W. H.; Liu, F.; Ding, Y. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dry sliding tests were performed on as-cast AZ31 alloy using a pin-on-disc configuration. Coefficient of friction and wear rate were measured within a load range of 5-360 N at a sliding velocity of 0.785 m/s. Worn surface morphologies were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Five wear mechanisms, namely abrasion, oxidation, delamination, thermal softening, and melting, have been observed. Surface hardness, subsurface plastic strain, worn surface temperature, and cross-sectional optical microscopy were used to characterize hardness change, plastic deformation, and the microstructure evolution in subsurface. The results illustrate the correlation between the wear behavior and evolution of microstructure and hardness in subsurface, and reveal that in the load range of 5-120 N, surface oxidation and hardening originating from large plastic deformation play an important role in maintaining the mild wear, and softening originating from dynamic recrystallization in subsurface and surface melting are responsible for the severe wear in the load range of 120-360 N.

  10. The role of twinning deformation on the hardening response of polycrystalline magnesium from discrete dislocation dynamics simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Fan, Haidong; Aubry, Sylvie; Arsenlis, Athanasios; ...

    2015-04-13

    The mechanical response of micro-twinned polycrystalline magnesium was studied through three-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD). A systematic interaction model between dislocations and (1012) tension twin boundaries (TBs) was proposed and introduced into the DDD framework. In addition, a nominal grain boundary (GB) model agreeing with experimental results was also introduced to mimic the GB’s barrier effect. The current simulation results show that TBs act as a strong obstacle to gliding dislocations, which contributes significantly to the hardening behavior of magnesium. On the other hand, the deformation accommodated by twinning plays a softening role. Therefore, the concave shape of the Mgmore » stress-strain curve results from the competition between dislocation-TB induced hardening and twinning deformation induced softening. At low strain levels, twinning deformation induced softening dominates and a decreasing hardening rate is observed in Stage-I. In Stage-II, both the hardening and softening effects decline, but twinning deformation induced softening declines faster, which leads to an increasing hardening rate.« less

  11. Fiber-Reinforced Concrete For Hardened Shelter Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    reduced cost and weight versus the symmetrically rebar reinforced beam design using normal-weight, standard-strength concrete currently used by the...while possibly reducing their cost and weight. Emphasis is placed on modular construction using prefabricated fiber- and rebar -reinforced concrete ...fiber- and rebar -reinforced concrete structural members into U.S. Air Force hardened structure designs. vii (The reverse of this page is blank) PREFACE

  12. Mechanical properties of friction stir welded Al alloys with different hardening mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sunggon; Kim, Sangshik; Lee, Chang-Gil; Kim, Sung Joon

    2005-04-01

    The mechanical properties of precipitation hardened Al 6061-T651 and Al 7075-T6 and strain hardened Al 5083-H32, friction stir welded with various welding parameters, were examined in the present study. 4 mm thick Al 6061-T651, Al 7075-T6, and Al 5083-H32 alloy plates were used for friction stir welding (FSW) with rotating speed varied from 1000 to 2500 rpm (rotation per minute) and welding speed ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 mpm (m/min). Each alloy displayed slightly different trends with respect to the effect of different welding parameters on the tensile properties of the FSWed Al alloys. The tensile elongation of FSWed Al 6061-T651 and Al 7075-T6 tended to increase greatly, while the tensile strength decreased marginally, with increasing welding speed and/or decreasing rotating speed. The tensile strength and the tensile elongation of Al 6061-T651 decreased from 135 to 154 MPa and 10.6 to 17.0%, respectively, with increasing welding speed from 0.1 to 0.4 mpm at a rotating speed of 1,600 rpm. Unlike the age-hardened Al 6061-T651 and Al 7075-T6, the strain-hardened Al 5083-H32 showed no notable change in tensile property with varying welding parameters. The change in the strength level with different welding parameters for each alloy was not as significant as the variation in tensile elongation. It was believed that the tensile elongation of FSWed Al alloys with varying welding parameters was mainly determined by the coarse particle clustering. With respect to the change in tensile strength during friction stir welding, it is hypothesized that two competing mechanisms, recovery by friction and heat and strain hardening by plastic flow in the weld zone offset the effects of different welding parameters on the tensile strength level of FSWed Al alloys.

  13. 7 CFR 58.622 - Hardening and storage rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of satisfactory material for this purpose. The rooms shall be maintained in a clean and orderly... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hardening and storage rooms. 58.622 Section 58.622... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58...

  14. 7 CFR 58.622 - Hardening and storage rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of satisfactory material for this purpose. The rooms shall be maintained in a clean and orderly... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hardening and storage rooms. 58.622 Section 58.622... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58...

  15. The effect of aluminum on the work hardening and wear resistance of hadfield manganese steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuidema, B. K.; Subramanyam, D. K.; Leslie, W. C.

    1987-09-01

    A study has been made of the work-hardening and wear resistance of aluminum-modified Hadfield manganese steels ranging in composition from 1.00 to 1.75 Pct carbon and from 0.0 to 4.0 Pct aluminum. Aluminum additions reduced carbon activity and diffusivity in austenites of Hadfield’s composition, increasing the metastable solubility of carbon in Hadfield steel. Aluminum additions inhibited mechanical twinning and, by inference, increased the stacking fault energy of austenite. Increasing carbon in solution in austenite expanded the temperature range over which dynamic strain aging and rapid work hardening occurred. Simultaneous aluminum additions and increased carbon content increased the work-hardening rate and high-stress abrasion resistance of Hadfield steel, but there was an optimum aluminum content beyond which both declined. Maximum work-hardening rate was exhibited by an alloy containing nominally 1.75 Pct C, 13.5 Pct Mn, and 1.3 Pct Al. Improved high-stress abrasion resistance was also found in an alloy containing nominally 1.00 Pct C, 13.5 Pct Mn, and 4.0 Pct Al.

  16. Development of Ballistic Protection Based on Precipitation-Hardened Composite Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshov, E. A.; Romanov, A. D.; Romanova, E. A.; Myl'nikov, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    The possibility of application of an aluminum-based precipitation-hardened composite material for purposes of ballistic protection is considered. Experimental data on A6 aluminum-based alloy reinforced with alumina particles are presented.

  17. Monitoring of hardening and hygroscopic induced strains in a calcium phosphate bone cement using FBG sensor.

    PubMed

    Bimis, A; Karalekas, D; Bouropoulos, N; Mouzakis, D; Zaoutsos, S

    2016-07-01

    This study initially deals with the investigation of the induced strains during hardening stage of a self-setting calcium phosphate bone cement using fiber-Bragg grating (FBG) optical sensors. A complementary Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) investigation was also conducted at different time intervals of the hardening period and its findings were related to the FBG recordings. From the obtained results, it is demonstrated that the FBG response is affected by the microstructural changes taking place when the bone cement is immersed into the hardening liquid media. Subsequently, the FBG sensor was used to monitor the absorption process and hygroscopic response of the hardened and dried biocement when exposed to a liquid/humid environment. From the FBG-based calculated hygric strains as a function of moisture concentration, the coefficient of moisture expansion (CME) of the examined bone cement was obtained, exhibiting two distinct linear regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Low temperature tolerance, cold hardening and acclimation in tadpoles of the neotropical túngara frog (Engystomops pustulosus).

    PubMed

    Vo, Pacific; Gridi-Papp, Marcos

    2017-05-01

    Many frogs from temperate climates can tolerate low temperatures and increase their thermal tolerance through hardening and acclimation. Most tropical frogs, on the other hand, fail to acclimate to low temperatures. This lack of acclimation ability is potentially due to lack of selection pressure for acclimation because cold weather is less common in the tropics. We tested the generality of this pattern by characterizing the critical temperature minimum (CTMin), hardening, and acclimation responses of túngara frogs (Engystomops pustulosus). These frogs belong to a family with unknown thermal ecology. They are found in a tropical habitat with a highly constant temperature regime. The CTMin of the tadpoles was on average 12.5°C. Pre-metamorphic tadpoles hardened by 1.18°C, while metamorphic tadpoles hardened by 0.36°C. When raised at 21°C, tadpoles acclimated expanding their cold tolerance by 1.3°C in relation to larvae raised at 28°C. These results indicate that the túngara frog has a greatly reduced cold tolerance when compared to species from temperate climates, but it responds to cold temperatures with hardening and acclimation comparable to those of temperate-zone species. Cold tolerance increased with body length but cold hardening was more extensive in pre-metamorphic tadpoles than in metamorphic ones. This study shows that lack of acclimation ability is not general to the physiology of tropical anurans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental validation of plastic constitutive hardening relationship based upon the direction of the Net Burgers Density Vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarac, Abdulhamit; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2018-02-01

    We present a new methodology for experimental validation of single crystal plasticity constitutive relationships based upon spatially resolved measurements of the direction of the Net Burgers Density Vector, which we refer to as the β-field. The β-variable contains information about the active slip systems as well as the ratios of the Geometrically Necessary Dislocation (GND) densities on the active slip systems. We demonstrate the methodology by comparing single crystal plasticity finite element simulations of plane strain wedge indentations into face-centered cubic nickel to detailed experimental measurements of the β-field. We employ the classical Peirce-Asaro-Needleman (PAN) hardening model in this study due to the straightforward physical interpretation of its constitutive parameters that include latent hardening ratio, initial hardening modulus and the saturation stress. The saturation stress and the initial hardening modulus have relatively large influence on the β-variable compared to the latent hardening ratio. A change in the initial hardening modulus leads to a shift in the boundaries of plastic slip sectors with the plastically deforming region. As the saturation strength varies, both the magnitude of the β-variable and the boundaries of the plastic slip sectors change. We thus demonstrate that the β-variable is sensitive to changes in the constitutive parameters making the variable suitable for validation purposes. We identify a set of constitutive parameters that are consistent with the β-field obtained from the experiment.

  20. Efficient simulation of press hardening process through integrated structural and CFD analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Palaniswamy, Hariharasudhan; Mondalek, Pamela; Wronski, Maciek

    Press hardened steel parts are being increasingly used in automotive structures for their higher strength to meet safety standards while reducing vehicle weight to improve fuel consumption. However, manufacturing of sheet metal parts by press hardening process to achieve desired properties is extremely challenging as it involves complex interaction of plastic deformation, metallurgical change, thermal distribution, and fluid flow. Numerical simulation is critical for successful design of the process and to understand the interaction among the numerous process parameters to control the press hardening process in order to consistently achieve desired part properties. Until now there has been no integratedmore » commercial software solution that can efficiently model the complete process from forming of the blank, heat transfer between the blank and tool, microstructure evolution in the blank, heat loss from tool to the fluid that flows through water channels in the tools. In this study, a numerical solution based on Altair HyperWorks® product suite involving RADIOSS®, a non-linear finite element based structural analysis solver and AcuSolve®, an incompressible fluid flow solver based on Galerkin Least Square Finite Element Method have been utilized to develop an efficient solution for complete press hardening process design and analysis. RADIOSS is used to handle the plastic deformation, heat transfer between the blank and tool, and microstructure evolution in the blank during cooling. While AcuSolve is used to efficiently model heat loss from tool to the fluid that flows through water channels in the tools. The approach is demonstrated through some case studies.« less

  1. Laser Cladding of CPM Tool Steels on Hardened H13 Hot-Work Steel for Low-Cost High-Performance Automotive Tooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Xue, L.

    2012-06-01

    This paper summarizes our research on laser cladding of high-vanadium CPM® tool steels (3V, 9V, and 15V) onto the surfaces of low-cost hardened H13 hot-work tool steel to substantially enhance resistance against abrasive wear. The results provide great potential for fabricating high-performance automotive tooling (including molds and dies) at affordable cost. The microstructure and hardness development of the laser-clad tool steels so obtained are presented as well.

  2. Induction Hardening of External Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukanin, V. A.; Ivanov, A. N.; Zenkov, A. E.; Vologdin, V. V.; Vologdin, V. V., Jr.

    2018-03-01

    Problems and solution of gear induction hardening are described. Main attention is paid to the parameters of heating and cooling systems. ELTA 7.0 program has been used to obtain the required electrical parameters of inductor, power sources, resonant circuits, as well as to choose the quenching media. Comparison of experimental and calculated results of investigation is provided. In order to compare advantages and disadvantages of single- and dual-frequency heating processes, many variants of these technologies were simulated. The predicted structure and hardness of steel gears are obtained by use of the ELTA data base taken into account the Continuous Cooling Transformation diagrams.

  3. DISPERSION HARDENING OF URANIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Arbiter, W.

    1963-01-15

    A method of hardening U metal involves the forming of a fine dispersion of UO/sub 2/. This method consists of first hydriding the U to form a finely divided powder and then exposing the powder to a very dilute O gas in an inert atmosphere under such pressure and temperature conditions as to cause a thin oxide film to coat each particle of the U hydride, The oxide skin prevents agglomeration of the particles as the remaining H is removed, thus preserving the small particle size. The oxide skin coatings remain as an oxide dispersion. The resulting product may be workhardened to improve its physical characteristics. (AEC)

  4. Influence of Yield Stress Determination in Anisotropic Hardening Model on Springback Prediction in Dual-Phase Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Bong, H. J.; Ha, J.; Choi, J.; Barlat, F.; Lee, M.-G.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a numerical sensitivity analysis of the springback prediction was performed using advanced strain hardening models. In particular, the springback in U-draw bending for dual-phase 780 steel sheets was investigated while focusing on the effect of the initial yield stress determined from the cyclic loading tests. The anisotropic hardening models could reproduce the flow stress behavior under the non-proportional loading condition for the considered parametric cases. However, various identification schemes for determining the yield stress of the anisotropic hardening models significantly influenced the springback prediction. The deviations from the measured springback varied from 4% to 13.5% depending on the identification method.

  5. Irradiation hardening of pure tungsten exposed to neutron irradiation

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Xunxiang; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Fukuda, Makoto; ...

    2016-08-26

    In this paper, pure tungsten samples have been neutron irradiated in HFIR at 90–850 °C to 0.03–2.2 dpa. A dispersed barrier hardening model informed by the available microstructure data has been used to predict the hardness. Comparison of the model predictions and the measured Vickers hardness reveals the dominant hardening contribution at various irradiation conditions. For tungsten samples irradiated in HFIR, the results indicate that voids and dislocation loops contributed to the hardness increase in the low dose region (<0.3 dpa), while the formation of intermetallic second phase precipitation, resulting from transmutation, dominates the radiation-induced strengthening beginning with a relativelymore » modest dose (>0.6 dpa). Finally, the precipitate contribution is most pronounced for the HFIR irradiations, whereas the radiation-induced defect cluster microstructure can rationalize the entirety of the hardness increase observed in tungsten irradiated in the fast neutron spectrum of Joyo and the mixed neutron spectrum of JMTR.« less

  6. Properties of Shock Hardened 7050 Aluminum Alloy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-12

    AD-ALO 887 NAVAL AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER WARMINSTER PA AIRCRAFT -ETC F/6 11/6 PROPERTIES OF SHOCK HARDENED 7050 ALUMINUM ALLOT. (UI NOV 81 C E NEU...Systems Technology Directorate NAVAL AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER Warminster, Pennsylvania 18974 12 NOV 1981 PHASE REPORT AIRTASK NO. WF54591201 :3l’ Work Unit...No. ZMIOI )** >,,, A APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE;DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED Prepared forg NAVAL AIR SYSTEMS COMMAND Department of the Navy Washington, D.C

  7. Analysis of hardening behavior of sheet metals by a new simple shear test method taking into account the Bauschinger effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Sungsik; Rickhey, Felix; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hyungyil; Kim, Naksoo

    2013-12-01

    In this study we establish a process to predict hardening behavior considering the Bauschinger effect for zircaloy-4 sheets. When a metal is compressed after tension in forming, the yield strength decreases. For this reason, the Bauschinger effect should be considered in FE simulations of spring-back. We suggested a suitable specimen size and a method for determining the optimum tightening torque for simple shear tests. Shear stress-strain curves are obtained for five materials. We developed a method to convert the shear load-displacement curve to the effective stress-strain curve with FEA. We simulated the simple shear forward/reverse test using the combined isotropic/kinematic hardening model. We also investigated the change of the load-displacement curve by varying the hardening coefficients. We determined the hardening coefficients so that they follow the hardening behavior of zircaloy-4 in experiments.

  8. Efficient machining of ultra precise steel moulds with freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulla, B.; Robertson, D. J.; Dambon, O.; Klocke, F.

    2013-09-01

    Ultra precision diamond turning of hardened steel to produce optical quality surfaces can be realized by applying an ultrasonic assisted process. With this technology optical moulds used typically for injection moulding can be machined directly from steel without the requirement to overcoat the mould with a diamond machinable material such as Nickel Phosphor. This has both the advantage of increasing the mould tool lifetime and also reducing manufacture costs by dispensing with the relatively expensive plating process. This publication will present results we have obtained for generating free form moulds in hardened steel by means of ultrasonic assisted diamond turning with a vibration frequency of 80 kHz. To provide a baseline with which to characterize the system performance we perform plane cutting experiments on different steel alloys with different compositions. The baseline machining results provides us information on the surface roughness and on tool wear caused during machining and we relate these to material composition. Moving on to freeform surfaces, we will present a theoretical background to define the machine program parameters for generating free forms by applying slow slide servo machining techniques. A solution for optimal part generation is introduced which forms the basis for the freeform machining experiments. The entire process chain, from the raw material through to ultra precision machining is presented, with emphasis on maintaining surface alignment when moving a component from CNC pre-machining to final machining using ultrasonic assisted diamond turning. The free form moulds are qualified on the basis of the surface roughness measurements and a form error map comparing the machined surface with the originally defined surface. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of efficient free form machining applying ultrasonic assisted diamond turning of hardened steel.

  9. Wear of Cutting Tool with Excel Geometry in Turning Process of Hardened Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardžiová, Michaela

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with hard turning using a cutting tool with Xcel geometry. This is one of the new geometries, and there is not any information about Xcel wear in comparison to the conventional geometry. It is already known from cutting tools producers that using the Xcel geometry leads to higher quality of machined surface, perticularly surface roughness. It is possible to achieve more than 4 times lower Ra and Rz values after turning than after using conventional geometry with radius. The workpiece material was 100Cr6 hardened steel with hardness of 60 ± 1 HRC. The machine used for the experiment was a lathe with counter spindle DMG CTX alpha 500, which is located in the Centre of Excellence of 5-axis Machining at the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava. The cutting tools made by CBN were obtained from Sandvik COROMANT Company. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cutting tool wear in hard turning process by the Xcel cutting tool geometry.

  10. Influences of Steelmaking Slags on Hydration and Hardening of Concretes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsanova, A. A.; Dildin, A. N.; Maksimov, S. P.

    2017-11-01

    It is shown that the slag of metallurgical production can be used in the construction industry as an active mineral additive for concrete. This approach allows us to solve environmental problems and reduce costs for the production of binder and concrete simultaneously. Most often slag is used in the form of a filler, an active mineral additive or as a part of a binder for artificial conglomerates. The introduction of slag allows one to notice a part of the cement, to obtain concretes that are more resistant to the impact of aggressive sulfate media. The paper shows the possibility of using recycled steel-smelting slags in the construction industry for the production of cement. An assessment was made of their effect on the hydration of the cement stone and hardening of the concrete together with the plasticizer under normal conditions. In the process of work, we used the slag of the Zlatoust Electrometallurgical Factory. Possible limitations of the content of steel-slag slag in concrete because of the possible presence of harmful impurities are shown. It is necessary to enter slag in conjunction with superplasticizers to reduce the flow of water mixing. Slags can be used as a hardening accelerator for cement concrete as they allow one to increase the degree of cement hydration and concrete strength. It is shown that slags can be used to produce fast-hardening concretes and their comparative characteristics with other active mineral additives are given.

  11. Press-hardening of zinc coated steel - characterization of a new material for a new process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, T.; Larour, P.; Lackner, J.; Steck, T.; Jesner, G.

    2016-11-01

    Press-hardening of zinc-coated PHS has been limited to the indirect process until a pre-cooling step was introduced before the hot forming to prevent liquid metal embrittlement. Even though that's only a minor change in the process itself it does not only eliminate LME, but increases also the demands on the base material especially in terms of hardenability or phase transformations at temperatures below 700 °C in general. This paper deals with the characterization of a modified zinc-coated material for press-hardening with pre-cooling that assures a robust process. The pre-cooling step itself and especially the transfer of the blank in the hot-forming die is more demanding than the standard 22MnB5 can stand to ensure full hardenability. Therefore the transformation behavior of the modified material is shown in CCT and TTT diagrams. Of the same importance are the changed hot forming temperature and flow curves for material at lower temperatures than typically used in direct hot forming. The resulting mechanical properties after hardening from tensile testing and bending tests are shown in detail. Finally some results from side impact crash tests and correlations of the findings with mechanical properties such as fracture elongation, tensile strength, VDA238 bending angle at maximum force as well as postuniform bending slope are given as well. Fracture elongation is shown to be of little help for damage prediction in side impact crash. Tensile strength and VDA bending properties enable however some accurate prediction of the PHS final damage behavior in bending dominated side impact load case.

  12. The influence of copper precipitation and plastic deformation hardening on the impact-transition temperature of rolled structural steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aróztegui, Juan J.; Urcola, José J.; Fuentes, Manuel

    1989-09-01

    Commercial electric arc melted low-carbon steels, provided as I beams, were characterized both microstructurally and mechanically in the as-rolled, copper precipitation, and plastically pre-deformed conditions. Inclusion size distribution, ferrite grain size, pearlite volume fraction, precipitated volume fraction of copper, and size distribution of these precipitates were deter-mined by conventional quantitative optical and electron metallographic techniques. From the tensile tests conducted at a strain rate of 10-3 s-1 and impact Charpy V-notched tests carried out, stress/strain curves, yield stress, and impact-transition temperature were obtained. The spe-cific fractographic features of the fracture surfaces also were quantitatively characterized. The increases in yield stress and transition temperature experienced upon either aging or work hard-ening were related through empirical relationships. These dependences were analyzed semi-quantitatively by combining microscopic and macroscopic fracture criteria based on measured fundamental properties (fracture stress and yield stress) and observed fractographic parameters (crack nucleation distance and nuclei size). The rationale developed from these fracture criteria allows the semiquantitative prediction of the temperature transition shifts produced upon aging and work hardening. The values obtained are of the right order of magnitude.

  13. Reduce beam hardening artifacts of polychromatic X-ray computed tomography by an iterative approximation approach.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hongli; Yang, Zhi; Luo, Shuqian

    2017-01-01

    The beam hardening artifact is one of most important modalities of metal artifact for polychromatic X-ray computed tomography (CT), which can impair the image quality seriously. An iterative approach is proposed to reduce beam hardening artifact caused by metallic components in polychromatic X-ray CT. According to Lambert-Beer law, the (detected) projections can be expressed as monotonic nonlinear functions of element geometry projections, which are the theoretical projections produced only by the pixel intensities (image grayscale) of certain element (component). With help of a prior knowledge on spectrum distribution of X-ray beam source and energy-dependent attenuation coefficients, the functions have explicit expressions. Newton-Raphson algorithm is employed to solve the functions. The solutions are named as the synthetical geometry projections, which are the nearly linear weighted sum of element geometry projections with respect to mean of each attenuation coefficient. In this process, the attenuation coefficients are modified to make Newton-Raphson iterative functions satisfy the convergence conditions of fixed pointed iteration(FPI) so that the solutions will approach the true synthetical geometry projections stably. The underlying images are obtained using the projections by general reconstruction algorithms such as the filtered back projection (FBP). The image gray values are adjusted according to the attenuation coefficient means to obtain proper CT numbers. Several examples demonstrate the proposed approach is efficient in reducing beam hardening artifacts and has satisfactory performance in the term of some general criteria. In a simulation example, the normalized root mean square difference (NRMSD) can be reduced 17.52% compared to a newest algorithm. Since the element geometry projections are free from the effect of beam hardening, the nearly linear weighted sum of them, the synthetical geometry projections, are almost free from the effect of beam

  14. Deposition of Coatings for Raising the Wear Resistance of Friction Surfaces of Spherical Sliding Bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlenko, A. O.; Davydov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The process of finishing plasma hardening with deposition of a multilayer amorphous coating of the Si - O - C - N system is considered as applied to hardening of the friction surfaces of spherical sliding bearings. The microrelief, the submicrorelief, and the tribological characteristics of the deposited wear-resistant antifriction amorphous coating, which are responsible for the elevated wear resistance of spherical sliding bearings, are investigated.

  15. Maillard-reaction-induced modification and aggregation of proteins and hardening of texture in protein bar model systems.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Guo, Mufan; Liu, Dasong; Liu, Xiaoming; Labuza, Teodore P

    2013-03-01

    The hardening of high-protein bars causes problems in their acceptability to consumers. The objective of this study was to determine the progress of the Maillard reaction in model systems of high-protein nutritional bars containing reducing sugars, and to illustrate the influences of the Maillard reaction on the modification and aggregation of proteins and the hardening of bar matrices during storage. The progress of the Maillard reaction, glycation, and aggregation of proteins, and textural changes in bar matrices were investigated during storage at 25, 35, and 45 °C. The initial development of the Maillard reaction caused little changes in hardness; however, further storage resulted in dramatic modification of protein with formation of high-molecular-weight polymers, resulting in the hardening in texture. The replacement of reducing sugars with nonreducing ingredients such as sugar alcohols in the formula minimized the changes in texture. The hardening of high-protein bars causes problems in their acceptability to consumers. Maillard reaction is one of the mechanisms contributing to the hardening of bar matrix, particularly for the late stage of storage. The replacement of reducing sugars with nonreducing ingredients such as sugar alcohols in the formula will minimize the changes in texture. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Method for determining the hardness of strain hardening articles of tungsten-nickel-iron alloy

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Steven A.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a rapid nondestructive method for determining the extent of strain hardening in an article of tungsten-nickel-iron alloy. The method comprises saturating the article with a magnetic field from a permanent magnet, measuring the magnetic flux emanating from the article, comparing the measurements of the magnetic flux emanating from the article with measured magnetic fluxes from similarly shaped standards of the alloy with known amounts of strain hardening to determine the hardness.

  17. Sewall Wright, shifting balance theory, and the hardening of the modern synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yoichi

    2017-02-01

    The period between the 1940s and 1960s saw the hardening of the modern synthesis in evolutionary biology. Gould and Provine argue that Wright's shifting balance theory of evolution hardened during this period. But their account does not do justice to Wright, who always regarded selection as acting together with drift. This paper presents a more adequate account of the development of Wright's shifting balance theory, paying particular attention to his application of the theory to the geographical distribution of flower color dimorphism in Linanthus parryae. The account shows that even in the heyday of the hardened synthesis, the balance or interaction of evolutionary factors, such as drift, selection, and migration, occupied pride of place in Wright's theory, and that between the 1940s and 1970s, Wright developed the theory of isolation by distance to quantitatively represent the structure of the Linanthus population, which he argued had the kind of structure posited by his shifting balance theory. In the end, Wright arrived at a sophisticated description of the structure of the Linanthus population, where the interaction between drift and selection varied spatially. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Scatter and beam hardening reduction in industrial computed tomography using photon counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, David; Sharma, Ravi; Grager, Jan-Carl; Schrapp, Michael

    2018-07-01

    Photon counting detectors (PCD) offer new possibilities for x-ray micro computed tomography (CT) in the field of non-destructive testing. For large and/or dense objects with high atomic numbers the problem of scattered radiation and beam hardening severely influences the image quality. This work shows that using an energy discriminating PCD based on CdTe allows to address these problems by intrinsically reducing both the influence of scattering and beam hardening. Based on 2D-radiographic measurements it is shown that by energy thresholding the influence of scattered radiation can be reduced by up to in case of a PCD compared to a conventional energy-integrating detector (EID). To demonstrate the capabilities of a PCD in reducing beam hardening, cupping artefacts are analyzed quantitatively. The PCD results show that the higher the energy threshold is set, the lower the cupping effect emerges. But since numerous beam hardening correction algorithms exist, the results of the PCD are compared to EID results corrected by common techniques. Nevertheless, the highest energy thresholds yield lower cupping artefacts than any of the applied correction algorithms. As an example of a potential industrial CT application, a turbine blade is investigated by CT. The inner structure of the turbine blade allows for comparing the image quality between PCD and EID in terms of absolute contrast, as well as normalized signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratio. Where the absolute contrast can be improved by raising the energy thresholds of the PCD, it is found that due to lower statistics the normalized contrast-to-noise-ratio could not be improved compared to the EID. These results might change to the contrary when discarding pre-filtering of the x-ray spectra and thus allowing more low-energy photons to reach the detectors. Despite still being in the early phase in technological progress, PCDs already allow to improve CT image quality compared to conventional detectors in terms of

  19. Development of Age-Hardening Technology for Ultrafine-Grained Al-Li-Cu Alloys Fabricated by High-Pressure Torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoshima, Hiroaki; Hirosawa, Shoichi; Lee, Seungwon; Horita, Zenji; Matsuda, Kenji; Terada, Daisuke

    The age-hardening behavior and precipitation microstructures with high dislocation density and ultrafine grains have been studied for cold-rolled and severely deformed 2091 Al-Li-Cu alloy. The age-hardenability at 463K was reduced by high-pressure torsion (HPT) due to the accelerated formation of larger 8-AlLi precipitates at grain boundaries, in place of transgranular precipitation of refined δ'-Al3Li particles that are predominantly observable in the no-deformed and 10%-rolled specimens. When aged at 373K, however, it was successfully achieved for the HPT specimen to increase the hardness up to 290HV, the highest level of hardness among conventional wrought aluminum alloys. The corresponding TEM microstructures confirmed that refined δ' particles precipitate within ultrafine grains while keeping the grain size at 206nm. This result suggests that the combined processing of severe plastic deformation with age-hardening technique enables the fabrication of novel aluminum alloys concurrently strengthened by ultrafine-grained and precipitation hardenings.

  20. On the relationships between hardness and the elastic and plastic properties of isotropic power-law hardening materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Hongzhi; Venkatesh, T. A.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between the hardness and the elastic and plastic properties for a wide range of materials is obtained by analysing the hardness characteristics (that are predicted by experimentally verified indentation analyses) of over 9000 distinct combinations of material properties that represent isotropic, homogeneous, power-law hardening metallic materials. Finite element analysis has been used to develop the indentation algorithms that provide the relationships between the elastic and plastic properties of the indented material and its indentation hardness. Based on computational analysis and virtual testing, the following observations are made. The hardness (H) of a material tends to increase with an increase in the elastic modulus (E), yield strength (σy) and the strain-hardening exponent (n). Several materials with different combinations of elastic and plastic properties can exhibit identical true hardness (for a particular indenter geometry/apex angle). In general, combinations of materials that exhibit relatively low elastic modulus and high yield strength or strain-hardening exponents and those that exhibit relatively high elastic modulus and low yield strength or strain-hardening exponents exhibit similar hardness properties. Depending on the strain-hardening characteristics of the indented material, (i.e. n = 0 or ?), the ratio H/σy ranges, respectively, from 2.2 to 2.6 or 2 to 20 (for indentations with a cone angle of 70.3°). The materials that have lower σy/E and higher n exhibit higher H/σy ratios. The commonly invoked relationship between hardness and the yield strength, i.e. H ≈ 3σy, is not generally valid or applicable for all power-law hardening materials. The indentation hardness of a power law hardening material can be taken as following the relationship H ≈ (2.1-2.8)σr where σr is the representative stress based on Tabor's representative strain for a wide range of materials.

  1. Latent hardening size effect in small-scale plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardella, Lorenzo; Segurado, Javier; Panteghini, Andrea; Llorca, Javier

    2013-07-01

    We aim at understanding the multislip behaviour of metals subject to irreversible deformations at small-scales. By focusing on the simple shear of a constrained single-crystal strip, we show that discrete Dislocation Dynamics (DD) simulations predict a strong latent hardening size effect, with smaller being stronger in the range [1.5 µm, 6 µm] for the strip height. We attempt to represent the DD pseudo-experimental results by developing a flow theory of Strain Gradient Crystal Plasticity (SGCP), involving both energetic and dissipative higher-order terms and, as a main novelty, a strain gradient extension of the conventional latent hardening. In order to discuss the capability of the SGCP theory proposed, we implement it into a Finite Element (FE) code and set its material parameters on the basis of the DD results. The SGCP FE code is specifically developed for the boundary value problem under study so that we can implement a fully implicit (Backward Euler) consistent algorithm. Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the role of the material length scales involved in the SGCP model, from both the mechanical and numerical points of view.

  2. Subcellular localization of calcium deposits in the noble crayfish Astacus astacus spermatophore: Implications for post-mating spermatophore hardening and spermatozoon maturation.

    PubMed

    Niksirat, Hamid; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-04-01

    The freshly ejaculated spermatophore of crayfish undergoes a hardening process during post-mating storage on the body surface of female. The ultrastructural distribution of calcium deposits were studied and compared in freshly ejaculated and post-mating noble crayfish spermatophores, using the oxalate-pyroantimonate technique, to determine possible roles of calcium in post-mating spermatophore hardening and spermatozoon maturation. Small particles of sparsely distributed calcium deposits were visible in the wall of freshly ejaculated spermatophore. Also, large amount of calcium deposits were visible in the membranes of the freshly ejaculated spermatozoon. Five minutes post-ejaculation, granules in the spermatophore wall appeared as porous formations with numerous electron lucent spaces. Calcium deposits were visible within the spaces and scattered in the spermatophore wall matrix, where smaller calcium deposits combined to form globular calcium deposits. Large numbers of the globular calcium deposits were visible in the wall of the post-mating spermatophore. Smaller calcium deposits were detected in the central area of post-mating spermatophore, which contains the sperm mass, and in the extracellular matrix and capsule. While the density of calcium deposits decreased in the post-mating spermatozoon membranes, numerous small calcium deposits appeared in the subacrosomal zone and nucleus. Substantial changes in calcium deposit distribution in the crayfish spermatophore during post-mating storage on the body of female may be involved in the processes of the spermatophore hardening and spermatozoon maturation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Influence of Glass Fiber on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self Compacting Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathi Murugan, R.; Haridharan, M. K.; Natarajan, C.; Jayasankar, R.

    2017-07-01

    The practical need of self-compacting concrete (SCC) is increasing due to increase in the infrastructure competence all over the world. The effective way of increasing the strength of concrete and enhance the behaviour under extreme loading (fire) is the keen interest. Glass fibers were added for five different of volume fractions (0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.6%) to determine the optimum percentage of glass fiber without compensating the fresh properties and enhanced hardened properties of SCC concrete. The fresh state of concrete is characterized by slump flow, T-50cm slump flow, and V-funnel and L- box tests. The results obtained in fresh state are compared with the acceptance criteria of EFNARC specification. Concrete specimens were casted to evaluate the hardened properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity. Incorporation the glass fiber into SCC reduces the workability but within the standard specification. The hardened properties of SCC glass fiber reinforced concrete were enhanced, due to bridging the pre-existing micro cracks in concrete by glass fiber addition.

  4. Joining precipitation-hardened nickel-base alloys by friction welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    Solid state deformation welding process, friction welding, has been developed for joining precipitation hardened nickel-base alloys and other gamma prime-strengthened materials which heretofore have been virtually unweldable. Method requires rotation of one of the parts to be welded, but where applicable, it is an ideal process for high volume production jobs.

  5. Hardening digital systems with distributed functionality: robust networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaskova, Anna; Portela-Garcia, Marta; Garcia-Valderas, Mario; López-Ongil, Celia; Portilla, Jorge; Valverde, Juan; de la Torre, Eduardo; Riesgo, Teresa

    2013-05-01

    Collaborative hardening and hardware redundancy are nowadays the most interesting solutions in terms of fault tolerance achieved and low extra cost imposed to the project budget. Thanks to the powerful and cheap digital devices that are available in the market, extra processing capabilities can be used for redundant tasks, not only in early data processing (sensed data) but also in routing and interfacing1

  6. Reducing beam hardening effects and metal artefacts in spectral CT using Medipix3RX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, K.; Walsh, M. F.; de Ruiter, N. J. A.; Chernoglazov, A. I.; Panta, R. K.; Butler, A. P. H.; Butler, P. H.; Bell, S. T.; Anderson, N. G.; Woodfield, T. B. F.; Tredinnick, S. J.; Healy, J. L.; Bateman, C. J.; Aamir, R.; Doesburg, R. M. N.; Renaud, P. F.; Gieseg, S. P.; Smithies, D. J.; Mohr, J. L.; Mandalika, V. B. H.; Opie, A. M. T.; Cook, N. J.; Ronaldson, J. P.; Nik, S. J.; Atharifard, A.; Clyne, M.; Bones, P. J.; Bartneck, C.; Grasset, R.; Schleich, N.; Billinghurst, M.

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses methods for reducing beam hardening effects and metal artefacts using spectral x-ray information in biomaterial samples. A small-animal spectral scanner was operated in the 15 to 80 keV x-ray energy range for this study. We use the photon-processing features of a CdTe-Medipix3RX ASIC in charge summing mode to reduce beam hardening and associated artefacts. We present spectral data collected for metal alloy samples, its analysis using algebraic 3D reconstruction software and volume visualisation using a custom volume rendering software. The cupping effect and streak artefacts are quantified in the spectral datasets. The results show reduction in beam hardening effects and metal artefacts in the narrow high energy range acquired using the spectroscopic detector. A post-reconstruction comparison between CdTe-Medipix3RX and Si-Medipix3.1 is discussed. The raw data and processed data are made available (http://hdl.handle.net/10092/8851) for testing with other software routines.

  7. Metabolites and hormones are involved in the intraspecific variability of drought hardening in radiata pine.

    PubMed

    De Diego, N; Saiz-Fernández, I; Rodríguez, J L; Pérez-Alfocea, P; Sampedro, M C; Barrio, R J; Lacuesta, M; Moncaleán, P

    2015-09-01

    Studies of metabolic and physiological bases of plant tolerance and hardening against drought are essential to improve genetic breeding programs, especially in productive species such as Pinus radiata. The exposure to different drought cycles is a highly effective tool that improves plant conditioning, but limited information is available about the mechanisms that modulate this process. To clarify this issue, six P. radiata breeds with well-known differences in drought tolerance were analyzed after two consecutive drought cycles. Survival rate, concentration of several metabolites such as free soluble amino acids and polyamines, and main plant hormones varied between them after drought hardening, while relative growth ratio and water potential at both predawn and dawn did not. Hardening induced a strong increase in total soluble amino acids in all breeds, accumulating mainly those implicated in the glutamate metabolism (GM), especially L-proline, in the most tolerant breeds. Other amino acids from GM such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and L-arginine (Arg) were also strongly increased. GABA pathway could improve the response against drought, whereas Arg acts as precursor for the synthesis of spermidine. This polyamine showed a positive relationship with the survival capacity, probably due to its role as antioxidant under stress conditions. Finally, drought hardening also induced changes in phytohormone content, showing each breed a different profile. Although all of them accumulated indole-3-acetic acid and jasmonic acid and reduced zeatin content in needles, significant differences were observed regarding abscisic acid, salicylic acid and mainly zeatin riboside. These results confirm that hardening is not only species-dependent but also an intraspecific processes controlled through metabolite changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Some new results on irradiation characteristics of synthetic quartz crystals and their application to radiation hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadur, H.; Parshad, R.

    1983-01-01

    The paper reports some new results on irradiation characteristics of synthetic quartz crystals and their application to radiation hardening. The present results show how the frequency shift in quartz crystals can be influenced by heat processing prior to irradiation and how this procedure can lead to radiation hardening for obtaining precise frequencies and time intervals from quartz oscillators in space.

  9. Expecting the Unexpected: Radiation Hardened Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penix, John; Mehlitz, Peter C.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation induced Single Event Effects (SEEs) are a serious problem for spacecraft flight software, potentially leading to a complete loss of mission. Conventional risk mitigation has been focused on hardware, leading to slow, expensive and outdated on-board computing devices, increased power consumption and launch mass. Our approach is to look at SEEs from a software perspective, and to explicitly design flight software so that it can detect and correct the majority of SEES. Radiation hardened flight software will reduce the significant residual residual risk for critical missions and flight phases, and enable more use of inexpensive and fast COTS hardware.

  10. Design of rapid hardening engineered cementitious composites for sustainable construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marushchak, Uliana; Sanytsky, Myroslav; Sydor, Nazar

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with design of environmentally friendly Rapid Hardening Engineered Cementitious Composite (RHECC) nanomodified with ultrafine mineral additives, polycarboxylate ether based superplasticizer, calcium hydrosilicate nanoparticles and dispersal reinforced by fibers. The incremental coefficient of surface activity was proposed in order to estimation of ultrafine supplementary materials (fly ash, methakaolin, microsilica) efficiency. A characterization of RHECC's compressive and flexural properties at different ages is reported in this paper. Early compressive strength of ECC is 45-50 MPa, standard strength - 84-95 MPa and parameter Rc2/Rc28 - 65-70%. The microstructure of the cement matrix and RHECC was investigated. The use of ultrafine mineral supplementary materials provides reinforcement of structure on micro- and nanoscale level (cementing matrix) due to formation of sub-microreinforcing hydrate phase as AFt- and C-S-H phases in unclinker part of cement matrix, resulting in the phenomena of "self-reinforcement" on the microstructure level. Designed RHECC may be regarded as lower brittle since the crack resistance coefficient is higher comparison to conventional fine grain concrete.

  11. Reproduction studies in the rat with shea oleine and hardened shea oleine.

    PubMed

    Baldrick, P; Robinson, J A; Hepburn, P A

    2001-09-01

    Shea oleine is an oil fraction derived from the nut of the tree Butyrospermum parkii, which grows in central and western Africa. There are several uses of shea oleine including its use as a frying oil and, after hardening, in margarine and toffee fat. This investigation was performed to examine the toxicity of 7 or 15% hardened shea oleine in comparison with 7 or 15% unhardened shea oleine and various commercially available materials, sheanut and palm oils, cocoa butter and toffee powder following dietary administration to rats during pre-mating, mating, pregnancy and offspring weaning in two separate investigations. Reproduction was assessed using number of litters and pups born plus survival and body weights at birth and at weaning on day 21. Skeletal evaluation using X-ray, clinical pathology and a macroscopic examination were also performed for F1 rats. Study measures for parent animals comprised evaluation of body weight, food consumption, clinical pathology, organ weights and macroscopic examination. Fatty acids and hydrocarbon levels were measured and an evaluation for lipogranulomata was made for various tissues. Results showed that shea oleine, whether unhardened or hardened, produced no evidence of reproduction toxicity and gave a similar profile to the other commercially available materials used in this study in the rat. Minor findings with shea oleine were not related to reproduction performance but comprised slightly reduced body weight gain and reduced cholesterol and raised alkaline phosphatase levels. None of the findings in this study were considered to be of toxicological significance. Thus, no evidence of reproduction toxicity was seen for both unhardened and hardened shea oleine in this investigation in the rat at levels equating to greater than 7.5 g/kg/day.

  12. Anomalous temperature dependence of yield stress and work hardening coefficient of B2-stabilized NiTi alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hosoda, Hideki; Mishima, Yoshinao; Suzuki, Tomoo

    Yield stress and work hardening coefficient of B2-stabilized NiTi alloys are investigated using compression tests. Compositions of NiTi alloys are based on Ni-49mol.%Ti, to which Cr, Co and Al are chosen as ternary elements which reduce martensitic transformation temperatures of the B2 phase. Mechanical tests are carried out in liquid nitrogen at 77 K, air at room temperature (R.T.) and in an argon atmosphere between 473 K and 873 K. Only at 77 K, some alloys show characteristic stress-strain curves which indicate stress induced martensitic transformation (SIMT), but the others do not. Work hardening coefficient is found to be betweenmore » 2 and 11GPa in all the test temperature range. The values are extremely high compared with Young`s modulus of B2 NiTi. Yield stress and work hardening coefficient increase with test temperature between R.T. and about 650 K in most alloys. The anomalous temperature dependence of mechanical properties is not related to SIMT but to precipitation hardening and/or anomalous dislocation motion similar to B2-type CoTi. Solution hardening by adding ternary elements is evaluated to be small for Cr and Co additions, and large for Al addition, depending on difference in atomic size of the ternary element with respect to Ni or Ti.« less

  13. Hardening of electromechanical properties in piezoceramics using a composite approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K. V., Lalitha; Riemer, Lukas M.; Koruza, Jurij; Rödel, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    Piezoelectric applications such as ultrasonic motors, transformers and therapeutic ultrasonics demand high power generation with low losses, which is facilitated by "hard" ferroelectrics. Hardening of piezoelectric properties, characterized by high mechanical quality factor (Qm), is usually achieved by doping with lower valence elements, thereby tailoring the domain wall dynamics. In the present study, we demonstrate a hardening mechanism by developing composites of 0.94(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 (NBT-6BT) with ZnO inclusions, as an alternative to chemical modifications. A decrease in the saturation polarization and total strain, higher internal bias fields, lower hysteretic losses and a two-fold increase in Qm are observed in comparison to NBT-6BT. The composite with 0.1 mole ratio of ZnO exhibits the highest Qm of 320 with d33 = 125 pC/N and Kp = 0.29. A one-to-one correspondence between the increase in Qm and the decrease in the domain wall mobility is established from the ac field dependence of permittivity, in the framework of the Rayleigh law. A further increase in ZnO content beyond a mole ratio of 0.1 reduces Qm, but retains it at a higher level, as compared to NBT-6BT. The results are explained based on the poling-induced strain incompatibility between the matrix and the hard ZnO phase. This composite approach is therefore considered a generic hardening concept and can be extended to other ferroelectric systems.

  14. A comparison of heavy ion induced single event upset susceptibility in unhardened 6T/SRAM and hardened ADE/SRAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Zeng, Chuanbin; Geng, Chao; Liu, Tianqi; Khan, Maaz; Yan, Weiwei; Hou, Mingdong; Ye, Bing; Sun, Youmei; Yin, Yanan; Luo, Jie; Ji, Qinggang; Zhao, Fazhan; Liu, Jie

    2017-09-01

    Single event upset (SEU) susceptibility of unhardened 6T/SRAM and hardened active delay element (ADE)/SRAM, fabricated with 0.35 μm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS technology, was investigated at heavy ion accelerator. The mechanisms were revealed by the laser irradiation and resistor-capacitor hardened techniques. Compared with conventional 6T/SRAM, the hardened ADE/SRAM exhibited higher tolerance to heavy ion irradiation, with an increase of about 80% in the LET threshold and a decrease of ∼64% in the limiting upset cross-section. Moreover, different probabilities between 0 → 1 and 1 → 0 transitions were observed, which were attributed to the specific architecture of ADE/SRAM memory cell. Consequently, the radiation-hardened technology can be an attractive alternative to the SEU tolerance of the device-level.

  15. Laser Welding of Coated Press-hardened Steel 22MnB5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siltanen, Jukka; Minkkinen, Ari; Järn, Sanna

    The press-hardening process is widely used for steels that are used in the automotive industry. Using ultra-high-strength steels enables car manufacturers to build lighter, stronger, and safer vehicles at a reduced cost and generating lower CO2 emissions. In the study, laser welding properties of the coated hot stamped steel 22BMn5 were studied. A constant 900 °C temperature was used to heat the steel plates, and two different furnace times were used in the press-hardening, being 300 and 740 seconds. Some of the plates were shot blasted to see the influence of the partly removed oxide layer on the laser welding and quality. The welding set-up, welding, and testing of the weld specimens complied with the automotive testing code SEP 1220.

  16. Hardening parts by chrome plating in manufacture and repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astanin, V. K.; Pukhov, E. V.; Stekolnikov, Y. A.; Emtsev, V. V.; Golikova, O. A.

    2018-03-01

    In the engineering industry, galvanic coatings are widely used to prolong the service life of the machines, which contribute to the increase in the strength of the parts and their resistance to environmental influences, temperature and pressure drops, wear and fretting corrosion. Galvanic coatings have been widely applied in engineering, including agriculture, aircraft building, mining, construction, and electronics. The article focuses on the manufacturing methods of new agricultural machinery parts and the repair techniques of worn parts by chrome plating. The main attention is paid to the unstable methods of chromium deposition (in pulsed and reversing modes) in low-concentration electrolytes, which makes it possible to increase the reliability and durability of the hardened parts operation by changing the conditions of electrocrystallization, that is, directed formation of the structure and texture, thickness, roughness and microhardness of chromium plating. The practical recommendations are given on the current and temperature regimes of chromium deposition and composition of baths used for the restoration and hardening of the machine parts. Moreover, the basic methods of machining allowances removal are analysed.

  17. Pulsed-laser capabilities at the Laser-Hardened Materials Evaluation Laboratory (LHMEL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royse, Robert W.; Seibert, Daniel B., II; Lander, Michael L.; Eric, John J.

    2000-08-01

    Pulsed laser capabilities at the Laser Hardened Material Evaluation Laboratory are described relevant to optical coupling, impulse generation and laser propulsion. Capabilities of the Nd:Glass laser are presented as well as supporting test systems.

  18. A Study of Tensile Flow and Work-Hardening Behavior of Alloy 617

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Aditya Narayan; Moitra, A.; Bhaskar, Pragna; Dasgupta, Arup; Sasikala, G.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2018-04-01

    The simple power relationship σ = Κɛ p n satisfactorily expresses the tensile flow behavior of many metals and alloys in their uniform plastic strain regime. However, many FCC materials with low stacking fault energy have opposed such power law relationship. Alloy 617, an age-hardenable Ni-based superalloy is also observed not to obey the simple power law relationship neither in its solution-treated nor in its aged conditions. Various flow relationships were used to obtain the best fit for the tensile data, and different relationships were identified for the different aged conditions. The work-hardening rate (θ) demonstrates three distinct regions for all aged conditions, and there is an obvious change in the trend of θ versus σ. In the initial portion, θ decreases rapidly followed by a gradual increase in the second stage and again a decrease in its third stage is perceived in the Alloy 617. These three-stage characteristics are attributed to a commonly known precipitate, γ': Ni3(Ti, Al) which evolves during aging treatment and well recognized under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. TEM results also reveal a slight degree of coarsening in γ' over aging. The tensile flow and the work-hardening behavior are well correlated with other microstructural evolution during the aging treatments.

  19. Modification of Grange-Kiefer Approach for Determination of Hardenability in Eutectoid Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushanthi, Neethi; Maity, Joydeep

    2014-12-01

    In this research work, an independent mathematical modeling approach has been adopted for determination of the hardenability of steels. In this model, at first, cooling curves were generated by solving transient heat transfer equation through discretization with pure explicit finite difference scheme coupled with MATLAB-based programming considering variable thermo-physical properties of 1080 steel. Thereafter, a new fundamental approach is proposed for obtaining CCT noses as a function of volume fraction transformed through modification of Grange-Kiefer approach. The cooling curves were solved against 50 pct transformation nose of CCT diagram in order to predict hardening behavior of 1080 steel in terms of hardenability parameters (Grossmann critical diameter, D C; and ideal critical diameter, D I) and the variation of the unhardened core diameter ( D u) to diameter of steel bar ( D) ratio with diameter of the steel bar ( D). The experiments were also performed to ascertain actual D C value of 1080 steel for still water quenching. The D C value obtained by the developed model was found to match the experimental D C value with only 3 pct deviation. Therefore, the model developed in the present work can be used for direct determination of D I, D C and D u without resorting to any rigorous experimentation.

  20. The Involvement of Hemocyte Prophenoloxidase in the Shell-Hardening Process of the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Javier V.; Chung, J. Sook

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular structures of arthropods undergo dramatic molt-related changes from being soft to becoming hard. The shell-hardening process of decapod crustaceans includes sclerotization and mineralization. Hemocyte PPO plays a central role in melanization and sclerotization particularly in wound healing in crustaceans. However, little is known about its role in the crustacean initial shell-hardening process. The earlier findings of the aggregation of heavily granulated hemocytes beneath the hypodermis during ecdysis imply that the hemocytes may be involved in the shell-hardening process. In order to determine if hemocytes and hemocyte PPO have a role in the shell-hardening of crustaceans, a knockdown study using specific CasPPO-hemo-dsRNA was carried out with juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus. Multiple injections of CasPPO-hemo-dsRNA reduce specifically the levels of CasPPO-hemo expression by 57% and PO activity by 54% in hemocyte lysate at the postmolt, while they have no effect on the total hemocyte numbers. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis using a specific antiserum generated against CasPPO show granulocytes, semigranulocytes and hyaline cells as the cellular sources for PPO at the postmolt. Interestingly, the type of hemocytes, as the cellular sources of PPO, varies by molt stage. The granulocytes always contain PPO throughout the molt cycle. However, semigranulocytes and hyaline cells become CasPPO immune-positive only at early premolt and postmolt, indicating that PPO expression in these cells may be involved in the shell-hardening process of C. sapidus. PMID:26393802

  1. Non-linear acceleration at supernova remnant shocks and the hardening in the cosmic ray spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recchia, S.; Gabici, S.

    2018-02-01

    In the last few years, several experiments have shown that the cosmic ray spectrum below the knee is not a perfect power law. In particular, the proton and helium spectra show a spectral hardening by ˜0.1-0.2 in spectral index at particle energies of ˜ 200-300 GeV nucleon-1. Moreover, the helium spectrum is found to be harder than that of protons by ˜0.1 and some evidence for a similar hardening was also found in the spectra of heavier elements. Here, we consider the possibility that the hardening may be the result of a dispersion in the slope of the spectrum of cosmic rays accelerated at supernova remnant shocks. Such a dispersion is indeed expected within the framework of non-linear theories of diffusive shock acceleration, which predict steeper (harder) particle spectra for larger (smaller) cosmic ray acceleration efficiencies.

  2. Radiation-hardened-by-design clocking circuits in 0.13-μm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Y.; Huang, D.; Chen, J.; Gong, D.; Liu, T.; Ye, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a single-event-hardened phase-locked loop for frequency generation applications and a digital delay-locked loop for DDR2 memory interface applications. The PLL covers a 12.5 MHz to 500 MHz frequency range with an RMS Jitter (RJ) of 4.70-pS. The DLL operates at 267 MHz and has a phase resolution of 60-pS. Designed in 0.13-μm CMOS technology, the PLL and the DLL are hardened against SEE for charge injection of 250 fC. The PLL and the DLL consume 17 mW and 22 mW of power under a 1.5 V power supply, respectively.

  3. Advanced time integration algorithms for dislocation dynamics simulations of work hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Sills, Ryan B.; Aghaei, Amin; Cai, Wei

    Efficient time integration is a necessity for dislocation dynamics simulations of work hardening to achieve experimentally relevant strains. In this work, an efficient time integration scheme using a high order explicit method with time step subcycling and a newly-developed collision detection algorithm are evaluated. First, time integrator performance is examined for an annihilating Frank–Read source, showing the effects of dislocation line collision. The integrator with subcycling is found to significantly out-perform other integration schemes. The performance of the time integration and collision detection algorithms is then tested in a work hardening simulation. The new algorithms show a 100-fold speed-up relativemore » to traditional schemes. As a result, subcycling is shown to improve efficiency significantly while maintaining an accurate solution, and the new collision algorithm allows an arbitrarily large time step size without missing collisions.« less

  4. Advanced time integration algorithms for dislocation dynamics simulations of work hardening

    DOE PAGES

    Sills, Ryan B.; Aghaei, Amin; Cai, Wei

    2016-04-25

    Efficient time integration is a necessity for dislocation dynamics simulations of work hardening to achieve experimentally relevant strains. In this work, an efficient time integration scheme using a high order explicit method with time step subcycling and a newly-developed collision detection algorithm are evaluated. First, time integrator performance is examined for an annihilating Frank–Read source, showing the effects of dislocation line collision. The integrator with subcycling is found to significantly out-perform other integration schemes. The performance of the time integration and collision detection algorithms is then tested in a work hardening simulation. The new algorithms show a 100-fold speed-up relativemore » to traditional schemes. As a result, subcycling is shown to improve efficiency significantly while maintaining an accurate solution, and the new collision algorithm allows an arbitrarily large time step size without missing collisions.« less

  5. The Use of a Simple Enzyme Assay in 'Seed-Hardening' Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ead, J.; Devonald, V. G.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a single technique for an enzyme assay of catalase. The method shows that vegetable seeds submitted to pre-sowing 'hardening' cycles of imbition and drying have greater catalase activity and more rapid germination than do the controls. (LS)

  6. Strengthening of surface layer of material by wave deformation multi-contact loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichek, A. V.; Barinov, S. V.; Aborkin, A. V.; Yashin, A. V.; Zaicev, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    It has been experimentally established that the possibility of multi-contact shock systems can transmit large total energy of the impact pulse to the deformation center. Thus, an increase in the number of instruments in a shock system from two to four, with the constant energy of the shock pulse, made it possible to increase the depth and the degree of hardening in the surface layer. The performance of multi-contact impact systems can be increased by 50% without degrading the hardening parameters by increasing the distance between the tools.

  7. Comparison of properties of fresh and hardened concrete in bridge decks.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1971-01-01

    A study was made on 17 bridge decks constructed in 1963 under regular construction procedures. The purpose was (1) to compare important properties of concrete as freshly placed in randomly selected bridge decks with those after hardening of the concr...

  8. Processing, Microstructures and Properties of a Dual Phase Precipitation-Hardening PM Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, Christopher

    To improve the mechanical properties of PM stainless steels in comparison with their wrought counterparts, a PM stainless steel alloy was developed which combines a dual-phase microstructure with precipitation-hardening. The use of a mixed microstructure of martensite and ferrite results in an alloy with a combination of the optimum properties of each phase, namely strength and ductility. The use of precipitation hardening via the addition of copper results in additional strength and hardness. A range of compositions was studied in combination with various sintering conditions to determine the optimal thermal processing to achieve the desired microstructure. The microstructure could be varied from predominately ferrite to one containing a high percentage of martensite by additions of copper and a variation of the sintering temperature before rapid cooling. Mechanical properties (transverse rupture strength (TRS), yield strength, tensile strength, ductility and impact toughness) were measured as a function of the v/o ferrite in the microstructure. A dual phase alloy with the optimal combination of properties served as the base for introducing precipitation hardening. Copper was added to the base alloy at various levels and its effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties was quantified. Processing at various sintering temperatures led to a range of microstructures; dilatometry was used utilized to monitor and understand the transformations and the formation of the two phases. The aging process was studied as a function of temperature and time by measuring TRS, yield strength, tensile strength, ductility, impact toughness and apparent hardness. It was determined that optimum aging was achieved at 538°C for 1h. Aging at slightly lower temperatures led to the formation of carbides, which contributed to reduced hardness and tensile strength. As expected, at the peak aging temperature, an increase in yield strength and ultimate tensile strength as well as

  9. A microstructure-based yield stress and work-hardening model for textured 6xxx aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadyko, M.; Myhr, O. R.; Dumoulin, S.; Hopperstad, O. S.

    2016-04-01

    The plastic properties of an aluminium alloy are defined by its microstructure. The most important factors are the presence of alloying elements in the form of solid solution and precipitates of various sizes, and the crystallographic texture. A nanoscale model that predicts the work-hardening curves of 6xxx aluminium alloys was proposed by Myhr et al. The model predicts the solid solution concentration and the particle size distributions of different types of metastable precipitates from the chemical composition and thermal history of the alloy. The yield stress and the work hardening of the alloy are then determined from dislocation mechanics. The model was largely used for non-textured materials in previous studies. In this work, a crystal plasticity-based approach is proposed for the work hardening part of the nanoscale model, which allows including the influence of the crystallographic texture. The model is evaluated by comparison with experimental data from uniaxial tensile tests on two textured 6xxx alloys in five temper conditions.

  10. Quantitative Residual Strain Analyses on Strain Hardened Nickel Based Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonezawa, Toshio; Maeguchi, Takaharu; Goto, Toru; Juan, Hou

    Many papers have reported about the effects of strain hardening by cold rolling, grinding, welding, etc. on stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of nickel based alloys and austenitic stainless steels for LWR pipings and components. But, the residual strain value due to cold rolling, grinding, welding, etc. is not so quantitatively evaluated.

  11. Simulation of the Press Hardening Process and Prediction of the Final Mechanical Material Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochholdinger, Bernd; Hora, Pavel; Grass, Hannes; Lipp, Arnulf

    2011-08-01

    Press hardening is a well-established production process in the automotive industry today. The actual trend of this process technology points towards the manufacturing of parts with tailored properties. Since the knowledge of the mechanical properties of a structural part after forming and quenching is essential for the evaluation of for example the crash performance, an accurate as possible virtual assessment of the production process is more than ever necessary. In order to achieve this, the definition of reliable input parameters and boundary conditions for the thermo-mechanically coupled simulation of the process steps is required. One of the most important input parameters, especially regarding the final properties of the quenched material, is the contact heat transfer coefficient (IHTC). The CHTC depends on the effective pressure or the gap distance between part and tool. The CHTC at different contact pressures and gap distances is determined through inverse parameter identification. Furthermore a simulation strategy for the subsequent steps of the press hardening process as well as adequate modeling approaches for part and tools are discussed. For the prediction of the yield curves of the material after press hardening a phenomenological model is presented. This model requires the knowledge of the microstructure within the part. By post processing the nodal temperature history with a CCT diagram the quantitative distribution of the phase fractions martensite, bainite, ferrite and pearlite after press hardening is determined. The model itself is based on a Hockett-Sherby approach with the Hockett-Sherby parameters being defined in function of the phase fractions and a characteristic cooling rate.

  12. Neutron energy spectrum influence on irradiation hardening and microstructural development of tungsten

    DOE PAGES

    Fukuda, Makoto; Kiran Kumar, N. A. P.; Koyanagi, Takaaki; ...

    2016-07-02

    We performed a neutron irradiation to single crystal pure tungsten in the mixed spectrum High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). In order to investigate the influences of neutron energy spectrum, the microstructure and irradiation hardening were compared with previous data obtained from the irradiation campaigns in the mixed spectrum Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR) and the sodium-cooled fast reactor Joyo. The irradiation temperatures were in the range of ~90–~800 °C and fast neutron fluences were 0.02–9.00 × 10 25 n/m 2 (E > 0.1 MeV). Post irradiation evaluation included Vickers hardness measurements and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the hardness and microstructuremore » changes exhibited a clear dependence on the neutron energy spectrum. The hardness appeared to increase with increasing thermal neutron flux when fast fluence exceeds 1 × 10 25 n/m 2 (E > 0.1 MeV). Finally, irradiation induced precipitates considered to be χ- and σ-phases were observed in samples irradiated to >1 × 10 25 n/m 2 (E > 0.1 MeV), which were pronounced at high dose and due to the very high thermal neutron flux of HFIR. Although the irradiation hardening mainly caused by defects clusters in a low dose regime, the transmutation-induced precipitation appeared to impose additional significant hardening of the tungsten.« less

  13. Neutron energy spectrum influence on irradiation hardening and microstructural development of tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Makoto; Kiran Kumar, N. A. P.; Koyanagi, Takaaki

    We performed a neutron irradiation to single crystal pure tungsten in the mixed spectrum High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). In order to investigate the influences of neutron energy spectrum, the microstructure and irradiation hardening were compared with previous data obtained from the irradiation campaigns in the mixed spectrum Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR) and the sodium-cooled fast reactor Joyo. The irradiation temperatures were in the range of ~90–~800 °C and fast neutron fluences were 0.02–9.00 × 10 25 n/m 2 (E > 0.1 MeV). Post irradiation evaluation included Vickers hardness measurements and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the hardness and microstructuremore » changes exhibited a clear dependence on the neutron energy spectrum. The hardness appeared to increase with increasing thermal neutron flux when fast fluence exceeds 1 × 10 25 n/m 2 (E > 0.1 MeV). Finally, irradiation induced precipitates considered to be χ- and σ-phases were observed in samples irradiated to >1 × 10 25 n/m 2 (E > 0.1 MeV), which were pronounced at high dose and due to the very high thermal neutron flux of HFIR. Although the irradiation hardening mainly caused by defects clusters in a low dose regime, the transmutation-induced precipitation appeared to impose additional significant hardening of the tungsten.« less

  14. Occupational contact dermatitis caused by 1,3-benzenedimethanamine, N-(2-phenylethyl) derivatives in hardeners for epoxy paints and coatings.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Maria; Kuuliala, Outi; Suomela, Sari; Aalto-Korte, Kristiina

    2016-12-01

    Amines in epoxy hardeners are significant causes of occupational allergic contact dermatitis among workers who use epoxy resin systems. To describe a novel group of contact allergens: N-(2-phenylethyl) derivatives of the reactive amine 1,3-benzenedimethanamine (1,3-BDMA). We describe the clinical examinations and exposure of 6 patients with occupational contact allergy to derivatives of 1,3-BDMA. Of the 6 patients, 4 were spray painters who used epoxy paints, 1 was a floor layer who handled a variety of epoxy coatings, and 1 was a worker in epoxy hardener manufacture. We were able to confirm exposure to epoxy hardeners that contained derivatives of 1,3-BDMA in 5 of the 6 sensitized patients. Despite the close structural resemblance between derivatives of 1,3-BDMA and m-xylylenediamine (MXDA), only 3 patients reacted positively to MXDA. Concomitant contact allergy to diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A resin was seen in 2 of the 6 patients. Because of the lack of a commercially available patch test substance, the diagnosis of contact allergy to derivatives of 1,3-BDMA requires patch testing with either the epoxy hardener product or a hardener ingredient that contains the derivatives of 1,3-BDMA. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Experimental investigation of various surface integrity aspects in hard turning of AISI 4340 alloy steel with coated and uncoated cermet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Anshuman; Patel, S. K.; Sateesh Kumar, Ch.; Biswal, B. B.

    2018-03-01

    The newer technological developments are exerting immense pressure on domain of production. These fabrication industries are busy finding solutions to reduce the costs of cutting materials, enhance the machined parts quality and testing different materials, which can be made versatile for cutting materials, which are difficult for machining. High-speed machining has been the domain of paramount importance for mechanical engineering. In this study, the variation of surface integrity parameters of hardened AISI 4340 alloy steel was analyzed. The surface integrity parameters like surface roughness, micro hardness, machined surface morphology and white layer of hardened AISI 4340 alloy steel were compared using coated and uncoated cermet inserts under dry cutting condition. From the results, it was deduced that coated insert outperformed uncoated one in terms of different surface integrity characteristics.

  16. A detailed investigation of the strain hardening response of aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canadinc, Demircan

    The unusual strain hardening response exhibited by Hadfield steel single and polycrystals under tensile loading was investigated. Hadfield steel, which deforms plastically through the competing mechanisms slip and twinning, was alloyed with aluminum in order to suppress twinning and study the role of slip only. To avoid complications due to a grained structure, only single crystals of the aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel were considered at the initial stage of the current study. As a result of alloying with aluminum, twinning was suppressed; however a significant increase in the strain hardening response was also present. A detailed microstructural analysis showed the presence of high-density dislocation walls that evolve in volume fraction due to plastic deformation and interaction with slip systems. The very high strain hardening rates exhibited by the aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel single crystals was attributed to the blockage of glide dislocations by the high-density dislocation walls. A crystal plasticity model was proposed, that accounts for the volume fraction evolution and rotation of the dense dislocation walls, as well as their interaction with the active slip systems. The novelty of the model lies in the simplicity of the constitutive equations that define the strain hardening, and the fact that it is based on experimental data regarding the microstructure. The success of the model was tested by its application to different crystallographic orientations, and finally the polycrystals of the aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel. Meanwhile, the capability of the model to predict texture was also observed through the rotation of the loading axis in single crystals. The ability of the model to capture the polycrystalline deformation response provides a venue for its utilization in other alloys that exhibit dislocation sheet structures.

  17. Effect of laser shot peening on precipitation hardened aluminum alloy 6061-T6 using low energy laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyajith, S.; Kalainathan, S.

    2012-03-01

    Mechanical properties of engineering material can be improved by introducing compressive residual stress on the material surface and refinement of their microstructure. Variety of mechanical process such as shot peening, water jet peening, ultrasonic peening, laser shot peening were developed in the last decades on this contrast. Among these, lasers shot peening emerged as a novel industrial treatment to improve the crack resistance of turbine blades and the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenic stainless steel in power plants. In this study we successfully performed laser shot peening on precipitation hardened aluminum alloy 6061-T6 with low energy (300 mJ, 1064 nm) Nd:YAG laser using different pulse densities of 22 pulses/mm 2 and 32 pulses/mm 2. Residual stress evaluation based on X-ray diffraction sin 2 ψ method indicates a maximum of 190% percentage increase on surface compressive stress. Depth profile of micro-hardness shows the impact of laser generated shock wave up to 1.2 mm from the surface. Apart from that, the crystalline size and micro-strain on the laser shot peened surfaces have been investigated and compared with the unpeened surface using X-ray diffraction in conjunction with line broadening analysis through the Williamson-Hall plot.

  18. Modeling copper precipitation hardening and embrittlement in a dilute Fe-0.3at.%Cu alloy under neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xian-Ming; Ke, Huibin; Zhang, Yongfeng; Spencer, Benjamin W.

    2017-11-01

    Neutron irradiation in light water reactors can induce precipitation of nanometer sized Cu clusters in reactor pressure vessel steels. The Cu precipitates impede dislocation gliding, leading to an increase in yield strength (hardening) and an upward shift of ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (embrittlement). In this work, cluster dynamics modeling is used to model the entire Cu precipitation process (nucleation, growth, and coarsening) in a Fe-0.3at.%Cu alloy under neutron irradiation at 300°C based on the homogenous nucleation mechanism. The evolution of the Cu cluster number density and mean radius predicted by the modeling agrees well with experimental data reported in literature for the same alloy under the same irradiation conditions. The predicted precipitation kinetics is used as input for a dispersed barrier hardening model to correlate the microstructural evolution with the radiation hardening and embrittlement in this alloy. The predicted radiation hardening agrees well with the mechanical test results in the literature. Limitations of the model and areas for future improvement are also discussed in this work.

  19. Continuous monitoring of setting and hardening of mortar using FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, H.; Ribeiro, R.; Nogueira, R.; Silva, L.; Abe, I.; Pinto, J. L.

    2007-05-01

    The use of fibre Bragg grating sensors to study mortars' dimensional variations during the setting process is reported. When determining a mortar's potential to fissure, it's important to know its total retraction. This means it is necessary to know not only the mortar's retraction after hardened, but also to know how much it retracts during the plastic phase. This work presents a technique which allows to measure dimensional variations, either expansion or retraction, during the whole setting process. Temperature and strain evolution during both plastic and hardened phase of the mortar were obtained, allowing the determination of dimensional variations and setting times. Due to its high-speed, ease of implementation and low operation costs, this technique will allow to get a deeper knowledge of the effects of several additives on the mortar's behaviour, allowing to improve its mechanical properties through the determination of the proper chemical composition.

  20. Comparative study of procedures for the analysis of chloride in hardened concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-01-01

    In the widely used potentiometric titration procedure for the analysis of chloride in powdered hardened concrete samples, difficulties have often been encountered when determining the endpoint. These difficulties have been eliminated through the use ...

  1. Slurry Erosion Studies on Surface Modified 13Cr-4Ni Steels: Effect of Angle of Impingement and Particle Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manisekaran, T.; Kamaraj, M.; Sharrif, S. M.; Joshi, S. V.

    2007-10-01

    Hydroturbine steels, such as 13Cr-4Ni martensitic steels, are generally subjected to heavy-erosive wear and loss of efficiency due to solid particulate entrainment in the water. Surface-modified steels have proven to give better performance in terms of erosive wear resistance. In the present study, an attempt is made to investigate the effect of angle of impingement and particle size on slurry-jet erosion behavior of pulsed plasma nitrided and laser hardened 13Cr-4Ni steels. Laser hardening process has shown good performance at all angles of impingement due to martensitic transformation of retained austenite. Plastic deformation mode of material removal was also an evident feature of all laser-hardened surface damage locations. However, pulsed-plasma nitrided steels have exhibited chip formation and micro-cutting mode of erosive wear. Erosion with 150-300 μm size was twice compared to 150 μm size slurry particulates.

  2. Surface laser alloying of 17-4PH stainless steel steam turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Qunli; Kong, Fanzhi; Lou, Chenghua; Chen, Zhijun

    2008-09-01

    As a known high-quality precipitation hardening stainless steel with high strength, high antifatigue, excellent corrosion resistance and good weldability, 17-4PH has been widely used to produce steam turbine blades. However, under the impact of high-speed steam and water droplets, the blades are prone to cavitation, which could lead to lower efficiency, shorter life time, and even accidents. In this article, the 17-4PH blade's surface was alloyed using a high power CO 2 laser. The microstructure and microhardness of hardened 17-4PH were tested by scanning electronic microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) and a microhardness tester. After laser alloying, the surface layer was denser and the grain refined, while the microhardness of the surface (average 610HV 0.2) was about one times higher than that of the substrate material (330HV 0.2). The friction coefficient of the laser-alloyed 17-4PH layer was much lower than that of the substrate.

  3. Crash Analysis of Automotive Chassis Structure Considering the Strain Hardening Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashalkar, A. S.; Parvekar, R. P.

    2011-08-01

    The work hardening during the forming process is generally ignored in crash analysis. This paper presents computational details of the effect of forming process on crash response of typical Sports Utility Vehicles (SUV). Forming results for front panels of a medium-sized SUV were calculated using Hyperform and LS Dyna. These were imported into the crash model and crash results compared with and without the forming effects. Time taken to generate the forming data by a variety of methods is quantified and the trade-off between time taken and accuracy is examined. LS-DYNA was used for both forming and crash simulations. The effect of thickness, work hardening and residual stresses on the crashworthiness results is measured; crash response is seen to be significantly affected when the effects of forming are included. The paper proposes a systematic method to transfer data from the forming analysis to crashworthiness analysis (both using LS-DYNA), allowing thickness, residual stress and plastic strain data selectively or in combination to be used to initialise the crash model. The relative effect of each of these forming parameters has been examined and the importance of, work hardening on the crash response of the stamping front rail has been identified. A significant change in energy absorption, peak force and stroke of the front rail was predicted, indicating a far stiffer response in the formed rail than would be expected based on the nominal material properties. Therefore, forming effects should be accounted for in vehicle crashworthiness predictions.

  4. RHrFPGA Radiation-Hardened Re-programmable Field-Programmable Gate Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, A. B.; LaBel, K. A.; McCabe, J. F.; Gardner, G. A.; Lintz, J.; Ross, C.; Golke, K.; Burns, B.; Carts, M. A.; Kim, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the development of the Radiation-Hardened Re-programmable Field-Programmable Gate Array (RHrFPGA) are presented. The topics include: 1) Radiation Test Suite; 2) Testing Interface; 3) Test Configuration; 4) Facilities; 5) Test Programs; 6) Test Procedure; and 7) Test Results. A summary of heavy ion and proton testing is also included.

  5. Twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) and work hardening in Ti-based metallic glass matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Qiao, J W; Wang, Z H; Rao, W; Kang, G Z

    2017-05-12

    The present study demonstrates that Ti-based metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) with a normal composition of Ti 43 Zr 32 Ni 6 Ta 5 Be 14 containing ductile dendrites dispersed in the glass matrix has been developed, and deformation mechanisms about the tensile property have been investigated by focusing on twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) effect. The Ti-based MGMC has excellent tensile properties and pronounced tensile work-hardening capacity, with a yield strength of 1100 MPa and homogeneous elongation of 4%. The distinguished strain hardening is ascribed to the formation of deformation twinning within the dendrites. Twinning generated in the dendrites works as an obstacle for the rapid propagation of shear bands, and then, the localized necking is avoided, which ensures the ductility of such kinds of composites. Besides, a finite-element model (FEM) has been established to explain the TWIP effect which brings out a work-hardening behavior in the present MGMC instead of a localized strain concentration. According to the plasticity theory of traditional crystal materials and some new alloys, TWIP effect is mainly controlled by stacking fault energy (SFE), which has been analyzed intensively in the present MGMC.

  6. Occurrence of two-stage hardening in C-Mn steel wire rods containing pearlitic microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Balbir; Sahoo, Gadadhar; Saxena, Atul

    2016-09-01

    The 8 and 10 mm diameter wire rods intended for use as concrete reinforcement were produced/ hot rolled from C-Mn steel chemistry containing various elements within the range of C:0.55-0.65, Mn:0.85-1.50, Si:0.05-0.09, S:0.04 max, P:0.04 max and N:0.006 max wt%. Depending upon the C and Mn contents the product attained pearlitic microstructure in the range of 85-93% with balance amount of polygonal ferrite transformed at prior austenite grain boundaries. The pearlitic microstructure in the wire rods helped in achieving yield strength, tensile strength, total elongation and reduction in area values within the range of 422-515 MPa, 790-950 MPa, 22-15% and 45-35%, respectively. On analyzing the tensile results it was revealed that the material experienced hardening in two stages separable by a knee strain value of about 0.05. The occurrence of two stage hardening thus in the steel with hardening coefficients of 0.26 and 0.09 could be demonstrated with the help of derived relationships existed between flow stress and the strain.

  7. Quantification of anhydride groups in anhydride-based epoxy hardeners by reaction headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate a reaction headspace gas chromatographic method for quantifying anhydride groups in anhydride-based epoxy hardeners. In this method, the conversion process of anhydride groups can be realized by two steps. In the first step, anhydride groups in anhydride-based epoxy hardeners completely reacted with water to form carboxyl groups. In the second step, the carboxyl groups reacted with sodium bicarbonate solution in a closed sample vial. After the complete reaction between the carboxyl groups and sodium bicarbonate, the CO 2 formed from this reaction was then measured by headspace gas chromatography. The data showed that the reaction in the closed headspace vial can be completed in 15 min at 55°C, the relative standard deviation of the reaction headspace gas chromatography method in the precision test was less than 3.94%, the relative differences between the new method and a reference method were no more than 9.38%. The present reaction method is automated, efficient and can be a reliable tool for quantifying the anhydride groups in anhydride-based epoxy hardeners and related research. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Simulating irradiation hardening in tungsten under fast neutron irradiation including Re production by transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen-Hsi; Gilbert, Mark R.; Marian, Jaime

    2018-02-01

    Simulations of neutron damage under fusion energy conditions must capture the effects of transmutation, both in terms of accurate chemical inventory buildup as well as the physics of the interactions between transmutation elements and irradiation defect clusters. In this work, we integrate neutronics, primary damage calculations, molecular dynamics results, Re transmutation calculations, and stochastic cluster dynamics simulations to study neutron damage in single-crystal tungsten to mimic divertor materials. To gauge the accuracy and validity of the simulations, we first study the material response under experimental conditions at the JOYO fast reactor in Japan and the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for which measurements of cluster densities and hardening levels up to 2 dpa exist. We then provide calculations under expected DEMO fusion conditions. Several key mechanisms involving Re atoms and defect clusters are found to govern the accumulation of irradiation damage in each case. We use established correlations to translate damage accumulation into hardening increases and compare our results to the experimental measurements. We find hardening increases in excess of 5000 MPa in all cases, which casts doubts about the integrity of W-based materials under long-term fusion exposure.

  9. Gamma prime hardened nickel-iron based superalloy

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1978-01-01

    A low swelling, gamma prime hardened nickel-iron base superalloy useful for fast reactor duct and cladding applications is described having from about 7.0 to about 10.5 weight percent (wt%) chromium, from about 24 to about 35 wt% nickel, from about 1.7 to about 2.5 wt% titanium, from about 0.3 to about 1.0 wt% aluminum, from about 2.0 to about 3.3 wt% molybdenum, from about 0.05 to about 1.0 wt% silicon, from about 0.03 to about 0.06 wt% carbon, a maximum of about 2 wt% manganese, and the balance iron.

  10. Hardening Effect Analysis by Modular Upper Bound and Finite Element Methods in Indentation of Aluminum, Steel, Titanium and Superalloys

    PubMed Central

    Bermudo, Carolina; Sevilla, Lorenzo; Martín, Francisco; Trujillo, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    The application of incremental processes in the manufacturing industry is having a great development in recent years. The first stage of an Incremental Forming Process can be defined as an indentation. Because of this, the indentation process is starting to be widely studied, not only as a hardening test but also as a forming process. Thus, in this work, an analysis of the indentation process under the new Modular Upper Bound perspective has been performed. The modular implementation has several advantages, including the possibility of the introduction of different parameters to extend the study, such as the friction effect, the temperature or the hardening effect studied in this paper. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the three hardening models developed depending on the material characteristics. In order to support the validation of the hardening models, finite element analyses of diverse materials under an indentation are carried out. Results obtained from the Modular Upper Bound are in concordance with the results obtained from the numerical analyses. In addition, the numerical and analytical methods are in concordance with the results previously obtained in the experimental indentation of annealed aluminum A92030. Due to the introduction of the hardening factor, the new modular distribution is a suitable option for the analysis of indentation process. PMID:28772914

  11. Hide and Seek: Exploiting and Hardening Leakage-Resilient Code Randomization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-30

    Hide and Seek: Exploiting and Hardening Leakage -Resilient Code Randomization Robert Rudd MIT Lincoln Laboratory Thomas Hobson MIT Lincoln Laboratory...Irvine Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi TU Darmstadt Hamed Okhravi MIT Lincoln Laboratory Abstract Information leakage vulnerabilities can allow adversaries to...bypass mitigations based on code randomization. This discovery motivates numerous techniques that diminish direct and indirect information leakage : (i

  12. Hide and Seek: Exploiting and Hardening Leakage-Resilient Code Randomization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-30

    Hide and Seek: Exploiting and Hardening Leakage -Resilient Code Randomization Robert Rudd MIT Lincoln Laboratory Thomas Hobson MIT Lincoln Laboratory...Irvine Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi TU Darmstadt Hamed Okhravi MIT Lincoln Laboratory Abstract Information leakage vulnerabilities can allow adversaries to...bypass mitigations based on code randomization. This discovery motivates numerous techniques that diminish direct and indirect information leakage : (i

  13. 49. INTERIOR VIEW OF HARDENER AREA SHOWING GAUGE THAT MEASURES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. INTERIOR VIEW OF HARDENER AREA SHOWING GAUGE THAT MEASURES HARDNESS, THE NAIL MUST BREAK IN THE CENTER RANGE OF THE CURVED BAR TO HAVE THE CORRECT HARDNESS (THE NAIL WILL BREAK TOO EASILY IF TOO HARD AND WILL BEND TOO MUCH IF TOO SOFT) - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  14. Study of strength kinetics of sand concrete system of accelerated hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharanova, A. V.; Lenkova, D. A.; Panfilova, A. D.

    2018-04-01

    Methods of calorimetric analysis are used to study the dynamics of the hydration processes of concretes with different accelerator contents. The efficiency of the isothermal calorimetry method is shown for study of strength kinetics of concrete mixtures of accelerated hardening, promising for additive technologies in civil engineering.

  15. Demonstration of finite element simulations in MOOSE using crystallographic models of irradiation hardening and plastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Patra, Anirban; Wen, Wei; Martinez Saez, Enrique

    This report describes the implementation of a crystal plasticity framework (VPSC) for irradiation hardening and plastic deformation in the finite element code, MOOSE. Constitutive models for irradiation hardening and the crystal plasticity framework are described in a previous report [1]. Here we describe these models briefly and then describe an algorithm for interfacing VPSC with finite elements. Example applications of tensile deformation of a dog bone specimen and a 3D pre-irradiated bar specimen performed using MOOSE are demonstrated.

  16. a Calorimetric Study of the Precipitation Hardening Mechanisms in AN Al-Cu-Mg-Si Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayoune, Abdelali

    2013-08-01

    The precipitation phenomena and the related hardening in an Al-Cu-Mg-Si alloy were studied by calorimetry, X-ray diffraction analysis and microhardness measurements. The main calorimetric peaks were identified to be due to β‧‧, θ‧ and Q‧ phases precipitation. The hardening during aging at room temperature and 160°C, was respectively, explained by atomic clusters and GP zones formation and by GP zones and β‧‧/θ‧ phases coprecipitation. Although the mechanical properties variation during aging at 200°C is simple, the corresponding microstructural evolution is complex: on the basis of the DSC results, the increasing of microhardness values, is mainly due to the coprecipitation of GP zones and β‧‧/θ‧ phases, however, the maximum hardening is explained by the coexistence of β‧‧/θ‧ and θ‧‧ phases. Another important conclusion is that during aging at 160°C and 200°C, the θ‧ phase is essentially developed from GP zones.

  17. Strain Hardening Behaviour and Its Effect on Properties of ZrB2 Reinforced Al Composite Prepared by Powder Metallurgy Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaku, Sai Mahesh Yadav; Khanra, Asit Kumar; Davidson, M. J.

    2018-04-01

    Strain hardening behaviour has significant effect on altering the properties of materials. In the present study, Al-ZrB2 metal matrix composites are made through powder metallurgy route. Incremental weight percentage (wt%) of ZrB2 (0, 2, 4 and 6 wt%) are added to Aluminium matrix to produce different composites. The homogenous powder mixture is compacted and pressurelessly sintered. Sintering of composites is performed over a range of 450-575 °C. The optimized sintered condition is observed at 550 °C for 1 h in controlled atmosphere (argon gas flow). The sintered compacts are strained in incremental steps in different levels up to failure. A visible crack on the bulge of the powder preform is considered as the failure. Composites are strain hardened up to failure. To evaluate the effect of temperature on strain hardening, strain hardening is carried out at different temperatures. Composites are densified with the extent of straining and hardness increases with the increase of strain. Hardness increase with the increase in temperature is maintained during strain hardening. To evaluate the corrosion behaviour of Al-ZrB2 composite, potentiodynamic polarization study are performed on the strained composites. Corrosion rate decrease with the extent of straining.

  18. An improved Armstrong-Frederick-Type Plasticity Model for Stable Cyclic Stress-Strain Responses Considering Nonproportional Hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Zhong-ping; Li, Chun-wang

    2018-03-01

    This paper modified an Armstrong-Frederick-type plasticity model for investigating the stable cyclic deformation behavior of metallic materials with different sensitivity to nonproportional loadings. In the modified model, the nonproportionality factor and nonproportional cyclic hardening coefficient coupled with the Jiang-Sehitoglu incremental plasticity model were used to estimate the stable stress-strain responses of the two materials (1045HR steel and 304 stainless steel) under various tension-torsion strain paths. A new equation was proposed to calculate the nonproportionality factor on the basis of the minimum normal strain range. Procedures to determine the minimum normal strain range were presented for general multiaxial loadings. Then, the modified model requires only the cyclic strain hardening exponent and cyclic strength coefficient to determine the material constants. It is convenient for predicting the stable stress-strain responses of materials in engineering application. Comparisons showed that the modified model can reflect the effect of nonproportional cyclic hardening well.

  19. Plasma Methods of Obtainment of Multifunctional Composite Materials, Dispersion-Hardened by Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizonenko, O. N.; Grigoryev, E. G.; Pristash, N. S.; Zaichenko, A. D.; Torpakov, A. S.; Lypian, Ye. V.; Tregub, V. A.; Zholnin, A. G.; Yudin, A. V.; Kovalenko, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    High voltage electric discharge (HVED) in disperse system "hydrocarbon liquid - powder" due to impact of plasma discharge channel, electromagnetic fields, shock waves mechanical impact, hydro flows and volume microcavitation leads to synthesis of nanocarbon, metal powders dispersion and synthesis of micro- (from 10-6 to 10-7 m) and nanosized (from 10-7 to 10-9 m) composite powders of hardening phases. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) of powder mixtures allows targeted control of grain growth rate and thus allows obtainment of multifunctional composite materials dispersion hardened by nanoparticles. Processes of HVED synthesis of micro- and nanosized powders of new compositions from elemental metal powders and their mixtures with the subsequent application of high-speed SPS of obtained powders create conditions for increase of strength (by 10-20 %), hardness and wear-resistance (by 30-60 %) of obtained materials.

  20. Experience of high-nitrogenous steel powder application in repairs and surface hardening of responsible parts for power equipment by plasma spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpakov, A. S.; Kardonina, N. I.

    2016-02-01

    The questions of the application of novel diffusion-alloying high-nitrogenous steel powders for repair and surface hardening of responsible parts of power equipment by plasma spraying are considered. The appropriateness of the method for operative repair of equipment and increasing its service life is justified. General data on the structure, properties, and manufacture of nitrogen-, aluminum-, and chromium-containing steel powders that are economically alloyed using diffusion are described. It is noted that the nitrogen release during the decomposition of iron nitrides, when heating, protects the powder particles from oxidation in the plasma jet. It is shown that the coating retains 50% of nitrogen that is contained in the powder. Plasma spraying modes for diffusion-alloying high-nitrogenous steel powders are given. The service properties of plasma coatings based on these powders are analyzed. It is shown that the high-nitrogenous steel powders to a nitrogen content of 8.9 wt % provide the necessary wear resistance and hardness of the coating and the strength of its adhesion to the substrate and corrosion resistance to typical aggressive media. It is noted that increasing the coating porosity promotes stress relaxation and increases its thickness being limited with respect to delamination conditions in comparison with dense coatings on retention of the low defectiveness of the interface and high adhesion to the substrate. The examples of the application of high-nitrogenous steel powders in power engineering during equipment repairs by service companies and overhaul subdivisions of heat power plants are given. It is noted that the plasma spraying of diffusion-alloyed high-nitrogenous steel powders is a unique opportunity to restore nitrided steel products.

  1. Evolution of stacking fault tetrahedral and work hardening effect in copper single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hai Tao; Zhu, Xiu Fu; Sun, Ya Zhou; Xie, Wen Kun

    2017-11-01

    Stacking fault tetrahedral (SFT), generated in machining of copper single crystal as one type of subsurface defects, has significant influence on the performance of workpiece. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is used to investigate the evolution of stacking fault tetrahedral in nano-cutting of copper single crystal. The result shows that SFT is nucleated at the intersection of differently oriented stacking fault (SF) planes and SFT evolves from the preform only containing incomplete surfaces into a solid defect. The evolution of SFT contains several stress fluctuations until the complete formation. Nano-indentation simulation is then employed on the machined workpiece from nano-cutting, through which the interaction between SFT and later-formed dislocations in subsurface is studied. In the meanwhile, force-depth curves obtained from nano-indentation on pristine and machined workpieces are compared to analyze the mechanical properties. By simulation of nano-cutting and nano-indentation, it is verified that SFT is a reason of the work hardening effect.

  2. Wing Dike of Hardened Lava in New Mexico

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-25

    This photograph from northwestern New Mexico shows a ridge roughly 30 feet about 10 meters tall that formed from lava filling an underground fracture then resisting erosion better than the material around it did. The dike extends from a volcanic peak (out of view here) called Shiprock in English and Tsé Bit'a'í, meaning "rock with wings," in the Navajo language. It offers an Earth analog for some larger hardened-lava walls on Mars http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21266

  3. A NASA Perspective and Validation and Testing of Design Hardening for the Natural Space Radiation Environment (GOMAC Tech 03)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, John H. (Technical Monitor); LaBel, Kenneth A.; Howard, James W.; Carts, Martin A.; Seidleck, Christine

    2003-01-01

    With the dearth of dedicated radiation hardened foundries, new and novel techniques are being developed for hardening designs using non-dedicated foundry services. In this paper, we will discuss the implications of validating these methods for the natural space radiation environment issues: total ionizing dose (TID) and single event effects (SEE). Topics of discussion include: Types of tests that are required, Design coverage (i.e., design libraries: do they need validating for each application?) A new task within NASA to compare existing design. This latter task is a new effort in FY03 utilizing a 8051 microcontroller core from multiple design hardening developers as a test vehicle to evaluate each mitigative technique.

  4. Technology of Strengthening Steel Details by Surfacing Composite Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, V. G.; Bataev, A. A.; Rakhimyanov, Kh M.; Mul, D. O.

    2016-04-01

    The article considers the problem of forming wear resistant meal ceramic coatings on steel surfaces using the results of our own investigations and the analysis of achievements made in the country and abroad. Increasing the wear resistance of surface layers of steel details is achieved by surfacing composite coatings with carbides or borides of metals as disperse particles in the strengthening phase. The use of surfacing on wearing machine details and mechanisms has a history of more than 100 years. But still engineering investigations in this field are being conducted up to now. The use of heating sources which provide a high density of power allows ensuring temperature and time conditions of surfacing under which composites with peculiar service and functional properties are formed. High concentration of energy in the zone of melt, which is created from powder mixtures and the hardened surface layer, allows producing the transition zone between the main material and surfaced coating. Surfacing by the electron beam directed from vacuum to the atmosphere is of considerable technological advantages. They give the possibility of strengthening surface layers of large-sized details by surfacing powder mixtures without their preliminary compacting. A modified layer of the main metal with ceramic particles distributed in it is created as a result of heating surfaced powders and the detail surface layer by the electron beam. Technology of surfacing allows using powders of refractory metals and graphite in the composition of powder mixtures. They interact with one another and form the particles of the hardening phase of the composition coating. The chemical composition of the main and surfaced materials is considered to be the main factor which determines the character of metallurgical processes in local zones of melt as well as the structure and properties of surfaced composition.

  5. Testing Penetration of Epoxy Resin and Diamine Hardeners through Protective Glove and Clothing Materials.

    PubMed

    Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Mäkelä, Erja A; Suuronen, Katri

    2015-10-01

    Efficient, comfortable, yet affordable personal protective equipment (PPE) is needed to decrease the high incidence of allergic contact dermatitis arising from epoxy resin systems (ERSs) in industrial countries. The aim of this study was to find affordable, user-friendly glove and clothing materials that provide adequate skin protection against splashes and during the short contact with ERS that often occurs before full cure. We studied the penetration of epoxy resin and diamine hardeners through 12 glove or clothing materials using a newly developed test method. The tests were carried out with two ERS test mixtures that had a high content of epoxy resin and frequently used diamine hardeners of different molar masses. A drop (50 µl) of test mixture was placed on the outer surface of the glove/clothing material, which had a piece of Fixomull tape or Harmony protection sheet attached to the inner surface as the collection medium. The test times were 10 and 30 min. The collecting material was removed after the test was finished and immersed into acetone. The amounts of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), isophorone diamine (IPDA), and m-xylylenediamine (XDA) in the acetone solution were determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The limit for acceptable penetration of XDA, IPDA, and DGEBA through glove materials was set at 2 µg cm(-2). Penetration through the glove materials was 1.4 µg cm(-2) or less. The three tested chemical protective gloves showed no detectable penetration (<0.5 µg cm(-2)). Several affordable glove and clothing materials were found to provide adequate protection during short contact with ERS, in the form of, for example, disposable gloves or clothing materials suitable for aprons and as additional protective layers on the most exposed parts of clothing, such as the front of the legs and thighs and under the forearms. Every ERS combination in use should be tested separately to find the best skin protection material

  6. Transformations of dislocation martensite in tempering secondary-hardening steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorynin, I. V.; Rybin, V. V.; Malyshevskii, V. A.; Semicheva, T. G.; Sherokhina, L. G.

    1999-09-01

    Analysis of the evolution of the fine structure of secondary-hardening steel in tempering makes it possible to understand the nature of processes that cause changes in the strength and ductility. They are connected with the changes that occur in the solid solution, the ensemble of disperse segregations of the carbide phase, and the dislocation structure of martensite. These transformations are interrelated, and their specific features are determined by the chemical composition of the steel.

  7. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Structure and properties of aluminum-silicon alloys hardened locally by concentrated energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, S. V.; Gureev, D. M.; Zolotarevskiĭ, A. V.

    1990-06-01

    An investigation was made of some characteristics of the formation of the structure of Al-Si alloys containing 10%, 12% and 20 % Si, and also of the commercial alloy V124 under conditions of surface fusion by laser-arc and laser sources. It was established that as a result of local fusion there was a change in the silicon deposition morphology, the α solid solution became oversaturated, and the eutectic point was shifted toward high silicon concentrations. It was found that the hardened layer retained its high hardness when treated at temperatures up to 250 °C. The commercial alloy V124 was used as an example to show that an alloyed layer with a controlled silicon concentration can be obtained on the surface by using a laser-arc or laser source.

  8. The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy under Xe26+ ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huaican; Hai, Yang; Liu, Renduo; Jiang, Li; Ye, Xiang-xi; Li, Jianjian; Xue, Wandong; Wang, Wanxia; Tang, Ming; Yan, Long; Yin, Wen; Zhou, Xingtai

    2018-04-01

    The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy was investigated. 7 MeV Xe26+ ion irradiation was performed at room temperature and 650 °C with peak damage dose from 0.05 to 10 dpa. With the increase of damage dose, the hardness of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy increases, and reaches saturation at damage dose ≥1 dpa. Moreover, the damage dose dependence of hardness in both alloys can be described by the Makin and Minter's equation, where the effective critical volume of obstacles can be used to represent irradiation hardening resistance of the alloys. Our results also show that Ni-W-Cr alloy has better irradiation hardening resistance than Ni-Mo-Cr alloy. This is ascribed to the fact that the W, instead of Mo in the alloy, can suppress the formation of defects under ion irradiation.

  9. Fabrication of Total-Dose-Radiation-Hardened (TDRH) SOI wafer with embedded silicon nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Aimin; Wang, Xi; Wei, Xing; Chen, Jing; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Zhengxuan

    2009-05-01

    Si ion-implantation and post annealing of silicon wafers prior to wafer bonding were used to radiation-harden the thermal oxide layer of Silicon on Insulator structures. After grinding and polishing, Total-Dose-Radiation-Hardened SOI (TDRH-SOI) wafers with several-micron-thick device layers were prepared. Electrical characterization before and after X-ray irradiation showed that the flatband voltage shift induced by irradiation was reduced by this preprocessing. Photoluminescence Spectroscopy (PL), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicated that the improvement of the total dose response of the TDRH-SOI wafer was associated with formation of Si nanoclusters in the implanted oxide layer, suggesting that these were the likely candidates for electron and proton trapping centers that reduce the positive charge buildup effect in the buried oxide.

  10. In Situ Nanoindentation Studies on Detwinning and Work Hardening in Nanotwinned Monolithic Metals

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Y.; Li, N.; Bufford, D.; ...

    2015-07-14

    Certain nanotwinned (nt) metals have rare combinations of high mechanical strength and ductility. Here, we review recent in situ nanoindentation studies (using transmission electron microscopes) on the deformation mechanisms of nt face-centered cubic metals including Cu, Ni, and Al with a wide range of stacking fault energy (SFE). Moreover, in nt Cu with low-to-intermediate SFE, detwinning (accompanied by rapid twin boundary migration) occurs at ultralow stress. In Ni with relatively high SFE, coherent {111} twin boundaries lead to substantial work hardening. Twinned Al has abundant {112} incoherent twin boundaries, which induce significant work-hardening capability and plasticity in Al. Finally, twinmore » boundaries in Al also migrate but at very high stresses. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations reveal the influence of SFE on deformation mechanisms in twinned metals.« less

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis from resin hardeners during the manufacture of thermosetting coating paints.

    PubMed

    Foulds, I S; Koh, D

    1992-02-01

    5 production operators from 2 factories manufacturing thermosetting coating paint developed work-related skin disorders within 12 months of the introduction of a new powdered paint product. All 5 workers were found to have allergic contact dermatitis from 2 epoxy resin hardeners, both of which were commercial preparations of triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC). 2 of the workers had concomitant sensitization to epoxy resin in the standard series and several of the epoxy resin preparations at the workplace. TGIC has been reported as a contact sensitizer both in persons producing the chemical and among end-users of TGIC-containing products. These 5 reported cases document allergic contact dermatitis from commercial TGIC among exposed workers during an intermediate process of powdered paint manufacture. The possibility of substituting this epoxy resin hardener with less sensitizing alternatives should be explored.

  12. Optimization of the transition path of the head hardening with using the genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, Joanna; Kulawik, Adam

    2016-06-01

    An automated method of choice of the transition path of the head hardening in heat treatment process for the plane steel element is proposed in this communication. This method determines the points on the path of moving heat source using the genetic algorithms. The fitness function of the used algorithm is determined on the basis of effective stresses and yield point depending on the phase composition. The path of the hardening tool and also the area of the heat affected zone is determined on the basis of obtained points. A numerical model of thermal phenomena, phase transformations in the solid state and mechanical phenomena for the hardening process is implemented in order to verify the presented method. A finite element method (FEM) was used for solving the heat transfer equation and getting required temperature fields. The moving heat source is modeled with a Gaussian distribution and the water cooling is also included. The macroscopic model based on the analysis of the CCT and CHT diagrams of the medium-carbon steel is used to determine the phase transformations in the solid state. A finite element method is also used for solving the equilibrium equations giving us the stress field. The thermal and structural strains are taken into account in the constitutive relations.

  13. Tradeoffs in Flight Design Upset Mitigation in State of the Art FPGAs: Hardened by Design vs. Design Level Hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Gary M.; Roosta, Ramin

    2004-01-01

    This presentation compares and contrasts the effectiveness and the system/designer impacts of the two main approaches to upset hardening: the Actel approach (RTSX-S and RTAX-S) of low-level (inside each flip-flop) triplication and the Xilinx approach (Virtex and Virtex2) of design-level triplication of both functional blocks and voters. The effectiveness of these approaches is compared using measurements made in conjunction with each of the FPGAs' manufacturer: for Actel, published data [1] and for Xilinx, recent results from the Xilinx SEE Test Consortium (note that the author is an active and founding member). The impacts involve Actel advantages in the areas of transistor-utilization efficiency and minimizing designer involvement in the triplication while the Xilinx advantages relate to the ability to custom tailor upset hardness and the flexibility of re-configurability. Additionally, there are currently clear Xilinx advantages in available features such as the number of I/O's, logic cells, and RAM blocks as well as speed. However, the advantage of the Actel anti-fuses for configuration over the Xilinx SRAM cells is that the latter need additional functionality and external circuitry (PROMs and, at least a watchdog timer) for configuration and configuration scrubbing. Further, although effectively mitigated if done correctly, the proton upset-ability of the Xilinx FPGAs is a concern in severe proton-rich environments. Ultimately, both manufacturers' upset hardening is limited by SEFI (single-event functional interrupt) rates where it appears the Actel results are better although the Xilinx Virtex2-family result of about one SEFI in 65 device-years in solar-min GCR (the more intense part of the galactic cosmic-ray background) should be acceptable to most missions

  14. Experimental study of self-compacted concrete in hardened state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra Costa, Carlos Jose

    The main aim of this work is to investigate the hardened behaviour of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC). Self compacting Concrete is a special concrete that can flow in its gravity and fill in the formwork alone to its self-weight, passing through the bars and congested sections without the need of any internal or external vibration, while maintaining adequate homogeneity. SCC avoids most of the materials defects due to bleeding or segregation. With regard to its composition, SCC consists of the same components as traditional vibrated concrete (TC), but in different proportions. Thus, the high amount of superplasticizer and high powder content have to taken into account. The high workability of SCC does not allow to use traditional methods for measuring the fresh state properties, so new tests has developed (slump-flow, V-funnel, L-box, and others). The properties of the hardened SCC, which depend on the mix design, should be different from traditional concrete. In order to study the possible modifications of SCC hardened state properties, a review of the bibliography was done. The state of art was focused on the mechanical behaviour (compressive strength, tension strength and elastic modulus), on bond strength of reinforcement steel, and on material durability. The experimental program consisted in the production of two types of concretes: Self-Compacting Concrete and Traditional Concrete. Four different dosages was made with three different water/cement ratio and two strength types of Portland cement, in order to cover the ordinary strength used in construction. Based on this study it can be concluded that compressive strength of SCC and TC are similar (the differences are lesser than 10%), whereas the tensile strength of TC are up to 18% higher. The values of elastic modulus of both concrete are similar. On the other hand, in the ultimate state the bond strength of SCC and TC is similar, although SCC shows higher bond stiffness in the serviceability state (initial

  15. Dynamic iterative beam hardening correction (DIBHC) in myocardial perfusion imaging using contrast-enhanced computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Stenner, Philip; Schmidt, Bernhard; Allmendinger, Thomas; Flohr, Thomas; Kachelrie, Marc

    2010-06-01

    In cardiac perfusion examinations with computed tomography (CT) large concentrations of iodine in the ventricle and in the descending aorta cause beam hardening artifacts that can lead to incorrect perfusion parameters. The aim of this study is to reduce these artifacts by performing an iterative correction and by accounting for the 3 materials soft tissue, bone, and iodine. Beam hardening corrections are either implemented as simple precorrections which cannot account for higher order beam hardening effects, or as iterative approaches that are based on segmenting the original image into material distribution images. Conventional segmentation algorithms fail to clearly distinguish between iodine and bone. Our new algorithm, DIBHC, calculates the time-dependent iodine distribution by analyzing the voxel changes of a cardiac perfusion examination (typically N approximately 15 electrocardiogram-correlated scans distributed over a total scan time up to T approximately 30 s). These voxel dynamics are due to changes in contrast agent. This prior information allows to precisely distinguish between bone and iodine and is key to DIBHC where each iteration consists of a multimaterial (soft tissue, bone, iodine) polychromatic forward projection, a raw data comparison and a filtered backprojection. Simulations with a semi-anthropomorphic dynamic phantom and clinical scans using a dual source CT scanner with 2 x 128 slices, a tube voltage of 100 kV, a tube current of 180 mAs, and a rotation time of 0.28 seconds have been carried out. The uncorrected images suffer from beam hardening artifacts that appear as dark bands connecting large concentrations of iodine in the ventricle, aorta, and bony structures. The CT-values of the affected tissue are usually underestimated by roughly 20 HU although deviations of up to 61 HU have been observed. For a quantitative evaluation circular regions of interest have been analyzed. After application of DIBHC the mean values obtained deviate by

  16. On the rate of black hole binary mergers in galactic nuclei due to dynamical hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, N. W. C.; Geller, A. M.; McKernan, B.; Ford, K. E. S.; Mac Low, M.-M.; Bellovary, J.; Haiman, Z.; Lyra, W.; Samsing, J.; O'Dowd, M.; Kocsis, B.; Endlich, S.

    2018-03-01

    We assess the contribution of dynamical hardening by direct three-body scattering interactions to the rate of stellar-mass black hole binary (BHB) mergers in galactic nuclei. We derive an analytic model for the single-binary encounter rate in a nucleus with spherical and disc components hosting a super-massive black hole (SMBH). We determine the total number of encounters NGW needed to harden a BHB to the point that inspiral due to gravitational wave emission occurs before the next three-body scattering event. This is done independently for both the spherical and disc components. Using a Monte Carlo approach, we refine our calculations for NGW to include gravitational wave emission between scattering events. For astrophysically plausible models, we find that typically NGW ≲ 10. We find two separate regimes for the efficient dynamical hardening of BHBs: (1) spherical star clusters with high central densities, low-velocity dispersions, and no significant Keplerian component and (2) migration traps in discs around SMBHs lacking any significant spherical stellar component in the vicinity of the migration trap, which is expected due to effective orbital inclination reduction of any spherical population by the disc. We also find a weak correlation between the ratio of the second-order velocity moment to velocity dispersion in galactic nuclei and the rate of BHB mergers, where this ratio is a proxy for the ratio between the rotation- and dispersion-supported components. Because discs enforce planar interactions that are efficient in hardening BHBs, particularly in migration traps, they have high merger rates that can contribute significantly to the rate of BHB mergers detected by the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory.

  17. Sensitivity of polycrystal plasticity to slip system kinematic hardening laws for Al 7075-T6

    DOE PAGES

    Hennessey, Conor; Castelluccio, Gustavo M.; McDowell, David L.

    2017-02-01

    The prediction of formation and early growth of microstructurally small fatigue cracks requires use of constitutive models that accurately estimate local states of stress, strain, and cyclic plastic strain. However, few research efforts have attempted to systematically consider the sensitivity of overall cyclic stress-strain hysteresis and higher order mean stress relaxation and plastic strain ratcheting responses introduced by the slip system back-stress formulation in crystal plasticity, even for face centered cubic (FCC) crystal systems. This paper explores the performance of two slip system level kinematic hardening models using a finite element crystal plasticity implementation as a User Material Subroutine (UMAT)more » within ABAQUS, with fully implicit numerical integration. The two kinematic hardening formulations aim to reproduce the cyclic deformation of polycrystalline Al 7075-T6 in terms of both macroscopic cyclic stress-strain hysteresis loop shape, as well as ratcheting and mean stress relaxation under strain- or stress-controlled loading with mean strain or stress, respectively. The first formulation is an Armstrong-Frederick type hardening-dynamic recovery law for evolution of the back stress. This approach is capable of reproducing observed deformation under completely reversed uniaxial loading conditions, but overpredicts the rate of cyclic ratcheting and associated mean stress relaxation. The second formulation corresponds to a multiple back stress Ohno-Wang type hardening law with nonlinear dynamic recovery. The adoption of this back stress evolution law greatly improves the capability to model experimental results for polycrystalline specimens subjected to cycling with mean stress or strain. As a result, the relation of such nonlinear dynamic recovery effects are related to slip system interactions with dislocation substructures.« less

  18. Sensitivity of polycrystal plasticity to slip system kinematic hardening laws for Al 7075-T6

    SciTech Connect

    Hennessey, Conor; Castelluccio, Gustavo M.; McDowell, David L.

    The prediction of formation and early growth of microstructurally small fatigue cracks requires use of constitutive models that accurately estimate local states of stress, strain, and cyclic plastic strain. However, few research efforts have attempted to systematically consider the sensitivity of overall cyclic stress-strain hysteresis and higher order mean stress relaxation and plastic strain ratcheting responses introduced by the slip system back-stress formulation in crystal plasticity, even for face centered cubic (FCC) crystal systems. This paper explores the performance of two slip system level kinematic hardening models using a finite element crystal plasticity implementation as a User Material Subroutine (UMAT)more » within ABAQUS, with fully implicit numerical integration. The two kinematic hardening formulations aim to reproduce the cyclic deformation of polycrystalline Al 7075-T6 in terms of both macroscopic cyclic stress-strain hysteresis loop shape, as well as ratcheting and mean stress relaxation under strain- or stress-controlled loading with mean strain or stress, respectively. The first formulation is an Armstrong-Frederick type hardening-dynamic recovery law for evolution of the back stress. This approach is capable of reproducing observed deformation under completely reversed uniaxial loading conditions, but overpredicts the rate of cyclic ratcheting and associated mean stress relaxation. The second formulation corresponds to a multiple back stress Ohno-Wang type hardening law with nonlinear dynamic recovery. The adoption of this back stress evolution law greatly improves the capability to model experimental results for polycrystalline specimens subjected to cycling with mean stress or strain. As a result, the relation of such nonlinear dynamic recovery effects are related to slip system interactions with dislocation substructures.« less

  19. Influence of preliminary deformation on the hardening effect upon aging of Al-Cu-Li alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betsofen, S. Ya.; Ashmarin, A. A.; Knyazev, M. I.; Dolgova, M. I.

    2016-09-01

    The influence of preliminary deformation upon rolling of wedge specimens on the mechanical properties and the structural phase state of Al-Cu-Li alloys are studied by X-ray diffraction and hardness measurements. Strong dependence of the hardening effect upon aging on the reduction upon rolling has been revealed. Deformation weakly influences the hardness and significantly increases the hardening upon aging. Herewith, the hardening effect is nearly absent at the minimum deformation ratio of 1% and increases with its increase. It is demonstrated that the content of T1 phase increases from 2 to 4% in the range of a preliminary deformation ratio of 6-10% and the content of δ' phase is 17% at a deformation ratio in the range 1‒6% and increases to 18-19% at a deformation ratio of 6-10%. The δ' phase in an alloy contains <20% nanocrystalline particles with 6-20 nm in size, and the remaining part consists of amorphous particles (as detected by X-ray diffraction) <5 nm in size, which precipitate coherently from the matrix and have the same orientation as the nanocrystalline particles and the solid solution.

  20. A Critical Assessment of Cyclic Softening and Hardening Behavior in a Near- α Titanium Alloy During Thermomechanical Fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Kartik; Sarkar, Rajdeep; Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara; Sundararaman, M.

    2016-10-01

    Thermomechanical fatigue behavior of Ti-alloy Timetal 834 has been studied at two temperature intervals viz. 573 K to 723 K (300 °C to 450 °C) and 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C) under mechanical strain-controlled cycling. Among the temperatures studied, the alloy exhibited initial cyclic softening followed by cyclic hardening at 723 K (450 °C) in the temperature interval of 573 K to 723 K (300 °C to 450 °C). However, continuous cyclic hardening was observed at 723 K (450 °C) in 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C). At 573 K (300 °C) and 873 K (600 °C), cyclic softening was observed in the cyclic stress response curves in both the temperature intervals. The dislocation substructure was observed to be planar in both the modes of TMF loading. Based on TEM microstructures and few unconventional fatigue tests, the observed cyclic hardening is attributed to dynamic strain aging. The reduced fatigue life at 723 K to 873 K (450 °C to 600 °C) under OP-TMF loading was attributed to the combined effect of cyclic hardening (leading to early strain localization and crack initiation), oxidation, and development of tensile mean stresses.

  1. Effects of ion irradiation on the surface mechanical behavior of hybrid sol-gel derived silicate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisleni, Rudy

    A study on the effects of ion irradiation on the surface mechanical behavior of hybrid sol-gel derived thin films has been performed. Hybrid organic/inorganic modified silicate thin films were synthesized by sol-gel processing from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) precursors and spin-coated onto (100) Si substrates. The synthesized films were investigated by nanoindentation, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Hybrid TEOS/MTES sol-gel films modified by ion irradiation with deposited electronic energies of 1.87 x 1025 eV/cm3 or higher showed higher values of reduced elastic modulus and hardness than 800°C heat treated films. Thus, ion irradiation was found to be an effective means in converting the polymer sol into ceramic type coatings. The ions used in this study were Cu2+, N2+, Si+, O+, N+, He+, and H+, with incident energies ranging from 100 keV to 2 MeV, and fluences ranging from 1 x 1014 to 1 x 1017 ions/cm2. Both the reduced elastic modulus and hardness were seen to increase monotonically with the increase in ion fluence, with an observed maximum hardness of 7.7 GPa (an unirradiated film hardness was 0.4 GPa) and a maximum reduced elastic modulus of 84.0 GPa (an unirradiated film reduced elastic modulus was 7.1 GPa) for 250 keV N2+ irradiation with a 5 x 1016 ions/cm2 fluence. The electronic stopping power was found to be principally responsible for the film hardening, while the role of nuclear stopping power was minimal. A monotonic increase in hardness with increase in electronic energy deposited to the film surface was found. A model describing the hardening of ion irradiated films was developed. This model characterizes the hardening effectiveness of the ion species considered by two parameters: the constant hardening cross-section and the hardening coefficient. Where the hardening cross-section represents the cross-sectional area hardened by the interaction of an incident ion with the target, and the

  2. Effect of heat treatment on mechanical properties of age-hardenable gold alloy at intraoral temperature.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, I; Watanabe, E; Cai, Z; Okabe, T; Atsuta, M

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various heat treatments on the mechanical properties of gold alloys capable of age-hardening at intraoral temperature. Dumbbell-shaped patterns (ISO 6871) were cast with three gold alloys (Sofard; NC Type-IV; Aurum Cast, NihombashiTokuriki Co.). The Sofard alloy is age-hardenable at intraoral temperature. The castings underwent various heat treatments [as-cast (AC); solution treatment (ST); high-temperature aging (HA); intraoral aging (IA)]. After these heat treatments, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), 0.2% offset yield strength (YS), and elongation (EL) were measured at a strain rate of 1.7x10(-4)/s. Fracture surfaces of the specimens after tensile testing were observed using SEM. Vickers hardness was also measured after heat treating. After IA, the hardness values of the Sofard alloy increased and reached values similar to the hardness of the Sofard specimens aged at high temperature (HA). The hardness values of the NC Type-IV and Aurum Cast specimens slightly increased after IA, but did not reach the values of the specimens after HA. All the Sofard, NC Type-IV and Aurum Cast specimens showed significantly (P<0.05) greater hardness values after HA, compared with the values after any other heat treatments (AC, ST and IA). The UTS and YS of the specimens indicated a tendency similar to the results obtained for hardness. The Sofard specimens with ST showed the greatest elongation compared to the corresponding NC Type-IV and Aurum Cast specimens. However, the elongation of the Sofard specimens was abruptly reduced after intraoral aging. Intraoral aging significantly improved the mechanical properties and hardness of the Sofard alloy.

  3. Application of a three-feature dispersed-barrier hardening model to neutron-irradiated Fe-Cr model alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergner, F.; Pareige, C.; Hernández-Mayoral, M.; Malerba, L.; Heintze, C.

    2014-05-01

    An attempt is made to quantify the contributions of different types of defect-solute clusters to the total irradiation-induced yield stress increase in neutron-irradiated (300 °C, 0.6 dpa), industrial-purity Fe-Cr model alloys (target Cr contents of 2.5, 5, 9 and 12 at.% Cr). Former work based on the application of transmission electron microscopy, atom probe tomography, and small-angle neutron scattering revealed the formation of dislocation loops, NiSiPCr-enriched clusters and α‧-phase particles, which act as obstacles to dislocation glide. The values of the dimensionless obstacle strength are estimated in the framework of a three-feature dispersed-barrier hardening model. Special attention is paid to the effect of measuring errors, experimental details and model details on the estimates. The three families of obstacles and the hardening model are well capable of reproducing the observed yield stress increase as a function of Cr content, suggesting that the nanostructural features identified experimentally are the main, if not the only, causes of irradiation hardening in these model alloys.

  4. ‘Fire hardening’ spear wood does slightly harden it, but makes it much weaker and more brittle

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tak Lok

    2016-01-01

    It is usually assumed that ‘fire hardening’ the tips of spears, as practised by hunter–gatherers and early Homo spp., makes them harder and better suited for hunting. This suggestion was tested by subjecting coppiced poles of hazel to a fire-hardening process and comparing their mechanical properties to those of naturally seasoned poles. A Shore D hardness test showed that fire treatment slightly increased the hardness of the wood, but flexural and impact tests showed that it reduced the strength and work of fracture by 30% and 36%, respectively. These results suggest that though potentially slightly sharper and more durable, fire-hardened tips would actually be more likely to break off when used, as may have been the case with the earliest known wooden tool, the Clacton spear. Fire might first have been used to help sharpen the tips of spears, and fire-hardening would have been a mostly negative side effect, not its primary purpose. PMID:27194289

  5. Hydrogen embrittlement of work-hardened Ni-Ti alloy in fluoride solutions.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Ken'ichi; Kaneko, Kazuyuki; Ogawa, Toshio; Moriyama, Keiji; Asaoka, Kenzo; Sakai, Jun'ichi

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement of work-hardened Ni-Ti alloy has been examined in acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) solutions. Upon immersion in a 2.0% APF solution with a pH of 5.0, tensile strength decreased markedly with immersion time. Moreover, the fracture mode changed from ductile to brittle due to brittle layer formation at the peripheral part of the cross section of the specimen. The amount of absorbed hydrogen increased linearly with immersion time, and it reached above 5000 mass ppm after 24 h. The hydrogen desorption temperature of the immersed specimens shifted from 450 degrees C to a lower temperature with immersion time. As the amount of absorbed hydrogen was larger than 500 mass ppm, the degradation of mechanical properties was recognized. Although the tensile properties and fracture mode scarcely change in a 0.2% APF solution, the slight reduction in hardness and hydrogen absorption of several hundreds mass ppm were observed. The results of the present study imply that work-hardened Ni-Ti alloy is less sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement compared with Ni-Ti superelastic alloy. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Specific Hardening Function Definition and Characterization of a Multimechanism Generalized Potential-based Viscoelastoplasticity Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.; Saleeb, A. F.

    2003-01-01

    Given the previous complete-potential structure framework together with the notion of strain- and stress-partitioning in terms of separate contributions of several submechanisms (viscoelastic and viscoplastic) to the thermodynamic functions (stored energy and dissipation) a detailed viscoelastoplastic multimechanism characterization of a specific hardening functional form of the model is presented and discussed. TIMETAL 21S is the material of choice as a comprehensive test matrix, including creep, relaxation, constant strain-rate tension tests, etc. are available at various temperatures. Discussion of these correlations tests, together with comparisons to several other experimental results, are given to assess the performance and predictive capabilities of the present model particularly with regard to the notion of hardening saturation as well as the interaction of multiplicity of dissipative (reversible/irreversible) mechanisms.

  7. Experimental analysis of the sheet metal forming behavior of newly developed press hardening steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza-García, Enrique; Kräusel, Verena; Landgrebe, Dirk

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this work was the characterization of the newly developed press hardening sheet alloys 1800 PHS and 2000 PHS developed by SSAB with regard to their hot forming behavior on the basis of the experimental determination of relevant mechanical and technological properties. For this purpose conventional and non-conventional sheet metal testing methods were used. To determine the friction coefficient, the strip drawing test was applied, while the deep drawing cup test was used to determine the maximum draw depth. Finally, a V-bending test was carried out to evaluate the springback behavior of the investigated alloys by varying the blank temperature and quenching media. This work provides a technological guideline for the production of press hardened sheet parts made of these investigated sheet metals.

  8. A tale of two mechanisms. Strain-softening versus strain-hardening in single crystals under small stressed volumes

    DOE PAGES

    Bei, Hongbin; Xia, Yuzhi; Barabash, Rozaliya; ...

    2015-08-10

    Pre-straining defect-free single crystals will introduce heterogeneous dislocation nucleation sources that reduce the measured strength from the theoretical value, while pre-straining bulk samples will lead to strain hardening. Their competition is investigated by nanoindentation pop-in tests on variously pre-strained Mo single crystals with several indenter radii (~micrometer). Pre-straining primarily shifts deformation mechanism from homogeneous dislocation nucleation to a stochastic behavior, while strain hardening plays a secondary role, as summarized in a master plot of pop-in strength versus normalized indenter radius.

  9. Cyclic hardening behavior of extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy with different grain sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lixin; Zhang, Wencong; Chen, Wenzhen; Wang, Wenke

    2018-04-01

    Montonic and fully reversed strain-controlled cyclic deformation experiments were conducted on extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy with two different grain sizes in ambient air. Results revealed that the hardening rates of the ZK60 magnesium alloy rods with fine grain and coarse grain in the monotonic deformation and the fully reversed strain-controlled cyclic deformation were opposite along the extrusion direction. Electron Backscatter Diffration analysis revealed that fine grains were more easily rotated than coarse grains under the cyclic deformation. Under the twinning and detwinning process of the cyclic deformation at a large strain amplitude, the coarse grained ZK60 magnesium alloys were more prone to tension twinning {10-12}<10-11> and more residual twins were observed. Texture hardening of coarse grained magnesium alloy was more obvious in cyclic defromation than fine-grained magnesium alloy.

  10. Changes Found on Run-In and Scuffed Surfaces of Steel Chrome Plate, and Cast Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, J. N.; Godfrey, Douglas

    1947-01-01

    A study was made of run-in and scuffed steel, chrome-plate, and cast-iron surfaces. X-ray and electron diffraction techniques, micro-hardness determinations, and microscopy were used. Surface changes varied and were found to include three classes: chemical reaction, hardening, and crystallite-size alteration. The principal chemical reactions were oxidation and carburization.

  11. Low-temperature tolerance and cold hardening of cacti

    SciTech Connect

    Nobel, P.S.

    Reduced uptake by the chlorenchyma cells of cacti of a stain (neutral red) was used as an indicator of low-temperature damage resulting from cooling stems in the laboratory. Necrosis set in a few degrees below the temperature at which the fraction of cells accumulating stain was reduced by 50%. Coryphantha vivipara, Opuntia polyacantha, and Pediocactus simpsonii, which range to over 300 m altitude in southern Wyoming, were quite cold tolerant. Relationships among tissue cold sensitivity, morphological features which protect the stems from low temperatures, and the occurrence of species in progressively colder regions were investigated. Differences in tissue cold sensitivitymore » accounted for the approx. = 600 m higher elevational limit of Coryphantha vivipara var. rosea compared to the morphologically similar var. deserti in southern Nevada. In contrast, morphological differences alone could adequately explain the relative northern limits of the columnar cacti Carnegiea gigantea vs Stenocereus gummosus and the barrel cacti Ferocactus acanthodes vs. F. wislizenii in the southwestern United States, as previously indicated using a computer model. Cold hardening in response to decreasing day/night air temperatures was observed for 10 species. A decrease from 50/sup 0//40/sup 0/ to 10/sup 0//0/sup 0/ lowered by 4/sup 0/ the temperature at which the fraction of the chlorenchyma cells taking up stain was reduced 50% for both D. rhodacantha and T. candicans, with a half-time for the shift of approx. = 3 d. The tolerance of subzero temperatures and the ability to cold harden allow cacti to range into regions with considerable wintertime freezing.« less

  12. Sulfide Stress Cracking and Electrochemical Corrosion of Precipitation Hardening Steel After Plasma Oxy-Nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granda-Gutiérrez, E. E.; Díaz-Guillén, J. C.; Díaz-Guillén, J. A.; González, M. A.; García-Vázquez, F.; Muñóz, R.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a duplex plasma nitriding followed by an oxidizing stage process (which is also referred as oxy-nitriding) on the corrosion behavior of a 17-4PH precipitation hardening stainless steel. The formation of both, expanded martensite (b.c.t. α'N-phase) and chromium oxide (type Cr2O3) in the subsurface of oxy-nitrided samples at specific controlled conditions, leads in a noticeable increasing in the time-to-rupture during the sulfide stress cracking test, in comparison with an untreated reference sample. Oxy-nitriding improves the corrosion performance of the alloy when it is immersed in solutions saturated by sour gas, which extends the application potential of this type of steel in the oil and gas extraction and processing industry. The presence of the oxy-nitrided layer inhibits the corrosion process that occurs in the near-surface region, where hydrogen is liberated after the formation of iron sulfides, which finally produces a fragile fracture by micro-crack propagation; the obtained results suggest that oxy-nitriding slows this process, thus delaying the rupture of the specimen. Moreover, oxy-nitriding produces a hard, sour gas-resistant surface, but do not significantly affect the original chloride ion solution resistance of the material.

  13. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Lawrence T [Phoenix, AZ; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  14. Characterization of Radiation Hardened Bipolar Linear Devices for High Total Dose Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, Steven S.; Harris, Richard D.; Rax, Bernard G.; Thorbourn, Dennis O.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation hardened linear devices are characterized for performance in combined total dose and displacement damage environments for a mission scenario with a high radiation level. Performance at low and high dose rate for both biased and unbiased conditions is compared and the impact to hardness assurance methodology is discussed.

  15. Determination of the cement content of hardened concrete by selective solution : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1972-01-01

    The method of selective solution by methanolic maleic acid, developed by Tabikh et. al for the determination of cement content in hardened concrete, was evaluated. It was found to be relatively simple and inexpensive, and is accurate to within 1 pe...

  16. Smoking dependence in 18 European countries: Hard to maintain the hardening hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Esteve; Lugo, Alessandra; Clancy, Luke; Matsuo, Keitaro; La Vecchia, Carlo; Gallus, Silvano

    2015-12-01

    When the prevalence of smoking decreases in a population, there is a hypothesis-the so-called "hardening hypothesis"-that the remaining smokers form a subgroup of "hardcore smokers." Our aims were to test the hardening hypothesis and to analyze the determinants of high dependence taking into account both individual and country-level characteristics. Within the Pricing Policies and Control of Tobacco in Europe (PPACTE) project, we conducted a face-to-face survey on smoking between January and July 2010 in 18 European countries, including 2882 male and 2254 female smokers with complete information on smoking dependence. The Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) was used as a measure of tobacco dependence. We correlated smoking prevalence and dependence using the country as unit of analysis. Moreover, we fitted multilevel logistic regression models. Country-specific prevalence of smoking was positively, although not significantly, correlated with the proportion of highly tobacco-dependent smokers (overall rsp=0.203, p=0.419), both in men (rsp=0.235, p=0.347) and women (rsp=0.455, p=0.058). Using individual-level analysis, high dependence was positively related to age, and, although not significantly, to smoking prevalence, and inversely related to level of education. The lack of a smoking ban at home was positively related to smoking dependence. Using both ecological and individual-level analyses, the relations between smoking prevalence and HSI were not significant, but in the opposite direction as compared to that assumed by the "hardening hypothesis." Therefore, our data provide empirical evidence against this theory, thus supporting the feasibility of an endgame strategy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Phase Composition and Hardening of Castable Al - Ca - Ni - Sc Alloys Containing 0.3% Sc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. A.; Naumova, E. A.; Bazlova, T. A.; Doroshenko, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    The phase composition of aluminum alloys of the Al - Ca - Ni - Sc system containing 0.3 wt.% Sc is studied. It is shown that the aluminum solid solution may be in equilibrium not only with binary phases (Al4Ca, Al3Sc and Al3Ni) but also with a ternary Al9NiCa compound. The temperature of attainment of maximum hardening due to precipitation of nanoparticles of phase Al3Sc is determined for all the alloys studied. Principal possibility of creation of castable alloys based on an (Al) + Al4Ca + Al9NiCa eutectic, the hardening heat treatment of which does not require quenching, is substantiated.

  18. Epoxy adhesive formulations for engineered wood manufacturing: Design of Experiment (DOE) and hardener modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wangkheeree, W.; Meekum, U.

    2016-03-01

    The effect of IPDA, DDS, BPA and DICY, as main ingredient of TETA based hardener were examined. The 2k design of experiment(DOE) with k=3 were preliminary explored. The designed parameters A(IPDA), B(DDS) and C(BPA) were assigned as low(-) and high(+) levels, respectively. The Design Expert™ was hired as the analyzing tool at α=0.05. The mixed epoxy resin was based on the commercial one. The designed responds including tcure, t50, impact strengths, flexural properties and HDT were measured, respectively. Regarding to ANOVA conclusion, it was found that, there were no significant effects on the assigned parameters on the interested responds, except for the HDT where BPA(C) was negative effect was found. The lower in the crosslink density of cured epoxy, inferior in HDT, the higher in BPA addition was hypothesized. It was found that impact strength of cured epoxy derived from all formula were unacceptable low and tcure and t50, were too short. Thus, the further investigation by adding DICY into hardener was explored. The results showed that no significant change by mechanical means of cured epoxy by resolving 5-30 phr of DICY into the hardener. However, it was observed that the DICY added formula showed the obvious long cure times and behave as prepreg formula. The room temperature cured epoxy was incompletely crosslinked. The degrees of linear chain fragment were evidence, by weight, when higher DICY loading was engaged. Complete crosslink was achieved at 150°C post curing. The hardener comprised of TETA/aliphatic Epoxy(RD108) adduct was studied for enhancing the toughness of epoxy resin. It was observed that longer cure time at 150°C but lower toughness was experienced, on both prepreg and engineered wood made from the resins, at high TETA/RD108 ratio. Incomplete cure was explained for the mechanical inferior at high RD108 loading.

  19. Modeling of surface effects in crystalline materials within the framework of gradient crystal plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiang-Long; Husser, Edgar; Huang, Gan-Yun; Bargmann, Swantje

    2018-03-01

    A finite-deformation gradient crystal plasticity theory is developed, which takes into account the interaction between dislocations and surfaces. The model captures both energetic and dissipative effects for surfaces penetrable by dislocations. By taking advantage of the principle of virtual power, the surface microscopic boundary equations are obtained naturally. Surface equations govern surface yielding and hardening. A thin film under shear deformation serves as a benchmark problem for validation of the proposed model. It is found that both energetic and dissipative surface effects significantly affect the plastic behavior.

  20. On the effects of irradiation and helium on the yield stress changes and hardening and non-hardening embrittlement of ˜8Cr tempered martensitic steels: Compilation and analysis of existing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takuya; Odette, G. Robert; Kishimoto, Hirotatsu; Rensman, Jan-Willem; Miao, Pifeng

    2006-09-01

    Data on irradiation hardening and embrittlement of 8-10Cr normalized and tempered martensitic steel (TMS) alloys has been compiled from the literature, including results from neutron, spallation proton (SP) and He-ion (HI) irradiations. Limitations of this database are briefly described. Simple, phenomenological-empirical fitting models were used to assess the dose (displacement-per-atom, dpa), irradiation temperature ( Ti) and test temperature ( Tt) dependence of yield stress changes (Δ σy), as well as the corresponding dependence of sub-sized Charpy V-notch impact test transition temperature shifts (Δ Tc). The Δ σy are generally similar for SP and neutron irradiations, with very high and low helium to dpa ratios, respectively. Further, the Δ σy trends were found to be remarkably consistent with the Ti and dpa hardening-dependence of low alloy steels irradiated at much lower doses. The similar Ti and (low) dose dependence of Δ σy and Δ Tc, as well as an analysis of paired Δ Tc-Δ σy datasets, show that embrittlement is typically dominated by a hardening mechanism below about 400 °C. However, the corresponding hardening-Charpy shift coefficient, Cc = Δ Tc/Δ σy ≈ 0.38 ± 0.18 °C/MPa is lower than that for the fracture toughness reference temperature, T0, with Δ T0/Δ σy ≈ 0.58 ± 0.1 °C/MPa, indicating that sub-sized Charpy tests provide non-conservative estimates of embrittlement. The Cc increases at Ti > 400 °C, and Δ Tc > 0 are sometimes observed in association with Δ σy ⩽ 0, indicative of a non-hardening embrittlement (NHE) contribution. Analysis of limited data on embrittlement due to thermal aging supports this conclusion, and we hypothesize that the NHE regime may be shifted to lower temperatures by radiation enhanced diffusion. Possible effects of helium on embrittlement for Ti between 300 and 400 °C are also assessed based on observed trends in Cc. The available data is limited, scattered, and potentially confounded. However

  1. Keystroke Dynamics-Based Credential Hardening Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlow, Nick; Cukic, Bojan

    abstract Keystroke dynamics are becoming a well-known method for strengthening username- and password-based credential sets. The familiarity and ease of use of these traditional authentication schemes combined with the increased trustworthiness associated with biometrics makes them prime candidates for application in many web-based scenarios. Our keystroke dynamics system uses Breiman’s random forests algorithm to classify keystroke input sequences as genuine or imposter. The system is capable of operating at various points on a traditional ROC curve depending on application-specific security needs. As a username/password authentication scheme, our approach decreases the system penetration rate associated with compromised passwords up to 99.15%. Beyond presenting results demonstrating the credential hardening effect of our scheme, we look into the notion that a user’s familiarity to components of a credential set can non-trivially impact error rates.

  2. The role of grain size and shape in strengthening of dispersion hardened nickel alloys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, B. A.; Clauer, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Thermomechanical processing was used to develop various microstructures in Ni, Ni-2ThO2, Ni-20Cr, Ni-20Cr-2ThO2, Ni-20Cr-10W and Ni-20Cr-10W-2ThO2, and the influence of microstructure on room temperature and elevated temperature strength was investigated. The yield strength at 25 C increased with substructure refinement according to the Hall-Petch relation. It was found that substructure refinement was a much more potent means of strengthening at room temperature than was dispersion hardening. At elevated temperature (1093 C), the most important microstructural feature affecting strength of dispersion hardened nickel alloys was the grain aspect ratio, i.e. grain length, L, divided by grain width,l. The yield strength and creep strength increased linearly with increasing L/l.

  3. SEU hardened memory cells for a CCSDS Reed Solomon encoder

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, S.; Canaris, J.; Liu, K.

    This paper reports on design technique to harden CMOS memory circuits against Single Event Upset (SEU) in the space environment. The design technique provides a recovery mechanism which is independent of the shape of the upsetting event. A RAM cell and Flip Flop design are presented to demonstrate the method. The Flip Flop was used in the control circuitry for a Reed Solomon encoder designed for the Space Station and Explorer platforms.

  4. Laser surface processing on sintered PM alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Wilfred; Daurelio, Giuseppe; Ludovico, Antonio D.

    1997-08-01

    Usually the P.M. alloys are heat treated like case hardening, gas nitriding or plasma nitriding for a better wear resistance of the product surface. There is an additional method for gaining better tribological properties and this is the surface hardening (or remelting or alloying) of the P.M. alloy by laser treatment on a localized part of the product without heating the whole sample. This work gives a cured experimentation about the proper sintering powder alloys for laser surface processing from the point of view of wear, fatigue life and surface quality. As concerns the materials three different basic alloy groups with graduated carbon contents were prepared. Regarding these sintered powder alloys one group holds Fe, Mo and C and other group holds Fe, Ni, Mo and C and the last one holds Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo and C contents. Obviously each group has a different surface hardness, different porosity distribution, different density and diverse metallurgical structures (pearlite or ferrite-pearlite, etc.). ON the sample surfaces a colloidal graphite coating, in different thicknesses, has been sprayed to increase laser energy surface absorption. On some other samples a Mo coating, in different thicknesses, has been produced (on the bulk alloy) by diverse deposition techniques (D.C. Sputtering, P.V.D. and Flame Spraying). Only a few samples have a Mo coating and also an absorber coating, that is a bulk material- Mo and a colloidal graphite coating. All these sintered alloys have been tested by laser technology; so that, many laser working parameters (covering gas, work-speed, focussed and defocussed spot, rastered and integrated beam spots, square and rectangular beam shapes and so on) have been experimented for two different processes at constant laser power and at constant surface temperature (by using a temperature surface sensor and a closed controlled link). For all experiments a transverse fast axial flow CO2 2.5 kW c.w. laser source has been employed.

  5. Impulse Excitation Internal Friction Study of Dislocation and Point Defect Interactions in Ultra-Low Carbon Bake-Hardenable Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Il-Chan; Kang, Deok-Gu; De Cooman, Bruno C.

    2014-04-01

    The simultaneous presence of interstitial solutes and dislocations in an ultra-low carbon bake-hardenable steel gives rise to two characteristic peaks in the internal friction (IF) spectrum: the dislocation-enhanced Snoek peak and the Snoek-Kê-Köster peak. These IF peaks were used to study the dislocation structure developed by the pre-straining and the static strain aging effect of C during the bake-hardening process. A Ti-stabilized interstitial-free steel was used to ascertain the absence of a γ-peak in the IF spectrum of the deformed ultra-low carbon steel. The analysis of the IF data shows clearly that the bake-hardening effect in ultra-low carbon steel is entirely due to atmosphere formation, with the dislocation segment length being the main parameter affecting the IF peak amplitude. Recovery annealing experiments showed that the rearrangement of the dislocation structure lead to the elimination of the C atmosphere.

  6. Radiation-hardened MRAM-based LUT for non-volatile FPGA soft error mitigation with multi-node upset tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zand, Ramtin; DeMara, Ronald F.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we have developed a radiation-hardened non-volatile lookup table (LUT) circuit utilizing spin Hall effect (SHE)-magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. The design is motivated by modeling the effect of radiation particles striking hybrid complementary metal oxide semiconductor/spin based circuits, and the resistive behavior of SHE-MRAM devices via established and precise physics equations. The models developed are leveraged in the SPICE circuit simulator to verify the functionality of the proposed design. The proposed hardening technique is based on using feedback transistors, as well as increasing the radiation capacity of the sensitive nodes. Simulation results show that our proposed LUT circuit can achieve multiple node upset (MNU) tolerance with more than 38% and 60% power-delay product improvement as well as 26% and 50% reduction in device count compared to the previous energy-efficient radiation-hardened LUT designs. Finally, we have performed a process variation analysis showing that the MNU immunity of our proposed circuit is realized at the cost of increased susceptibility to transistor and MRAM variations compared to an unprotected LUT design.

  7. Protective coatings of metal surfaces by cold plasma treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manory, R.; Grill, A.

    1985-01-01

    The cold plasma techniques for deposition of various types of protective coatings are reviewed. The main advantage of these techniques for deposition of ceramic films is the lower process temperature, which enables heat treating of the metal prior to deposition. In the field of surface hardening of steel, significant reduction of treatment time and energy consumption were obtained. A simple model for the plasma - surface reactions in a cold plasma system is presented, and the plasma deposition techniques are discussed in view of this model.

  8. Development of Cu-bearing bake-hardenable steel sheets for automotive exposed panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Moon-Hi; Cho, Noi-Ha; Kim, Sung-Il; Kwon, Ohjoon; Lim, Sung-Hwan; Moon, Won-Jin

    2010-12-01

    Recently, newly developed bake-hardenable (BH) steel sheets strengthened by copper sulfide (CuS) have been successfully employed in commercial production lines that supply automotive outer panels. The metallurgical concepts governing fabrication of these new BH steel sheets require keeping carbon content as low as 0.0015 wt.% without any additional amount of titanium and/or niobium for solute carbon scavenging. The role of CuS precipitates has turned out to raise the yield strength acting as a barrier against dislocation movement. In this paper, we studied the effects of chemical compositions and manufacturing process variables on the microstructure and mechanical properties of newly developed BH steel sheets. We found that the control of carbon and nitrogen showed a good balance between bake-hardenability (BH) and yield point elongation (YP-El). We identified the crystallographic relationship between the nano-size CuS precipitates and the ferrite matrix of (001)sulfide//(001)α-Fe and [001]sulfide//[001]α-Fe. We also found that the BH and YP-El were affected by the formation of aluminium nitride (AlN) and the annealing temperature.

  9. Strength computation of forged parts taking into account strain hardening and damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, Michel L.

    2004-06-01

    Modern non-linear simulation software, such as FORGE 3 (registered trade mark of TRANSVALOR), are able to compute the residual stresses, the strain hardening and the damage during the forging process. A thermally dependent elasto-visco-plastic law is used to simulate the behavior of the material of the hot forged piece. A modified Lemaitre law coupled with elasticiy, plasticity and thermic is used to simulate the damage. After the simulation of the different steps of the forging process, the part is cooled and then virtually machined, in order to obtain the finished part. An elastic computation is then performed to equilibrate the residual stresses, so that we obtain the true geometry of the finished part after machining. The response of the part to the loadings it will sustain during it's life is then computed, taking into account the residual stresses, the strain hardening and the damage that occur during forging. This process is illustrated by the forging, virtual machining and stress analysis of an aluminium wheel hub.

  10. Seismic, creep, and tensile testing of various epoxy bonded rebar products in hardened concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the performance of currently specified epoxy adhesive anchor systems on various epoxy-coated rebar under seismic, creep and tensile loading. Previous testing of dowel bonding materials for use in hardened...

  11. Sensitization to reactive diluents and hardeners in epoxy resin systems. IVDK data 2002-2011. Part I: reaction frequencies.

    PubMed

    Geier, Johannes; Lessmann, Holger; Hillen, Uwe; Skudlik, Christoph; Jappe, Uta

    2016-02-01

    Epoxy resin systems (ERSs), consisting of resins, reactive diluents, and hardeners, are indispensable in many branches of industry. In order to develop less sensitizing ERS formulations, knowledge of the sensitizing properties of single components is mandatory. To analyse the frequency of sensitization in the patients concerned, as one integral part of a research project on the sensitizing potency of epoxy resin compounds (FP-0324). A retrospective analysis of data from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK), 2002-2011, and a comparison of reaction frequencies with (surrogate) exposure data, were performed. Almost half of the patients sensitized to epoxy resin were additionally sensitized to reactive diluents or hardeners. Among the reactive diluents, 1,6-hexanediol diglycidyl ether was the most frequent allergen, followed by 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether, phenyl glycidyl ether, and p-tert-butylphenyl glycidyl ether. Among the hardeners, m-xylylene diamine (MXDA) and isophorone diamine (IPDA) were the most frequent allergens. According to the calculated exposure-related frequency of sensitization, MXDA seems to be a far more important sensitizer than IPDA. Up to 60% of the patients sensitized to hardeners and 15-20% of those sensitized to reactive diluents do not react to epoxy resin. In cases of suspected contact allergy to an ERS, a complete epoxy resin series must be patch tested from the start. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Reverse-Martensitic Hardening of Austenitic Stainless Steel upon Up-quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kiminori; Guo, Defeng; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiangyi

    2016-08-01

    Reverse-martensitic transformation utilizing up-quenching was demonstrated for austenitic stainless steel. Up-quenching was done following the stress-induced phase modification to martensite and then enrichment of the body-centered-cubic ferrite. Transmission-electron-microscopy observation and Vickers hardness test revealed that the reverse-martensitic transformation yields quench hardening owing to an introduction of highly-concentrated dislocation. It is furthermore found that Cr precipitation on grain boundaries caused by isothermal aging is largely suppressed in the present approach.

  13. Novel microstructural growth in the surface of Inconel 625 by the addition of SiC under electron beam melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, M.; Ali, G.; Ahmed, Ejaz; Haq, M. A.; Akhter, J. I.

    2011-06-01

    Electron beam melting is being used to modify the microstructure of the surfaces of materials due to its ability to cause localized melting and supercooling of the melt. This article presents an experimental study on the surface modification of Ni-based superalloy (Inconel 625) reinforced with SiC ceramic particles under electron beam melting. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques have been applied to characterize the resulted microstructure. The results revealed growth of novel structures like wire, rod, tubular, pyramid, bamboo and tweezers type morphologies in the modified surface. In addition to that fibrous like structure was also observed. Formation of thin carbon sheet has been found at the regions of decomposed SiC. Electron beam modified surface of Inconel 625 alloy has been hardened twice as compared to the as-received samples. Surface hardening effect may be attributed to both the formation of the novel structures as well as the introduction of Si and C atom in the lattice of Inconel 625 alloy.

  14. Property investigation and sputter deposition of dispersion-hardened copper for fatigue specimen fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclanahan, E. D.; Busch, R.; Moss, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Sputter-deposited alloys of dispersion-hardenable Cu-0.25 vol% SiC and Cu-0.50 vol% SiC and precipitation-hardenable Cu-0.15 wt% Zr and Cu-0.05 wt% Mg-0.15 wt% Zr-0.40 wt% Cr were investigated for selection to evaluate fatigue specimen performance with potential application in fabricating regeneratively cooled rocket thrust chambers. Yield strengths in the 700 to 1000-MN/sq m range were observed with uniform elongation ranging from 0.5 to 1.5% and necking indicative of greater ductility. Electrical conductivity measured as an analog to thermal conductivity gave values 90% IACS for Cu-0.15 wt% Zr and Cu-0.05 wt% Mg-0.15 wt% Zr-0.40 wt% Cr. A 5500-g sputtered deposit of Cu-0.15 wt% Zr alloy, 12.29 mm (0.484 in.) average thickness in the fatigue specimen gage length, was provided to NASA on one of their substrates.

  15. TH-CD-202-02: A Preliminary Study Evaluating Beam-Hardening Artifact Reduction On CT Direct Electron-Density Images

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H; Dolly, S; Zhao, T

    Purpose: A prototype reconstruction algorithm that can provide direct electron density (ED) images from single energy CT scans is being currently developed by Siemens Healthcare GmbH. This feature can eliminate the need for kV specific calibration curve for radiation treatemnt planning. An added benefit is that beam-hardening artifacts are also reduced on direct-ED images due to the underlying material decomposition. This study is to quantitatively analyze the reduction of beam-hardening artifacts on direct-ED images and suggest additional clinical usages. Methods: HU and direct-ED images were reconstructed on a head phantom scanned on a Siemens Definition AS CT scanner at fivemore » tube potentials of 70kV, 80kV, 100kV, 120kV and 140kV respectively. From these images, mean, standard deviation (SD), and local NPS were calculated for regions of interest (ROI) of same locations and sizes. A complete analysis of beam-hardening artifact reduction and image quality improvement was conducted. Results: Along with the increase of tube potentials, ROI means and SDs decrease on both HU and direct-ED images. The mean value differences between HU and direct-ED images are up to 8% with absolute value of 2.9. Compared to that on HU images, the SDs are lower on direct-ED images, and the differences are up to 26%. Interestingly, the local NPS calculated from direct-ED images shows consistent values in the low spatial frequency domain for images acquired from all tube potential settings, while varied dramatically on HU images. This also confirms the beam -hardening artifact reduction on ED images. Conclusions: The low SDs on direct-ED images and relative consistent NPS values in the low spatial frequency domain indicate a reduction of beam-hardening artifacts. The direct-ED image has the potential to assist in more accurate organ contouring, and is a better fit for the desired purpose of CT simulations for radiotherapy.« less

  16. Rolling contact fatigue of surface modified 440C using a 'Ge-Polymet' type disc rod test rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Through hardened 440 C martensitic stainless steel test specimens were surface modified and tested for changes in rolling contact fatigue using a disc on rod test rig. The surface modifications consisted of nitrogen, boron, titanium, chromium, tantalum, carbon, or molybdenum ion implantation at various ion fluences and energies. Tests were also performed on specimens reactively sputtered with titanium nitride.

  17. A new approach for beam hardening correction based on the local spectrum distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasoulpour, Naser; Kamali-Asl, Alireza; Hemmati, Hamidreza

    2015-09-01

    Energy dependence of material absorption and polychromatic nature of x-ray beams in the Computed Tomography (CT) causes a phenomenon which called "beam hardening". The purpose of this study is to provide a novel approach for Beam Hardening (BH) correction. This approach is based on the linear attenuation coefficients of Local Spectrum Distributions (LSDs) in the various depths of a phantom. The proposed method includes two steps. Firstly, the hardened spectra in various depths of the phantom (or LSDs) are estimated based on the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm for arbitrary thickness interval of known materials in the phantom. The performance of LSD estimation technique is evaluated by applying random Gaussian noise to transmission data. Then, the linear attenuation coefficients with regarding to the mean energy of LSDs are obtained. Secondly, a correction function based on the calculated attenuation coefficients is derived in order to correct polychromatic raw data. Since a correction function has been used for the conversion of the polychromatic data to the monochromatic data, the effect of BH in proposed reconstruction must be reduced in comparison with polychromatic reconstruction. The proposed approach has been assessed in the phantoms which involve less than two materials, but the correction function has been extended for using in the constructed phantoms with more than two materials. The relative mean energy difference in the LSDs estimations based on the noise-free transmission data was less than 1.5%. Also, it shows an acceptable value when a random Gaussian noise is applied to the transmission data. The amount of cupping artifact in the proposed reconstruction method has been effectively reduced and proposed reconstruction profile is uniform more than polychromatic reconstruction profile.

  18. An adapted yield criterion for the evolution of subsequent yield surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küsters, N.; Brosius, A.

    2017-09-01

    In numerical analysis of sheet metal forming processes, the anisotropic material behaviour is often modelled with isotropic work hardening and an average Lankford coefficient. In contrast, experimental observations show an evolution of the Lankford coefficients, which can be associated with a yield surface change due to kinematic and distortional hardening. Commonly, extensive efforts are carried out to describe these phenomena. In this paper an isotropic material model based on the Yld2000-2d criterion is adapted with an evolving yield exponent in order to change the yield surface shape. The yield exponent is linked to the accumulative plastic strain. This change has the effect of a rotating yield surface normal. As the normal is directly related to the Lankford coefficient, the change can be used to model the evolution of the Lankford coefficient during yielding. The paper will focus on the numerical implementation of the adapted material model for the FE-code LS-Dyna, mpi-version R7.1.2-d. A recently introduced identification scheme [1] is used to obtain the parameters for the evolving yield surface and will be briefly described for the proposed model. The suitability for numerical analysis will be discussed for deep drawing processes in general. Efforts for material characterization and modelling will be compared to other common yield surface descriptions. Besides experimental efforts and achieved accuracy, the potential of flexibility in material models and the risk of ambiguity during identification are of major interest in this paper.

  19. Stress-induced microcrack density evolution in β-eucryptite ceramics: Experimental observations and possible route to strain hardening

    DOE PAGES

    Müller, B. R.; Cooper, R. C.; Lange, A.; ...

    2017-11-01

    In order to investigate their microcracking behaviour, the microstructures of several β-eucryptite ceramics, obtained from glass precursor and cerammed to yield different grain sizes and microcrack densities, were characterized by laboratory and synchrotron x-ray refraction and tomography. Here, results were compared with those obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In SEM images, the characterized materials appeared fully dense but computed tomography showed the presence of pore clusters. Uniaxial tensile testing was performed on specimens while strain maps were recorded and analyzed by Digital Image Correlation (DIC). X-ray refraction techniques were applied on specimens before and after tensile testing to measuremore » the amount of the internal specific surface (i.e., area per unit volume). X-ray refraction revealed that (a) the small grain size (SGS) material contained a large specific surface, originating from the grain boundaries and the interfaces of TiO 2 precipitates; (b) the medium (MGS) and large grain size (LGS) materials possessed higher amounts of specific surface compared to SGS material due to microcracks, which decreased after tensile loading; (c) the precursor glass had negligible internal surface. The unexpected decrease in the internal surface of MGS and LGS after tensile testing is explained by the presence of compressive regions in the DIC strain maps and further by theoretical arguments. It is suggested that while some microcracks merge via propagation, more close mechanically, thereby explaining the observed X-ray refraction results. Lastly, the mechanisms proposed would allow the development of a strain hardening route in ceramics.« less

  20. Stress-induced microcrack density evolution in β-eucryptite ceramics: Experimental observations and possible route to strain hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, B. R.; Cooper, R. C.; Lange, A.

    In order to investigate their microcracking behaviour, the microstructures of several β-eucryptite ceramics, obtained from glass precursor and cerammed to yield different grain sizes and microcrack densities, were characterized by laboratory and synchrotron x-ray refraction and tomography. Here, results were compared with those obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In SEM images, the characterized materials appeared fully dense but computed tomography showed the presence of pore clusters. Uniaxial tensile testing was performed on specimens while strain maps were recorded and analyzed by Digital Image Correlation (DIC). X-ray refraction techniques were applied on specimens before and after tensile testing to measuremore » the amount of the internal specific surface (i.e., area per unit volume). X-ray refraction revealed that (a) the small grain size (SGS) material contained a large specific surface, originating from the grain boundaries and the interfaces of TiO 2 precipitates; (b) the medium (MGS) and large grain size (LGS) materials possessed higher amounts of specific surface compared to SGS material due to microcracks, which decreased after tensile loading; (c) the precursor glass had negligible internal surface. The unexpected decrease in the internal surface of MGS and LGS after tensile testing is explained by the presence of compressive regions in the DIC strain maps and further by theoretical arguments. It is suggested that while some microcracks merge via propagation, more close mechanically, thereby explaining the observed X-ray refraction results. Lastly, the mechanisms proposed would allow the development of a strain hardening route in ceramics.« less

  1. Thermal relaxation behavior of residual stress in laser hardened 17-4PH steel after shot peening treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhou; Chen, Yanhua; Jiang, Chuanhai

    2011-09-01

    In order to investigate the residual stress relaxations of shot peened layer, isothermal annealing treatments were carried out on tempered and laser hardened 17-4PH steel after shot peening with different temperatures from 300 °C to 600 °C. The results showed that the residual stresses were relaxed in the whole deformation layer especially under higher temperature. The maximum rates of stress relaxation took place at the initial stage of annealing process in all conditions. The relaxation process during isothermal annealing could be described by Zener-Wert-Avrami function. The thermal stability of residual stress in tempered 17-4PH was higher than that in laser hardened 17-4PH as well as that in α-iron, which was due to the pinning effects of ɛ-Cu precipitates on the dislocation movement. As massive ɛ-Cu precipitates formed in the temperature about 480 °C, the activation enthalpies for stress relaxation in laser hardened 17-4PH were the same as that in tempered 17-4PH in the conditions of isothermal annealing temperatures of 500 °C and 600 °C.

  2. Method of boronizing transition metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Koyama, Koichiro; Shimotake, Hiroshi.

    1983-08-16

    A method is presented for preparing a boride layer on a transition metal substrate for use in corrosive environments or as a harden surface in machine applications. This method is particularly useful in treating current collectors for use within a high temperature and corrosive electrochemical cell environment. A melt of a alkali metal boride tetrafluoride salt including such as KF to lower its melting point is prepared including a dissolved boron containing material, for instance NiB, MnB[sub 2], or CrB[sub 2]. A transition metal to be coated is immersed in the melt at a temperature of no more than 700 C and a surface boride layer of that transition metal is formed within a period of about 24 hours on the substrate surface. 4 figs.

  3. Method of boronizing transition metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Koyama, Koichiro; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented for preparing a boride layer on a transition metal substrate for use in corrosive environments or as a harden surface in machine applications. This method is particularly useful in treating current collectors for use within a high temperature and corrosive electrochemical cell environment. A melt of a alkali metal boride tetrafluoride salt including such as KF to lower its melting point is prepared including a dissolved boron containing material, for instance NiB, MnB.sub.2, or CrB.sub.2. A transition metal to be coated is immersed in the melt at a temperature of no more than 700.degree. C. and a surface boride layer of that transition metal is formed within a period of about 24 hours on the substrate surface.

  4. Radiation Effects and Hardening Techniques for Spacecraft Microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambles, J. W.; Maki, G. K.

    2002-01-01

    The natural radiation from the Van Allen belts, solar flares, and cosmic rays found outside of the protection of the earth's atmosphere can produce deleterious effects on microelectronics used in space systems. Historically civil space agencies and the commercial satellite industry have been able to utilize components produced in special radiation hardened fabrication process foundries that were developed during the 1970s and 1980s under sponsorship of the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Energy (DoE). In the post--cold war world the DoD and DoE push to advance the rad--hard processes has waned. Today the available rad--hard components lag two-plus technology node generations behind state- of-the-art commercial technologies. As a result space craft designers face a large performance gap when trying to utilize available rad--hard components. Compounding the performance gap problems, rad--hard components are becoming increasingly harder to get. Faced with the economic pitfalls associated with low demand versus the ever increasing investment required for integrated circuit manufacturing equipment most sources of rad--hard parts have simply exited this market in recent years, leaving only two domestic US suppliers of digital rad--hard components. This paper summarizes the radiation induced mechanisms that can cause digital microelectronics to fail in space, techniques that can be applied to mitigate these failure mechanisms, and ground based testing used to validate radiation hardness/tolerance. The radiation hardening techniques can be broken down into two classes, Hardness By Process (HBP) and Hardness By Design (HBD). Fortunately many HBD techniques can be applied to commercial fabrication processes providing space craft designer with radiation tolerant Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) that can bridge the performance gap between the special HBP foundries and the commercial state-of-the-art performance.

  5. Fracture surfaces of granular pastes.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Abdelhaye, Y O; Chaouche, M; Van Damme, H

    2013-11-01

    Granular pastes are dense dispersions of non-colloidal grains in a simple or a complex fluid. Typical examples are the coating, gluing or sealing mortars used in building applications. We study the cohesive rupture of thick mortar layers in a simple pulling test where the paste is initially confined between two flat surfaces. After hardening, the morphology of the fracture surfaces was investigated, using either the box counting method to analyze fracture profiles perpendicular to the mean fracture plane, or the slit-island method to analyze the islands obtained by cutting the fracture surfaces at different heights, parallel to the mean fracture plane. The fracture surfaces were shown to exhibit scaling properties over several decades. However, contrary to what has been observed in the brittle or ductile fracture of solid materials, the islands were shown to be mass fractals. This was related to the extensive plastic flow involved in the fracture process.

  6. Analysis of surface integrity of grinded gears using Barkhausen noise analysis and x-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrkoslavová, Lucie; Louda, Petr; Malec, Jiři

    2014-02-01

    The contribution is focused to present results of study grinded gears made of 18CrNiMo7-6 steel used in the wind power plant for support (service) purposes. These gears were case-hardened due to standard hard case and soft core formation. This heat treatment increases wear resistance and fatigue strength of machine parts. During serial production some troubles with surface integrity have occurred. When solving complex problems lots of samples were prepared. For grinding of gears were used different parameters of cutting speed, number of material removal and lots from different subsuppliers. Material characterization was carried out using Barkhausen noise analysis (BNA) device; X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement of surface residual stresses was done as well. Depth profile of measured characteristics, e.g. magnetoelastic parameter and residual stress was obtained by step by step layers' removing using electrolytic etching. BNA software Viewscan was used to measure magnetizing frequency sweep (MFS) and magnetizing voltage sweep (MVS). Scanning of Magnetoelastic parameter (MP) endwise individual teeth were also carried out with Viewscan. These measurements were done to find problematic surface areas after grinding such as thermal damaged locations. Plots of the hardness and thickness of case-hardened layer on cross sections were measurered as well. Evaluation of structure of subsurface case-hardened layer and core was made on etched metallographic patterns. The aim of performed measurements was to find correlation between conditions of grinding, residual stresses and structural and magnetoelastic parameters. Based on correlation of measured values and technological parameters optimizing the production of gears will be done.

  7. Orientation and Temperature Dependence of Work-Hardening Rate in Cd Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uçar, N.

    1997-03-01

    The orientation and temperature dependence of the work-hardening rate (WHR) has been investigated in tension in the temperature range from room temperature to 500 K in Cd single crystals. The WHR was found to decrease rapidly with increasing temperature. For 21-1-3 orientated crystals, the WHR increases firstly with increasing temperature until it passes a maximum at about 350 K.

  8. Optimization of technological equipment used in the laser-radiation hardening of instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tverdokhlebov, G. N.; Maznichenko, S. A.

    Results of a statistical analysis of an instrument intended for laser hardening are presented. The kinematics of the positioning and fastening of an instrument for uniform laser-pulse treatment is analyzed. The results are used to devise an automatic device and the procedure for laser treatment under optimized conditions of various rotary cutting instruments, such as milling cutters, drills, and counterbores.

  9. Modeling spray/puddle dissolution processes for deep-ultraviolet acid-hardened resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, John M.; Das, Siddhartha; Qian, Qi-De; Gaw, Henry T.

    1993-10-01

    A study of the dissolution behavior of acid-hardened resists (AHR) was undertaken for spray and spray/puddle development processes. The Site Services DSM-100 end-point detection system is used to measure both spray and puddle dissolution data for a commercially available deep-ultraviolet AHR resist, Shipley SNR-248. The DSM allows in situ measurement of dissolution rate on the wafer chuck and hence allows parameter extraction for modeling spray and puddle processes. The dissolution data for spray and puddle processes was collected across a range of exposure dose and postexposure bake temperature. The development recipe was varied to decouple the contribution of the spray and puddle modes to the overall dissolution characteristics. The mechanisms involved in spray versus puddle dissolution and the impact of spray versus puddle dissolution on process performance metrics has been investigated. We used the effective-dose-modeling approach and the measurement capability of the DSM-100 and developed a lumped parameter model for acid-hardened resists that incorporates the effects of exposure, postexposure bake temperature and time, and development condition. The PARMEX photoresist-modeling program is used to determine parameters for the spray and for the puddle process. The lumped parameter AHR model developed showed good agreement with experimental data.

  10. Long-term hot-hardness characteristics of five through-hardened bearing steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, N. E.

    1978-01-01

    Five vacuum-melted bearing steels tempered to various room temperature hardnesses: AISI 52100 and the tool steels AISI M-1, AISI M-50, Halmo, and WB-49 were studied. Hardness measurements were taken on AISI 52100 at room temperature and at elevated temperatures after soaking it at temperatures to 478 K (400 F) for as long as 1000 hours. Hardness measurements were also taken on the tool steels after soaking them at temperatures to 700 K (800 F) for as long at 1000 hours. None of the tool steel tempered during soaking and AISI 52100 did not temper when soaked at 366 K (200 F) for 1000 hours. However, AISI 52100 that was initially hardened to room temperature hardness of 62.5 or 64.5 lost hardness during the first 500 hours of the 1000-hour soak tests at temperatures greater than 394 K (250 F), but it maintained its hardness during the final 500 hours of soaking. Similarly, AISI 52100 initially hardened to room temperature hardness of 60.5 lost hardness during the first 500 hours of the 1000-hour soaking at temperatures greater than 422 K (300 F), but it maintained its hardness during the final 500 hours of soaking.

  11. Mechanical Characteristics of Hardened Concrete with Different Mineral Admixtures: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The available literature identifies that the addition of mineral admixture as partial replacement of cement improves the microstructure of the concrete (i.e., porosity and pore size distribution) as well as increasing the mechanical characteristics such as drying shrinkage and creep, compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity; however, no single document is available in which review and comparison of the influence of the addition of these mineral admixtures on the mechanical characteristics of the hardened pozzolanic concretes are presented. In this paper, based on the reported results in the literature, mechanical characteristics of hardened concrete partially containing mineral admixtures including fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), metakaolin (MK), and rice husk ash (RHA) are discussed and it is concluded that the content and particle size of mineral admixture are the parameters which significantly influence the mechanical properties of concrete. All mineral admixtures enhance the mechanical properties of concrete except FA and GGBS which do not show a significant effect on the strength of concrete at 28 days; however, gain in strength at later ages is considerable. Moreover, the comparison of the mechanical characteristics of different pozzolanic concretes suggests that RHA and SF are competitive. PMID:24688443

  12. Mechanical characteristics of hardened concrete with different mineral admixtures: a review.

    PubMed

    Ayub, Tehmina; Khan, Sadaqat Ullah; Memon, Fareed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The available literature identifies that the addition of mineral admixture as partial replacement of cement improves the microstructure of the concrete (i.e., porosity and pore size distribution) as well as increasing the mechanical characteristics such as drying shrinkage and creep, compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity; however, no single document is available in which review and comparison of the influence of the addition of these mineral admixtures on the mechanical characteristics of the hardened pozzolanic concretes are presented. In this paper, based on the reported results in the literature, mechanical characteristics of hardened concrete partially containing mineral admixtures including fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), metakaolin (MK), and rice husk ash (RHA) are discussed and it is concluded that the content and particle size of mineral admixture are the parameters which significantly influence the mechanical properties of concrete. All mineral admixtures enhance the mechanical properties of concrete except FA and GGBS which do not show a significant effect on the strength of concrete at 28 days; however, gain in strength at later ages is considerable. Moreover, the comparison of the mechanical characteristics of different pozzolanic concretes suggests that RHA and SF are competitive.

  13. Embryos of a moss can be hardened to desiccation tolerance: effects of rate of drying on the timeline of recovery and dehardening in Aloina ambigua (Pottiaceae).

    PubMed

    Brinda, John C; Stark, Lloyd R; Clark, Theresa A; Greenwood, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic sporophytes of the moss Aloina ambigua are inducibly desiccation tolerant (DT). Hardening to DT describes a condition of temporary tolerance to a rapid-drying event conferred by a previous slow-drying event. This paper aimed to determine whether sporophytic embryos of a moss can be hardened to DT, to assess how the rate of desiccation influences the post-rehydration dynamics of recovery, hardening and dehardening, and to determine the minimum rate of drying for embryos and shoots. Embryos were exposed to a range of drying rates using wetted filter paper in enclosed Petri dishes, monitoring relative humidity (RH) inside the dish and equilibrating tissues with 50% RH. Rehydrated embryos and shoots were subjected to a rapid-drying event at intervals, allowing assessments of recovery, hardening and dehardening times. The minimum rate of slow drying for embryonic survival was ∼3·5 h and for shoots ∼9 h. Hardening to DT was dependent upon the prior rate of drying. When the rate of drying was extended to 22 h, embryonic hardening was strong (>50% survival) with survival directly proportional to the post-rehydration interval preceding rapid drying. The recovery time (repair/reassembly) was so short as to be undetectable in embryos and shoots desiccated gradually; however, embryos dried in <3·5 h exhibited a lag time in development of ∼4 d, consistent with recovery. Dehardening resulted in embryos incapable of surviving a rapid-drying event. The ability of moss embryos to harden to DT and the influence of prior rate of drying on the dynamics of hardening are shown for the first time. The minimum rate of drying is introduced as a new metric for assessing ecological DT, defined as the minimum duration at sub-turgor during a drying event in which upon rehydration the plant organ of interest survives relatively undamaged from the desiccating event. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All

  14. Embryos of a moss can be hardened to desiccation tolerance: effects of rate of drying on the timeline of recovery and dehardening in Aloina ambigua (Pottiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Brinda, John C.; Stark, Lloyd R.; Clark, Theresa A.; Greenwood, Joshua L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Embryonic sporophytes of the moss Aloina ambigua are inducibly desiccation tolerant (DT). Hardening to DT describes a condition of temporary tolerance to a rapid-drying event conferred by a previous slow-drying event. This paper aimed to determine whether sporophytic embryos of a moss can be hardened to DT, to assess how the rate of desiccation influences the post-rehydration dynamics of recovery, hardening and dehardening, and to determine the minimum rate of drying for embryos and shoots. Methods Embryos were exposed to a range of drying rates using wetted filter paper in enclosed Petri dishes, monitoring relative humidity (RH) inside the dish and equilibrating tissues with 50 % RH. Rehydrated embryos and shoots were subjected to a rapid-drying event at intervals, allowing assessments of recovery, hardening and dehardening times. Key Results The minimum rate of slow drying for embryonic survival was ∼3·5 h and for shoots ∼9 h. Hardening to DT was dependent upon the prior rate of drying. When the rate of drying was extended to 22 h, embryonic hardening was strong (>50 % survival) with survival directly proportional to the post-rehydration interval preceding rapid drying. The recovery time (repair/reassembly) was so short as to be undetectable in embryos and shoots desiccated gradually; however, embryos dried in <3·5 h exhibited a lag time in development of ∼4 d, consistent with recovery. Dehardening resulted in embryos incapable of surviving a rapid-drying event. Conclusions The ability of moss embryos to harden to DT and the influence of prior rate of drying on the dynamics of hardening are shown for the first time. The minimum rate of drying is introduced as a new metric for assessing ecological DT, defined as the minimum duration at sub-turgor during a drying event in which upon rehydration the plant organ of interest survives relatively undamaged from the desiccating event. PMID:26354931

  15. Recovery of strain-hardening rate in Ni-Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Yang, C L; Zhang, Z J; Cai, T; Zhang, P; Zhang, Z F

    2015-10-21

    In this study, the recovery of strain-hardening rate (RSHR) was discovered for the first time in polycrystalline materials (Ni-Si alloys) that have only dislocation activities during tensile test. Detailed microstructure characterizations show that the activation of dislocations in the secondary slip systems during tensile deformation is the major reason for this RSHR. By taking into account other metals that also exhibit RSHR during tension, a more general mechanism for the RSHR was proposed, i.e. the occurrence of a sharp decrease of dislocation mean free path (Λ) during plastic deformation, caused by either planar defects or linear defects.

  16. Recovery of strain-hardening rate in Ni-Si alloys

    PubMed Central

    Yang, C. L.; Zhang, Z. J.; Cai, T.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the recovery of strain-hardening rate (RSHR) was discovered for the first time in polycrystalline materials (Ni-Si alloys) that have only dislocation activities during tensile test. Detailed microstructure characterizations show that the activation of dislocations in the secondary slip systems during tensile deformation is the major reason for this RSHR. By taking into account other metals that also exhibit RSHR during tension, a more general mechanism for the RSHR was proposed, i.e. the occurrence of a sharp decrease of dislocation mean free path (Λ) during plastic deformation, caused by either planar defects or linear defects. PMID:26487419

  17. Recovery of strain-hardening rate in Ni-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. L.; Zhang, Z. J.; Cai, T.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the recovery of strain-hardening rate (RSHR) was discovered for the first time in polycrystalline materials (Ni-Si alloys) that have only dislocation activities during tensile test. Detailed microstructure characterizations show that the activation of dislocations in the secondary slip systems during tensile deformation is the major reason for this RSHR. By taking into account other metals that also exhibit RSHR during tension, a more general mechanism for the RSHR was proposed, i.e. the occurrence of a sharp decrease of dislocation mean free path (Λ) during plastic deformation, caused by either planar defects or linear defects.

  18. Hardening communication ports for survival in electrical overstress environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, O. Melville

    1991-01-01

    Greater attention is being focused on the protection of data I/O ports since both experience and lab tests have shown that components at these locations are extremely vulnerable to electrical overstress (EOS) in the form of transient voltages. Lightning and electrostatic discharge (ESD) are the major contributors to these failures; however, these losses can be prevented. Hardening against transient voltages at both the board level and system level has a proven record of improving reliability by orders of magnitude. The EOS threats, typical failure modes, and transient voltage mitigation techniques are reviewed. Case histories are also reviewed.

  19. Influence of Secondary Cyclic Hardening on the Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Nitrogen Alloyed 316LN Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Reddy, G. V.; Sandhya, R.; Mathew, M. D.; Sankaran, S.

    2013-12-01

    In this article, the occurrence of secondary cyclic hardening (SCH) and its effect on high-temperature cyclic deformation and fatigue life of 316LN Stainless steel are presented. SCH is found to result from planar slip mode of deformation and enhance the degree of hardening over and above that resulted from dynamic strain aging. The occurrence of SCH is strongly governed by the applied strain amplitude, test temperature, and the nitrogen content in the 316LN SS. Under certain test conditions, SCH is noticed to decrease the low cycle fatigue life with the increasing nitrogen content.

  20. Softening and Hardening of Alloys of the Al - Zn System Under Plastic Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsov, A. I.; Polev, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    The proportion of hardening and softening under plastic deformation at room temperature in metals and alloys of the Al - Zn system has been studied as dependent on the regime of preliminary heat treatment. The influence of the strain rate on the dependence of alloy hardness on the degree of plastic deformation is estimated.

  1. Quantitative analysis of artifacts in 4D DSA: the relative contributions of beam hardening and scatter to vessel dropout behind highly attenuating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermus, James; Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Strother, Charles M.; Mistretta, Charles

    2014-03-01

    When performing Computed Tomographic (CT) image reconstruction on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) projections, loss of vessel contrast has been observed behind highly attenuating anatomy, such as dental implants and large contrast filled aneurysms. Because this typically occurs only in a limited range of projection angles, the observed contrast time course can potentially be altered. In this work, we have developed a model for acquiring DSA projections that models both the polychromatic nature of the x-ray spectrum and the x-ray scattering interactions to investigate this problem. In our simulation framework, scatter and beam hardening contributions to vessel dropout can be analyzed separately. We constructed digital phantoms with large clearly defined regions containing iodine contrast, bone, soft issue, titanium (dental implants) or combinations of these materials. As the regions containing the materials were large and rectangular, when the phantoms were forward projected, the projections contained uniform regions of interest (ROI) and enabled accurate vessel dropout analysis. Two phantom models were used, one to model the case of a vessel behind a large contrast filled aneurysm and the other to model a vessel behind a dental implant. Cases in which both beam hardening and scatter were turned off, only scatter was turned on, only beam hardening was turned on, and both scatter and beam hardening were turned on, were simulated for both phantom models. The analysis of this data showed that the contrast degradation is primarily due to scatter. When analyzing the aneurysm case, 90.25% of the vessel contrast was lost in the polychromatic scatter image, however only 50.5% of the vessel contrast was lost in the beam hardening only image. When analyzing the teeth case, 44.2% of the vessel contrast was lost in the polychromatic scatter image and only 26.2% of the vessel contrast was lost in the beam hardening only image.

  2. Strain hardening in startup shear of long-chain branched polymer solutions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gengxin; Cheng, Shiwang; Lee, Hyojoon; Ma, Hongwei; Xu, Hongde; Chang, Taihyun; Quirk, Roderic P; Wang, Shi-Qing

    2013-08-09

    We show for the first time that entangled polymeric liquids containing long-chain branching can exhibit strain hardening upon startup shear. As the significant long-chain branching impedes chain disentanglement, Gaussian coils between entanglements can deform to reach the finite extensibility limit where the intrachain retraction force exceeds the value expected from the usual conformational entropy loss evaluated based on Gaussian chain statistics. The phenomenon is expected to lead to further theoretical understanding.

  3. The development of high strength corrosion resistant precipitation hardening cast steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahams, Rachel A.

    Precipitation Hardened Cast Stainless Steels (PHCSS) are a corrosion resistant class of materials which derive their properties from secondary aging after a normalizing heat treatment step. While PHCSS materials are available in austenitic and semi-austenitic forms, the martensitic PHCSS are most widely used due to a combination of high strength, good toughness, and corrosion resistance. If higher strength levels can be achieved in these alloys, these materials can be used as a lower-cost alternative to titanium for high specific strength applications where corrosion resistance is a factor. Although wrought precipitation hardened materials have been in use and specified for more than half a century, the specification and use of PHCSS has only been recent. The effects of composition and processing on performance have received little attention in the cast steel literature. The work presented in these investigations is concerned with the experimental study and modeling of microstructural development in cast martensitic precipitation hardened steels at high strength levels. Particular attention is focused on improving the performance of the high strength CB7Cu alloy by control of detrimental secondary phases, notably delta ferrite and retained austenite, which is detrimental to strength, but potentially beneficial in terms of fracture and impact toughness. The relationship between age processing and mechanical properties is also investigated, and a new age hardening model based on simultaneous precipitation hardening and tempering has been modified for use with these steels. Because the CB7Cu system has limited strength even with improved processing, a higher strength prototype Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo-Ti system has been designed and adapted for use in casting. This prototype is expected to develop high strengths matching or exceed that of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloys. Traditional multicomponent constitution phase diagrams widely used for phase estimation in conventional stainless steels

  4. Effect of raw materials and hardening process on hardness of manually forged knife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balkhaya, Suwarno

    2017-06-01

    Knives are normally made by forging process either using a machine or traditional method by means of hammering process. This present work was conducted to study the effects of steel raw materials and hardening process on the hardness of manually forged knives. The knife samples were made by traditional hammering (forging) process done by local blacksmith. Afterward, the samples were heat treated with two different hardening procedures, the first was based on the blacksmith procedure and the second was systematically done at the laboratory. The forging was done in the temperature ranged between 900-950°C, while the final temperature ranged between 650-675°C. The results showed that knives made of spring steel and heat treated in simulated condition at the laboratory obtained higher level of hardness, i.e. 62 HRC. In general, knives heat treated by local blacksmith had lower level of hardness that those obtained from simulated condition. Therefore, we concluded that the traditional knife quality in term of hardness can be improved by optimizing the heat treatment schedule.

  5. The response of mulberry trees after seedling hardening to summer drought in the hydro-fluctuation belt of Three Gorges Reservoir Areas.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaohui; Liu, Yun; Li, Jiaxing; Xiong, Xingzheng; Chen, Yang; Yin, Xiaohua; Feng, Dalan

    2013-10-01

    Interest has developed in the potential of mulberry (Morus alba), a woody perennial, for revegetating the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir due to its resistance to water-logging stress. To be useful, the trees must also be able to withstand dry conditions in summer when temperatures can be very high and droughts become severe quickly. Here, we report a study in which mulberry seedlings were grown in a greenhouse under a variety of simulated soil water conditions reflecting potential summer scenarios in the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. We compared the responses of two pretreatment groups of mulberry seedlings to different levels of drought stress. The pretreatment groups differed with respect to drought hardening: the daily-managed (DM) group had relative soil moisture held constant in the range 70-80 %, while the drought-hardened (DH) group had relative soil moisture held constant at 40-50 %. Following the month-long pretreatment of seedlings, the two groups of young trees (DM and DH) were then respectively subjected to three levels of drought stress for a month: normal watering, moderate drought stress, and severe drought stress. A series of measurements comparing the physiological status of the plants in the two groups were then made, and the following results were obtained: (1) As drought stress increased, the heights, base diameters, root surface areas, photosynthetic rates (Pn), stomatal conductances (Gs), and transpiration rates (Tr) of the mulberry trees in both groups (DM and DH) decreased significantly, while the specific root area and abscisic acid (ABA) contents had increasing trends. Root activity and instantaneous water use efficiency of mulberry trees in both groups (DM and DH) were all raised under drought stress conditions than under normal watering, but the root/shoot ratio and leaf water potential were lowered. (2) At the same level of soil water content, the heights, base diameters, root

  6. Decomposition pathways in age hardening of Ti-Al-N films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachbauer, R.; Massl, S.; Stergar, E.; Holec, D.; Kiener, D.; Keckes, J.; Patscheider, J.; Stiefel, M.; Leitner, H.; Mayrhofer, P. H.

    2011-07-01

    The ability to increase the thermal stability of protective coatings under work load gives rise to scientific and industrial interest in age hardening of complex nitride coating systems such as ceramic-like Ti1-xAlxN. However, the decomposition pathway of these systems from single-phase cubic to the thermodynamically stable binary nitrides (cubic TiN and wurtzite AlN), which are essential for age hardening, are not yet fully understood. In particular, the role of decomposition kinetics still requires more detailed investigation. In the present work, the combined effect of annealing time and temperature upon the nano-structural development of Ti0.46Al0.54N thin films is studied, with a thermal exposure of either 1 min or 120 min in 100 °C steps from 500 °C to 1400 °C. The impact of chemical changes at the atomic scale on the development of micro-strain and mechanical properties is studied by post-annealing investigations using X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation, 3D-atom probe tomography and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results clearly demonstrate that the spinodal decomposition process, triggering the increase of micro-strain and hardness, although taking place throughout the entire volume, is enhanced at high diffusivity paths such as grain or column boundaries and followed within the grains. Ab initio calculations further show that the early stages of wurtzite AlN precipitation are connected with increased strain formation, which is in excellent agreement with experimental observations.

  7. A strain-hardening bi-power law for the nonlinear behaviour of biological soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, S; Vezin, P; Palierne, J-F

    2010-03-22

    Biological soft tissues exhibit a strongly nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour. Among parenchymous tissues, kidney and liver remain less studied than brain, and a first goal of this study is to report additional material properties of kidney and liver tissues in oscillatory shear and constant shear rate tests. Results show that the liver tissue is more compliant but more strain hardening than kidney. A wealth of multi-parameter mathematical models has been proposed for describing the mechanical behaviour of soft tissues. A second purpose of this work is to develop a new constitutive law capable of predicting our experimental data in the both linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regime with as few parameters as possible. We propose a nonlinear strain-hardening fractional derivative model in which six parameters allow fitting the viscoelastic behaviour of kidney and liver tissues for strains ranging from 0.01 to 1 and strain rates from 0.0151 s(-1) to 0.7s(-1). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimizing contrast agents with respect to reducing beam hardening in nonmedical X-ray computed tomography experiments.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yoshito; Nakano, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is commonly used as a contrast agent in nonmedical science and engineering, for example, to visualize Darcy flow in porous geological media using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Undesirable beam hardening artifacts occur when a polychromatic X-ray source is used, which makes the quantitative analysis of CT images difficult. To optimize the chemistry of a contrast agent in terms of the beam hardening reduction, we performed computer simulations and generated synthetic CT images of a homogeneous cylindrical sand-pack (diameter, 28 or 56 mm; porosity, 39 vol.% saturated with aqueous suspensions of heavy elements assuming the use of a polychromatic medical CT scanner. The degree of cupping derived from the beam hardening was assessed using the reconstructed CT images to find the chemistry of the suspension that induced the least cupping. The results showed that (i) the degree of cupping depended on the position of the K absorption edge of the heavy element relative to peak of the polychromatic incident X-ray spectrum, (ii) (53)I was not an ideal contrast agent because it causes marked cupping, and (iii) a single element much heavier than (53)I ((64)Gd to (79)Au) reduced the cupping artifact significantly, and a four-heavy-element mixture of elements from (64)Gd to (79)Au reduced the artifact most significantly.

  9. Optimized radiation-hardened erbium doped fiber amplifiers for long space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladaci, A.; Girard, S.; Mescia, L.; Robin, T.; Laurent, A.; Cadier, B.; Boutillier, M.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we developed and exploited simulation tools to optimize the performances of rare earth doped fiber amplifiers (REDFAs) for space missions. To describe these systems, a state-of-the-art model based on the rate equations and the particle swarm optimization technique is developed in which we also consider the main radiation effect on REDFA: the radiation induced attenuation (RIA). After the validation of this tool set by confrontation between theoretical and experimental results, we investigate how the deleterious radiation effects on the amplifier performance can be mitigated following adequate strategies to conceive the REDFA architecture. The tool set was validated by comparing the calculated Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) gain degradation under X-rays at ˜300 krad(SiO2) with the corresponding experimental results. Two versions of the same fibers were used in this work, a standard optical fiber and a radiation hardened fiber, obtained by loading the previous fiber with hydrogen gas. Based on these fibers, standard and radiation hardened EDFAs were manufactured and tested in different operating configurations, and the obtained data were compared with simulation data done considering the same EDFA structure and fiber properties. This comparison reveals a good agreement between simulated gain and experimental data (<10% as the maximum error for the highest doses). Compared to our previous results obtained on Er/Yb-amplifiers, these results reveal the importance of the photo-bleaching mechanism competing with the RIA that cannot be neglected for the modeling of the radiation-induced gain degradation of EDFAs. This implies to measure in representative conditions the RIA at the pump and signal wavelengths that are used as input parameters for the simulation. The validated numerical codes have then been used to evaluate the potential of some EDFA architecture evolutions in the amplifier performance during the space mission. Optimization of both the

  10. Strengthening Mechanisms, Creep and Fatigue Processes in Dispersion Hardened Niobium Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    studies of Nb and Nb-l%Zr were completed. Cyclic hardening is observed and there is a microplastic plateau in Nb. The Nb- l%Lr is stronger in cyclic...strain rate intergranular cracking occurred and a microplastic plateau was observed in the cyclic stress - strain curve for cp Nb. At the slow strain...rate, no definitely intergranular cracks were detected and a microplastic plateau was not observed for cp Nb. The results of these experiments can be

  11. Significant contribution of stacking faults to the strain hardening behavior of Cu-15%Al alloy with different grain sizes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Y Z; Zhao, L J; Chen, S; Shibata, A; Zhang, Z F; Tsuji, N

    2015-11-19

    It is commonly accepted that twinning can induce an increase of strain-hardening rate during the tensile process of face-centered cubic (FCC) metals and alloys with low stacking fault energy (SFE). In this study, we explored the grain size effect on the strain-hardening behavior of a Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with low SFE. Instead of twinning, we detected a significant contribution of stacking faults (SFs) irrespective of the grain size even in the initial stage of tensile process. In contrast, twinning was more sensitive to the grain size, and the onset of deformation twins might be postponed to a higher strain with increasing the grain size. In the Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with a mean grain size of 47 μm, there was a stage where the strain-hardening rate increases with strain, and this was mainly induced by the SFs instead of twinning. Thus in parallel with the TWIP effect, we proposed that SFs also contribute significantly to the plasticity of FCC alloys with low SFE.

  12. Significant contribution of stacking faults to the strain hardening behavior of Cu-15%Al alloy with different grain sizes

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Y. Z.; Zhao, L. J.; Chen, S.; Shibata, A.; Zhang, Z. F.; Tsuji, N.

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that twinning can induce an increase of strain-hardening rate during the tensile process of face-centered cubic (FCC) metals and alloys with low stacking fault energy (SFE). In this study, we explored the grain size effect on the strain-hardening behavior of a Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with low SFE. Instead of twinning, we detected a significant contribution of stacking faults (SFs) irrespective of the grain size even in the initial stage of tensile process. In contrast, twinning was more sensitive to the grain size, and the onset of deformation twins might be postponed to a higher strain with increasing the grain size. In the Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with a mean grain size of 47 μm, there was a stage where the strain-hardening rate increases with strain, and this was mainly induced by the SFs instead of twinning. Thus in parallel with the TWIP effect, we proposed that SFs also contribute significantly to the plasticity of FCC alloys with low SFE. PMID:26582568

  13. Issues associated with the use of Yoshida nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening material model in Advanced High Strength Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ming F.; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Xinhai

    2016-08-01

    The Yoshida nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening material model is often selected in forming simulations where an accurate springback prediction is required. Many successful application cases in the industrial scale automotive components using advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been reported to give better springback predictions. Several issues have been raised recently in the use of the model for higher strength AHSS including the use of two C vs. one C material parameters in the Armstrong and Frederick model (AF model), the original Yoshida model vs. Original Yoshida model with modified hardening law, and constant Young's Modulus vs. decayed Young's Modulus as a function of plastic strain. In this paper, an industrial scale automotive component using 980 MPa strength materials is selected to study the effect of two C and one C material parameters in the AF model on both forming and springback prediction using the Yoshida model with and without the modified hardening law. The effect of decayed Young's Modulus on the springback prediction for AHSS is also evaluated. In addition, the limitations of the material parameters determined from tension and compression tests without multiple cycle tests are also discussed for components undergoing several bending and unbending deformations.

  14. Hardening of steels and cast irons by passivation of their surface and heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, A. I.

    1994-01-01

    Examples of the use of a casehardening (CH) method (surface passivation and standard heat treatment) developed to increase hardness and corrosion resistance and to lower the surface roughness of various components and tools — glass molds. piston rings and ball-bearing races — are presented in this paper.

  15. SU-E-I-57: Evaluation and Optimization of Effective-Dose Using Different Beam-Hardening Filters in Clinical Pediatric Shunt CT Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, K; Aldoohan, S; Collier, J

    Purpose: Study image optimization and radiation dose reduction in pediatric shunt CT scanning protocol through the use of different beam-hardening filters Methods: A 64-slice CT scanner at OU Childrens Hospital has been used to evaluate CT image contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and measure effective-doses based on the concept of CT dose index (CTDIvol) using the pediatric head shunt scanning protocol. The routine axial pediatric head shunt scanning protocol that has been optimized for the intrinsic x-ray tube filter has been used to evaluate CNR by acquiring images using the ACR approved CT-phantom and radiation dose CTphantom, which was used to measuremore » CTDIvol. These results were set as reference points to study and evaluate the effects of adding different filtering materials (i.e. Tungsten, Tantalum, Titanium, Nickel and Copper filters) to the existing filter on image quality and radiation dose. To ensure optimal image quality, the scanner routine air calibration was run for each added filter. The image CNR was evaluated for different kVps and wide range of mAs values using above mentioned beam-hardening filters. These scanning protocols were run under axial as well as under helical techniques. The CTDIvol and the effective-dose were measured and calculated for all scanning protocols and added filtration, including the intrinsic x-ray tube filter. Results: Beam-hardening filter shapes energy spectrum, which reduces the dose by 27%. No noticeable changes in image low contrast detectability Conclusion: Effective-dose is very much dependent on the CTDIVol, which is further very much dependent on beam-hardening filters. Substantial reduction in effective-dose is realized using beam-hardening filters as compare to the intrinsic filter. This phantom study showed that significant radiation dose reduction could be achieved in CT pediatric shunt scanning protocols without compromising in diagnostic value of image quality.« less

  16. Laser modification of macroscopic properties of metal surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrubiec, Franciszek

    1995-03-01

    Surface laser treatment of metals comprises a number of diversified technological operations out of which the following can be considered the most common: oxidation and rendering surfaces amorphous, surface hardening of steel, modification of selected physical properties of metal surface layers. In the paper basic results of laser treatment of a group of metals used as base materials for electric contacts have been presented. The aim of the study was to test the usability of laser treatment from the viewpoint of requirements imposed on materials for electric contacts. The results presented in the paper refer to two different surface treatment technologies: (1) modification of infusible metal surface layer: tungsten and molybdenum through laser fusing of their surface layer and its crystallization, and (2) modification of surface layer properties of other metals through laser doping of their surface layer with foreign elements. In the paper a number of results of experimental investigations obtained by the team under the author's supervision are presented.

  17. Design and implementation of a programming circuit in radiation-hardened FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihua, Wu; Xiaowei, Han; Yan, Zhao; Zhongli, Liu; Fang, Yu; Chen, Stanley L.

    2011-08-01

    We present a novel programming circuit used in our radiation-hardened field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip. This circuit provides the ability to write user-defined configuration data into an FPGA and then read it back. The proposed circuit adopts the direct-access programming point scheme instead of the typical long token shift register chain. It not only saves area but also provides more flexible configuration operations. By configuring the proposed partial configuration control register, our smallest configuration section can be conveniently configured as a single data and a flexible partial configuration can be easily implemented. The hierarchical simulation scheme, optimization of the critical path and the elaborate layout plan make this circuit work well. Also, the radiation hardened by design programming point is introduced. This circuit has been implemented in a static random access memory (SRAM)-based FPGA fabricated by a 0.5 μm partial-depletion silicon-on-insulator CMOS process. The function test results of the fabricated chip indicate that this programming circuit successfully realizes the desired functions in the configuration and read-back. Moreover, the radiation test results indicate that the programming circuit has total dose tolerance of 1 × 105 rad(Si), dose rate survivability of 1.5 × 1011 rad(Si)/s and neutron fluence immunity of 1 × 1014 n/cm2.

  18. Surface martensitization of Carbon steel using Arc Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyudi, Haris; Dimyati, Arbi; Sebayang, Darwin

    2018-03-01

    In this paper new technology of surface structure modification of steel by short plasma exposure in Arc Plasma Sintering (APS) device is presented. APS is an apparatus working based on plasma generated by DC pulsed current originally used for synthesizing materials via sintering and melting. Plasma exposure in APS was applied into the specimens for 1 and 3 seconds which generate temperature approximately about 1300-1500°C. The SUP9, pearlitic carbon steel samples were used. The hardness, hardening depth and microstructure of the specimens have been investigated by Vickers micro hardness test and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) supported by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The results have showed that the mechanical property was significantly improved due to the formation of single martensitic structures as identified by SEM. The hardness of treated surface evaluated by Vickers hardness test showed significant improvement nearly three time from 190 VHN before to 524 VHN after treatment. Furthermore, EDX confirmed that the formation of martensite layer occurred without altering its composition. The APS also produced uniform hardened layer up to 250 μm. The experiment has demonstrated that arc plasma process was successfully improved the mechanical properties of steel in relatively very short time.

  19. Interstitial Hardening of Stainless Steel for Enhanced Corrosion Resistance for Naval Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Fortunately, it is straightforward to nitride at lower nitrogen activities by mixing NH3 with hydrogen (H2) gas and a systematic study of nitridation...prior work had been concerned with carburization, mostly using carbon monoxide (CO) as the carbon somce. Inasmuch as many commercial hardening processes...using nitrogen in isolation, or in combination with carbon , could likewise enhance corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steels, and if so, to

  20. Stability of surface plastic flow in large strain deformation of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Koushik; Udapa, Anirduh; Sagapuram, Dinakar; Mann, James; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    We examine large-strain unconstrained simple shear deformation in metals using a model two-dimensional cutting system and high-speed in situ imaging. The nature of the deformation mode is shown to be a function of the initial microstructure state of the metal and the deformation geometry. For annealed metals, which exhibit large ductility and strain hardening capacity, the commonly assumed laminar flow mode is inherently unstable. Instead, the imposed shear is accommodated by a highly rotational flow-sinuous flow-with vortex-like components and large-amplitude folding on the mesoscale. Sinuous flow is triggered by a plastic instability on the material surface ahead of the primary region of shear. On the other hand, when the material is extensively strain-hardened prior to shear, laminar flow again becomes unstable giving way to shear banding. The existence of these flow modes is established by stability analysis of laminar flow. The role of the initial microstructure state in determining the change in stability from laminar to sinuous / shear-banded flows in metals is elucidated. The implications for cutting, forming and wear processes for metals, and to surface plasticity phenomena such as mechanochemical Rehbinder effects are discussed.

  1. Goal Structured Notation in a Radiation Hardening Safety Case for COTS-Based Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witulski, Arthur; Austin, Rebekah; Reed, Robert; Karsai, Gabor; Mahadevan, Nag; Sierawski, Brian; Evans, John; LaBel, Ken

    2016-01-01

    A systematic approach is presented to constructing a radiation assurance case using Goal Structured Notation (GSN) for spacecraft containing COTS parts. The GSN paradigm is applied to an SRAM single-event upset experiment board designed to fly on a CubeSat November 2016. Construction of a radiation assurance case without use of hardened parts or extensive radiation testing is discussed.

  2. Weldable, age hardenable, austenitic stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Brooks, J.A.; Krenzer, R.W.

    1975-07-22

    An age hardenable, austenitic stainless steel having superior weldability properties as well as resistance to degradation of properties in a hydrogen atmosphere is described. It has a composition of from about 24.0 to about 34.0 weight percent (w/o) nickel, from about 13.5 to about 16.0 w/o chromium, from about 1.9 to about 2.3 w/o titanium, from about 1.0 to about 1.5 w/ o molybdenum, from about 0.01 to about 0.05 w/o carbon, from about 0 to about 0.25 w/o manganese, from about 0 to about 0.01 w/o phosphorous and preferably about 0.005 w/o maximum, from about 0 to about 0.010 w/o sulfur and preferably about 0.005 w/o maximum, from about 0 to about 0.25 w/o silicon, from about 0.1 to about 0.35 w/o aluminum, from about 0.10 to about 0.50 w/o vanadium, from about 0 to about 0.0015 w/o boron, and the balance essentially iron. (auth)

  3. Cyber situational awareness and differential hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Anurag; Tebben, Dan

    2012-06-01

    The advent of cyber threats has created a need for a new network planning, design, architecture, operations, control, situational awareness, management, and maintenance paradigms. Primary considerations include the ability to assess cyber attack resiliency of the network, and rapidly detect, isolate, and operate during deliberate simultaneous attacks against the network nodes and links. Legacy network planning relied on automatic protection of a network in the event of a single fault or a very few simultaneous faults in mesh networks, but in the future it must be augmented to include improved network resiliency and vulnerability awareness to cyber attacks. Ability to design a resilient network requires the development of methods to define, and quantify the network resiliency to attacks, and to be able to develop new optimization strategies for maintaining operations in the midst of these newly emerging cyber threats. Ways to quantify resiliency, and its use in visualizing cyber vulnerability awareness and in identifying node or link criticality, are presented in the current work, as well as a methodology of differential network hardening based on the criticality profile of cyber network components.

  4. Frost hardening and dehardening potential in temperate trees from winter to budburst.

    PubMed

    Vitra, Amarante; Lenz, Armando; Vitasse, Yann

    2017-10-01

    We investigated how deciduous trees can adjust their freezing resistance in response to temperature during the progress of the ecodormancy phase, from midwinter to budburst. We regularly sampled twigs of four different temperate deciduous tree species from January to the leaf-out date. Using computer-controlled freezers and climate chambers, the freezing resistance of buds was measured directly after sampling and also after the application of artificial hardening and dehardening treatments, simulating cold and warm spells. The thermal time to budburst in forcing conditions (c. 20°C) was also quantified at each sampling as a proxy for dormancy depth. Earlier flushing species showed higher freezing resistance than late flushing species at either similar bud development stage or similar dormancy depth. Overall, freezing resistance and its hardening and dehardening potential dramatically decreased during the progress of ecodormancy and became almost nil during budburst. Our results suggest that extreme cold events in winter are not critical for trees, as freezing resistance can be largely enhanced during this period. By contrast, the timing of budburst is a critical component of tree fitness. Our results provide quantitative values of the freezing resistance dynamics during ecodormancy, particularly valuable in process-based species distribution models. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. An analytical elastic plastic contact model with strain hardening and frictional effects for normal and oblique impacts

    DOE PAGES

    Brake, M. R. W.

    2015-02-17

    Impact between metallic surfaces is a phenomenon that is ubiquitous in the design and analysis of mechanical systems. We found that to model this phenomenon, a new formulation for frictional elastic–plastic contact between two surfaces is developed. The formulation is developed to consider both frictional, oblique contact (of which normal, frictionless contact is a limiting case) and strain hardening effects. The constitutive model for normal contact is developed as two contiguous loading domains: the elastic regime and a transitionary region in which the plastic response of the materials develops and the elastic response abates. For unloading, the constitutive model ismore » based on an elastic process. Moreover, the normal contact model is assumed to only couple one-way with the frictional/tangential contact model, which results in the normal contact model being independent of the frictional effects. Frictional, tangential contact is modeled using a microslip model that is developed to consider the pressure distribution that develops from the elastic–plastic normal contact. This model is validated through comparisons with experimental results reported in the literature, and is demonstrated to be significantly more accurate than 10 other normal contact models and three other tangential contact models found in the literature.« less

  6. Laser surface processing with controlled nitrogen-argon concentration levels for regulated surface life time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeidi, M. Ahmed; McCarthy, E.; Brabazon, D.

    2018-03-01

    Laser surface modification can be used to enhance the mechanical properties of a material, such as hardness, toughness, fatigue strength, and corrosion resistance. Surface nitriding is a widely used thermochemical method of surface modification, in which nitrogen is introduced into a metal or other material at an elevated temperature within a furnace. It is used on parts where there is a need for increased wear resistance, corrosion resistance, fatigue life, and hardness. Laser nitriding is a novel method of nitriding where the surface is heated locally by a laser, either in an atmosphere of nitrogen or with a jet of nitrogen delivered to the laser heated site. It combines the benefits of laser modification with those of nitriding. Recent work on high toughness tool steel samples has shown promising results due to the increased nitrogen gas impingement onto the laser heated region. Increased surface activity and nitrogen adsorption was achieved which resulted in a deeper and harder surface compared to conventional hardening methods. In this work, the effects of the laser power, pulse repetition frequency, and overlap percentage on laser surface treatment of 316 L SST steel samples with an argon-nitrogen jet will be presented. Resulting microstructure, phase type, microhardness, and wear resistance are presented.

  7. Methods of forming hardened surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J [Iona, ID

    2004-07-27

    The invention encompasses a method of forming a metallic coating. A metallic glass coating is formed over a metallic substrate. After formation of the coating, at least a portion of the metallic glass can be converted into a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size. The invention also encompasses metallic coatings comprising metallic glass. Additionally, the invention encompasses metallic coatings comprising crystalline metallic material, with at least some of the crystalline metallic material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  8. The special radiation-hardened processors for new highly informative experiments in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serdin, O. V.; Antonov, A. A.; Dubrovsky, A. G.; Novogilov, E. A.; Zuev, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    The article provides a detailed description of the series of special radiation-hardened microprocessor developed by SRISA for use in space technology. The microprocessors have 32-bit and 64-bit KOMDIV architecture with embedded SpaceWire, RapidIO, Ethernet and MIL-STD-1553B interfaces. These devices are used in space telescope GAMMA-400 data acquisition system, and may also be applied to other experiments in space (such as observatory “Millimetron” etc.).

  9. Nano Precipitation and Hardening of Die-Quenched 6061 Aluminum Alloy.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Hiroshi; Tada, Koki; Matsumoto, Ryo; Watanabe, Katsumi; Matsuda, Kenji

    2018-03-01

    Die quenching is applied to an age-hardenable aluminium alloys to obtain super-saturated solid solution. The application is advantageous because it can reduce number of manufacturing processes, and may increase strength by strain aging. If die quenching is realized in forging as well as sheet forming, it may widen industrial applicability further. In this study, Al-Mg-Si alloy AA6061 8 mm-thick billets were reduced 50% in height without cracks by die-quench forging. Supersaturated solid solution was successfully obtained. The die-quenched specimen shows higher hardness with nano precipitates at shorter aging time than the conventional water-quenched specimen.

  10. Possible Applications of Hardening Slurries with Fly Ash from Thermal Treatment of Municipal Sewage Sludge in Environmental Protection Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falacinski, Paweł; Szarek, Łukasz

    2016-06-01

    In Poland, in recent years, there has been a rapid accumulation of sewage sludge - a by-product in the treatment of urban wastewater. This has come about as a result of infrastructure renewal, specifically, the construction of modern sewage treatment plants. The more stringent regulations and strategic goals adopted for modern sewage management have necessitated the application of modern engineering methodology for the disposal of sewage sludge. One approach is incineration. As a consequence, the amount of fly ash resulting from the thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge has grown significantly. Hence, intensive work is in progress for environmentally safe management of this type of waste. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of using the fly ash that results from municipal sewage sludge thermal treatment (SSTT) as an additive to hardening slurries. This type of hardening slurry with various types of additives, e.g. coal combustion products, is used in the construction of cut-off walls in hydraulic structures. The article presents the technological and functional parameters of hardening slurries with an addition of fly ash obtained by SSTT. Moreover, the usefulness of these slurries is analysed on the basis of their basic properties, i.e. density, contractual viscosity, water separation, structural strength, volumetric density, hydraulic conductivity, compressive and tensile strength. The mandated requirements for slurries employed in the construction of cut-off walls in flood embankments are listed as a usefulness criteria. The article presents the potential uses of fly ash from SSTT in hardening slurry technology. It also suggests directions for further research to fully identify other potential uses of this by-product in this field.

  11. The effect of strain hardening on resistance to electrochemical corrosion of wires for orthopaedics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przondziono, J.; Walke, W.; Hadasik, E.; Szymszal, J.

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate electrochemical corrosion resistance of wire with modified surface, made of stainless steel of Cr-Ni-Mo type, widely used in implants for orthopaedics, depending on hardening created in the process of drawing. Tests have been carried out in the environment imitating human osseous tissue. Pitting corrosion was determined on the ground of registered anodic polarisation curves by means of potentiodynamic method with application of electrochemical testing system VoltaLab® PGP 201. Wire corrosion tests were carried out in Tyrode solution on samples that were electrochemically polished as well as electrochemically polished and finally chemically passivated. Initial material for tests was wire rod made of X2CrNiMo17-12-2 steel with diameter of 5.5 mm in supersaturated condition. Wire rod was drawn up to diameter of 1.35 mm. This work shows the course of flow curve of wire made of this grade of steel and mathematical form of yield stress function. The study also presents exemplary curves showing the dependence of polarisation resistance in strain function in the drawing process of electrochemically passivated and electrochemically polished and then chemically passivated wire.

  12. Sensitization to reactive diluents and hardeners in epoxy resin systems. IVDK data 2002-2011. Part II: concomitant reactions.

    PubMed

    Geier, Johannes; Lessmann, Holger; Hillen, Uwe; Skudlik, Christoph; Jappe, Uta

    2016-02-01

    Beside the basic resins, reactive diluents and hardeners are important sensitizers in epoxy resin systems (ERSs). Because of chemical similarities, immunological cross-reactivity may occur. To analyse concomitant reactivity among reactive diluents and hardeners in the patients concerned, as one integral part of a research project on the sensitizing capacity of ERSs (FP-0324). A retrospective analysis of data from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK), 2002-2011, was performed. There was close concomitant reactivity to 1,6-hexanediol diglycidyl ether and 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (1,4-BDDGE), and to phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) and cresyl glycidyl ether (CGE), whereas reactions to p-tert-butylphenyl glycidyl ether occurred more independently from those to PGE and CGE. Concomitant reactions to butyl glycidyl ether and 1,4-BDDGE may point to a common allergenic compound derived from the metabolism of 1,4-BDDGE. Among the structurally more diverse group of hardeners, there was no evidence of immunological cross-reactions. More detailed knowledge of cross-reactivity among ERS components facilitates the interpretation of patch test results and will allow safer ERSs to be composed in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effect of silica fume on the fresh and hardened properties of fly ash-based self-compacting geopolymer concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memon, Fareed Ahmed; Nuruddin, Muhd Fadhil; Shafiq, Nasir

    2013-02-01

    The effect of silica fume on the fresh and hardened properties of fly ash-based self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC) was investigated in this paper. The work focused on the concrete mixes with a fixed water-to-geopolymer solid (W/Gs) ratio of 0.33 by mass and a constant total binder content of 400 kg/m3. The mass fractions of silica fume that replaced fly ash in this research were 0wt%, 5wt%, 10wt%, and 15wt%. The workability-related fresh properties of SCGC were assessed through slump flow, V-funnel, and L-box test methods. Hardened concrete tests were limited to compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths, all of which were measured at the age of 1, 7, and 28 d after 48-h oven curing. The results indicate that the addition of silica fume as a partial replacement of fly ash results in the loss of workability; nevertheless, the mechanical properties of hardened SCGC are significantly improved by incorporating silica fume, especially up to 10wt%. Applying this percentage of silica fume results in 4.3% reduction in the slump flow; however, it increases the compressive strength by 6.9%, tensile strength by 12.8% and flexural strength by 11.5%.

  14. SU-F-T-551: Beam Hardening and Attenuation of Photon Beams Using Integral Quality Monitor in Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Casar, B; Carot, I Mendez; Peterlin, P

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Aim of the multi-centre study was to analyse beam hardening effect of the Integral Quality Monitor (IQM) for high energy photon beams used in radiotherapy with linear accelerators. Generic values for attenuation coefficient k(IQM) of IQM system were additionally investigated. Methods: Beam hardening effect of the IQM system was studied for a set of standard nominal photon energies (6 MV–18 MV) and two flattening filter free (FFF) energies (6 MV FFF and 10 MV FFF). PDD curves were measured and analysed for various square radiation fields, with and without IQM in place. Differences between PDD curves were statistically analysedmore » through comparison of respective PDD-20,10 values. Attenuation coefficients k(IQM) were determined for the same range of photon energies. Results: Statistically significant differences in beam qualities for all evaluated high energy photon beams were found, comparing PDD-20,10 values derived from PDD curves with and without IQM in place. Significance of beam hardening effect was statistically proven with high confidence (p < 0,01) for all analysed photon beams except for 15 MV (p = 0,078), although relative differences in beam qualities were minimal, ranging from 0,1 % to 0,5 %. Attenuation of the IQM system showed negligible dependence on radiation field size. However, clinically important dependence of kIQM versus TPRs20,10 was found: 0,941 for 6 MV photon beams, to 0,959 for 18 MV photon beams, with highest uncertainty below 0,006. k(IQM) versus TPRs were tabulated and polynomial equation for the determination of k(IQM) is suggested for clinical use. Conclusion: There was no clinically relevant beam hardening, when IQM system was on linear accelerators. Consequently, no additional commissioning is needed for the IQM system regarding the determination of beam qualities. Generic values for k(IQM) are proposed and can be used as tray factors for complete range of examined photon beam energies.« less

  15. Goal Structuring Notation in a Radiation Hardening Assurance Case for COTS-Based Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witulski, Arthur; Austin, Rebekah; Evans, John; Mahadevan, Nag; Karsai, Gabor; Sierawski, Brian; LaBel, Ken; Reed, Robert; Schrimpf, Ron

    2016-01-01

    A systematic approach is presented to constructing a radiation assurance case using Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) for spacecraft containing commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) parts. The GSN paradigm is applied to an SRAM single-event upset experiment board designed to fly on a CubeSat November 2016. Construction of a radiation assurance case without use of hardened parts or extensive radiation testing is discussed.

  16. Water dynamics in hardened ordinary Portland cement paste or concrete: from quasielastic neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Bordallo, Heloisa N; Aldridge, Laurence P; Desmedt, Arnaud

    2006-09-14

    Portland cement reacts with water to form an amorphous paste through a chemical reaction called hydration. In concrete the formation of pastes causes the mix to harden and gain strength to form a rock-like mass. Within this process lies the key to a remarkable peculiarity of concrete: it is plastic and soft when newly mixed, strong and durable when hardened. These qualities explain why one material, concrete, can build skyscrapers, bridges, sidewalks and superhighways, houses, and dams. The character of the concrete is determined by the quality of the paste. Creep and shrinkage of concrete specimens occur during the loss and gain of water from cement paste. To better understand the role of water in mature concrete, a series of quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments were carried out on cement pastes with water/cement ratio varying between 0.32 and 0.6. The samples were cured for about 28 days in sealed containers so that the initial water content would not change. These experiments were carried out with an actual sample of Portland cement rather than with the components of cement studied by other workers. The QENS spectra differentiated between three different water interactions: water that was chemically bound into the cement paste, the physically bound or "glassy water" that interacted with the surface of the gel pores in the paste, and unbound water molecules that are confined within the larger capillary pores of cement paste. The dynamics of the "glassy" and "unboud" water in an extended time scale, from a hundred picoseconds to a few nanoseconds, could be clearly differentiated from the data. While the observed motions on the picosecond time scale are mainly stochastic reorientations of the water molecules, the dynamics observed on the nanosecond range can be attributed to long-range diffusion. Diffusive motion was characterized by diffusion constants in the range of (0.6-2) 10(-9) m(2)/s, with significant reduction compared to the rate of diffusion

  17. The effect of a combined low-pressure gas discharge on metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzhozovskii, B.; Brovkova, M.; Gestrin, S.; Martynov, V.; Zinina, E.

    2018-04-01

    The properties and effects of a combined gas discharge, obtained by superimposing ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic and electrostatic fields on the surface of metal products, have been studied. Estimates for the main physical properties characterizing the discharge have been obtained. The paper shows that the properties of a combined discharge essentially depend on the sign of the constant electric potential of the workpiece. In the case of a positive potential, there is a substantial hardening of the metal surface layer. Blanket coating formation, which is a nanocomposite two-phase structure, has been recorded.

  18. Designing Security-Hardened Microkernels For Field Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieb, Jeffrey; Graham, James

    Distributed control systems (DCSs) play an essential role in the operation of critical infrastructures. Perimeter field devices are important DCS components that measure physical process parameters and perform control actions. Modern field devices are vulnerable to cyber attacks due to their increased adoption of commodity technologies and that fact that control networks are no longer isolated. This paper describes an approach for creating security-hardened field devices using operating system microkernels that isolate vital field device operations from untrusted network-accessible applications. The approach, which is influenced by the MILS and Nizza architectures, is implemented in a prototype field device. Whereas, previous microkernel-based implementations have been plagued by poor inter-process communication (IPC) performance, the prototype exhibits an average IPC overhead for protected device calls of 64.59 μs. The overall performance of field devices is influenced by several factors; nevertheless, the observed IPC overhead is low enough to encourage the continued development of the prototype.

  19. Open Source Radiation Hardened by Design Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuler, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The proposed technology allows use of the latest microcircuit technology with lowest power and fastest speed, with minimal delay and engineering costs, through new Radiation Hardened by Design (RHBD) techniques that do not require extensive process characterization, technique evaluation and re-design at each Moore's Law generation. The separation of critical node groups is explicitly parameterized so it can be increased as microcircuit technologies shrink. The technology will be open access to radiation tolerant circuit vendors. INNOVATION: This technology would enhance computation intensive applications such as autonomy, robotics, advanced sensor and tracking processes, as well as low power applications such as wireless sensor networks. OUTCOME / RESULTS: 1) Simulation analysis indicates feasibility. 2)Compact voting latch 65 nanometer test chip designed and submitted for fabrication -7/2016. INFUSION FOR SPACE / EARTH: This technology may be used in any digital integrated circuit in which a high level of resistance to Single Event Upsets is desired, and has the greatest benefit outside low earth orbit where cosmic rays are numerous.

  20. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOEpatents

    Burnet, George; Gokhale, Ashok J.

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste, and method for producing the same, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces.

  1. High Performance Processors for Space Environments: A Subproject of the NASA Exploration Missions Systems Directorate "Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments" Technology Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, M.; Label, K.; McCabe, J.; Powell, W.; Bolotin, G.; Kolawa, E.; Ng, T.; Hyde, D.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of challenging Exploration Systems Missions Directorate objectives and strategies can be constrained by onboard computing capabilities and power efficiencies. The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) High Performance Processors for Space Environments project will address this challenge by significantly advancing the sustained throughput and processing efficiency of high-per$ormance radiation-hardened processors, targeting delivery of products by the end of FY12.

  2. Effect of Alloying on the Strength Properties and the Hardening Mechanisms of Nitrogen-Bearing Austenitic Steels after Hot Deformation and Annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannykh, I. O.

    2017-11-01

    The main mechanisms of hardening nitrogen-bearing austenitic steels that operate under various thermomechanical treatment conditions at various steel compositions are considered. The strength properties of the steels are shown to depend on the content of interstitial elements, namely, carbon and nitrogen, and the influence of these elements on the stacking fault energy is estimated. The ratios of the main alloying elements that favor an increase or a decrease in the stacking fault energy are found to achieve the desirable level of strain hardening provided that an austenitic structure of steel is retained.

  3. Limitation of Current Hardening Models in Predicting Anisotropy by Twinning in HCP Metals: Application to a Rod-Textured AM30 Magnesium Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    model and a phenomenological Voce hard- ening model. The HCP material is exemplified by an extruded AM30 magnesium alloy with a 〈101̄0〉-fiber...effect accounted for by a sort of slip-twin latent hardening in the Voce type hardening model was not able to inflect the simulated curves with loading... Voce model is unable to cap- ture this effect, but the dislocation model [2] is. A pragmatic factor distinctly increasing the stored dis- locations in

  4. Engineering micropatterned surfaces to modulate the function of vascular stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jennifer; Wu, Michelle; Chu, Julia; Sochol, Ryan; Patel, Shyam

    2014-02-21

    Multipotent vascular stem cells have been implicated in vascular disease and in tissue remodeling post therapeutic intervention. Hyper-proliferation and calcified extracellular matrix deposition of VSC cause blood vessel narrowing and plaque hardening thereby increasing the risk of myocardial infarct. In this study, to optimize the surface design of vascular implants, we determined whether micropatterned polymer surfaces can modulate VSC differentiation and calcified matrix deposition. Undifferentiated rat VSC were cultured on microgrooved surfaces of varied groove widths, and on micropost surfaces. 10μm microgrooved surfaces elongated VSC and decreased cell proliferation. However, microgrooved surfaces did not attenuate calcified extracellular matrix deposition by VSC cultured in osteogenic media conditions. In contrast, VSC cultured on micropost surfaces assumed a dendritic morphology, were significantly less proliferative, and deposited minimal calcified extracellular matrix. These results have significant implications for optimizing the design of cardiovascular implant surfaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quick-hardening problems are eliminated with spray gun modification which mixes resin and accelerator liquids during application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, O. W.

    1964-01-01

    A modified spray gun, with separate containers for resin and additive components, solves the problems of quick hardening and nozzle clogging. At application, separate atomizers spray the liquids in front of the nozzle face where they blend.

  6. Plasma methods of obtainment of multifunctional composite materials, dispersion-hardened by nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizonenko, O. N.; Grigoryev, E. G.; Zaichenko, A. D.; Pristash, N. S.; Torpakov, A. S.; Lipyan, Ye V.; Tregub, V. A.; Zholnin, A. G.; Yudin, A. V.; Kovalenko, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The new approach in developed plasma methods consists in that dispersionhardening additives (TiC, TiB2 in particular) are not mechanically added to powder mixture as additional component, as in conventional methods, but are instead synthesized during high voltage electric discharges (HVED) in disperse system “hydrocarbon liquid - powder” preservation of ultrafine structure is ensured due to use of spark plasma sintering (SPS) as a consolidation method. HVED in disperse system “hydrocarbon liquid - powder” due to impact of plasma discharge channel, electromagnetic fields, shock waves mechanical impact, hydro flows and volume microcavitation leads to synthesis of nanocarbon, metal powders dispersion and synthesis of micro- (from 10-6 to 10-7 m) and nanosized (from 10-7 to 10-9 m) composite powders of hardening phases. SPS is the passage of pulsed current (superposition of direct and alternating current) through powder with the simultaneous mechanical compressing. The formation of plasma is initiated in gaseous phase that fills gaps between particles. SPS allows targeted control of grain growth rate and thus allows obtainment of multifunctional composite materials dispersion hardened by nanoparticles. Processes of HVED synthesis of micro- and nanosized powders of new compositions from elemental metal powders and their mixtures with the subsequent application of high-speed SPS of obtained powders create conditions for increase of strength (by 10 - 20%), hardness and wear-resistance (by 30 - 60%) of obtained materials.

  7. High-Performance, Radiation-Hardened Electronics for Space and Lunar Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.; Adams, James H.; Cressler, John D.; Darty, Ronald C.; Johnson, Michael A.; Patrick, Marshall C.

    2008-01-01

    The Radiation Hardened Electronics for Space Environments (RHESE) project develops advanced technologies needed for high performance electronic devices that will be capable of operating within the demanding radiation and thermal extremes of the space, lunar, and Martian environment. The technologies developed under this project enhance and enable avionics within multiple mission elements of NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. including the Constellation program's Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. the Lunar Lander project, Lunar Outpost elements, and Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) elements. This paper provides an overview of the RHESE project and its multiple task tasks, their technical approaches, and their targeted benefits as applied to NASA missions.

  8. Identifying Vulnerabilities and Hardening Attack Graphs for Networked Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Sudip; Vullinati, Anil K.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    We investigate efficient security control methods for protecting against vulnerabilities in networked systems. A large number of interdependent vulnerabilities typically exist in the computing nodes of a cyber-system; as vulnerabilities get exploited, starting from low level ones, they open up the doors to more critical vulnerabilities. These cannot be understood just by a topological analysis of the network, and we use the attack graph abstraction of Dewri et al. to study these problems. In contrast to earlier approaches based on heuristics and evolutionary algorithms, we study rigorous methods for quantifying the inherent vulnerability and hardening cost for the system. Wemore » develop algorithms with provable approximation guarantees, and evaluate them for real and synthetic attack graphs.« less

  9. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOEpatents

    Burnet, G.; Gokhale, A.J.

    1990-07-10

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste and method for producing the same are disclosed, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces. 3 figs.

  10. Surface roughness formation during shot peen forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltsov, V. P.; Vinh, Le Tri; Starodubtseva, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Shot peen forming (SPF) is used for forming panels and skins, and for hardening. As a rule, shot peen forming is performed after milling. Surface roughness is a complex structure, a combination of an original microrelief and shot peen forming indentations of different depths and chaotic distribution along the surface. As far as shot peen forming is a random process, surface roughness resulted from milling and shot peen forming is random too. During roughness monitoring, it is difficult to determine the basic surface area which would ensure accurate results. It can be assumed that the basic area depends on the random roughness which is characterized by the degree of shot peen forming coverage. The analysis of depth and shot peen forming indentations distribution along the surface made it possible to identify the shift of an original center profile plane and create a mathematical model for the arithmetic mean deviation of the profile. Experimental testing proved model validity and determined an inversely proportional dependency of the basic area on the degree of coverage.

  11. Effects of alloying on aging and hardening processes of steel with 20% nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogachev, I. N.; Zvigintsev, N. V.; Maslakova, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of hardness, thermal emf, and electrical resistance were used to study the effects of Co, Mo, Ti and Al contents on aging and hardening processes in Fe 20%Ni steel. It is shown that the effects of these alloying elements differ substantially. Anomalies which arise in the temperature dependence of physical properties due to the presence of cobalt and molybdenum are reduced by the inclusion of titanium and aluminum (and vice versa).

  12. Behavior of Three Metallic Alloys Under Combined Axial-Shear Stress at 650 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaiuta, Jason F.; Lerch, Bradley (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Three materials, Inconel 718, Haynes 188, and 316 stainless steel, were tested under an axial-torsional stress state at 650 C. The objective of this study was to quantify the evolution of the material while in the viscoplastic domain. Initial and subsequent yield surfaces were experimentally determined to quantify hardening. Subsequent yield surfaces (yield surfaces taken after a preload) had a well-defined front side, in the prestrain direction, but a poorly defined back side, opposite the prestrain direction. Subsequent yield surfaces exhibited isotropic hardening by expansion of the yield surface, kinematic hardening by translation of the yield surface, and distortional hardening by flattening of the yield surface in the direction opposite to the last prestrain. An existing yield function capable of representing isotropic, kinematic, and distortional hardening was used to fit each yield surface. Four variables are used to describe each surface. These variables evolve as the material state changes and have been regressed to the yield surface data.

  13. Friction and the development of hard alloy surface microstructures during wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnyusov, S. F.; Tarassov, S. Yu.

    1997-12-01

    Investigations of wear in sliding friction of WC-Hadfield steel hard alloy against cast tool steel have been carried out in a broad range of velocities and pressure values. Structural and phase composition variations have been revealed. Friction-affected zone was found to be 450 µm in depth. Structural γ → α, γ → transformation regions are located within 100 μm of the surface. These transformations contributed to the total solid solution deformation hardening.

  14. The effect of cyclic loading on the irradiation hardening of type 316L stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, R.

    1997-01-01

    Strain controlled fatigue tests have been performed in torsion on annealed type 316L stainless steel irradiated with 19 MeV deuterons at 400°C for shear strain ranges between 0.95% and 1.4%. The irradiation hardening of the material was suppressed to a great extent for continuous cycling conditions in comparison to hold time tests.

  15. Twinning-mediated work hardening and texture evolution in CrCoFeMnNi high entropy alloys at cryogenic temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, T. K.; Wu, Z.; Stoica, A. D.

    The cryogenic plastic deformation of CrCoFeMnNi high entropy alloy is characterized by three distinct stages based on the change of the work hardening rate. Microstructure and bulk texture at different strain levels were studied by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and neutron diffraction. Our findings indicate that the deformation twins led to the constant work hardening rate at Stage II and resulted in the appearance of <115 >//TA texture component, while the dislocation slip was involved all though the entire plastic deformation. As a result, the twinning-mediated tensile plastic deformation at cryogenic temperature finally induced the strong {111}- < 112 >more » texture component and minor {001} < 110 > texture component accompanied with twinning-induced {115}< 552 > texture component.« less

  16. Twinning-mediated work hardening and texture evolution in CrCoFeMnNi high entropy alloys at cryogenic temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, T. K.; Wu, Z.; Stoica, A. D.; ...

    2017-06-17

    The cryogenic plastic deformation of CrCoFeMnNi high entropy alloy is characterized by three distinct stages based on the change of the work hardening rate. Microstructure and bulk texture at different strain levels were studied by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and neutron diffraction. Our findings indicate that the deformation twins led to the constant work hardening rate at Stage II and resulted in the appearance of <115 >//TA texture component, while the dislocation slip was involved all though the entire plastic deformation. As a result, the twinning-mediated tensile plastic deformation at cryogenic temperature finally induced the strong {111}- < 112 >more » texture component and minor {001} < 110 > texture component accompanied with twinning-induced {115}< 552 > texture component.« less

  17. Influence of shot peening on surface quality of austenitic and duplex stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinoth Jebaraj, A.; Sampath Kumar, T.; Ajay Kumar, L.; Deepak, C. R.

    2017-11-01

    In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to enhance the surface quality of austenitic stainless steel 316L and duplex stainless steel 2205 through shot peening process. The study mainly focuses the surface morphology, microstructural changes, surface roughness and microhardness of the peened layers. Metallography analysis was carried out and compared with the unpeened surface characteristics. As result of peening process, surface recrystallization was achieved on the layers of the peened samples. It was found that shot peening plays significant role in enhancing the surface properties of 316L and 2205. Particularly it has greater influence on the work hardening of austenitic stainless steel than the duplex stainless steel due to its more ductility nature under the investigated shot peening parameters. The findings of the present study will be useful with regard to the enhancement of surface texture achieved through peening.

  18. "Deviance Proneness" and Adolescent Smoking 1980 versus 2001: Has There Been a "Hardening" of Adolescent Smoking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sherman, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    In a midwestern community sample, we tested for evidence of "hardening" of adolescent cigarette smoking between 1980 and 2001 by comparing adolescent smokers and nonsmokers at these two times on measures indicative of "deviance proneness" in Jessor and Jessor's [Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. L. (1977). "Problem behavior and psychosocial development: A…

  19. Goal Structuring Notation in a Radiation Hardening Assurance Case for COTS-Based Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witulski, A.; Austin, R.; Evans, J.; Mahadevan, N.; Karsai, G.; Sierawski, B.; LaBel, K.; Reed, R.; Schrimpf, R.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic approach is presented to constructing a radiation assurance case using Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) for spacecraft containing COTS parts. The GSN paradigm is applied to an SRAM single-event upset experiment board designed to fly on a CubeSat in January 2017. A custom software language for development of a GSN assurance case is under development at Vanderbilt. Construction of a radiation assurance case without use of hardened parts or extensive radiation testing is discussed.

  20. Nano- and Macro-wear of Bio-carbo-nitrided AISI 8620 Steel Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Emmanuel Kwesi; Ampaw, Edward; Zebaze Kana, M. G.; Adetunji, A. R.; Olusunle, S. O. O.; Adewoye, O. O.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of nano- and macro-scale wear in a carbo-nitrided AISI 8620 steel. Carbo-nitriding is carried out using a novel method that involves the use of dried, cyanide-containing cassava leaves, as sources of carbon and nitrogen. These are used in a pack cementation that is used to diffuse carbon and nitrogen into case layers at intermediate temperatures [673.15 K, 723.15 K, 773.15 K, and 823.15 K (400 °C, 450 °C, 500 °C, and 550 °C)]. Nano- and macro-scale wear properties are studied in the case-hardened surfaces, using a combination of nano-scratch and pin-on-disk experiments. The measured wear volumes (at both nano- and macro-length scales) are shown to increase with decreasing pack cyaniding temperature. The nano- and macro-wear resistances are also shown to be enhanced by the in situ diffusion of carbon and nitrogen from cyanide-containing bio-processed waste. The underlying wear mechanisms are also elucidated via atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations of the wear tracks. The implications of the results are discussed for the design of hardened carbo-nitrided steel surfaces with improved wear resistance.

  1. Finite Element Simulation of Shot Peening: Prediction of Residual Stresses and Surface Roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariépy, Alexandre; Perron, Claude; Bocher, Philippe; Lévesque, Martin

    Shot peening is a surface treatment that consists of bombarding a ductile surface with numerous small and hard particles. Each impact creates localized plastic strains that permanently stretch the surface. Since the underlying material constrains this stretching, compressive residual stresses are generated near the surface. This process is commonly used in the automotive and aerospace industries to improve fatigue life. Finite element analyses can be used to predict residual stress profiles and surface roughness created by shot peening. This study investigates further the parameters and capabilities of a random impact model by evaluating the representative volume element and the calculated stress distribution. Using an isotropic-kinematic hardening constitutive law to describe the behaviour of AA2024-T351 aluminium alloy, promising results were achieved in terms of residual stresses.

  2. Role of electron concentration in softening and hardening of ternary molybdenum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of various combinations of hafnium, tantalum, rhenium, osmium, iridium, and platinum in ternary molybdenum alloys on alloy softening and hardening were determined. Hardness tests were conducted at four test temperatures over the temperature range 77 to 411 K. Results showed that hardness data for ternary molybdenum alloys could be correlated with anticipated results from binary data based upon expressions involving the number of s and d electrons contributed by the solute elements. The correlation indicated that electron concentration plays a dominant role in controlling the hardness of ternary molybdenum alloys.

  3. The Use of Light/Chemically Hardened Polymethylmethacrylate, Polyhydroxylethylmethacrylate, and Calcium Hydroxide Graft Material in Combination With Polyanhydride Around Implants and Extraction Sockets in Minipigs: Part II: Histologic and Micro-CT Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Hasturk, Hatice; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Ghattas, Mazen; Dangaria, Smit J.; Abdallah, Rima; Morgan, Elise F.; Diekwisch, Thomas G.H.; Ashman, Arthur; Van Dyke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background This report is the second part of the previously published study on the impact of light/chemical hardening technology and a newly formulated composite graft material for crestal augmentation during immediate implant placement. Methods A total of 48 implants were placed into the sockets of the mesial roots of freshly extracted mandibular premolar teeth in three minipigs. Crestal areas and intrabony spaces were randomly augmented with light-hardened graft materials including a composite graft consisting of polymethylmethacrylate, polyhydroxylethylmethacrylate, and calcium hydroxide (PPCH) plus polyanhydride (PA); PPCH graft; and PA graft, or left untreated. Distal sockets not receiving implants and the sockets of first molars (n = 60) were randomly treated with one of the graft materials or left empty. In addition, two molar sockets were treated with the original PPCH graft material. Quantitative microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) was used to assess alveolar bone structure and tissue compositions. Histologic evaluations included descriptive histology to assess the peri-implant wound healing, as well as histomorphometric measurements to determine bone-to-implant contact (BIC). Results Both trabecular and cortical bone measurements by micro-CT did not reveal any significant differences among the groups. Sites augmented with PPCH+PA resulted in significantly greater BIC surface than PPCH alone and no-graft-treated implants (P <0.05) histologically. Stained ground sections showed complete bone formation between bone and implant surface in the PPCH+PA group, whereas sites without augmentation showed large gaps between bone and implant surfaces, indicating a slower bone apposition and less BIC surface compared to all other groups. Similar to implant sections, all materials showed positive outcome on trabecular and cortical bone formation in extraction sockets with an intact crestal cortical bone. Conclusion Histologic evaluations supported the previous findings

  4. The use of light/chemically hardened polymethylmethacrylate, polyhydroxylethylmethacrylate, and calcium hydroxide graft material in combination with polyanhydride around implants and extraction sockets in minipigs: Part II: histologic and micro-CT evaluations.

    PubMed

    Hasturk, Hatice; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Ghattas, Mazen; Dangaria, Smit J; Abdallah, Rima; Morgan, Elise F; Diekwisch, Thomas G H; Ashman, Arthur; Van Dyke, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    This report is the second part of the previously published study on the impact of light/chemical hardening technology and a newly formulated composite graft material for crestal augmentation during immediate implant placement. A total of 48 implants were placed into the sockets of the mesial roots of freshly extracted mandibular premolar teeth in three minipigs. Crestal areas and intrabony spaces were randomly augmented with light-hardened graft materials including a composite graft consisting of polymethylmethacrylate, polyhydroxylethylmethacrylate, and calcium hydroxide (PPCH) plus polyanhydride (PA); PPCH graft; and PA graft, or left untreated. Distal sockets not receiving implants and the sockets of first molars (n = 60) were randomly treated with one of the graft materials or left empty. In addition, two molar sockets were treated with the original PPCH graft material. Quantitative microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) was used to assess alveolar bone structure and tissue compositions. Histologic evaluations included descriptive histology to assess the peri-implant wound healing, as well as histomorphometric measurements to determine bone-to-implant contact (BIC). Both trabecular and cortical bone measurements by micro-CT did not reveal any significant differences among the groups. Sites augmented with PPCH+PA resulted in significantly greater BIC surface than PPCH alone and no-graft-treated implants (P <0.05) histologically. Stained ground sections showed complete bone formation between bone and implant surface in the PPCH+PA group, whereas sites without augmentation showed large gaps between bone and implant surfaces, indicating a slower bone apposition and less BIC surface compared to all other groups. Similar to implant sections, all materials showed positive outcome on trabecular and cortical bone formation in extraction sockets with an intact crestal cortical bone. Histologic evaluations supported the previous findings on implant stability and function and

  5. Plastic deformation of a magnesium oxide 001-plane surface produced by cavitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hattori, S.; Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.; Okada, T.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine plastic deformation of a cleaved single-crystal magnesium oxide 001-plane surface exposed to cavitation. Cavitation damage experiments were carried out in distilled water at 25 C by using a magnetostrictive oscillator in close proximity (2 mm) to the surface of the cleaved specimen. The dislocation-etch-pit patterns induced by cavitation were examined and compared with that of microhardness indentations. The results revealed that dislocation-etch-pit patterns around hardness indentations contain both screw and edge dislocations, while the etch-pit patterns on the surface exposed to cavitation contain only screw dislocations. During cavitation, deformation occurred in a thin surface layer, accompanied by work-hardening of the ceramic. The row of screw dislocations underwent a stable growth, which was analyzed crystallographically.

  6. The influence of calcium nitrate on setting and hardening rate of Portland cement concrete at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kičaitė, A.; Pundienė, I.; Skripkiūnas, G.

    2017-10-01

    Calcium nitrate in mortars and concrete is used as a multifunctional additive: as set accelerator, plasticizer, long term strength enhancer and as antifreeze admixture. Used binding material and the amount of calcium nitrate, affect the characteristics of the concrete mixture and strength of hardened concrete. The setting time of the initial and the final binding at different temperatures of hardening (+ 20 °C and + 5 °C) of the pastes made of different cements (Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R and Portland limestone cement CEM II/A-LL 42.5 R) and various amounts of calcium nitrate from 1 % until 3 % were investigated. The effect of calcium nitrate on technological characteristics of concrete mixture (the consistency of the mixture, the density, and the amount of air in the mixture), on early concrete strength after 2 and 7 days, as well as on standard concrete strength after 28 days at different temperatures (at + 20 °C and + 5 °C) were analysed.

  7. TEM Studies of Boron-Modified 17Cr-7Ni Precipitation-Hardenable Stainless Steel via Rapid Solidification Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ankur; Bhargava, A. K.; Tewari, R.; Tiwari, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    Commercial grade 17Cr-7Ni precipitation-hardenable stainless steel has been modified by adding boron in the range 0.45 to 1.8 wt pct and using the chill block melt-spinning technique of rapid solidification (RS). Application of RS has been found to increase the solid solubility of boron and hardness of 17Cr-7Ni precipitation-hardenable stainless steel. The hardness of the boron-modified rapidly solidified alloys has been found to increase up to ~280 pct after isochronal aging to peak hardness. A TEM study has been carried out to understand the aging behavior. The presence of M23(B,C)6 and M2(B,C) borocarbides and epsilon-carbide in the matrix of austenite and ferrite with a change in heat treatment temperature has been observed. A new equation for Creq is also developed which includes the boron factor on ferrite phase stability. The study also emphasizes that aluminum only takes part in ferrite phase stabilization and remains in the solution.

  8. The W alloying effect on thermal stability and hardening of nanostructured Cu-W alloyed thin films.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J T; Zhang, J Y; Hou, Z Q; Wu, K; Feng, X B; Liu, G; Sun, J

    2018-05-11

    In order to achieve desired mechanical properties of alloys by manipulating grain boundaries (GBs) via solute decoration, it is of great significance to understand the underlying mechanisms of microstructural evolution and plastic deformation. In this work, nanocrystalline (NC) Cu-W alloyed films with W concentrations spanning from 0 to 40 at% were prepared by using magnetron sputtering. Thermal stability (within the temperature range of 200 °C-600 °C) and hardness of the films were investigated by using the x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and nanoindentation, respectively. The NC pure Cu film exhibited substantial grain growth upon all annealing temperatures. The Cu-W alloyed films, however, displayed distinct microstructural evolution that depended not only on the W concentration but also on the annealing temperature. At a low temperature of 200 °C, all the Cu-W alloyed films were highly stable, with unconspicuous change in grain sizes. At high temperatures of 400 °C and 600 °C, the microstructural evolution was greatly controlled by the W concentrations. The Cu-W films with low W concentration manifested abnormal grain growth (AGG), while the ones with high W concentrations showed phase separation. TEM observations unveiled that the AGG in the Cu-W alloyed thin films was rationalized by GB migration. Nanoindentation results showed that, although the hardness of both the as-deposited and annealed Cu-W alloyed thin films monotonically increased with W concentrations, a transition from annealing hardening to annealing softening was interestingly observed at the critical W addition of ∼25 at%. It was further revealed that an enhanced GB segregation associated with detwinning was responsible for the annealing hardening, while a reduced solid solution hardening for the annealing softening.

  9. The W alloying effect on thermal stability and hardening of nanostructured Cu–W alloyed thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J. T.; Zhang, J. Y.; Hou, Z. Q.; Wu, K.; Feng, X. B.; Liu, G.; Sun, J.

    2018-05-01

    In order to achieve desired mechanical properties of alloys by manipulating grain boundaries (GBs) via solute decoration, it is of great significance to understand the underlying mechanisms of microstructural evolution and plastic deformation. In this work, nanocrystalline (NC) Cu–W alloyed films with W concentrations spanning from 0 to 40 at% were prepared by using magnetron sputtering. Thermal stability (within the temperature range of 200 °C–600 °C) and hardness of the films were investigated by using the x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and nanoindentation, respectively. The NC pure Cu film exhibited substantial grain growth upon all annealing temperatures. The Cu–W alloyed films, however, displayed distinct microstructural evolution that depended not only on the W concentration but also on the annealing temperature. At a low temperature of 200 °C, all the Cu–W alloyed films were highly stable, with unconspicuous change in grain sizes. At high temperatures of 400 °C and 600 °C, the microstructural evolution was greatly controlled by the W concentrations. The Cu–W films with low W concentration manifested abnormal grain growth (AGG), while the ones with high W concentrations showed phase separation. TEM observations unveiled that the AGG in the Cu–W alloyed thin films was rationalized by GB migration. Nanoindentation results showed that, although the hardness of both the as-deposited and annealed Cu–W alloyed thin films monotonically increased with W concentrations, a transition from annealing hardening to annealing softening was interestingly observed at the critical W addition of ∼25 at%. It was further revealed that an enhanced GB segregation associated with detwinning was responsible for the annealing hardening, while a reduced solid solution hardening for the annealing softening.

  10. Effect of Boron Doping on Cellular Discontinuous Precipitation for Age-Hardenable Cu–Ti Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Semboshi, Satoshi; Ikeda, Jun; Iwase, Akihiro; Takasugi, Takayuki; Suzuki, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    The effects of boron doping on the microstructural evolution and mechanical and electrical properties of age-hardenable Cu–4Ti (at.%) alloys are investigated. In the quenched Cu–4Ti–0.03B (at.%) alloy, elemental B (boron) is preferentially segregated at the grain boundaries of the supersaturated solid-solution phase. The aging behavior of the B-doped alloy is mostly similar to that of conventional age-hardenable Cu–Ti alloys. In the early stage of aging at 450 °C, metastable β′-Cu4Ti with fine needle-shaped precipitates continuously form in the matrix phase. Cellular discontinuous precipitates composed of the stable β-Cu4Ti and solid-solution laminates are then formed and grown at the grain boundaries. However, the volume fraction of the discontinuous precipitates is lower in the Cu–4Ti–0.03B alloy than the Cu–4Ti alloy, particularly in the over-aging period of 72–120 h. The suppression of the formation of discontinuous precipitates eventually results in improvement of the hardness and tensile strength. It should be noted that minor B doping of Cu–Ti alloys also effectively enhances the elongation to fracture, which should be attributed to segregation of B at the grain boundaries.

  11. Non-radiation hardened microprocessors in space-based remote sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCoursey, R.; Melton, Ryan; Estes, Robert R., Jr.

    2006-09-01

    The CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) mission is a comprehensive suite of active and passive sensors including a 20Hz 230mj Nd:YAG lidar, a visible wavelength Earth-looking camera and an imaging infrared radiometer. CALIPSO flies in formation with the Earth Observing System Post-Meridian (EOS PM) train, provides continuous, near-simultaneous measurements and is a planned 3 year mission. CALIPSO was launched into a 98 degree sun synchronous Earth orbit in April of 2006 to study clouds and aerosols and acquires over 5 gigabytes of data every 24 hours. Figure 1 shows the ground track of one CALIPSO orbit as well as high and low intensity South Atlantic Anomaly outlines. CALIPSO passes through the SAA several times each day. Spaced based remote sensing systems that include multiple instruments and/or instruments such as lidar generate large volumes of data and require robust real-time hardware and software mechanisms and high throughput processors. Due to onboard storage restrictions and telemetry downlink limitations these systems must pre-process and reduce the data before sending it to the ground. This onboard processing and realtime requirement load may mean that newer more powerful processors are needed even though acceptable radiation-hardened versions have not yet been released. CALIPSO's single board computer payload controller processor is actually a set of four (4) voting non-radiation hardened COTS Power PC 603r's built on a single width VME card by General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems (GDAIS). Significant radiation concerns for CALIPSO and other Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites include the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), the north and south poles and strong solar events. Over much of South America and extending into the South Atlantic Ocean (see figure 1) the Van Allen radiation belts dip to just 200-800km and spacecraft entering this area are subjected to high energy protons and experience higher than

  12. Non Radiation Hardened Microprocessors in Spaced Based Remote Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decoursey, Robert J.; Estes, Robert F.; Melton, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    The CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) mission is a comprehensive suite of active and passive sensors including a 20Hz 230mj Nd:YAG lidar, a visible wavelength Earth-looking camera and an imaging infrared radiometer. CALIPSO flies in formation with the Earth Observing System Post-Meridian (EOS PM) train, provides continuous, near-simultaneous measurements and is a planned 3 year mission. CALIPSO was launched into a 98 degree sun synchronous Earth orbit in April of 2006 to study clouds and aerosols and acquires over 5 gigabytes of data every 24 hours. The ground track of one CALIPSO orbit as well as high and low intensity South Atlantic Anomaly outlines is shown. CALIPSO passes through the SAA several times each day. Spaced based remote sensing systems that include multiple instruments and/or instruments such as lidar generate large volumes of data and require robust real-time hardware and software mechanisms and high throughput processors. Due to onboard storage restrictions and telemetry downlink limitations these systems must pre-process and reduce the data before sending it to the ground. This onboard processing and realtime requirement load may mean that newer more powerful processors are needed even though acceptable radiation-hardened versions have not yet been released. CALIPSO's single board computer payload controller processor is actually a set of four (4) voting non-radiation hardened COTS Power PC 603r's built on a single width VME card by General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems (GDAIS). Significant radiation concerns for CALIPSO and other Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites include the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), the north and south poles and strong solar events. Over much of South America and extending into the South Atlantic Ocean the Van Allen radiation belts dip to just 200-800km and spacecraft entering this area are subjected to high energy protons and experience higher than normal Single Event Upset

  13. Cold formability prediction by the modified maximum force criterion with a non-associated Hill48 model accounting for anisotropic hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, J.; Ahn, D. C.; Chae, D. C.; Münstermann, S.; Bleck, W.

    2016-08-01

    Experimental and numerical investigations on the characterisation and prediction of cold formability of a ferritic steel sheet are performed in this study. Tensile tests and Nakajima tests were performed for the plasticity characterisation and the forming limit diagram determination. In the numerical prediction, the modified maximum force criterion is selected as the localisation criterion. For the plasticity model, a non-associated formulation of the Hill48 model is employed. With the non-associated flow rule, the model can result in a similar predictive capability of stress and r-value directionality to the advanced non-quadratic associated models. To accurately characterise the anisotropy evolution during hardening, the anisotropic hardening is also calibrated and implemented into the model for the prediction of the formability.

  14. Rapid growth rate results in remarkably hardened breast in broilers during the middle stage of rearing: A biochemical and histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Tomohito; Yamada, Michi; Yoshida, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    The high incidence of meat of impaired quality poses a serious problem in the poultry industry. In recent years, the incidence of the pectoralis major muscle that appeared pale colored, remarkably hardened, and exudative, called “wooden breast” or “woody breast” has increased in slaughter houses. In the present study, 19-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens affected (n = 10) and unaffected (n = 10) with remarkably hardened breast were selected from a commercial broiler farm, and reared to 55 days of age under a controlled environment. Among the affected birds, 5 of 10 birds appeared exhausted with markedly suppressed weight gain and 4 of 10 birds died during the rearing period. In contrast, all unaffected birds survived and most gained weight. Four of 10 unaffected birds lost the ability of back-to-back wing contact by the late stage of rearing. The biochemical analysis of blood plasma samples of 20-day-old birds revealed that creatine kinase and L-aspartate aminotransferase values in most affected birds were higher than those in unaffected birds; however, these values in unaffected birds increased rapidly with lost wing contactability and increasing age. Postmortem examinations revealed that the mean diameter of myofibers in affected birds was smaller than that in unaffected birds. Moreover, symptoms of degenerative and regenerative muscles were observed in most birds in both groups. Among them, a decrease in, or defect of, the characteristic polygonal shape of myofibers was the most common change within the pectoralis major muscles in both groups. The present study demonstrated that broilers affected with remarkably hardened breast during the middle stage of rearing would have suppressed physical status and weight gain, or would die. It was suggested that rapid growth in broilers might be a cause of remarkably hardened breast. PMID:29474396

  15. Rapid growth rate results in remarkably hardened breast in broilers during the middle stage of rearing: A biochemical and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Tomohito; Yamada, Michi; Yoshida, Takashi; Watanabe, Takafumi

    2018-01-01

    The high incidence of meat of impaired quality poses a serious problem in the poultry industry. In recent years, the incidence of the pectoralis major muscle that appeared pale colored, remarkably hardened, and exudative, called "wooden breast" or "woody breast" has increased in slaughter houses. In the present study, 19-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens affected (n = 10) and unaffected (n = 10) with remarkably hardened breast were selected from a commercial broiler farm, and reared to 55 days of age under a controlled environment. Among the affected birds, 5 of 10 birds appeared exhausted with markedly suppressed weight gain and 4 of 10 birds died during the rearing period. In contrast, all unaffected birds survived and most gained weight. Four of 10 unaffected birds lost the ability of back-to-back wing contact by the late stage of rearing. The biochemical analysis of blood plasma samples of 20-day-old birds revealed that creatine kinase and L-aspartate aminotransferase values in most affected birds were higher than those in unaffected birds; however, these values in unaffected birds increased rapidly with lost wing contactability and increasing age. Postmortem examinations revealed that the mean diameter of myofibers in affected birds was smaller than that in unaffected birds. Moreover, symptoms of degenerative and regenerative muscles were observed in most birds in both groups. Among them, a decrease in, or defect of, the characteristic polygonal shape of myofibers was the most common change within the pectoralis major muscles in both groups. The present study demonstrated that broilers affected with remarkably hardened breast during the middle stage of rearing would have suppressed physical status and weight gain, or would die. It was suggested that rapid growth in broilers might be a cause of remarkably hardened breast.

  16. Evaluation of Microstructure and Toughness of AISI D2 Steel by Bright Hardening in Comparison with Oil Quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkamani, H.; Raygan, Sh.; Rassizadehghani, J.

    2011-12-01

    AISI D2 is used widely in the manufacture of blanking and cold-forming dies, on account of its excellent hardness and wear behavior. Increasing toughness at a fixed high level of hardness is growing requirement for this kind of tool steel. Improving microstructure characteristics, especially refinement of coarse carbides, is an appropriate way to meet such requirement. In this study, morphology and size of carbides in martensite matrix were compared between two kinds of samples, which were bright hardened (quenching in hot alkaline salt bath consisting of 60% KOH and 40% NaOH) at 230 °C and quenched in oil bath at 60 °C. Results showed that morphology and distribution of carbides in samples performed by bright hardening were finer and almost spherical compared to that of oil quenched. This microstructure resulted in an improvement in toughness and tensile properties of alloy.

  17. Hardening characteristics of CO2 laser welds in advanced high strength steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tae-Kyo; Park, Bong-Gyu; Kang, Chung-Yun

    2012-06-01

    When the CO2 laser welder with 6 kW output was used to weld 4 TRIP steels, 2 DP steels and a precipitation-hardened steel, which have the tensile strength in the range of 600-1000 MPa, the effect of welding speed on hardening characteristics was investigated. In the weld of TRIP steels and DP steels, the maximum hardness was shown in the fusion zone and the HAZ near the bond line, and the hardness was decreased from the HAZ to the base metal. Only in the PH600 steel, the maximum hardness was shown in the fusion zone and the hardness was decreased from bond line to the base metal. The maximum hardness value was not changed due to the variation of the welding speed within a given range of the welding speed. When the correlation with maximum hardness value using 6 known carbon equivalents was examined, those of CEL (=C+Si/50+Mn/25+P/2+Cr/25) and PL (=C+Mn/22+14B) were 0.96 and 0.95 respectively, and CEL was better because it could reflect the contribution of Si and Cr added to AHSS. The maximum hardness value could be calculated by the equation "Hmax=701CEL+281". The phase transformation analysis indicated that only martensitic transformation was expected in the given range of the welding conditions. Therefore, the maximum hardness of the weld was the same as that of water cooled steel and not changed with the variation of the welding speed

  18. Experimental investigation of wave dispersion in hardened concrete and reference liquid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliopoulos, Sokratis N.; Malm, Fabian; Grosse, Christian U.; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, more and more, the monitoring of concrete's setting and hardening as well as concrete's condition assessment and mechanical characterization is realized with the Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity technique. However, despite its increasing use, the high potential and the vast applicability over a wide range of materials and structures, the aforementioned nondestructive testing technique is only partially exploited since a) a default pulse usually not selected by the user is transmitted, b) a single frequency band dependent on the testing equipment (pulse generator and sensors) is excited and c) usually the first part of the signal is only considered. Moreover, the technique, as defined by its name, is based on pulse velocity measurements which strongly rely on a predefined threshold value for the calculation of the travel time between the transmitting and receiving sensor. To overcome all these issues, in the current experimental campaign, user-defined signals are generated, a broad range of ultrasonic frequencies is excited, while the full length of the signal is also taken into account. In addition, the pulse velocity measurements are replaced by the more advanced phase velocity calculations determined by reference phase points of the time domain signals or by phase differences of the signals transformed in the frequency domain. The experiments are mainly conducted in hardened concrete specimens but the aggregates are substituted by spherical glass beads of well-defined sizes and contents in order to better control the microstructure. Reference liquid media are also examined for comparison purposes. The results in both cases show strong dispersive trends indicated by significant changes in the phase velocity.

  19. 2D beam hardening correction for micro-CT of immersed hard tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Graham; Mills, David

    2016-10-01

    Beam hardening artefacts arise in tomography and microtomography with polychromatic sources. Typically, specimens appear to be less dense in the center of reconstructions because as the path length through the specimen increases, so the X-ray spectrum is shifted towards higher energies due to the preferential absorption of low energy photons. Various approaches have been taken to reduce or correct for these artefacts. Pre-filtering the X-ray beam with a thin metal sheet will reduce soft energy X-rays and thus narrow the spectrum. Correction curves can be applied to the projections prior to reconstruction which transform measured attenuation with polychromatic radiation to predicted attenuation with monochromatic radiation. These correction curves can be manually selected, iteratively derived from reconstructions (this generally works where density is assumed to be constant) or derived from a priori information about the X-ray spectrum and specimen composition. For hard tissue specimens, the latter approach works well if the composition is reasonably homogeneous. In the case of an immersed or embedded specimen (e.g., tooth or bone) the relative proportions of mineral and "organic" (including medium and plastic container) species varies considerably for different ray paths and simple beam hardening correction does not give accurate results. By performing an initial reconstruction, the total path length through the container can be determined. By modelling the X-ray properties of the specimen, a 2D correction transform can then be created such that the predicted monochromatic attenuation can be derived as a function of both the measured polychromatic attenuation and the container path length.

  20. An index of beam hardening artifact for two-dimensional cone-beam CT tomographic images: establishment and preliminary evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fusong; Lv, Peijun; Yang, Huifang; Wang, Yong; Sun, Yuchun

    2015-07-01

    Objectives: Based on the pixel gray value measurements, establish a beam-hardening artifacts index of the cone-beam CT tomographic image, and preliminarily evaluate its applicability. Methods: The 5mm-diameter metal ball and resin ball were fixed on the light-cured resin base plate respectively, while four vitro molars were fixed above and below the ball, on the left and right respectively, which have 10mm distance with the metal ball. Then, cone beam CT was used to scan the fixed base plate twice. The same layer tomographic images were selected from the two data and imported into the Photoshop software. The circle boundary was built through the determination of the center and radius of the circle, according to the artifact-free images section. Grayscale measurement tools were used to measure the internal boundary gray value G0, gray value G1 and G2 of 1mm and 20mm artifacts outside the circular boundary, the length L1 of the arc with artifacts in the circular boundary, the circumference L2. Hardening artifacts index was set A = (G1 / G0) * 0.5 + (G2 / G1) * 0.4 + (L2 / L1) * 0.1. Then, the A values of metal and resin materials were calculated respectively. Results: The A value of cobalt-chromium alloy material is 1, and resin material is 0. Conclusion: The A value reflects comprehensively the three factors of hardening artifacts influencing normal oral tissue image sharpness of cone beam CT. The three factors include relative gray value, the decay rate and range of artifacts.

  1. Ultrasonic impact peening for the surface properties’ management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordyuk, Bohdan N.; Prokopenko, Georgiy I.

    2007-12-01

    It is demonstrated that the ultrasonic impact peening (UIP) technique is a beneficial method for essential increase in the fatigue durability of metallic materials due to the surface nanocrystallization and hardening process provided for severe plastic deformation of surface via multiple impacts of high velocity impact pins. Nano-scale grain structures were obtained in the surface layers of stainless steel, low carbon steel weld and different titanium alloys using developed equipment for the UIP. Both the surface nanostructure and compressive residual stresses are shown to attribute to the essential hardness increase. It is revealed experimentally using profilometry that new modification of the UIP apparatus providing high velocity "sliding" impacts leads to marked diminution of the surface roughness, which is another important factor affecting to the fatigue cracks initiation process. The two-dimensional finite element model is used to simulate the indent formation process during single impaction. The solid steel pin and the Al alloy plate are modeled as a rigid material and an elasto-plastic material, respectively. It is shown that the surface roughness magnitude depends on the correlation of the vertical and lateral load components.

  2. The effect of case hardening treatment on aluminum 7075 toward its hardness and tensile strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darsono, Febri Budi; Triyono, Teguh; Surojo, Eko

    2018-02-01

    This research was aimed at figuring out the effect of case hardening treatment on aluminum 7075 toward its hardness and tensile strength. Pack carburizing was the method used in this process. It was conducted in 2 hours of holding time in various solution heat treatment (SHT): 350°C, 400°C, 450°C, and 500° C using smoergen oven, which was then followed by quenching. Several tests to see the effect of the treatment were done before and after the treatment, namely: Vickers hardness test using HWMMT-X7, tensile test ASTM B557-84 using SANS UTM, XRD test using Rigaku Benchtop, and SEM-EDS test using JEOL JSM-6510 LA. The result showed that the hardness and tensile of aluminum 7075 before treatment were 59.1 VHN and 235.7 Mpa. After treatment, its hardness values were 94.0, 120.7, 141.3, and 145.9 VHN and the tensile strengths were 321.7, 410.0, 480.0, and 538.3 Mpa. The result showed that SHT temperature rise in pack carburizing process increased the tensile strength, while the increase of the hardness value is due to the formation of Al4C3 phase on the aluminum surface.

  3. Numerical simulation of the roll levelling of third generation fortiform 1050 steel using a nonlinear combined hardening material model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galdos, L.; Saenz de Argandoña, E.; Mendiguren, J.; Silvestre, E.

    2017-09-01

    The roll levelling is a flattening process used to remove the residual stresses and imperfections of metal strips by means of plastic deformations. During the process, the metal sheet is subjected to cyclic tension-compression deformations leading to a flat product. The process is especially important to avoid final geometrical errors when coils are cold formed or when thick plates are cut by laser. In the last years, and due to the appearance of high strength materials such as Ultra High Strength Steels, machine design engineers are demanding reliable tools for the dimensioning of the levelling facilities. Like in other metal forming fields, finite element analysis seems to be the most widely used solution to understand the occurring phenomena and to calculate the processing loads. In this paper, the roll levelling process of the third generation Fortiform 1050 steel is numerically analysed. The process has been studied using the MSC MARC software and two different material laws. A pure isotropic hardening law has been used and set as the baseline study. In the second part, tension-compression tests have been carried out to analyse the cyclic behaviour of the steel. With the obtained data, a new material model using a combined isotropic-kinematic hardening formulation has been fitted. Finally, the influence of the material model in the numerical results has been analysed by comparing a pure isotropic model and the later combined mixed hardening model.

  4. On the modelling of complex kinematic hardening and nonquadratic anisotropic yield criteria at finite strains: application to sheet metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilo, Tiago J.; Vladimirov, Ivaylo N.; Valente, Robertt A. F.; Reese, Stefanie

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, a finite strain model for complex combined isotropic-kinematic hardening is presented. It accounts for finite elastic and finite plastic strains and is suitable for any anisotropic yield criterion. In order to model complex cyclic hardening phenomena, the kinematic hardening is described by several back stress components. To that end, a new procedure is proposed in which several multiplicative decompositions of the plastic part of the deformation gradient are considered. The formulation incorporates a completely general format of the yield function, which means that any yield function can by employed by following a procedure that ensures the principle of material frame indifference. The constitutive equations are derived in a thermodynamically consistent way and numerically integrated by means of a backward-Euler algorithm based on the exponential map. The performance of the constitutive model is assessed via numerical simulations of industry-relevant sheet metal forming processes (U-channel forming and draw/re-draw of a panel benchmarks), the results of which are compared to experimental data. The comparison between numerical and experimental results shows that the use of multiple back stress components is very advantageous in the description of springback. This holds in particular if one carries out a comparison with the results of using only one component. Moreover, the numerically obtained results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data.

  5. NINJA: a noninvasive framework for internal computer security hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Thomas G.; Thomson, Steve

    2004-07-01

    Vulnerabilities are a growing problem in both the commercial and government sector. The latest vulnerability information compiled by CERT/CC, for the year ending Dec. 31, 2002 reported 4129 vulnerabilities representing a 100% increase over the 2001 [1] (the 2003 report has not been published at the time of this writing). It doesn"t take long to realize that the growth rate of vulnerabilities greatly exceeds the rate at which the vulnerabilities can be fixed. It also doesn"t take long to realize that our nation"s networks are growing less secure at an accelerating rate. As organizations become aware of vulnerabilities they may initiate efforts to resolve them, but quickly realize that the size of the remediation project is greater than their current resources can handle. In addition, many IT tools that suggest solutions to the problems in reality only address "some" of the vulnerabilities leaving the organization unsecured and back to square one in searching for solutions. This paper proposes an auditing framework called NINJA (acronym for Network Investigation Notification Joint Architecture) for noninvasive daily scanning/auditing based on common security vulnerabilities that repeatedly occur in a network environment. This framework is used for performing regular audits in order to harden an organizations security infrastructure. The framework is based on the results obtained by the Network Security Assessment Team (NSAT) which emulates adversarial computer network operations for US Air Force organizations. Auditing is the most time consuming factor involved in securing an organization's network infrastructure. The framework discussed in this paper uses existing scripting technologies to maintain a security hardened system at a defined level of performance as specified by the computer security audit team. Mobile agents which were under development at the time of this writing are used at a minimum to improve the noninvasiveness of our scans. In general, noninvasive

  6. Combined effects of pre-hardening and fall fertilization on nitrogen translocation and storage in Quercus variabilis seedlings

    Treesearch

    Guolei Li; Yan Zhu; Yong Liu; Jiaxi Wang; Jiajia Liu; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining proper seedling nitrogen status is important for outplanting success. Fall fertilization of evergreen conifer seedlings is a well-known technique for averting nitrogen (N) dilution caused by continued seedling growth during hardening. For deciduous seedlings, this technique is much less understood, and regardless of foliage type, the interaction of N status...

  7. Magnetron sputtered boron films for increasing hardness of a metal surface

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M [Livermore, CA; Jankowski, Alan F [Livermore, CA

    2003-05-27

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  8. Surface Hardening by Laser Skin Melting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    typical cross-sectional view of a melt region. Various solutions includina Murakami’s reaqent, Vilella’s reagent and an oxalic acid solution were used...each type selectively revealinq different microstructu- ral features. A second etch in an oxalic acid/hydrochloric acid solution was used in the...genization due to vigorous hydrothermal mixing and liquid super- heating. Computations by Greenwald (13) from a heat flow model are graphically represented

  9. Radiation Hardened Telerobotic Dismantling System Development Final Report CRADA No. TC-1340-96

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.; Lightman, A.

    This project was a collaborative effort between the University of California, LLNL and RedZone Robotics, Inc. for the development of radiation-hardened telerobotic dismantling systems for use in applications such as nuclear facility remediation, nuclear accident response, and Chemobyltype remediation. The project supported the design, development, fabrication and testing of a Ukrainian robotic systems. The project was completed on time and within budget. All deliverables were completed. The final project deliverables were consistent with the plans developed in the original project with the exception that the fabricated systems remained in Ukraine.

  10. Zinc coated sheet steel for press hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Zahra N.

    Galvanized steels are of interest to enhance corrosion resistance of press-hardened steels, but concerns related to liquid metal embrittlement have been raised. The objective of this study was to assess the soak time and temperature conditions relevant to the hot-stamping process during which Zn penetration did or did not occur in galvanized 22MnB5 press-hardening steel. A GleebleRTM 3500 was used to heat treat samples using hold times and temperatures similar to those used in industrial hot-stamping. Deformation at both elevated temperature and room temperature were conducted to assess the coating and substrate behavior related to forming (at high temperature) and service (at room temperature). The extent of alloying between the coating and substrate was assessed on undeformed samples heat treated under similar conditions to the deformed samples. The coating transitioned from an α + Gamma1 composition to an α (bcc Fe-Zn) phase with increased soak time. This transition likely corresponded to a decrease in availability of Zn-rich liquid in the coating during elevated temperature deformation. Penetration of Zn into the substrate sheet in the undeformed condition was not observed for any of the processing conditions examined. The number and depth of cracks in the coating and substrate steel was also measured in the hot-ductility samples. The number of cracks appeared to increase, while the depth of cracks appeared to decrease, with increasing soak time and increasing soak temperature. The crack depth appeared to be minimized in the sample soaked at the highest soak temperature (900 °C) for intermediate and extended soak times (300 s or 600 s). Zn penetration into the substrate steel was observed in the hot-ductility samples soaked at each hold temperature for the shortest soak time (10 s) before being deformed at elevated temperature. Reduction of area and elongation measurements showed that the coated sample soaked at the highest temperature and longest soak time

  11. Radiation-hardened optically reconfigurable gate array exploiting holographic memory characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Daisaku; Watanabe, Minoru

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we present a proposal for a radiation-hardened optically reconfigurable gate array (ORGA). The ORGA is a type of field programmable gate array (FPGA). The ORGA configuration can be executed by the exploitation of holographic memory characteristics even if 20% of the configuration data are damaged. Moreover, the optoelectronic technology enables the high-speed reconfiguration of the programmable gate array. Such a high-speed reconfiguration can increase the radiation tolerance of its programmable gate array to 9.3 × 104 times higher than that of current FPGAs. Through experimentation, this study clarified the configuration dependability using the impulse-noise emulation and high-speed configuration capabilities of the ORGA with corrupt configuration contexts. Moreover, the radiation tolerance of the programmable gate array was confirmed theoretically through probabilistic calculation.

  12. A Combined Precipitation, Yield Stress, and Work Hardening Model for Al-Mg-Si Alloys Incorporating the Effects of Strain Rate and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhr, Ole Runar; Hopperstad, Odd Sture; Børvik, Tore

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a combined precipitation, yield strength, and work hardening model for Al-Mg-Si alloys known as NaMo has been further developed to include the effects of strain rate and temperature on the resulting stress-strain behavior. The extension of the model is based on a comprehensive experimental database, where thermomechanical data for three different Al-Mg-Si alloys are available. In the tests, the temperature was varied between 20 °C and 350 °C with strain rates ranging from 10-6 to 750 s-1 using ordinary tension tests for low strain rates and a split-Hopkinson tension bar system for high strain rates, respectively. This large span in temperatures and strain rates covers a broad range of industrial relevant problems from creep to impact loading. Based on the experimental data, a procedure for calibrating the different physical parameters of the model has been developed, starting with the simplest case of a stable precipitate structure and small plastic strains, from which basic kinetic data for obstacle limited dislocation glide were extracted. For larger strains, when work hardening becomes significant, the dynamic recovery was linked to the Zener-Hollomon parameter, again using a stable precipitate structure as a basis for calibration. Finally, the complex situation of concurrent work hardening and dynamic evolution of the precipitate structure was analyzed using a stepwise numerical solution algorithm where parameters representing the instantaneous state of the structure were used to calculate the corresponding instantaneous yield strength and work hardening rate. The model was demonstrated to exhibit a high degree of predictive power as documented by a good agreement between predictions and measurements, and it is deemed well suited for simulations of thermomechanical processing of Al-Mg-Si alloys where plastic deformation is carried out at various strain rates and temperatures.

  13. Atomistic study of the hardening of ferritic iron by Ni-Cr decorated dislocation loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonny, G.; Bakaev, A.; Terentyev, D.; Zhurkin, E.; Posselt, M.

    2018-01-01

    The exact nature of the radiation defects causing hardening in reactor structural steels consists of several components that are not yet clearly determined. While generally, the hardening is attributed to dislocation loops, voids and secondary phases (radiation-induced precipitates), recent advanced experimental and computational studies point to the importance of solute-rich clusters (SRCs). Depending on the exact composition of the steel, SRCs may contain Mn, Ni and Cu (e.g. in reactor pressure vessel steels) or Ni, Cr, Si, Mn (e.g. in high-chromium steels for generation IV and fusion applications). One of the hypotheses currently implied to explain their formation is the process of radiation-induced diffusion and segregation of these elements to small dislocation loops (heterogeneous nucleation), so that the distinction between SRCs and loops becomes somewhat blurred. In this work, we perform an atomistic study to investigate the enrichment of loops by Ni and Cr solutes and their interaction with an edge dislocation. The dislocation loops decorated with Ni and Cr solutes are obtained by Monte Carlo simulations, while the effect of solute segregation on the loop's strength and interaction mechanism is then addressed by large scale molecular dynamics simulations. The synergy of the Cr-Ni interaction and their competition to occupy positions in the dislocation loop core are specifically clarified.

  14. Tool wear of (Ti, Al) N-coated polycrystalline cubic boron nitride compact in cutting of hardened steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Tadahiro; Hanyu, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride compact (cBN) is effective tool material for cutting hardened steel. In addition to coated high speed steel and coated cemented carbide that has long been used for cutting materials, more recently, coated cBN has also been used. In this study, to verify the effectiveness of the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN, which is formed on the substrate of cBN by the physical vapor deposition method, the hardened steel was turned with the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN tool at a cutting speed of 3.33, 5.00 m/s, a feed rate of 0.3 mm/rev and a depth of cut of 0.1 mm. Furthermore, the uncoated cBN, which was the substrate of the (Ti,Al)N-coated, was also used. The tool wear of the cBN tools was experimentally investigated. The following results were obtained: (1) The contact area between the rake face and the chip of the (Ti,.Al)N-coated cBN tool was smaller than that of the uncoated cBN tool. (2) The tool wear of the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN was smaller than that of uncoated cBN. (3) The wear progress of the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN with the main element phase of the TiCN-Al, was slower than that of the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN with the main element phase of the TiN-Al. (4) In the case of the high cutting speed of 5.00 m/s, the tool wear of the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN was also smaller than that of uncoated cBN. The above results clarify that the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN can be used as a tool material in high feed cutting of hardened steel.

  15. Nanostructured β-type titanium alloy fabricated by ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification.

    PubMed

    Kheradmandfard, Mehdi; Kashani-Bozorg, Seyed Farshid; Kim, Chang-Lae; Hanzaki, Abbas Zarei; Pyoun, Young-Shik; Kim, Jung-Hyong; Amanov, Auezhan; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2017-11-01

    The surface of β-type Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr (TNTZ) alloy, which is a promising material for biomedical applications, was treated with the ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) technique to enhance its hardness. As a result, a gradient nanostructured (GNS) layer was generated in the surface; the microstructure of the top surface layer consisted of nanoscale lamellae with a width of about 60-200nm. In addition, there were lamellar grains consisting of nanostructured subgrains having unclear and wavy boundaries. The treated surface exhibited a hardness value of ∼385HV compared to 190HV for the untreated alloy. It was further determined that highly dense deformation twins were generated at a depth of ∼40-150µm below the UNSM-treated surface. These deformation twins led to a significant work hardening effect which aided in enhancing the mechanical properties. It was also found that UNSM treatment resulted in the formation of micropatterns on the surface, which would be beneficial for high bioactivity and bone regeneration performance of TNTZ implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of intraspecific variation in thermal responses for estimating an elevational cline in the timing of cold hardening in a sub-boreal conifer.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, W; Ono, K; Hara, T; Goto, S

    2015-01-01

    To avoid winter frost damage, evergreen coniferous species develop cold hardiness with suitable phenology for the local climate regime. Along the elevational gradient, a genetic cline in autumn phenology is often recognised among coniferous populations, but further quantification of evolutionary adaptation related to the local environment and its responsible signals generating the phenological variation are poorly understood. We evaluated the timing of cold hardening among populations of Abies sachalinensis, based on time series freezing tests using trees derived from four seed source populations × three planting sites. Furthermore, we constructed a model to estimate the development of hardening from field temperatures and the intraspecific variations occurring during this process. An elevational cline was detected such that high-elevation populations developed cold hardiness earlier than low-elevation populations, representing significant genetic control. Because development occurred earlier at high-elevation planting sites, the genetic trend across elevation overlapped with the environmental trend. Based on the trade-off between later hardening to lengthen the active growth period and earlier hardening to avoid frost damage, this genetic cline would be adaptive to the local climate. Our modelling approach estimated intraspecific variation in two model components: the threshold temperature, which was the criterion for determining whether the trees accumulated the thermal value, and the chilling requirement for trees to achieve adequate cold hardiness. A higher threshold temperature and a lower chilling requirement could be responsible for the earlier phenology of the high-elevation population. These thermal responses may be one of the important factors driving the elevation-dependent adaptation of A. sachalinensis. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Computer-aided study of key factors determining high mechanical properties of nanostructured surface layers in metal-ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, Igor S.; Shilko, Evgeny V.; Ovcharenko, Vladimir E.; Psakhie, Sergey G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the movable cellular automaton method. It is based on numerical models of surface layers of the metal-ceramic composite NiCr-TiC modified under electron beam irradiation in inert gas plasmas. The models take into account different geometric, concentration and mechanical parameters of ceramic and metallic components. The authors study the contributions of key structural factors in mechanical properties of surface layers and determine the ranges of their variations by providing the optimum balance of strength, strain hardening and fracture toughness.

  18. Beam hardening correction in CT myocardial perfusion measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Aaron; Hsieh, Jiang; Li, Jian-Ying; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a method for correcting beam hardening (BH) in cardiac CT perfusion imaging. The proposed algorithm works with reconstructed images instead of projection data. It applies thresholds to separate low (soft tissue) and high (bone and contrast) attenuating material in a CT image. The BH error in each projection is estimated by a polynomial function of the forward projection of the segmented image. The error image is reconstructed by back-projection of the estimated errors. A BH-corrected image is then obtained by subtracting a scaled error image from the original image. Phantoms were designed to simulate the BH artifacts encountered in cardiac CT perfusion studies of humans and animals that are most commonly used in cardiac research. These phantoms were used to investigate whether BH artifacts can be reduced with our approach and to determine the optimal settings, which depend upon the anatomy of the scanned subject, of the correction algorithm for patient and animal studies. The correction algorithm was also applied to correct BH in a clinical study to further demonstrate the effectiveness of our technique.

  19. Yield Hardening of Electrorheological Fluids in Channel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helal, Ahmed; Qian, Bian; McKinley, Gareth H.; Hosoi, A. E.

    2016-06-01

    Electrorheological fluids offer potential for developing rapidly actuated hydraulic devices where shear forces or pressure-driven flow are present. In this study, the Bingham yield stress of electrorheological fluids with different particle volume fractions is investigated experimentally in wall-driven and pressure-driven flow modes using measurements in a parallel-plate rheometer and a microfluidic channel, respectively. A modified Krieger-Dougherty model can be used to describe the effects of the particle volume fraction on the yield stress and is in good agreement with the viscometric data. However, significant yield hardening in pressure-driven channel flow is observed and attributed to an increase and eventual saturation of the particle volume fraction in the channel. A phenomenological physical model linking the densification and consequent microstructure to the ratio of the particle aggregation time scale compared to the convective time scale is presented and used to predict the enhancement in yield stress in channel flow, enabling us to reconcile discrepancies in the literature between wall-driven and pressure-driven flows.

  20. Effect of Impact Compression on the Age-Hardening of Rapidly Solidified Al-Zn-Mg Base Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, Keitaro; Kobayashi, Hidetoshi

    Effect of impact compression on the age-hardening behavior and the mechanical properties of Mesoalite aluminum alloy was examined by means of the high-velocity plane collision between a projectile and Mesoalite by using a single powder gun. By imposing the impact compression to the Meso10 and Meso20 alloys in the state of quenching after the solution heat treatment, the following age-hardening at 110 °C was highly increased, comparing with the Mesoalite without the impact compression. XRD results revealed that high plastic strain was introduced on the specimen inside after the impact compression. Compression test results also clarified that both Meso10 and Meso20 alloy specimens imposed the impact compressive stresses more than 5 GPa after the peak-aging at 110°C showed higher yield stresses, comparing with the alloys without the impact compression. It was also shown that the Meso10 and Meso20 specimens after the solution heat treatment, followed by the high-velocity impact compression (12 GPa) and the peak-aging treatment indicated the highest compressive yield stresses such as 994 GPa in Meso10 and 1091 GPa in Meso20.