Science.gov

Sample records for surface mining

  1. Surface mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This paper reports on a GAO study of attorney and expert witness fees awarded as a result of litigation brought under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. As of March 24, 1989, a total of about $1.4 million had been awarded in attorney fees and expenses - about $1.3 subject to the provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, a comparison of its features with provisions of ERISA showed that the plan differed from ERISA provisions in areas such as eligibility, funding, and contribution limits.

  2. 30 CFR 72.620 - Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. 72.620 Section 72.620 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH HEALTH STANDARDS FOR COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 72.620 Drill dust control at surface mines...

  3. 30 CFR 72.620 - Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 72.620 Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. Holes shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. 72.620 Section 72.620 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  4. 30 CFR 72.620 - Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 72.620 Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. Holes shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. 72.620 Section 72.620 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  5. 30 CFR 72.620 - Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. 72.620 Section 72.620 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... § 72.620 Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. Holes shall...

  6. 30 CFR 72.620 - Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. 72.620 Section 72.620 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... § 72.620 Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. Holes shall...

  7. Proceedings 1985 symposium on surface mining, hydrology, sedimentology, and reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This conference presents papers relating to surface mining of coal and the surface effects caused by underground mining of coal. Methods of predicting and mitigating acid mine drainage is provided. Various papers on the hydrology of spoils and reclaimed mine sites are presented. Papers also include information on mining regulations, overburden chemistry, revegetation species, post-mining land use changes, bonding procedures, and environmental problems often associated with mine reclamation. Individual articles have been entered separately into the Energy Data Base.

  8. Reclamation of surface-mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, E.A.

    1981-09-01

    Research being performed on land reclamation at the Corona and Kellerman mines in Alabama is reported. Information is presented under the following headings: effects of topsoiling and mulching treatment on plant growth and soil erosion; preliminary findings on the germination and growth of Southern red oak seedlings on calcareous shale surface mine spoil; some effects of vegetation type and fertilization on growth, survival, and tip moth damage in loblolly pine planted on alkaline shale surface mine spoil; some effects of competition and fertilizer on the growth and survival of selected Christmas tree stock and Virginia pine on alkaline shale spoil; growth and survival of Eastern red cedar on alkaline shale spoil; and, greenhouse studies. The appendixes are entitled: study of the effects of acidification of calcareous shale on the growth of weeping love grass; the effects of competition and spoil mixtures on the growth of perennial ryegrass and weeping lovegrass; and, the effects of delayed fertilization on the growth of weeping lovegrass. (JGB)

  9. Impacts of surface mining on calving elk

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.K.

    1990-12-31

    Due to concern over potential impact of surface coal mining on a traditional elk calving ground, Colorado Yampa Coal Company conducted a six and one half year study from 1981 to 1987 to monitor elk calving behavior in connection habitat disturbance resulting from mining. The specific objectives were to: (1) determine if productivity of elk is changed as they are displaced from a traditional calving area; (2) determining what fidelity they exhibit to calving areas; and (3) describe the physical and vegetation characteristics of elk calving areas. During the study, 448 elk captures were recorded, 294 individual elk were tagged, 75 of which received radio transmitters. The radio transmitter collared elk were relocated 4,583 times. Telemetry work on the 75 individual elk revealed no negative impacts on elk using the mine site. Productivity, calving home range size and fidelity, and habitat utilization patterns between elk using the mine site and control elk were not significantly different. There has been no indication that elk are abandoning mine areas. Aspen habitats directly adjacent to active mining continue to be selected for during the late spring and summer. Reclaimed sites are used in proportion to their availability during spring and summer and are selected for during the fall and early winter. In addition, a large amount of information on cow elk mortality, summer and winter ranges, migration patterns and habitat utilization was obtained.

  10. Integrated Surface Mining and Reclamation Techniques: A Curriculum for Training Surface Mining Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Dept. of Mineral Engineering.

    The result of a project effort, this 45-unit curriculum was designed for use in training bituminous coal surface mine personnel in conducting strip mining operations more economically, with good health and safety practices, for environmental control. Containing 1-hour instructional units, the courses can be taught either three hours a night one…

  11. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume II. Mine reclamation, abandoned mine lands and policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  12. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume I. Mine water and mine waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  13. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2001-01-30

    The October-December 2003 Quarter was dedicated to analyzing the first years tree planting activities and evaluation of the results. This included the analyses of the species success at each of the sites and quantifying the baseline data for future year determination of research levels of mixes. The small mammal colonization study of revegetated surface mines was also initiated and sampling systems initiated.

  14. Geotechnical considerations in surface mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, A.K.

    1999-07-01

    Most attention in surface mine reclamation is given to agronomic soils and revegetation, but reclamation success depends on the geotechnical characteristics of the underlying earth. If the soil and rock that underline the surface are not stable, surface treatments lack the dependable foundation needed for them to succeed. Reclamation practioners need to understand those geotechnical considerations--material properties, structure, and processes--that affect stability. properties of rock and soil are altered by mining, and those altered materials together with water and processing waste form often-complex mixtures of materials that must be stabilized in reclamation. Surface mining alters existing landforms and creates new ones such as pit walls, spoil and waste rock piles, tailings impoundments, and earthfills. those structures need to be constructed or stabilized so that they can endure and support successful reclamation. processes that affect material properties and landforms include mechanical breakage, accelerated weathering, erosion, and mass movements. Mechanical breakage and the resulting accelerated weathering combine to change material properties, usually expressed as degraded strength, that can lead to instability of landforms. Erosion, especially that related to extreme storm events, and mass movements in the form of slop failures are the most problematic processes that must be taken into account in reclaiming mined lands. These geotechnical considerations are essential in successful reclamation, and practioners who overlook them may find their work literally sliding down a slippery slope.

  15. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner; Carmen Agouridis

    2006-03-31

    Since the implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) in May of 1978, many opportunities have been lost for the reforestation of surface mines in the eastern United States. Research has shown that excessive compaction of spoil material in the backfilling and grading process is the biggest impediment to the establishment of productive forests as a post-mining land use (Ashby, 1998, Burger et al., 1994, Graves et al., 2000). Stability of mine sites was a prominent concern among regulators and mine operators in the years immediately following the implementation of SMCRA. These concerns resulted in the highly compacted, flatly graded, and consequently unproductive spoils of the early post-SMCRA era. However, there is nothing in the regulations that requires mine sites to be overly compacted as long as stability is achieved. It has been cultural barriers and not regulatory barriers that have contributed to the failure of reforestation efforts under the federal law over the past 27 years. Efforts to change the perception that the federal law and regulations impede effective reforestation techniques and interfere with bond release must be implemented. Demonstration of techniques that lead to the successful reforestation of surface mines is one such method that can be used to change perceptions and protect the forest ecosystems that were indigenous to these areas prior to mining. The University of Kentucky initiated a large-scale reforestation effort to address regulatory and cultural impediments to forest reclamation in 2003. During the three years of this project 383,000 trees were planted on over 556 acres in different physiographic areas of Kentucky (Table 1, Figure 1). Species used for the project were similar to those that existed on the sites before mining was initiated (Table 2). A monitoring program was undertaken to evaluate growth and survival of the planted species as a function of spoil characteristics and

  16. Backfill hydrologic characteristics in a Tennessee area surface coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, C.G.

    1996-12-31

    The hydrological characteristics of backfill in a Tennessee area surface coal mine provide useful information concerning the aqueous environment in a recovering water table within a reclaimed surface mine. Chemical analysis of water samples provide a measure of reclamation activities.

  17. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  18. Surface mine fan installations at Inco Limited

    SciTech Connect

    Stachulak, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    Inco Limited operates 11 underground mines in the Sudbury District. The mines are located on the rim of the Sudbury Basin, an oval with the axis in the range of 27 and 60 km. The ore dips to at least 3000 m below surface. The ores are mined primarily for nickel and copper. Total ore production from underground is in excess of 55,000 tons per day. Over 40 surface fans have been installed since the late 1960`s. All of the fans are adjustable pitch, axial flow units. A major factor influencing ventilation design in the last 30 years has been the introduction of diesel equipment underground. Volumes per fan have ranged from 60 to 330 (cubic metres per second), with motors from 100 to 2500 hp. Fans of the axial flow type have been in common use for main fan installations at Canadian mines for many years. The standard arrangement has been to mount these fans horizontally, i.e. with the fan shaft and the long axis of the housing horizontal. This is a natural arrangement for an underground fan, but for a surface installation, a vertically mounted fan has definite advantages. The surface area taken up by a typical vertical fan installation is generally about one quarter of that with a horizontal fan of the same capacity. This is not a problem with isolated fans and flat surface outcrop sites, but where the installation is to be near existing buildings, or where there are poor surface soil conditions, space and cost considerations greatly favour vertical fans.

  19. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., the application shall describe the measures to be used to comply with 30 CFR 816.79. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION...

  20. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., the application shall describe the measures to be used to comply with 30 CFR 816.79. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION...

  1. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., the application shall describe the measures to be used to comply with 30 CFR 816.79. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION...

  2. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., the application shall describe the measures to be used to comply with 30 CFR 816.79. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION...

  3. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., the application shall describe the measures to be used to comply with 30 CFR 816.79. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION...

  4. Applying WEPP technologies to western alkaline surface coal mines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One aspect of planning surface mining operations, regulated by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), is estimating potential environmental impacts during mining operations and the reclamation period that follows. Practical computer simulation tools are effective for evaluating...

  5. Proceedings, 1983 symposium on surface mining, hydrology, sedimentology, and reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, D.H.

    1983-12-01

    Papers were presented on the following topics: mining technology; hydrology; sedimentology; reclamation; surface mining technology and policy; poster presentations; phosphate and arid land reclamation; reclamation special applications; and hydrology-sedimentology special applications. 45 papers have been abstracted separately.

  6. Proceedings, 1982 symposium on surface mining hydrology, sedimentology and reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Papers are presented on aspects of hydrology and land reclamation after surface mining. The chemical characteristics and bacterial treatment of acid mine drainage are discussed, along with the subjects of water quality, water movement and hydraulic conductivity in soils and mine spoil heaps. Geochemistry of groundwater near surface mining activities is considered. The effects of revegetation and reforestation, and the significance of fertilizers in land reclamation are discussed.

  7. 30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 912.764 Section 912.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining and reclamation operations....

  8. Bureau of mines cost estimating system handbook (in two parts). 1. Surface and underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The handbook provides a convenient costing procedure based on the summation of the costs for unit processes required in any particular mining or mineral processing operation. The costing handbook consists of a series of costing sections, each corresponding to a specific mining unit process. Contained within each section is the methodology to estimate either the capital or operating cost for that unit process. The unit process sections may be used to generate, in January 1984 dollars, costs through the use of either costing curves or formulae representing the prevailing technology. Coverage for surface mining includes dredging, quarrying, strip mining, and open pit mining. The underground mining includes individual development sections for drifting, raising, shaft sinking, stope development, various mining methods, underground mine haulage, general plant, and underground mine administrative cost.

  9. Predicting sediment yield from alternative surface mining methods

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, R.C.; Wells, L.G.; Barfield, B.J.; Moore, I.D.; Wilson, B.N.

    1982-12-01

    The focus of this research was to compare the predicted sediment yield and hydrologic impact of three alternative surface mining methods used in the Central and Southern Appalachian coal regions. The mining methods investigated were: 1) mountaintop removal, 2) post-1977 block-cut haul-back contour mining, and 3) pre-1977 contour mining. Sediment and hydrologic impacts were predicted through use of the SEDIMOT model. For the mine plans analyzed the post-1977 block-cut haul-back mining method produced significantly lower sediment and peak storm response.

  10. 77 FR 50165 - Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration,...

  11. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2005-10-02

    During this quarter a general forest monitoring program was conducted to measure treatment effects on above ground and below ground carbon C and Nitrogen (N) pools for the tree planting areas. Detailed studies to address specific questions pertaining to Carbon cycling was initiated with the development of plots to examine the influence of mycorrhizae, spoil chemical and mineralogical properties, and use of amendment on forest establishment and carbon sequestration. Efforts continued during this period to examine decomposition and heterotrophic respiration on C cycling in the reforestation plots. Projected climate change resulting from elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide has given rise to various strategies to sequester carbon in various terrestrial ecosystems. Reclaimed surface mine soils present one such potential carbon sink where traditional reclamation objectives can complement carbon sequestration. New plantings required the modification and design and installation on monitoring equipment. Maintenance and data monitoring on past and present installations are a continuing operation. The Department of Mining Engineering continued the collection of penetration resistance, penetration depth, and bulk density on both old and new treatment areas. Data processing and analysis is in process for these variables. Project scientists and graduate students continue to present results at scientific meetings, tours and field days presentations of the research areas are being conducted on a request basis.

  12. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2003-10-30

    The 2002-2003 Department of Energy plantings amounted to 164 acres containing 111,520 tree seedlings in eastern and western Kentucky. Data gathered on these trees included an inventory to determine survival of all planted species. A sub-sample of seedlings was selected to assess the height and diameter of individual species of seedlings established. Additional efforts involved collection of soil sample and litter samples, analysis of herbaceous ground cover from vegetation clip plots and leaf area on each tree species, and development of tissue collections. All areas were sampled for penetration resistance, penetration depth (or depth to refusal), and bulk density at various depths. Rain fall events and flow rates were recorded. The water quality of runoff samples involved the determination of total and settleable solids and particle size distribution. A study was initiated that will focus on the colonization of small mammals from forest edges to various areas located on reclaimed surface mines. This effort will provide a better understanding of the role small mammals and birds have in the establishment of plant communities on mine lands that will be useful in developing and improving reclamation techniques.

  13. Wildlife management, surface mining, and regional planning

    SciTech Connect

    Nieman, T.J.; Merkin, Z.R.

    1995-12-31

    Wildlife management, surface mining, and regional planning historically have had conflicting missions. The cooperative public/private venture which created the Robinson Forest and Cyprus-Amax Wildlife Management Areas is presented as an example of how a regional perspective encourages a symbiotic relationship among these functions. Wildlife management areas, as either an interim or final land use, are shown to incorporate development concepts which benefit the general public, the coal industry, and the environment. Examining the regional pattern of wildlife management areas and refuges confirms the appropriateness of the subject site for this use. It is suggested that the pattern of mined lands can be studied to identify other sites with potential to provide linkages between a wildlife habitat areas and encourage reclamation of such sites to the {open_quotes}fish and wildlife{close_quotes} postmining land use. Such reclamation strategies should be pursued within a long-term planning framework. More research is needed to recreate specific habitat types on drastically disturbed land and planning is needed to assure that sensitive habitats or species are located away from zones likely to undergo future development. Use of geographic information systems to integrate existing environmental information could make such studies more effective. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  14. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-08-02

    The April-June 2004 quarter was dedicated to the establishment of monitoring systems for all the new research areas. Hydrology and water quality monitoring continues to be conducted on all areas as does weather data pertinent to the research. Studies assessing specific questions pertaining to carbon flux has been established and the invasion of the vegetation by small mammals is being quantified. The approval of two experimental practices associated with this research by the United States Office of Surface Mining was a major accomplishment during this period of time. These experimental practices will eventually allow for tree planting on long steep slopes with loose grading systems and for the use of loose dumped spoil on mountain top removal areas with no grading in the final layer of rooting material for tree establishment.

  15. Surface Mining: Soil, Coal, and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, S. Fred

    Soil is a resource that is for all practical purposes nonrenewable. Natural soils have been formed over periods of thousands of years, although with intensive management and with inputs of nutrients and conditioners this time could be reduced.Coal is another precious resource, of critical importance as an interim fuel for perhaps the next hundred years or so, until renewable energy resources based on nuclear fusion or solar energy can become economic and widespread. Surface mining is the most efficient method for obtaining coal at lowest cost. But it disturbs the soil and takes it out of agricultural production for many years or decades, and sometimes forever, unless the land is properly restored at considerable cost.

  16. Abandoned Mine Detection in Western Pennsylvania Using Surface Wave Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B.

    2015-12-01

    Abandoned mines throughout the Appalachian region of the United States have been recognized as problematic. Resource extraction from these mines has long ceased and few, if any, documents pertaining to these operations exist. Over time support structures internal to the mines may collapse and lead to subsidence, potentially damaging surface structures. A non-invasive, surface deployed seismic method to detect undisclosed, abandoned near-surface mines would be beneficial as a first step to remediation. The use of seismic surface waves to analyze the upper several tens of meters of the subsurface has become an important technique for near-surface investigations and may provide a method for detection of near-surface, abandoned mine shafts. While there are many undocumented abandoned mines throughout the Appalachians one known example exists within Butler County, Pennsylvania. Although little is known about the overall operation there is limited documentation which provides information as to the location of the mine tunnels. Currently there is no recognized surface subsidence associated with the mine however documents indicate that the abandoned mining operations have an estimated depth ranging from twenty to fifty feet. To assist with acquisition a seismic land streamer was constructed. Use of a land streamer increases the speed, ease and efficiency required to perform a seismic survey. Additionally the land streamer allows for the acquisition of seismic surface waves which were analyzed using the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method. Data were acquired by conducting multiple, adjacent surveys perpendicular to the suspected location of abandoned mine tunnels. Throughout the survey area to a depth of approximately 15 meters, shear wave velocities range between approximately 200-1200 m/s. Based upon shear wave velocity changes within the profile anomalies have been identified corresponding to the contrast between the suspected mined, and unmined, areas.

  17. 30 CFR 933.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 933.762 Section 933.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designation Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  18. 30 CFR 905.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 905.762 Section 905.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining operations....

  19. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary...

  20. 30 CFR 921.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 921.762 Section 921.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  1. 30 CFR 933.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 933.762 Section 933.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designation Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  2. 30 CFR 939.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 939.762 Section 939.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  3. 30 CFR 921.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 921.762 Section 921.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  4. 30 CFR 947.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 947.762 Section 947.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  5. 30 CFR 942.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 942.762 Section 942.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) In...

  6. 30 CFR 941.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 941.762 Section 941.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  7. 30 CFR 939.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 939.762 Section 939.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  8. 30 CFR 947.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 947.762 Section 947.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  9. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary...

  10. 30 CFR 905.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 905.762 Section 905.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining operations....

  11. 30 CFR 941.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 941.762 Section 941.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  12. 77 FR 26046 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... for Surface Coal Mines and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health...)) (the Mine Act)) requires that frequent inspections and investigations in coal or other mines shall be... Act requires that every operator of a coal or other mine establish and maintain records, make...

  13. Determining the research needs of the surface coal mining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Zell, L.M.

    1982-12-01

    This paper reveals avenues open to the coal industry to help gain technology and research information needed to meet the requirements of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. It discusses projects of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Coal Mining and the Mining and Reclamation Council of America (MARC) to help meet the environmental needs as well as the coal industry needs.

  14. The market for large rigid haul trucks in surface mining

    SciTech Connect

    Gilewicz, P.

    2002-04-15

    Originally published in 2001 this updated report provides a definition of the market for large rigid haulers in surface mining. The analysis covers changes to the mining market segments buying these machines including the gains made by coal producers, retrenchment in copper mining, the consolidation taking place among gold mining companies, and the expansion of iron ore producers in Australia and Brazil. It includes a detailed accounting of 2001 truck shipments, and an analysis of trends in the Ultra-truck segment. It concludes with a revised forecast for shipments through 2006. 12 charts, 56 tabs., 2 apps.

  15. Effects of surface mining on aquatic resources in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Starnes, L.B.; Gasper, D.C.

    1995-05-01

    Surface mining is highly visible land use because it temporarily eliminates surface vegetation and can permanently change topography as with mountain-top removal and valley fill operations. It also permanently and drastically alters soil and subsurface geologic structure and disrupts surface and subsurface hydrologic regimes. The American Fisheries Society (AFS) encourages energy conservation, use of renewable resources, and recycling to minimize the need for non-renewable minerals and fuels that are obtained through mining processes. When mining occurs, it is AFS policy to encourage legislation and diligent regulation of all surface mining by local, state, province, and federal government to provide adequate protection for aquatic resources. Federal legislation provides uniformity of standards nationwide. While the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act has attempted to minimize environmental impacts from coal mining, similar legislation and enforcement should be encourages for other minerals. The Society encourages its members to become involved in this process by providing technical information essential for protection and continued propagation of fishery resources to policy makers so decisions are made on a scientific, rather than emotional or political basis.

  16. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  17. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  18. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  19. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  20. Mine drainage and surface-mine reclamation. Volume 2. Mine reclamation, abandoned mine lands, and policy issues. Information Circular/1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. The publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts.

  1. CARBON SEQUESTRATION OF SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-05-19

    The January-March 2004 Quarter was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During year one of this project there was no available mine land to plant in the Hazard area so 107 acres were planted in the Martin county mine location. This year 120 acres was planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres was planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. An additional set of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for special carbon sequestration determinations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on two newly established areas as well as confirmed measurements on the first years plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 tree seedlings.

  2. Economic Impacts of Surface Mining on Household Drinking Water Supplies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides information on the economic and social impacts of contaminated surface and ground water supplies on residents and households near surface mining operations. The focus is on coal slurry contamination of water supplies in Mingo County, West Virginia, and descr...

  3. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for...

  4. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for...

  5. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for...

  6. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for...

  7. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1713 - Daily inspection of surface coal mine; certified person; reports of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Daily inspection of surface coal mine... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1713 Daily inspection of...

  9. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements,...

  10. 30 CFR 939.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 939.800 Section 939.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  11. 30 CFR 921.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 921.800 Section 921.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  12. 30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 903.764 Section 903.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining operations beginning June 24, 1996, one year after the effective date of this program....

  13. 30 CFR 933.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 933.800 Section 933.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  14. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  15. 30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 947.764 Section 947.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary shall notify the Washington Department...

  16. 30 CFR 921.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 921.800 Section 921.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  17. 30 CFR 941.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 941.800 Section 941.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  18. 30 CFR 939.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 939.800 Section 939.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  19. 30 CFR 941.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 941.800 Section 941.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  20. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 905.764 Section 905.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  1. 30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 947.764 Section 947.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary shall notify the Washington Department...

  2. 30 CFR 933.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 933.800 Section 933.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  3. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  4. Acid-base accounting to predict post-mining drainage quality on surface mines.

    PubMed

    Skousen, J; Simmons, J; McDonald, L M; Ziemkiewicz, P

    2002-01-01

    Acid-base accounting (ABA) is an analytical procedure that provides values to help assess the acid-producing and acid-neutralizing potential of overburden rocks prior to coal mining and other large-scale excavations. This procedure was developed by West Virginia University scientists during the 1960s. After the passage of laws requiring an assessment of surface mining on water quality, ABA became a preferred method to predict post-mining water quality, and permitting decisions for surface mines are largely based on the values determined by ABA. To predict the post-mining water quality, the amount of acid-producing rock is compared with the amount of acid-neutralizing rock, and a prediction of the water quality at the site (whether acid or alkaline) is obtained. We gathered geologic and geographic data for 56 mined sites in West Virginia, which allowed us to estimate total overburden amounts, and values were determined for maximum potential acidity (MPA), neutralization potential (NP), net neutralization potential (NNP), and NP to MPA ratios for each site based on ABA. These values were correlated to post-mining water quality from springs or seeps on the mined property. Overburden mass was determined by three methods, with the method used by Pennsylvania researchers showing the most accurate results for overburden mass. A poor relationship existed between MPA and post-mining water quality, NP was intermediate, and NNP and the NP to MPA ratio showed the best prediction accuracy. In this study, NNP and the NP to MPA ratio gave identical water quality prediction results. Therefore, with NP to MPA ratios, values were separated into categories: <1 should produce acid drainage, between 1 and 2 can produce either acid or alkaline water conditions, and >2 should produce alkaline water. On our 56 surface mined sites, NP to MPA ratios varied from 0.1 to 31, and six sites (11%) did not fit the expected pattern using this category approach. Two sites with ratios <1 did not

  5. Reactivation of landslides by surface subsidence from longwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    Iannacchione, A.T.; Ackman, T.E.

    1984-12-01

    Subsidence research by the US Bureau of Mines has identified and documented the occurrence of landslides over a longwall mining area in the Dunkard basin. Mining by longwall methods has been observed or produce a gradual surface subsidence profile of up to 60% of the thickness of the mined coal bed. The gradual subsidence of panels averaging 600 x 5000 ft (180 x 1525 m) can cause reactivation of older landslide deposits by decreasing the support to the landslide toe area. Examination of surficial features over a longwall mining area comprised of nine panels has led to the identification of several reactivated landslides. The two largest landslides occurred above a thin sandstone member with several associated springs. The largest landslides ranged from 100 to 300 ft (30 to 90 m) in length and from 100 to 200 ft (30 to 60 m) in width. Maximum scarp-slope displacements were approximately 7 ft (2 m). Less significant mass wasting was also observed over the longwall panels. Identification of landslides was accomplished through examination of premining aerial photographs and geologic field investigation. Characterization of reactivated zones was achieved through evaluation of current aerial 2-ft (0.6-m) surface contour map and field surveys. Recognition of problem areas will make civic and mining personnel aware of the landslide potential so that damage in such areas can be minimized.

  6. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Bon Jun Koo; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-11-30

    The first quarter of 2004 was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During the first year of this project there was not available mine land to plant in the Hazard area, so 107 acres were planted in the Martin County mine location. This year 120 acres were planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres were planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. Additional sets of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for carbon sequestration demonstrations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on the newly established areas as well as continual measurements of the first year's plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 seedlings. During the second quarter of this year monitoring systems were established for all the new research areas. Weather data pertinent to the research as well as hydrology and water quality monitoring continues to be conducted on all areas. Studies established to assess specific questions pertaining to carbon flux and the invasion of the vegetation by small mammals are being quantified. Experimental practices initiated with this research project will eventually allow for the planting on long steep slopes with loose grading systems and allow mountain top removal areas to be constructed with loose spoil with no grading of the final layers of rooting material when establishing trees for the final land use designation. Monitoring systems have been installed to measure treatment effects on both above and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools in the planting areas. Soil and tissue samples were collected from both years planting and analyses were conducted in the laboratory. Examination of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots continued during the reporting period. Entire planted trees were extracted

  7. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-11-30

    A monitoring program to measure treatment effects on above ground, and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools for the planting areas is being conducted. The collection of soil and tissue samples from both the 2003 and 2004 plantings is complete and are currently being processed in the laboratory. Detailed studies have been initiated to address specific questions pertaining to carbon cycling. Examinations of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots were continued during this reporting period. A whole-tree harvesting method was employed to evaluate carbon accumulation as a function of time on the mined site. The trees were extracted from the sites and separated into the following components: foliage, stems, branches, and roots.

  8. 77 FR 62266 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Daily Inspection of Surface Coal Mines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... of Surface Coal Mines; Certified Person; Reports of Inspection (Pertains to Surface Coal Mines... the protection of life and prevention of injuries in coal or other mines. 30 U.S.C. 811(a... 30 of the Code of Federal Regulations (30 CFR 77.1713) requires coal mine operators to...

  9. Fast track surface mine installation on the critical path

    SciTech Connect

    Willison, L.R.

    1986-07-01

    A deep mining area, located in the rugged woodland hills of central West Virginia, was transformed into a beehive of activity as a major new mine and preparation plant was constructed on a very tight deadline. By the time the mine was on line, BethEnergy Mines had spent $40 million to develop the two million tpy (ton per year) surface coal mining complex. In early 1984 not a stick of timber had been cut. But within a very short time (coal-wise) there was a mining area; a 600-tph heavy media cyclone preparation plant, with 36,000 and 24,000 tons of raw and clean coal storage respectively; three miles of haul roads and access roads; a 64,000-ton clean coal stocking facility with a 4000-tph reclaim system that feeds a batch-weighing, floodloading, unit-train loadout facility; a 3.5-mile railroad spur and loop; and all incidental infrastructure. This feat entailed moving more than four million cu-yd of earth, building the preparation plant and loadout facility from ground to operating in six moths, and constructing a railroad spur bridging a major highway.

  10. Infiltration of surface mined land reclaimed by deep tillage treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.

    1994-12-31

    Surface mining of coal leads to the drastic disturbance of soils. Compaction of replaced subsoil and topsoil resulting from hauling, grading, and leveling procedures produces a poor rooting medium for crop growth. Soil compaction results in high bulk density, low macroporosity, poor water infiltration capacity, and reduced elongation of plant roots. In the United States, Public Law 95-87 mandates that the rooting medium of mined soils have specific textural characteristics and be graded and shaped to a topography similar to premining conditions. Also, crop productivity levels equivalent to those prior to mining must be achieved, especially for prime farmland. Alleviation of compaction has been the major focus of reclamation, and recently new techniques to augment the rooting zone with deep-ripping and loosening equipment have come to the forefront. Several surface mine operators in the Illinois coal basin are using deep tillage equipment that is capable of loosening soils to greater depths than is possible with conventional farm tillage equipment. Information on the beneficial effects of these loosening procedures on soil hydrological properties, such as infiltration, runoff potential, erosion, and water retention, is extremely important for future mined land management. However, such information is lacking. In view of the current yield demonstration regulation for prime farmland and other unmined soils, it is important that as much information as possible be obtained concerning the effect of deep tillage on soil hydrologic properties. The objectives of this study are: (1) to compare infiltration rates and related soil physical properties of mined soils reclaimed by various deep tillage treatments and (2) to study the temporal variability of infiltration and related physical properties of the reclaimed mined soil after deep tillage treatment.

  11. Bibliography of surface-mine reclamation research: 1976--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crews, J.T.

    1999-06-01

    The report contains citations for 177 articles and publications that describe research on or related to the reclamation of surface-mined lands conducted from 1976 through 1993 by scientists with the Northeastern Research Station and cooperating organizations. A subject index is included.

  12. 43 CFR 3930.13 - Performance standards for surface mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Performance standards for surface mines. 3930.13 Section 3930.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF OIL SHALE EXPLORATION AND LEASES Management of Oil...

  13. 30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 922.764 Section 922.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  14. 30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 939.764 Section 939.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  15. 30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 937.764 Section 937.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  16. 30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 947.764 Section 947.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  17. 30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 941.764 Section 941.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  18. 30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 939.764 Section 939.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  19. 30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 922.764 Section 922.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  20. 30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 937.764 Section 937.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  1. 30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 941.764 Section 941.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  2. 30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 947.764 Section 947.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  3. 30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 910.764 Section 910.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  4. 30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 912.764 Section 912.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  5. 30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 912.764 Section 912.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  6. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 905.764 Section 905.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  7. 30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 910.764 Section 910.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  8. 30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 903.764 Section 903.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  9. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  10. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  11. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  12. 30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 903.764 Section 903.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  13. 30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 937.764 Section 937.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  14. 30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 937.764 Section 937.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  15. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 905.764 Section 905.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  16. 30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 912.764 Section 912.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  17. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 905.764 Section 905.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  18. 30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 903.764 Section 903.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  19. 30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 910.764 Section 910.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  20. 30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 941.764 Section 941.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  1. 30 CFR 903.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 903.762 Section 903.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  2. 30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 939.764 Section 939.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  3. 30 CFR 922.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 922.762 Section 922.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  4. 30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 922.764 Section 922.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  5. 30 CFR 903.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 903.762 Section 903.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  6. 30 CFR 910.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 910.762 Section 910.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  7. 30 CFR 937.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 937.762 Section 937.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  8. 30 CFR 922.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 922.762 Section 922.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  9. 30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 910.764 Section 910.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  10. 30 CFR 912.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 912.762 Section 912.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  11. 30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 941.764 Section 941.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  12. 30 CFR 937.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 937.762 Section 937.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  13. 30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 922.764 Section 922.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  14. 30 CFR 912.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 912.762 Section 912.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  15. 30 CFR 910.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 910.762 Section 910.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  16. 30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 939.764 Section 939.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  17. Surface movement above an underground coal longwall mine after closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervoort, André

    2016-09-01

    The surface movement in an area of about 22 km2 above the underground coal mine of Houthalen was analyzed based on Interferometry with Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements. After its closure in 1992, a residual subsidence was observed over a period of several years, followed by an uplift of the surface above and around the past longwall panels, whereby the rate of movement was, in absolute terms, of the same order for the two types of movements. The processes behind these movements are different. The process of subsidence is caused by the caving of the roof above the mined-out area and is mainly a mechanical stress-deformation process, including time-dependent aspects. However, the process of uplift is most probably caused by the swelling of the clay minerals in the argillaceous rocks in the coal strata after the flooding of the underground workings. Hence, the areas in which there is the greatest risk of damage to the surface infrastructure are not the same for the hazards linked to subsidence and uplift. For example, the zone in which the maximum uplift occurs clearly is at a different location from that of the zone with the maximum residual subsidence. There is no clear sign that the amount of mining underneath affects the residual subsidence, and there is no indication that the process of uplift is linked directly to the mining characteristics. It is more likely that uplift as the result of flooding is initiated at, or close to, the vertical shafts.

  18. PREDICTING GROUND-WATER DRAINAGE TO SURFACE MINES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiss, Linda S.; Galloway, Devin L.; ,

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional, finite-difference numerical model is used to simulate the drainage of ground water into a surface coal mine. Graphs of dimensionless head as a function of dimensionless distance, and dimensionless seepage flux as a function of dimensionless time are developed from results of the numerical modeling. Changes in seepage flux and ground-water levels can be estimated from the dimensionless hydrographs, from knowledge of aquifer characteristics prior to mining, and by means of several 'simple-to-use' equations. The technique is an improvement on previous experimental, analytical, and other numerical solutions because drainage from the unsaturated zone also is considered. The procedure is applicable to a wide range of hydrogeologic settings, but is especially applicable to hydrogeologic conditions typically encountered in the coal strip-mining regions of Illinois.

  19. How many mountains can we mine? Assessing the regional degradation of Central Appalachian rivers by surface coal mining.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Emily S; Lutz, Brian D; King, Ryan S; Fay, John P; Carter, Catherine E; Helton, Ashley M; Campagna, David; Amos, John

    2012-08-01

    Surface coal mining is the dominant form of land cover change in Central Appalachia, yet the extent to which surface coal mine runoff is polluting regional rivers is currently unknown. We mapped surface mining from 1976 to 2005 for a 19,581 km(2) area of southern West Virginia and linked these maps with water quality and biological data for 223 streams. The extent of surface mining within catchments is highly correlated with the ionic strength and sulfate concentrations of receiving streams. Generalized additive models were used to estimate the amount of watershed mining, stream ionic strength, or sulfate concentrations beyond which biological impairment (based on state biocriteria) is likely. We find this threshold is reached once surface coal mines occupy >5.4% of their contributing watershed area, ionic strength exceeds 308 μS cm(-1), or sulfate concentrations exceed 50 mg L(-1). Significant losses of many intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa occur when as little as 2.2% of contributing catchments are mined. As of 2005, 5% of the land area of southern WV was converted to surface mines, 6% of regional streams were buried in valley fills, and 22% of the regional stream network length drained watersheds with >5.4% of their surface area converted to mines. PMID:22788537

  20. How many mountains can we mine? Assessing the regional degradation of Central Appalachian rivers by surface coal mining.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Emily S; Lutz, Brian D; King, Ryan S; Fay, John P; Carter, Catherine E; Helton, Ashley M; Campagna, David; Amos, John

    2012-08-01

    Surface coal mining is the dominant form of land cover change in Central Appalachia, yet the extent to which surface coal mine runoff is polluting regional rivers is currently unknown. We mapped surface mining from 1976 to 2005 for a 19,581 km(2) area of southern West Virginia and linked these maps with water quality and biological data for 223 streams. The extent of surface mining within catchments is highly correlated with the ionic strength and sulfate concentrations of receiving streams. Generalized additive models were used to estimate the amount of watershed mining, stream ionic strength, or sulfate concentrations beyond which biological impairment (based on state biocriteria) is likely. We find this threshold is reached once surface coal mines occupy >5.4% of their contributing watershed area, ionic strength exceeds 308 μS cm(-1), or sulfate concentrations exceed 50 mg L(-1). Significant losses of many intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa occur when as little as 2.2% of contributing catchments are mined. As of 2005, 5% of the land area of southern WV was converted to surface mines, 6% of regional streams were buried in valley fills, and 22% of the regional stream network length drained watersheds with >5.4% of their surface area converted to mines.

  1. 30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 910.764 Section 910.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.764...

  2. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 905.764 Section 905.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA §...

  3. 30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 937.764 Section 937.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.764...

  4. 30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 912.764 Section 912.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.764...

  5. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS §...

  6. 30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 922.764 Section 922.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN §...

  7. 30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 939.764 Section 939.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND §...

  8. 30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 947.764 Section 947.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON §...

  9. 30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 903.764 Section 903.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.764...

  10. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA §...

  11. 30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 941.764 Section 941.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA §...

  12. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  14. 30 CFR 947.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 947.816 Section 947.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  16. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 942.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 942.816 Section 942.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 942.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 942.816 Section 942.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  1. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 905.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 905.816 Section 905.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  4. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  5. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  6. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  8. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  9. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  11. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 30 CFR 947.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 947.816 Section 947.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  14. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  16. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  1. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  4. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  5. 30 CFR 905.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 905.816 Section 905.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 905.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 905.816 Section 905.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  8. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  9. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  11. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  12. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  14. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. A selected bibliography: Remote sensing techniques for evaluating the effects of surface mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carneggie, David M.; Ohlen, Donald O.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography contains 39 citations of technical papers and other publications dealing with the applications of remote sensing techniques for analyzing and monitoring surface mining. These references summarize recent developments in methods used to identify, map, analyze, and monitor surface mining, particularly coal surface mining.

  16. 30 CFR 761.11 - Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas where surface coal mining operations are....11 Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited. You may not conduct surface coal mining operations on the following lands unless you either have valid existing rights,...

  17. 30 CFR 761.11 - Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas where surface coal mining operations are....11 Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited. You may not conduct surface coal mining operations on the following lands unless you either have valid existing rights,...

  18. 30 CFR 947.800 - Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.800 Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining and...

  19. 30 CFR 937.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 937.800 Section 937.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  20. 30 CFR 785.12 - Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special bituminous surface coal mining and... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL....12 Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (a) This section applies to...

  1. 30 CFR 912.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 912.800 Section 912.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  2. 30 CFR 947.800 - Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.800 Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining and...

  3. 30 CFR 922.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 922.800 Section 922.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  4. 30 CFR 912.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 912.800 Section 912.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  5. 30 CFR 910.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 910.800 Section 910.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  6. 30 CFR 937.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 937.800 Section 937.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  7. 30 CFR 910.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 910.800 Section 910.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  8. 30 CFR 922.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 922.800 Section 922.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  9. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  11. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  14. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  16. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. Private and Social Costs of Surface Mine Reforestation Performance Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Jay; Amacher, Gregory S.

    2010-02-01

    We study the potentially unnecessary costs imposed by strict performance standards for forest restoration of surface coal mines in the Appalachian region under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) that can vary widely across states. Both the unnecessary private costs to the mine operator and costs to society (social costs) are reported for two performance standards, a ground cover requirement, and a seedling survival target. These standards are examined using numerical analyses under a range of site productivity class and market conditions. We show that a strict (90%) ground cover standard may produce an unnecessary private cost of more than 700/ha and a social cost ranging from 428/ha to 710/ha, as compared with a 70% standard. A strict tree survival standard of 1235 trees/ha, as compared with the more typical 1087 trees/ha standard, may produce an unnecessary private cost of approximately 200/ha, and a social cost in the range of 120 to 208/ha. We conclude that strict performance standards may impose substantial unnecessary private costs and social costs, that strict performance standards may be discouraging the choice of forestry as a post-mining land use, and that opportunities exist for reform of reforestation performance standards. Our study provides a basis for evaluating tradeoffs between regulatory efficiency and optimal reforestation effort.

  19. NOVEL EXCAVATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMIC SURFACE MINING

    SciTech Connect

    Vladislav Kecojevic; Samuel Frimpong

    2005-05-01

    Ground excavation constitutes a significant component of production costs in any surface mining operation. The excavation process entails material digging and removal in which the equipment motion is constrained by the workspace geometry. A major excavation problem is the variability of material properties, resulting in varying mechanical energy input and stress loading of shovel dipper-and-tooth assembly across the working bench. This variability has a huge impact on the shovel dipper and tooth assembly in hard formations. With this in mind, the primary objectives of the project were to (i) provide the theoretical basis to develop the Intelligent Shovel Excavation (ISE) technology to solve the problems associated with excavation in material formations; (ii) advance knowledge and frontiers in shovel excavation through intelligent navigation; and (iii) submit proposal for the design, development and implementation of the ISE technology for shovel excavation at experimental surface mining sites. The mathematical methods were used to (i) develop shovel's kinematics and dynamics, and (ii) establish the relationship between shovel parameters and the resistive forces from the material formation during excavation process. The ADAMS simulation environment was used to develop the hydraulic and cable shovel virtual prototypes. Two numerical examples are included to test the theoretical hypotheses and the obtained results are discussed. The area of sensor technology was studied. Application of specific wrist-mounted sensors to characterize the material, bucket and frame assembly was determined. Data acquisition, display and control system for shovel loading technology was adopted. The concept of data acquisition and control system was designed and a shovel boom stresses were simulated. A multi-partner collaboration between research organizations, shovel manufacturer, hardware and sensor technology companies, and surface mining companies is proposed to test design features

  20. Nest success of grassland sparrows on reclaimed surface mines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stauffer, G.E.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Marshall, M.R.; Brauning, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Grasslands resulting from surface mine reclamation support grassland songbird populations in several midwestern and eastern states in the United States, especially where reclaimed mines are large (>1,000ha). However, most reclaimed surface mines in Pennsylvania are small (<200ha), and nest success is unknown. We evaluated nest success of grasshopper (Ammodramus savannarum), Henslow's (A. henslowii), and Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) on 4 reclaimed surface mines (50-180ha) in western Pennsylvania, USA from 2006 to 2007. Overall nest success based on mean covariate values was 0.435 (95% CI = 0.376-0.504) for grasshopper sparrows, 0.396 (95% CI = 0.295-0.533) for Henslow's sparrows, and 0.158 (95% CI = 0.063-0.392) for Savannah sparrows. These estimates of nest success are comparable to those on larger reclaimed mines and other habitats. Grasshopper and Henslow's sparrow nests that were well concealed were less likely to fail than highly visible nests (??visible = -0.028, CI = -0.051 to -0.005 for grasshopper sparrows; ??visible = -0.063, CI = -0.112 to -0.014 for Henslow's sparrows), and nests in areas with surrounding deep litter were more likely to fail than nests in areas with shallow litter (??litterD = -0.145, CI = -0.335 to 0.045 for grasshopper sparrows; ??litterD = -0.676, CI = -1.187 to -0.116 for Henslow's sparrows). Savannah sparrow nests in areas with high visual obstruction by vegetation were less likely to fail than nests in areas with sparse and short vegetation (??VisOb = 0.048, CI = 0.006-0.091). Daily probability of survival for grasshopper sparrow nests was greatest early and late in the breeding season, and Savannah sparrow nest survival followed a decreasing linear trend. Nest survival of Henslow's sparrows was greater on warm days (??temp = 0.197, CI = 0.014-0.379), whereas for Savannah sparrows nest survival decreased on warm days and on days with rain, but for Savannah sparrows confidence intervals of weather effects included

  1. Soil characteristics and vegetation features of abandoned and artificially revegetated surface mines in the Cumberland Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Rafaill, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    Soil characteristics and vegetational features of four 15-to-20-year-old contour coal surface mines in the Cumberland Mountains were compared. Two of the mines were abandoned after mining and are located in Campbell County, Tennessee. The other two mines, located in Bell County, Kentucky, were reclaimed after mining. The soils at all four sites were found to be in early stages of soil development. Chemical and physical soil factors were not detrimental to plant growth. Total overstory density at the abandoned sites was similar to that on the reclaimed mines, but one and one-half times as many tree size stems and twice as much basal area coverage were found on the abandoned sites as compared to the reclaimed mines. Many features resulting from prelaw contour mining practices benefited the development of plant communities on the mined land. Information should be sought from the study of plant communities which develop over the years on surface mines.

  2. 43 CFR 1610.7-1 - Designation of areas unsuitable for surface mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... surface mining. 1610.7-1 Section 1610.7-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... mining. (a)(1) The planning process is the chief process by which public land is reviewed to assess whether there are areas unsuitable for all or certain types of surface coal mining operations...

  3. 43 CFR 1610.7-1 - Designation of areas unsuitable for surface mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... surface mining. 1610.7-1 Section 1610.7-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... mining. (a)(1) The planning process is the chief process by which public land is reviewed to assess whether there are areas unsuitable for all or certain types of surface coal mining operations...

  4. 77 FR 5049 - Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement; Notice of Proposed Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement; Notice of Proposed Information Collection for 1029-0103 AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Notice and request... Mining (OSM) is announcing its intention to renew its authority for the collection of information...

  5. 30 CFR 933.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated Unsuitable for Coal Mining by Act of Congress, with the exception of §§ 761.11(c) and 761.12(f)(1), shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  6. 30 CFR 933.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated Unsuitable for Coal Mining by Act of Congress, with the exception of §§ 761.11(c) and 761.12(f)(1), shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  7. 30 CFR 937.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.779 Surface mining permit...

  8. 30 CFR 942.779 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.779 Surface mining permit...

  9. 30 CFR 942.779 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.779 Surface mining permit...

  10. 30 CFR 941.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.779 Surface mining permit...

  11. 30 CFR 939.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.779 Surface mining permit...

  12. 30 CFR 942.779 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.779 Surface mining permit...

  13. 30 CFR 921.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.779 Surface mining permit...

  14. 30 CFR 910.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.779 Surface mining permit...

  15. 30 CFR 922.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.779 Surface mining permit...

  16. 30 CFR 937.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.779 Surface mining permit...

  17. 30 CFR 933.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.779 Surface mining permit...

  18. 30 CFR 939.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.779 Surface mining permit...

  19. 30 CFR 905.779 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.779 Surface mining permit...

  20. 30 CFR 922.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.779 Surface mining permit...

  1. 30 CFR 941.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.779 Surface mining permit...

  2. 30 CFR 941.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.779 Surface mining permit...

  3. 30 CFR 941.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.779 Surface mining permit...

  4. 30 CFR 933.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.779 Surface mining permit...

  5. 30 CFR 933.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.779 Surface mining permit...

  6. 30 CFR 937.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.779 Surface mining permit...

  7. 30 CFR 947.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.779 Surface mining permit...

  8. 30 CFR 937.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.779 Surface mining permit...

  9. 30 CFR 903.779 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.779 Surface mining permit...

  10. 30 CFR 903.779 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.779 Surface mining permit...

  11. 30 CFR 910.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.779 Surface mining permit...

  12. 30 CFR 921.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.779 Surface mining permit...

  13. 30 CFR 939.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.779 Surface mining permit...

  14. 30 CFR 942.779 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.779 Surface mining permit...

  15. 30 CFR 947.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.779 Surface mining permit...

  16. 30 CFR 947.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.779 Surface mining permit...

  17. 30 CFR 922.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.779 Surface mining permit...

  18. 30 CFR 912.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.779 Surface mining permit...

  19. 30 CFR 910.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.779 Surface mining permit...

  20. 30 CFR 903.779 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.779 Surface mining permit...

  1. 30 CFR 905.779 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.779 Surface mining permit...

  2. 30 CFR 912.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.779 Surface mining permit...

  3. 30 CFR 933.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.779 Surface mining permit...

  4. 30 CFR 947.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.779 Surface mining permit...

  5. 30 CFR 912.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.779 Surface mining permit...

  6. 30 CFR 905.779 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.779 Surface mining permit...

  7. 30 CFR 939.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.779 Surface mining permit...

  8. 30 CFR 921.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.779 Surface mining permit...

  9. Scratching the surface: State implementation of the Surface Mining Reclamation and Control Act

    SciTech Connect

    Scheberle, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The implementation of the Surface Mining Reclamation and Control Act of 1977 has been criticized as sporadic, lackluster, and dependent upon the political proclivities of primacy states. This dissertation explores the effect of national-level and state-level variables on implementation patterns in Colorado, Wyoming, and Virginia. Surveys and personal interviews, combined with longitudinal analyses of implementation performances of the Office of Surface Mining and individual state agencies, provide the heart of the research data. The research findings suggest the importance of considering state variables when explaining implementation performance. Moreover, support for both national and state variables as important determinants of the implementation process are provided by the research results.

  10. Applying geomorphologic principles to restore streams impacted by surface mining

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    The combination of geomorphic principles and native material restoration techniques provides a viable alternative to traditional engineering approaches to restore rivers and streams affected by surface mining. Channels can be designed to reflect ranges of stability known to occur in natural streams for measurable parameters such as bankfull width, depth, gradient, meander radius, sinuosity and entrenchment. Stable channel geometry reduces stresses on the stream bed and banks and eliminate the need for channel lining. Methods to utilize native materials have been developed and refined to stabilize stream channels constructed to appropriate dimensions until planted riparian vegetation develops mature root systems. These native materials include root wads, willow bundles, and boulders. These methods result in improved wildlife habitat in and around channels that maintain equilibria between sediment supply and sediment transport, and between erosional and depositional rates and patterns. Two streams in Baltimore County, Maryland were disturbed during mining operations and are being restored using this approach. Goodwin Run had been channelized to allow quarrying of the Cockeysville Marble. Approximately 1100 feet of stream were restored in the fall of 1992. White Marsh Run has been channelized and relocated several times to facilitate sand and gravel mining between an urbanized area and sensitive habitats of the Chesapeake Bay. The design of the White Marsh Run Restoration Project incorporated refinements to techniques used at Goodwin Run, and entails the restoration of over 5000 feet of stream and adjacent wetland habitat.

  11. Preliminary analysis of surface mining options for Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-20

    The study was undertaken to determine the economic viability of surface mining to exploit the reserves. It is based on resource information already developed for NOSR 1 and conceptual designs of mining systems compatible with this resource. Environmental considerations as they relate to surface mining have been addressed qualitatively. The conclusions on economic viability were based primarily on mining costs projected from other industries using surface mining. An analysis of surface mining for the NOSR 1 resource was performed based on its particular overburden thickness, oil shale thickness, oil shale grade, and topography. This evaluation considered reclamation of the surface as part of its design and cost estimate. The capital costs for mining 25 GPT and 30 GPT shale and the operating costs for mining 25 GPT, 30 GPT, and 35 GPT shale are presented. The relationship between operating cost and stripping ratio, and the break-even stripping ratio (BESR) for surface mining to be competitive with room-and-pillar mining, are shown. Identification of potential environmental impacts shows that environmental control procedures for surface mining are more difficult to implement than those for underground mining. The following three areas are of prime concern: maintenance of air quality standards by disruption, movement, and placement of large quantities of overburden; disruption or cutting of aquifers during the mining process which affect area water supplies; and potential mineral leaching from spent shales into the aquifers. Although it is an operational benefit to place spent shale in the open pit, leaching of the spent shales and contamination of the water is detrimental. It is therefore concluded that surface mining on NOSR 1 currently is neither economically desirable nor environmentally safe. Stringent mitigation measures would have to be implemented to overcome some of the potential environmental hazards.

  12. Oil shale mining cost analysis. Volume I. Surface retorting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, B.S.; English, L.M.; Metz, R.D.; Lewis, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An Oil Shale Mining Economic Model (OSMEM) was developed and executed for mining scenarios representative of commercially feasible mining operations. Mining systems were evaluated for candidate sites in the Piceance Creek Basin. Mining methods selected included: (1) room-and-pillar; (2) chamber-and-pillar, with spent shale backfilling; (3) sublevel stopping; and (4) sublevel stopping, with spent shale backfilling. Mines were designed to extract oil shale resources to support a 50,000 barrels-per-day surface processing facility. Costs developed for each mining scenario included all capital and operating expenses associated with the underground mining methods. Parametric and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of mining cost to changes in capital cost, operating cost, return on investment, and cost escalation.

  13. 43 CFR 1610.7-1 - Designation of areas unsuitable for surface mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... surface mining. 1610.7-1 Section 1610.7-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands..., PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Resource Management Planning § 1610.7-1 Designation of areas unsuitable for surface... whether there are areas unsuitable for all or certain types of surface coal mining operations...

  14. 30 CFR 903.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, applies to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  15. 30 CFR 922.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  16. 30 CFR 939.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  17. 30 CFR 947.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  18. 30 CFR 937.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  19. 30 CFR 912.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  20. 30 CFR 921.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  1. 30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  2. 30 CFR 903.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, applies to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  3. 30 CFR 947.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  4. 30 CFR 941.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  5. 30 CFR 905.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  6. 30 CFR 939.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  7. 30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  8. 30 CFR 910.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  9. 30 CFR 912.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  10. 30 CFR 937.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  11. 30 CFR 910.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  12. 30 CFR 922.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  13. 30 CFR 921.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  14. 30 CFR 941.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  15. 30 CFR 905.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4131 Surface fan installations and mine openings. (a) On the surface, no more than one day's supply of combustible materials shall...

  17. Using electrical resistivity imaging to understand surface coal mine hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, E. T.; Greer, B. M.; Burbey, T. J.; Zipper, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the hydrology of disturbed lands is important given the increasing human footprint on earth. Surface coal mining has caused significant land-use change in central Appalachia in the past few decades. The mining process breaks up overburden rock above coal seams, and then replaces that material at the mine location and in adjacent unmined valleys (valley fills). The freshly exposed rock surfaces undergo weathering which often alters water quality and ultimately aquatic communities in effluent streams. One of the most common water quality effects is increased total dissolved solids (TDS), which is usually measured via its surrogate, specific conductance (SC). The SC of valley fill effluent is a function of fill construction methods, materials, and age. Yet hydrologic studies that relate these variables to water quality are sparse due to the difficulty of implementing traditional hydrologic measurements in fill material. We tested the effectiveness of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to monitor subsurface geologic patterns and hydrologic flow paths in a test-case valley fill. We paired ERI with artificial rainfall experiments to track infiltrated water as it moved through the valley fill material. Results indicate that ERI can be used to identify the subsurface geologic structure and track advancing wetting fronts or preferential flow paths. We observed that the upper portion of the fill profile contains significant fines, while the deeper profile is primarily composed of large rocks and void spaces. The artificial rainfall experiments revealed that water ponded on the surface of compacted areas until it reached preferential flow paths, where it infiltrated quickly and deeply. We observed water moving from the surface down to >10 m depth within 75 minutes. In sum, vertical and lateral preferential flow paths were evident at both shallow (through compacted layers) and deep (among boulders) locations. Such extensive preferential flow suggests that a

  18. Hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned mining sites in Serbia and their impact on surface water quality.

    PubMed

    Atanacković, Nebojša; Dragišić, Veselin; Stojković, Jana; Papić, Petar; Zivanović, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    Upon completion of exploration and extraction of mineral resources, many mining sites have been abandoned without previously putting environmental protection measures in place. As a consequence, mine waters originating from such sites are discharged freely into surface water. Regional scale analyses were conducted to determine the hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned sites featuring metal (Cu, Pb-Zn, Au, Fe, Sb, Mo, Bi, Hg) deposits, non-metallic minerals (coal, Mg, F, B) and uranium. The study included 80 mine water samples from 59 abandoned mining sites. Their cation composition was dominated by Ca2+, while the most common anions were found to be SO4(2-) and HCO3-. Strong correlations were established between the pH level and metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) concentrations in the mine waters. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to parameters generally indicative of pollution, such as pH, TDS, SO4(2-), Fe total, and As total. Following this approach, mine water samples were grouped into three main clusters and six subclusters, depending on their potential environmental impact. Principal component analysis was used to group together variables that share the same variance. The extracted principal components indicated that sulfide oxidation and weathering of silicate and carbonate rocks were the primary processes, while pH buffering, adsorption and ion exchange were secondary drivers of the chemical composition of the analyzed mine waters. Surface waters, which received the mine waters, were examined. Analysis showed increases of sulfate and metal concentrations and general degradation of surface water quality.

  19. Structure response and damage produced by airblast from surface mining

    SciTech Connect

    Siskind, D.E.; Stachura, V.J.; Stagg, M.S.; Kopp, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines studied airblast from surface mining to assess its damage and annoyance potential, and to determine safe levels and appropriate measurement techniques. Research results obtained from direct measurements of airblast-produced structure responses, damage, and analysis of instrument characteristics were combined with studies of sonic booms and human response to transient overpressures. Safe levels of airblast were found to be 134 db (0.1 Hz), 133 db (2 Hz), 129 db (6 Hz), and 105 db C-slow. These four airblast levels and measurement methods are equivalent in terms of structure response, and any one could be used as a safe-level criterion. Of the four methods, only the 0.1-Hz high-pass linear method accurately measures the total airblast energy present; however, the other three were found to adequately quantify the structure response and also represent techniques that are readily available to industry. Where a single airblast measuring system must be used, the 2-Hz linear peak response is the best overall compromise. The human response and annoyance problem from airblast is probably caused primarily by wall rattling and the resulting secondary noises. Although these will not entirely be precluded by the recommended levels, they are low enough to preclude damage to residential structures and any possible human injury over the long term.

  20. Spoil handling and reclamation costs at a contour surface mine in steep slope Appalachian topography

    SciTech Connect

    Zipper, C.E.; Hall, A.T.; Daniels, W.L.

    1985-12-09

    Accurate overburden handling cost estimation methods are essential to effective pre-mining planning for post-mining landforms and land uses. With the aim of developing such methods, the authors have been monitoring costs at a contour surface mine in Wise County, Virginia since January 1, 1984. Early in the monitoring period, the land was being returned to its Approximate Original Contour (AOC) in a manner common to the Appalachian region since implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA). More recently, mining has been conducted under an experimental variance from the AOC provisions of SMCRA which allowed a near-level bench to be constructed across the upper surface of two mined points and an intervening filled hollow. All mining operations are being recorded by location. The cost of spoil movement is calculated for each block of coal mined between January 1, 1984, and August 1, 1985. Per cubic yard spoil handling and reclamation costs are compared by mining block. The average cost of spoil handling was $1.90 per bank cubic yard; however, these costs varied widely between blocks. The reasons for those variations included the landscape positions of the mining blocks and spoil handling practices. The average reclamation cost was $0.08 per bank cubic yard of spoil placed in the near level bench on the mined point to $0.20 for spoil placed in the hollow fill. 2 references, 4 figures.

  1. Switchgrass yield on reclaimed surface mines for bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Marra, Michael; Keene, Travis; Skousen, Jeff; Griggs, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of transportation fuels and the environmental risks associated with acquiring and using nonrenewable energy sources have created a demand for developing renewable bioenergy crops. Switchgrass ( L.), a warm-season perennial grass, is a promising feedstock due to its high biomass production under a wide range of growing conditions and its satisfactory forage quality and chemical composition. West Virginia contains vast expanses of reclaimed surface mine lands that could be used to produce switchgrass as a bioenergy feedstock. This study determined dry matter yields of three switchgrass varieties (Cave-In-Rock, Shawnee, and Carthage) during the second to fourth years of production. Two research sites were established on reclaimed surface mines in southern West Virginia: Hobet and Hampshire. The Hobet site was prepared using crushed, unweathered sandstone as the soil material, and yields were significantly lower at 803 kg ha averaged across varieties and years than annual yields at Hampshire. The highest yield at Hobet, with Shawnee in the third year, was 1964 kg ha. The Hamphire site, which was reclaimed in the late 1990s using topsoil and treated municipal sludge, averaged 5760 kg ha of switchgrass across varieties and years. The highest yield, obtained with Cave-in-Rock during the third year, was 9222 kg ha. Switchgrass yields on agricultural lands in this region averaged 12,000 kg ha. Although average switchgrass yields at Hampshire were about 50% lower than agricultural lands, they were greater than a target yield of 5000 kg ha, a threshold for economically feasible production. Yields during the fourth year from a two-harvest per year system were not significantly different from a single, end-of-year harvest at both sites. Reclaimed lands show promise for growing bioenergy crops such as switchgrass on areas where topsoil materials are replaced and amended like that at the Hampshire site.

  2. Switchgrass yield on reclaimed surface mines for bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Marra, Michael; Keene, Travis; Skousen, Jeff; Griggs, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of transportation fuels and the environmental risks associated with acquiring and using nonrenewable energy sources have created a demand for developing renewable bioenergy crops. Switchgrass ( L.), a warm-season perennial grass, is a promising feedstock due to its high biomass production under a wide range of growing conditions and its satisfactory forage quality and chemical composition. West Virginia contains vast expanses of reclaimed surface mine lands that could be used to produce switchgrass as a bioenergy feedstock. This study determined dry matter yields of three switchgrass varieties (Cave-In-Rock, Shawnee, and Carthage) during the second to fourth years of production. Two research sites were established on reclaimed surface mines in southern West Virginia: Hobet and Hampshire. The Hobet site was prepared using crushed, unweathered sandstone as the soil material, and yields were significantly lower at 803 kg ha averaged across varieties and years than annual yields at Hampshire. The highest yield at Hobet, with Shawnee in the third year, was 1964 kg ha. The Hamphire site, which was reclaimed in the late 1990s using topsoil and treated municipal sludge, averaged 5760 kg ha of switchgrass across varieties and years. The highest yield, obtained with Cave-in-Rock during the third year, was 9222 kg ha. Switchgrass yields on agricultural lands in this region averaged 12,000 kg ha. Although average switchgrass yields at Hampshire were about 50% lower than agricultural lands, they were greater than a target yield of 5000 kg ha, a threshold for economically feasible production. Yields during the fourth year from a two-harvest per year system were not significantly different from a single, end-of-year harvest at both sites. Reclaimed lands show promise for growing bioenergy crops such as switchgrass on areas where topsoil materials are replaced and amended like that at the Hampshire site. PMID:23673936

  3. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4131 Surface fan installations... stored within 100 feet of mine openings or within 100 feet of fan installations used for...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4131 Surface fan installations... stored within 100 feet of mine openings or within 100 feet of fan installations used for...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4131 Surface fan installations... stored within 100 feet of mine openings or within 100 feet of fan installations used for...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4131 Surface fan installations... stored within 100 feet of mine openings or within 100 feet of fan installations used for...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22601 - Blasting from the surface (I-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable requirements of 30 CFR parts 18 through 36. Effective... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting from the surface (I-A mines). 57.22601... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22601 Blasting from the surface (I-A...

  8. LANDSAT Remote Sensing: Observations of an Appalachian mountaintop surface coal mining and reclamation operation. [kentucky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The potential benefits of using LANDSAT remote sensing data by state agencies as an aide in monitoring surface coal mining operations are reviewed. A mountaintop surface mine in eastern Kentucky was surveyed over a 5 year period using satellite multispectral scanner data that were classified by computer analyses. The analyses were guided by aerial photography and by ground surveys of the surface mines procured in 1976. The application of the LANDSAT data indicates that: (1) computer classification of the various landcover categories provides information for monitoring the progress of surface mining and reclamation operations; (2) successive yearly changes in barren and revegetated areas can be qualitatively assessed for surface mines of 100 acres or more of disrupted area; (3) barren areas consisting of limestone and shale mixtures may be recognized, and revegetated areas in various stages of growth may be identified against the hilly forest background.

  9. Mercury speciation and microbial transformations in mine wastes, stream sediments, and surface waters at the Almaden Mining District, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Hines, Mark E.; Higueras, Pablo L.; Adatto, Isaac; Lasorsa, Brenda K.

    2004-01-01

    Speciation of Hg and conversion to methyl-Hg were evaluated in mine wastes, sediments, and water collected from the Almade??n District, Spain, the world's largest Hg producing region. Our data for methyl-Hg, a neurotoxin hazardous to humans, are the first reported for sediment and water from the Almade??n area. Concentrations of Hg and methyl-Hg in mine waste, sediment, and water from Almade??n are among the highest found at Hg mines worldwide. Mine wastes from Almade??n contain highly elevated Hg concentrations, ranging from 160 to 34 000 ??g/g, and methyl-Hg varies from <0.20 to 3100 ng/g. Isotopic tracer methods indicate that mine wastes at one site (Almadenejos) exhibit unusually high rates of Hg-methylation, which correspond with mine wastes containing the highest methyl-Hg concentrations. Streamwater collected near the Almade??n mine is also contaminated, containing Hg as high as 13 000 ng/L and methyl-Hg as high as 30 ng/L; corresponding stream sediments contain Hg concentrations as high as 2300 ??g/g and methyl-Hg concentrations as high as 82 ng/g. Several streamwaters contain Hg concentrations in excess of the 1000 ng/L World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard. Methyl-Hg formation and degradation was rapid in mines wastes and stream sediments demonstrating the dynamic nature of Hg cycling. These data indicate substantial downstream transport of Hg from the Almade??n mine and significant conversion to methyl-Hg in the surface environment.

  10. Surface mining - using mixed overburden to create prime farmland

    SciTech Connect

    Bearden, E.D.

    1997-12-31

    Mining companies are required by regulation to replace prime farmland by sequential soil horizon during the reclamation phase of mining. However, by the use of selective handling techniques, prime farmland soils can be produced using mixed overburden. Overburden characterization is performed using gridded geophysical logs and cores to determine the best material available to use during reclamation. A postmine soil mapping project indicated the Grayrock, Grayvar, and Bigbrown soil series at two mine sites in east Texas could meet the criteria for prime farmland soils. At the Monticello Winfield Mine, the Grayrock and Grayvar soils on 1 to 5 percent slopes were declared as prime farmland by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service in 1991. The Bigbrown soil series on 1 to 5 percent slopes was declared a prime farmland soil by the SCS in 1993 at the Big Brown Mine. Postmine prime farmland soils at Monticello Winfield Mine compose 65.9 percent of the mined area, compared to 38.8 percent prime farmland soils within the permit area prior to mining. Prime farmland soils at the Big Brown Mine made up 4.7 percent of the area before mining but 58.6 percent of the postmine soils. Use of selected overburden material, especially in areas where native soils have low to moderate productivity, is considered a viable alternative based on this and other studies.

  11. LANDSAT inventory of surface-mined areas using extendible digital techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schultz, D. T.; Buchman, N.

    1975-01-01

    Multispectral LANDSAT imagery was analyzed to provide a rapid and accurate means of identification, classification, and measurement of strip-mined surfaces in Western Maryland. Four band analysis allows distinction of a variety of strip-mine associated classes, but has limited extendibility. A method for surface area measurements of strip mines, which is both geographically and temporally extendible, has been developed using band-ratioed LANDSAT reflectance data. The accuracy of area measurement by this method, averaged over three LANDSAT scenes taken between September 1972 and July 1974, is greater than 93%. Total affected acreage of large (50 hectare/124 acre) mines can be measured to within 1.0%.

  12. LANDSAT inventory of surface-mined areas using extendible digital techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schultz, D. T.; Buchman, N.

    1975-01-01

    Multispectral analysis of LANDSAT imagery provides a rapid and accurate means of identification, classification, and measurement of strip-mined surfaces in Western Maryland. Four band analysis allows distinction of a variety of strip-mine associated classes, but has limited extendibility. A method for surface area measurement of strip mines, which is both geographically and temporally extendible, was developed using band-ratioed LANDSAT reflectance data. The accuracy of area measurement by this method, averaged over three LANDSAT scenes taken between September 1972 and July 1974, is greater than 93%. Total affected acreage of large (50 hectare/120 acre) mines can be measured to within 1.0%.

  13. Surface coal mining influences on macroinvertebrate assemblages in streams of the Canadian Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Kuchapski, Kathryn A; Rasmussen, Joseph B

    2015-09-01

    To determine the region-specific impacts of surface coal mines on macroinvertebrate community health, chemical and physical stream characteristics and macroinvertebrate family and community metrics were measured in surface coal mine-affected and reference streams in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Water chemistry was significantly altered in mine-affected streams, which had elevated conductivity, alkalinity, and selenium and ion concentrations compared with reference conditions. Multivariate redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated alterations in macroinvertebrate communities downstream of mine sites. In RDA ordination, Ephemeroptera family densities, family richness, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera (EPT) richness, and % Ephemeroptera declined, whereas densities of Capniidae stoneflies increased along environmental gradients defined by variables associated with mine influence including waterborne Se concentration, alkalinity, substrate embeddedness, and interstitial material size. Shifts in macroinvertebrate assemblages may have been the result of multiple region-specific stressors related to mining influences including selenium toxicity, ionic toxicity, or stream substrate modifications. PMID:25939772

  14. Surface coal mining influences on macroinvertebrate assemblages in streams of the Canadian Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Kuchapski, Kathryn A; Rasmussen, Joseph B

    2015-09-01

    To determine the region-specific impacts of surface coal mines on macroinvertebrate community health, chemical and physical stream characteristics and macroinvertebrate family and community metrics were measured in surface coal mine-affected and reference streams in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Water chemistry was significantly altered in mine-affected streams, which had elevated conductivity, alkalinity, and selenium and ion concentrations compared with reference conditions. Multivariate redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated alterations in macroinvertebrate communities downstream of mine sites. In RDA ordination, Ephemeroptera family densities, family richness, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera (EPT) richness, and % Ephemeroptera declined, whereas densities of Capniidae stoneflies increased along environmental gradients defined by variables associated with mine influence including waterborne Se concentration, alkalinity, substrate embeddedness, and interstitial material size. Shifts in macroinvertebrate assemblages may have been the result of multiple region-specific stressors related to mining influences including selenium toxicity, ionic toxicity, or stream substrate modifications.

  15. Woody vegetation and succession on the Fonde surface mine demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, G.L.; Thompson, R.L.

    1999-07-01

    The long term impact of surface mining on vegetation and plant succession has always been of concern to environmentalists and residents of Appalachia. The Fonde Surface Mine Demonstration Area is a 7.3-ha, NE-NW-aspect contour coal mine at an elevation of 562 m. It was reclaimed in 1965 to show state-of-the-art surface mine reclamation techniques consistent with then-current law and regulations after coal mining in 1959 and 1963. The mine spoils were lightly graded to control erosion and crates a bench with water control and two sediment ponds. Soil pH ranged from 2.8 to 5.9. About 80 percent of the mine was planted with 18 tree and shrub species including plantations of mixed pine, mixed hardwoods, black locust, and shrubs for wildlife. In a complete floristic inventory conducted 25 years later, the authors found the woody flora consisted of 34 families, 53 genera, and 70 species including 7 exotics. This inventory of the Fonde mine shows that a diverse forest vegetation can be reestablished after extreme disturbances in Appalachia. Black locust, yellow poplar, and Virginia pine reproduction varied significantly among plantation types. Canopy tree species significantly affected ground layer cover, total species richness, number of tree seedling species, and total number of tree seedlings present. Mine soil type affected ground layer percent cover and total species richness. Pre-SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977) reclaimed and inventoried mines can be used to evaluate biodiversity on post-SMCRA mines.

  16. 30 CFR 903.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.780 Surface mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  17. 30 CFR 912.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  18. 30 CFR 947.780 - Surface mining permit application-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit application-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.780 Surface mining permit application—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  19. 30 CFR 947.780 - Surface mining permit application-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit application-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.780 Surface mining permit application—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  20. 30 CFR 942.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.780 Surface mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  1. 30 CFR 947.780 - Surface mining permit application-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit application-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.780 Surface mining permit application—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  2. 30 CFR 903.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.780 Surface mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  3. 30 CFR 905.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.780 Surface mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  4. 30 CFR 937.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  5. 30 CFR 912.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  6. 30 CFR 942.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.780 Surface mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  7. 30 CFR 910.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  8. 30 CFR 937.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  9. 30 CFR 905.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.780 Surface mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  10. 30 CFR 905.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.780 Surface mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  11. 30 CFR 910.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  12. 30 CFR 922.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  13. 30 CFR 910.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  14. 30 CFR 922.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  15. 30 CFR 942.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.780 Surface mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  16. 30 CFR 937.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  17. 30 CFR 922.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  18. 30 CFR 912.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  19. 30 CFR 912.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  20. 30 CFR 937.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  1. 30 CFR 905.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.780 Surface mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  2. 30 CFR 903.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.780 Surface mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  3. 30 CFR 910.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  4. 30 CFR 922.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  5. 30 CFR 947.780 - Surface mining permit application-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit application-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.780 Surface mining permit application—minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  6. 30 CFR 942.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.780 Surface mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  7. 30 CFR 903.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.780 Surface mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit...

  8. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... environmental review of Appalachian surface coal mining operations under the Clean Water Act, National... AGENCY Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean..., titled Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water...

  9. 30 CFR 910.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. 910.779 Section 910.779 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  10. 30 CFR 903.779 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. 903.779 Section 903.779 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  11. 30 CFR 922.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. 922.779 Section 922.779 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  12. 30 CFR 921.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. 921.779 Section 921.779 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  13. 30 CFR 905.779 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. 905.779 Section 905.779 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  14. 30 CFR 912.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. 912.779 Section 912.779 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  15. Residence time of contaminants released in surface coal mines -- a wind-tunnel study

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.S.

    1994-12-31

    Surface coal mining operations (blasting, shoveling, loading, trucking, etc.) are sources of airborne particles. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments direct the EPA to analyze the accuracy of the Industrial Source Complex model and the AP-42 emission factors, and to make revisions as may be necessary to eliminate any significant over-prediction of air concentration of fugitive particles from surface coal mines. A wind-tunnel study was performed at the US EPA`s Fluid Modeling Facility to investigate dispersion from surface coal mines in support of the dispersion modeling activities. Described here is the portion of the study directed at determining the residence time that material released near the floor of a mine will stay within the mine.

  16. Mapping extent and change in surface mines within the United States for 2001 to 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Stehman, Stephen V.; Parker, Owen P.

    2016-01-01

    A complete, spatially explicit dataset illustrating the 21st century mining footprint for the conterminous United States does not exist. To address this need, we developed a semi-automated procedure to map the country's mining footprint (30-m pixel) and establish a baseline to monitor changes in mine extent over time. The process uses mine seed points derived from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS), and USGS National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) and recodes patches of barren land that meet a “distance to seed” requirement and a patch area requirement before mapping a pixel as mining. Seed points derived from EIA coal points, an edited MRDS point file, and 1992 NLCD mine points were used in three separate efforts using different distance and patch area parameters for each. The three products were then merged to create a 2001 map of moderate-to-large mines in the United States, which was subsequently manually edited to reduce omission and commission errors. This process was replicated using NLCD 2006 barren pixels as a base layer to create a 2006 mine map and a 2001–2006 mine change map focusing on areas with surface mine expansion. In 2001, 8,324 km2 of surface mines were mapped. The footprint increased to 9,181 km2 in 2006, representing a 10·3% increase over 5 years. These methods exhibit merit as a timely approach to generate wall-to-wall, spatially explicit maps representing the recent extent of a wide range of surface mining activities across the country. 

  17. Large Omnivore Movements in Response to Surface Mining and Mine Reclamation.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Bogdan; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Boyce, Mark S

    2016-01-11

    Increasing global demands have resulted in widespread proliferation of resource extraction. Scientists are challenged to develop environmental mitigation strategies that meet societal expectations of resource supply, while achieving minimal disruption to sensitive "wilderness" species. We used GPS collar data from a 9-year study on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) (n = 18) in Alberta, Canada to assess movements and associated space use during versus after mining. Grizzly bear home range overlap with mined areas was lower during active mining except for females with cubs, that also had shortest movements on active mines. However, both females with cubs and males made shorter steps when on/close to mines following mine closure and reclamation. Our results show differences in bear movement and space-use strategies, with individuals from a key population segment (females with cubs) appearing most adaptable to mining disturbance. Preserving patches of original habitat, reclaiming the landscape and minimizing the risk of direct human-induced mortality during and after development can help conserve bears and other wildlife on industrially modified landscapes.

  18. Large Omnivore Movements in Response to Surface Mining and Mine Reclamation

    PubMed Central

    Cristescu, Bogdan; Stenhouse, Gordon B.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing global demands have resulted in widespread proliferation of resource extraction. Scientists are challenged to develop environmental mitigation strategies that meet societal expectations of resource supply, while achieving minimal disruption to sensitive “wilderness” species. We used GPS collar data from a 9-year study on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) (n = 18) in Alberta, Canada to assess movements and associated space use during versus after mining. Grizzly bear home range overlap with mined areas was lower during active mining except for females with cubs, that also had shortest movements on active mines. However, both females with cubs and males made shorter steps when on/close to mines following mine closure and reclamation. Our results show differences in bear movement and space-use strategies, with individuals from a key population segment (females with cubs) appearing most adaptable to mining disturbance. Preserving patches of original habitat, reclaiming the landscape and minimizing the risk of direct human-induced mortality during and after development can help conserve bears and other wildlife on industrially modified landscapes. PMID:26750094

  19. Large Omnivore Movements in Response to Surface Mining and Mine Reclamation.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Bogdan; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Boyce, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Increasing global demands have resulted in widespread proliferation of resource extraction. Scientists are challenged to develop environmental mitigation strategies that meet societal expectations of resource supply, while achieving minimal disruption to sensitive "wilderness" species. We used GPS collar data from a 9-year study on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) (n = 18) in Alberta, Canada to assess movements and associated space use during versus after mining. Grizzly bear home range overlap with mined areas was lower during active mining except for females with cubs, that also had shortest movements on active mines. However, both females with cubs and males made shorter steps when on/close to mines following mine closure and reclamation. Our results show differences in bear movement and space-use strategies, with individuals from a key population segment (females with cubs) appearing most adaptable to mining disturbance. Preserving patches of original habitat, reclaiming the landscape and minimizing the risk of direct human-induced mortality during and after development can help conserve bears and other wildlife on industrially modified landscapes. PMID:26750094

  20. IDENTIFYING RECENT SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES USING A NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI) CHANGE DETECTION METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory



    Coal mining is a major resource extraction activity on the Appalachian Mountains. The increased size and frequency of a specific type of surface mining, known as mountain top removal-valley fill, has in recent years raised various environmental concerns. During mountainto...

  1. Effects of surface mining on the aquatic insects of Bear Creek, Boyd County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of surface mining on the aquatic insect community of Bear Creek, Boyd County, Kentucky, were examined. Sampling stations were established above the mine, near the mine and below the mine and selected biological and physiochemical factors were examined at these stations. Station 3 (above mine) had a higher pH, higher alkalinity, lower mineral hardness, less siltation and less ferric hydroxide deposition than either Station 2 (at mine) or Station 1 (below mine). The greatest number of specimens (81%) was collected at Station 3. There were 19 mayfly and stonefly taxa represented at Station 3. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was significantly higher (P < 0.05) at Station 3 than at either Station 1 or Station 2. Examination of trophic relationships showed that shredders (chew and mine vascular plant tissue) were the most abundant group at Station 3, which may have been due to less ferric hydroxide deposition and thereby more vascular plant tissue available. Station 2 (at mine) had the least number of taxa collected, the lowest Shannon-Weaver diversity index value and predators were the most important (Importance Value) trophic group. Station 1 (below mine) was intermediate between Station 2 and Station 3, i.e., it seemed to be a recovery zone where the number of taxa collected began to increase and the physiochemical parameter values began to approach those of Station 3.

  2. 43 CFR 3930.13 - Performance standards for surface mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pit. (b) Considering mine economics and oil shale quality, the amount of oil shale wasted in each pit..., under the regulations in this part. (e) The operator/lessee may, in the interest of conservation,...

  3. 43 CFR 3930.13 - Performance standards for surface mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pit. (b) Considering mine economics and oil shale quality, the amount of oil shale wasted in each pit..., under the regulations in this part. (e) The operator/lessee may, in the interest of conservation,...

  4. 43 CFR 3930.13 - Performance standards for surface mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... pit. (b) Considering mine economics and oil shale quality, the amount of oil shale wasted in each pit..., under the regulations in this part. (e) The operator/lessee may, in the interest of conservation,...

  5. Recent developments in the reclamation of surface mined lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharma, K.D.; Gough, L.P.; Kumar, S.; Sharma, B.K.; Saxena, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    A broad review of mine land reclamation problems and challenges in arid lands is presented with special emphasis on work recently completed in India. The economics of mining in the Indian Desert is second only to agriculture in importance. Lands disturbed by mining, however, have only recently been the focus of reclamation attempts. Studies were made and results compiled of problems associated with germplasm selection, soil, plant and overburden characterization and manipulation, plant establishment methods utilized, soil amendment needs, use and conservation of available water and the evaluation of ecosystem sustainability. Emphasis is made of the need for multi-disciplinary approaches to mine land reclamation research and for the long-term monitoring of reclamation success.

  6. Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  7. Technique for predicting ground-water discharge to surface coal mines and resulting changes in head

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiss, L.S.; Galloway, D.L.; Ishii, Audrey

    1986-01-01

    Changes in seepage flux and head (groundwater level) from groundwater drainage into a surface coal mine can be predicted by a technique that considers drainage from the unsaturated zone. The user applies site-specific data to precalculated head and seepage-flux profiles. Groundwater flow through hypothetical aquifer cross sections was simulated using the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference model, VS2D, which considers variably saturated two-dimensional flow. Conceptual models considered were (1) drainage to a first cut, and (2) drainage to multiple cuts, which includes drainage effects of an area surface mine. Dimensionless head and seepage flux profiles from 246 simulations are presented. Step-by-step instructions and examples are presented. Users are required to know aquifer characteristics and to estimate size and timing of the mine operation at a proposed site. Calculated groundwater drainage to the mine is from one excavated face only. First cut considers confined and unconfined aquifers of a wide range of permeabilities; multiple cuts considers unconfined aquifers of higher permeabilities only. The technique, developed for Illinois coal-mining regions that use area surface mining and evaluated with an actual field example, will be useful in assessing potential hydrologic impacts of mining. Application is limited to hydrogeologic settings and mine operations similar to those considered. Fracture flow, recharge, and leakage are nor considered. (USGS)

  8. Evaluation of a surface application of limestone for controlling acid mine discharges from abandoned strip mines, Sewellsville, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Geidel, G.; Caruccio, F.T.

    1984-01-01

    A 150-acre drainage basin in an unreclaimed coal strip mine in east-central Ohio was studied and extensively monitored to determine the effect of a surface application of limestone on the ground water quality. Prior to the limestone treatment the ground and surface water of the basin was acidic due to pyrite oxidation in the spoil. The results of this field study and simultaneous laboratory experiments showed that the maximum amount of alkalinity that can be generated by a surface application of limestone is not sufficient to reduce the ground water acidity generated by pyrite oxidation. Additionally, the amount of limestone applied was not sufficient to significantly decrease the rate of pyrite oxidation nor provide neutralization and thereby produce neutral or alkaline discharges from the abandoned coal strip mine sites.

  9. Identifying woody vegetation on coal surface mines using phenological indicators with multitemporal Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliphant, A. J.; Li, J.; Wynne, R. H.; Donovan, P. F.; Zipper, C. E.

    2014-11-01

    Surface mining for coal has disturbed large land areas in the Appalachian Mountains. Better information on mined lands' ecosystem recovery status is necessary for effective environmental management in mining-impacted regions. Because record quality varies between state mining agencies and much mining occurred prior to widespread use of geospatial technologies, accurate maps of mining extents, durations, and land cover effects are often not available. Landsat data are well suited to mapping and characterizing land cover and forest recovery on former coal surface mines. Past mine reclamation techniques have often failed to restore premining forest vegetation but natural processes may enable native forests to re-establish on mined areas with time. However, the invasive species autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellate) is proliferating widely on former coal surface mines, often inhibiting reestablishment of native forests. Autumn olive outcompetes native vegetation because it fixes atmospheric nitrogen and benefits from a longer growing season than native deciduous trees. This longer growing season, along with Landsat 8's high signal to noise ratio, has enabled species-level classification of autumn olive using multitemporal Landsat 8 data at accuracy levels usually only obtainable using higher spatial or spectral resolution sensors. We have used classification and regression tree (CART®) and support vector machine (SVM) to classify five counties in the coal mining region of Virginia for presence and absence of autumn olive. The best model found was a CART® model with 36 nodes which had an overall accuracy of 84% and kappa of 0.68. Autumn olive had conditional kappa of 0.65 and a producers and users accuracy of 86% and 83% respectively. The best SVM model used a second order polynomial kernel and had an overall accuracy of 77%, an overall kappa of 0.54 and a producers and users accuracy of 60% and 90% respectively.

  10. Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western U.S.A. III. Relations between elements in mine soil and uptake by plants.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Plant uptake of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from mine soils was assessed using alfalfa Medicago sativa, sainfoin Onobrychis viciaefolia, smooth brome Bromus inermis, crested wheatgrass Agropyron cristatum, slender wheatgrass A. trachycaulum and intermediate wheatgrass A. intermedium; mine soil (cover-soil and spoil material) samples were collected from rehabilitated areas of 11 western US surface-coal mines in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado. Correlations between metals in plants and DTPA-extractable metals from mine soils were generally not statistically significant and showed no consistent patterns for a single metal or for a single plant species. Metal uptake by plants, relative to amounts in DTPA extracts of mine soil, was positively related to mine soil organic matter content or negatively related to mine soil pH. DTPA-extractable metal levels were significantly correlated with mine soil pH and organic-matter content.-from Authors

  11. 30 CFR 905.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. 905.800 Section 905.800 Mineral... requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. (a) Part 800 of this chapter, Bond and Insurance Requirements for Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

  12. 30 CFR 905.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. 905.800 Section 905.800 Mineral... requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. (a) Part 800 of this chapter, Bond and Insurance Requirements for Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

  13. Effect of Water Mine Drainage on Estimation of Surface Runoff in Hilly Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Y.; Liu, P.; Gao, Z.; Han, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Large amounts of groundwater are discharged during underground mining operations, which result in the drawdown of groundwater, known as aquifer dewatering in mining areas. As a result, groundwater runoff condition is inevitably changed. In addition, the surface runoff situation may be influenced indirectly, even decreased its amount owing to the hydraulic connection between surface water and groundwater. Moreover, the deceased surface runoff may lead to significantly effect on the surrounding agriculture irrigation, safe drinking and ecological environment, especially in the hilly area with poor developed and minimal storage capacity aquifer. Using the numerical simulation method, the above mentioned problems are given detailed analysis in the case study of a mine lied in the middle of china. According to the mine development and utilization scheme, the mine water yield calculated using the module MODFLOW is nearly 83.0×104m3/a during the twenty-four years of mining. The area having obvious groundwater level drawdown caused by the mine drainage is about 5.75 km2. Besides, the annual surface runoff is decreased by 20.4%, generally resulted in the river depletion from January to March.

  14. Development of a tree classifier for discrimination of surface mine activity from Landsat digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. L.; Miller, W. F.; Quattrochi, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    In a cooperative project with the Geological Survey of Alabama, the Mississippi State Remote Sensing Applications Program has developed a single purpose, decision-tree classifier using band-ratioing techniques to discriminate various stages of surface mining activity. The tree classifier has four levels and employs only two channels in classification at each level. An accurate computation of the amount of disturbed land resulting from the mining activity can be made as a product of the classification output. The utilization of Landsat data provides a cost-efficient, rapid, and accurate means of monitoring surface mining activities.

  15. Ground- and surface-water interactions involving an abandoned underground coal mine in Pike County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.; Sjogren, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Several highwall pits of an abandoned surface mine in the Springfield Coal Member (Pennsylvanian) are currently occupied by ponds with a total area of approximately 2.3 x 10{sup 4} m{sup 2}. These ponds are adjacent to an abandoned underground mine (Patoka Valley Coal and Coke Company No. 1 Mine) in the same coalbed. The mine underlies about 0.3 km{sup 2} and contains approximately 4 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of flooded voids. Monitoring of water levels in wells that are screened in the mine and of the levels of adjacent ponds reveal that average hourly levels vary in unison across a range of less than one meter. The mean potentiometric level of the mine-aquifer, the neighboring ponds, and an artesian spring that issues through the outcrop of the coalbed, are at elevations of about 163 m above sea level. Long-term monitoring and a field experiment that involved pumping of a pond indicated that the mine was connected to two of the ponds and served to recharge, rather than discharge, the ponds. The monitoring and field experiment also allowed determination of the mine aquifers barometric efficiency (0.3) and its storativity (2 x 10{sup -3}) . A water-balance calculation indicates that the average recharge rate of the mine is about 0.1 mm/day.

  16. Development of Soils and Communities of Plants and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on West Virginia Surface Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Michael A.; Cumming, Jonathan R.

    2014-11-01

    Surface mining followed by reclamation to pasture is a major driver of land use and cover change in Appalachia. Prior research suggests that many aspects of ecosystem recovery are either slow or incomplete. We examined ecosystem structure—including soil physical and chemical properties, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) infectivity and community composition, and plant diversity and community composition—on a chronosequence of pasture-reclaimed surface mines and a non-mined pasture in northern West Virginia. Surface mining and reclamation dramatically altered ecosystem structure. Some aspects of ecosystem structure, including many measures of soil chemistry and infectivity of AMF, returned rapidly to levels found on the non-mined reference site. Other aspects of ecosystem structure, notably soil physical properties and AMF and plant communities, showed incomplete or no recovery over the short-to-medium term. In addition, invasive plants were prevalent on reclaimed mine sites. The results point to the need for investigation on how reclamation practices could minimize establishment of exotic invasive plant species and reduce the long-term impacts of mining on ecosystem structure and function.

  17. Development of soils and communities of plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on West Virginia surface mines.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michael A; Cumming, Jonathan R

    2014-11-01

    Surface mining followed by reclamation to pasture is a major driver of land use and cover change in Appalachia. Prior research suggests that many aspects of ecosystem recovery are either slow or incomplete. We examined ecosystem structure-including soil physical and chemical properties, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) infectivity and community composition, and plant diversity and community composition-on a chronosequence of pasture-reclaimed surface mines and a non-mined pasture in northern West Virginia. Surface mining and reclamation dramatically altered ecosystem structure. Some aspects of ecosystem structure, including many measures of soil chemistry and infectivity of AMF, returned rapidly to levels found on the non-mined reference site. Other aspects of ecosystem structure, notably soil physical properties and AMF and plant communities, showed incomplete or no recovery over the short-to-medium term. In addition, invasive plants were prevalent on reclaimed mine sites. The results point to the need for investigation on how reclamation practices could minimize establishment of exotic invasive plant species and reduce the long-term impacts of mining on ecosystem structure and function.

  18. Surface mine planning and design implications and theory of a visual environmental quality predictive model

    SciTech Connect

    Burley, J.B.

    1999-07-01

    Surface mine planners and designers are searching for scientifically based tools to assist in the pre-mine planning and post-mine development or surface mine sites. In this study, the author presents a science based visual and environmental quality predictive model useful in preparing and assessing landscape treatments for surface mine sites. The equation explains 67 percent of respondent preference, with an overall p-value for the equation >0.0001 and a p-value >0.05 for each regressor. Regressors employed in the equation include an environmental quality index, foreground vegetation, distant nonvegetation, people, vehicles, utilities, foreground flowers, foreground erosion, wildlife, landscape openness, landscape mystery, and noosphericness (a measure of human disturbance). The equation can be explained with an Intrusion/Neutral Modifier/Temporal Enhancement Theory which suggests that human intrusions upon other humans results in landscape of low preference and which also suggests that landscape containing natural and special temporal features such as wildlife and flowers can enhance the value of a landscape scene. This research supports the importance of visual barriers such as berms and vegetation screens during mining operations and supports public perceptions concerning many types of industrial activities. In addition, the equation can be applied to study post-mining landscape development plans to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of landscape treatments.

  19. Development of soils and communities of plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on West Virginia surface mines.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michael A; Cumming, Jonathan R

    2014-11-01

    Surface mining followed by reclamation to pasture is a major driver of land use and cover change in Appalachia. Prior research suggests that many aspects of ecosystem recovery are either slow or incomplete. We examined ecosystem structure-including soil physical and chemical properties, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) infectivity and community composition, and plant diversity and community composition-on a chronosequence of pasture-reclaimed surface mines and a non-mined pasture in northern West Virginia. Surface mining and reclamation dramatically altered ecosystem structure. Some aspects of ecosystem structure, including many measures of soil chemistry and infectivity of AMF, returned rapidly to levels found on the non-mined reference site. Other aspects of ecosystem structure, notably soil physical properties and AMF and plant communities, showed incomplete or no recovery over the short-to-medium term. In addition, invasive plants were prevalent on reclaimed mine sites. The results point to the need for investigation on how reclamation practices could minimize establishment of exotic invasive plant species and reduce the long-term impacts of mining on ecosystem structure and function. PMID:25195033

  20. Surface-water quality of coal-mine lands in Raccoon Creek Basin, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation, plans to reclaim abandoned surface mines in the Raccoon Creek watershed in southern Ohio. Historic water-quality data collected between 1975 and 1983 were complied and analyzed in terms of eight selected mine-drainage characteristics to develop a data base for individual subbasin reclamation projects. Areas of mine drainage affecting Raccoon Creek basin, the study Sandy Run basin, the Hewett Fork basin, and the Little raccoon Creek basin. Surface-water-quality samples were collected from a 41-site network from November 1 through November 3, 1983, Results of the sampling reaffirmed that the major sources of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek are in the Little Raccoon Creek basin, and the Hewett Fork basin. However, water quality at the mouth of Sandy Run indicated that it is not a source of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek. Buffer Run, Goose Run, an unnamed tributary to Little Raccoon Creek, Mulga Run, and Sugar Run were the main sources of mine drainage sampled in the Little Raccoon Creek basin. All sites sampled in the East Branch Raccoon Creek basin were affected by mine drainage. This information was used to prepare a work plan for additional data collection before, during, and after reclamation. The data will be used to define the effectiveness of reclamation effects in the basin.

  1. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters.

  2. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters. PMID:26136156

  3. Detection of surface and buried mines with an UHF airborne SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosch, Theodore O.; Lee, Check F.; Adams, Eileen M.; Tran, Chi; Koening, Francois; Tom, Kwok; Vickers, Roger S.

    1995-06-01

    A small minefield was deployed in the desert near Yuma, Arizona in June of 1993. Radar data of this minefield was collected by ground-based and airborne radar sensors. The minefield consists of M-20 metal and M-80 plastic anti-armor mines and Valmara-69 antipersonnel mines. The mines were deployed on the surface and buried at three different depths. Images and analysis of the minefield, which are derived from data collected by the SRI FOLPEN II synthetic aperture radar, are presented here. The minefield was imaged over three bands from 100 to 500 MHz and at various depression angles with this radar sensor. The image analysis is compared to the modeling results of surface and buried mine-like objects. We also show the results of a new radio frequency interference (RFI) rejection algorithm and the image quality improvement we achieved.

  4. Surface-mining primacy for Kentucky: the legal implications

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    A number of legal issues and problems developed when Kentucky achieved primacy; i.e., it assumed the primary regulatory responsibility for enforcing environmental laws concerning coal mining operations. This article describes how Kentucky phased in the new state law. It covers the legal issues of when various parts of the law would take effect, revisions in the rulemaking after primacy, and legal challenges made to the Secretary of the Interior's approval of the Kentucky program, some leading to injunctions. 84 references.

  5. Natural and planted flora of the log mountain surface - mined demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.L.; Wade, G.L.; Straw, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    A descriptive study of the naturally invading and planted flora was conducted during 1984-1985 on a 14- and 21-year-old contour surface mine the 14.2 ha Log Mountain Demonstration Area (LMDA), in Bell County, Kentucky. Six habitats are designated from areas created from coal mining; the 1963 bench, 1970 bench, bench highwalls, mine outslopes, mine seeps, and coal haul-telephone microwave tower road. Twenty-four of 25 woody and herbaceous species (11 indigenous, 13 non-indigenous) have persisted from plantings by personnel of the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service. We recommend 11 native and exotic woody and herbaceous species for planting on coal surface-mined areas. An annotated list of vascular plants comprises 360 taxa (286 indigenous, 74 non-indigenous) in 224 genera from 82 families. Taxa consist of 1 Lycopodiophyta, 1 Equisetophyta, 8 Polypodiophyta, 7 Pinophyta, and 343 Magnoliophyta. The most species-rich families are the Asteraceae (64), Poaceae (39), Fabaceae (20), Cyperaceae (16), Rosaceae (13), and Lamiaceae (11). A total of 155 Bell County distribution records were documented. Three threatened Kentucky species (Gentiana decora, Liparis loeselii, Silene ovata) were present in refugial habitats created by surface mining. The high species richness has resulted from native and naturalized invading species from the environs, native and exotic planted species, and species from the remnant seed bank. Forest vegetation is a complex mosaic of natural and semi-natural plant communities on the unplanted and planted areas of LMDA.

  6. Utilization of surface mine ponds in East Tennessee by breeding amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.J.; Fowler, D.K.

    1981-06-01

    Of 24 ponds examined on Ollis Creek Surface Mine, Campbell County, Tennessee, 21 contained breeding amphibians. Twelve species of amphibians were identified in ponds that ranged from 4.0 to 8.0 in pH. Although ponds with low pH values were used by breeding amphibians, significantly more amphibian species were found in ponds with higher pH values. The average pH of ponds occupied by each amphibian species varied. Spring peepers (Hyla crucifer) occupied ponds with the lowest average pH (5.22) while upland chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata feriarum) utilized ponds with the highest average pH (6.33). Findings indicated high biological productivity in surface mine ponds. Aquatic vegetation was present in 20 of the 24 ponds. Aquatic insects and a diverse wildlife fauna utilized the study ponds. Large mammals (3 species), waterbirds (17 species), and snakes (2 species) were among those species observed. Surface mine ponds were found to supply an important habitat component for a variety of wildlife species and therefore improve the quality of wildlife habitat on the surface mines. In some areas, mine ponds are the only source of surface water available for wildlife use. 23 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

  7. 43 CFR 1610.7-1 - Designation of areas unsuitable for surface mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., PROGRAMMING, BUDGETING Resource Management Planning § 1610.7-1 Designation of areas unsuitable for surface... whether there are areas unsuitable for all or certain types of surface coal mining operations under... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designation of areas unsuitable...

  8. 43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... both. (c) Employees are encouraged to review regulations contained in 30 CFR part 706 which pertain to... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interests in underground or surface coal... Certain Employees of the Department § 20.402 Interests in underground or surface coal mining...

  9. 43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... both. (c) Employees are encouraged to review regulations contained in 30 CFR part 706 which pertain to... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interests in underground or surface coal... Certain Employees of the Department § 20.402 Interests in underground or surface coal mining...

  10. 43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... both. (c) Employees are encouraged to review regulations contained in 30 CFR part 706 which pertain to... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Interests in underground or surface coal... Certain Employees of the Department § 20.402 Interests in underground or surface coal mining...

  11. 43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... both. (c) Employees are encouraged to review regulations contained in 30 CFR part 706 which pertain to... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interests in underground or surface coal... Certain Employees of the Department § 20.402 Interests in underground or surface coal mining...

  12. Deep Impact: Effects of Mountaintop Mining on Surface Topography, Bedrock Structure, and Downstream Waters.

    PubMed

    Ross, Matthew R V; McGlynn, Brian L; Bernhardt, Emily S

    2016-02-16

    Land use impacts are commonly quantified and compared using 2D maps, limiting the scale of their reported impacts to surface area estimates. Yet, nearly all land use involves disturbances below the land surface. Incorporating this third dimension into our estimates of land use impact is especially important when examining the impacts of mining. Mountaintop mining is the most common form of coal mining in the Central Appalachian ecoregion. Previous estimates suggest that active, reclaimed, or abandoned mountaintop mines cover ∼7% of Central Appalachia. While this is double the areal extent of development in the ecoregion (estimated to occupy <3% of the land area), the impacts are far more extensive than areal estimates alone can convey as the impacts of mines extend 10s to 100s of meters below the current land surface. Here, we provide the first estimates for the total volumetric and topographic disturbance associated with mining in an 11 500 km(2) region of southern West Virginia. We find that the cutting of ridges and filling of valleys has lowered the median slope of mined landscapes in the region by nearly 10 degrees while increasing their average elevation by 3 m as a result of expansive valley filling. We estimate that in southern West Virginia, more than 6.4km(3) of bedrock has been broken apart and deposited into 1544 headwater valley fills. We used NPDES monitoring datatsets available for 91 of these valley fills to explore whether fill characteristics could explain variation in the pH or selenium concentrations reported for streams draining these fills. We found that the volume of overburden in individual valley fills correlates with stream pH and selenium concentration, and suggest that a three-dimensional assessment of mountaintop mining impacts is necessary to predict both the severity and the longevity of the resulting environmental impacts. PMID:26800154

  13. Deep Impact: Effects of Mountaintop Mining on Surface Topography, Bedrock Structure, and Downstream Waters.

    PubMed

    Ross, Matthew R V; McGlynn, Brian L; Bernhardt, Emily S

    2016-02-16

    Land use impacts are commonly quantified and compared using 2D maps, limiting the scale of their reported impacts to surface area estimates. Yet, nearly all land use involves disturbances below the land surface. Incorporating this third dimension into our estimates of land use impact is especially important when examining the impacts of mining. Mountaintop mining is the most common form of coal mining in the Central Appalachian ecoregion. Previous estimates suggest that active, reclaimed, or abandoned mountaintop mines cover ∼7% of Central Appalachia. While this is double the areal extent of development in the ecoregion (estimated to occupy <3% of the land area), the impacts are far more extensive than areal estimates alone can convey as the impacts of mines extend 10s to 100s of meters below the current land surface. Here, we provide the first estimates for the total volumetric and topographic disturbance associated with mining in an 11 500 km(2) region of southern West Virginia. We find that the cutting of ridges and filling of valleys has lowered the median slope of mined landscapes in the region by nearly 10 degrees while increasing their average elevation by 3 m as a result of expansive valley filling. We estimate that in southern West Virginia, more than 6.4km(3) of bedrock has been broken apart and deposited into 1544 headwater valley fills. We used NPDES monitoring datatsets available for 91 of these valley fills to explore whether fill characteristics could explain variation in the pH or selenium concentrations reported for streams draining these fills. We found that the volume of overburden in individual valley fills correlates with stream pH and selenium concentration, and suggest that a three-dimensional assessment of mountaintop mining impacts is necessary to predict both the severity and the longevity of the resulting environmental impacts.

  14. 30 CFR 921.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 921.780 Section 921.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum...

  15. 30 CFR 921.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 921.780 Section 921.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum...

  16. 30 CFR 939.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operations plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operations plan. 939.780 Section 939.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum...

  17. 30 CFR 941.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 941.780 Section 941.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum...

  18. 30 CFR 939.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operations plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operations plan. 939.780 Section 939.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum...

  19. 30 CFR 921.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 921.780 Section 921.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum...

  20. 30 CFR 941.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 941.780 Section 941.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum...

  1. 30 CFR 939.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operations plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operations plan. 939.780 Section 939.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum...

  2. 30 CFR 921.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 921.780 Section 921.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum...

  3. 30 CFR 939.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operations plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operations plan. 939.780 Section 939.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum...

  4. Restoration of surface-mined lands with rainfall harvesting

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, R.H.; Rickard, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    Strip mining for coal in the arid western US will remove grazing land as energy demands are met. Conventional resotration usually includes leveling the spoil banks and covering them with top soil, fertilizing, seeding and irrigation with well or river water. An overview of research on an alternate method of restoring this land is reported. From 1976 through 1981 studies were conducted on the use of water harvesting, the collection and use of rainfall runoff, to restore the vegetative productivity of strip mined lands in arid regions. These studies tested the technical and economic feasibility of using partially leveled spoil banks at strip mines as catchment areas to collect and direct runoff to the topsoiled valley floor where crops were cultivated. Information was collected on the efficiency of seven treatments to increase runoff from the catchment areas and on the productivity of seven crops. The experiments were conducted in arid areas of Washington, Arizona, and Colorado. It was concluded that water harvesting can replace or augment expensive and inadequate supplies of well and river water in arid regions with a suitable climate. These studies showed that some treatments provided adequate runoff to produce a useful crop in the valleys, thus making this alternative approach to restoration technically feasible. This approach was also potentially economically feasible where the treatment costs of the catchment areas were low, the treatment was effective, the crop was productive and valuable, and earthmoving costs were lower than with conventional restoration involving complete leveling of spoil banks. It was also concluded that water harvesting can be made more effective with further information on catchment area treatments, which crops are most adaptable to water harvesting, the optimum incline of the catchment areas and climatic influences on water harvesting.

  5. Surface-mine reclamation plant materials studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The report lists 13 trees/shrub species which appeared adapted to non-sodic glacial till mine spoil where competition was controlled. The highest growth/survival rate was for most species on the clean cultivated level site. Growth rates generally poor/competition most severe on wave-like site. No significant benefit from leveling competition was not controlled. While performance improved on tops-level site over wave-like/check sites, differences between 3 treatments minor. Few deciduous species tolerate grass/weed competition. Conifers as a group performed as well/better where spoil ridges/vegetation afford desiccation protection.

  6. Utilization of surface mine ponds in East Tennessee by breeding amphibians. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.J.; Fowler, D.K.

    1981-06-01

    Breeding amphibians were found in 21 of 24 ponds examined on the Ollis Creek Surface Mine in Campbell County, Tennessee. Twelve species of amphibians were identified in ponds that range from 4.0 to 8.0 in pH. Although ponds with low pH values were used by breeding amphibians, significantly more amphibian species were found in ponds with higher pH values. Findings indicated high biological productivity in the surface mine ponds examined. Aquatic vegetation was present in 20 of the 24 ponds. Aquatic insects and a diverse wildlife fauna utilized the study ponds. Surface mine ponds were found to supply an important habitat component for a variety of wildlife species.

  7. Effectivenes of lime kiln flue dust in preventing acid mine drainage at the Kauffman Surface Coal Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, A.W.; Parizek, R.R.; Phelps, L.B.

    1995-09-01

    A careful test of alkaline addition combined with special handling has been performed during mining of 27 acres of coal overlain by slightly to moderately pyritic overburden at the Kauffman Mine. Overburden holes indicate alkaline deficiencies of up to 1090 tons CaCO{sub 3}/acre. Sulfur contents for 1- to 3-foot intervals average 0.26%S and range up to 4.4%. An adjacent min produces severe AMD. Lime kiln flue dust, a waste product, was added in amounts adequate to neutralize maximum potential acidity. High-S zones were special-handled into compacted pods up to 2 ft. thick and covered by about 30% of the total lime requirement. About half the lime was spread on the surface prior to blasting and mixed during subsequent handling; the remaining lime was spread on the pit floor and beneath the topsoil. Over the period up to 1.5 years after mining, water in backfill and monitoring wells has pH of 6 to 7, alkalinity exceeding acidity, and generally low Fe, Al and Mn, indicating that procedure is a success. However, concurrent experiments with 400-ton test cells indicate that prompt addition of lime, and compaction of the material may be crucial for successful results.

  8. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    The report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. Methods and sources to obtain information to satisfy state and Federal regulations are presented. This volume is specifically for the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida.

  9. Orphans of the Valley. A status report on abandoned surface mines in the Tennessee Valley. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Muncy, J.A.; Bollinger, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Volume 1 of this report provides an overview of abandoned coal and noncoal mineral surface mine lands in the Tennessee Valley. It calls attention to problems associated with abandoned mines and points out reclamation accomplishments by State and Federal agencies. It discusses the upcoming task of returning these sites to productive capabilities and minimizing further damage to the environment. Volume II includes 34 color coded (by mine type), thematic maps of abandoned surface mine lands in the Tennessee Valley. The maps are historical in that they depicted conditions at, or about, the time of enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act on August 3, 1977. Of the 117,000 acres of coal lands and 53,000 acres of noncoal mineral lands surface mined in the Tennessee Valley prior to comprehensive reclamation requirements, some 54,742 acres remain either inadequately or totally unreclaimed.

  10. Methods for hydrologic monitoring of surface mining in the central-western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turk, J.T.; Parker, R.S.; Williams, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The regulations promulgated pursuant to the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act require the monitoring of potentially impacted hydrologic systems before, during, and after mining operations. This report details characteristics and processes that commonly determine the most acceptable approaches to hydrologic monitoring in the arid and semiarid central-western United States. No single approach is best for all hydrologic systems; consideration of basin characteristics, regulatory requirements, and regional patterns in hydrologic systems is necessary in any well-designed monitoring program for hydrologic-impact assessment. This report describes processes and characteristics that control the surface and subsurface hydraulics, as well as the water quality, of typical hydrological systems being mined in the central-western United States. After a discussion of these processes and characteristics, three examples are presented that describe acceptable, but nonexclusive, approaches to hydrologic monitoring network design. (USGS)

  11. Determination of Granite Rock Massif Weathering and Cracking of Surface Layers in the Oldest Parts of Medieval Mine Depending on Used Mining Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lednická, Markéta; Kaláb, Zdeněk

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the use of selected non-destructive testing methods for the purpose of specifying information on weathering and cracking of surface layers of granite rock massif in the medieval Jeroným Mine (the Czech Republic). This mine has been declared the National Heritage Site of the Czech Republic and its opening as a mining museum to the public is gradually prepared. Geological and geomechanical evaluation documents the possibility to find all kinds of weathering grades of rock massif in this mine. Two non-destructive methods have been tested, namely the measurement of ultrasonic pulse velocity and the measurement of Schmidt hammer rebound value. Field measurements were performed in two selected galleries to verify the application of such methods in specific conditions of underground spaces. Used mining method is one of the parameters later influencing cracking of rock massif. In selected galleries, two different mining methods were used which means that a part of a gallery profile was mined out by hand tools in the Middle Ages and another part of the profile was later mined out by blasting. Measurements in these galleries have enabled to analyse the influence of used mining methods on cracking of rock massif in the impaired zone, and, consequently, on ongoing weathering processes in those zones.

  12. 30 CFR 933.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements... approval of the regulatory authority and other agencies as required in 30 CFR 761.12(f). (b)...

  13. 30 CFR 933.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements... approval of the regulatory authority and other agencies as required in 30 CFR 761.12(f). (b)...

  14. 30 CFR 933.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements... approval of the regulatory authority and other agencies as required in 30 CFR 761.12(f). (b)...

  15. 30 CFR 933.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements... approval of the regulatory authority and other agencies as required in 30 CFR 761.12(f). (b)...

  16. 30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. 761.13 Section 761.13 Mineral... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. (a) If you intend to rely upon the... national forest, you must request that we obtain the Secretarial findings required by § 761.11(b). (b)...

  17. 30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. 761.13 Section 761.13 Mineral... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. (a) If you intend to rely upon the... national forest, you must request that we obtain the Secretarial findings required by § 761.11(b). (b)...

  18. 30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. 761.13 Section 761.13 Mineral... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. (a) If you intend to rely upon the... national forest, you must request that we obtain the Secretarial findings required by § 761.11(b). (b)...

  19. 30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. 761.15 Section 761.15... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. (a) This section does...

  20. 30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. 761.15 Section 761.15... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. (a) This section does...

  1. 30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. 761.15 Section 761.15... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. (a) This section does...

  2. 30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. 761.15 Section 761.15... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. (a) This section does...

  3. 30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. 761.15 Section 761.15... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. (a) This section does...

  4. Complex source mechanisms of mining-induced seismic events - implications for surface effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlecka-Sikora, B.; Cesca, S.; Lasocki, S.; Rudzinski, L.; Lizurek, L.; Wiejacz, P.; Urban, P.; kozlowska, M.

    2012-04-01

    The seismicity of Legnica-Głogów Copper District (LGCD) is induced by mining activities in three mines: Lubin, Rudna and Polkowice-Sieroszowice. Ground motion caused by strong tremors might affect local infrastructure. "Żelazny Most" tailings pond, the biggest structure of this type in Europe, is here under special concern. Due to surface objects protection, Rudna Mine has been running ground motion monitoring for several years. From June 2010 to June 2011 unusually strong and extensive surface impact has been observed for 6 mining tremors induced in one of Rudna mining sections. The observed peak ground acceleration (PGA) for both horizontal and vertical component were in or even beyond 99% confidence interval for prediction. The aim of this paper is analyze the reason of such unusual ground motion. On the basis of registrations from Rudna Mine mining seismological network and records from Polish Seismological Network held by the Institute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences (IGF PAN), the source mechanisms of these 6 tremors were calculated using a time domain moment tensor inversion. Furthermore, a kinematic analysis of the seismic source was performed, in order to determine the rupture planes orientations and rupture directions. These results showed that in case of the investigated tremors, point source models and shear fault mechanisms, which are most often assumed in mining seismology, are invalid. All analyzed events indicate extended sources with non-shear mechanism. The rapture planes have small dip angles and the rupture starts at the tremors hypocenter and propagates in the direction opposite to the plane dip. The tensional component plays here also big role. These source mechanisms well explain such observed strong ground motion, and calculated synthetic PGA values well correlates with observed ones. The relationship between mining tremors were also under investigation. All subsequent tremors occurred in the area of increased stress due to

  5. 30 CFR 785.12 - Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... demonstrate that the operations will comply with the requirements of the Act and 30 CFR part 825. (c) The... be conducted in compliance with the Act and 30 CFR part 825. (d) Upon amendment or revision to the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special bituminous surface coal mining...

  6. 30 CFR 785.12 - Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... demonstrate that the operations will comply with the requirements of the Act and 30 CFR part 825. (c) The... be conducted in compliance with the Act and 30 CFR part 825. (d) Upon amendment or revision to the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special bituminous surface coal mining...

  7. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR parts 816-817, the requirements of 30 CFR part 820 shall apply. (2) All other requirements of this chapter including the bonding and insurance requirements of 30 CFR 800.70, except the bond limits and the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and...

  8. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR parts 816-817, the requirements of 30 CFR part 820 shall apply. (2) All other requirements of this chapter including the bonding and insurance requirements of 30 CFR 800.70, except the bond limits and the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and...

  9. 30 CFR 785.12 - Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... demonstrate that the operations will comply with the requirements of the Act and 30 CFR part 825. (c) The... be conducted in compliance with the Act and 30 CFR part 825. (d) Upon amendment or revision to the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special bituminous surface coal mining...

  10. 30 CFR 785.12 - Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... demonstrate that the operations will comply with the requirements of the Act and 30 CFR part 825. (c) The... be conducted in compliance with the Act and 30 CFR part 825. (d) Upon amendment or revision to the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special bituminous surface coal mining...

  11. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR parts 816-817, the requirements of 30 CFR part 820 shall apply. (2) All other requirements of this chapter including the bonding and insurance requirements of 30 CFR 800.70, except the bond limits and the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and...

  12. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR parts 816-817, the requirements of 30 CFR part 820 shall apply. (2) All other requirements of this chapter including the bonding and insurance requirements of 30 CFR 800.70, except the bond limits and the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and...

  13. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR parts 816-817, the requirements of 30 CFR part 820 shall apply. (2) All other requirements of this chapter including the bonding and insurance requirements of 30 CFR 800.70, except the bond limits and the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and...

  14. Stand characteristics and productivity potential of Indiana surface mines reclaimed under SMCRA

    SciTech Connect

    Groninger, J.W.; Fillmore, S.D.; Rathfon, R.A.

    2006-06-15

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) addresses a wide range of environmental concerns. However, its impacts on forest stand development and productive potential have only recently been investigated. We surveyed the vegetation and forest productivity on 22 surface mine sites throughout the coal-bearing region of Indiana that were reclaimed to forest cover under the provisions of SMCRA 7-14 years prior to sampling. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) and green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) were the most widely occurring tree species. Tall fescue and goldenrod were the most widely occurring nonarborescent species. Median site index (base age 50 for black oak) was 30 ft. Although satisfying forest cover stocking requirements for bond release, these reclaimed surface mines almost always displayed a level of productivity far below those of native forests typical of this region. Reclamation techniques differing from those used on these study sites are needed to restore forest productivity to surface-mined lands while still complying with SMCRA.

  15. Hydrology and water chemistry of an abandoned surface coal mine, southwestern Henry County, Missouri-1984-86. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Blevins, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Surface coal mining in the area around Montrose, Missouri, has supplied fuel for the Montrose Power Plant since 1956 (Kansas City Power and Light, written commun., 1954). Major reclamation of surface mines began about 1972, but by 1987 most of the mined lands northwest of Montrose remained unreclaimed. The mined area contained more than 1,200 acres of barren spoil, 100 lakes, and several streams, many of which are acidic. The purpose of the report is to present the results of a hydrologic and water-quality study made in west-central Missouri at an abandoned surface coal mine from June 1984 to September 1986. Objectives of the study included quantifying the volume of water in, on, and moving through the spoil and determining the chemical characteristics of and major chemical reactions occurring in water affected by the mine.

  16. The risk of heat exhaustion at a deep underground metalliferous mine in relation to surface temperatures.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, A M; Bates, G P

    2000-07-01

    The risk of heat exhaustion at a deep underground metalliferous mine was assessed in relation to thermal conditions prevailing on the surface. For each day of a 1-year prospective case series of heat exhaustion, surface 24-h mean wet and dry bulb temperatures were recorded. From this data, 24-h mean wet bulb globe temperatures were derived using certain assumptions. The three surface temperature variables were significantly higher on those days on which heat exhaustion occurred, compared to those days on which it did not occur (P < 0.001). The relative risk of heat exhaustion on days when the 24-h mean wet bulb globe temperature was in the range 26.0-28.0 degrees C was 4.82 (95% confidence interval 2.12-10.96). Surface temperature data could be used at this mine to warn miners about the risk of heat exhaustion.

  17. Evaluation of a surface application of limestone for controlling acid mine discharges from abandoned strip mines, Sewellsville, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Geidel, G.

    1982-01-01

    A 150 acre drainage basin in an unreclaimed coal strip mine in east-central Ohio was studied and extensively monitored to determine the effect of a surface application of limestone on the ground water quality. Prior to the limestone treatment the ground and surface water of the basin was acidic due to pyrite oxidation in the spoil. In order to assess the effect of limestone application the basin was divided into seven sub-basins, five of which were treated. Various halide salts were also applied in order to ascertain the rate of ground water movement through the spoil. Twenty-six seeps draining the seven basins were monitored on a weekly basis for temperature, pH, acidity, alkalinity, conductivity and the tracers and once a month for sulfate. A recording rain gage was set up in the area and a weekly composite of precipitation was analyzed. The seeps from the sub-basins with low acid concentrations became alkaline due to neutralization but after a long dry period, they returned to their acid condition. The moderately and highly acidic seeps showed a decline in the acid concentrations which could be attributed to a combination of neutralization and a decrease in the rate of pyrite oxidation. The results of this field study and simultaneous laboratory experiments showed that the maximum amount of alkalinity that can be generated by a surface application of limestone is not sufficient to reduce the ground water acidity generated by pyrite oxidation. Additionally, the amount of limestone applied was not sufficient to significantly decrease the rate of pyrite oxidation nor provide neutralization and thereby produce neutral or alkaline discharges from the abandoned coal strip mine sites.

  18. Comparing digital data processing techniques for surface mine and reclamation monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, R. G.; Bly, B. G.; Campbell, W. J.; Bloemer, H. H. L.; Brumfield, J. O.

    1982-01-01

    The results of three techniques used for processing Landsat digital data are compared for their utility in delineating areas of surface mining and subsequent reclamation. An unsupervised clustering algorithm (ISOCLS), a maximum-likelihood classifier (CLASFY), and a hybrid approach utilizing canonical analysis (ISOCLS/KLTRANS/ISOCLS) were compared by means of a detailed accuracy assessment with aerial photography at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Results show that the hybrid approach was superior to the traditional techniques in distinguishing strip mined and reclaimed areas.

  19. Field evaluations of hearing protection devices at surface mining environments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of circumaural hearing protection devices and their predictability when they were being worn by mine employees performing normal work duties. The method employed relied on a physical measurement of the noise reduction of the hearing protectors by utilizing two FM-wireless transmitting and receiving systems. One system measured the outside hearing protector noise level, the second system measured the inside hearing protector noise level. The noise level data of both systems was transmitted back to the corresponding receivers and was recorded onto a two-channel tape recorder. Three methods of evaluating hearing protector performance were explored and compared to the Environmental Protection Agency, Noise Reduction Rating (EPA NRR) values. They were, (1) predicted National Institute for occupational Safety and Health`s (NIOSH) method No. 1 values, (2) field-calculated NIOSH No. 1 values, and (3) measured dBA reduction values, which was the arithmetic A-weighted differences between both microphone locations. The majority of the data was obtained on operators of mobile strip equipment, such as bulldozers, front-end-loaders, and overburden drills. A total of 107 individual tests were conducted using 11 different hearing protectors. The results indicate that the amount of protection, which can vary significantly, is related either to the spectrum shape of the noise, or the C-weighted minus the A-weighted (C-A) value. This is consistent with other researchers. The field measured noise reductions were equivalent to the EPA NRR values when the C-A values were negative or approaching zero. When the C-A values increased, the measured noise reductions significantly decreased.

  20. A statistical approach to evaluate the relation of coal mining, land reclamation, and surface-water quality in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hren, Janet; Wilson, K.S.; Helsel, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    Base-flow data from 779 sites in Ohio 's coal region were analyzed statistically to relate land use to selected water-quality characteristics. Sites were classified into five categories: unmined (100 percent unmined land), abandoned (50 percent or more abandoned surface mines), reclaimed (50 percent or more reclaimed surface mines), deep-mined (50 percent or more underground mines), and mixed (all others). Specific conductance , pH, alkalinity, acidity, sulfate, dissolved iron, total iron, and total manganese in streams draining basins in the coal region were the eight characteristics selected for analysis. (USGS)

  1. Effects of surface coal mining and reclamation on the geohydrology of six small watersheds in West-Central Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Jeffrey D.; Duwelius, Richard F.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrologic effects of mining and reclamation were identified by comparing the hydrologic systems at mined and reclaimed watersheds with those at unmined agricultural watersheds. The presence or absence of a large final-cut lake in the reclaimed watershed greatly influences the hydrologic systems and the effects of mining and reclamation. Surface coal mining and reclamation can decrease base flow, annual runoff, and peak flow rates; increase the variability of flow and recharge to the bedrock; reestablish the premining relation between surface- and ground-water divides; and lower the water table in upland areas.

  2. Hydrology of a surface coal mined area in Randolph County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borghese, J.V.; Klinger, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Ground water was monitored from October 1980 to April 1983 and surface water was monitored from October 1980 to September 1982 in the 0.6-square-mile basin of Plum Creek Tributary in Randolph County, Illinois, to determine effects of surface mining for coal. During the study period, the basin was being surfaced mined. The mine pit advanced about 100 feet into the basin every month, reducing the basin 's drainage area from an initial area of 0.6 square mile in October 1980 to 0.2 square mile in May 1982. The average daily flow of Plum Creek Tributary was 0.49 cubic foot per second. Periods of no flow occurred 18 percent of the time. Total recoverable iron at Plum Creek Tributary exceeded the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency 's (IEPA) effluent standards. Mining activity may have been the cause. Ground-water levels of nine wells declined during the monitored period. The largest was a 35-foot decline in 16 months. Ground-water samples had dissolved-solids concentration that exceeded the IEPA 's limit for potable supply for all geohydrologic units except the unconsolidated sand. Chloride concentrations exceeded IEPA 's limits in all bedrock units except for a limestone unit. (USGS)

  3. Fecal coliform concentrations in runoff from a grazed, reclaimed surface mine

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, D.G.; Perry, H.D.

    1987-10-01

    The relatively scarcity of flat or moderately sloping land in Central Appalachia make reclaimed surface mined lands attractive for agricultural uses. A reclaimed surface coal mine in southern West Virginia was placed under grazing management during the 1984 and 1985 grown seasons. Discharge was collected from summer-grazed watersheds of about 2.8 ha and 8.9 ha and analyzed, by the membrane-filtration method, for fecal coliforms (FC). Prior to grazing in 1984, FC counts were < 200/100 ml. During the grazing season, FC ranged from < 0/100 ml to > 1000/100 ml in 1984 and from 0/100 ml to > 2500/100 ml in 1985. FC counts remained high during warm periods for several months after grazing ceased. It was concluded that the bacteriological quality of receiving streams was impacted by grazing the reclaimed area and recommended standards for point sources were often exceeded; however, the FC counts did not appear to be any greater than what would have been expected from grazed, undisturbed areas. Reclaimed surface mines areas in Appalachia have the potential to be a valuable flat land resource and grazing appears to be an alternative post mine land use that affects bacteriological water quality in a similar manner as natural pastures. However, good management practices may be necessary to avoid bacterial contamination of adjacent bodies of water.

  4. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Strager, Michael P.; Strager, Jacquelyn M.; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Dunscomb, Judy K.; Kreps, Brad J.; Maxwell, Aaron E.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predicting future surface coal mining extents under changing economic and regulatory forecasts through the year 2035. This was accomplished by integrating a spatial model with production demand forecasts to predict (1 km2) gridded cell size land cover change. Combining these two inputs was possible with a ratio which linked coal extraction quantities to a unit area extent. The result was a spatial distribution of probabilities allocated over forecasted demand for the Appalachian region including northern, central, southern, and eastern Illinois coal regions. The results can be used to better plan for land use alterations and potential cumulative impacts. PMID:26090883

  5. Arsenic speciation and mobility in surface water at Lucky Shot Gold Mine, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Torrance, Keith; Keenan, Helen; Munk, Leeann; Hagedorn, Birgit

    2012-12-01

    Historical mining in Alaska has created a legacy of approximately 6,830 abandoned mine sites which include adits, tailing piles and contaminated land that continue to impact surface and groundwater quality through run-off and leaching of potentially toxic metals, especially arsenic (As). One such site is the Lucky Shot Gold Mine in Hatcher Pass, south-central Alaska, which operated from 1920 until 1942, mining gold-bearing quartz veins hosted in a Cretaceous tonalite intrusion. Arsenopyrite (FeAsS) and pyrite (FeS(2)) present in the quartz veins contribute to elevated As levels in water draining, abandoned mine adits. As future underground mining at Lucky Shot may further adversely impact water quality, baseline geochemical studies were undertaken to assess As mobility in the vicinity of the mine adits. Water samples were collected from streams, adits and boreholes around the mine and analysed for major and minor elements using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and for anions by ion chromatography (IC). Arsenic species separation was performed in the field to determine the ratio of inorganic As(III)/As(V) using anion-exchange chromatography, following established methods. It was determined that water draining the adits had elevated levels of As roughly seventy times the United States Environmental Protection Agency Drinking Water Standard of 10 μg L(-1), although this was rapidly diluted downstream in Craigie Creek to <2 μg L(-1). Adit and surface water pH was circum-neutral and displayed no characteristics of acid mine drainage. Despite being well oxygenated, As(III) is the dominant As species in adit water, accounting for close to 100 % of total As. The proportion of As(V) increases downstream of the adits, as some As(III) is oxidized, but the speciation enhances arsenic mobility at the site. The δ(18)O measurements indicate that the water in the system has a short residence time as it is very similar to meteoric water, supporting the

  6. Hydrogeochemical Investigations of Historic Mining Districts, Central Western Slope of Colorado, Including Influence on Surface-Water Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This report describes reconnaissance hydrogeochemical investigations of 22 mining districts on the Western Slope of Colorado in the Gunnison and Uncompahgre National Forests and adjacent public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Sources and fates of contaminants from historic mines, mine waste, and mill tailings are interpreted from chemical analyses for 190 samples of surface waters; 185 samples of mined rocks, mill tailings, and altered rocks; and passive leach analyses of 116 samples of those mineralized materials. Short reaches of several headwater streams show relatively low level effects of historic mining; the headwaters of the Uncompahgre River are highly contaminated by mines and unmined altered rocks in the Red Mountain district. There is encouraging evidence that natural processes attenuate mine-related contamination in most districts.

  7. Groundwater flow evaluation through backfilling materials of a surface coal mining site of Northeast Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez-Ojeda, C.; Martínez-Morales, M.; Ortíz-Flores, G.

    2013-05-01

    Surface coal mining at the Allende-Piedras Negras aquifer system requires the complete dewatering and removal of the aquifer. The aquifer contains several geologic layers of variable hydraulic conductivity. Backfilling material is composed of a mixture of permeable and impermeable layers and it was initially considered as impermeable. Exploratory drillings, pumping tests and a geophysical survey were performed in the backfilling materials and the surrounding unaltered materials in order to evaluate the natural groundwater flow modification due to the mining activities. Results of geophysical survey evidenced a saturated water table within the back filling material which was verified by exploratory drilling. Pumping tests showed that unaltered materials have a mean hydraulic conductivity of 34.5 m/day while the backfilling of 5.3 m/day. Although the mining activities reduce the hydraulic conductivity by almost an order of magnitude, it was corroborated the existence of a groundwater flow through the backfilling materials.

  8. Surface deformation induced by water influx in the abandoned coal mines in Limburg, The Netherlands observed by satellite radar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caro Cuenca, Miguel; Hooper, Andrew J.; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2013-01-01

    The coal reserves of Limburg, The Netherlands, have been exploited until the mid-1970's, leading to significant land subsidence, a large part of which was due to ground water pumping associated with the mining activities. In 1994, when also the hydrologically-connected neighboring German mining activities ceased, all pumps were finally dismantled. This resulted in rising groundwater levels in the mining areas, continuing until today. Here we report the detection and analysis of heterogeneous surface displacements in the area using satellite radar interferometry. The lack of adequate terrestrial geodetic measurements emphasizes the value of such satellite observations, especially in terms of the temporal and spatial characterization of the signal. Since the lack of direct mine water level measurements hampers predictions on future consequences at the surface, we study the relationship between surface deformation and sub-surface water levels in an attempt to provide rough correlation estimates and map the mine water dynamics.

  9. Impacts from surface mining on ground-water system: A twenty-year record

    SciTech Connect

    Promma, K.; Mathewson, C.C.

    1998-12-31

    Groundwater impacts from a surface lignite mine in east-central Texas have been predicted and monitored since 1974. Minimal impacts on groundwater quantity and quality were predicted. Because aquifers in the mine area have very low permeabilities, volumes of groundwater to dewatering pits and reclaimed spoils were expected to be small. Potential groundwater contamination was predicted to be insignificant because of the geology of the area. Seeping to and dewatering from the mine pits were predicted to prevent any potential contamination because the flow would be toward the mine pits. The predictions made are proved correct. Groundwater depletion and recovery have been observed in six mine blocks. Compaction of the spoil is heterogeneous. The bottom of the spoil deposit has higher porosity and permeability causing rapid resaturation and preferential flow. Groundwater recovery rate is predictable, reaching a steady-state condition within 7 to 8 years after reclamation begins. Examination of the geochemical evolution of groundwater in spoil aquifers reveals many trends. Most ion concentrations exhibit an increasing trend until groundwater recovery is complete. After that the ion concentrations decline as groundwater is flushed and reacting minerals precipitate. The groundwater quality monitored is not abnormally higher than state groundwater standards.

  10. Surface-mining regulation in the Federal Republic of Germany, Great Britain, Australia, and the United States: a comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, L.T.; McAteer, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison of surface-mining regulations dealing with the environmental impacts of coal production in the four subject countries focuses on how each has resolved the key issues of citizen participation, enforcement, standard setting, and success in regulating adverse environmental impacts. These impacts have gained new significance as the nations turn to coal as an alternative to foreign oil. The environmental effects of surface mining are examined for four mining techniques: area mining, open-pit mining, contour mining, and mountaintop removal. The US regulatory approach differs in the detail of its standards, its tough enforcement, and its broad citizen involvement, while the other countries develop a more-informal relationship between regulators and the regulated. It remains to be seen whether the US approach of charging those who extract coal with the environmental cost will work. 375 references, 4 figures. (DCK)

  11. Radiological impact of surface water and sediment near uranium mining sites.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, K; Stojanovska, Z; Badulin, V; Kunovska, B; Yovcheva, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the radiological impact of surface water and sediment around uranium mining sites 20 years after their closing. The areas under observations are 31 former classical underground uranium mining and exploratory sites in Bulgaria, named as objects. The extraction and processing of uranium ores in the Republic of Bulgaria were ended in 1992. To assess the radiological impact of radionuclides field expeditions were performed to sample water and bottom sediment. The migration of uranium through surface water was examined as one of the major pathways for contamination spread. The range of uranium concentration in water flowing from the mining sites was from 0.012 to 6.8 mgU l(-1) with a geometric mean of 0.192 mgU l(-1). The uranium concentrations in water downstream the mining sites were approximately 3 times higher than the background value (upstream). The concentrations of Unat, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (232)Th in the sediment of downstream river were higher than those upstream by 3.4, 2.6, 2, and 1.7 times, respectively. The distribution coefficient of uranium reflects its high mobility in most of the sites. In order to evaluate the impact on people as well as site prioritization for more detailed assessment and water management, screening dose assessments were done.

  12. Modeled impacts of surface coal mining on dissolved solids in the Tongue River, southeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woods, Paul F.

    1981-01-01

    A computer model has been developed for spatial and temporal simulation of streamflow and dissolved solids in the Tongue River from the Tongue River Dam to Miles City, Montana. User-defined plans of surface coal mining and agricultural development permit evaluation of potential changes in dissolved solids resulting from leaching of overburden material used to backfill mine pits and from withdrawal and return flow of irrigation water. Provision is made for simulation runs using increased streamflow from a proposed larger reservoir intended to replace the present Tongue River Reservoir. Simulations at mean streamflow indicated that mining 119,600 acres of federally leased coal tracts may increase by 4.8 percent the present annual dissolved-solids concentration in the Tongue River at Miles City. Simulations using the proposed Tongue River reservoir show substantial reductions in dissolved-solids concentration when paired with similar simulations using the present Tongue River Reservoir. When compared on a per-acre basis for the study area, the dewatering caused by irrigation increases dissolved-solids concentration more than the input of leachates from surface coal-mining operations. (USGS)

  13. Radiological impact of surface water and sediment near uranium mining sites.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, K; Stojanovska, Z; Badulin, V; Kunovska, B; Yovcheva, M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the radiological impact of surface water and sediment around uranium mining sites 20 years after their closing. The areas under observations are 31 former classical underground uranium mining and exploratory sites in Bulgaria, named as objects. The extraction and processing of uranium ores in the Republic of Bulgaria were ended in 1992. To assess the radiological impact of radionuclides field expeditions were performed to sample water and bottom sediment. The migration of uranium through surface water was examined as one of the major pathways for contamination spread. The range of uranium concentration in water flowing from the mining sites was from 0.012 to 6.8 mgU l(-1) with a geometric mean of 0.192 mgU l(-1). The uranium concentrations in water downstream the mining sites were approximately 3 times higher than the background value (upstream). The concentrations of Unat, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (232)Th in the sediment of downstream river were higher than those upstream by 3.4, 2.6, 2, and 1.7 times, respectively. The distribution coefficient of uranium reflects its high mobility in most of the sites. In order to evaluate the impact on people as well as site prioritization for more detailed assessment and water management, screening dose assessments were done. PMID:26505204

  14. Remote sensing of surface mines - A comparative study of sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irons, J. R.; Lachowski, H.; Peterson, C.

    1980-01-01

    The application of remote sensing to the inventory of coal surface mines and to the monitoring of mine reclamation in the eastern United States was investigated. Data were acquired during spring and autumn by several sensor systems over study areas located within the bituminous coal fields of Pennsylvania. Data sources were the Landsat MSS, an airborne multispectral scanner (Daedalus DS-1260), the airborne Thematic Mapper Simulator, and high-altitude color and color infrared aerial photography. A comparison of the data sets was conducted by a quantitative assessment of area measurement accuracy. Landsat data were found most suitable for a synoptic inventory of mines on a regional basis. High-altitude aerial photography was considered the best source of the detailed information required for reclamation monitoring. Nine channels of data from the airborne scanner were evaluated to select the most useful spectral bands for discriminating among the land cover types associated with surface mines. Four bands were selected in the following order by a stepwise linear discriminant procedure: 0.60-0.65 micron, 0.92-1.10 microns, 0.80-0.89 micron, and 8-14 microns. The data corresponding to these four bands were used for the thematic mapping of land cover.

  15. Thinning response of a white pine stand on a reclaimed surface mine in southwestern Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Casselman, C.N.; Fox, T.R.; Burger, J.A.

    2007-03-15

    White pine (Pinus strobus L) is planted extensively following reclamation of surface-mined land in the eastern coalfields. Little information exists on the productive potential of forests growing on reclaimed mined land and the response of these forests to intermediate stand treatments such as thinning. A thinning study was established in a 17-year-old white pine stand growing on a reclaimed surface mine in Vise County in southwest Virginia. A random complete block design was used to evaluate the growth response 9 growing seasons after thinning, when the stand was 26 years old. Stand parameters were projected to age 30 using a stand table projection. Site index of the stand was found to be 105 ft of a base age of 50 years. Thinning increased the diameter growth of the residual trees to 0.3 in. year{sup -1} compared with 0.2 in. year{sup -1} for the unthinned treatment; however, at age 26, there was no difference in volume or value per acre, When projected to age 30, the unthinned treatment had a volume of 6,530 ft(3) ac{sup -1} but was only worth $3,564 ac{sup -1}, whereas the thinned treatment was projected to have 6,654 ft{sup 3} ac{sup -1}, which was worth $4,559 ac{sup -1} due to a larger percentage of the volume in saw timber size classes. These results indicate that commercial forestry is a viable alternative for reclamation of surface-mined lands and that stands growing on reclaimed mined land can respond well to intermediate stand treatments.

  16. Boron in mine soils and rehabilitation plant species at selected surface coal mines in western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Serverson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1983-01-01

    Boron (B) content in mine soils and plants was assessed at 11 strip mines in the northern Great Plains, Powder River basin, and Green River coal regions. Except for unusually high B levels at one Wyoming mine, B levels in both mine soils and plants indicate that deficiency or toxicity conditions are minimal over this large geographic area. Relationships among mine-soil pH, organic-matter content, and hot-water soluble B, and B in plants are typical of those commonly reported in the literature. In addition, electrical conductivity (EC) of a water saturation extract of mine soil was positively correlated with B in mine soils. Regulations that suggest routine analysis for B to determine allowable levels in mine soils and rehabilitation plant species may be simplified. The more common measurements of pH and EC of mine soils should provide sufficient information to indicate potential B problem areas, where plant and mine soil analyses for B could then be performed.

  17. Application of multispectral scanner data to the study of an abandoned surface coal mine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spisz, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    The utility of aircraft multispectral scanner data for describing the land cover features of an abandoned contour-mined coal mine is considered. The data were obtained with an 11 band multispectral scanner at an altitude of 1.2 kilometers. Supervised, maximum-likelihood statistical classifications of the data were made to establish land-cover classes and also to describe in more detail the barren surface features as they may pertain to the reclamation or restoration of the area. The scanner data for the surface-water areas were studied to establish the variability and range of the spectral signatures. Both day and night thermal images of the area are presented. The results of the study show that a high degree of statistical separation can be obtained from the multispectral scanner data for the various land-cover features.

  18. A Research on the Association of Pavement Surface Damages Using Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Ching-Tsung; Chang, Jia-Ray; Chen, Jian-Da; Chou, Chien-Cheng; Chen, Shih-Huang

    The association of pavement surface damages used to rely on the judgments of the experts. However, with the accumulation of data in the pavement surface maintenance database and the improvement of Data Mining, there are more and more methods available to explore the association of pavement surface damages. This research adopts Apriori algorithm to conduct association analysis on pavement surface damages. From the experience of experts, it has been believed that the association of road damages is complicated. However, through case studies, it has been found that pavement surface damages are caused among longitudinal cracking, alligator cracking and pen-holes, and they are unidirectional influence. In addition, with the help of association rules, it has been learned that, in pavement surface preventative maintenance, the top priority should be the repair of longitudinal cracking and alligator cracking, which can greatly reduce the occurrence of pen-holes and the risk of state compensations.

  19. The influence of surface mining on runoff timing and flow pathways, Elk Valley, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatilla, N. J.; Carey, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    Surface mining is a common method of accessing coal. In high-elevation environments, vegetation and soils are typically removed prior to the blasting of overburden rock thereby allowing access to mineable ore. The removed waste rock is deposited in adjacent valleys where it may bury existing streams. Previous research, predominantly in Appalachia, has focused on downstream water quality impacts with less focus on how streamflow response and flow pathways are affected by surface mining. This study reports on how surface mining affects streamflow hydrological and chemical responses at the headwater catchment scale in the Elk Valley, British Columbia. A paired catchment approach was utilized between May and October 2012, where a reference catchment (Dry Creek - DC) was compared to an impacted catchment (West Line Creek - WLC), whose area is ~30% covered by deposited waste rock. Hydrometrically, WLC had considerably lower flows and exhibited a damped, slower response to precipitation events than DC. Dissolved ions were an order of magnitude greater in WLC, with conductivity (SpC) ranging between 400 μS/cm at high flow to 1300 μS/cm at low flow. A strong hysteretic pattern was observed between SpC and flow and with specific ions at WLC, suggesting dilution or changing flowpaths as the season progressed. In contrast, patterns of SpC and flow at DC did not exhibit hysteresis. Major ion hydrochemistry at WLC shows dilution affecting ion concentrations whereas results at DC are consistent with chemostatic behavior. Stable isotopes were more depleted at DC compared with WLC, suggesting different sources and timing of water contributing to streamflow. Future research will work towards a conceptual model of surface mining impacts on catchment scale processes in montane environments through increased understanding of residence time and flowpath distributions at a number of impacted and reference catchments. .

  20. Triggered surface slips in the Salton Trough associated with the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rymer, M.J.; Boatwright, J.; Seekins, L.C.; Yule, J.D.; Liu, J.

    2002-01-01

    Surface fracturing occurred along the southern San Andreas, Superstition Hills, and Imperial faults in association with the 16 October 1999 (Mw 7.1) Hector Mine earthquake, making this at least the eighth time in the past 31 years that a regional earthquake has triggered slip along faults in the Salton Trough. Fractures associated with the event formed discontinuous breaks over a 39-km-long stretch of the San Andreas fault, from the Mecca Hills southeastward to Salt Creek and Durmid Hill, a distance from the epicenter of 107 to 139 km. Sense of slip was right lateral; only locally was there a minor (~1 mm) vertical component of slip. Dextral slip ranged from 1 to 13 mm. Maximum slip values in 1999 and earlier triggered slips are most common in the central Mecca Hills. Field evidence indicates a transient opening as the Hector Mine seismic waves passed the southern San Andreas fault. Comparison of nearby strong-motion records indicates several periods of relative opening with passage of the Hector Mine seismic wave-a similar process may have contributed to the field evidence of a transient opening. Slip on the Superstition Hills fault extended at least 9 km, at a distance from the Hector Mine epicenter of about 188 to 196 km. This length of slip is a minimum value, because we saw fresh surface breakage extending farther northwest than our measurement sites. Sense of slip was right lateral; locally there was a minor (~1 mm) vertical component of slip. Dextral slip ranged from 1 to 18 mm, with the largest amounts found distributed (or skewed) away from the Hector Mine earthquake source. Slip triggered on the Superstition Hills fault commonly is skewed away from the earthquake source, most notably in 1968, 1979, and 1999. Surface slip on the Imperial fault and within the Imperial Valley extended about 22 km, representing a distance from the Hector Mine epicenter of about 204 to 226 km. Sense of slip dominantly was right lateral; the right-lateral component of slip

  1. Effect of Surface Coal Mining on the Hydrology of Crooked and Turkey Creek Basins, Jefferson County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puente, Celso; Newton, John G.

    1979-01-01

    Streamflow, sediment yield, and water quality were monitored from October 1975 through May 1977 to determine the impact of surface coal mining on the hydrology of Crooked and Turkey Creek basins in Jefferson County, Alabama. The basins are in the northeast part of the Warrior coal field. Coal is and has been mined from the Blue Creek, Mary Lee, and and Newcastel coal beds in the Mary Lee group. Results show water-quality degradation, increased sediment yields, and increased low flow in most tributaries draining mined areas. The impact of mine drainage and sediment yield from mined subbasins on water in the main stem of Turkey Creek was small due to the alkalinity of the water in the creek and to dilution ratios that ranged from 1:30 to 1:300. Mine drainage has affected the quality of water in Crooked Creek. The dissolved solids concentration in water downstream from the mined areas was as much as 7 times greater than that in water in unmined parts of the basin. The sediment yield to Crooked Creek was lower in the mined area than in the unmined segment of the stream. The lower yield is due, in part, to the trapping of sediment in sediment ponds in the mines and in a swamp downstream from the mines. (USGS)

  2. Life cycle Greenhouse gas emissions of current Oil Sands Technologies: surface mining and in situ applications.

    PubMed

    Bergerson, Joule A; Kofoworola, Oyeshola; Charpentier, Alex D; Sleep, Sylvia; Maclean, Heather L

    2012-07-17

    Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with two major recovery and extraction processes currently utilized in Alberta's oil sands, surface mining and in situ, are quantified. Process modules are developed and integrated into a life cycle model-GHOST (GreenHouse gas emissions of current Oil Sands Technologies) developed in prior work. Recovery and extraction of bitumen through surface mining and in situ processes result in 3-9 and 9-16 g CO(2)eq/MJ bitumen, respectively; upgrading emissions are an additional 6-17 g CO(2)eq/MJ synthetic crude oil (SCO) (all results are on a HHV basis). Although a high degree of variability exists in well-to-wheel emissions due to differences in technologies employed, operating conditions, and product characteristics, the surface mining dilbit and the in situ SCO pathways have the lowest and highest emissions, 88 and 120 g CO(2)eq/MJ reformulated gasoline. Through the use of improved data obtained from operating oil sands projects, we present ranges of emissions that overlap with emissions in literature for conventional crude oil. An increased focus is recommended in policy discussions on understanding interproject variability of emissions of both oil sands and conventional crudes, as this has not been adequately represented in previous studies.

  3. Identification of sediment sources in forested watersheds with surface coal mining disturbance using carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.F.

    2009-10-15

    Sediments and soils were analyzed using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratio mass spectrometry and carbon and nitrogen elemental analyses to evaluate the their ability to indicate land-use and land management disturbance and pinpoint loading from sediment transport sources in forested watersheds disturbed by surface coal mining. Samples of transported sediment particulate organic matter were collected from four watersheds in the Southern Appalachian forest in Kentucky. The four watersheds had different surface coal mining history that were classified as undisturbed, active mining, and reclaimed conditions. Soil samples were analyzed including reclaimed grassland soils, undisturbed forest soils, geogenic organic matter associated with coal fragments in mining spoil, and soil organic matter from un-mined grassland soils. Statistically significant differences were found for all biogeochemical signatures when comparing transported sediments from undisturbed watersheds and surface coal mining disturbed watersheds and the results were attributed to differences in erosion sources and the presence of geogenic organic matter. Sediment transport sources in the surface coal mining watersheds analyzed using Monte Carlo mass balance un-mixing found that: {delta}{sup 15}N showed the ability to differentiate streambank erosion and surface soil erosion; and {delta} {sup 13}C showed the ability to differentiate soil organic matter and geogenic organic matter. This suggests that streambank erosion downstream of surface coal mining sites is a significant source of sediment in coal mining disturbed watersheds. The results suggest that the sediment transport processes governing streambank erosion loads are taking longer to reach geomorphologic equilibrium in the watershed as compared with the surface erosion processes.

  4. Colloidal mobilization of arsenic from mining-affected soils by surface runoff.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Voegelin, Andreas; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Bolea, Eduardo; Laborda, Francisco; Garrido, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Scorodite-rich wastes left as a legacy of mining and smelting operations pose a threat to environmental health. Colloids formed by the weathering of processing wastes may control the release of arsenic (As) into surface waters. At a former mine site in Madrid (Spain), we investigated the mobilization of colloidal As by surface runoff from weathered processing wastes and from sediments in the bed of a draining creek and a downstream sedimentation-pond. Colloids mobilized by surface runoff during simulated rain events were characterized for their composition, structure and mode of As uptake using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively plasma mass spectrometry (AF4-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the As and Fe K-edges. Colloidal scorodite mobilized in surface runoff from the waste pile is acting as a mobile As carrier. In surface runoff from the river bed and the sedimentation pond, ferrihydrite was identified as the dominant As-bearing colloidal phase. The results from this study suggest that mobilization of As-bearing colloids by surface runoff may play an important role in the dispersion of As from metallurgical wastes deposited above ground and needs to be considered in risk assessment.

  5. Colloidal mobilization of arsenic from mining-affected soils by surface runoff.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Voegelin, Andreas; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Bolea, Eduardo; Laborda, Francisco; Garrido, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Scorodite-rich wastes left as a legacy of mining and smelting operations pose a threat to environmental health. Colloids formed by the weathering of processing wastes may control the release of arsenic (As) into surface waters. At a former mine site in Madrid (Spain), we investigated the mobilization of colloidal As by surface runoff from weathered processing wastes and from sediments in the bed of a draining creek and a downstream sedimentation-pond. Colloids mobilized by surface runoff during simulated rain events were characterized for their composition, structure and mode of As uptake using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively plasma mass spectrometry (AF4-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the As and Fe K-edges. Colloidal scorodite mobilized in surface runoff from the waste pile is acting as a mobile As carrier. In surface runoff from the river bed and the sedimentation pond, ferrihydrite was identified as the dominant As-bearing colloidal phase. The results from this study suggest that mobilization of As-bearing colloids by surface runoff may play an important role in the dispersion of As from metallurgical wastes deposited above ground and needs to be considered in risk assessment. PMID:26454721

  6. Surface mining and reclamation effects on flood response of watersheds in the central Appalachian Plateau region - article no. W04407

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, J.R.; Lookingbill, T.R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P.A.; Eshleman, K.N.

    2009-04-15

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km{sup 2} watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  7. Switchgrass potential on reclaimed surface mines for biofuel production in West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Michael A.

    The high cost and environmental risks associated with non-renewable energy sources has caused an increased interest in, and development of renewable biofuels. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a warm season perennial grass, has been investigated as a source of biofuel feedstock due to its high biomass production on marginal soils, its tolerance of harsh growing conditions, and its ability to provide habitat for wildlife and soil conservation cover. West Virginia contains vast expanses of reclaimed surface mine lands and could potentially benefit from the production of switchgrass as a biofuel feedstock. Furthermore, switchgrass production could satisfy Surface Mining Reclamation and Control Act of 1977 (SMCRA) requirements for reclamation bond release to mine operators. Three separate studies will be discussed in this thesis to determine if switchgrass grown on reclaimed surface mines can produce yields similar to yields from stands grown under normal agronomic conditions and what common surface mining reclamation practices may be most appropriate for growing switchgrass. The first study examined yield production of three commercially-available, upland switchgrass varieties grown on two reclaimed surface mines in production years two, three and four. The Hampshire Hill mine site, which was reclaimed in the late 1990s using top soil and treated municipal sludge, averaged 5,800 kg (ha-yr)-1 of switchgrass compared to 803 kg (ha-yr)-1 at the Hobet 21 site which was reclaimed with crushed, unweathered rock over compacted overburden. Site and variety interacted with Cave-in-Rock as the top performer at the more fertile Hampshire Hill site and Shawnee produced the highest yields at Hobet 21 (7,853 kg ha-1 and 1,086 kg ha-1 averaged across years, respectively). Switchgrass yields increased from 2009 to 2010, but declined from 2010 to 2011. Switchgrass yields from farmlands in this region averaged about 15000 kg (ha-yr)-1 in the research literature, so switchgrass grown

  8. 25 CFR 225.5 - Authority and responsibility of the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General... relevant regulations for surface mining and reclamation operations are found in 30 CFR part 750 and 25...

  9. 25 CFR 225.5 - Authority and responsibility of the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General... relevant regulations for surface mining and reclamation operations are found in 30 CFR part 750 and 25...

  10. 25 CFR 225.5 - Authority and responsibility of the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General... relevant regulations for surface mining and reclamation operations are found in 30 CFR part 750 and 25...

  11. 25 CFR 225.5 - Authority and responsibility of the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General... relevant regulations for surface mining and reclamation operations are found in 30 CFR part 750 and 25...

  12. 25 CFR 225.5 - Authority and responsibility of the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSMRE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS OIL AND GAS, GEOTHERMAL, AND SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS General... relevant regulations for surface mining and reclamation operations are found in 30 CFR part 750 and 25...

  13. A techno-economic model for optimum regeneration of surface mined land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Manas K.; Sinha, Indra N.

    2006-07-01

    The recent global scenario in the mineral sector may be characterized by rising competitiveness, increasing production costs and a slump in market price. This has pushed the mineral sector in general and that in the developing countries in particular to a situation where the industry has a limited capacity to sustain unproductive costs. This, more often than not, results in a situation where the industry fails to ensure environmental safeguards during and after mineral extraction. The situation is conspicuous in the Indian coal mining industry where more than 73% production comes from surface operations. India has an ambitious power augmentation projection for the coming 10 years. A phenomenal increase in coal production is proposed from the power grade coalfields in India. One of the most likely fall-outs of land degradation due to mining in these areas would be significant reduction of agricultural and other important land-uses. Currently, backfilling costs are perceived as prohibitive and abandonment of land is the easy way out. This study attempts to provide mine planners with a mathematical model that distributes generated overburden at defined disposal options while ensuring maximization of backfilled land area at minimum direct and economic costs. Optimization has been accomplished by linear programming (LP) for optimum distribution of each year’s generated overburden. Previous year’s disposal quantity outputs are processed as one set of the inputs to the LP model for generation of current year’s disposal output. From various geo-mining inputs, site constants of the LP constraints are calculated. Arrived value of economic vectors, which guide the programming statement, decides the optimal overburden distribution in defined options. The case example (with model test run) indicates that overburden distribution is significantly sensitive to coal seam gradient. The model has universal applicability to cyclic system (shovel dumper combination) of opencast

  14. Preliminary study of the refaunation of alkaline shale coal surface mine spoil by soil arthropods

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, E.A.; Wilman, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    Soil sampling stations were laid out on (largely) untopsoiled shale surface mine spoil in 1979. Stations were located on spoil graded in 1978-1979, in ungraded spoil cast in 1972 and aerially seeded in 1973, and in adjacent off-mine woods and an old field. Additional stations were added in 1982 on spoil graded only 3.5 weeks - 3 months prior to sampling. Stations were located to include important variables typical of the mine. Of 17 classes-orders of arthropods recovered from all sites, only Acari (78-99% of total individuals) and Collembola (2-12%) were consistently widespread and numerous, and only Acari were important in the youngest spoils. A total of 69 mite families - superfamilies - were identified during the course of the study. Low-moderate mite populations were found in bare shale spoil graded only 3.5 weeks - 3 months prior to sampling, these distributed among 4 families. Samples from 1978-79 spoil contained 13 families 3-7 months after grading and 2 years later were comparable to off-mine sites both in numbers of individuals and number of families. Spoil from 1973 was comparable to off-mine sites in these 2 respects when first sampled. Earliest pioneer species were 3 (presumably) microherbivores, these remaining dominant for several years. Predatory mites appeared early and were well established less than a year after grading. Saprovores were absent or relatively scarce in the 2 youngest spoils, but well established in the 1973 spoil at first sampling.

  15. Lunar surface mining for automated acquisition of helium-3: Methods, processes, and equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. T.; Wittenberg, L. J.

    1992-09-01

    In this paper, several techniques considered for mining and processing the regolith on the lunar surface are presented. These techniques have been proposed and evaluated based primarily on the following criteria: (1) mining operations should be relatively simple; (2) procedures of mineral processing should be few and relatively easy; (3) transferring tonnages of regolith on the Moon should be minimized; (4) operations outside the lunar base should be readily automated; (5) all equipment should be maintainable; and (6) economic benefit should be sufficient for commercial exploitation. The economic benefits are not addressed in this paper; however, the energy benefits have been estimated to be between 250 and 350 times the mining energy. A mobile mining scheme is proposed that meets most of the mining objectives. This concept uses a bucket-wheel excavator for excavating the regolith, several mechanical electrostatic separators for beneficiation of the regolith, a fast-moving fluidized bed reactor to heat the particles, and a palladium diffuser to separate H2 from the other solar wind gases. At the final stage of the miner, the regolith 'tailings' are deposited directly into the ditch behind the miner and cylinders of the valuable solar wind gases are transported to a central gas processing facility. During the production of He-3, large quantities of valuable H2, H2O, CO, CO2, and N2 are produced for utilization at the lunar base. For larger production of He-3 the utilization of multiple-miners is recommended rather than increasing their size. Multiple miners permit operations at more sites and provide redundancy in case of equipment failure.

  16. Lunar surface mining for automated acquisition of helium-3: Methods, processes, and equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y. T.; Wittenberg, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, several techniques considered for mining and processing the regolith on the lunar surface are presented. These techniques have been proposed and evaluated based primarily on the following criteria: (1) mining operations should be relatively simple; (2) procedures of mineral processing should be few and relatively easy; (3) transferring tonnages of regolith on the Moon should be minimized; (4) operations outside the lunar base should be readily automated; (5) all equipment should be maintainable; and (6) economic benefit should be sufficient for commercial exploitation. The economic benefits are not addressed in this paper; however, the energy benefits have been estimated to be between 250 and 350 times the mining energy. A mobile mining scheme is proposed that meets most of the mining objectives. This concept uses a bucket-wheel excavator for excavating the regolith, several mechanical electrostatic separators for beneficiation of the regolith, a fast-moving fluidized bed reactor to heat the particles, and a palladium diffuser to separate H2 from the other solar wind gases. At the final stage of the miner, the regolith 'tailings' are deposited directly into the ditch behind the miner and cylinders of the valuable solar wind gases are transported to a central gas processing facility. During the production of He-3, large quantities of valuable H2, H2O, CO, CO2, and N2 are produced for utilization at the lunar base. For larger production of He-3 the utilization of multiple-miners is recommended rather than increasing their size. Multiple miners permit operations at more sites and provide redundancy in case of equipment failure.

  17. A gazetteer of surface-mine lakes, Eastern Interior Coal Province, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voelker, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Hundreds of lakes have been formed as a result of surface mining in Area 35 of the Eastern Interior Coal Province in Illinois. This gazetteer contains physical and chemical data from 107 surface-mine lakes sampled from June through August 1983. Information collected includes location, morphology, and vertical profile measurements of water quality of the lakes. Sampled lakes range in size from 8.8 to 210 acres, and are from 4.0 to 92.0 feet deep. Maximum widths range from 0.03 to 0.35 mile, and maximum lengths range from 0.27 to 3.08 miles. Some lake waters were stratified, whereas others were completely mixed. General water quality differed widely among the lakes. Specific conductances ranged from 130 to 7,800 micromhos per centimeter (at 25 degrees Celsius). Specific conductances of 2 ,000 to 5,000 micromhos per centimeter were most prevalent. The pH values ranged from 1.8 to 9.6 at the surface, whereas bottom measurements ranged from 2.0 to 8.5. Water temperatures near the surface ranged from 22.5 degrees Celsius in June to 34.5 degrees Celsius in August. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations differed greatly among the lakes; concentrations near the surface ranged from 6.0 to 13.2 milligrams per liter. Transparencies ranged from 0.3 to 35.4 feet. (USGS)

  18. The Problem of Multiple Criteria Selection of the Surface Mining Haul Trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodziony, Przemysław; Kasztelewicz, Zbigniew; Sawicki, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Vehicle transport is a dominant type of technological processes in rock mines, and its profit ability is strictly dependent on overall cost of its exploitation, especially on diesel oil consumption. Thus, a rational design of transportation system based on haul trucks should result from thorough analysis of technical and economic issues, including both cost of purchase and its further exploitation, having a crucial impact on the cost of minerals extraction. Moreover, off-highway trucks should be selected with respect to all specific exploitation conditions and even the user's preferences and experience. In this paper a development of universal family of evaluation criteria as well as application of evaluation method for haul truck selection process for a specific exploitation conditions in surface mining have been carried out. The methodology presented in the paper is based on the principles of multiple criteria decision aiding (MCDA) using one of the ranking method, i.e. ELECTRE III. The applied methodology has been allowed for ranking of alternative solution (variants), on the considered set of haul trucks. The result of the research is a universal methodology, and it consequently may be applied in other surface mines with similar exploitation parametres.

  19. Post-reclamation use of surface-mined lands in Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Hiremath, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to evaluate the potential on-site monetary returns to the surface landowner from agricultural and forestry uses under different levels of reclamation of surface-mined lands in Kentucky. Three typical sites were chosen for the analysis: area-mine site, contour-bench and mountaintop sites. Results indicate that on fully reclaimed area-mine and mountaintop sites, grain crops are profitable - at all discount rates when labor supplies were not limiting. Under limited labor supplies, an enterprise mix containing both agronomic crops and forest crops is profitable. Agronomic crops replace forest crops as labor becomes less binding. On all partially reclaimed sites, cottonwood pure stand was the most-profitable enterprise at 3% discount rate irrespective of labor supplies. At discount rates of 5% or greater, alfalfa had the highest net returns if labor was not limiting. Under limited labor supplies a combination of alfalfa and a forest crop resulted in the maximum net returns. At 10% discount rate, all tree mixtures had negative net returns.

  20. Determination of drainage density for surface-mine reclamation in the western US. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.I.; Schumm, S.A.; Watson, C.C.

    1985-07-01

    As part of any surface-mined land reclamation plan, quantitative geomorphic data is required in order that relatively stable landforms can be constructed. Drainage density is an extremely important characteristic of the landscape that reflects the interaction between eroding forces and the erodibility of an area. There is a characteristic drainage density for each location, and when this is identified, it should be used in reclamation design. Mining and reclamation will change other properties of drainage basins, which will, in turn, affect drainage density. Baselevel control provided by resistant bedrock outcrops may be removed; infiltration capacity may be decreased by mixing fine-textured subsoil with topsoil; and relief may be increased through bulking of overburden or decreased by removal of thick coal seams. Therefore, the characteristic drainage densities will require adjustment as a result of these changes, and additional research is needed in order to refine estimates of drainage density.

  1. Comprehensive impacts of permit decisions to conduct surface coal mining operations under Tennessee Federal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    Representative model mines were developed to evaluate the range of impacts associated with the issuance of coal mining permits under the Tennessee Federal Program. For the purpose of this analysis, the Tennessee bituminous coal field was divided into five regions: Cumberland Block, Wartburg Basin, Northern Cumberland Plateau, Southern Cumberland Plateau, and Walden Ridge South. For each of the five regions, three to five model mines were developed to represent the range of mining activities including underground mines, mountaintop removal mines, contour mines, auger mines, and area mines. A model preparation plant and tipple facility were developed to characterize the impacts associated with the storing, processing, and loading of coal in the five regions.

  2. An assessment of microbial communities associated with surface mining-disturbed overburden.

    PubMed

    Poncelet, Dominique M; Cavender, Nicole; Cutright, Teresa J; Senko, John M

    2014-03-01

    To assess the microbiological changes that occur during the maturation of overburden that has been disturbed by surface mining of coal, a surface mining-disturbed overburden unit in southeastern Ohio, USA was characterized. Overburden from the same unit that had been disturbed for 37 and 16 years were compared to undisturbed soil from the same region. Overburden and soil samples were collected as shallow subsurface cores from each subregion of the mined area (i.e., land 16 years and 37 years post-mining, and unmined land). Chemical and mineralogical characteristics of overburden samples were determined, as were microbial respiration rates. The composition of microbial communities associated with overburden and soil were determined using culture-independent, nucleic acid-based approaches. Chemical and mineralogical evaluation of overburden suggested that weathering of disturbed overburden gave rise to a setting with lower pH and more oxidized chemical constituents. Overburden-associated microbial biomass and respiration rates increased with time after overburden disturbance. Evaluation of 16S rRNA gene libraries that were produced by "next-generation" sequencing technology revealed that recently disturbed overburden contained an abundance of phylotypes attributable to sulfur-oxidizing Limnobacter spp., but with increasing time post-disturbance, overburden-associated microbial communities developed a structure similar to that of undisturbed soil, but retained characteristics of more recently disturbed overburden. Our results indicate that over time, the biogeochemical weathering of disturbed overburden leads to the development of geochemical conditions and microbial communities that approximate those of undisturbed soil, but that this transition is incomplete after 37 years of overburden maturation.

  3. Method for Location of An External Dump in Surface Mining Using the A-Star Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajączkowski, Maciej; Kasztelewicz, Zbigniew; Sikora, Mateusz

    2014-10-01

    The construction of a surface mine always involves the necessity of accessing deposits through the removal of the residual overburden above. In the beginning phase of exploitation, the masses of overburden are located outside the perimeters of the excavation site, on the external dump, until the moment of internal dumping. In the case of lignite surface mines, these dumps can cover a ground surface of several dozen to a few thousand hectares. This results from a high concentration of lignite extraction, counted in millions of Mg per year, and the relatively large depth of its residual deposits. Determining the best place for the location of an external dump requires a detailed analysis of existing options, followed by a choice of the most favorable one. This article, using the case study of an open-cast lignite mine, presents the selection method for an external dump location based on graph theory and the A-star algorithm. This algorithm, based on the spatial distribution of individual intersections on the graph, seeks specified graph states, continually expanding them with additional elementary fields until the required surface area for the external dump - defined by the lowest value of the occupied site - is achieved. To do this, it is necessary to accurately identify the factors affecting the choice of dump location. On such a basis, it is then possible to specify the target function, which reflects the individual costs of dump construction on a given site. This is discussed further in chapter 3. The area of potential dump location has been divided into elementary fields, each represented by a corresponding geometrical locus. Ascribed to this locus, in addition to its geodesic coordinates, are the appropriate attributes reflecting the degree of development of its elementary field. These tasks can be carried out automatically thanks to the integration of the method with the system of geospatial data management for the given area. The collection of loci, together

  4. Habitat manipulation influences northern bobwhite resource selection on a reclaimed surface mine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooke, Jarred M.; Peters, David C.; Unger, Ashley M.; Tanner, Evan P.; Harper, Craig A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Clark, Joseph D.; Morgan, John J.

    2015-01-01

    More than 600,000 ha of mine land have been reclaimed in the eastern United States, providing large contiguous tracts of early successional vegetation that can be managed for northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). However, habitat quality on reclaimed mine land can be limited by extensive coverage of non-native invasive species, which are commonly planted during reclamation. We used discrete-choice analysis to investigate bobwhite resource selection throughout the year on Peabody Wildlife Management Area, a 3,330-ha reclaimed surface mine in western Kentucky. We used a treatment-control design to study resource selection at 2 spatial scales to identify important aspects of mine land vegetation and whether resource selection differed between areas with habitat management (i.e., burning, disking, herbicide; treatment) and unmanaged units (control). Our objectives were to estimate bobwhite resource selection on reclaimed mine land and to estimate the influence of habitat management practices on resource selection. We used locations from 283 individuals during the breeding season (1 Apr–30 Sep) and 136 coveys during the non-breeding season (1 Oct–Mar 31) from August 2009 to March 2014. Individuals were located closer to shrub cover than would be expected at random throughout the year. During the breeding season, individuals on treatment units used areas with smaller contagion index values (i.e., greater interspersion) compared with individuals on control units. During the non-breeding season, birds selected areas with greater shrub-open edge density compared with random. At the microhabitat scale, individuals selected areas with increased visual obstruction >1 m aboveground. During the breeding season, birds were closer to disked areas (linear and non-linear) than would be expected at random. Individuals selected non-linear disked areas during winter but did not select linear disked areas (firebreaks) because they were planted to winter wheat each fall and

  5. Classification of stream basins in southeastern Ohio according to extent of surface coal mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childress, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Water-quality data were collected from streams grenadine 35 basins in the southeaster-Ohio coal region to evaluate and categorize the effect of surface coal mining on stream quality. The study area is underlain by rocks of Pennsylvanian age, the most important coal-producing formations of which are the Allegheny and Monogahela Formations. The study area contains 276 data-collection sites, each of which was sampled four times over a 3-year period. Water and bed-material samples were collected. Each site was classified as 'abandoned,' reclaimed,' unmined,' or mixed,' depending on the proportion of the drainage basin disturbed by mining, and if mined, on the present condition of the mine. Of the 130 sites in the Monogahela Formation, 18 percent were classified as abandoned, 2 percent as reclaimed, 10 percent as unmined, and 70 percent as mixed. Of the 146 sites in the Allegheny Formation, 14 percent were classified as abandoned, 11 percent as unmined, and 75 percent as mixed. Streams draining the carbonate-bearing Monogahela Formation have a significantly greater buffering capacity than streams draining the Allegheny Formation. THere are significant differences in specific conductance; pH; alkalinity; acidity; hardness; total and dissolve manganese, and aluminum; dissolved nickel, zinc, and sulfate; and dissolved solids among mining-disturbance types in the Allegheny Formation. However, in stream draining the Monogahela Formation, only hardness, sulfur, dissolved solids, and dissolved manganese are significantly different among mining-disturbance types. Discriminant-function analysis of water-quality data was used to classify each 'mixed' site into one of four categories: Abandoned, reclaimed, unmined, or uncertain. In addition, observations in each of the first three categories were classified as strongly, moderately, or weakly characteristic of that category. The discriminant function was based on specific conductance, pH, acidity, dissolved sulfate, dissolved

  6. Assessing the pollution potential of non-point mine wastes on surface water using a geo-spatial modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Huaguo

    Abandoned mine lands (or inactive and abandoned mines) have received increasing concerns because they may cause severe environmental and public health problems. Most of previous studies to characterize mine waste pollution potential were focused on screening-level investigations. The issues related to pollution potential of mine waste were poorly addressed from the perspective of non-point source pollution, and few efforts have been made to study the effect of spatial characteristics of mine wastes on water quality using spatial technology such as GIS, remote sensing and spatial modeling. This research develops a geo-spatial approach to assessing mine waste pollution on surface water, which integrates GIS, remote sensing and watershed modeling techniques in order to effectively address the effects of spatial characteristics of pollutants. The study area is Tri-State Mining District which is located in the conjunction of Missouri, Kansas and Okalahoma. This district was the most important lead and zinc mining area in U.S. The historic mining left behind a huge area of mine wastes. Satellite remote sensing data (Landsat MSS and TM) were acquired, processed and classified in a decadal interval to generate land use/land cover (LULC) data for the entire district. Watersheds within the district were delineated by using USGS DEM data and a newly-developed GIS tool. Water quality indicators were selected and relevant water quality data between 1970 and 2002 was retrieved from USGS and USEPA databases. With the classified LULC data as a data source, landscape metrics (composition and spatial configuration indices) for each water quality station in mine waste-located watersheds were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed to quantify the relationship between landscape and surface water quality and to evaluate the impacts of landscape characteristics on surface water quality. Related GIS data layers were then created and a cell-based watershed modeling was conducted

  7. Hydrology and geochemistry of a surface coal mine in northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, R.S.; Clark, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrology and geochemistry of a reclaimed coal mine in northwestern Colorado were monitored during water years 1988 and 1989. Some data also were collected in water years 1987 and 1990. This report describes (1) the sources of hydrologic recharge to and discharge from reclaimed spoil, (2) the relative contributions of recharge to the reclaimed spoil aquifer from identified source waters and the rate of water movement from those sources to the reclaimed spoil, and (3) the geochemical reactions that control water quality in reclaimed spoil. The study area was at a dip-slope coal mine encompassing about 7 square miles with land slopes of varying aspect. The area was instrumented and monitored at five sites; two sites had unmined and reclaimed- spoil areas adjacent to each other and three sites were unmined. The mined areas had been reclaimed. Instrumentation at the study sites included 1 climate station, 3 rain gages, 19 soil-water access tubes, 2 lysimeters, 18 wells completed in bedrock, 7 wells completed in reclaimed spoil, and 2 surface- water gaging stations. The results of the study indicate that the reclaimed spoil is recharged from surface recharge and underburden aquifers. Discharge, as measured by lysimeters, was about 3 inches per year and occurred during and after snowmelt. Hydraulic-head measurements indicated a potential for ground-water movement from deeper to shallower aquifers. Water levels rose in the reclaimed-spoil aquifer and spring discharge at the toe of the spoil slopes increased rapidly in response to snowmelt. Water chemistry, stable isotopes, geochemical models, and mass-balance calculations indicate that surface recharge and the underburden aquifers each contribute about 50 percent of the water to the reclaimed-spoil aquifers. Geochemical information indicates that pyrite oxidation and dissolution of carbonate and efflorescent sulfate minerals control the water chemistry of the reclaimed-spoil aquifer.

  8. Effect of coal mine dust and clay extracts on the biological activity of the quartz surface.

    PubMed

    Stone, V; Jones, R; Rollo, K; Duffin, R; Donaldson, K; Brown, D M

    2004-04-01

    Modification of the quartz surface by aluminium salts and metallic iron have been shown to reduce the biological activity of quartz. This study aimed to investigate the ability of water soluble extracts of coal mine dust (CMD), low aluminium clays (hectorite and montmorillonite) and high aluminium clays (attapulgite and kaolin) to inhibit the reactivity of the quartz surface. DQ12 induced significant haemolysis of sheep erythrocytes in vitro and inflammation in vivo as indicated by increases in the total cell numbers, neutrophil cell numbers, MIP-2 protein and albumin content of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Treatment of DQ12 with CMD extract prevented both haemolysis and inflammation. Extracts of the high aluminium clays (kaolin and attapulgite) prevented inhibition of DQ12 induced haemolysis, and the kaolin extract inhibited quartz driven inflammation. DQ12 induced haemolysis by coal mine dust and kaolin extract could be prevented by pre-treatment of the extracts with a cation chellator. Extracts of the low aluminium clays (montmorillonite and hectorite) did not prevent DQ12 induced haemolysis, although the hectorite extract did prevent inflammation. These results suggest that CMD, and clays both low and rich in aluminium, all contain soluble components (possibly cations) capable of masking the reactivity of the quartz surface. PMID:15093271

  9. The potential for using wildflower species to increase natural habitat in contour surface mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Heckman, J.R.; Sabre, M.; Cairns, J. Jr.; Holl, K.D.

    1996-12-31

    While non-native herbaceous species are commonly used for mine reclamation, these species have low wildlife and aesthetic value and may inhibit long-term succession. The goal of this study was to determine the suitability of wildflowers for surface mine reclamation in the Appalachian mountains. A seed mixture composed of native and naturalized wildflower species was compared to the standard revegetation mixture by testing greenhouse germination rates of all species in both mine spoils and potting soil and establishing field plots at reclamation sites in southwestern Virginia. In May 1993, two 9-m{sup 2} (97-ft{sup 2}) plots were seeded with each revegetation mixture on four slopes with different aspects. Vegetation cover and composition were recorded in all plots during the 1993 and 1994 field seasons. Wildflower species had germination rates ranging from 0-52%. In field studies, all but 2 of the 14 species of wildflowers seeded became established in study plots, while only 4 of the 8 species in the standard mixture were recorded. Cover was highly variable among plots on different aspects seeded with the same mixture. In most cases, total vegetative cover did not differ significantly between plots seeded with different mixtures. Some native and naturalized wildflower species appear to have potential for use in mine reclamation and could be included with standard revegetation mixtures in order to provide more native diversity. However, further research is necessary due to a number of factors confounding these results, including the low seeding rates used, drought conditions during the 1993 field season, and problems with regrowth of previous vegetation.

  10. Survival and growth of chestnut backcross seeds and seedlings on surface mines.

    PubMed

    Skousen, J; Cook, T; Wilson-Kokes, L; Pena-Yewtukhiw, E

    2013-01-01

    Some scientists consider the loss of the American chestnut from forests in the eastern United States as one of the greatest forest ecological disasters in the 20th century. The American Chestnut Foundation has been attempting to restore chestnut by backcrossing blight-resistant Chinese chestnut to American chestnut and selecting those strains with blight resistance. Third-generation backcross seeds and seedlings have been produced and planted by researchers. Surface-mined lands provide a land base where these backcross chestnut seedlings may be introduced back into forests. In 2008, seeds of two parent species of chestnut (100% American and 100% Chinese) and three breeding generations (BF, BF, and BF backcrosses) were planted into loosely graded mine soils with and without tree shelters. First-year establishment from seeds averaged 81%. After the fourth year, survival without shelters declined for all chestnut stock types except for Chinese (80%): American 40%, BF 70%, BF 40%, and BF 55%. Survival with shelters was only slightly better after the fourth year (average, 60% with shelters and 57% without). Height growth was not different among stock types, and average height after the fourth year was 43 cm without shelters and 56 cm with shelters. In 2009, seeds and seedlings of the same chestnut stock types were planted into brown (pH 4.5) or gray (pH 6.6) mine soils. Only six out of 250 seeds germinated, which was very poor considering 81% average seed germination in 2008. Transplanted chestnut seedling survival was much better. After the third year, seedling survival was 85% in brown and 80% in gray soil, but significant differences were found with stock types. Survival was significantly higher with American, Chinese, and BF stock types (75%) than with BF and BF (60%). Height after the third season averaged 90 cm on brown and 62 cm on gray soil. Chestnut backcrosses displayed no hybrid vigor and were not better in survival and growth than the parent stock. All five

  11. Potential effects of surface coal mining on the hydrology of the Cook Creek area, Ashland coal field, southeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Cook Creek area of the Ashland coal field contains large reserves of Federally owned coal that have been identified for potential lease sale. A hydrologic study has been conducted in the potential lease area to describe existing hydrologic systems and to assess potential impacts of surface coal mining on local water resources. Hydrogeologic data collected from wells, springs, and drill holes indicate that shallow aquifers exist within the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene age) and within valley alluvium (Pleistocene and Holocene age). Shallow aquifers within the Tonge River Member include coal beds, clinker, and lenses of sandstone and siltstone. The Knobloch coal bed, a principal shallow aquifer used for livestock watering in the area, averages about 55 feet in thickness and is completely saturated throughout most of its extent. Coarse alluvial deposits are the most productive aquifers and are a major source of stock water in the Cook Creek basin. Surface-water resources are limited to the upstream reach part of Cook Creek, which flows intermittently. The downstream reach part of Cook Creek, plus all other small drainages that originate in the study area, are ephemeral. Mining of the Knoblock and Sawyer coal beds would remove two alluvial springs, one bedrock spring, and two wells, which are all used for watering of livestock. The potentiometric surface within the Knobloch coal aquifer and the alluvial aquifer in the downstream part of the Cook Creek basin would be lowered during mining. Lowered water levels in these aquifers might substantially affect water levels in five wells outside the mine boundary. After mining, the alluvial aquifer downgradient from the mine area might show a long-term degradation in water quality as a result of leaching of soluble salts from overburden materials used to backfill mine pits. Although mining would alter the existing hydrologic systems and remove several springs and shallow wells, alternative

  12. Surface subsidence over a room-and-pillar mine in the western United States. Information circular/1993

    SciTech Connect

    Magers, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results from the subsidence research study completed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, at the Roadside Mine, Powderhorn Coal Company, Palisade, CO. The research was conducted from February 1981 to August 1985, with additional data obtained during July 1991 to evaluate residual subsidence. The Bureau studied subsidence at three distinct room-and-pillar sections at separate locations over the mine and determined the maximum subsidence values and surface profiles for each mining section. Maximum subsidence of 3.0 ft occured over the room-and-pillar sections with overburden depths ranging from 50 to 600 ft. Surface tension cracks occured and were still evident during the residual subsidence survey.

  13. Feasibility of a continuous surface mining machine using impact breakers. First quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    This is the first quarterly report on the efforts to evaluate the feasibility of excavating coal and overburden from surface mines using impact breakers. The initial stages of the project are devoted to a literature search, equipment selection, test site selection, and conceptual test system design. Hence, this report details the progress made in these areas; the next quarter will see the finalization of Phase I. Included as appendices to this report are FMA internal reports on the individual mines visited. These reports are the basis of the test site selection, and have been censored here to remove data the mine operators deemed as confidential.

  14. Effects of surface coal mining and reclamation on the geohydrology of six small watersheds in west-central Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Jeffrey D.; Duwelius, Richard F.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1987-01-01

    The watersheds studied include mined and reclaimed; mined and unreclaimed; and unmined, agricultural land uses, and are each < 3 sq mi in area. Surface water, groundwater, and meteorologic data for the 1981 and 1982 water years were used to describe and compare hydrologic systems of the six watersheds and to identify hydrologic effects of mining and reclamation. Peak discharges were greater at the agricultural watersheds than at the unreclaimed watersheds, primarily because of large final-cut lakes in the unreclaimed watersheds. Annual runoff was greatest at the unreclaimed watersheds, intermediate at the agricultural watersheds, and least at the reclaimed watersheds. Hydrologic effects of mining were identified by comparing the hydrologic systems at mined and unreclaimed watersheds with those at unmined, agricultural watersheds. Comparisons of the hydrologic systems of these watersheds indicate that surface coal mining without reclamation has the potential to increase annual runoff, base flow, and groundwater recharge to the bedrock; reduce peak flow rates and variation in flow; lower the water table in upland areas; change the relation between surface water and groundwater divides; and create numerous, local flow systems in the shallow groundwater. Hydrologic effects of reclamation were identified by comparing the hydrologic systems at mined and reclaimed watersheds with those at mined and unreclaimed watersheds. Reclamation has the potential to decrease annual runoff, base flow, and recharge to the bedrock; increase peak flow rates, variation in flow, and response to thunderstorms; reestablish the premining relation between surface and groundwater divides; and create fewer local flow systems in the shallow groundwater. (Lantz-PTT)

  15. Changes in the Extent of Surface Mining and Reclamation in the Central Appalachians Detected Using a 1976-2006 Landsat Time Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Philip A.; Helmers, David P.; Kingdon, Clayton C.; McNeil, Brenden E.; de Beurs, Kirsten M.; Eshleman, Keith N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining and reclamation is the dominant driver of land cover land use change (LCLUC) in the Central Appalachian Mountain region of the Eastern U.S. Accurate quantification of the extent of mining activities is important for assessing how this LCLUC affects ecosystem services such as aesthetics, biodiversity, and mitigation of flooding.We used Landsat imagery from 1976, 1987, 1999 and 2006 to map the extent of surface mines and mine reclamation for eight large watersheds in the Central Appalachian region of West Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. We employed standard image processing techniques in conjunction with a temporal decision tree and GIS maps of mine permits and wetlands to map active and reclaimed mines and track changes through time. For the entire study area, active surface mine extent was highest in 1976, prior to implementation of the Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act in 1977, with 1.76% of the study area in active mines, declining to 0.44% in 2006. The most extensively mined watershed, Georges Creek in Maryland, was 5.45% active mines in 1976, declining to 1.83% in 2006. For the entire study area, the area of reclaimed mines increased from 1.35% to 4.99% from 1976 to 2006, and from 4.71% to 15.42% in Georges Creek. Land cover conversion to mines and then reclaimed mines after 1976 was almost exclusively from forest. Accuracy levels for mined and reclaimed cover was above 85% for all time periods, and was generally above 80% for mapping active and reclaimed mines separately, especially for the later time periods in which good accuracy assessment data were available. Among other implications, the mapped patterns of LCLUC are likely to significantly affect watershed hydrology, as mined and reclaimed areas have lower infiltration capacity and thus more rapid runoff than unmined forest watersheds, leading to greater potential for extreme flooding during heavy rainfall events.

  16. Impact of mining residues on surface and groundwater quality. Case of the mining sector of Azzaba in the North-East of Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haouli, Zouina; Kherici, Nacer; Derdous, Oussama; Sassane, Amina; Bougherira, Nabil

    2016-07-01

    Azzaba region contains a mining sector that was created in 1971 and operated until 2006, during this period huge quantities of mining residues were released in nature without any environmental rehabilitation plan which certainly deteriorated surface and groundwater quality by trace metals menacing the people's health as well as the aquatic ecosystems in this zone. The purpose of this study is to illustrate and to assess the surface and groundwater pollution toward heavy metals at the vicinity of the abandoned mining site. The primary analysis aimed to evaluate the pollution due to mercury in the region after many years of the closure of the mining industry to compare it with evaluations made during its operational period. In addition, further analyses of water pollution toward heavy metals usually used in the mercury industry (iron, zinc and copper) and probably released in the Fendek Wadi were conducted. These analyses allowed characterizing the ecological state of the studied environment by highlighting the concentrations of trace elements (mercury, iron, zinc, copper). According to the analyses, most of these concentrations meet the World Health Organization (WHO) standards; in fact only iron concentration exceeds them at the stations P7 and P8. Finally, the study results were compared by those obtained by previous studies; it was found that the mercury concentration has decreased with time which means that the contamination danger is disappearing.

  17. Assessment of mercury erosion by surface water in Wanshan mercury mining area.

    PubMed

    Dai, ZhiHui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chao; Shang, Lihai; Qiu, Guangle

    2013-08-01

    Soil erosion is a main cause of land degradation, and in its accelerated form is also one of the most serious ecological environmental problems. Moreover, there are few studies on migration of mercury (Hg) induced by soil erosion in seriously Hg-polluted districts. This paper selected Wanshan Hg mining area, SW China as the study area. Revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and Geographic information system (GIS) methods were applied to calculate soil and Hg erosion and to classify soil erosion intensity. Our results show that the soil erosion rate can reach up to 600,884tkm(-2)yr(-1). Surfaces associated with very slight and extremely severe erosion include 76.6% of the entire land in Wanshan. Furthermore, the cumulative erosion rates in the area impacted by extremely severe erosion make up 90.5% of the total. On an annual basis, Hg surface erosion load was predicted to be 505kgyr(-1) and the corresponding mean migration flux of Hg was estimated to be 3.02kgkm(-2)yr(-1). The erosion loads of Hg resulting from farmland and meadow soil were 175 and 319kgyr(-1) respectively, which were enhanced compared to other landscape types due to the fact that they are generally located in the steep zones associated with significant reclamation. Contributing to establish a mass balance of Hg in Wanshan Hg mining area, this study supplies a dependable scientific basis for controlling soil and water erosion in the local ecosystems. Land use change is the most effective way for reducing Hg erosion load in Wanshan mining area.

  18. Thirteen-year hardwood tree performance on a Midwest surface mine

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, W.C.; Kolar, C.A.

    1998-12-31

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa Michx.), and pin oak (Q. palustris Muenchh.) seedlings were planted both fall 1980 and spring 1981 on mixed overburden strip-mining banks (ungraded), mixed overburden graded to approximate original contour (AOC) (graded), mixed overburden graded to AOC wit h 60 cm of replaced pre-mining surface soil materials (topsoil), and on old fields near the strip-mine (unmined). Black walnut and pin oak were also planted as seed, with a total of 6000 seedlings/seed spots in the study. Initial species field viability ranged from 86 to 100%. With one exception, after 3 growing seasons oak seedlings had 50% or greater survival. Survival was mostly lower after 3 years with some additional mortality by years 8 and 13. Height and diameter breast height were measured after 13 years. Survival and growth of trees planted fall or spring was similar overall with variable performance by species. Seedlings of several species on the ungraded site had over 50% survival after 13 years, with fewer trees where planted as seed. Mean height of all species combined was significantly greater on the ungraded than on any other site and was lowest on the topsoil site. The unmined sites had high variability in species survival and height. Better reclamation with trees resulted from a deep, well-drained rooting medium with minimal compaction and a mineral-rich surface soil including coarse fragments over 2 mm in size for long-term productivity.

  19. Implementation of basic studies in the ecological restoration of surface-mined land

    SciTech Connect

    Tischew, S.; Kirmer, A.

    2007-06-15

    This paper focuses on attempts to encourage a new state of the art in the ecological restoration of surface-mined land in Germany. On most of these sites, the application of traditional recultivation methods often destroys valuable ecological potential by leveling of the surface, ameliorating of nutrient-poor substrates, and seeding or planting of species not suited to the present habitat conditions. Many studies have shown that even highly disturbed ecosystems, such as large mining areas, can regenerate spontaneously over long-term periods. Colonization processes were influenced by the availability of diaspore sources as well as the suitability of sites for establishment. The predictability of succession could be improved by the identification of switch points in successional pathways depending on age and conditions of the sites. Based on the developmental potential, orientation by nature and biodiversity are selected as main targets for priority areas for nature conservation in mining sites. On priority areas restoration measures must be restricted to the use of near-natural methods (e.g., application of fresh, diaspore-rich plant clipping material, dumping of overburden with seed bank and vegetative propagules, seeding of site-specific, local seed mixtures) that are very successful in preventing erosion and accelerating vegetation development. Despite the success of these methods, the transfer of knowledge between scientists, practitioners, and administrative organizations has proved to be insufficient. Therefore, one of the main tasks in ecological restoration must be the inclusion of all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes and the establishment of a network of excellence to enhance the exchange of knowledge.

  20. Reclamation Strategies and Geomorphic Outcomes in Coal Surface Mines of Eastern Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, M.; Jaeger, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Coal surface mining is a significant landscape disturbance in the United States. Since 1977, the reclamation of mined lands has been regulated by the Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA). Prior to the act, many coalfields were left un-reclaimed or partially reclaimed, with highly irregular topology and drainage networks. Under the act, the reverse is often true; adherence to SMCRA often leads to the homogenization of surfaces and channel networks. While both pre and post-SMCRA landscapes are highly altered, they exhibit strongly dissimilar characteristics. We examine pre-SMCRA, post-SMCRA and unmined watersheds at 3 spatial scales in order to compare the geomorphic differences between reclamation strategies. In particular, we attempt to separate anthropogenic factors from pre-existing, natural factors via comparisons to unmined watersheds. Our study design incorporates a 3 scale top-down analysis of 21 independent watersheds (7 of each treatment type). Each watershed has an area of approximately 1km2. All watersheds share similar geography, climate and geology. At the landscape scale, characteristics are derived from 0.762m (2.5ft) resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). At the channel network scale, DEMs, as well as remote sensing data (including the National Wetlands Inventory database) are used. Finally, the reach scale incorporates longitudinal and cross-section surveys (using a total station) as well as a particle size distribution. At each scale, attributes are parameterized for statistical comparison. Post-SMCRA sites are characterized by a general reduction of watershed surface slopes (11.9% median) compared to pre-SMCRA (19.3%) and unmined (19.8%) sites. Both pre and post-SMCRA channel networks are characterized by significant surface impoundments (in the form of remnant headwall trenches on pre-SMCRA sites and engineered retention basins on post-SMCRA sites). Pre-SMCRA outlet reaches have significantly steeper bed slopes (2.79% mean) than