Science.gov

Sample records for surface mining

  1. Surface mining

    Treesearch

    Robert Leopold; Bruce Rowland; Reed Stalder

    1979-01-01

    The surface mining process consists of four phases: (1) exploration; (2) development; (3) production; and (4) reclamation. A variety of surface mining methods has been developed, including strip mining, auger, area strip, open pit, dredging, and hydraulic. Sound planning and design techniques are essential to implement alternatives to meet the myriad of laws,...

  2. Surface mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This paper reports on a GAO study of attorney and expert witness fees awarded as a result of litigation brought under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. As of March 24, 1989, a total of about $1.4 million had been awarded in attorney fees and expenses - about $1.3 subject to the provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, a comparison of its features with provisions of ERISA showed that the plan differed from ERISA provisions in areas such as eligibility, funding, and contribution limits.

  3. Lunar surface mining equipment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podnieks, Egons R.; Siekmeier, John A.

    Results of a NASA-sponsored assessment of the various proposed lunar surface mining equipment concepts submitted to NASA are presented. The proposed equipment was reviewed and evaluated with due consideration of equipment design criteria, basic mining principles, and the lunar environment. On the basis of this assessment, two pieces of mining equipment were conceptualized for surface mining operations: the ripper-excavator-loader, also capable of operating as a load-haul-dump vehicle, and the haulage vehicle, capable of transporting feedstock from the pit, liquid oxygen containers from the processing plant, and materials during construction. Reliable and durable lunar mining equipment is found to be best developed by the evolution of proven terrestrial technology adapted to the lunar environment.

  4. Lunar surface mine feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, Brad R.

    This paper describes a lunar surface mine, and demonstrates the economic feasibility of mining oxygen from the moon. The mine will be at the Apollo 16 landing site. Mine design issues include pit size and shape, excavation equipment, muck transport, and processing requirements. The final mine design will be driven by production requirements, and constrained by the lunar environment. This mining scenario assumes the presence of an operating lunar base. Lunar base personnel will set-up a and run the mine. The goal of producing lunar oxygen is to reduce dependence on fuel shipped from Earth. Thus, the lunar base is the customer for the finished product. The perspective of this paper is that of a mining contractor who must produce a specific product at a remote location, pay local labor, and sell the product to an onsite captive market. To make a profit, it must be less costly to build and ship specialized equipment to the site, and pay high labor and operating costs, than to export the product directly to the site.

  5. Effects of surface mining on aquatic resources in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Starnes, L.B.; Gasper, D.C.

    1996-05-01

    This paper is the American Fisheries Society position statement on the effects of surface mining on aquatic resources in North America. The issue is defined including history and types of mining operations; and the actual impacts on aquatic environments from different types of surface mining including sand and gravel mining, phasphate-rock mining, peat mining, heavy metal mining. 4 refs.

  6. Surface Disturbance Analysis in Rare Earth Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. K.; Yang, L.; Liu, Z. W.

    2017-02-01

    Mining ion-type rare-earth ore made the landscape and ecological environment degraded in mining area, and the tailing produced by rare-earth mining also led large areas land desertification, which resulted in surface temperature variations and significant differences in other types of mining disturbances. In order to analyse surface disturbance of rare-earth mining area, this paper applied the methods based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Temperature different Coefficient (TDC) as the ecological disturbance indicator, compared and validated their applicability in Lingbei rare-earth mining area of Southern China. The results illustrated that, compared to NDVI, the TDC which reflected the characteristic of rare-earth mining technology has better discrimination of disturbance, especially for in-situ leach mining area. The places of tailing and the in-situ leach mining plants were the most dramatic mining disturbance. They had the biggest TDC value, followed by orchards and farmlands, reclamation plants, they had relatively small disturbance. And the last was the plant with the smallest TDC value. TDC in rare-earth mining could better correspond to the level of surface ecological disturbance. Therefore, TDC as the indicator of ecological disturbance factor had better performance than NDVI in rare-earth mining area.

  7. Proceedings 1985 symposium on surface mining, hydrology, sedimentology, and reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This conference presents papers relating to surface mining of coal and the surface effects caused by underground mining of coal. Methods of predicting and mitigating acid mine drainage is provided. Various papers on the hydrology of spoils and reclaimed mine sites are presented. Papers also include information on mining regulations, overburden chemistry, revegetation species, post-mining land use changes, bonding procedures, and environmental problems often associated with mine reclamation. Individual articles have been entered separately into the Energy Data Base.

  8. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND...

  9. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND...

  10. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND...

  11. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND...

  12. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND...

  13. Ecorestoration model for surface mined lands

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, P.; Vasistha, H.B.; Kumar, O.

    1990-12-31

    Surface mining for minerals creates vast stretches of derelict lands which are, technically speaking, areas of {open_quotes}no value{close_quotes} from economic, social and aesthetic points of view. Problems due to surface mining are manifold, e.g. deforestation, soil erosion, pollution of water, air, noise, etc..., and depletion of nutrients. This paper discusses the ecorestoration model developed by the authors for restoring surface mined lands in one of the most fragile ecological regions of the country. Use of ecologically suitable native species of grasses, shrubs, and trees for restoration leads to stabilization of overburden dumps in a short span of five to six years. At the same time, the model stimulates ecological succession of flora and fauna, helps water pollution control and is capable of generating socioeconomic return in terms of fuel, fodder, fibre, etc.

  14. 77 FR 50165 - Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Safety and Health Administration Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... surface coal mines, surface facilities and surface work areas of underground coal mines. MSHA is...

  15. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume II. Mine reclamation, abandoned mine lands and policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  16. Mine drainage and surface mine reclamation. Volume I. Mine water and mine waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. This publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. These comprise Volume 1. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts; these have been placed in the back of both volumes.

  17. Reclamation of surface-mine spoil

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, E.A.

    1981-09-01

    Research being performed on land reclamation at the Corona and Kellerman mines in Alabama is reported. Information is presented under the following headings: effects of topsoiling and mulching treatment on plant growth and soil erosion; preliminary findings on the germination and growth of Southern red oak seedlings on calcareous shale surface mine spoil; some effects of vegetation type and fertilization on growth, survival, and tip moth damage in loblolly pine planted on alkaline shale surface mine spoil; some effects of competition and fertilizer on the growth and survival of selected Christmas tree stock and Virginia pine on alkaline shale spoil; growth and survival of Eastern red cedar on alkaline shale spoil; and, greenhouse studies. The appendixes are entitled: study of the effects of acidification of calcareous shale on the growth of weeping love grass; the effects of competition and spoil mixtures on the growth of perennial ryegrass and weeping lovegrass; and, the effects of delayed fertilization on the growth of weeping lovegrass. (JGB)

  18. Impacts of surface mining on calving elk

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.K.

    1990-12-31

    Due to concern over potential impact of surface coal mining on a traditional elk calving ground, Colorado Yampa Coal Company conducted a six and one half year study from 1981 to 1987 to monitor elk calving behavior in connection habitat disturbance resulting from mining. The specific objectives were to: (1) determine if productivity of elk is changed as they are displaced from a traditional calving area; (2) determining what fidelity they exhibit to calving areas; and (3) describe the physical and vegetation characteristics of elk calving areas. During the study, 448 elk captures were recorded, 294 individual elk were tagged, 75 of which received radio transmitters. The radio transmitter collared elk were relocated 4,583 times. Telemetry work on the 75 individual elk revealed no negative impacts on elk using the mine site. Productivity, calving home range size and fidelity, and habitat utilization patterns between elk using the mine site and control elk were not significantly different. There has been no indication that elk are abandoning mine areas. Aspen habitats directly adjacent to active mining continue to be selected for during the late spring and summer. Reclaimed sites are used in proportion to their availability during spring and summer and are selected for during the fall and early winter. In addition, a large amount of information on cow elk mortality, summer and winter ranges, migration patterns and habitat utilization was obtained.

  19. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2001-01-30

    The October-December 2003 Quarter was dedicated to analyzing the first years tree planting activities and evaluation of the results. This included the analyses of the species success at each of the sites and quantifying the baseline data for future year determination of research levels of mixes. The small mammal colonization study of revegetated surface mines was also initiated and sampling systems initiated.

  20. Geotechnical considerations in surface mine reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, A.K.

    1999-07-01

    Most attention in surface mine reclamation is given to agronomic soils and revegetation, but reclamation success depends on the geotechnical characteristics of the underlying earth. If the soil and rock that underline the surface are not stable, surface treatments lack the dependable foundation needed for them to succeed. Reclamation practioners need to understand those geotechnical considerations--material properties, structure, and processes--that affect stability. properties of rock and soil are altered by mining, and those altered materials together with water and processing waste form often-complex mixtures of materials that must be stabilized in reclamation. Surface mining alters existing landforms and creates new ones such as pit walls, spoil and waste rock piles, tailings impoundments, and earthfills. those structures need to be constructed or stabilized so that they can endure and support successful reclamation. processes that affect material properties and landforms include mechanical breakage, accelerated weathering, erosion, and mass movements. Mechanical breakage and the resulting accelerated weathering combine to change material properties, usually expressed as degraded strength, that can lead to instability of landforms. Erosion, especially that related to extreme storm events, and mass movements in the form of slop failures are the most problematic processes that must be taken into account in reclaiming mined lands. These geotechnical considerations are essential in successful reclamation, and practioners who overlook them may find their work literally sliding down a slippery slope.

  1. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner; Carmen Agouridis

    2006-03-31

    Since the implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) in May of 1978, many opportunities have been lost for the reforestation of surface mines in the eastern United States. Research has shown that excessive compaction of spoil material in the backfilling and grading process is the biggest impediment to the establishment of productive forests as a post-mining land use (Ashby, 1998, Burger et al., 1994, Graves et al., 2000). Stability of mine sites was a prominent concern among regulators and mine operators in the years immediately following the implementation of SMCRA. These concerns resulted in the highly compacted, flatly graded, and consequently unproductive spoils of the early post-SMCRA era. However, there is nothing in the regulations that requires mine sites to be overly compacted as long as stability is achieved. It has been cultural barriers and not regulatory barriers that have contributed to the failure of reforestation efforts under the federal law over the past 27 years. Efforts to change the perception that the federal law and regulations impede effective reforestation techniques and interfere with bond release must be implemented. Demonstration of techniques that lead to the successful reforestation of surface mines is one such method that can be used to change perceptions and protect the forest ecosystems that were indigenous to these areas prior to mining. The University of Kentucky initiated a large-scale reforestation effort to address regulatory and cultural impediments to forest reclamation in 2003. During the three years of this project 383,000 trees were planted on over 556 acres in different physiographic areas of Kentucky (Table 1, Figure 1). Species used for the project were similar to those that existed on the sites before mining was initiated (Table 2). A monitoring program was undertaken to evaluate growth and survival of the planted species as a function of spoil characteristics and

  2. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  3. Development of surface mine cost estimating equations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-26

    Cost estimating equations were developed to determine capital and operating costs for five surface coal mine models in Central Appalachia, Northern Appalachia, Mid-West, Far-West, and Campbell County, Wyoming. Engineering equations were used to estimate equipment costs for the stripping function and for the coal loading and hauling function for the base case mine and for several mines with different annual production levels and/or different overburden removal requirements. Deferred costs were then determined through application of the base case depreciation schedules, and direct labor costs were easily established once the equipment quantities (and, hence, manpower requirements) were determined. The data points were then fit with appropriate functional forms, and these were then multiplied by appropriate adjustment factors so that the resulting equations yielded the model mine costs for initial and deferred capital and annual operating cost. (The validity of this scaling process is based on the assumption that total initial and deferred capital costs are proportional to the initial and deferred costs for the primary equipment types that were considered and that annual operating cost is proportional to the direct labor costs that were determined based on primary equipment quantities.) Initial capital costs ranged from $3,910,470 in Central Appalachia to $49,296,785; deferred capital costs ranged from $3,220,000 in Central Appalachia to $30,735,000 in Campbell County, Wyoming; and annual operating costs ranged from $2,924,148 in Central Appalachia to $32,708,591 in Campbell County, Wyoming. (DMC)

  4. Surface mine impoundments as wildlife and fish habitat

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Rumble

    1989-01-01

    Unreclaimed surface mine impoundments provide poor fish and wildlife habitat. Recommendations given here for reclaiming "prelaw" impoundments and creating new impoundments could provide valuable fish and wildlife habitat if incorporated into existing laws and mine plans.

  5. Applying WEPP technologies to western alkaline surface coal mines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One aspect of planning surface mining operations, regulated by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), is estimating potential environmental impacts during mining operations and the reclamation period that follows. Practical computer simulation tools are effective for evaluating...

  6. Proceedings, 1983 symposium on surface mining, hydrology, sedimentology, and reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, D.H.

    1983-12-01

    Papers were presented on the following topics: mining technology; hydrology; sedimentology; reclamation; surface mining technology and policy; poster presentations; phosphate and arid land reclamation; reclamation special applications; and hydrology-sedimentology special applications. 45 papers have been abstracted separately.

  7. Proceedings, 1982 symposium on surface mining hydrology, sedimentology and reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Papers are presented on aspects of hydrology and land reclamation after surface mining. The chemical characteristics and bacterial treatment of acid mine drainage are discussed, along with the subjects of water quality, water movement and hydraulic conductivity in soils and mine spoil heaps. Geochemistry of groundwater near surface mining activities is considered. The effects of revegetation and reforestation, and the significance of fertilizers in land reclamation are discussed.

  8. Bureau of mines cost estimating system handbook (in two parts). 1. Surface and underground mining

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The handbook provides a convenient costing procedure based on the summation of the costs for unit processes required in any particular mining or mineral processing operation. The costing handbook consists of a series of costing sections, each corresponding to a specific mining unit process. Contained within each section is the methodology to estimate either the capital or operating cost for that unit process. The unit process sections may be used to generate, in January 1984 dollars, costs through the use of either costing curves or formulae representing the prevailing technology. Coverage for surface mining includes dredging, quarrying, strip mining, and open pit mining. The underground mining includes individual development sections for drifting, raising, shaft sinking, stope development, various mining methods, underground mine haulage, general plant, and underground mine administrative cost.

  9. Impact of surface coal mining on soil hydraulic properties

    Treesearch

    X. Liu; J. Q. Wu; P. W. Conrad; S. Dun; C. S. Todd; R. L. McNearny; William Elliot; H. Rhee; P. Clark

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is strongly related to soil hydraulic properties. Understanding how surface coal mining affects these properties is therefore important in developing effective management practices to control erosion during reclamation. To determine the impact of mining activities on soil hydraulic properties, soils from undisturbed areas, areas of roughly graded mine...

  10. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2003-10-30

    The 2002-2003 Department of Energy plantings amounted to 164 acres containing 111,520 tree seedlings in eastern and western Kentucky. Data gathered on these trees included an inventory to determine survival of all planted species. A sub-sample of seedlings was selected to assess the height and diameter of individual species of seedlings established. Additional efforts involved collection of soil sample and litter samples, analysis of herbaceous ground cover from vegetation clip plots and leaf area on each tree species, and development of tissue collections. All areas were sampled for penetration resistance, penetration depth (or depth to refusal), and bulk density at various depths. Rain fall events and flow rates were recorded. The water quality of runoff samples involved the determination of total and settleable solids and particle size distribution. A study was initiated that will focus on the colonization of small mammals from forest edges to various areas located on reclaimed surface mines. This effort will provide a better understanding of the role small mammals and birds have in the establishment of plant communities on mine lands that will be useful in developing and improving reclamation techniques.

  11. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2005-10-02

    During this quarter a general forest monitoring program was conducted to measure treatment effects on above ground and below ground carbon C and Nitrogen (N) pools for the tree planting areas. Detailed studies to address specific questions pertaining to Carbon cycling was initiated with the development of plots to examine the influence of mycorrhizae, spoil chemical and mineralogical properties, and use of amendment on forest establishment and carbon sequestration. Efforts continued during this period to examine decomposition and heterotrophic respiration on C cycling in the reforestation plots. Projected climate change resulting from elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide has given rise to various strategies to sequester carbon in various terrestrial ecosystems. Reclaimed surface mine soils present one such potential carbon sink where traditional reclamation objectives can complement carbon sequestration. New plantings required the modification and design and installation on monitoring equipment. Maintenance and data monitoring on past and present installations are a continuing operation. The Department of Mining Engineering continued the collection of penetration resistance, penetration depth, and bulk density on both old and new treatment areas. Data processing and analysis is in process for these variables. Project scientists and graduate students continue to present results at scientific meetings, tours and field days presentations of the research areas are being conducted on a request basis.

  12. Wildlife management, surface mining, and regional planning

    SciTech Connect

    Nieman, T.J.; Merkin, Z.R.

    1995-12-31

    Wildlife management, surface mining, and regional planning historically have had conflicting missions. The cooperative public/private venture which created the Robinson Forest and Cyprus-Amax Wildlife Management Areas is presented as an example of how a regional perspective encourages a symbiotic relationship among these functions. Wildlife management areas, as either an interim or final land use, are shown to incorporate development concepts which benefit the general public, the coal industry, and the environment. Examining the regional pattern of wildlife management areas and refuges confirms the appropriateness of the subject site for this use. It is suggested that the pattern of mined lands can be studied to identify other sites with potential to provide linkages between a wildlife habitat areas and encourage reclamation of such sites to the {open_quotes}fish and wildlife{close_quotes} postmining land use. Such reclamation strategies should be pursued within a long-term planning framework. More research is needed to recreate specific habitat types on drastically disturbed land and planning is needed to assure that sensitive habitats or species are located away from zones likely to undergo future development. Use of geographic information systems to integrate existing environmental information could make such studies more effective. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  13. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-08-02

    The April-June 2004 quarter was dedicated to the establishment of monitoring systems for all the new research areas. Hydrology and water quality monitoring continues to be conducted on all areas as does weather data pertinent to the research. Studies assessing specific questions pertaining to carbon flux has been established and the invasion of the vegetation by small mammals is being quantified. The approval of two experimental practices associated with this research by the United States Office of Surface Mining was a major accomplishment during this period of time. These experimental practices will eventually allow for tree planting on long steep slopes with loose grading systems and for the use of loose dumped spoil on mountain top removal areas with no grading in the final layer of rooting material for tree establishment.

  14. Selective placement of overburden in surface coal mining - problems and mining planning

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.L.; Kelley, J.H.

    1982-12-01

    Selective placement of overburden is one of the measures that can mitigate surface coal mining's impact on environment which is mandatory by the Public Law PL 95-87 of 1977. When the operation of selective placement of overburden is integrated into the mining cycle, its effectiveness is largely dependent on mining planning, pit design, and equipment scheduling and matching. This study is intended to provide a baseline information for the decision making of mining planning with respect to this particular operation. A review of OSM Permanent Regulatory Program as related to the requirement of selective placement of overburden around surface coal mine is presented. Parameters that might influence the mining planning of selective overburden handling are classified. Following the evaluation of the requirement on regulation and equipment feasibility of current operation, proposed mining schemes for both steep slope and area mining are presented. A case simulation and comparison of overburden handling cost of alternative tandem equipment combinations of a typical dragline operation revealed the competitive position of the scraper-loader-trucks and cross-pit conveyor subsystems in this particular mining layout. Finally, an index of selective overburden handling operation is provided which categorized independent and controlling factors of the mining sites and shows the relationship of mining planning considerations in this particular practices.

  15. Revegetation of surface-mined lands in Pennsylvania

    Treesearch

    G. Nevin Strock

    1980-01-01

    The reforestation of surface mines in Pennsylvania became prevalent in the middle 1940's with enactment of state legislation to regulate surface mining of bituminous coal. Though this early legislation did not provide for intensive environment protection standards in comparison to state legislation which followed in the early 1960's and early 1970's and...

  16. Timber volumes of old Pennsylvania surface mine reclamation plantations

    Treesearch

    Walter H. Davidson

    1981-01-01

    Surface mine reclamation plantings established in Pennsylvania from 1919 to 1934 were evaluated to determine merchantable volume, presence and volume of volunteer species, and soil development since planting. The evaluation showed that planted conifers had a total volume of 744 M bm on the 150 acres of reclaimed surface mines. In addition, there were 356 M bm of...

  17. Reforesting unused surface mined lands by replanting with native trees

    Treesearch

    Patrick N. Angel; James A. Burger; Carl E. Zipper; Scott Eggerud

    2012-01-01

    More than 600,000 ha (1.5 million ac) of mostly forested land in the Appalachian region were surface mined for coal under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Today, these lands are largely unmanaged and covered with persistent herbaceous species, such as fescue (Festuca spp.) and sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata [Dum. Cours.] G. Don,) and a mix of...

  18. Abandoned Mine Detection in Western Pennsylvania Using Surface Wave Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, B.

    2015-12-01

    Abandoned mines throughout the Appalachian region of the United States have been recognized as problematic. Resource extraction from these mines has long ceased and few, if any, documents pertaining to these operations exist. Over time support structures internal to the mines may collapse and lead to subsidence, potentially damaging surface structures. A non-invasive, surface deployed seismic method to detect undisclosed, abandoned near-surface mines would be beneficial as a first step to remediation. The use of seismic surface waves to analyze the upper several tens of meters of the subsurface has become an important technique for near-surface investigations and may provide a method for detection of near-surface, abandoned mine shafts. While there are many undocumented abandoned mines throughout the Appalachians one known example exists within Butler County, Pennsylvania. Although little is known about the overall operation there is limited documentation which provides information as to the location of the mine tunnels. Currently there is no recognized surface subsidence associated with the mine however documents indicate that the abandoned mining operations have an estimated depth ranging from twenty to fifty feet. To assist with acquisition a seismic land streamer was constructed. Use of a land streamer increases the speed, ease and efficiency required to perform a seismic survey. Additionally the land streamer allows for the acquisition of seismic surface waves which were analyzed using the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method. Data were acquired by conducting multiple, adjacent surveys perpendicular to the suspected location of abandoned mine tunnels. Throughout the survey area to a depth of approximately 15 meters, shear wave velocities range between approximately 200-1200 m/s. Based upon shear wave velocity changes within the profile anomalies have been identified corresponding to the contrast between the suspected mined, and unmined, areas.

  19. 30 CFR 72.620 - Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 72.620 Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. Holes shall be collared and drilled wet, or other effective dust control measures shall be used, when drilling non-water-soluble material. Effective dust control measures shall be used when drilling water-soluble material....

  20. 30 CFR 72.620 - Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 72.620 Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. Holes shall be collared and drilled wet, or other effective dust control measures shall be used, when drilling non-water-soluble material. Effective dust control measures shall be used when drilling water-soluble material....

  1. 30 CFR 72.620 - Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 72.620 Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. Holes shall be collared and drilled wet, or other effective dust control measures shall be used, when drilling non-water-soluble material. Effective dust control measures shall be used when drilling water-soluble material....

  2. 30 CFR 72.620 - Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 72.620 Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. Holes shall be collared and drilled wet, or other effective dust control measures shall be used, when drilling non-water-soluble material. Effective dust control measures shall be used when drilling water-soluble material....

  3. 30 CFR 72.620 - Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 72.620 Drill dust control at surface mines and surface areas of underground mines. Holes shall be collared and drilled wet, or other effective dust control measures shall be used, when drilling non-water-soluble material. Effective dust control measures shall be used when drilling water-soluble material....

  4. 30 CFR 921.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 921.762 Section 921.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  5. 30 CFR 933.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 933.762 Section 933.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designation Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  6. 30 CFR 941.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 941.762 Section 941.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  7. 30 CFR 933.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 933.762 Section 933.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designation Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  8. 30 CFR 933.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 933.762 Section 933.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designation Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  9. 30 CFR 941.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 941.762 Section 941.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  10. 30 CFR 939.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 939.762 Section 939.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  11. 30 CFR 905.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 905.762 Section 905.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining operations....

  12. 30 CFR 921.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 921.762 Section 921.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  13. 30 CFR 942.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 942.762 Section 942.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) In...

  14. 30 CFR 942.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 942.762 Section 942.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) In...

  15. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary...

  16. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary...

  17. 30 CFR 939.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 939.762 Section 939.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  18. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary...

  19. 30 CFR 941.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 941.762 Section 941.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  20. 30 CFR 947.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 947.762 Section 947.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  1. 30 CFR 933.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 933.762 Section 933.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designation Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  2. 30 CFR 933.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 933.762 Section 933.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designation Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  3. 30 CFR 905.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 905.762 Section 905.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining operations....

  4. 30 CFR 905.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 905.762 Section 905.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining operations....

  5. 30 CFR 947.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 947.762 Section 947.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  6. 30 CFR 939.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 939.762 Section 939.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  7. 30 CFR 921.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 921.762 Section 921.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  8. 30 CFR 942.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 942.762 Section 942.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) In...

  9. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary...

  10. 30 CFR 939.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 939.762 Section 939.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  11. 30 CFR 947.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 947.762 Section 947.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  12. 30 CFR 942.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 942.762 Section 942.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) In...

  13. 30 CFR 942.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 942.762 Section 942.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) In...

  14. 30 CFR 947.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 947.762 Section 947.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  15. 30 CFR 941.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 941.762 Section 941.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  16. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary...

  17. 30 CFR 921.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 921.762 Section 921.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  18. 30 CFR 939.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 939.762 Section 939.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  19. 30 CFR 941.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 941.762 Section 941.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  20. 30 CFR 921.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 921.762 Section 921.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mine operations....

  1. 30 CFR 905.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 905.762 Section 905.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining operations....

  2. 30 CFR 905.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 905.762 Section 905.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining operations....

  3. 30 CFR 947.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 947.762 Section 947.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations....

  4. Effects of surface mining on fish and wildlife in Appalachia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boccardy, Joseph A.; Spaulding, William M.

    1968-01-01

    This report on the effects of strip and surface mining on the fish and wildlife resources in eight Appalachian States is based in part on observation made during a tour of strip and surface mined area by the authors, as members of a team of specialist from six Federal agencies. Surface mining has caused extensive damage to fish and wildlife habitats and populations. A total of 832,605 acres of land have been disturbed; 81 percent of these are in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. More than 5,000 miles of Appalachian streams and 13,800 acres of impoundments have been seriously contaminated by acid mine water, some of it from surface mining. Additional water acreage has been adversely affected by tremendous quantities of silt and sediment. Reclamation of mined lands is needed. Three of the eight states visited in 1965-66 had no law requiring restoration of strip-mined lands, and other States needed stronger laws and more enforcement (Virginia and Tennessee have since passed laws governing strip mining). Reclamation as currently practiced in the Appalachian region does not adequately restore mined lands to minimal standards necessary to protect and improve fish and wildlife resources.

  5. Determining the research needs of the surface coal mining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Zell, L.M.

    1982-12-01

    This paper reveals avenues open to the coal industry to help gain technology and research information needed to meet the requirements of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. It discusses projects of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Coal Mining and the Mining and Reclamation Council of America (MARC) to help meet the environmental needs as well as the coal industry needs.

  6. Applying WEPP technologies to western alkaline surface coal mines

    Treesearch

    J. Q. Wu; S. Dun; H. Rhee; X. Liu; W. J. Elliot; T. Golnar; J. R. Frankenberger; D. C. Flanagan; P. W. Conrad; R. L. McNearny

    2011-01-01

    One aspect of planning surface mining operations, regulated by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES), is estimating potential environmental impacts during mining operations and the reclamation period that follows. Practical computer simulation tools are effective for evaluating site-specific sediment control and reclamation plans for the NPDES....

  7. The market for large rigid haul trucks in surface mining

    SciTech Connect

    Gilewicz, P.

    2002-04-15

    Originally published in 2001 this updated report provides a definition of the market for large rigid haulers in surface mining. The analysis covers changes to the mining market segments buying these machines including the gains made by coal producers, retrenchment in copper mining, the consolidation taking place among gold mining companies, and the expansion of iron ore producers in Australia and Brazil. It includes a detailed accounting of 2001 truck shipments, and an analysis of trends in the Ultra-truck segment. It concludes with a revised forecast for shipments through 2006. 12 charts, 56 tabs., 2 apps.

  8. Surface mining and the flood of April 1977

    Treesearch

    Willie R. Curtis

    1977-01-01

    Data from experimental sites in Breathitt County, Kentucky, and Raleigh County, West Virginia, showed that during a major rainstorm on 4 April 1977 streamflow from surface-mined watersheds peaked lower than that from adjacent or nearby unmined watersheds.

  9. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  10. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  11. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  12. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  13. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  14. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  15. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  16. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  17. 30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762.13 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this part do not apply to— (a) Lands...

  18. 30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any area as unsuitable for all or certain...

  19. 30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 922.764 Section 922.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining...

  20. Mine drainage and surface-mine reclamation. Volume 2. Mine reclamation, abandoned mine lands, and policy issues. Information Circular/1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Mine waste and mine reclamation are topics of major interest to the mining industry, the government and the general public. The publication and its companion volume are the proceedings of a conference held in Pittsburgh, April 19-21, 1988. There were nine sessions (50 papers) that dealt with the geochemistry, hydrology and problems of mine waste and mine water, especially acid mine drainage. The nine sessions (43 papers) that dealt with reclamation and restoration of disturbed lands, as well as related policy issues, are included in volume 2. Volume 2 also contains the ten papers that pertained to control of subsidence and mine fires at abandoned mines. Poster session presentations are, in general, represented by abstracts.

  1. Forestation of surface mines for wildlife

    Treesearch

    Thomas G. Zarger

    1980-01-01

    This report reviews TVA program efforts to promote the use of wildlife shrubs in mined-land reclamation including work on plant materials development, demonstrations to acquaint landowners with a variety of food and cover plants, and action programs to incorporate wildlife plants into postmining land use. It deals briefly with wildlife considerations under Public Law...

  2. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for...

  3. 30 CFR 939.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 939.800 Section 939.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  4. 30 CFR 921.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 921.800 Section 921.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  5. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements,...

  6. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  7. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  8. 30 CFR 933.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 933.800 Section 933.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  9. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements,...

  10. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  11. 30 CFR 939.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 939.800 Section 939.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  12. 30 CFR 933.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 933.800 Section 933.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  13. 30 CFR 941.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 941.800 Section 941.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  14. 30 CFR 921.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 921.800 Section 921.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  15. 30 CFR 941.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 941.800 Section 941.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  16. 30 CFR 939.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 939.800 Section 939.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  17. 30 CFR 941.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 941.800 Section 941.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  18. 30 CFR 933.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 933.800 Section 933.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  19. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  20. 30 CFR 921.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 921.800 Section 921.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... Mining and Reclamation Operations Under Regulatory Programs, shall apply to all surface coal mining...

  1. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions... surface coal mining and reclamation operations beginning one year after the effective date of this program....

  2. 30 CFR 77.1713 - Daily inspection of surface coal mine; certified person; reports of inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Daily inspection of surface coal mine... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1713 Daily inspection of...

  3. CARBON SEQUESTRATION OF SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-05-19

    The January-March 2004 Quarter was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During year one of this project there was no available mine land to plant in the Hazard area so 107 acres were planted in the Martin county mine location. This year 120 acres was planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres was planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. An additional set of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for special carbon sequestration determinations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on two newly established areas as well as confirmed measurements on the first years plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 tree seedlings.

  4. Economic Impacts of Surface Mining on Household Drinking Water Supplies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides information on the economic and social impacts of contaminated surface and ground water supplies on residents and households near surface mining operations. The focus is on coal slurry contamination of water supplies in Mingo County, West Virginia, and descr...

  5. Economic Impacts of Surface Mining on Household Drinking Water Supplies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides information on the economic and social impacts of contaminated surface and ground water supplies on residents and households near surface mining operations. The focus is on coal slurry contamination of water supplies in Mingo County, West Virginia, and descr...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22605 - Blasting from the surface (V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... until the mine has been examined by a competent person and the methane level is less than 1.0 percent... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22605 Blasting from the surface (V-A mines... methane in the mine is less than 1.0 percent, persons may enter the mine, and all places blasted shall be...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22605 - Blasting from the surface (V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... until the mine has been examined by a competent person and the methane level is less than 1.0 percent... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22605 Blasting from the surface (V-A mines... methane in the mine is less than 1.0 percent, persons may enter the mine, and all places blasted shall be...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22605 - Blasting from the surface (V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... until the mine has been examined by a competent person and the methane level is less than 1.0 percent... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22605 Blasting from the surface (V-A mines... methane in the mine is less than 1.0 percent, persons may enter the mine, and all places blasted shall be...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22605 - Blasting from the surface (V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... until the mine has been examined by a competent person and the methane level is less than 1.0 percent... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22605 Blasting from the surface (V-A mines... methane in the mine is less than 1.0 percent, persons may enter the mine, and all places blasted shall be...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22605 - Blasting from the surface (V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... until the mine has been examined by a competent person and the methane level is less than 1.0 percent... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Explosives § 57.22605 Blasting from the surface (V-A mines... methane in the mine is less than 1.0 percent, persons may enter the mine, and all places blasted shall be...

  11. Satellite data for surface-mine inventory. [in Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schultz, D.; Buchman, N.; Nock, M.

    1976-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of satellite data for surface-mine inventory, particularly as it applies to coal, a case study was conducted in Maryland. A band-ratio method was developed to measure disturbed surface areas, and it proved to be extendible both temporally and geographically. This method was used to measure area changes in the region over three time periods from September 1972 through July 1974 and to map the entire two-county area for 1973. For mines ranging between 31 and 244 acres (12 to 98 hectares) the measurement accuracy of total affected acreage was determined to be 92%. Mines of 120 acres (50 hectares) and larger were measured with greater accuracy, some within one percent of the actual area. The ability to identify, classify, and measure strip-mine surfaces in a two-county area (1,541 square kilometers - 595 square miles) of western Maryland was demonstrated through the use of computer processing. On the basis of these results the use of LANDSAT satellite data and multilevel sampling of aircraft and field verification inspections, multispectral analysis of digital data is shown to be an effective, rapid, and accurate means of monitoring the surface mining cycle.

  12. Reactivation of landslides by surface subsidence from longwall mining

    SciTech Connect

    Iannacchione, A.T.; Ackman, T.E.

    1984-12-01

    Subsidence research by the US Bureau of Mines has identified and documented the occurrence of landslides over a longwall mining area in the Dunkard basin. Mining by longwall methods has been observed or produce a gradual surface subsidence profile of up to 60% of the thickness of the mined coal bed. The gradual subsidence of panels averaging 600 x 5000 ft (180 x 1525 m) can cause reactivation of older landslide deposits by decreasing the support to the landslide toe area. Examination of surficial features over a longwall mining area comprised of nine panels has led to the identification of several reactivated landslides. The two largest landslides occurred above a thin sandstone member with several associated springs. The largest landslides ranged from 100 to 300 ft (30 to 90 m) in length and from 100 to 200 ft (30 to 60 m) in width. Maximum scarp-slope displacements were approximately 7 ft (2 m). Less significant mass wasting was also observed over the longwall panels. Identification of landslides was accomplished through examination of premining aerial photographs and geologic field investigation. Characterization of reactivated zones was achieved through evaluation of current aerial 2-ft (0.6-m) surface contour map and field surveys. Recognition of problem areas will make civic and mining personnel aware of the landslide potential so that damage in such areas can be minimized.

  13. Eco-restoration model for surface mined lands

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, P.; Vasistha, H.B.; Kumar, O.

    1990-12-31

    Surface mining for minerals creates vast stretches of derelict lands which are, technically speaking, of {open_quotes}no value{close_quotes} from economic, social and aesthetic points of view. Problems due to surface mining are manifold, e.g., deforestation, soil erosion, pollution of water, air, noise, etc. and depletion of nutrients. In this paper we discuss the eco-restoration model developed for restoring surface mined lands in one of the most fragile ecological regions of the country. Use of ecologically suitable native species of grasses, shrubs and trees for restoration lead to stabilization of the overburden dumps in a short span of five to six years. At the same time, the vegetation provides for the ecological succession of flora and fauna, water pollution control, and is capable of giving socioeconomic returns in terms of fuel, fodder, fiber, etc.

  14. 43 CFR 3440.1-5 - Compliance with Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compliance with Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. 3440.1-5 Section 3440.1-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... Licenses to Mine § 3440.1-5 Compliance with Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Mining on a license...

  15. 43 CFR 3440.1-5 - Compliance with Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compliance with Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. 3440.1-5 Section 3440.1-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... Licenses to Mine § 3440.1-5 Compliance with Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Mining on a license...

  16. 43 CFR 3440.1-5 - Compliance with Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compliance with Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. 3440.1-5 Section 3440.1-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... Licenses to Mine § 3440.1-5 Compliance with Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Mining on a license...

  17. 77 FR 26046 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...-0026] Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION....C. 813(a)) (the Mine Act)) requires that frequent inspections and investigations in coal or...

  18. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Bon Jun Koo; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-11-30

    The first quarter of 2004 was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During the first year of this project there was not available mine land to plant in the Hazard area, so 107 acres were planted in the Martin County mine location. This year 120 acres were planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres were planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. Additional sets of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for carbon sequestration demonstrations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on the newly established areas as well as continual measurements of the first year's plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 seedlings. During the second quarter of this year monitoring systems were established for all the new research areas. Weather data pertinent to the research as well as hydrology and water quality monitoring continues to be conducted on all areas. Studies established to assess specific questions pertaining to carbon flux and the invasion of the vegetation by small mammals are being quantified. Experimental practices initiated with this research project will eventually allow for the planting on long steep slopes with loose grading systems and allow mountain top removal areas to be constructed with loose spoil with no grading of the final layers of rooting material when establishing trees for the final land use designation. Monitoring systems have been installed to measure treatment effects on both above and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools in the planting areas. Soil and tissue samples were collected from both years planting and analyses were conducted in the laboratory. Examination of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots continued during the reporting period. Entire planted trees were extracted

  19. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-11-30

    A monitoring program to measure treatment effects on above ground, and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools for the planting areas is being conducted. The collection of soil and tissue samples from both the 2003 and 2004 plantings is complete and are currently being processed in the laboratory. Detailed studies have been initiated to address specific questions pertaining to carbon cycling. Examinations of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots were continued during this reporting period. A whole-tree harvesting method was employed to evaluate carbon accumulation as a function of time on the mined site. The trees were extracted from the sites and separated into the following components: foliage, stems, branches, and roots.

  20. Fast track surface mine installation on the critical path

    SciTech Connect

    Willison, L.R.

    1986-07-01

    A deep mining area, located in the rugged woodland hills of central West Virginia, was transformed into a beehive of activity as a major new mine and preparation plant was constructed on a very tight deadline. By the time the mine was on line, BethEnergy Mines had spent $40 million to develop the two million tpy (ton per year) surface coal mining complex. In early 1984 not a stick of timber had been cut. But within a very short time (coal-wise) there was a mining area; a 600-tph heavy media cyclone preparation plant, with 36,000 and 24,000 tons of raw and clean coal storage respectively; three miles of haul roads and access roads; a 64,000-ton clean coal stocking facility with a 4000-tph reclaim system that feeds a batch-weighing, floodloading, unit-train loadout facility; a 3.5-mile railroad spur and loop; and all incidental infrastructure. This feat entailed moving more than four million cu-yd of earth, building the preparation plant and loadout facility from ground to operating in six moths, and constructing a railroad spur bridging a major highway.

  1. Casi real-time surface-laid mine detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanco, Tyler; Achal, Stephen B.; McFee, John E.; Anger, Clifford D.

    2001-10-01

    A ground vehicle-based, real-time, surface mine detection system, utilizing a Compact Airborne Spectrographic Image (casi), efficient mine detection algorithms, and real-time processing systems, was designed and tested. The combined real-time system was capable of 'learning' the in-situ spectra of various mines, thus providing a spectral library for the detection algorithms. The real-time processing of the casi data involved three steps. The first step was the radiometric correction of the raw data. The second step involved the application of the mine detection algorithms to the corrected data, referencing the spectral library. In the final step, the results of the real-time processes were stored and displayed, usually within a few frame times of the data acquisition. To the authors knowledge, this system represents the first hyperspectral imager to detect mines in real-time. This paper describes the generation of the in-situ mine spectral library, the collection of the scene data, the real-time processing of the scene data and the subsequent display and recording of the detection data. The limitation and expansion capabilities of the real-time system are discussed as well as various techniques that were implemented to achieve the goals. Planned future improvements that have been identified to create a more robust and higher performance, yet simpler processing systems are also discussed.

  2. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 905.764 Section 905.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  3. 30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 910.764 Section 910.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  4. 30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 912.764 Section 912.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  5. 30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 903.764 Section 903.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal...

  6. 30 CFR 903.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 903.762 Section 903.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  7. 30 CFR 937.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 937.762 Section 937.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  8. 30 CFR 922.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 922.762 Section 922.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  9. 30 CFR 922.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 922.762 Section 922.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  10. 30 CFR 912.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 912.762 Section 912.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  11. 30 CFR 937.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 937.762 Section 937.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  12. 30 CFR 922.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 922.762 Section 922.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  13. 30 CFR 910.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 910.762 Section 910.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  14. 30 CFR 912.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 912.762 Section 912.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  15. 30 CFR 910.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 910.762 Section 910.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  16. 30 CFR 922.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 922.762 Section 922.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  17. 30 CFR 912.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 912.762 Section 912.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  18. 30 CFR 910.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 910.762 Section 910.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  19. 30 CFR 903.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 903.762 Section 903.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  20. 30 CFR 903.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 903.762 Section 903.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  1. 30 CFR 922.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 922.762 Section 922.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  2. 30 CFR 937.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 937.762 Section 937.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  3. 30 CFR 910.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 910.762 Section 910.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  4. 30 CFR 912.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 912.762 Section 912.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  5. 30 CFR 937.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 937.762 Section 937.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  6. 30 CFR 903.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 903.762 Section 903.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  7. 30 CFR 937.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 937.762 Section 937.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  8. 30 CFR 912.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 912.762 Section 912.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  9. 30 CFR 903.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 903.762 Section 903.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  10. 30 CFR 910.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for surface coal mining operations. 910.762 Section 910.762 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.762 Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this chapter, Criteria for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  11. 30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 910.764 Section 910.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  12. 30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 903.764 Section 903.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  13. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 905.764 Section 905.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  14. 30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations. 912.764 Section 912.764 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  15. Designing of an environmental assessment algorithm for surface mining projects.

    PubMed

    Mirmohammadi, Mirsaleh; Gholamnejad, Javad; Fattahpour, Vahidoddin; Seyedsadri, Pejman; Ghorbani, Yousef

    2009-06-01

    This paper depicts the method used to quantify the environmental impact of mining activities in surface mine projects. The affected environment was broken down into thirteen components, such as Human health and immunity, Surface water, Air quality, etc. The effect of twenty impacting factors from the mining and milling activities was then calculated for each Environmental Component. Environmental assessments are often performed by using matrix methods in which one dimension of the matrix is the "Impacting Factor" and the other one is the "Environmental Components". For the presented matrix method, each Impacting Factor was first given a magnitude between -10 and 10. These factors are used to set up a matrix named Impacting Factor Matrix, whose elements represent the Impacting Factor values. The effects of each Impacting Factor on each Environmental Component were then quantified by multiplying the Impacting Factor Matrix by Weighting Factor Matrix. The elements of the weighting factors matrix reflect the effects of each Impacting Factor on each Environmental Component. The outlined method was originally developed for a mining and milling operation in Iran, but it can successfully be used for mining ventures and more general industrial activities in other countries in accordance to their environmental regulations and laws.

  16. Chapter 10: Establishing native trees on legacy surface mines

    Treesearch

    J.A. Burger; C.E. Zipper; P.N. Angel; N. Hall; J.G. Skousen; C.D. Barton; S. Eggerud

    2017-01-01

    More than 1 million acres have been surface mined for coal in the Appalachian region. Today, much of this land is unmanaged, unproductive, and covered with nonnative plants. Establishing productive forests on such lands will aid restoration of ecosystem services provided by forests—services such as watershed protection, water quality enhancement, carbon storage, and...

  17. Bibliography of surface-mine reclamation research: 1976--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crews, J.T.

    1999-06-01

    The report contains citations for 177 articles and publications that describe research on or related to the reclamation of surface-mined lands conducted from 1976 through 1993 by scientists with the Northeastern Research Station and cooperating organizations. A subject index is included.

  18. Bibliography of surface-mine reclamation research: 1976-1993

    Treesearch

    Jerry T. Crews

    1999-01-01

    Contains citations for 177 articles and publications that describe research on or related to reclamation of surface-mined lands conducted from 1976 through 1993 by scientists with the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station and cooperating organizations. A subject index is included.

  19. Reforestation of surface mines on lands of VICC Land Company

    Treesearch

    Thomas F. Evans

    1980-01-01

    This Virginia coal company's surface mined lands show an adequate stocking of tree seedlings in terms of number per acre, but the distribution of seedlings has been affected by past reclamation practices. Natural reseeding has been an important contributor to the present seedling stock.

  20. Surface-mining water-diversion design manual. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.A.; Fullerton, W.T.; Li, R.M.; Peterson, M.R.; Schall, J.D.

    1982-09-01

    The manual provides basic information and procedures for hydrologic analysis and the design and implementation of an adequate drainage system before, during, and after surface mining operations to minimize adverse environmental impacts. It is a comprehensive design manual for use by experienced engineers and hydrologists.

  1. 43 CFR 3930.13 - Performance standards for surface mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF OIL SHALE EXPLORATION AND LEASES Management of Oil Shale Exploration Licenses and Leases § 3930.13 Performance standards for surface mines. (a) Pit widths for each oil shale seam must be engineered and designed to...

  2. 43 CFR 3930.13 - Performance standards for surface mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF OIL SHALE EXPLORATION AND LEASES Management of Oil Shale Exploration Licenses and Leases § 3930.13 Performance standards for surface mines. (a) Pit widths for each oil shale seam must be engineered and designed to...

  3. 43 CFR 3930.13 - Performance standards for surface mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF OIL SHALE EXPLORATION AND LEASES Management of Oil Shale Exploration Licenses and Leases § 3930.13 Performance standards for surface mines. (a) Pit widths for each oil shale seam must be engineered and designed to...

  4. Enhanced Surface Mine Reclamation Using Geomorphic Landform Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, A.; Hopkinson, L. C.; Bise, C.; Quaranta, J.

    2013-12-01

    Approximately 40% of operating mines in West Virginia are surface mines, producing approximately 50 million tons of coal annually. Traditional surface mine techniques include end-dumping burden material removed from the surface into nearby valleys, resulting in valley fills with uniform slopes, terraces, and drainage ditches. These techniques provide the opportunity for improvement in the areas of stream loss, surface water infiltration and runoff, and downstream water quality. The objective of this research was to create alternative surface mine reclamation designs for a permitted valley fill. Four designs were created: i) dendritic drainage; ii) retrofit; iii) dendritic drainage with bench ponds; and iv) dendritic drainage with valley ponds. All designs were based on a permitted surface mine site (1.4 km2) in southern West Virginia. Characteristics such as stream length and cut/fill volume were compared among the four created designs, the traditional design, and the original pre-mined surface. Geomorphic landform principles including creating landforms with overall hydrologic balance were applied to the design permit area. The geomorphic landform design (GLD) resulted in approximately 5.3 km of created channel length, 5.7 x 107 m3 of fill material (same volume cut during mining), and was comprised of ridges, valleys, and channels. The same design principles were applied to the top surface of the traditional valley fill to create the retrofit design. The traditional valley fill (6.9 x 107 m3 volume) consisted of a level top surface with drainage ditches around the perimeter. Features of the retrofit GLD included complex slope profiles and a dendritic drainage pattern. The design resulted in 6.7 x 107 m3 of cut volume and 5.7 x 107 m3 of fill volume and approximately 8.4 km of stream length. The GLD design surface was used as the base for the surface water retention designs, which included a design with three bench ponds and one with three valley ponds. The bench

  5. How many mountains can we mine? Assessing the regional degradation of Central Appalachian rivers by surface coal mining.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Emily S; Lutz, Brian D; King, Ryan S; Fay, John P; Carter, Catherine E; Helton, Ashley M; Campagna, David; Amos, John

    2012-08-07

    Surface coal mining is the dominant form of land cover change in Central Appalachia, yet the extent to which surface coal mine runoff is polluting regional rivers is currently unknown. We mapped surface mining from 1976 to 2005 for a 19,581 km(2) area of southern West Virginia and linked these maps with water quality and biological data for 223 streams. The extent of surface mining within catchments is highly correlated with the ionic strength and sulfate concentrations of receiving streams. Generalized additive models were used to estimate the amount of watershed mining, stream ionic strength, or sulfate concentrations beyond which biological impairment (based on state biocriteria) is likely. We find this threshold is reached once surface coal mines occupy >5.4% of their contributing watershed area, ionic strength exceeds 308 μS cm(-1), or sulfate concentrations exceed 50 mg L(-1). Significant losses of many intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa occur when as little as 2.2% of contributing catchments are mined. As of 2005, 5% of the land area of southern WV was converted to surface mines, 6% of regional streams were buried in valley fills, and 22% of the regional stream network length drained watersheds with >5.4% of their surface area converted to mines.

  6. Surface movement above an underground coal longwall mine after closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervoort, André

    2016-09-01

    The surface movement in an area of about 22 km2 above the underground coal mine of Houthalen was analyzed based on Interferometry with Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements. After its closure in 1992, a residual subsidence was observed over a period of several years, followed by an uplift of the surface above and around the past longwall panels, whereby the rate of movement was, in absolute terms, of the same order for the two types of movements. The processes behind these movements are different. The process of subsidence is caused by the caving of the roof above the mined-out area and is mainly a mechanical stress-deformation process, including time-dependent aspects. However, the process of uplift is most probably caused by the swelling of the clay minerals in the argillaceous rocks in the coal strata after the flooding of the underground workings. Hence, the areas in which there is the greatest risk of damage to the surface infrastructure are not the same for the hazards linked to subsidence and uplift. For example, the zone in which the maximum uplift occurs clearly is at a different location from that of the zone with the maximum residual subsidence. There is no clear sign that the amount of mining underneath affects the residual subsidence, and there is no indication that the process of uplift is linked directly to the mining characteristics. It is more likely that uplift as the result of flooding is initiated at, or close to, the vertical shafts.

  7. PREDICTING GROUND-WATER DRAINAGE TO SURFACE MINES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiss, Linda S.; Galloway, Devin L.; ,

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional, finite-difference numerical model is used to simulate the drainage of ground water into a surface coal mine. Graphs of dimensionless head as a function of dimensionless distance, and dimensionless seepage flux as a function of dimensionless time are developed from results of the numerical modeling. Changes in seepage flux and ground-water levels can be estimated from the dimensionless hydrographs, from knowledge of aquifer characteristics prior to mining, and by means of several 'simple-to-use' equations. The technique is an improvement on previous experimental, analytical, and other numerical solutions because drainage from the unsaturated zone also is considered. The procedure is applicable to a wide range of hydrogeologic settings, but is especially applicable to hydrogeologic conditions typically encountered in the coal strip-mining regions of Illinois.

  8. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  9. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  11. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... made, a technical examination of the prospective effects of the proposed exploration or surface mining... surface exploration and mining operations. 23.5 Section 23.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS § 23.5 Technical examination...

  13. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... made, a technical examination of the prospective effects of the proposed exploration or surface mining... surface exploration and mining operations. 23.5 Section 23.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS § 23.5 Technical examination...

  14. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  16. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 937.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 937.816 Section 937.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 942.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 942.816 Section 942.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  1. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations. 785.11 Section 785.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL...

  3. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations. 785.11 Section 785.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL...

  4. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  5. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  8. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  9. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 942.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 942.816 Section 942.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  11. 30 CFR 947.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 947.816 Section 947.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  14. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 947.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 947.816 Section 947.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  16. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 942.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 942.816 Section 942.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 30 CFR 947.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 947.816 Section 947.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  1. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 947.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 947.816 Section 947.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  4. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  5. 30 CFR 905.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 905.816 Section 905.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 905.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 905.816 Section 905.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  8. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  9. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  11. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  12. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  14. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  15. 30 CFR 903.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 903.816 Section 903.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  16. 30 CFR 942.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 942.816 Section 942.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  17. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  18. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  19. 30 CFR 922.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 922.816 Section 922.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  20. 30 CFR 933.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 933.816 Section 933.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  1. 30 CFR 912.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 912.816 Section 912.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  2. 30 CFR 947.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 947.816 Section 947.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  3. 30 CFR 905.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 905.816 Section 905.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  4. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  5. 30 CFR 905.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 905.816 Section 905.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  6. 30 CFR 910.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 910.816 Section 910.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  7. 30 CFR 921.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 921.816 Section 921.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  8. 30 CFR 905.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 905.816 Section 905.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  9. 30 CFR 942.816 - Performance standards-Surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards-Surface mining activities. 942.816 Section 942.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 30 CFR 785.12 - Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations. 785.12 Section 785.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND...

  11. 30 CFR 941.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 941.816 Section 941.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  12. 30 CFR 939.816 - Performance standards-surface mining activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards-surface mining activities. 939.816 Section 939.816 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  13. 30 CFR 947.800 - Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and reclamation operations. 947.800 Section 947.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.800 Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation...

  14. 30 CFR 785.12 - Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reclamation operations. 785.12 Section 785.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL....12 Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (a) This section applies to any...

  15. 30 CFR 947.800 - Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and reclamation operations. 947.800 Section 947.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.800 Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation...

  16. 30 CFR 785.12 - Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reclamation operations. 785.12 Section 785.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL....12 Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (a) This section applies to any...

  17. 30 CFR 947.800 - Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and reclamation operations. 947.800 Section 947.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.800 Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation...

  18. 30 CFR 922.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 922.800 Section 922.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  19. 30 CFR 937.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 937.800 Section 937.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  20. 30 CFR 910.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 910.800 Section 910.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  1. 30 CFR 937.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 937.800 Section 937.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  2. 30 CFR 761.11 - Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas where surface coal mining operations are....11 Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited. You may not conduct surface coal mining operations on the following lands unless you either have valid existing rights,...

  3. 30 CFR 912.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 912.800 Section 912.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  4. 30 CFR 937.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 937.800 Section 937.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  5. 30 CFR 912.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 912.800 Section 912.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  6. 30 CFR 912.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 912.800 Section 912.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  7. 30 CFR 910.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 910.800 Section 910.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  8. 30 CFR 910.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 910.800 Section 910.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  9. 30 CFR 922.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 922.800 Section 922.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  10. 30 CFR 947.800 - Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.800 Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining and...

  11. 30 CFR 922.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations. 922.800 Section 922.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  12. 30 CFR 947.800 - Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.800 Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining and...

  13. 30 CFR 761.11 - Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas where surface coal mining operations are....11 Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited. You may not conduct surface coal mining operations on the following lands unless you either have valid existing rights,...

  14. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION... Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (a) This section applies to any person...

  15. 30 CFR 785.12 - Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special bituminous surface coal mining and... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL....12 Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (a) This section applies to...

  16. 30 CFR 785.12 - Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special bituminous surface coal mining and... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL....12 Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (a) This section applies to...

  17. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION... Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (a) This section applies to any person...

  18. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION... Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (a) This section applies to any person...

  19. 30 CFR 761.11 - Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas where surface coal mining operations are....11 Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited. You may not conduct surface coal mining operations on the following lands unless you either have valid existing rights,...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57.4131 Section 57.4131 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57.4131 Section 57.4131 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  2. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57.4131 Section 57.4131 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  3. Private and Social Costs of Surface Mine Reforestation Performance Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Jay; Amacher, Gregory S.

    2010-02-01

    We study the potentially unnecessary costs imposed by strict performance standards for forest restoration of surface coal mines in the Appalachian region under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) that can vary widely across states. Both the unnecessary private costs to the mine operator and costs to society (social costs) are reported for two performance standards, a ground cover requirement, and a seedling survival target. These standards are examined using numerical analyses under a range of site productivity class and market conditions. We show that a strict (90%) ground cover standard may produce an unnecessary private cost of more than 700/ha and a social cost ranging from 428/ha to 710/ha, as compared with a 70% standard. A strict tree survival standard of 1235 trees/ha, as compared with the more typical 1087 trees/ha standard, may produce an unnecessary private cost of approximately 200/ha, and a social cost in the range of 120 to 208/ha. We conclude that strict performance standards may impose substantial unnecessary private costs and social costs, that strict performance standards may be discouraging the choice of forestry as a post-mining land use, and that opportunities exist for reform of reforestation performance standards. Our study provides a basis for evaluating tradeoffs between regulatory efficiency and optimal reforestation effort.

  4. Private and social costs of surface mine reforestation performance criteria.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Jay; Amacher, Gregory S

    2010-02-01

    We study the potentially unnecessary costs imposed by strict performance standards for forest restoration of surface coal mines in the Appalachian region under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) that can vary widely across states. Both the unnecessary private costs to the mine operator and costs to society (social costs) are reported for two performance standards, a ground cover requirement, and a seedling survival target. These standards are examined using numerical analyses under a range of site productivity class and market conditions. We show that a strict (90%) ground cover standard may produce an unnecessary private cost of more than $700/ha and a social cost ranging from $428/ha to $710/ha, as compared with a 70% standard. A strict tree survival standard of 1235 trees/ha, as compared with the more typical 1087 trees/ha standard, may produce an unnecessary private cost of approximately $200/ha, and a social cost in the range of $120 to $208/ha. We conclude that strict performance standards may impose substantial unnecessary private costs and social costs, that strict performance standards may be discouraging the choice of forestry as a post-mining land use, and that opportunities exist for reform of reforestation performance standards. Our study provides a basis for evaluating tradeoffs between regulatory efficiency and optimal reforestation effort.

  5. Achieving revegetation standards on surface mined lands. [Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, B. W.

    1980-01-01

    Standards for revegetation success on surface mined lands have been developed by federal and state regulatory authorities. Because reclamation science is young, its potential for meeting revegetation standards is untested. This paper reviews the Montana revegetation standards which require establishment of a diverse, effective, and permanent vegetational cover. In addition, productivity, cover, and diversity must be comparable to that of reference areas. Fifty-one percent of the cover must be of native species. A plant succession study at Colstrip, MT, has been directed toward documenting establishment, succession, and stability of vegetation on surface mined land. Data from the study were used to discuss success of reclamation seedings since 1969. Major problem areas identified include achieving: comparable life form composition, cover of perennial vegetation, species diversity, and seasonality of forage and browse. Achieving erosion control, comparable production, and native species dominance did not appear to be major problems. Achieving revegetation standards on mined lands in the future will require very specialized reclamation procedures and continued research. Naturally revegetated mined lands at Colstrip indicate good potential for reclamation success.

  6. NOVEL EXCAVATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMIC SURFACE MINING

    SciTech Connect

    Vladislav Kecojevic; Samuel Frimpong

    2005-05-01

    Ground excavation constitutes a significant component of production costs in any surface mining operation. The excavation process entails material digging and removal in which the equipment motion is constrained by the workspace geometry. A major excavation problem is the variability of material properties, resulting in varying mechanical energy input and stress loading of shovel dipper-and-tooth assembly across the working bench. This variability has a huge impact on the shovel dipper and tooth assembly in hard formations. With this in mind, the primary objectives of the project were to (i) provide the theoretical basis to develop the Intelligent Shovel Excavation (ISE) technology to solve the problems associated with excavation in material formations; (ii) advance knowledge and frontiers in shovel excavation through intelligent navigation; and (iii) submit proposal for the design, development and implementation of the ISE technology for shovel excavation at experimental surface mining sites. The mathematical methods were used to (i) develop shovel's kinematics and dynamics, and (ii) establish the relationship between shovel parameters and the resistive forces from the material formation during excavation process. The ADAMS simulation environment was used to develop the hydraulic and cable shovel virtual prototypes. Two numerical examples are included to test the theoretical hypotheses and the obtained results are discussed. The area of sensor technology was studied. Application of specific wrist-mounted sensors to characterize the material, bucket and frame assembly was determined. Data acquisition, display and control system for shovel loading technology was adopted. The concept of data acquisition and control system was designed and a shovel boom stresses were simulated. A multi-partner collaboration between research organizations, shovel manufacturer, hardware and sensor technology companies, and surface mining companies is proposed to test design features

  7. Nest success of grassland sparrows on reclaimed surface mines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stauffer, G.E.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Marshall, M.R.; Brauning, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Grasslands resulting from surface mine reclamation support grassland songbird populations in several midwestern and eastern states in the United States, especially where reclaimed mines are large (>1,000ha). However, most reclaimed surface mines in Pennsylvania are small (<200ha), and nest success is unknown. We evaluated nest success of grasshopper (Ammodramus savannarum), Henslow's (A. henslowii), and Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) on 4 reclaimed surface mines (50-180ha) in western Pennsylvania, USA from 2006 to 2007. Overall nest success based on mean covariate values was 0.435 (95% CI = 0.376-0.504) for grasshopper sparrows, 0.396 (95% CI = 0.295-0.533) for Henslow's sparrows, and 0.158 (95% CI = 0.063-0.392) for Savannah sparrows. These estimates of nest success are comparable to those on larger reclaimed mines and other habitats. Grasshopper and Henslow's sparrow nests that were well concealed were less likely to fail than highly visible nests (??visible = -0.028, CI = -0.051 to -0.005 for grasshopper sparrows; ??visible = -0.063, CI = -0.112 to -0.014 for Henslow's sparrows), and nests in areas with surrounding deep litter were more likely to fail than nests in areas with shallow litter (??litterD = -0.145, CI = -0.335 to 0.045 for grasshopper sparrows; ??litterD = -0.676, CI = -1.187 to -0.116 for Henslow's sparrows). Savannah sparrow nests in areas with high visual obstruction by vegetation were less likely to fail than nests in areas with sparse and short vegetation (??VisOb = 0.048, CI = 0.006-0.091). Daily probability of survival for grasshopper sparrow nests was greatest early and late in the breeding season, and Savannah sparrow nest survival followed a decreasing linear trend. Nest survival of Henslow's sparrows was greater on warm days (??temp = 0.197, CI = 0.014-0.379), whereas for Savannah sparrows nest survival decreased on warm days and on days with rain, but for Savannah sparrows confidence intervals of weather effects included

  8. 25 CFR 216.4 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... technical examination of the prospective effects of the proposed exploration or surface mining operations... and mining operations. 216.4 Section 216.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING, AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS General Provisions § 216...

  9. 43 CFR 1610.7-1 - Designation of areas unsuitable for surface mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... surface mining. 1610.7-1 Section 1610.7-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... mining. (a)(1) The planning process is the chief process by which public land is reviewed to assess whether there are areas unsuitable for all or certain types of surface coal mining operations...

  10. 43 CFR 1610.7-1 - Designation of areas unsuitable for surface mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... surface mining. 1610.7-1 Section 1610.7-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... mining. (a)(1) The planning process is the chief process by which public land is reviewed to assess whether there are areas unsuitable for all or certain types of surface coal mining operations...

  11. 30 CFR 761.11 - Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited. 761.11 Section 761.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AREAS UNSUITABLE FOR MINING AREAS DESIGNATED BY ACT OF CONGRESS §...

  12. 43 CFR 1610.7-1 - Designation of areas unsuitable for surface mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... surface mining. 1610.7-1 Section 1610.7-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... mining. (a)(1) The planning process is the chief process by which public land is reviewed to assess whether there are areas unsuitable for all or certain types of surface coal mining operations...

  13. 43 CFR 1610.7-1 - Designation of areas unsuitable for surface mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... surface mining. 1610.7-1 Section 1610.7-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... mining. (a)(1) The planning process is the chief process by which public land is reviewed to assess whether there are areas unsuitable for all or certain types of surface coal mining operations...

  14. 77 FR 5049 - Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement; Notice of Proposed Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement; Notice of Proposed Information Collection for 1029-0103 AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION: Notice and request... Mining (OSM) is announcing its intention to renew its authority for the collection of information...

  15. 30 CFR 933.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated Unsuitable for Coal Mining by Act of Congress, with the exception of §§ 761.11(c) and 761.12(f)(1), shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  16. 30 CFR 933.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated Unsuitable for Coal Mining by Act of Congress, with the exception of §§ 761.11(c) and 761.12(f)(1), shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  17. 30 CFR 933.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated Unsuitable for Coal Mining by Act of Congress, with the exception of §§ 761.11(c) and 761.12(f)(1), shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  18. 30 CFR 933.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated Unsuitable for Coal Mining by Act of Congress, with the exception of §§ 761.11(c) and 761.12(f)(1), shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  19. 30 CFR 933.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated Unsuitable for Coal Mining by Act of Congress, with the exception of §§ 761.11(c) and 761.12(f)(1), shall apply to surface coal mining and...

  20. 30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary shall notify the Washington Department of...

  1. 30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary shall notify the Washington Department of...

  2. 30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) The Secretary shall notify the Washington Department of...

  3. 43 CFR 3931.60 - Maps of underground and surface mine workings and in situ surface operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maps of underground and surface mine....60 Maps of underground and surface mine workings and in situ surface operations. Maps of underground workings and surface operations must be to a scale of 1:24,000 or larger if the BLM requests it. All...

  4. Rational Use of Land Resource During the Implementation of Transportless System of Coal Strata Surface Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvozdkova, T.; Tyulenev, M.; Zhironkin, S.; Trifonov, V. A.; Osipov, Yu M.

    2017-01-01

    Surface mining and open pits engineering affect the environment in a very negative way. Among other pollutions that open pits make during mineral deposits exploiting, particular problem is the landscape changing. Along with converting the land into pits, surface mining is connected with pilling dumps that occupy large ground. The article describes an analysis of transportless methods of several coal seams strata surface mining, applied for open pits of South Kuzbass coal enterprises (Western Siberia, Russia). To improve land-use management of open pit mining enterprises, the characteristics of transportless technological schemes for several coal seams strata surface mining are highlighted and observed. These characteristics help to systematize transportless open mining technologies using common criteria that characterize structure of the bottom part of a strata and internal dumping schemes. The schemes of transportless systems of coal strata surface mining implemented in South Kuzbass are given.

  5. Applying geomorphologic principles to restore streams impacted by surface mining

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    The combination of geomorphic principles and native material restoration techniques provides a viable alternative to traditional engineering approaches to restore rivers and streams affected by surface mining. Channels can be designed to reflect ranges of stability known to occur in natural streams for measurable parameters such as bankfull width, depth, gradient, meander radius, sinuosity and entrenchment. Stable channel geometry reduces stresses on the stream bed and banks and eliminate the need for channel lining. Methods to utilize native materials have been developed and refined to stabilize stream channels constructed to appropriate dimensions until planted riparian vegetation develops mature root systems. These native materials include root wads, willow bundles, and boulders. These methods result in improved wildlife habitat in and around channels that maintain equilibria between sediment supply and sediment transport, and between erosional and depositional rates and patterns. Two streams in Baltimore County, Maryland were disturbed during mining operations and are being restored using this approach. Goodwin Run had been channelized to allow quarrying of the Cockeysville Marble. Approximately 1100 feet of stream were restored in the fall of 1992. White Marsh Run has been channelized and relocated several times to facilitate sand and gravel mining between an urbanized area and sensitive habitats of the Chesapeake Bay. The design of the White Marsh Run Restoration Project incorporated refinements to techniques used at Goodwin Run, and entails the restoration of over 5000 feet of stream and adjacent wetland habitat.

  6. 43 CFR 3931.60 - Maps of underground and surface mine workings and in situ surface operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Maps of underground and surface mine... § 3931.60 Maps of underground and surface mine workings and in situ surface operations. Maps of.... All maps must be appropriately marked with reference to government land marks or lines and elevations...

  7. 43 CFR 3931.60 - Maps of underground and surface mine workings and in situ surface operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maps of underground and surface mine... § 3931.60 Maps of underground and surface mine workings and in situ surface operations. Maps of.... All maps must be appropriately marked with reference to government land marks or lines and elevations...

  8. 43 CFR 3931.60 - Maps of underground and surface mine workings and in situ surface operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Maps of underground and surface mine... § 3931.60 Maps of underground and surface mine workings and in situ surface operations. Maps of.... All maps must be appropriately marked with reference to government land marks or lines and elevations...

  9. Oil shale mining cost analysis. Volume I. Surface retorting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, B.S.; English, L.M.; Metz, R.D.; Lewis, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An Oil Shale Mining Economic Model (OSMEM) was developed and executed for mining scenarios representative of commercially feasible mining operations. Mining systems were evaluated for candidate sites in the Piceance Creek Basin. Mining methods selected included: (1) room-and-pillar; (2) chamber-and-pillar, with spent shale backfilling; (3) sublevel stopping; and (4) sublevel stopping, with spent shale backfilling. Mines were designed to extract oil shale resources to support a 50,000 barrels-per-day surface processing facility. Costs developed for each mining scenario included all capital and operating expenses associated with the underground mining methods. Parametric and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of mining cost to changes in capital cost, operating cost, return on investment, and cost escalation.

  10. 43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mining operations. 20.402 Section 20.402 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... Certain Employees of the Department § 20.402 Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations... coal mining operations means ownership or part ownership by an employee of lands, stocks,...

  11. 77 FR 62266 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Daily Inspection of Surface Coal Mines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    .... This program helps to assure that requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting... surface coal mines and facilities. Highwalls, mining equipment, travelways, and the handling of mining... standards. MSHA has updated the data in respect to the number of respondents and responses, as well as...

  12. Response of transplanted aspen to irrigation and weeding on a Colorado reclaimed surface coal mine

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Musselman; Wayne D. Shepperd; Frederick W. Smith; Lance A. Asherin; Brian W. Gee

    2012-01-01

    Successful re-establishment of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) on surface-mined lands in the western United States is problematic because the species generally regenerates vegetatively by sprouting from parent roots in the soil; however, topsoil is removed in the mining process. Previous attempts to plant aspen on reclaimed mine sites have failed because...

  13. 43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Certain Employees of the Department § 20.402 Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations... coal mining operations means ownership or part ownership by an employee of lands, stocks, bonds... employee may benefit from his or her holding in or salary from coal mining operation. Direct...

  14. 43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Certain Employees of the Department § 20.402 Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations... coal mining operations means ownership or part ownership by an employee of lands, stocks, bonds... employee may benefit from his or her holding in or salary from coal mining operation. Direct...

  15. Preliminary analysis of surface mining options for Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-20

    The study was undertaken to determine the economic viability of surface mining to exploit the reserves. It is based on resource information already developed for NOSR 1 and conceptual designs of mining systems compatible with this resource. Environmental considerations as they relate to surface mining have been addressed qualitatively. The conclusions on economic viability were based primarily on mining costs projected from other industries using surface mining. An analysis of surface mining for the NOSR 1 resource was performed based on its particular overburden thickness, oil shale thickness, oil shale grade, and topography. This evaluation considered reclamation of the surface as part of its design and cost estimate. The capital costs for mining 25 GPT and 30 GPT shale and the operating costs for mining 25 GPT, 30 GPT, and 35 GPT shale are presented. The relationship between operating cost and stripping ratio, and the break-even stripping ratio (BESR) for surface mining to be competitive with room-and-pillar mining, are shown. Identification of potential environmental impacts shows that environmental control procedures for surface mining are more difficult to implement than those for underground mining. The following three areas are of prime concern: maintenance of air quality standards by disruption, movement, and placement of large quantities of overburden; disruption or cutting of aquifers during the mining process which affect area water supplies; and potential mineral leaching from spent shales into the aquifers. Although it is an operational benefit to place spent shale in the open pit, leaching of the spent shales and contamination of the water is detrimental. It is therefore concluded that surface mining on NOSR 1 currently is neither economically desirable nor environmentally safe. Stringent mitigation measures would have to be implemented to overcome some of the potential environmental hazards.

  16. 30 CFR 939.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operations plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum...

  17. 30 CFR 941.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.780 Surface mining permit applications—minimum requirements...

  18. Northern bobwhite breeding season ecology on a reclaimed surface mine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooke, Jarred M.; Tanner, Evan P.; Peters, David C.; Tanner, Ashley M.; Harper, Craig A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Clark, Joseph D.; Morgan, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Surface coal mining and subsequent reclamation of surface mines have converted large forest areas into early successional vegetative communities in the eastern United States. This reclamation can provide a novel opportunity to conserve northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). We evaluated the influence of habitat management activities on nest survival, nest-site selection, and brood resource selection on managed and unmanaged units of a reclaimed surface mine, Peabody Wildlife Management Area (Peabody), in west-central Kentucky, USA, from 2010 to 2013. We compared resource selection, using discrete-choice analysis, and nest survival, using the nest survival model in Program MARK, between managed and unmanaged units of Peabody at 2 spatial scales: the composition and configuration of vegetation types (i.e., macrohabitat) and vegetation characteristics at nest sites and brood locations (i.e., microhabitat). On managed sites, we also investigated resource selection relative to a number of different treatments (e.g., herbicide, disking, prescribed fire). We found no evidence that nest-site selection was influenced by macrohabitat variables, but bobwhite selected nest sites in areas with greater litter depth than was available at random sites. On managed units, bobwhite were more likely to nest where herbicide was applied to reduce sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) compared with areas untreated with herbicide. Daily nest survival was not influenced by habitat characteristics or by habitat management but was influenced by nest age and the interaction of nest initiation date and nest age. Daily nest survival was greater for older nests occurring early in the breeding season (0.99, SE < 0.01) but was lower for older nests occurring later in the season (0.08, SE = 0.13). Brood resource selection was not influenced by macrohabitat or microhabitat variables we measured, but broods on managed units selected areas treated with herbicide to control sericea lespedeza

  19. Soil and water characteristics of a young surface mine wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew Cole, C.; Lefebvre, Eugene A.

    1991-05-01

    Coal companies are reluctant to include wetland development in reclamation plans partly due to a lack of information on the resulting characteristics of such sites. It is easier for coal companies to recreate terrestrial habitats than to attempt experimental methods and possibly face significant regulatory disapproval. Therefore, we studied a young (10 years) wetland on a reclaimed surface coal mine in southern Illinois so as to ascertain soil and water characteristics such that the site might serve as a model for wetland development on surface mines. Water pH was not measured because of equipment problems, but evidence (plant life, fish, herpetofauna) suggests suitable pH levels. Other water parameters (conductivity, salinity, alkalinity, chloride, copper, total hardness, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and sulfate) were measured, and only copper was seen in potentially high concentrations (but with no obvious toxic effects). Soil variables measured included pH, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, aluminum, iron, sulfate, chloride, and percent organic matter. Soils were slightly alkaline and most parameters fell within levels reported for other studies on both natural and manmade wetlands. Aluminum was high, but this might be indicative more of large amounts complexed with soils and therefore unavailable, than amounts actually accessible to plants. Organic matter was moderate, somewhat surprising given the age of the system.

  20. Waterfowl habitats on reclaimed surface mined lands in southwestern Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    O'Leary, W.G.; Klimstra, W.D.; Nawrot, J.R.

    1984-12-01

    Loss of quality wetland habitat is probably the most important factor affecting populations of waterfowl in the United States. To counteract this problem programs for protecting critical habitats have been established and research for innovative methods to create wetlands are being pursued. Recently, attention has been given to evaluation of wetland habitats on lands surface-mined and to methods of reclamation to enhance their development as part of future planning. These data indicate quality wetland habitats can be a legitimate aspect of reclaimed surface-mined lands; and selective overburden handling, grading so as to maximize biologically productive zones and selective plantings contribute importantly to their value. Currently bond release criteria by the Illinois regulatory authority for wildlife habitat and developed water resources discourages reclamation that would maximize quality wetland habitats. Suggested changes in these criteria include alternative vegetation requirements for wetland habitats, more leniency on seasonally inundated shallow water areas, and variation from topsoil requirements when adequate unconsolidated substitute material is available. It is believed that such allowances would result in incentives for the industry to develop wetland habitats so vital to continued enjoyment of waterfowl resources.

  1. 30 CFR 57.4131 - Surface fan installations and mine openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface fan installations and mine openings. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4131 Surface fan installations and mine openings. (a) On the surface, no more than one day's supply of combustible materials shall...

  2. 30 CFR 905.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  3. 30 CFR 937.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  4. 30 CFR 941.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  5. 30 CFR 921.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  6. 30 CFR 921.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  7. 30 CFR 912.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  8. 30 CFR 921.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  9. 30 CFR 903.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, applies to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  10. 30 CFR 947.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  11. 30 CFR 921.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  12. 30 CFR 947.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  13. 30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  14. 30 CFR 941.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  15. 30 CFR 910.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  16. 30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  17. 30 CFR 903.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, applies to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  18. 30 CFR 922.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  19. 30 CFR 910.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  20. 30 CFR 905.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  1. 30 CFR 937.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  2. 30 CFR 912.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  3. 30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  4. 30 CFR 947.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  5. 30 CFR 921.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  6. 30 CFR 939.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  7. 30 CFR 903.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, applies to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  8. 30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  9. 30 CFR 922.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  10. 30 CFR 941.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  11. 30 CFR 912.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  12. 30 CFR 939.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  13. 30 CFR 905.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  14. 30 CFR 922.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  15. 30 CFR 939.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  16. 30 CFR 941.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  17. 30 CFR 912.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  18. 30 CFR 941.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  19. 30 CFR 937.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  20. 30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  1. 30 CFR 939.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  2. 30 CFR 937.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  3. 30 CFR 910.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  4. 30 CFR 910.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  5. 30 CFR 910.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  6. 30 CFR 937.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  7. 30 CFR 905.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  8. 30 CFR 947.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  9. 30 CFR 903.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, applies to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  10. 30 CFR 912.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  11. 30 CFR 903.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, applies to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  12. 30 CFR 922.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  13. 30 CFR 947.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  14. 30 CFR 922.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  15. 30 CFR 905.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  16. 30 CFR 939.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.761 Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761 of this chapter, Areas Designated by Act of Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface...

  17. 30 CFR 912.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements for bonding of surface... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  18. 30 CFR 922.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for bonding of surface... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  19. 30 CFR 937.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements for bonding of surface... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  20. 30 CFR 922.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements for bonding of surface... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  1. 30 CFR 910.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for bonding of surface... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  2. 30 CFR 937.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for bonding of surface... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  3. 30 CFR 912.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for bonding of surface... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  4. 30 CFR 910.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements for bonding of surface... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining...

  5. 30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mining Operations, pertaining to petitioning, initial processing, hearing requirements, decisions, data base and inventory systems, public information, and regulatory responsibilities shall apply to surface...

  6. Hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned mining sites in Serbia and their impact on surface water quality.

    PubMed

    Atanacković, Nebojša; Dragišić, Veselin; Stojković, Jana; Papić, Petar; Zivanović, Vladimir

    2013-11-01

    Upon completion of exploration and extraction of mineral resources, many mining sites have been abandoned without previously putting environmental protection measures in place. As a consequence, mine waters originating from such sites are discharged freely into surface water. Regional scale analyses were conducted to determine the hydrochemical characteristics of mine waters from abandoned sites featuring metal (Cu, Pb-Zn, Au, Fe, Sb, Mo, Bi, Hg) deposits, non-metallic minerals (coal, Mg, F, B) and uranium. The study included 80 mine water samples from 59 abandoned mining sites. Their cation composition was dominated by Ca2+, while the most common anions were found to be SO4(2-) and HCO3-. Strong correlations were established between the pH level and metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu) concentrations in the mine waters. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to parameters generally indicative of pollution, such as pH, TDS, SO4(2-), Fe total, and As total. Following this approach, mine water samples were grouped into three main clusters and six subclusters, depending on their potential environmental impact. Principal component analysis was used to group together variables that share the same variance. The extracted principal components indicated that sulfide oxidation and weathering of silicate and carbonate rocks were the primary processes, while pH buffering, adsorption and ion exchange were secondary drivers of the chemical composition of the analyzed mine waters. Surface waters, which received the mine waters, were examined. Analysis showed increases of sulfate and metal concentrations and general degradation of surface water quality.

  7. Using electrical resistivity imaging to understand surface coal mine hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, E. T.; Greer, B. M.; Burbey, T. J.; Zipper, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the hydrology of disturbed lands is important given the increasing human footprint on earth. Surface coal mining has caused significant land-use change in central Appalachia in the past few decades. The mining process breaks up overburden rock above coal seams, and then replaces that material at the mine location and in adjacent unmined valleys (valley fills). The freshly exposed rock surfaces undergo weathering which often alters water quality and ultimately aquatic communities in effluent streams. One of the most common water quality effects is increased total dissolved solids (TDS), which is usually measured via its surrogate, specific conductance (SC). The SC of valley fill effluent is a function of fill construction methods, materials, and age. Yet hydrologic studies that relate these variables to water quality are sparse due to the difficulty of implementing traditional hydrologic measurements in fill material. We tested the effectiveness of electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to monitor subsurface geologic patterns and hydrologic flow paths in a test-case valley fill. We paired ERI with artificial rainfall experiments to track infiltrated water as it moved through the valley fill material. Results indicate that ERI can be used to identify the subsurface geologic structure and track advancing wetting fronts or preferential flow paths. We observed that the upper portion of the fill profile contains significant fines, while the deeper profile is primarily composed of large rocks and void spaces. The artificial rainfall experiments revealed that water ponded on the surface of compacted areas until it reached preferential flow paths, where it infiltrated quickly and deeply. We observed water moving from the surface down to >10 m depth within 75 minutes. In sum, vertical and lateral preferential flow paths were evident at both shallow (through compacted layers) and deep (among boulders) locations. Such extensive preferential flow suggests that a

  8. Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Forested Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.

    2008-05-01

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant change in land use in the Central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the eastern United States. Much work has been done to quantify the hydrologic impacts of surface mining at the plot scale (10 to 100 ha), but the effects at broader scales (100 to 1000 km2) have not been explored adequately, in part due to the lack of accurate land cover data. Reclaimed mines often have infiltration rates an order of magnitude smaller than forested control areas. However, broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult as the standing vegetation makes them indistinguishable from alternate land uses such as agriculture or forest. In this work we use a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines (active and reclaimed) in a 187 km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot level data from surface mined areas within the watershed, are used with the Hydrologic Simulation Program- Fortran to simulate changes in flood response due to changes in the proportion of watershed area affected by mining and subsequent reclamation. Results indicate that although reclaimed surface mines may meet all legal requirements for reclamation, increased surface mining tends to push the flood response towards what would be expected for increased urbanization rather than what would be expected for simple changes in vegetative cover. The cause is attributed to the massive soil compaction from heavy machinery used in the surface mine reclamation process.

  9. Spoil handling and reclamation costs at a contour surface mine in steep slope Appalachian topography

    SciTech Connect

    Zipper, C.E.; Hall, A.T.; Daniels, W.L.

    1985-12-09

    Accurate overburden handling cost estimation methods are essential to effective pre-mining planning for post-mining landforms and land uses. With the aim of developing such methods, the authors have been monitoring costs at a contour surface mine in Wise County, Virginia since January 1, 1984. Early in the monitoring period, the land was being returned to its Approximate Original Contour (AOC) in a manner common to the Appalachian region since implementation of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA). More recently, mining has been conducted under an experimental variance from the AOC provisions of SMCRA which allowed a near-level bench to be constructed across the upper surface of two mined points and an intervening filled hollow. All mining operations are being recorded by location. The cost of spoil movement is calculated for each block of coal mined between January 1, 1984, and August 1, 1985. Per cubic yard spoil handling and reclamation costs are compared by mining block. The average cost of spoil handling was $1.90 per bank cubic yard; however, these costs varied widely between blocks. The reasons for those variations included the landscape positions of the mining blocks and spoil handling practices. The average reclamation cost was $0.08 per bank cubic yard of spoil placed in the near level bench on the mined point to $0.20 for spoil placed in the hollow fill. 2 references, 4 figures.

  10. An evaluation of trees and shrubs for planting surface-mine spoils

    Treesearch

    William T. Plass

    1975-01-01

    Fifty-five tree and shrub species were evaluated on two surface-mine sites in eastern Kentucky. After 4 years' growth, comparison of survival and growth was used to identify the promising species for planting on acid surface-mine spoils. Three species of birch and three Eleagnus species survived and grew well on a range of sites. Noncommercial...

  11. 43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Interests in underground or surface coal... Certain Employees of the Department § 20.402 Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations... coal mining operations means ownership or part ownership by an employee of lands, stocks,...

  12. 43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interests in underground or surface coal... Certain Employees of the Department § 20.402 Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations... coal mining operations means ownership or part ownership by an employee of lands, stocks,...

  13. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations. 23.5 Section 23.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS § 23.5 Technical examination...

  14. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations. 23.5 Section 23.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS § 23.5 Technical examination...

  15. 43 CFR 23.5 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations. 23.5 Section 23.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS § 23.5 Technical examination...

  16. Cumulative hydrologic impact assessment of coal surface mining in north Georgia - surface water

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, M.L.; Betson, R.P.

    1983-10-01

    Flow and water-quality data for surface water in the north Georgia coal region is presented in this report. The data were collected by TVA and the USGS; the TVA data were collected in July 1981 and the USGS data were collected primarily from 1979 through 1981, with some dating back to 1976. An analysis of the potential for surface-water quantity and quality problems due to future surface mining of coal is also presented. Several areas exhibiting this potential are listed, with the potential for erosion being the most widespread and the potential for acid drainage being localized but more difficult to prevent. 43 references, 6 figures, 14 tables.

  17. LANDSAT Remote Sensing: Observations of an Appalachian mountaintop surface coal mining and reclamation operation. [kentucky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The potential benefits of using LANDSAT remote sensing data by state agencies as an aide in monitoring surface coal mining operations are reviewed. A mountaintop surface mine in eastern Kentucky was surveyed over a 5 year period using satellite multispectral scanner data that were classified by computer analyses. The analyses were guided by aerial photography and by ground surveys of the surface mines procured in 1976. The application of the LANDSAT data indicates that: (1) computer classification of the various landcover categories provides information for monitoring the progress of surface mining and reclamation operations; (2) successive yearly changes in barren and revegetated areas can be qualitatively assessed for surface mines of 100 acres or more of disrupted area; (3) barren areas consisting of limestone and shale mixtures may be recognized, and revegetated areas in various stages of growth may be identified against the hilly forest background.

  18. Mercury speciation and microbial transformations in mine wastes, stream sediments, and surface waters at the Almaden Mining District, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Hines, Mark E.; Higueras, Pablo L.; Adatto, Isaac; Lasorsa, Brenda K.

    2004-01-01

    Speciation of Hg and conversion to methyl-Hg were evaluated in mine wastes, sediments, and water collected from the Almade??n District, Spain, the world's largest Hg producing region. Our data for methyl-Hg, a neurotoxin hazardous to humans, are the first reported for sediment and water from the Almade??n area. Concentrations of Hg and methyl-Hg in mine waste, sediment, and water from Almade??n are among the highest found at Hg mines worldwide. Mine wastes from Almade??n contain highly elevated Hg concentrations, ranging from 160 to 34 000 ??g/g, and methyl-Hg varies from <0.20 to 3100 ng/g. Isotopic tracer methods indicate that mine wastes at one site (Almadenejos) exhibit unusually high rates of Hg-methylation, which correspond with mine wastes containing the highest methyl-Hg concentrations. Streamwater collected near the Almade??n mine is also contaminated, containing Hg as high as 13 000 ng/L and methyl-Hg as high as 30 ng/L; corresponding stream sediments contain Hg concentrations as high as 2300 ??g/g and methyl-Hg concentrations as high as 82 ng/g. Several streamwaters contain Hg concentrations in excess of the 1000 ng/L World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water standard. Methyl-Hg formation and degradation was rapid in mines wastes and stream sediments demonstrating the dynamic nature of Hg cycling. These data indicate substantial downstream transport of Hg from the Almade??n mine and significant conversion to methyl-Hg in the surface environment.

  19. LANDSAT inventory of surface-mined areas using extendible digital techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schultz, D. T.; Buchman, N.

    1975-01-01

    Multispectral analysis of LANDSAT imagery provides a rapid and accurate means of identification, classification, and measurement of strip-mined surfaces in Western Maryland. Four band analysis allows distinction of a variety of strip-mine associated classes, but has limited extendibility. A method for surface area measurement of strip mines, which is both geographically and temporally extendible, was developed using band-ratioed LANDSAT reflectance data. The accuracy of area measurement by this method, averaged over three LANDSAT scenes taken between September 1972 and July 1974, is greater than 93%. Total affected acreage of large (50 hectare/120 acre) mines can be measured to within 1.0%.

  20. LANDSAT inventory of surface-mined areas using extendible digital techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Schultz, D. T.; Buchman, N.

    1975-01-01

    Multispectral LANDSAT imagery was analyzed to provide a rapid and accurate means of identification, classification, and measurement of strip-mined surfaces in Western Maryland. Four band analysis allows distinction of a variety of strip-mine associated classes, but has limited extendibility. A method for surface area measurements of strip mines, which is both geographically and temporally extendible, has been developed using band-ratioed LANDSAT reflectance data. The accuracy of area measurement by this method, averaged over three LANDSAT scenes taken between September 1972 and July 1974, is greater than 93%. Total affected acreage of large (50 hectare/124 acre) mines can be measured to within 1.0%.

  1. Indirect estimation of emission factors for phosphate surface mining using air dispersion modeling.

    PubMed

    Tartakovsky, Dmitry; Stern, Eli; Broday, David M

    2016-06-15

    To date, phosphate surface mining suffers from lack of reliable emission factors. Due to complete absence of data to derive emissions factors, we developed a methodology for estimating them indirectly by studying a range of possible emission factors for surface phosphate mining operations and comparing AERMOD calculated concentrations to concentrations measured around the mine. We applied this approach for the Khneifiss phosphate mine, Syria, and the Al-Hassa and Al-Abyad phosphate mines, Jordan. The work accounts for numerous model unknowns and parameter uncertainties by applying prudent assumptions concerning the parameter values. Our results suggest that the net mining operations (bulldozing, grading and dragline) contribute rather little to ambient TSP concentrations in comparison to phosphate processing and transport. Based on our results, the common practice of deriving the emission rates for phosphate mining operations from the US EPA emission factors for surface coal mining or from the default emission factor of the EEA seems to be reasonable. Yet, since multiple factors affect dispersion from surface phosphate mines, a range of emission factors, rather than only a single value, was found to satisfy the model performance.

  2. Surface coal mining influences on macroinvertebrate assemblages in streams of the Canadian Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Kuchapski, Kathryn A; Rasmussen, Joseph B

    2015-09-01

    To determine the region-specific impacts of surface coal mines on macroinvertebrate community health, chemical and physical stream characteristics and macroinvertebrate family and community metrics were measured in surface coal mine-affected and reference streams in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Water chemistry was significantly altered in mine-affected streams, which had elevated conductivity, alkalinity, and selenium and ion concentrations compared with reference conditions. Multivariate redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated alterations in macroinvertebrate communities downstream of mine sites. In RDA ordination, Ephemeroptera family densities, family richness, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera (EPT) richness, and % Ephemeroptera declined, whereas densities of Capniidae stoneflies increased along environmental gradients defined by variables associated with mine influence including waterborne Se concentration, alkalinity, substrate embeddedness, and interstitial material size. Shifts in macroinvertebrate assemblages may have been the result of multiple region-specific stressors related to mining influences including selenium toxicity, ionic toxicity, or stream substrate modifications. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Restoring Forests and Associated Ecosystem Services on Appalachian Coal Surface Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipper, Carl E.; Burger, James A.; Skousen, Jeffrey G.; Angel, Patrick N.; Barton, Christopher D.; Davis, Victor; Franklin, Jennifer A.

    2011-05-01

    Surface coal mining in Appalachia has caused extensive replacement of forest with non-forested land cover, much of which is unmanaged and unproductive. Although forested ecosystems are valued by society for both marketable products and ecosystem services, forests have not been restored on most Appalachian mined lands because traditional reclamation practices, encouraged by regulatory policies, created conditions poorly suited for reforestation. Reclamation scientists have studied productive forests growing on older mine sites, established forest vegetation experimentally on recent mines, and identified mine reclamation practices that encourage forest vegetation re-establishment. Based on these findings, they developed a Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) that can be employed by coal mining firms to restore forest vegetation. Scientists and mine regulators, working collaboratively, have communicated the FRA to the coal industry and to regulatory enforcement personnel. Today, the FRA is used routinely by many coal mining firms, and thousands of mined hectares have been reclaimed to restore productive mine soils and planted with native forest trees. Reclamation of coal mines using the FRA is expected to restore these lands' capabilities to provide forest-based ecosystem services, such as wood production, atmospheric carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and water quality protection to a greater extent than conventional reclamation practices.

  4. Woody vegetation and succession on the Fonde surface mine demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, G.L.; Thompson, R.L.

    1999-07-01

    The long term impact of surface mining on vegetation and plant succession has always been of concern to environmentalists and residents of Appalachia. The Fonde Surface Mine Demonstration Area is a 7.3-ha, NE-NW-aspect contour coal mine at an elevation of 562 m. It was reclaimed in 1965 to show state-of-the-art surface mine reclamation techniques consistent with then-current law and regulations after coal mining in 1959 and 1963. The mine spoils were lightly graded to control erosion and crates a bench with water control and two sediment ponds. Soil pH ranged from 2.8 to 5.9. About 80 percent of the mine was planted with 18 tree and shrub species including plantations of mixed pine, mixed hardwoods, black locust, and shrubs for wildlife. In a complete floristic inventory conducted 25 years later, the authors found the woody flora consisted of 34 families, 53 genera, and 70 species including 7 exotics. This inventory of the Fonde mine shows that a diverse forest vegetation can be reestablished after extreme disturbances in Appalachia. Black locust, yellow poplar, and Virginia pine reproduction varied significantly among plantation types. Canopy tree species significantly affected ground layer cover, total species richness, number of tree seedling species, and total number of tree seedlings present. Mine soil type affected ground layer percent cover and total species richness. Pre-SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977) reclaimed and inventoried mines can be used to evaluate biodiversity on post-SMCRA mines.

  5. 30 CFR 921.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 921.780 Section 921.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  6. 30 CFR 921.779 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. 921.779 Section 921.779 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH...

  7. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... AGENCY Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean..., titled Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act... environmental review of Appalachian surface coal mining operations under the Clean Water Act,...

  8. 30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. 761.15 Section 761.15... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. (a) This section does not... provided in § 761.11(e)(2). (b) If you propose to conduct surface coal mining operations within 300...

  9. 30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. 761.15 Section 761.15... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. (a) This section does not... provided in § 761.11(e)(2). (b) If you propose to conduct surface coal mining operations within 300...

  10. 30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. 761.15 Section 761.15... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. (a) This section does not... provided in § 761.11(e)(2). (b) If you propose to conduct surface coal mining operations within 300...

  11. Runoff and erosion characteristics of a revegetated surface mined site in western North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Gilley, J.E.

    1980-05-01

    A rainfall simulator was used to measure runoff and soil loss from undisturbed, harvested, bare and surface mulched treatments on a revegetated, surface mined site. Measured soil losses were greatest on the bare treatment and least on the undisturbed plots. Application of straw mulch reduced erosion by 66 per cent over the bare condition. As vegetation becomes established on surface mined areas, the erodibility of recently topsoiled sites will be significantly reduced.

  12. Mapping extent and change in surface mines within the United States for 2001 to 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Stehman, Stephen V.; Parker, Owen P.

    2016-01-01

    A complete, spatially explicit dataset illustrating the 21st century mining footprint for the conterminous United States does not exist. To address this need, we developed a semi-automated procedure to map the country's mining footprint (30-m pixel) and establish a baseline to monitor changes in mine extent over time. The process uses mine seed points derived from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS), and USGS National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) and recodes patches of barren land that meet a “distance to seed” requirement and a patch area requirement before mapping a pixel as mining. Seed points derived from EIA coal points, an edited MRDS point file, and 1992 NLCD mine points were used in three separate efforts using different distance and patch area parameters for each. The three products were then merged to create a 2001 map of moderate-to-large mines in the United States, which was subsequently manually edited to reduce omission and commission errors. This process was replicated using NLCD 2006 barren pixels as a base layer to create a 2006 mine map and a 2001–2006 mine change map focusing on areas with surface mine expansion. In 2001, 8,324 km2 of surface mines were mapped. The footprint increased to 9,181 km2 in 2006, representing a 10·3% increase over 5 years. These methods exhibit merit as a timely approach to generate wall-to-wall, spatially explicit maps representing the recent extent of a wide range of surface mining activities across the country. 

  13. Large Omnivore Movements in Response to Surface Mining and Mine Reclamation.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Bogdan; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Boyce, Mark S

    2016-01-11

    Increasing global demands have resulted in widespread proliferation of resource extraction. Scientists are challenged to develop environmental mitigation strategies that meet societal expectations of resource supply, while achieving minimal disruption to sensitive "wilderness" species. We used GPS collar data from a 9-year study on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) (n = 18) in Alberta, Canada to assess movements and associated space use during versus after mining. Grizzly bear home range overlap with mined areas was lower during active mining except for females with cubs, that also had shortest movements on active mines. However, both females with cubs and males made shorter steps when on/close to mines following mine closure and reclamation. Our results show differences in bear movement and space-use strategies, with individuals from a key population segment (females with cubs) appearing most adaptable to mining disturbance. Preserving patches of original habitat, reclaiming the landscape and minimizing the risk of direct human-induced mortality during and after development can help conserve bears and other wildlife on industrially modified landscapes.

  14. Large Omnivore Movements in Response to Surface Mining and Mine Reclamation

    PubMed Central

    Cristescu, Bogdan; Stenhouse, Gordon B.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing global demands have resulted in widespread proliferation of resource extraction. Scientists are challenged to develop environmental mitigation strategies that meet societal expectations of resource supply, while achieving minimal disruption to sensitive “wilderness” species. We used GPS collar data from a 9-year study on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) (n = 18) in Alberta, Canada to assess movements and associated space use during versus after mining. Grizzly bear home range overlap with mined areas was lower during active mining except for females with cubs, that also had shortest movements on active mines. However, both females with cubs and males made shorter steps when on/close to mines following mine closure and reclamation. Our results show differences in bear movement and space-use strategies, with individuals from a key population segment (females with cubs) appearing most adaptable to mining disturbance. Preserving patches of original habitat, reclaiming the landscape and minimizing the risk of direct human-induced mortality during and after development can help conserve bears and other wildlife on industrially modified landscapes. PMID:26750094

  15. IDENTIFYING RECENT SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES USING A NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI) CHANGE DETECTION METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory



    Coal mining is a major resource extraction activity on the Appalachian Mountains. The increased size and frequency of a specific type of surface mining, known as mountain top removal-valley fill, has in recent years raised various environmental concerns. During mountainto...

  16. IDENTIFYING RECENT SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES USING A NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI) CHANGE DETECTION METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory



    Coal mining is a major resource extraction activity on the Appalachian Mountains. The increased size and frequency of a specific type of surface mining, known as mountain top removal-valley fill, has in recent years raised various environmental concerns. During mountainto...

  17. Surface Mine Design and Planning for Lunar Regolith Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertsch, Leslie Sour; Gertsch, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    Terrestrial surface mine design and planning techniques are applied to the production of lunar regolith for manufacturing makeup gases for the life-support system of a lunar base. Two scenarios are examined, due to the uncertainty of whether bound hydrogen sensed near the lunar poles is from cometary ice deposited in cold traps (mesh 1), or to hydrogen implanted within regolith grains by the solar wind (mesh 2). Scenario mesh 1, with a total production requirement of 44 tonne/day of regolith, could be handled with four groups of four 6-m3 capacity slushers (drag scrapers), each group extending 100 m around a single processing module. Scenario mesh 2 (4.382 tonne/day) could be accomplished with three powered bowl-type scrapers (capacity 24 m3) gathering the regolith into long windrows feeding a large processor. The present orebody model is extremely thin (1 m), although broad in extent: this prevents usage of high production-rate systems such as large draglines.

  18. Mining induced seismic event on an inactive fault in view of local surface and in mine underground networksS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudzinski, Lukasz; Lizurek, Grzegorz; Plesiewicz, Beata

    2014-05-01

    On 19th March 2013 tremor shook the surface of Polkowice town were "Rudna" mine is located. This event of ML=4.2 was third most powerful seismic event recorded in Legnica Głogów Copper District (LGCD). Citizens of the area reported that felt tremors were bigger and last longer than any other ones felt in last couple years. The event was studied with use of two different networks: underground network of "Rudna" mine and surface local network run by IGF PAS (LUMINEOS network). The first one is composed of 32 vertical seismometers at mining level, except 5 sensors placed in elevator shafts, seismometers location depth varies from 300 down to 1000 meters below surface. The seismometers used in this network are vertical short period Willmore MkII and MkIII sensors, with the frequency band from 1Hz to 100Hz. At the beginning of 2013th the local surface network of the Institute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences (IGF PAS) with acronym LUMINEOS was installed under agreement with KGHM SA and "Rudna" mine officials. This network at the moment of the March 19th 2013 event was composed of 4 short-period one-second triaxial seismometers LE-3D/1s manufactured by Lenartz Electronics. Analysis of spectral parameters of the records from in mine seismic system and surface LUMINEOS network along with broadband station KSP record were carried out. Location of the event was close to the Rudna Główna fault zone, the nodal planes orientations determined with two different approaches were almost parallel to the strike of the fault. The mechanism solutions were also obtained in form of Full Moment Tensor inversion from P wave amplitude pulses of underground records and waveform inversion of surface network seismograms. Final results of the seismic analysis along with macroseismic survey and observed effects from the destroyed part of the mining panel indicate that the mechanism of the event was thrust faulting on inactive tectonic fault. The results confirm that the fault zones

  19. Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western U.S.A. III. Relations between elements in mine soil and uptake by plants.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Plant uptake of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from mine soils was assessed using alfalfa Medicago sativa, sainfoin Onobrychis viciaefolia, smooth brome Bromus inermis, crested wheatgrass Agropyron cristatum, slender wheatgrass A. trachycaulum and intermediate wheatgrass A. intermedium; mine soil (cover-soil and spoil material) samples were collected from rehabilitated areas of 11 western US surface-coal mines in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado. Correlations between metals in plants and DTPA-extractable metals from mine soils were generally not statistically significant and showed no consistent patterns for a single metal or for a single plant species. Metal uptake by plants, relative to amounts in DTPA extracts of mine soil, was positively related to mine soil organic matter content or negatively related to mine soil pH. DTPA-extractable metal levels were significantly correlated with mine soil pH and organic-matter content.-from Authors

  20. Space photography - A valuable tool for surface mine planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumbaugh, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    Some plausible advantages of remote sensing from orbit in inventorying of strip-mined land areas are noted, but heavy emphasis is placed on the limitations of such information at the present state of the art, in this application, and on the different types of information extracted from high-resolution imagery by experts of differing backgrounds. Skylab multispectral sensors are described and land use categories encountered in strip mining are catalogued. While oversell of remote sensing applied to strip mining land use inventory is deprecated, planning ahead for effective use of Space Shuttle in this area in the coming years is encouraged.

  1. Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  2. Technique for predicting ground-water discharge to surface coal mines and resulting changes in head

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiss, L.S.; Galloway, D.L.; Ishii, Audrey

    1986-01-01

    Changes in seepage flux and head (groundwater level) from groundwater drainage into a surface coal mine can be predicted by a technique that considers drainage from the unsaturated zone. The user applies site-specific data to precalculated head and seepage-flux profiles. Groundwater flow through hypothetical aquifer cross sections was simulated using the U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference model, VS2D, which considers variably saturated two-dimensional flow. Conceptual models considered were (1) drainage to a first cut, and (2) drainage to multiple cuts, which includes drainage effects of an area surface mine. Dimensionless head and seepage flux profiles from 246 simulations are presented. Step-by-step instructions and examples are presented. Users are required to know aquifer characteristics and to estimate size and timing of the mine operation at a proposed site. Calculated groundwater drainage to the mine is from one excavated face only. First cut considers confined and unconfined aquifers of a wide range of permeabilities; multiple cuts considers unconfined aquifers of higher permeabilities only. The technique, developed for Illinois coal-mining regions that use area surface mining and evaluated with an actual field example, will be useful in assessing potential hydrologic impacts of mining. Application is limited to hydrogeologic settings and mine operations similar to those considered. Fracture flow, recharge, and leakage are nor considered. (USGS)

  3. Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  4. Identifying woody vegetation on coal surface mines using phenological indicators with multitemporal Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliphant, A. J.; Li, J.; Wynne, R. H.; Donovan, P. F.; Zipper, C. E.

    2014-11-01

    Surface mining for coal has disturbed large land areas in the Appalachian Mountains. Better information on mined lands' ecosystem recovery status is necessary for effective environmental management in mining-impacted regions. Because record quality varies between state mining agencies and much mining occurred prior to widespread use of geospatial technologies, accurate maps of mining extents, durations, and land cover effects are often not available. Landsat data are well suited to mapping and characterizing land cover and forest recovery on former coal surface mines. Past mine reclamation techniques have often failed to restore premining forest vegetation but natural processes may enable native forests to re-establish on mined areas with time. However, the invasive species autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellate) is proliferating widely on former coal surface mines, often inhibiting reestablishment of native forests. Autumn olive outcompetes native vegetation because it fixes atmospheric nitrogen and benefits from a longer growing season than native deciduous trees. This longer growing season, along with Landsat 8's high signal to noise ratio, has enabled species-level classification of autumn olive using multitemporal Landsat 8 data at accuracy levels usually only obtainable using higher spatial or spectral resolution sensors. We have used classification and regression tree (CART®) and support vector machine (SVM) to classify five counties in the coal mining region of Virginia for presence and absence of autumn olive. The best model found was a CART® model with 36 nodes which had an overall accuracy of 84% and kappa of 0.68. Autumn olive had conditional kappa of 0.65 and a producers and users accuracy of 86% and 83% respectively. The best SVM model used a second order polynomial kernel and had an overall accuracy of 77%, an overall kappa of 0.54 and a producers and users accuracy of 60% and 90% respectively.

  5. Recent developments in the reclamation of surface mined lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharma, K.D.; Gough, L.P.; Kumar, S.; Sharma, B.K.; Saxena, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    A broad review of mine land reclamation problems and challenges in arid lands is presented with special emphasis on work recently completed in India. The economics of mining in the Indian Desert is second only to agriculture in importance. Lands disturbed by mining, however, have only recently been the focus of reclamation attempts. Studies were made and results compiled of problems associated with germplasm selection, soil, plant and overburden characterization and manipulation, plant establishment methods utilized, soil amendment needs, use and conservation of available water and the evaluation of ecosystem sustainability. Emphasis is made of the need for multi-disciplinary approaches to mine land reclamation research and for the long-term monitoring of reclamation success.

  6. 30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... State lands or the minerals to be explored are owned by the State, a mineral lease issued by the...

  7. 30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... State lands or the minerals to be explored are owned by the State, a mineral lease issued by the...

  8. 30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... State lands or the minerals to be explored are owned by the State, a mineral lease issued by the...

  9. 30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining... State lands or the minerals to be explored are owned by the State, a mineral lease issued by the...

  10. 30 CFR 903.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. 903.800 Section 903.800 Mineral... for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. (a) Part 800 of this chapter, Bond and Insurance Requirements for Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

  11. 30 CFR 903.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. 903.800 Section 903.800 Mineral... for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. (a) Part 800 of this chapter, Bond and Insurance Requirements for Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

  12. 30 CFR 905.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. 905.800 Section 905.800 Mineral... requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. (a) Part 800 of this chapter, Bond and Insurance Requirements for Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

  13. 30 CFR 905.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. 905.800 Section 905.800 Mineral... requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. (a) Part 800 of this chapter, Bond and Insurance Requirements for Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

  14. 30 CFR 905.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. 905.800 Section 905.800 Mineral... requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. (a) Part 800 of this chapter, Bond and Insurance Requirements for Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

  15. 30 CFR 903.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. 903.800 Section 903.800 Mineral... for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. (a) Part 800 of this chapter, Bond and Insurance Requirements for Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

  16. 30 CFR 905.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. 905.800 Section 905.800 Mineral... requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. (a) Part 800 of this chapter, Bond and Insurance Requirements for Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

  17. 30 CFR 905.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. 905.800 Section 905.800 Mineral... requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. (a) Part 800 of this chapter, Bond and Insurance Requirements for Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

  18. 30 CFR 903.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. 903.800 Section 903.800 Mineral... for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. (a) Part 800 of this chapter, Bond and Insurance Requirements for Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

  19. 30 CFR 903.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. 903.800 Section 903.800 Mineral... for surface coal mining and reclamation operations under regulatory programs. (a) Part 800 of this chapter, Bond and Insurance Requirements for Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

  20. Atlas of wetlands in the principal coal surface mining region of western Kentucky. Reference report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsch, W.J.; Taylor, J.R.; Benson, K.B.; Hill, P.L. Jr.

    1983-07-01

    This reference document provides information on the location of wetlands in the Western Kentucky Region where coal surface mining is an important industry, principally Muhlenberg, Hopkins, and Ohio Counties. The wetlands and fish and wildlife data are presented on U. S. Geologic Survey 1:24,000 scale Quad maps and tables. The discussion focuses on historical information on the wetlands, occurrence of selected species in various kinds of wetlands, and environmentally important factors affecting the biota through surface mining activities.

  1. Development of a tree classifier for discrimination of surface mine activity from Landsat digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. L.; Miller, W. F.; Quattrochi, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    In a cooperative project with the Geological Survey of Alabama, the Mississippi State Remote Sensing Applications Program has developed a single purpose, decision-tree classifier using band-ratioing techniques to discriminate various stages of surface mining activity. The tree classifier has four levels and employs only two channels in classification at each level. An accurate computation of the amount of disturbed land resulting from the mining activity can be made as a product of the classification output. The utilization of Landsat data provides a cost-efficient, rapid, and accurate means of monitoring surface mining activities.

  2. Ground- and surface-water interactions involving an abandoned underground coal mine in Pike County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, D.; Olyphant, G.A.; Sjogren, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    Several highwall pits of an abandoned surface mine in the Springfield Coal Member (Pennsylvanian) are currently occupied by ponds with a total area of approximately 2.3 x 10{sup 4} m{sup 2}. These ponds are adjacent to an abandoned underground mine (Patoka Valley Coal and Coke Company No. 1 Mine) in the same coalbed. The mine underlies about 0.3 km{sup 2} and contains approximately 4 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of flooded voids. Monitoring of water levels in wells that are screened in the mine and of the levels of adjacent ponds reveal that average hourly levels vary in unison across a range of less than one meter. The mean potentiometric level of the mine-aquifer, the neighboring ponds, and an artesian spring that issues through the outcrop of the coalbed, are at elevations of about 163 m above sea level. Long-term monitoring and a field experiment that involved pumping of a pond indicated that the mine was connected to two of the ponds and served to recharge, rather than discharge, the ponds. The monitoring and field experiment also allowed determination of the mine aquifers barometric efficiency (0.3) and its storativity (2 x 10{sup -3}) . A water-balance calculation indicates that the average recharge rate of the mine is about 0.1 mm/day.

  3. Surface hydrology of drainage basins disturbed by surface mining and reclamation, central Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Infilration capacity of newly reclaimed minesoils is uniformly low (< 1 cm/hr) and generally increases (up to 6 cm/hr) with age, the magnitude of increase being dependent on soil characteristics and vegetation. In drainage basins with lower rates of infiltration recovery (< 2 cm/hr), infiltration-excess overland flow is the dominant runoff process. Increased peek runoff rate and stream power in the basins are sufficient to initiate drainage network evolution, with phases of network expansion and abstraction. In contrast, in basins where infiltration recovery is greater than 2 cm/hr, the hydrologic system is initially dominated by infiltration-excess overland flow but evolves toward a system dominated by saturation overland flow. Drainage development is limited to skeletal network initiation and elongation and occurs during the early period of infiltration-excess dominated flow conditions. Total runoff remains essentially constant due to increased proportions of return flow, reflected in the extended and less steep recession limb of saturation-dominated storm hydrographs. The results of this study are applicable to hydrologic prediction for purposes of surface mine permitting and reclamation design. Previously limited availability of rainfall-runoff data from watersheds disturbed by surface mining preclude adequate calibration of empirical methods, such as the runoff curve number method, or evaluation of a more sophisticated approach, such as the use of distributed hydrologic models, for hydrologic prediction. Runoff curve numbers calibrated by means of rainfall-runoff data from the study drainage basins indicate that presently accepted methods of determining curve numbers, using pre-mine soil classification, underestimate total runoff by as much as 50%.

  4. 30 CFR 921.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements for bonding of surface... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface...

  5. 30 CFR 941.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for bonding of surface... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface...

  6. 30 CFR 939.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for bonding of surface... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface...

  7. 30 CFR 939.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements for bonding of surface... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface...

  8. 30 CFR 933.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for bonding of surface... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface...

  9. 30 CFR 921.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for bonding of surface... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface...

  10. 30 CFR 933.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements for bonding of surface... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface...

  11. 30 CFR 941.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements for bonding of surface... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.800 General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of this chapter, General Requirements for Bonding of Surface...

  12. Development of soils and communities of plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on West Virginia surface mines.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michael A; Cumming, Jonathan R

    2014-11-01

    Surface mining followed by reclamation to pasture is a major driver of land use and cover change in Appalachia. Prior research suggests that many aspects of ecosystem recovery are either slow or incomplete. We examined ecosystem structure-including soil physical and chemical properties, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) infectivity and community composition, and plant diversity and community composition-on a chronosequence of pasture-reclaimed surface mines and a non-mined pasture in northern West Virginia. Surface mining and reclamation dramatically altered ecosystem structure. Some aspects of ecosystem structure, including many measures of soil chemistry and infectivity of AMF, returned rapidly to levels found on the non-mined reference site. Other aspects of ecosystem structure, notably soil physical properties and AMF and plant communities, showed incomplete or no recovery over the short-to-medium term. In addition, invasive plants were prevalent on reclaimed mine sites. The results point to the need for investigation on how reclamation practices could minimize establishment of exotic invasive plant species and reduce the long-term impacts of mining on ecosystem structure and function.

  13. Dissolved metal concentrations in surface waters from west-central Indiana contaminated with acidic mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S.K.; Allen, J.M.; Lucas, S.

    1996-02-01

    A significant amount of coal mining activity in the west-central region of Indiana, has resulted in a large number of sites where surface waters are contaminated with acidic mine drainage (AMD). Contamination of drinking and irrigation water supplies is of concern mainly due to elevated levels of toxic metals. Abandoned mine sites are frequently located near occupied houses and farms in rural areas. Consequently, constituents of surface waters contaminated by AMD have the potential to be transported into sub-surface drinking water wells and irrigation water supplies. The extent of surface water contamination in west-central Indiana by AMID is not well characterized. For this reason, samples of surface waters that are contaminated with AMD were collected from a wide variety of locations in west-central Indiana and subjected to metals analysis.

  14. Relationship between surface temperature and SAVI using Landsat data in a coal mining area in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Varinder; Arora, Manoj K.; Gupta, Ravi P.

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between surface temperature and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) associated with changing land-use pattern due to intensive mining and mine fires as discussed in Jharia coalfield, India using data collected by the Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Optical land imager (OLI) and thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) from 1991 to 2013. Jharia coalfield is under fire since the last century due to unsustainable mining activities. On visual interpretation of the surface temperature and SAVI images, it was observed that the spatial distribution of SAVI is opposite to that of LST for the whole coalfield. A subset of typical mining area known to have mines under fire was taken for further analysis. Profiles were taken along north-south and east-west directions in the subset in order to disclose variance based on the pixel values of surface temperature and SAVI images. The profiles show that peak SAVI values are in areas having dense vegetation and peak surface temperature values correspond to areas under fire. These two show an obvious negative correlation. Areas with water bodies show low temperature as well as low vegetation index values. Thus, it could be concluded that moderate resolution remote sensing data provides a convenient way to evaluate the impact of mine fires on vegetation over a period of time.

  15. Role of mycorrhizae in forestation of surface mines

    Treesearch

    Donald H. Marx

    1980-01-01

    A brief introduction to ecto- and endomycorrhizae and their importance to plants is presented. Recent findings confirm the significance of ectomycorrhizae, particularly those formed by Pisolithus tinctorius in nurseries, to survival and growth of pine seedlings on strip-mined lands. Commercial inoculum of this fungus may be available in 1981. Recent...

  16. Surface-water quality of coal-mine lands in Raccoon Creek Basin, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation, plans to reclaim abandoned surface mines in the Raccoon Creek watershed in southern Ohio. Historic water-quality data collected between 1975 and 1983 were complied and analyzed in terms of eight selected mine-drainage characteristics to develop a data base for individual subbasin reclamation projects. Areas of mine drainage affecting Raccoon Creek basin, the study Sandy Run basin, the Hewett Fork basin, and the Little raccoon Creek basin. Surface-water-quality samples were collected from a 41-site network from November 1 through November 3, 1983, Results of the sampling reaffirmed that the major sources of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek are in the Little Raccoon Creek basin, and the Hewett Fork basin. However, water quality at the mouth of Sandy Run indicated that it is not a source of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek. Buffer Run, Goose Run, an unnamed tributary to Little Raccoon Creek, Mulga Run, and Sugar Run were the main sources of mine drainage sampled in the Little Raccoon Creek basin. All sites sampled in the East Branch Raccoon Creek basin were affected by mine drainage. This information was used to prepare a work plan for additional data collection before, during, and after reclamation. The data will be used to define the effectiveness of reclamation effects in the basin.

  17. A guide to State programs for the reclamation of surface mined areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Imhoff, Edgar A.; Friz, Thomas O.; LaFevers, James R.

    1976-01-01

    During 1975 inquiries of agencies in each State and review of State statutes and related administrative codes revealed that 38 States have established programs requiring the reclamation of surface mined lands. Results of analyses of those programs and ancillary data are presented in : (1) A table (matrix) which has been designed for the notation and elaboration of information pertaining to the mined-area reclamation programs of the 50 States; (2) a primer on surface mining activities and related reclamation practices and problems; and (3) a listing of types of non-Federal governmental controls applicable to reclamation. Interpretations of the status and content of State programs suggest that although a common thread runs through State statutory language, administrative requirements vary from State to State in order to meet different natural, economic, social, and political considerations. A general trend is seen in State programs toward the requiring of an integration of landuse planning and mine planning, with increased local governmental involvement.

  18. Estimation of the surface displacement of ore mining quarry using Satellite Radar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razakova, Maira G.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the TerraSAR-X InSAR data acquired from August 2011-October 2015 are employed to monitor the surface deformation of the mining quarry in the Central Kazakhstan. Our results show that there is a 0.5 - 1.0 cm motion per a month. Our InSAR measurement also indicate that one side has stopped moving. This differential motion may be due to the end of mining ore. This method should be useful for estimating the dynamic of the ore mining regions based on the geo-information technology combined with ground measurement.

  19. Analysis of Surface Drainage Paths for Mine Reclamation Using Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Park, H.

    2009-05-01

    This study presents an application of GIS-based hydrological modeling and spatial analysis to a coal mining site to effectively control the contaminated surface runoff for mine reclamation. A reliable DEM (Digital Elevation Model) was generated at the study area by detailed topographical surveys. Hydrological analyses were performed to extract the characteristics of drainage system such as flow direction, flow accumulation and catchment area from DEM. The results of spatial analysis showed that some runoff drained through waste dump can flow in the river without any purification. Consequently, several practical actions were suggested to optimize the design of drainage system in the study area for mine reclamation.

  20. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters.

  1. Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977: regulatory controversies and constitutional challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, S.

    1980-01-01

    The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 sought to balance the need to develop coal resources with environmental protection and agricultural productivity while maintaining the primacy of state regulation. The controversy and litigation which underscore hardship issues stemming from the tenth amendment and the takings clause of the fifth amendment have prompted Congress to consider new legislation. Regulatory stability is essential, however, before the coal-mining industry can increase productivity. 108 references. (DCK)

  2. Natural and planted flora of the log mountain surface - mined demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R.L.; Wade, G.L.; Straw, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    A descriptive study of the naturally invading and planted flora was conducted during 1984-1985 on a 14- and 21-year-old contour surface mine the 14.2 ha Log Mountain Demonstration Area (LMDA), in Bell County, Kentucky. Six habitats are designated from areas created from coal mining; the 1963 bench, 1970 bench, bench highwalls, mine outslopes, mine seeps, and coal haul-telephone microwave tower road. Twenty-four of 25 woody and herbaceous species (11 indigenous, 13 non-indigenous) have persisted from plantings by personnel of the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service. We recommend 11 native and exotic woody and herbaceous species for planting on coal surface-mined areas. An annotated list of vascular plants comprises 360 taxa (286 indigenous, 74 non-indigenous) in 224 genera from 82 families. Taxa consist of 1 Lycopodiophyta, 1 Equisetophyta, 8 Polypodiophyta, 7 Pinophyta, and 343 Magnoliophyta. The most species-rich families are the Asteraceae (64), Poaceae (39), Fabaceae (20), Cyperaceae (16), Rosaceae (13), and Lamiaceae (11). A total of 155 Bell County distribution records were documented. Three threatened Kentucky species (Gentiana decora, Liparis loeselii, Silene ovata) were present in refugial habitats created by surface mining. The high species richness has resulted from native and naturalized invading species from the environs, native and exotic planted species, and species from the remnant seed bank. Forest vegetation is a complex mosaic of natural and semi-natural plant communities on the unplanted and planted areas of LMDA.

  3. Recreational fishing in surface mine lakes - a case study in St. Clair County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Mannz, R.H.

    1985-12-09

    Recent mining legislation mandates the reclamation of surface-mined areas to the pre-mining contour, eliminating the potential of many new lakes. However, many pre-law mine lakes have considerable recreational value benefiting the surrounding regions. During 1983, 5296 anglers participated in Peabody Coal Company's Coal Company's recreational fishing program in St. Clair County, Illinois. A random sample of participants were mailed a questionnaire designed to identify user/area characteristics economic implications, and sport fishing resources of the program lakes. Sample data indicated 62,760 angling days spent on 600 acres of program waters during 1983. The single most sought after fish was the large mouth bass. Expenditures by 1983 program users were estimated at $753,120 or $1255 per acre of surface water. Opportunity cost calculations indicated that recreational fishing was an equal or better trade-off to the regional economy when compared to income that could have been produced from rowcrop agriculture. Reclamation techniques designed for fish and wildlife purposes and leaving such areas should be encouraged. Returning surface-mined areas to the pre-mining contour and use is not necessarily the most cost effective or desirable method of reclamation. 14 references, 4 tables.

  4. Hydrologic characteristics of surface-mined land reclaimed by sludge irrigation, Fulton County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, G.L.; Fuentes, R.F.; Toler, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    Analyses of water samples collected at four stream-monitoring stations, in an area surface mined for coal and being reclaimed by sludge irrigation, show the principal metals are sodium, calcium, and magnesium and principal non-metals are chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate. Comparing yearly mean chemical concentrations shows no changing trends since reclamation began, nor are there differences between stations upstream and downstream from the site. Yearly suspended-sediment loads and discharge relations upstream and downstream from the site also show no differences. Discharge hydrographs of two streams draining the site show a delayed response to precipitation due to the storage capacity of several upstream strip-mine lakes. The water-table surface generally follows the irregular topography. Monthly water-level fluctuations were dependent on the surface material (mined or unmined) and proximity to surface discharge. The largest fluctuations were in unmined land away from discharge while the smallest were in mined land near discharge. The water table is closer to the surface in unmined land. Analyses of water samples from 70 wells within or adjacent to the reclamation site showed no differences in water quality which could be attributed to sludge or supernatant application. Samples from wells in mined land, however, had higher concentrations of dissolved sulfate, calcium, magnesium, chloride, iron, zinc, and manganese than samples from wells in unmined land. (USGS)

  5. Utilization of surface mine ponds in East Tennessee by breeding amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.J.; Fowler, D.K.

    1981-06-01

    Of 24 ponds examined on Ollis Creek Surface Mine, Campbell County, Tennessee, 21 contained breeding amphibians. Twelve species of amphibians were identified in ponds that ranged from 4.0 to 8.0 in pH. Although ponds with low pH values were used by breeding amphibians, significantly more amphibian species were found in ponds with higher pH values. The average pH of ponds occupied by each amphibian species varied. Spring peepers (Hyla crucifer) occupied ponds with the lowest average pH (5.22) while upland chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata feriarum) utilized ponds with the highest average pH (6.33). Findings indicated high biological productivity in surface mine ponds. Aquatic vegetation was present in 20 of the 24 ponds. Aquatic insects and a diverse wildlife fauna utilized the study ponds. Large mammals (3 species), waterbirds (17 species), and snakes (2 species) were among those species observed. Surface mine ponds were found to supply an important habitat component for a variety of wildlife species and therefore improve the quality of wildlife habitat on the surface mines. In some areas, mine ponds are the only source of surface water available for wildlife use. 23 references, 9 figures, 5 tables.

  6. Comments on Interior’s Surface Mining Regulations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-05

    inadequate funding for recla - mation of coal mined lands. OSM needs to emphasize alter- natives to bonding while revising its regulations. (See pp. 8 to...adequate to finish reclamation work abandoned by coal operators. Most States did not require sufficient bonding to complete the recla - mation work. At...not have to rely on the financial solvency of bonding companies to complete recla - mation work. According to Pennsylvania’s Department of

  7. Chapter 4: Low compaction grading to enhance reforestation success on coal surface mines

    Treesearch

    R. Sweigard; J. Burger; C. Zipper; J. Skousen; C. Barton; P. Angel

    2017-01-01

    This Forest Reclamation Advisory describes final-grading techniques for reclaiming coal surface mines to forest postmining land uses. Final grading that leaves a loose soil and a rough surface increases survival of planted seedlings and forest productivity. Such practices are often less costly than traditional "smooth grading" while meeting the requirements...

  8. 30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  9. 30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  10. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  11. 30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  12. 30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  13. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface...

  14. 30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  15. 30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  16. 30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  17. 30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Process for designating areas unsuitable for... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.764 Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this chapter, State Processes for Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal...

  18. Ruffed grouse brood habitat on reclaimed surface mines in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmel, R.O.

    1982-01-01

    In West Virginia, land-use practices that break up large blocks of mature forests would potentially benefit ruffed grouse. Ruffed grouse were shown to use openings created by surface mining, particularly during the brood period. Human-imprinted ruffed grouse chicks were used to evaluate food and cover on reclaimed surface mines. Old and new reclamation techniques were studied in relation to ruffed grouse brood habitat. Reclaimed surface-mined areas did not provide the quality habitat for ruffed grouse chicks that unmined land provided. Grass-legume reclamation had the poorest food and cover. A 25-year-old reclaimed mine planted to autumn olive had the best food cover. The shrub canopy provided a more favorable microclimate for insects and establishment of herbaceous vegetation. Insects and, to a lesser extent, forbs were important foods for ruffed grouse during the early brood period. Planting rows of shrubs in addition to the current practice of planting grasses and legumes on surface-mined areas is suggested to create ruffed grouse brood habitat.

  19. Utilization of surface mine ponds in East Tennessee by breeding amphibians. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.J.; Fowler, D.K.

    1981-06-01

    Breeding amphibians were found in 21 of 24 ponds examined on the Ollis Creek Surface Mine in Campbell County, Tennessee. Twelve species of amphibians were identified in ponds that range from 4.0 to 8.0 in pH. Although ponds with low pH values were used by breeding amphibians, significantly more amphibian species were found in ponds with higher pH values. Findings indicated high biological productivity in the surface mine ponds examined. Aquatic vegetation was present in 20 of the 24 ponds. Aquatic insects and a diverse wildlife fauna utilized the study ponds. Surface mine ponds were found to supply an important habitat component for a variety of wildlife species.

  20. The influence of surface coal mining on streamflow in headwater alpine watersheds, Elk Valley, BC, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketcheson, S. J.; Carey, S. K.; Shatilla, N. J.

    2016-12-01

    Surface coal mining in mountainous regions typically involves the removal of overburden materials by blasting to expose coal seams and relocation of waste rock material (termed `coal spoils') into adjacent valleys. This process results in headwater streams being buried beneath large volumes of waste rock, which alters the runoff dynamics from the mined catchments. To date, most of the existing research on surface coal mining has focused on the physiochemical quality of the stream ecosystems in Appalachia, with comparably less known about alterations caused to streamflow and active runoff pathways. In this study, we use hydrometric and geochemical data from seven headwater catchments (3 - 65 km2) in southeastern British Columba, Canada, along a surface mining disturbance gradient to provide an assessment of the impact of coal spoils on catchment functioning, runoff timing, magnitude and pathways, water sources, and water residence times. In contrast to reclaimed surface mined catchments in Appalachia, catchments in the Elk Valley with large volumes of unclaimed waste rock had lower flows and dampened responses to precipitation events than reference catchments. Mined catchments were less productive on average and generated approximately 30% less streamflow than the reference catchments. Hydrochemical results indicate that dissolved ions increased in proportion with the volume of waste rock in the watershed, and mined catchments deviated from the chemostatic behavior observed at many of the reference catchments. This suggests either flushing of near-stream sources or changing water sources as stream discharge increases. Stable isotope data indicate a stronger influence of rainfall on recharge in catchments with spoil than the reference catchments, which responded more strongly to enrichment and depletion events. The presence of large volumes of coal spoil shift catchments towards storage-dominated systems with prolonged residence times.

  1. Restoration of surface-mined lands with rainfall harvesting

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, R.H.; Rickard, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    Strip mining for coal in the arid western US will remove grazing land as energy demands are met. Conventional resotration usually includes leveling the spoil banks and covering them with top soil, fertilizing, seeding and irrigation with well or river water. An overview of research on an alternate method of restoring this land is reported. From 1976 through 1981 studies were conducted on the use of water harvesting, the collection and use of rainfall runoff, to restore the vegetative productivity of strip mined lands in arid regions. These studies tested the technical and economic feasibility of using partially leveled spoil banks at strip mines as catchment areas to collect and direct runoff to the topsoiled valley floor where crops were cultivated. Information was collected on the efficiency of seven treatments to increase runoff from the catchment areas and on the productivity of seven crops. The experiments were conducted in arid areas of Washington, Arizona, and Colorado. It was concluded that water harvesting can replace or augment expensive and inadequate supplies of well and river water in arid regions with a suitable climate. These studies showed that some treatments provided adequate runoff to produce a useful crop in the valleys, thus making this alternative approach to restoration technically feasible. This approach was also potentially economically feasible where the treatment costs of the catchment areas were low, the treatment was effective, the crop was productive and valuable, and earthmoving costs were lower than with conventional restoration involving complete leveling of spoil banks. It was also concluded that water harvesting can be made more effective with further information on catchment area treatments, which crops are most adaptable to water harvesting, the optimum incline of the catchment areas and climatic influences on water harvesting.

  2. Surface-mine reclamation plant materials studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The report lists 13 trees/shrub species which appeared adapted to non-sodic glacial till mine spoil where competition was controlled. The highest growth/survival rate was for most species on the clean cultivated level site. Growth rates generally poor/competition most severe on wave-like site. No significant benefit from leveling competition was not controlled. While performance improved on tops-level site over wave-like/check sites, differences between 3 treatments minor. Few deciduous species tolerate grass/weed competition. Conifers as a group performed as well/better where spoil ridges/vegetation afford desiccation protection.

  3. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) presence and proliferation on former surface coal mines in Eastern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oliphant, Adam J.; Wynne, R.H.; Zipper, Carl E.; Ford, William; Donovan, P. F.; Li, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Invasive plants threaten native plant communities. Surface coal mines in the Appalachian Mountains are among the most disturbed landscapes in North America, but information about land cover characteristics of Appalachian mined lands is lacking. The invasive shrub autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) occurs on these sites and interferes with ecosystem recovery by outcompeting native trees, thus inhibiting re-establishment of the native woody-plant community. We analyzed Landsat 8 satellite imagery to describe autumn olive’s distribution on post-mined lands in southwestern Virginia within the Appalachian coalfield. Eight images from April 2013 through January 2015 served as input data. Calibration and validation data obtained from high-resolution aerial imagery were used to develop a land cover classification model that identified areas where autumn olive was a primary component of land cover. Results indicate that autumn olive cover was sufficiently dense to enable detection on approximately 12.6 % of post-mined lands within the study area. The classified map had user’s and producer’s accuracies of 85.3 and 78.6 %, respectively, for the autumn olive coverage class. Overall accuracy was assessed in reference to an independent validation dataset at 96.8 %. Autumn olive was detected more frequently on mines disturbed prior to 2003, the last year of known plantings, than on lands disturbed by more recent mining. These results indicate that autumn olive growing on reclaimed coal mines in Virginia and elsewhere in eastern USA can be mapped using Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager imagery; and that autumn olive occurrence is a significant landscape vegetation feature on former surface coal mines in the southwestern Virginia segment of the Appalachian coalfield.

  4. Investigation into groundwater recovery and backfill consolidation in British surface coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.N.; Reed, S.M.; Denby, B.; Hughes, D.B.

    1985-12-09

    The paper presents the instrumentation and results from an investigation into groundwater recovery and backfill consolidation conducted in the United Kingdom. British surface mining often requires the removal of roads or other structures which must be replaced on the cessation of backfilling. It is imperative for successful reconstruction that degrees of surface settlement be evaluated and thus precautions against structural damage may taken. Methods of working and geological characteristics of the backfills investigated are also detailed. An outline of research being carried out with respect to groundwater pollution from mine backfills is presented.

  5. Continuous Rating for Diggability Assessment in Surface Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IPHAR, Melih

    2016-10-01

    The rocks can be loosened either by drilling-blasting or direct excavation using powerful machines in opencast mining operations. The economics of rock excavation is considered for each method to be applied. If blasting operation is not preferred and also the geological structures and rock mass properties in site are convenient (favourable ground conditions) for ripping or direct excavation method by mining machines, the next step is to determine which machine or excavator should be selected for the excavation purposes. Many researchers have proposed several diggability or excavatability assessment methods for deciding on excavator type to be used in the field. Most of these systems are generally based on assigning a rating for the parameters having importance in rock excavation process. However, the sharp transitions between the two adjacent classes for a given parameter can lead to some uncertainties. In this paper, it has been proposed that varying rating should be assigned for a given parameter called as “continuous rating” instead of giving constant rating for a given class.

  6. Third biennial symposium on surface coal mine reclamation on the Great Plains, Billings, Montana, March 19-21, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Munshower, F.F.; Fisher, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a 1984 symposium which considered regulatory status and change, surface mine planning and impact mitigation, coal development and wildlife, soil and overburden, shrub establishment on reclaimed lands, and the measurement and evaluation of revegetation and reclamation success. Topics covered at the symposium included regulatory reform in Wyoming, surface coal mining hydrology, computer-assisted investigations for assessing surface mining impacts, baseline vegetation data, local government planning, visual simulation, cropland reclamation after stripmining in North Dakota, the future of reclamation planning, wildlife mitigation in Montana, soil and overburden analysis, minesoil restoration and maturity, shrub and tree establishment on coal spoils, potential topsoiling strategies for mined lands, the role of mycorrhizae in mined land diversity, the effects of native hay mulch on soil stabilization, reclamation monitoring, industry's view of reclamation/revegetation, the reclamation of surface mined lands in Wyoming for livestock grazing, and a Federal concept of measuring revegetation success in the West.

  7. Determination of Granite Rock Massif Weathering and Cracking of Surface Layers in the Oldest Parts of Medieval Mine Depending on Used Mining Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lednická, Markéta; Kaláb, Zdeněk

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the use of selected non-destructive testing methods for the purpose of specifying information on weathering and cracking of surface layers of granite rock massif in the medieval Jeroným Mine (the Czech Republic). This mine has been declared the National Heritage Site of the Czech Republic and its opening as a mining museum to the public is gradually prepared. Geological and geomechanical evaluation documents the possibility to find all kinds of weathering grades of rock massif in this mine. Two non-destructive methods have been tested, namely the measurement of ultrasonic pulse velocity and the measurement of Schmidt hammer rebound value. Field measurements were performed in two selected galleries to verify the application of such methods in specific conditions of underground spaces. Used mining method is one of the parameters later influencing cracking of rock massif. In selected galleries, two different mining methods were used which means that a part of a gallery profile was mined out by hand tools in the Middle Ages and another part of the profile was later mined out by blasting. Measurements in these galleries have enabled to analyse the influence of used mining methods on cracking of rock massif in the impaired zone, and, consequently, on ongoing weathering processes in those zones.

  8. Data collection and simulation of high range resolution laser radar for surface mine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove; Chevalier, Tomas; Larsson, Håkan

    2006-05-01

    Rapid and efficient detection of surface mines, IED's (Improvised Explosive Devices) and UXO (Unexploded Ordnance) is of high priority in military conflicts. High range resolution laser radars combined with passive hyper/multispectral sensors offer an interesting concept to help solving this problem. This paper reports on laser radar data collection of various surface mines in different types of terrain. In order to evaluate the capability of 3D imaging for detecting and classifying the objects of interest a scanning laser radar was used to scan mines and surrounding terrain with high angular and range resolution. These data were then fed into a laser radar model capable of generating range waveforms for a variety of system parameters and combinations of different targets and backgrounds. We can thus simulate a potential system by down sampling to relevant pixel sizes and laser/receiver characteristics. Data, simulations and examples will be presented.

  9. Methods for hydrologic monitoring of surface mining in the central-western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turk, J.T.; Parker, R.S.; Williams, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The regulations promulgated pursuant to the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act require the monitoring of potentially impacted hydrologic systems before, during, and after mining operations. This report details characteristics and processes that commonly determine the most acceptable approaches to hydrologic monitoring in the arid and semiarid central-western United States. No single approach is best for all hydrologic systems; consideration of basin characteristics, regulatory requirements, and regional patterns in hydrologic systems is necessary in any well-designed monitoring program for hydrologic-impact assessment. This report describes processes and characteristics that control the surface and subsurface hydraulics, as well as the water quality, of typical hydrological systems being mined in the central-western United States. After a discussion of these processes and characteristics, three examples are presented that describe acceptable, but nonexclusive, approaches to hydrologic monitoring network design. (USGS)

  10. Cadmium Isotope Fractionation of the Surface Waters in a Mining Area Impacted by Acid Mine Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Chen, Y.; Tang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The pollution of natural waters and sediments with metals derived from acid mine drainage (AMD) is a global environmental problem. However, the processes governing the behaviors of transportation and transformation of metals like Cd in mountain area are poorly understood, the complicated hydro-geomorphic settings of mountain catchments are difficult to access . And few reports have been reported about the effects of. In this study, the concentration and the isotopic composition of Cd selected filtered stream samples from the Hengshi river affected by AMD have been determined. The Cd concentrations were determined for collected sediments samples, which cover the entire river valley from upstream to the downstream regions. Results showed that reducing concentrations for Cd were found in the river water from upstream to downstream, and also high enrichment factor for Cd in all the sediments, suggest that Cd mainly is derived from Liwu dam and easily enter into solid phase. The isotopic data show that the dissolved Cd in rivers is characterized by δ114/110Cd, ranged from 0.09 ‰ to 0.40 ‰ in term of δ114/110Cd , the mean is 0.25 ± 0.06 ‰, and the content of Cd from the sediments is 0.18 to 39.85 μg/g. The river isotope values are similar to the isotope signature of Liwu dam, which contain significant amounts of contaminants under a deep water cover, such as mine tailings, sulfide-rich rocks and minerals. Large fractionated Cd (δ114/110Cd = 0.40 ± 0.09 ‰) was found in water sample collected from midstream near a farmland, which imply there is a new source different from the LIWU dam depend on the heavier Cd signature. We hypothesize that this shift results from either hydrology changes over time in the main and tributaries stream, and some new pollution source imported. The change in the behavior of sorption of cadmium on oxides and hydroxides in the sediment system under low pH cause indistinguishable fractionation. Our result is encouraging for

  11. 30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. 761.13 Section 761.13 Mineral... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. (a) If you intend to rely upon the... national forest, you must request that we obtain the Secretarial findings required by § 761.11(b). (b) You...

  12. 30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. 761.13 Section 761.13 Mineral... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. (a) If you intend to rely upon the... national forest, you must request that we obtain the Secretarial findings required by § 761.11(b). (b) You...

  13. 30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. 761.13 Section 761.13 Mineral... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. (a) If you intend to rely upon the... national forest, you must request that we obtain the Secretarial findings required by § 761.11(b). (b) You...

  14. 30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. 761.13 Section 761.13 Mineral... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. (a) If you intend to rely upon the... national forest, you must request that we obtain the Secretarial findings required by § 761.11(b). (b) You...

  15. 30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. 761.13 Section 761.13 Mineral... surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national forests. (a) If you intend to rely upon the... national forest, you must request that we obtain the Secretarial findings required by § 761.11(b). (b) You...

  16. 30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. 761.15 Section 761.15... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. (a) This section does not...

  17. 30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. 761.15 Section 761.15... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. (a) This section does not...

  18. 30 CFR 947.780 - Surface mining permit application-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface coal mining and reclamation operations, except for § 780.15(a) of that part. (b) Any applicant for a surface coal mining permit which is to produce more than 1,000,000 tons per year shall demonstrate compliance with local Air Pollution Control Authorities and the Washington Clean Air Act, RCW 70.94. (c)...

  19. 30 CFR 947.780 - Surface mining permit application-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.780 Surface mining permit application—minimum requirements for... compliance with local Air Pollution Control Authorities and the Washington Clean Air Act, RCW 70.94. (c) Any applicant for a surface mining permit shall describe the steps taken to comply with the Washington Water...

  20. 30 CFR 947.780 - Surface mining permit application-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.780 Surface mining permit application—minimum requirements for... compliance with local Air Pollution Control Authorities and the Washington Clean Air Act, RCW 70.94. (c) Any applicant for a surface mining permit shall describe the steps taken to comply with the Washington Water...