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Sample records for surface role des

  1. Modelisations des effets de surface sur les jets horizontaux subsoniques d'hydrogene et de methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Luis Fernando

    Le developpement des codes et de normes bases sur une methodologie scientifique requiert la capacite de predire l'etendue inflammable de deversements gazeux d'hydrogene sous differentes conditions. Des etudes anterieures ont deja etabli des modeles bases sur les lois de conservation de la mecanique des fluides basees sur des correlations experimentales qui permettent de predire la decroissance de la concentration et de la vitesse d'un gaz le long de l'axe d'un jet libre vertical. Cette etude s'interesse aux effets de proximite a une surface horizontale parallele sur un jet turbulent. Nous nous interessons a son impact sur l'etendue du champ de la concentration et sur l'enveloppe inflammable en particulier. Cette etude est comparative : l'hydrogene est compare au methane. Ceci permet de degager l'influence des effets de difference de la densite sur le comportement du jet, et de comparer le comportement de l'hydrogene aux correlations experimentales, qui ont ete essentiellement etablies pour le methane. Un modele decrivant l'evolution spatio-temporelle du champ de concentration du gaz dilue est propose, base sur la mecanique des fluides computationnelle. Cette approche permet de varier systematiquement les conditions aux frontieres (proximite du jet a la surface, par exemple) et de connaitre en detail les proprietes de l'ecoulement. Le modele est implemente dans le code de simulations par volumes finis de FLUENT. Les resultats des simulations sont compares avec les lois de similitudes decoulant de la theorie des jets d'ecoulements turbulents libres ainsi qu'avec les resultats experimentaux disponibles. L'effet de la difference des masses molaires des constituantes du jet et des constituantes du milieu de dispersion est egalement etudie dans le contexte du comportement d'echelle de la region developpee du jet.

  2. Microscopie interférentielle X-UV : un outil pour l'étude des endommagements des surfaces optiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamelot, G.; Ros, D.; Cassou, K.; Kazamias, S.; Klisnick, A.; Kozlová, M.; Mocek, T.; Homer, P.; Polan, J.; Stupka, M.

    2006-12-01

    Nous présentons des résultats récents concernant des premières investigations de microscopie interférentielle par laser X-UV d'endommagement optique. Le laser X-UV utilisé est un laser collisionnel en régime quasi-stationnaire émettant à 21.2 nm, développé au Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS, Prague, République Tchèque). Des échantillons de silice fondue de haute qualité, avec ou sans rayure, étaient irradiées en face avant par un laser bleu, correspondant au 3selectfontfontsize{7{9}{textrm{ème}}} harmonique du laser à iode du PALS (1.315 μ m), servant également à réaliser le laser X-UV à 21.2 nm. Celui-ci était utilisé, 5 ns après l'irradiation pour réaliser une imagerie microscopique et interférentielle de la face arrière de l'échantillon. Les résultats font apparaître des déformations locales transitoires. Des premières analyses mettent en évidence une probable variation de la rugosité de la surface. Cette démonstration expérimentale encourageante ouvre la voie à de futures investigations, notamment sur notre prochaine installation laser : LASERIX.

  3. Caracterisation des etats de surface par teledetection infrarouge thermique multispectrale: Contribution a l'etude des conditions de viabilite hivernale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagnon, Frederic

    La mesure de temperature d'une surface et de son emissivite thermique constitue encore de nos jours, un defi de taille. D'un point de vue microclimatique, la temperature significative d'une surface est celle qui reflete l'etat des echanges energetiques qui y ont lieu. La radiometrie infrarouge thermique permet de lire la temperature de l'interface air-sol pour une couche infiniment petite de la surface (de l'ordre de quelques microns). Dans le cadre d'un systeme d'aide aux decisions en viabilite hivernale, nous avons defini un prototype de station de mesures mobiles. Cette station permet de determiner, avec precision, la temperature radiative de la surface de la chaussee ainsi que de determiner, avec un taux de succes de plus de 65 %, l'etat de cette meme surface. Par la conception de ce prototype, nous avons aborde le principe physique de la mesure de temperature de surface par radiometrie multispectrale infrarouge thermique. Ce travail aura permis d'evaluer une approche standard de mesure a bande spectrale unique (de 8 a 14 mum). Dans la correction de la temperature radiative de surface, nous avons considere trois methodes distinctes. La premiere methode utilisee est celle de l'algorithme TES (Gillespie et al., 1998). Cet algorithme etablit le spectre d'emissivite, puis calcule une temperature de surface corrigee, en tenant compte de la reflexion du rayonnement thermique incident a la surface. La seconde methode consideree est l'indice TISI (Li et al., 1999) qui consiste en un indice d'emissivite relatif independant de la temperature de la surface et qui tient compte du rayonnement incident a la surface. La troisieme methode est un indice de temperature relative (ITR) qui correspond au contraste normalise des temperatures radiatives de surface. L'identification du type de surface a montre un taux de succes de 54,8 % pour les resultats de l'indice ITR, de 51,9 % pour les resultats de l'indice TISI et de 67,3 % pour les resultats de l'algorithme TES. Quant a la

  4. Role of surface science in catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinfelt, John H.

    2002-03-01

    Around the time of World War I, Langmuir advanced a simple theory of chemisorption and showed how it could be used to formulate rate laws for reactions occurring on surfaces. From that time on, surface science has played an important role in heterogeneous catalysis. Between the two world wars, simple studies of extents of adsorption by catalyst surfaces led to the concept of activated adsorption and to a universally used method for determining the high surface areas associated with the pore structures of catalytic materials. After World War II, the application of various spectroscopic and structural probes made it possible to investigate catalyst surfaces at a more microscopic level. Studies with idealized surfaces such as the faces of single crystals in ultra-high vacuum apparatus also made their appearance. By the end of the twentieth century, direct information was being obtained on the rates of elementary reactions of well-defined surface species. The results of such work are beginning to put “finishing touches” on the great insight of early pioneers in surface science and heterogeneous catalysis. Much has been accomplished, but exciting opportunities still remain.

  5. Hydrogeology and ground-water/surface water interactions in the Des Moines River valley, southwestern Minnesota, 1997-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowdery, Timothy K.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term withdrawals of water for public supplies may cause a net decrease in ground-water discharge to surface water. Water that does not evaporate, or that is not exported, is discharged to the Des Moines River but with changed water quality. Because ground-water and surface-water qualities in the study area are similar, the ground-water discharge probably has little effect on river water quality.

  6. Role of wild small ruminants in the epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants.

    PubMed

    Munir, M

    2014-10-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes one of the most contagious and highly infectious respiratory diseases in sheep and goats known as peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Reports of outbreaks of PPR in captive and wild small ruminants have extended the known spectrum of susceptible species to include antelopes. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleoprotein and fusion genes indicates that all PPRVs isolated from wild ungulate outbreaks belong to lineage IV. While it is clear that a number of wildlife species are susceptible to infection, the role of wildlife in the epidemiology of PPR remains uncertain. The available information about the occurrence of disease in free-ranging wildlife is mainly derived from surveys based on serological evidence. Data on the genetic nature of circulating PPRV strains are scarce. Given the scope of PPR in wild ungulates that are widespread in many countries, current disease surveillance efforts are inadequate and warrant additional investment. This is crucial because domestic and wild ruminants mingle together at several points, allowing inter-species transmission of PPRV. There is no reason to believe that PPRV circulates in wild animals and acts as a potential source of virus for domestic species. Irrespective of the possibility of wild small ruminants as the reservoir of PPRV, concerns about the role of susceptible species of antelopes need to be addressed, due to the fact that the disease can pose a serious threat to the survival of endangered species of wild ruminants on the one hand and could act as a constraint to the global eradication of PPR on the other hand. In this review, knowledge gained through research or surveillance on the sustainability of PPRV in wild ruminants is discussed.

  7. Water-surface profiles of Raccoon River at Des Moines, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Philip J.; Appel, David H.

    1966-01-01

    The Raccoon River., having a drainage area of 3,630 square miles, borders the south edge of the Des Moines downtown business district before flowing into the Des Moines River at mile 201.6. A large residential area and the city airport are separated from downtown Des Moines by the Raccoon River (fig. 1). Five highway bridges and one railroad bridge span the river between the mouth and mile 205.75, the limits of this report (fig. 1). The river is confined to a narrow channel from the mouth to the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Railroad bridge (mile 202.6); upstream of this bridge the river is not confined and during high water spreads over a wide flood plain. Fleur Drive, a principal traffic artery to the downtown area, is the only roadway of the five that crosses this wide flood plain. It has been flooded 15 times during the period 1903, 1918-1965.

  8. Progrès récents dans l'utilisation de la Chromatographie Gazeuse Inverse pour la détermination des propriétés acide-base des surfaces solides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papirer, E.; Brendlé, E.

    1998-01-01

    Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC) is a method well suited for the study of divided solids, but also of fibres. In this paper, the principles of IGC, its advantages such as ease and rapidity of measurement, but also limitations due essentially to the energetic heterogeneity of the solid surfaces are discussed. Finally, a new procedure allowing to estimate the acidity and basicity of the surface involving topology concepts of the molecules used to probe the surface is presented. Experimental results of the Laboratory, but also results extracted from the literature concerning silica, titanium dioxide, poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(ethylene) fibers, are taken to verify the proposed method. La chromatographie Gazeuse Inverse (CGI) s'avère comme une méthode de choix pour l'étude des solides divisés, mais aussi de fibres. Après avoir rappelé quelques principes de base de la CGI, les avantages de la méthode comme la facilité de mise en oeuvre, sa rapidité..., nous soulignerons ses limites qui sont essentiellement à attribuer à l'hétérogénéité énergétique des surfaces solides. Finalement, nous décrirons une nouvelle approche de l'acidité et de la basicité de surface grâce à l'utilisation des concepts de topologie des molécules employées pour sonder la surface. Des résultats expérimentaux obtenus au Laboratoire, mais aussi tirés de la littérature et concernant la silice, l'oxyde de titane, la poly(méthacrylate de méthyle) et les fibres de poly(éthylène), permettent d'illustrer la pertinence de la méthode proposée.

  9. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1975-77; Volume 1, Des Plaines River basin and Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grason, David; Healy, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. The results from water years 1975 to 1977 are presented in three volumes. The history of sampling and analytical methods used during that period are summarized. Stream discharge data from records of the U.S. Geological Survey are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. Volume I includes the Des Plaines River basin and Lake Michigan. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Role of surface properties in bacterial attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jacinta; Sharma, Sumedha

    2014-03-01

    Bacterial biofilms foul a wide range of engineered surfaces, from pipelines to membranes to biomedical implants, and lead to deleterious costs for industry and for human health. Designing strategies to reduce bacterial fouling requires fundamental understanding of mechanisms by which bacteria attach to surfaces. We investigate the attachment of Escherichia coli on silanized glass surfaces during flow through a linear channel at flow rates of 0.1-1 mL/min using confocal microscopy. We deposit self-assembled monolayers of organosilanes on glass and track the position and orientation of bacteria deposited on these surfaces during flow using high-throughput image processing algorithms. Here, we report differences in deposition rate and surface-tethered motion of cells as a function of surface charge and surface energy, suggesting that attachment of bacteria on these engineered surfaces is dominated by different physical mechanisms.

  11. Role of surface temperature in fluorocarbon plasma-surface interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Caleb T.; Overzet, Lawrence J.; Goeckner, Matthew J.

    2012-07-15

    This article examines plasma-surface reaction channels and the effect of surface temperature on the magnitude of those channels. Neutral species CF{sub 4}, C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, and C{sub 3}F{sub 8} are produced on surfaces. The magnitude of the production channel increases with surface temperature for all species, but favors higher mass species as the temperature is elevated. Additionally, the production rate of CF{sub 2} increases by a factor of 5 as the surface temperature is raised from 25 Degree-Sign C to 200 Degree-Sign C. Fluorine density, on the other hand, does not change as a function of either surface temperature or position outside of the plasma glow. This indicates that fluorine addition in the gas-phase is not a dominant reaction. Heating reactors can result in higher densities of depositing radical species, resulting in increased deposition rates on cooled substrates. Finally, the sticking probability of the depositing free radical species does not change as a function of surface temperature. Instead, the surface temperature acts together with an etchant species (possibly fluorine) to elevate desorption rates on that surface at temperatures lower than those required for unassisted thermal desorption.

  12. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  13. Surface disturbances: their role in accelerating desertification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne

    1995-01-01

    Maintaining soil stability and normal water and nutrient cycles in desert systems is critical to avoiding desertification. These particular ecosystem processes are threatened by trampling of livestock and people, and by off-road vehicle use. Soil compaction and disruption of cryptobiotic soil surfaces (composed of cyanobacteria, lichens, and mosses) can result in decreased water availability to vascular plants through decreased water infiltration and increased albedo with possible decreased precipitation. Surface disturbance may also cause accelerated soil loss through wind and water erosion and decreased diversity and abundance of soil biota. In addition, nutrient cycles can be altered through lowered nitrogen and carbon inputs and slowed decomposition of soil organic matter, resulting in lower nutrient levels in associated vascular plants. Some cold desert systems may be especially susceptible to these disruptions due to the paucity of surface-rooting vascular plants for soil stabilization, fewer nitrogen-fixing higher plants, and lower soil temperatures, which slow nutrient cycles. Desert soils may recover slowly from surface disturbances, resulting in increased vulnerability to desertification. Recovery from compaction and decreased soil stability is estimated to take several hundred years. Re-establishment rates for soil bacterial and fungal populations are not known. The nitrogen fixation capability of soil requires at least 50 years to recover. Recovery of crusts can be hampered by large amounts of moving sediment, and re-establishment can be extremely difficult in some areas. Given the sensitivity of these resources and slow recovery times, desertification threatens million of hectares of semiarid lands in the United States.

  14. Chemical analyses of surface water in Illinois, 1958-74; Volume I, Des Plaines River basin and Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; Toler, L.G.

    1978-01-01

    Samples of surface water were collected and analyzed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency and its predecessor, the Stream Pollution Control Bureau of the Illinois Department of Public Health. The results for the period 1958 to 1974 are presented in tabular form and the history of sampling and analytical methods are summarized. Stream discharge data from records of the U.S. Geological Survey are included for all sites where samples were collected at gaging stations or near enough that reliable discharge estimates could be made. The report is contained in three volumes. This volume (Volume I) includes Des Plaines River basin and Lake Michigan. (See also W78-10035 and W78-10036) (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Theory of adhesion: Role of surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, B. N. J.; Scaraggi, M.

    2014-09-01

    We discuss how surface roughness influences the adhesion between elastic solids. We introduce a Tabor number which depends on the length scale or magnification, and which gives information about the nature of the adhesion at different length scales. We consider two limiting cases relevant for (a) elastically hard solids with weak (or long ranged) adhesive interaction (DMT-limit) and (b) elastically soft solids with strong (or short ranged) adhesive interaction (JKR-limit). For the former cases we study the nature of the adhesion using different adhesive force laws (F ˜ u-n, n = 1.5-4, where u is the wall-wall separation). In general, adhesion may switch from DMT-like at short length scales to JKR-like at large (macroscopic) length scale. We compare the theory predictions to results of exact numerical simulations and find good agreement between theory and simulation results.

  16. Role of the Office International des Epizooties in protecting the health of free-ranging mammals.

    PubMed

    Blancou, J

    1992-12-01

    The various activities undertaken by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) since 1924 to protect the helth of free-ranging mammals are outlined and discussed. Two types of activity have been conducted over the years: --The first type promotes measures to protect the health of free-ranging mammals in order to safeguard the health of domestic animals and human beings. These measures have prevented the propagation of the highly contagious diseases of animals and the more serious zoonoses. --The second type aims at protecting the health of free-ranging mammals in order to maintain the fauna and the natural equilibrium. Ecological and epidemiological studies are promoted with a view to effective management of wildlife populations and overcoming the associated health risks. By virtue of its close contacts with officials in charge of animal health in 126 Member Countries, the OIE has made a noteworthy contribution to the protection of populations of free-ranging mammals. PMID:1305849

  17. The role of surface rheology in liquid film formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheid, B.; Delacotte, J.; Dollet, B.; Rio, E.; Restagno, F.; van Nierop, E. A.; Cantat, I.; Langevin, D.; Stone, H. A.

    2010-04-01

    The role of surface rheology in fundamental fluid dynamical systems, such as liquid coating flows and soap film formation, is poorly understood. We investigate the role of surface viscosity in the classical film-coating problem. We propose a theoretical model that predicts film thickening based on a purely surface-viscous theory. The theory is supported by a set of new experimental data that demonstrates slight thickening even at very high surfactant concentrations for which Marangoni effects are irrelevant. The model and experiments represent a new regime that has not been identified before.

  18. The role of surface roughness in the measurement of slipperiness.

    PubMed

    Chang, W R; Kim, I J; Manning, D P; Bunterngchit, Y

    2001-10-20

    Surface roughness has been shown to have substantial effects on the slip resistance between shoe heels and floor surfaces under various types of walking environments. This paper summarizes comprehensive views of the current understanding on the roles of surface roughness on the shoe and floor surfaces in the measurement of slipperiness and discusses promising directions for future research. Various techniques and instruments for surface roughness measurements and related roughness parameters are reviewed in depth. It is suggested that a stylus-type profilometer and a laser scanning confocal microscope are the preferred instruments for surface roughness measurements in the field and laboratory, respectively. The need for developing enhanced methods for reliably characterizing the slip resistance properties is highlighted. This could be based on the principal understanding of the nature of shoe and floor interface and surface analysis techniques for characterizing both surfaces of shoe and floor. Therefore, surface roughness on both shoe and floor surfaces should be measured and combined to arrive at the final assessment of slipperiness. While controversies around the friction measurement for slipperiness assessment still remain, surface roughness measurement may provide an objective alternative to overcoming the limitations of friction measurements.

  19. Role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentine, Pierre; Garelli, Alix; Park, Seung-Bu; Nie, Ji; Torri, Giuseppe; Kuang, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    The role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools is investigated using cloud-resolving simulations with either interactive or horizontally homogenous surface heat fluxes over an ocean and a simplified land surface. Over the ocean, there are limited changes in the distribution of the cold pool temperature, humidity, and gust front velocity, yet interactive heat fluxes induce more cold pools, which are smaller, and convection is then less organized. Correspondingly, the updraft mass flux and lateral entrainment are modified. Over the land surface, the heat fluxes underneath cold pools drastically impact the cold pool characteristics with more numerous and smaller pools, which are warmer and more humid and accompanied by smaller gust front velocities. The interactive fluxes also modify the updraft mass flux and reduce convective organization. These results emphasize the importance of interactive surface fluxes instead of prescribed flux boundary conditions, as well as the formulation of surface heat fluxes, when studying convection.

  20. Role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools

    PubMed Central

    Garelli, Alix; Park, Seung‐Bu; Nie, Ji; Torri, Giuseppe; Kuang, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The role of surface heat fluxes underneath cold pools is investigated using cloud‐resolving simulations with either interactive or horizontally homogenous surface heat fluxes over an ocean and a simplified land surface. Over the ocean, there are limited changes in the distribution of the cold pool temperature, humidity, and gust front velocity, yet interactive heat fluxes induce more cold pools, which are smaller, and convection is then less organized. Correspondingly, the updraft mass flux and lateral entrainment are modified. Over the land surface, the heat fluxes underneath cold pools drastically impact the cold pool characteristics with more numerous and smaller pools, which are warmer and more humid and accompanied by smaller gust front velocities. The interactive fluxes also modify the updraft mass flux and reduce convective organization. These results emphasize the importance of interactive surface fluxes instead of prescribed flux boundary conditions, as well as the formulation of surface heat fluxes, when studying convection. PMID:27134320

  1. Caractérisation de l'état de surface et des contraintes résiduelles engendrées par meulage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gognau, D.; Blehaut, H.; Dürr, J.; Hariri, S.; Khouchaf, L.; Flahaut, P.

    2002-07-01

    grinding operations are generally used to prepare surfaces or improve surface state before or after welding. These operations, when carried out manually with portable machines, induce superficial work hardening, modification of the structure of material and residual stresses. An experimental study about the influence of grinding has been carried out on two metallic materials, a low carbon steel (A42-CP) and an austenitic stainless steel (316L), in order to characterise the grinding effects. Manual grinding being difficult to control (no repeatable effects), a test rig using a portable machine has been made. This test rig enables to control the grinding parameters in order to obtain repeatable grinding operations. Characterisation of the ground surfaces was made by 2D profilometry and measurements of residual stresses have been carried out with a Set-X Elphyse apparatus. The profiles of residual stresses obtained show, on the one hand, that on each material, identical grindings generate identical states of stresses and on the other hand, that materials have not the same behaviour, From a metallurgical point of view, we also observe that the grinding effects are different for both materials. The grinding of the A42 steel highlights a crushing of the grain near the surface while the 316L stainless steel grinding reveals sliding bands. Des opérations de meulage sont régulièrement effectuées sur des matériaux métalliques pour préparer les surfaces ou pour améliorer l'état de ces surfaces après soudage. Ces opérations réalisées manuellement engendrent un écrouissage superficiel, une modification de la structure du matériau et par conséquent des contraintes résiduelles. Une étude expérimentale a été menée sur un acier à bas carbone (A42-CP) et un acier inoxydable austénitique (316L) afin de caractériser les effets du meulage. Le meulage manuel étant difficile à maîtriser (effets non reproductibles), un banc d'essai utilisant une machine

  2. Adaptation de maillage pour les problemes a surfaces libres en mecanique des fluides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokwinski, Yvan

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with mesh adaptivity for the numerical simulation of free surface problems in fluids mechanics. We study various aspects of the modeling and the numerical simulation of free surface flows. We use an Eulerian approach for the modeling of the dynamics of the interface. We opt for the pseudo-concentration method so that topologic changes do not add to the algorithmic complexity of the overall numerical strategy. The challenges related to the use of this interface capturing method are detailed and we propose a set of cures to improve the accuracy of the numerical computations when the methodology is not well chosen. Mesh adaptivity is a central component of the proposed methodology. A good mesh helps making the pseudo-concentration method competitive. We pursue three specific objectives in this thesis. To be able to model problems with surface tension, we developed a numerical methodology for the computation of capillary force. The developed methodology includes the reinitialization of the Eulerian marker to allow the accurate modeling of the physics of the problems under study. Finally, in order to perform mesh adaptivity to transient simulations, we propose a methodology which includes the definition of appropriate metrics, the interpolation of finite element functions between meshes and the introduction of a predictor in the mesh adaptivity process. The numerical simulation of verification problems involving the modeling of the dynamics of free surfaces illustrates the contributions.

  3. La situation des traducteurs dans les pays arabes (The Role of Translators in the Arab Countries).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanafi, Benaissa

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the services provided by translators under colonialism, as compared with their new role in independent Algeria. Stresses the socioeconomic and political importance of translation as a tool for the diffusion of technological and scientific information in Arabic. (MES)

  4. Influence des effets de température quasi-statiques du premier ordre sur les dispositifs à ondes de surface transverses sur sillons gravés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballandras, S.; Gavignet, E.; Bigler, E.

    1995-02-01

    The present study is devoted to the theoretical calculation of the first order quasi-static temperature coefficient of surface transverse waves which can propagate under shallow groove gratings. The model presented here associates an analytical description of non-perturbed surface transverse waves on an anisotropic substrate developed by Auld and Tiersten's perturbation method. This approach has been implemented in the case of quartz delay lines corrugated with rectangular grooves. It is shown that singly rotated quartz cuts can be theoretically found exhibiting a first-order temperature coefficient close to zero. The sensitivity of this coefficient versus the groove depth is also theoretically demonstrated. La présente étude consiste à calculer le coefficient de température du premier ordre d'un résonateur à ondes transverses de surface se propageant sous un réseau de sillons gravés de forme quelconque. Ce calcul fait intervenir un modèle analytique de propagation des ondes sur un substrat anisotrope développé par Auld et une méthode de perturbation mise au point par Tiersten. Cette approche théorique a été mise en oeuvre pour traiter le cas des dispositifs à sillons gravés de profil rectangulaire sur quartz. On montre ainsi qu'il existe des coupes de quartz à simple rotation présentant un coefficient de température du premier ordre théorique proche de zéro. L'influence de la profondeur de gravure des sillons sur ce coefficient est également mise en évidence théoriquement.

  5. Mutations des roles techniques et formation. Etude documentaire (Changes in the Roles and Education of Technicians. Documentary Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinard, Helene

    Drawing from research conducted in 1990-91, this report examines trends affecting the future work of technicians in Quebec, their pre-employment education, and the link between college and work. Part 1 focuses on aspects of the economic, technological, and social environment that will influence the future role of technicians. Economic concerns…

  6. Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  7. Imagerie Resolue dans le Temps des Photons et Neutres Metastables Emis D'une Surface Par Stimulation Electronique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, Gregoire

    L'appareil que nous presentons ici a ete mis au point pour permettre d'accumuler des images numeriques, resolues dans le temps, de la desorption par stimulation electronique (DSE) d'ions positifs et negatifs, de photons et de neutres metastables, tout en conservant des capacites de base de diffraction d'electrons lents (DEL) et de transmission d'electrons lents (TEL). Le spectrometre comporte un monochromateur d'electrons a secteur cylindrique de 127^ circ dont l'optique de sortie permet la focalisation du faisceau d'electrons sur une large gamme d'energies. Le detecteur consiste en un empilement de galettes de microcanaux et d'une anode resistive a encodage de division de charges. La reponse spatiale du detecteur a ete calibree et plusieurs causes de non-linearite ont ete localisees et corrigees. Des methodes de correction materielle et logicielle des distorsions spatiales sont presentees. La resolution temporelle des evenements est obtenue en pulsant le faisceau d'electrons, et de facon synchrone la detection, laquelle est couplee a un micro-ordinateur. La premiere partie de ce travail est consacree a la caracterisation du spectrometre et la presentation de nombreux parametres operationnels, obtenus soit au moment de la conception, soit experimentalement. Suit la presentation de donnees de DEL et de DSE pour le systeme Ar/Pt(111) en films minces a 15K. Les sequences temporelles d'images de metastables d'Ar desorbes ont revele la presence de plusieurs populations distinctes, ayant des distributions angulaires et distributions d'energie cinetique que nous avons pu separer. Les fonctions d'excitation de l'emission de photons et de la desorption de differentes composantes de metastables, ainsi que la dependance de ces signaux sur l'epaisseur des films d'Ar, sont aussi presentees et analysees. Les techniques que nous avons developpees ont permis de cerner les mecanismes en jeu pour la desorption et la luminescence.

  8. Ion irradiation of porous silicon : the role of surface states

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsohn, L. G.; Bennett, B. L.; Cooke, D. W.; Muenchausen, Ross E.; Nastasi, Michael Anthony,

    2004-01-01

    The summary and conclusions of this paper are: (1) Ion irradiation induces PL quenching from po-Si; (2) Interaction of the implanted ions with defects generated during the irradiation process plays a major role in the PL quenching mechanism; (3) Quenching was associated with the creation of nonradiative states within the gap; and (4) Exposition to air and consequently the oxidation of the surface is shown to enhance PL emission efficiency.

  9. Evaluating the role of vaccine to combat peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in endemic disease situation.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, Muhammad; Manzoor, Shumaila; Ali, Qurban

    2015-01-01

    Among the main intimidation to the sheep and goat population, PPR outbreaks are causing huge losses especially in endemic areas. During recent times, six outbreaks of PPR were confirmed at semi-organized goat farms/herds in various regions of Punjab province and Islamabad capital territory (ICT), Pakistan. The disease started after introduction of new animals at these farms with no history of previous PPR vaccination. The clinical signs appeared affecting respiratory and enteric systems and spread quickly. Disease caused mortality of 10-20% and morbidity of 20-40% within a time period of four weeks. Morbidity and mortality rates were 30.38% (86/283) and 15.55% (44/283), respectively. Three treatment regimes were executed to demonstrate the role of vaccination during outbreak at these farms. First was to use only the broad spectrum antibiotics (Penicillin & Streptomycin and/ or Trimethoprim and Sulfadiazine) at two farms (Texilla and Attock). Second treatment regime was to use the same broad spectrum antibiotic along with extensive fluid therapy (Farms at ICT-1 and ICT-2). The third regime was to use of broad spectrum antibiotic plus fluid therapy along with vaccinating the herd against PPR during first week of outbreak (ICT-3 and ICT-4). The third scheme of treatment gave the better results as there was no mortality in third week post-outbreak. Therefore, it is suggested to give proper importance to PPR vaccination along with conventional symptomatic treatment when dealing the PPR outbreaks in endemic disease conditions. PMID:26290722

  10. The role of "inert" surface chemistry in marine biofouling prevention.

    PubMed

    Rosenhahn, Axel; Schilp, Sören; Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen; Grunze, Michael

    2010-05-01

    review is written to outline for non-experts the hierarchical structure in length- and timescale of marine biofouling and the role of surface chemistry in fouling prevention. Experts in the field are referred to more specialized recent reviews.

  11. Application de la methode d'analyse spectrale des ondes de surface a l'evaluation des effets du gel sur les infrastructures routieres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storme, Maud

    2003-06-01

    The Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) test has been used for studying the significant changes in elastic properties of pavements affected by freeze/thaw cycles. However, when the investigated medium includes a stiff layer, such as an asphalt concrete surface layer or a frozen soil layer in depth, higher modes of propagation of surface waves occur simultaneously and must be taken into account in the analysis of the SASW results. The principal purposes of this thesis are to carry out a forward modelling of the propagation of surface waves in a layered medium in order to study the multimode propagation, to adapt the SASW test for pavement evaluation and to assess the SASW possibilities for monitoring the seasonal variation in elastic properties of pavements in cold regions. A Modified Linearized Stiffness Matrix (MLSM) method has been developed to provide the vertical displacements at the surface of a layered medium under steady-state loading. This simple and fast algorithm compares the higher modes of propagation of surface waves to the eigenfrequencies of a beam. A theoretical study has shown that the use of more than one pair of receivers enables the identification of the simultaneous propagation of several modes of surface waves with a fast and very simple method. These higher modes have been also detected during experimental measurements carried out in a partially frozen pavement. A field methodology and a data reduction algorithm have been also developed to take into account the simultaneous propagation of several modes of surface waves. SASW tests have been carried out at regular interval form March to September 2001 in an urban pavement in Quebec City. A weakening period of stiffness modulus in the base, subbase and subgrade soils has been observed during the thawing period followed by a fast recovery of the stiffness in summer. Results clearly show that the SASW test is adequate for detecting and measuring the seasonal variations in elastic properties

  12. The role of surface passivation in controlling Ge nanowire faceting

    DOE PAGES

    Gamalski, A. D.; Tersoff, J.; Kodambaka, S.; Zakharov, D. N.; Ross, F. M.; Stach, E. A.

    2015-11-05

    In situ transmission electron microscopy observations of nanowire morphologies indicate that during Au-catalyzed Ge nanowire growth, Ge facets can rapidly form along the nanowire sidewalls when the source gas (here, digermane) flux is decreased or the temperature is increased. This sidewall faceting is accompanied by continuous catalyst loss as Au diffuses from the droplet to the wire surface. We suggest that high digermane flux and low temperatures promote effective surface passivation of Ge nanowires with H or other digermane fragments inhibiting diffusion and attachment of Au and Ge on the sidewalls. Furthermore, these results illustrate the essential roles of themore » precursor gas and substrate temperature in maintaining nanowire sidewall passivation, necessary to ensure the growth of straight, untapered, <111>-oriented nanowires.« less

  13. The role of surface passivation in controlling Ge nanowire faceting

    SciTech Connect

    Gamalski, A. D.; Tersoff, J.; Kodambaka, S.; Zakharov, D. N.; Ross, F. M.; Stach, E. A.

    2015-11-05

    In situ transmission electron microscopy observations of nanowire morphologies indicate that during Au-catalyzed Ge nanowire growth, Ge facets can rapidly form along the nanowire sidewalls when the source gas (here, digermane) flux is decreased or the temperature is increased. This sidewall faceting is accompanied by continuous catalyst loss as Au diffuses from the droplet to the wire surface. We suggest that high digermane flux and low temperatures promote effective surface passivation of Ge nanowires with H or other digermane fragments inhibiting diffusion and attachment of Au and Ge on the sidewalls. Furthermore, these results illustrate the essential roles of the precursor gas and substrate temperature in maintaining nanowire sidewall passivation, necessary to ensure the growth of straight, untapered, <111>-oriented nanowires.

  14. The Role of Surface Passivation in Controlling Ge Nanowire Faceting.

    PubMed

    Gamalski, A D; Tersoff, J; Kodambaka, S; Zakharov, D N; Ross, F M; Stach, E A

    2015-12-01

    In situ transmission electron microscopy observations of nanowire morphologies indicate that during Au-catalyzed Ge nanowire growth, Ge facets can rapidly form along the nanowire sidewalls when the source gas (here, digermane) flux is decreased or the temperature is increased. This sidewall faceting is accompanied by continuous catalyst loss as Au diffuses from the droplet to the wire surface. We suggest that high digermane flux and low temperatures promote effective surface passivation of Ge nanowires with H or other digermane fragments inhibiting diffusion and attachment of Au and Ge on the sidewalls. These results illustrate the essential roles of the precursor gas and substrate temperature in maintaining nanowire sidewall passivation, necessary to ensure the growth of straight, untapered, ⟨111⟩-oriented nanowires. PMID:26539668

  15. The role of surface generated radicals in catalytic combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santavicca, D. A.; Stein, Y.; Royce, B. S. H.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to better understand the role of catalytic surface reactions in determining the ignition characteristics of practical catalytic combustors. Hydrocarbon concentrations, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide concentrations, hydroxyl radical concentrations, and gas temperature were measured at the exit of a platinum coated, stacked plate, catalytic combustor during the ignition of lean propane-air mixtures. The substrate temperature profile was also measured during the ignition transient. Ignition was initiated by suddenly turning on the fuel and the time to reach steady state was of the order of 10 minutes. The gas phase reaction, showed no pronounced effect due to the catalytic surface reactions, except the absence of a hydroxyl radical overshoot. It is found that the transient ignition measurements are valuable in understanding the steady state performance characteristics.

  16. Modification et caractérisation de la surface de fibres de verre pour son insertion postérieure dans des matériaux cimentaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bismarck, A.; Ajuriagojeaskoa, E. E.; Springer, J.; Habel, W. R.

    1999-07-01

    Optical fibres are widely used as physical and mechanical sensors in various matrices. Those commercial available fibres are mostly coated with different polymers (e.g. polyimide). The problem of using such coatings is the undefined adhesion and the stress transmission from the matrix material into the fibre as well as the alkaline attack from the cementitious environments onto the glass surface. Therefore the known silanisation process with alkylsilanes for surface modification was studied. To achieve a silane film onto the fibre surface as close as possible a fibre pre-treatment in oxygen plasma was applied. The wetting behaviour of the oxygen plasma treated fibres as well as the silanized fibres were studied using the Wilhelmy-method. The influence of the silane concentration and the time of the pre-treatment on the wetting properties was investigated. By scanning electron microscopy, changes of the surface morphology were detected. Additionally, the mechanical properties of the oxygen plasma treated fibres, and silanized fibres exposed to a highly alkaline pore solution were measured. For selected fibre samples (decoated and untreated as well as silanized fibres) the adhesion to a concrete matrix was studied using the indention test. Les fibres optiques sont de plus en plus utilisées comme capteurs des propriétés physiques et mécaniques de nombreuses matrices. Ces fibres commerciales sont généralement enrobées avec différents polymères (par exemple polyimide). Les problèmes dus à l'enrobage des fibres optiques sont une adhésion et une transmission de charge de la matrice du béton à la fibre non définies. Un autre problème majeur est l'alcalinité du béton et son influence sur la surface de la fibre. Nous avons utilisé le procédé de silanisation. Pour obtenir un film de silane le plus homogène possible sur la surface, les fibres sont pré-traitées par le plasma d?oxygène. Le mouillage de fibres traitées par le plasma d?oxygène, ainsi que

  17. The role of probe oxide in local surface conductivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, C. J.; Kryvchenkova, O.; Wilson, L. S. J.; Maffeis, T. G. G.; Cobley, R. J.; Kalna, K.

    2015-05-07

    Local probe methods can be used to measure nanoscale surface conductivity, but some techniques including nanoscale four point probe rely on at least two of the probes forming the same low resistivity non-rectifying contact to the sample. Here, the role of probe shank oxide has been examined by carrying out contact and non-contact I V measurements on GaAs when the probe oxide has been controllably reduced, both experimentally and in simulation. In contact, the barrier height is pinned but the barrier shape changes with probe shank oxide dimensions. In non-contact measurements, the oxide modifies the electrostatic interaction inducing a quantum dot that alters the tunneling behavior. For both, the contact resistance change is dependent on polarity, which violates the assumption required for four point probe to remove probe contact resistance from the measured conductivity. This has implications for all nanoscale surface probe measurements and macroscopic four point probe, both in air and vacuum, where the role of probe oxide contamination is not well understood.

  18. The Role of Antimicrobial Peptides at the Ocular Surface

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Alison M.

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as defensins and cathelicidins are small peptides with broad-spectrum activity against bacteria, fungi and viruses. In addition, several AMPs modulate mammalian cell behaviours including migration, proliferation and cytokine production. This review describes findings from recent studies showing the presence of various AMPs at the human ocular surface and discusses their mechanism of antimicrobial action and potential non-microbicidal roles. Corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells produce β-defensins and the cathelicidin LL-37, whereas neutrophils, infiltrating in response to a specific stimulus, supply additional LL-37 as well as α-defensins. In vitro studies suggest that LL-37 and human β-defensin-3 are the most likely to have significant independent antimicrobial activity, while other AMPs may act synergistically to help protect the ocular surface from invading pathogens. Current evidence also supports a role for some AMPs in modulating wound healing responses. Although yet to be brought to fruition, AMPs hold significant potential as therapeutic agents for the prophylaxis and treatment of infection, promotion of wound healing and immune modulation. PMID:19122467

  19. Role of surface states in Auger neutralization of He{sup +} ions on Ag surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sarasola, A.; Silkin, V. M.; Arnau, A.

    2007-01-15

    Recent measurements of He{sup +} ion fractions that survive to a whole scatterig event when they impinge on Ag surfaces have shown two different and interesting effects: (1) a notable difference of surviving ion fraction depending on which crystallographic face of the target surface is studied [Yu. Bandurin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 017601 (2004)], and (2) an uncommonly high ion fraction in the very-low-energy range (tens of eV) [S. Wethekam et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 037602 (2003)]. Apart from the geometry, one of the differences between the surfaces of a crystal can be seen in the electronic structure: while the (111) surface has an occupied surface state near the Fermi level at the {gamma} point the (110) and (100) faces have not. Motivated by these facts, in this work we study the role that the occupied surface state plays on the Auger neutralization rate and we present an estimation of the ion fractions that survive for the different Ag faces.

  20. The role of surface and applied stresses in the stability of fcc(111) oriented metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Todd Marlin

    Surface stress f and surface free energy gamma are thought to play a significant role in the restructuring of solid surfaces on both atomic and mesoscopic length scales. We investigate the link between surface stress and surface free energy and various aspects of atomistic models by deriving general expressions for simple central-force pair potentials and an embedded-atom method (EVA) potential. The relationships between these surface thermodynamic quantities and other macroscopic bulk quantities, such as equilibrium bulk modulus B, cohesive energy Ec, lattice parameter a0 and shear modulus G, are made explicit within the framework of these models. It is shown that pair potential models are inherently unable to accurately describe real metal surfaces because of the neglect of many-body effects. The EAM potentials account for these contributions and yield good qualitative agreement with first principles calculations of f and gamma on clean, metal low-index surfaces. We also show that the EAM potentials are flexible enough to provide a good quantitative agreement as well. We discuss two contributions to f and gamma in terms of B and G, and find a correlation between the relative magnitudes of f and gamma and the ratio B/G. The significant effects of relaxation have been determined from molecular dynamics computer simulations of both the pair potential and EAM models. We then present the results of a theoretical study on the stability of fcc(111) metal surfaces to certain commensurate-incommensurate reconstructive phase transformations. Specifically, we have performed computer simulation studies on the 22 x √3 surface reconstruction of Au(111). This reconstruction involves a uniaxial contraction of the top monolayer corresponding to a surface strain of about 4.3% and has been observed to be the stable structure for the clean surface at low temperatures. The driving force for the reconstruction has been identified as f-gamma, while the opposing force is due to the

  1. Cytotoxicity of surface-functionalized silicon and germanium nanoparticles: the dominant role of surface charges.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Singh, Mani P; Atkins, Tonya M; Purkait, Tapas K; Xu, Zejing; Regli, Sarah; Shukaliak, Amber; Clark, Rhett J; Mitchell, Brian S; Alink, Gerrit M; Marcelis, Antonius T M; Fink, Mark J; Veinot, Jonathan G C; Kauzlarich, Susan M; Zuilhof, Han

    2013-06-01

    Although it is frequently hypothesized that surface (like surface charge) and physical characteristics (like particle size) play important roles in cellular interactions of nanoparticles (NPs), a systematic study probing this issue is missing. Hence, a comparative cytotoxicity study, quantifying nine different cellular endpoints, was performed with a broad series of monodisperse, well characterized silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) NPs with various surface functionalizations. Human colonic adenocarcinoma Caco-2 and rat alveolar macrophage NR8383 cells were used to clarify the toxicity of this series of NPs. The surface coatings on the NPs appeared to dominate the cytotoxicity: the cationic NPs exhibited cytotoxicity, whereas the carboxylic acid-terminated and hydrophilic PEG- or dextran-terminated NPs did not. Within the cationic Si NPs, smaller Si NPs were more toxic than bigger ones. Manganese-doped (1% Mn) Si NPs did not show any added toxicity, which favors their further development for bioimaging. Iron-doped (1% Fe) Si NPs showed some added toxicity, which may be due to the leaching of Fe(3+) ions from the core. A silica coating seemed to impart toxicity, in line with the reported toxicity of silica. Intracellular mitochondria seem to be the target for the toxic NPs since a dose-, surface charge- and size-dependent imbalance of the mitochondrial membrane potential was observed. Such an imbalance led to a series of other cellular events for cationic NPs, like decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and ATP production, induction of ROS generation, increased cytoplasmic Ca(2+) content, production of TNF-α and enhanced caspase-3 activity. Taken together, the results explain the toxicity of Si NPs/Ge NPs largely by their surface characteristics, provide insight into the mode of action underlying the observed cytotoxicity, and give directions on synthesizing biocompatible Si and Ge NPs, as this is crucial for bioimaging and other applications in for

  2. Application des ondelettes à l'analyse de texture et à l'inspection de surface industrielle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, D.; Husson, R.

    1993-11-01

    This paper presents a method of texture analysis based on multiresolution wavelets analysis. We discuss the problem of theoretical and experimental choice of the wavelet. Statistical modelling of wavelet images is treated and it results in considering statistical distribution to be a generalized Gaussian law. An algorithm for texture classification is developed with respect of the variances of different wavelet images. An industrial application of this algorithm illustrates its quality and proves its aptitude for automation of certain tasks in industrial control. Nous présentons une méthode d'analyse de texture fondée sur l'analyse multirésolution par ondelettes. Nous discutons du problème du choix théorique et expérimental de l'ondelette. Le problème de la modélisation statistique des images d'ondelettes est traité et aboutit à considérer la distribution statistique comme une loi de Gauss généralisée. Un algorithme de classification de texture est construit à l'aide de la variance des différentes images d'ondelettes. Enfin, une application industrielle de cet algorithme illustre ses qualités et démontre son aptitude à l'automatisation de certaines tâches de contrôle industriel.

  3. Symmetry of surface nanopatterns induced by ion-beam sputtering: Role of anisotropic surface diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renedo, Javier; Cuerno, Rodolfo; Castro, Mario; Muñoz-García, Javier

    2016-04-01

    Ion-beam sputtering (IBS) is a cost-effective technique able to produce ordered nanopatterns on the surfaces of different materials. To date, most theoretical studies of this process have focused on systems which become amorphous under irradiation, e.g., semiconductors at room temperature. Thus, in spite of the large amount of experimental work on metals, or more recently on semiconductors at high temperatures, such experimental contexts have received relatively little theoretical attention. These systems are characterized by transport mechanisms, e.g., surface diffusion, which are anisotropic as a reflection of the crystalline structure not being overruled by the irradiation. Here, we generalize a previous continuum theory of IBS at normal incidence, in order to account for anisotropic surface diffusion. We explore systematically our generalized model in order to understand the role of anisotropy in the space-ordering properties of the resulting patterns. In particular, we derive a height equation which predicts morphological transitions among hexagonal and rectangular patterns as a function of system parameters and employ an angular correlation function to assess these pattern symmetries. By suitably choosing experimental conditions, it is found that one might be able to experimentally control the type of order displayed by the patterns produced.

  4. The role of mineral surfaces in the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Otroshchenko, V A; Vasilyeva, N V

    1977-04-01

    Adsorption of nucleoside phosphates on the surfaces of volcanic rocks has been studied. Differences in the absorption of some nucleoside phosphates on the surface of basalt cinder have been found. Differences in the adsorption of similar molecules on different mineral surfaces have also been shown. Different adsorptive capacities may have served as a mechanism for the selection of organic molecules during prebiotic evolution.

  5. Role of the surface electrocardiogram in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Varma, Niraj

    2010-01-01

    The surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is a basic cardiac investigation delivering information not only regarding heart rhythm but also regarding ischemic disease, effects of hypertension, congenital syndromes, and cardiomyopathies. These may determine decisions regarding follow-up investigations or treatment. The ECG fulfils several characteristics of a good screening test: it is rapid, is noninvasive, requires minimal technical expertise to perform, and is inexpensive. However, its interpretation requires highly trained physicians. In industrialized nations, the test is performed routinely in outpatient clinics and hospitals frequently in conjunction with further cardiac imaging. Developing nations confront a different situation. Urbanized segments may access ECG testing similarly to industrialized countries. However, in a country such as India, 80% of population is rural and poor. Less than 30% of physicians are rurally located, and most are primary care physicians. Access to medical care is limited by sparse and underresourced medical facilities and personnel, poorer socioeconomic status, ignorance of disease, and lack of motivation to seek health care. The ECG may be the only affordable cardiac test for this population, but poor communications (transport, telephone) hamper access. Initiatives to overcome these obstacles are being undertaken in some model situations. For example in Bangalore, India, use of mobile vans equipped with satellite terminals (aided by the Indian Space Research Organization) permits transmission of ECGs from rural points to central urban hospitals for physician interpretation. The physician community has responsibilities of improving the diagnostic yield from the ECG. Rural communities have a different spectrum of diseases with lesser coronary artery disease and greater incidence of valvular disease. The ECG has different roles in these diseases. (In contrast, urban communities in the same country experience diseases of industrialized

  6. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  7. The role of nanopore shape in surface-induced crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Ying; Harada, Takuya; Myerson, Allan S.; Alan Hatton, T.; Trout, Bernhardt L.

    2011-11-01

    Crystallization of a molecular liquid from solution often initiates at solid-liquid interfaces, and nucleation rates are generally believed to be enhanced by surface roughness. Here we show that, on a rough surface, the shape of surface nanopores can also alter nucleation kinetics. Using lithographic methods, we patterned polymer films with nanopores of various shapes and found that spherical nanopores 15-120 nm in diameter hindered nucleation of aspirin crystals, whereas angular nanopores of the same size promoted it. We also show that favourable surface-solute interactions are required for angular nanopores to promote nucleation, and propose that pore shape affects nucleation kinetics through the alteration of the orientational order of the crystallizing molecule near the angles of the pores. Our findings have clear technological implications, for instance in the control of pharmaceutical polymorphism and in the design of ‘seed’ particles for the regulation of crystallization of fine chemicals.

  8. The Role of Mobile Surface Ions in Nanomaterial Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, T. A.; Martin, S. T.

    2007-12-01

    Biogenic and abiotic nanomaterial formation alters the electrical layout of mineral surfaces. Complex dielectric and surface diffusional regimes that affect water sorption, metal co-precipitation, and possibly cell attachment are created. Polarization force microscopy measurements reveal the importance of mobile, surface associated ions in nanomaterial formation, particularly in subaerial conditions. Mass and charge transport between nanostructures can occur via two-dimensional diffusion of surface ions within mono- to multi-layer water. Further, nanostructure stability depends on epitaxy with the underlying substrate. On calcite under humid air, we observe the formation of a 1 to 1.5 nm thick, hydrated calcium carbonate film. This nanophase, which is typically protein- stabilized as an intermediate within biomineralization schema, is instead stabilized by the calcite 104 surface. Moreover, nanostructure dissolution on rhodochrosite is initiated by the accumulation of hydrated, edge- associated ions, most likely representing partially mobilized, positively-charged film material. We connect these molecular-level observations to large-scale, biogeophysical measurements that hold promise of remotely sensing bacteria in the subsurface (e.g., induced polarization (IP)). Here, mobile surface ion diffusion at the cell- mineral interface and biogenic nanomaterial formation are identified as key contributors to the poorly understood IP signature of bacteria in porous media.

  9. The role of surface elasticity in liquid film formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champougny, Lorene; Scheid, Benoit; Restagno, Frederic; Rio, Emmanuelle; Laboratoire de Physique des Solides Team; TIPS-Fluid Physics Unit Team

    2014-11-01

    The formation of thin liquid films, either free standing (soap films) or deposited on a solid substrate (coated films), is of utmost importance for many applications, ranging from the control of foam stability to surface functionalization. In this work, the behavior of thin liquid films during their generation from a surfactant solution is investigated through comparison between a hydrodynamic model including surface elasticity and experiments. ``Twin'' models are proposed to describe the coating of films onto a solid plate (Landau-Levich-Derjaguin configuration) as well as soap film pulling (Frankel configuration) in a single framework. Experimental data are successfully fitted using the models, surface elasticity being the only adjustable parameter. For a given surfactant solution, the analyses of soap and coated films both yield the same value for the effective surface elasticity, showing that it is an intrinsic parameter of a surfactant solution. Conversely, we demonstrate that Frankel- or Landau-Levich-like experiments can be used in practice as surface rheometers to determine the numerical value of the (effective) surface elasticity of a solution, especially for values lower than those measurable by classical devices. L.C. was supported by ANR F2F. B.S. thanks the F.R.S.-FNRS for funding as well as the IAP-MicroMAST project.

  10. Surface wettability plays a significant role in gecko adhesion underwater.

    PubMed

    Stark, Alyssa Y; Badge, Ila; Wucinich, Nicholas A; Sullivan, Timothy W; Niewiarowski, Peter H; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2013-04-16

    Although we now have thousands of studies focused on the nano-, micro-, and whole-animal mechanics of gecko adhesion on clean, dry substrates, we know relatively little about the effects of water on gecko adhesion. For many gecko species, however, rainfall frequently wets the natural surfaces they navigate. In an effort to begin closing this gap, we tested the adhesion of geckos on submerged substrates that vary in their wettability. When tested on a wet hydrophilic surface, geckos produced a significantly lower shear adhesive force (5.4 ± 1.33 N) compared with a dry hydrophilic surface (17.1 ± 3.93 N). In tests on an intermediate wetting surface and a hydrophobic surface, we found no difference in shear adhesion between dry and wet contact. Finally, in tests on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), we found that geckos clung significantly better to wet PTFE (8.0 ± 1.09 N) than dry PTFE (1.6 ± 0.66 N). To help explain our results, we developed models based on thermodynamic theory of adhesion for contacting surfaces in different media and found that we can predict the ratio of shear adhesion in water to that in air. Our findings provide insight into how geckos may function in wet environments and also have significant implications for the development of a synthetic gecko mimic that retains adhesion in water. PMID:23576727

  11. Role of Surface Roughness in Hysteresis during Adhesive Elastic Contact

    PubMed Central

    Kesari, Haneesh; Doll, Joseph C.; Pruitt, Beth L.; Cai, Wei; Lew, Adrian J.

    2010-01-01

    In experiments that involve contact with adhesion between two surfaces, as found in atomic force microscopy or nanoindentation, two distinct contact force (P) vs. indentation-depth (h) curves are often measured depending on whether the indenter moves towards or away from the sample. The origin of this hysteresis is not well understood and is often attributed to moisture, plasticity or viscoelasticity. Here we report experiments that show that hysteresis can exist in the absence of these effects, and that its magnitude depends on surface roughness. We develop a theoretical model in which the hysteresis appears as the result of a series of surface instabilities, in which the contact area grows or recedes by a finite amount. The model can be used to estimate material properties from contact experiments even when the measured P-h curves are not unique. PMID:21152108

  12. The Role of Surface Chemistry in Filter Feeding by Zooplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerritsen, Jeroen; Porter, Karen G.

    1982-06-01

    Surface chemistry of both particles and animals is important in filter feeding at low Reynolds number. Daphnia magna, fed mixtures of three sizes of polystyrene particles, retained particles that were smaller than the mesh size of the animals (1.0 micrometer) at greater efficiencies than predicted by a sieving model. Retention efficiency of the smallest particles (0.5 micrometer) was increased when negative surface charge on the particles was neutralized, and retention was decreased when a nonionic surfactant was added to reduce wettability.

  13. Role of Nucleonic Fermi Surface Depletion in Neutron Star Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. M.; Lombardo, U.; Zhang, H. F.; Zuo, W.

    2016-01-01

    The Fermi surface depletion of beta-stable nuclear matter is calculated to study its effects on several physical properties that determine the neutron star (NS) thermal evolution. The neutron and proton Z factors measuring the corresponding Fermi surface depletions are calculated within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach, employing the AV18 two-body force supplemented by a microscopic three-body force. Neutrino emissivity, heat capacity, and in particular neutron 3PF2 superfluidity, turn out to be reduced, especially at high baryonic density, to such an extent that the cooling rates of young NSs are significantly slowed.

  14. The role of drinks in tooth surface loss.

    PubMed

    Rees, J S

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the current knowledge about the interaction between various groups of drinks and tooth surface loss. It begins by examining how the erosive effects of drinks are assessed in the laboratory and clinically. It then surveys the current erosive effects of various groups of drinks, including carbonated drinks, mineral waters, alcopops, ciders, beers, wine and fruit teas. PMID:15376715

  15. PHOTOREACTIONS IN SURFACE WATERS AND THEIR ROLE IN BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past decade significant interest has developed in the influence of photochemical reactions on biogeochemical cycles in surface waters of lakes and the sea. A major portion of recent research on these photoreactions has focused on the colored component of dissolved org...

  16. The role of surface Pt on the coadsorption of hydrogen and CO on Pt monolayer film modified Ru(0001) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diemant, T.; Hartmann, H.; Bansmann, J.; Behm, R. J.

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the impact and role of the Pt surface modification on the coadsorption of hydrogen and CO on structurally well defined bimetallic Pt monolayer island/film modified Ru(0001) surfaces with Pt contents up to a complete Pt layer, employing temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). Kinetic limitations in the surface diffusion are shown to play an important role for adsorption at 90 K, and lead to profound effects of the dosing sequence on the adsorption and desorption characteristics. Furthermore, they are responsible for spill-over effects during the TPD measurements, where COad becomes mobile and can spill-over from weakly bonding Pt monolayer areas to strongly bonding Pt-free Ru(0001) areas, which displaces Dad from these surface areas. The present findings are discussed in comparison with previous results on related metallic and bimetallic adsorption and coadsorption systems.

  17. Role of surface electromagnetic waves in metamaterial absorbers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Chen; Cardin, Andrew; Koirala, Machhindra; Liu, Xianliang; Tyler, Talmage; West, Kevin G; Bingham, Christopher M; Starr, Tatiana; Starr, Anthony F; Jokerst, Nan M; Padilla, Willie J

    2016-03-21

    Metamaterial absorbers have been demonstrated across much of the electromagnetic spectrum and exhibit both broad and narrow-band absorption for normally incident radiation. Absorption diminishes for increasing angles of incidence and transverse electric polarization falls off much more rapidly than transverse magnetic. We unambiguously demonstrate that broad-angle TM behavior cannot be associated with periodicity, but rather is due to coupling with a surface electromagnetic mode that is both supported by, and well described via the effective optical constants of the metamaterial where we achieve a resonant wavelength that is 19.1 times larger than the unit cell. Experimental results are supported by simulations and we highlight the potential to modify the angular response of absorbers by tailoring the surface wave. PMID:27136864

  18. Role of surface electromagnetic waves in metamaterial absorbers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Chen; Cardin, Andrew; Koirala, Machhindra; Liu, Xianliang; Tyler, Talmage; West, Kevin G; Bingham, Christopher M; Starr, Tatiana; Starr, Anthony F; Jokerst, Nan M; Padilla, Willie J

    2016-03-21

    Metamaterial absorbers have been demonstrated across much of the electromagnetic spectrum and exhibit both broad and narrow-band absorption for normally incident radiation. Absorption diminishes for increasing angles of incidence and transverse electric polarization falls off much more rapidly than transverse magnetic. We unambiguously demonstrate that broad-angle TM behavior cannot be associated with periodicity, but rather is due to coupling with a surface electromagnetic mode that is both supported by, and well described via the effective optical constants of the metamaterial where we achieve a resonant wavelength that is 19.1 times larger than the unit cell. Experimental results are supported by simulations and we highlight the potential to modify the angular response of absorbers by tailoring the surface wave.

  19. The Role of Glottal Surface Adhesion on Vocal Folds Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Pinaki; Siegmund, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The airway surface liquid (ASL) is a very thin mucus layer and covers the vocal fold (VF) surface. Adhesion mediated by the ASL occurs during phonation as the VFs separate after collision. Such adhesion is hypothesized to determine voice quality and health. However, biomechanical insights into the adhesive processes during VF oscillation are lacking. Here, a computational study is reported on self-sustained VF vibration involving contact and adhesion. The VF structural model and the glottal airflow are considered fully three-dimensional. The mechanical behavior of the ASL is described through a constitutive traction–separation law where mucosal cohesive strength, cohesive energy and rupture length enter. Cohesive energy values considered are bound below by the cohesive energy of water at standard temperature and pressure. Cohesive strength values considered are bound above by prior reported data on the adhesive strength of mucosal surface of rat small intestine. This model introduces a mechanical length scale into the analysis. The sensitivity of various aspects of VF dynamics such as flow-declination rate, VF separation under adhesive condition and formation of multiple local fluid bridges is determined in relation to specific ASL adhesive properties. It is found that for the ASL considered here, the characteristics of the VF separation process are of debond type. Instabilities lead to the breakup of the bond area into several smaller bond patches. Such finding is consistent with in-vivo observations. PMID:25034504

  20. Role of Complement on Broken Surfaces After Trauma.

    PubMed

    Huber-Lang, Markus; Ignatius, Anita; Brenner, Rolf E

    2015-01-01

    Activation of both the complement and coagulation cascade after trauma and subsequent local and systemic inflammatory response represent a major scientific and clinical problem. After severe tissue injury and bone fracture, exposure of innate immunity to damaged cells and molecular debris is considered a main trigger of the posttraumatic danger response. However, the effects of cellular fragments (e.g., histones) on complement activation remain enigmatic. Furthermore, direct effects of "broken" bone and cartilage surfaces on the fluid phase response of complement and its interaction with key cells of connective tissues are still unknown. Here, we summarize data suggesting direct and indirect complement activation by extracellular and cellular danger associated molecular patterns. In addition, key complement components and the corresponding receptors (such as C3aR, C5aR) have been detected on "exposed surfaces" of the damaged regions. On a cellular level, multiple effects of complement activation products on osteoblasts, osteoclasts, chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells have been found.In conclusion, the complement system may be activated by trauma-altered surfaces and is crucially involved in connective tissue healing and posttraumatic systemic inflammatory response. PMID:26306442

  1. Role of Complement on Broken Surfaces After Trauma.

    PubMed

    Huber-Lang, Markus; Ignatius, Anita; Brenner, Rolf E

    2015-01-01

    Activation of both the complement and coagulation cascade after trauma and subsequent local and systemic inflammatory response represent a major scientific and clinical problem. After severe tissue injury and bone fracture, exposure of innate immunity to damaged cells and molecular debris is considered a main trigger of the posttraumatic danger response. However, the effects of cellular fragments (e.g., histones) on complement activation remain enigmatic. Furthermore, direct effects of "broken" bone and cartilage surfaces on the fluid phase response of complement and its interaction with key cells of connective tissues are still unknown. Here, we summarize data suggesting direct and indirect complement activation by extracellular and cellular danger associated molecular patterns. In addition, key complement components and the corresponding receptors (such as C3aR, C5aR) have been detected on "exposed surfaces" of the damaged regions. On a cellular level, multiple effects of complement activation products on osteoblasts, osteoclasts, chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells have been found.In conclusion, the complement system may be activated by trauma-altered surfaces and is crucially involved in connective tissue healing and posttraumatic systemic inflammatory response.

  2. Role of surface energy coefficients and nuclear surface diffuseness in the fusion of heavy-ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, Ishwar; Puri, Rajeev K.

    2010-04-01

    We discuss the effect of surface energy coefficients as well as nuclear surface diffuseness in the proximity potential and ultimately in the fusion of heavy-ions. Here we employ different versions of surface energy coefficients. Our analysis reveals that these technical parameters can influence the fusion barriers by a significant amount. A best set of these parameters is also given that explains the experimental data nicely.

  3. Roles of Surface and Interface Spins in Exchange Coupled Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Manh-Huong

    Exchange bias (EB) in magnetic nanostructures has remained a topic of global interest because of its potential use in spin valves, MRAM circuits, magnetic tunnel junctions, and spintronic devices. The exploration of EB on the nanoscale provides a novel approach to overcoming the superparamagnetic limit and increasing the thermoremanence of magnetic nanoparticles, a critical bottleneck for magnetic data storage applications. Recent advances in chemical synthesis have given us a unique opportunity to explore the EB in a variety of nanoparticle systems ranging from core/shell nanoparticles of Fe/γFe2O3, Co/CoO,and FeO/Fe3O4 to hollow nanoparticles of γFe2O3 and hybrid composite nanoparticles of Au/Fe3O4. Our studies have addressed the following fundamental and important questions: (i) Can one decouple collective contributions of the interface and surface spins to the EB in a core/shell nanoparticle system? (ii) Can the dynamic and static response of the core and shell be identified separately? (iii) Can one tune ``minor loop'' to ``exchange bias'' effects in magnetic hollow nanoparticles by varying the number of surface spins? (iv) Can one decouple collective contributions of the inner and outer surface spins to the EB in a hollow nanoparticle system? (v) Can EB be induced in a magnetic nanoparticle by forming its interface with a non-magnetic metal? Such knowledge is essential to tailor EB in magnetic nanostructures for spintronics applications. In this talk, we will discuss the aforementioned findings in terms of our experimental and atomistic Monte Carlo studies. The work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award No. DE-FG02-07ER46438.

  4. The Role of Cooling in Pahohoe Emplacement on Planetary Surfaces.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, L. S.; Baloga, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Abundant evidence is emerging that many lavas on Mars were emplaced as slow-moving pahoehoe flows. Models for such scenarios contrast sharply with those for steep-sloped applications where gravity is the dominant force. The mode of flow emplacement on low slopes is characterized by toe formation and inflation. In the latter phase of pahoehoe flow emplacement, stagnation, inflation, and toe formation are most closely tied to the final topography, dimensions, and morphologic features. This mode of emplacement is particularly relevant to the low slopes of planetary surfaces such as the plains of Mars, Io and the Moon.

  5. Role of radiogenic heat generation in surface heat flow formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khutorskoi, M. D.; Polyak, B. G.

    2016-03-01

    Heat generation due to decay of long-lived radioactive isotopes is considered in the Earth's crust of the Archean-Proterozoic and Paleozoic provinces of Eurasia and North America. The heat flow that forms in the mantle is calculated as the difference between the heat flow observed at the boundary of the solid Earth and radiogenic heat flow produced in the crust. The heat regime in regions with anomalously high radiogenic heat generation is discussed. The relationship between various heat flow components in the Precambrian and Phanerozoic provinces has been comparatively analyzed, and the role of erosion of the surfaceheat- generating layer has been estimated.

  6. The role of exogenic factors in the formation of the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florenskiy, K. P.; Bazilevskiy, A. T.; Ivanov, A. V.

    1977-01-01

    The formation of the surface of planetary bodies is determined by the interaction of endogenic and exogenic forces. Clarification of the mutual role of these forces is one of the most important trends in the geological sciences.

  7. Role of Salmonella surface components in immunomodulation of inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Alka; Tiwari, Ram Prakash; Koul, Ashwani; Chanana, Vishal; Gupta, Saraswati; Rishi, Praveen

    2005-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and its surface components were assessed for their inflammatory potential by footpad oedema test using plethysmometer. Inflammation was found to be the highest when outer membrane proteins (OMPs) were used as inflammagen followed by lipid associated protein-lipopolysaccharide complex (LAP-LPS) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Inflammation produced by OMPs was found to be comparable to that by carrageenan (a known positive inflammagen). However, injection of L-histidine (an antioxidant) prior to administration of carrageenan or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium inhibited the inflammation, which indicated the involvement of oxidants during inflammatory response. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and nitric oxide (NO) production by peritoneal macrophages from infected mice exhibited a significant increase as compared to those of the immunized mice. In contrast, glutathione production was found to be the maximum in the macrophages taken from OMPs-immunized mice followed by LAP-LPS and LPS alone. The biochemical studies correlated well with histopathological studies of intestinal tissue of animals from various groups. Based upon these parameters, inflammation seems to be modulated by OMPs and LAP-LPS, which may be because of the protein moieties present in the components. Hence, immunization with protein moieties having L-histidine or L-histidine-like structures may suggest an alternative to the potential therapeutic values of anti-inflammatory drugs. Thus the results of this study form the basis for evaluating these antigens (either alone or in combination with polysaccharides) for preventive intervention rather than therapeutic.

  8. Thin film lubrication of hexadecane confined by iron and iron oxide surfaces: A crucial role of surface structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ta, D. T.; Tieu, A. K.; Zhu, H. T. Kosasih, B.

    2015-10-28

    A comparative analysis of thin film lubrication of hexadecane between different iron and its oxide surfaces has been carried out using classical molecular dynamic simulation. An ab initio force-field, COMPASS, was applied for n-hexadecane using explicit atom model. An effective potential derived from density functional theory calculation was utilized for the interfacial interaction between hexadecane and the tribo-surfaces. A quantitative surface parameterization was introduced to investigate the influence of surface properties on the structure, rheological properties, and tribological performance of the lubricant. The results show that although the wall-fluid attraction of hexadecane on pure iron surfaces is significantly stronger than its oxides, there is a considerable reduction of shear stress of confined n-hexadecane film between Fe(100) and Fe(110) surfaces compared with FeO(110), FeO(111), Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(001), and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(012). It was found that, in thin film lubrication of hexadecane between smooth iron and iron oxide surfaces, the surface corrugation plays a role more important than the wall-fluid adhesion strength.

  9. Roles in Modulation of Molecular Structures on Metal Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.-J.

    2007-03-01

    We studied the adsorption of organic molecules, their growth behavior, and their physical properties on silver and gold surfaces at the single molecule or sub-molecular scale by using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopes. Combined with low energy electron diffraction and first-principles density functional theory calculations, the key parameters in modulating molecular structures on metals are analyzed. It is found that the alkyl chains of quinacridone derivatives (QA) determine the orientation of molecular overlayers on an Ag(110) substrate. The interaction of QA and the Ag substrate is primarily due to chemical bonding of oxygen to specific positions at the silver substrate, determining the molecular orientation and preferred adsorption site. However, the intermolecular arrangement can be adjusted via the length of attached alkyl chains. We are thus able to fabricate uniform QA films with very well controlled physical properties. Furthermore, by thermal and chemical control, we are able to self-assemble three dimensional molecular nanostructures, e.g. ordered PTCDA structures exclusively on flat Ag(111) facets, or DMe-DCNQI structures exclusively on stepped Ag(221) facets. It is demonstrated that bonding, the key factor for selectivity, occurs via the end-atoms, while the molecule's mid-region arches away from the substrate. Theoretical results, obtained by high-level theory, are consistent with the experimental observations, which have previously been interpreted in terms of bonding through the mid-region. In collaboration with D.X. Shi, S.X. Du, W. Ji, Z.T. Deng, L. Gao, Institute of Physics, and X. Lin, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; C. Seidel and H. Fuchs, Universit"at M"unster, Germany; W.A. Hofer, The University of Liverpool, Britain; and S. T. Pantelides, Vanderbilt University, USA. [1] D.X. Shi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 226101(2006). [2] S.X. Du et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 226101(2006). [3] L. Gao et al., Phys. Rev. B 73, 075424(2006).

  10. A critical study of the role of the surface oxide layer in titanium bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, S.; Wightman, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    The molecular understanding of the role which the surface oxide layer of the adherend plays in titanium bonding is studied. The effects of Ti6-4 adherends pretreatment, bonding conditions, and thermal aging of the lap shear specimens were studied. The use of the SEM/EDAX and ESCA techniques to study surface morphology and surface composition was emphasized. In addition, contact angles and both infrared and visible reflection spectroscopy were used in ancillary studies.

  11. The role of surface chemistry in adhesion and wetting of gecko toe pads.

    PubMed

    Badge, Ila; Stark, Alyssa Y; Paoloni, Eva L; Niewiarowski, Peter H; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2014-10-17

    An array of micron-sized setal hairs offers geckos a unique ability to walk on vertical surfaces using van der Waals interactions. Although many studies have focused on the role of surface morphology of the hairs, very little is known about the role of surface chemistry on wetting and adhesion. We expect that both surface chemistry and morphology are important, not only to achieve optimum dry adhesion but also for increased efficiency in self-cleaning of water and adhesion under wet conditions. Here, we used a plasma-based vapor deposition process to coat the hairy patterns on gecko toe pad sheds with polar and non-polar coatings without significantly perturbing the setal morphology. By a comparison of wetting across treatments, we show that the intrinsic surface of gecko setae has a water contact angle between 70-90°. As expected, under wet conditions, adhesion on a hydrophilic surface (glass) was lower than that on a hydrophobic surface (alkyl-silane monolayer on glass). Surprisingly under wet and dry conditions the adhesion was comparable on the hydrophobic surface, independent of the surface chemistry of the setal hairs. This work highlights the need to utilize morphology and surface chemistry in developing successful synthetic adhesives with desirable adhesion and self-cleaning properties.

  12. The Role of Surface Chemistry in Adhesion and Wetting of Gecko Toe Pads

    PubMed Central

    Badge, Ila; Stark, Alyssa Y.; Paoloni, Eva L.; Niewiarowski, Peter H.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2014-01-01

    An array of micron-sized setal hairs offers geckos a unique ability to walk on vertical surfaces using van der Waals interactions. Although many studies have focused on the role of surface morphology of the hairs, very little is known about the role of surface chemistry on wetting and adhesion. We expect that both surface chemistry and morphology are important, not only to achieve optimum dry adhesion but also for increased efficiency in self-cleaning of water and adhesion under wet conditions. Here, we used a plasma-based vapor deposition process to coat the hairy patterns on gecko toe pad sheds with polar and non-polar coatings without significantly perturbing the setal morphology. By a comparison of wetting across treatments, we show that the intrinsic surface of gecko setae has a water contact angle between 70–90°. As expected, under wet conditions, adhesion on a hydrophilic surface (glass) was lower than that on a hydrophobic surface (alkyl-silane monolayer on glass). Surprisingly under wet and dry conditions the adhesion was comparable on the hydrophobic surface, independent of the surface chemistry of the setal hairs. This work highlights the need to utilize morphology and surface chemistry in developing successful synthetic adhesives with desirable adhesion and self-cleaning properties. PMID:25323067

  13. The Role of Surface Chemistry in Adhesion and Wetting of Gecko Toe Pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badge, Ila; Stark, Alyssa Y.; Paoloni, Eva L.; Niewiarowski, Peter H.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2014-10-01

    An array of micron-sized setal hairs offers geckos a unique ability to walk on vertical surfaces using van der Waals interactions. Although many studies have focused on the role of surface morphology of the hairs, very little is known about the role of surface chemistry on wetting and adhesion. We expect that both surface chemistry and morphology are important, not only to achieve optimum dry adhesion but also for increased efficiency in self-cleaning of water and adhesion under wet conditions. Here, we used a plasma-based vapor deposition process to coat the hairy patterns on gecko toe pad sheds with polar and non-polar coatings without significantly perturbing the setal morphology. By a comparison of wetting across treatments, we show that the intrinsic surface of gecko setae has a water contact angle between 70-90°. As expected, under wet conditions, adhesion on a hydrophilic surface (glass) was lower than that on a hydrophobic surface (alkyl-silane monolayer on glass). Surprisingly under wet and dry conditions the adhesion was comparable on the hydrophobic surface, independent of the surface chemistry of the setal hairs. This work highlights the need to utilize morphology and surface chemistry in developing successful synthetic adhesives with desirable adhesion and self-cleaning properties.

  14. Larval settlement: the role of surface topography for sessile coral reef invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Whalan, Steve; Wahab, Muhammad A Abdul; Sprungala, Susanne; Poole, Andrew J; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    For sessile marine invertebrates with complex life cycles, habitat choice is directed by the larval phase. Defining which habitat-linked cues are implicated in sessile invertebrate larval settlement has largely concentrated on chemical cues which are thought to signal optimal habitat. There has been less effort establishing physical settlement cues, including the role of surface microtopography. This laboratory based study tested whether surface microtopography alone (without chemical cues) plays an important contributing role in the settlement of larvae of coral reef sessile invertebrates. We measured settlement to tiles, engineered with surface microtopography (holes) that closely matched the sizes (width) of larvae of a range of corals and sponges, in addition to surfaces with holes that were markedly larger than larvae. Larvae from two species of scleractinian corals (Acropora millepora and Ctenactis crassa) and three species of coral reef sponges (Luffariella variabilis, Carteriospongia foliascens and Ircinia sp.,) were used in experiments. L. variabilis, A. millepora and C. crassa showed markedly higher settlement to surface microtopography that closely matched their larval width. C. foliascens and Ircinia sp., showed no specificity to surface microtopography, settling just as often to microtopography as to flat surfaces. The findings of this study question the sole reliance on chemical based larval settlement cues, previously established for some coral and sponge species, and demonstrate that specific physical cues (surface complexity) can also play an important role in larval settlement of coral reef sessile invertebrates.

  15. Impact de la preparation des anodes crues et des conditions de cuisson sur la fissuration dans des anodes denses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrani, Salah

    La fabrication de l'aluminium est realisee dans une cellule d'electrolyse, et cette operation utilise des anodes en carbone. L'evaluation de la qualite de ces anodes reste indispensable avant leur utilisation. La presence des fissures dans les anodes provoque une perturbation du procede l'electrolyse et une diminution de sa performance. Ce projet a ete entrepris pour determiner l'impact des differents parametres de procedes de fabrication des anodes sur la fissuration des anodes denses. Ces parametres incluent ceux de la fabrication des anodes crues, des proprietes des matieres premieres et de la cuisson. Une recherche bibliographique a ete effectuee sur tous les aspects de la fissuration des anodes en carbone pour compiler les travaux anterieurs. Une methodologie detaillee a ete mise au point pour faciliter le deroulement des travaux et atteindre les objectifs vises. La majorite de ce document est reservee pour la discussion des resultats obtenus au laboratoire de l'UQAC et au niveau industriel. Concernant les etudes realisees a l'UQAC, une partie des travaux experimentaux est reservee a la recherche des differents mecanismes de fissuration dans les anodes denses utilisees dans l'industrie d'aluminium. L'approche etait d'abord basee sur la caracterisation qualitative du mecanisme de la fissuration en surface et en profondeur. Puis, une caracterisation quantitative a ete realisee pour la determination de la distribution de la largeur de la fissure sur toute sa longueur, ainsi que le pourcentage de sa surface par rapport a la surface totale de l'echantillon. Cette etude a ete realisee par le biais de la technique d'analyse d'image utilisee pour caracteriser la fissuration d'un echantillon d'anode cuite. L'analyse surfacique et en profondeur de cet echantillon a permis de voir clairement la formation des fissures sur une grande partie de la surface analysee. L'autre partie des travaux est basee sur la caracterisation des defauts dans des echantillons d'anodes crues

  16. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    Plasma outflows from a central gravitating object are a widespread phenomenon in astrophysics. They include the solar and stellar winds, jets from Young Stellar Objects, jets from compact stellar objects and extra-galactic jets associated with Active Galactic Nuclei and quasars. Beyond this huge zoology, a common theoretical ground exists. The aim of this review is to present qualitatively the various theories of winds (Part 1) and how different astrophysical domains interplay. A more or less complete catalog of the ideas proposed for explaining the acceleration and the morphologies of winds and jets is intended. All this part avoids getting into any mathematical formalism. Some macroscopic properties of such outflows may be described by solving the time-independent and axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic equations. This formalism, underlying most of the theories, is presented in Part 2. It helps to introduce quantitatively the free integrals that such systems possess. Those integrals play an important role in the basic physics of acceleration and collimation, in particular the mass loss rate, the angular momentum loss rate and the energy of the magnetic rotator. Most of the difficulty in modelling flows lies in the necessity to cross critical points, characteristic of non linear equations. The physical nature and the location of such critical points is debated because they are the clue towards the resolution. We thus introduce the notions of topology and critical points (Parts 3 and 4) from the simplest hydrodynamic and spherically symmetric case to the most sophisticated, MHD and axisymmetric cases. Particular attention is given to self-similar models which allows to give some general and simple ideas on the problem due to their semi-analytical treatment. With the use of these notions, a more quantitative comparison of the various models is given (Parts 3 and 4), especially on the shape of the flows. It is thus shown that magnetic collimation of winds into jets is a

  17. Etude de la migration des interstitiels dans des austenites Fe, Cr (18), Ni (14) pures et industrielles par irradiation dans un microscope a tres haute tension: Role du carbone et du titane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housseau, N.; Pelissier, J.

    1983-12-01

    Nous avons étudié le rôle des impurtés (C ou Ti) dans la condensation et la migration des défauts interstitiels. Les échantillons étudiés sont des aciers austénitiques: (a) acier de synthèse de haute pureté (Cr 18, Ni 14, Fe) avec ou sans carbone; (b) acier industriel avec C (800 ppm) ou Ti (0,45%). Les échantillons ont été irradiés dans un microscope à très haute tension aux doses allant de 10 -4 jusqu'à 10 -1 dpa aux températures de 300°C à 400°C. Dans de telles conditions les défauts observés sont des boucles interstitielles. L'étude de la variation de l'épaisseur de la zone dénudée près du bord de la lame mince en fonction de la température nous a permis d'évaluer l'énergie de migration effective de l'interstitiel dans ces alliages. Dans l'austénite de synthèse carburée ou non sa valeur est de 0.8 eV. Dans l'acier industriel au titane carburé ou non on obtient 2.0 eV. Nous n'avons pas observé d'effet lié au carbone. L'examen de la densité de boucles à saturation dans les divers aciers suggère une forte énergie de liaison interstitiel-titane. Cette énergie de liaison, si l'ont admet que le titane est la seule impureté agissante du système, peut être estimée à 1.2 eV.

  18. The Role of Surface Receptor Density in Surface-Initiated Polymerizations for Cancer Cell Isolation.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Jacob L; Berron, Brad J

    2016-06-01

    Fluid biopsies potentially offer a minimally invasive alternative to traditional tissue biopsies for the continual monitoring of metastatic cancer. Current established technologies for isolating circulating tumor cells (CTCs) suffer from poor purity and yield and require fixatives that preclude the collection of viable cells for longitudinal analyses of biological function. Antigen specific lysis (ASL) is a rapid, high-purity method of cell isolation based on targeted protective coatings on antigen-presenting cells and lysis depletion of unprotected antigen-negative cells. In ASL, photoinitiators are specifically labeled on cell surfaces that enable subsequent surface-initiated polymerization. Critically, the significant determinants of process yield have yet to be investigated for this emerging technology. In this work, we show that the labeling density of photoinitiators is strongly correlated with the yield of intact cells during ASL by flow cytometry analysis. Results suggest ASL is capable of delivering ∼25% of targeted cells after isolation using traditional antibody labeling approaches. Monomer formulations of two molecular weights of PEG-diacrylate (Mn ∼ 575 and 3500) are examined. The gelation response during ASL polymerization is also investigated via protein microarray analogues on planar glass. Finally, a density threshold of photoinitiator labeling required for protection during lysis is determined for both monomer formulations. These results indicate ASL is a promising technology for high yield CTC isolation for rare-cell function assays and fluid biopsies. PMID:27206735

  19. Role of multiple shots of femtosecond laser pulses in periodic surface nanoablation

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaji, Godai; Miyazaki, Kenzo

    2013-08-12

    Using a pump and probe technique, we observed time-dependent change in reflectivity of crystalline silicon surface to study the dynamic process of periodic surface nanostructure formation in femtosecond (fs) laser ablation. The results have shown that multiple shots of low-fluence fs laser pulses play the crucial role in the non-thermal process for nanostructuring through the increasing bonding structure change to amorphous silicon and resulting decrease in the ablation threshold.

  20. The role of motility and chemotaxis in the bacterial colonization of protected surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Tamar, Einat; Koler, Moriah; Vaknin, Ady

    2016-01-01

    Internal epithelial surfaces in humans are both oxygenated and physically protected by a few hundred microns thick hydrogel mucosal layer, conditions that might support bacterial aerotaxis. However, the potential role of aerotaxis in crossing such a thin hydrogel layer is not clear. Here, we used a new setup to study the potential role of motility and chemotaxis in the bacterial colonization of surfaces covered by a thin hydrogel layer and subjected to a vertical oxygen gradient. Using the bacterium Escherichia coli, we show that both non-motile and motile-but-non-chemotactic bacteria could barely reach the surface. However, an acquired mutation in the non-chemotactic bacteria that altered their inherent swimming behavior led to a critical enhancement of surface colonization. Most chemotactic strains accumulated within the bulk of the hydrogel layer, except for the MG1655 strain, which showed a unique tendency to accumulate directly at the oxygenated surface and thus exhibited distinctly enhanced colonization. Even after a long period of bacterial growth, non-motile bacteria could not colonize the hydrogel. Thus, switching motility, which can be spontaneously acquired or altered in vivo, is critical for the colonization of such protected surfaces, whereas aerotaxis capacity clearly expedites surface colonization, and can lead to diverse colonization patterns. PMID:26792493

  1. The role of motility and chemotaxis in the bacterial colonization of protected surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tamar, Einat; Koler, Moriah; Vaknin, Ady

    2016-01-01

    Internal epithelial surfaces in humans are both oxygenated and physically protected by a few hundred microns thick hydrogel mucosal layer, conditions that might support bacterial aerotaxis. However, the potential role of aerotaxis in crossing such a thin hydrogel layer is not clear. Here, we used a new setup to study the potential role of motility and chemotaxis in the bacterial colonization of surfaces covered by a thin hydrogel layer and subjected to a vertical oxygen gradient. Using the bacterium Escherichia coli, we show that both non-motile and motile-but-non-chemotactic bacteria could barely reach the surface. However, an acquired mutation in the non-chemotactic bacteria that altered their inherent swimming behavior led to a critical enhancement of surface colonization. Most chemotactic strains accumulated within the bulk of the hydrogel layer, except for the MG1655 strain, which showed a unique tendency to accumulate directly at the oxygenated surface and thus exhibited distinctly enhanced colonization. Even after a long period of bacterial growth, non-motile bacteria could not colonize the hydrogel. Thus, switching motility, which can be spontaneously acquired or altered in vivo, is critical for the colonization of such protected surfaces, whereas aerotaxis capacity clearly expedites surface colonization, and can lead to diverse colonization patterns. PMID:26792493

  2. Condensation on superhydrophobic surfaces: the role of local energy barriers and structure length scale.

    PubMed

    Enright, Ryan; Miljkovic, Nenad; Al-Obeidi, Ahmed; Thompson, Carl V; Wang, Evelyn N

    2012-10-01

    Water condensation on surfaces is a ubiquitous phase-change process that plays a crucial role in nature and across a range of industrial applications, including energy production, desalination, and environmental control. Nanotechnology has created opportunities to manipulate this process through the precise control of surface structure and chemistry, thus enabling the biomimicry of natural surfaces, such as the leaves of certain plant species, to realize superhydrophobic condensation. However, this "bottom-up" wetting process is inadequately described using typical global thermodynamic analyses and remains poorly understood. In this work, we elucidate, through imaging experiments on surfaces with structure length scales ranging from 100 nm to 10 μm and wetting physics, how local energy barriers are essential to understand non-equilibrium condensed droplet morphologies and demonstrate that overcoming these barriers via nucleation-mediated droplet-droplet interactions leads to the emergence of wetting states not predicted by scale-invariant global thermodynamic analysis. This mechanistic understanding offers insight into the role of surface-structure length scale, provides a quantitative basis for designing surfaces optimized for condensation in engineered systems, and promises insight into ice formation on surfaces that initiates with the condensation of subcooled water.

  3. Role of Surface Termination in Atomic Layer Deposition of Silicon Nitride.

    PubMed

    Ande, Chaitanya Krishna; Knoops, Harm C M; de Peuter, Koen; van Drunen, Maarten; Elliott, Simon D; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M

    2015-09-17

    There is an urgent need to deposit uniform, high-quality, conformal SiN(x) thin films at a low-temperature. Conforming to these constraints, we recently developed a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) process with bis(tertiary-butyl-amino)silane (BTBAS) as the silicon precursor. However, deposition of high quality SiNx thin films at reasonable growth rates occurs only when N2 plasma is used as the coreactant; strongly reduced growth rates are observed when other coreactants like NH3 plasma, or N2-H2 plasma are used. Experiments reported in this Letter reveal that NH(x)- or H- containing plasmas suppress film deposition by terminating reactive surface sites with H and NH(x) groups and inhibiting precursor adsorption. To understand the role of these surface groups on precursor adsorption, we carried out first-principles calculations of precursor adsorption on the β-Si3N4(0001) surface with different surface terminations. They show that adsorption of the precursor is strong on surfaces with undercoordinated surface sites. In contrast, on surfaces with H, NH2 groups, or both, steric hindrance leads to weak precursor adsorption. Experimental and first-principles results together show that using an N2 plasma to generate reactive undercoordinated surface sites allows strong adsorption of the silicon precursor and, hence, is key to successful deposition of silicon nitride by ALD. PMID:26722730

  4. Geometrical evolution of interlocked rough slip surfaces: The role of normal stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badt, Nir; Hatzor, Yossef H.; Toussaint, Renaud; Sagy, Amir

    2016-06-01

    distribution clearly increase with increasing normal stress. Wear loss is measured by subtracting the post-shear surface from the pre-shear surface matrices using known reference points. Our measurements indicate that wear loss and roughness evolution are both positively correlated with the mechanical shear work applied during the experiments. We argue, therefore, that normal stress plays a significant role in the evolution of interlocked surfaces, such as geological faults, and strongly affects the energy partitioning during slip.

  5. Magnetotransport in Weyl semimetals in the quantum limit: Role of topological surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ominato, Yuya; Koshino, Mikito

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically study the magnetoconductivity of Weyl semimetals with a surface boundary under E ||B geometry and demonstrate that the topological surface state plays an essential role in the magnetotransport. In the long-range-disorder limit where the scattering between the two Weyl nodes vanishes, the conductivity diverges in the bulk model (i.e., periodic boundary condition) as usually expected since the direct internode relaxation is absent. In the presence of the surface, however, the internode relaxation always takes place through the mediation by the surface states, and that prevents the conductivity divergence. The magnetic-field dependence becomes also quite different between the two cases, where the conductivity linearly increases in B in the surface boundary case, in contrast to B -independent behavior in the bulk periodic case. This is an interesting example in which the same system exhibits completely different properties in the surface boundary condition and the periodic boundary condition even in the macroscopic size limit. In the short-range regime where the direct intervalley scattering is dominant, the surface states are irrelevant, and the conductivity approaches that of the bulk periodic model.

  6. Tuning cell adhesion on polymeric and nanocomposite surfaces: Role of topography versus superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Zangi, Sepideh; Hejazi, Iman; Seyfi, Javad; Hejazi, Ehsan; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Davachi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    Development of surface modification procedures which allow tuning the cell adhesion on the surface of biomaterials and devices is of great importance. In this study, the effects of different topographies and wettabilities on cell adhesion behavior of polymeric surfaces are investigated. To this end, an improved phase separation method was proposed to impart various wettabilities (hydrophobic and superhydrophobic) on polypropylene surfaces. Surface morphologies and compositions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Cell culture was conducted to evaluate the adhesion of 4T1 mouse mammary tumor cells. It was found that processing conditions such as drying temperature is highly influential in cell adhesion behavior due to the formation of an utterly different surface topography. It was concluded that surface topography plays a more significant role in cell adhesion behavior rather than superhydrophobicity since the nano-scale topography highly inhibited the cell adhesion as compared to the micro-scale topography. Such cell repellent behavior could be very useful in many biomedical devices such as those in drug delivery and blood contacting applications as well as biosensors.

  7. Role of surface oxygen-to-metal ratio on the wettability of rare-earth oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Sami; Varanasi, Kripa K.; Azimi, Gisele; Yildiz, Bilge

    2015-02-09

    Hydrophobic surfaces that are robust can have widespread applications in drop-wise condensation, anti-corrosion, and anti-icing. Recently, it was shown that the class of ceramics comprising the lanthanide series rare-earth oxides (REOs) is intrinsically hydrophobic. The unique electronic structure of the rare-earth metal atom inhibits hydrogen bonding with interfacial water molecules resulting in a hydrophobic hydration structure where the surface oxygen atoms are the only hydrogen bonding sites. Hence, the presence of excess surface oxygen can lead to increased hydrogen bonding and thereby reduce hydrophobicity of REOs. Herein, we demonstrate how surface stoichiometry and surface relaxations can impact wetting properties of REOs. Using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and wetting measurements, we show that freshly sputtered ceria is hydrophilic due to excess surface oxygen (shown to have an O/Ce ratio of ∼3 and a water contact angle of ∼15°), which when relaxed in a clean, ultra-high vacuum environment isolated from airborne contaminants reaches close to stoichiometric O/Ce ratio (∼2.2) and becomes hydrophobic (contact angle of ∼104°). Further, we show that airborne hydrocarbon contaminants do not exclusively impact the wetting properties of REOs, and that relaxed REOs are intrinsically hydrophobic. This study provides insight into the role of surface relaxation on the wettability of REOs.

  8. Role of silicon surface in the removal of point defects in ultra-shallow junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Sultan, A.; Banerjee, S.; List, S.; Rodder, M.

    1996-12-31

    The role of the Si surface in the annihilation of point defects has been studied for ultra-shallow p{sup +}/n junctions. The dopant and defect distributions for low energy implants lie within a few hundred Angstroms of the surface. The proximity of the Si surface has been shown to help in the efficient removal of point defects for the shallower junctions. A 5 keV, 1{times}10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} BF{sub 2} implant and a 30 keV, 3.3{times}10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} BF{sub 2} implant were estimated to create comparable damage at different depths. After identical anneals, the higher energy implant sample showed end-of-range dislocation loops in cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy analysis, while the low energy sample, for which the point defect distribution was closer to the surface, was defect-free. This is attributed to the role of the Si surface as an efficient sink for the removal of point defects.

  9. Role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from gold nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, C.; Billot, L.; Adam, P.-M.; Bachelot, R.; Royer, P.; Grand, J.; Gindre, D.; Dorkenoo, K. D.; Fort, A.

    2007-04-30

    The role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from arrays of gold nanorod particles excited by femtosecond laser pulses is investigated as a function of incident light polarization and irradiation wavelength. In addition to photoluminescence, a peak of second harmonic is observed and is found to depend on the polarization and wavelength of the fundamental frequency laser beam. In particular, the authors found similarities between extinction spectra of the nanoparticles and spectra of emmitted second harmonic. This behavior can be explained by resonant excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances.

  10. Micellisation et activité de surface des bromures de n-alkyltriméthylammonium en milieu eau-acide orthophosphorique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouni, S.; Hafiane, A.; Dhahbi, M.

    1998-05-01

    Measurements of superficial tension of n-alkyltrimethylammonium bromides in air/water-orthophosphoric acid interface have been made by “stripping method". Data were evaluated by approximation to the Von Szyszkowski equation. Thermodynamic parameters as (Γmax, F, A, B, Δ G^circ_A, Δ GM and CMC) at different concentrations of orhophosphoric acid (0 at 3 M) are calculted. The CMC values of the homologous series in relation to the chain length were determined. They showed a good correlation with the Klevens equation. A minimum of CMC and (-ΔGM) was observed for the n-octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, which has been attributed to the cosolvant effect and the change of medium properties. L'adsorption, de bromure de n-alkyltriméthylammonium à l'interface air/eau-acide orthophosphorique, a été étudiée par la mesure de tension superficielle en fonction du nombre d'atomes de carbone du groupement alkyle et de la concentration en acide orthophosphorique (0 à 3 M). L'analyse des résultats a été effectuée à l'aide de l'équation de Von Szyszkowski. Les grandeurs et paramètres thermodynamiques (Γmax, F, A, B, Δ G^circ_A, Δ GM and CMC) ont été déterminés et discutés selon l'équilibre de forces de répulsion électrostatique entre les têtes polaires et d'attraction hydrophobe des chaînes aliphatiques. Les valeurs des CMC obéissent à l'équation de Klevens. Dans le cas du bromure de n-octadécyltriméthylammonium les valeurs de la CMC et de (-ΔGM) présentent un minimum, attribué au changement des propriétés du binaire eau-acide orthophosphorique.

  11. Role of nanostructured gold surfaces on monocyte activation and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Sara; Forsberg, Magnus; Hulander, Mats; Vazirisani, Forugh; Palmquist, Anders; Lausmaa, Jukka; Thomsen, Peter; Trobos, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The role of material surface properties in the direct interaction with bacteria and the indirect route via host defense cells is not fully understood. Recently, it was suggested that nanostructured implant surfaces possess antimicrobial properties. In the current study, the adhesion and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis and human monocyte adhesion and activation were studied separately and in coculture in different in vitro models using smooth gold and well-defined nanostructured gold surfaces. Two polystyrene surfaces were used as controls in the monocyte experiments. Fluorescent viability staining demonstrated a reduction in the viability of S. epidermidis close to the nanostructured gold surface, whereas the smooth gold correlated with more live biofilm. The results were supported by scanning electron microscopy observations, showing higher biofilm tower formations and more mature biofilms on smooth gold compared with nanostructured gold. Unstimulated monocytes on the different substrates demonstrated low activation, reduced gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and low cytokine secretion. In contrast, stimulation with opsonized zymosan or opsonized live S. epidermidis for 1 hour significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species, the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-10, as well as the secretion of TNF-α, demonstrating the ability of the cells to elicit a response and actively phagocytose prey. In addition, cells cultured on the smooth gold and the nanostructured gold displayed a different adhesion pattern and a more rapid oxidative burst than those cultured on polystyrene upon stimulation. We conclude that S. epidermidis decreased its viability initially when adhering to nanostructured surfaces compared with smooth gold surfaces, especially in the bacterial cell layers closest to the surface. In contrast, material surface properties neither strongly

  12. Role of uppermost superficial surface layer of articular cartilage in the lubrication mechanism of joints

    PubMed Central

    KUMAR, P.; OKA, M.; TOGUCHIDA, J.; KOBAYASHI, M.; UCHIDA, E.; NAKAMURA, T.; TANAKA, K.

    2001-01-01

    The uppermost superficial surface layer of articular cartilage, the ‘lamina splendens’ which provides a very low friction lubrication surface in articular joints, was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Complementary specimens were also observed under SEM at −10 °C without dehydration or sputter ion coating. Fresh adult pig osteochondral specimens were prepared from the patellas of pig knee joints and digested with the enzymes, hyaluronidase, chondroitinase ABC and alkaline protease. Friction coefficients between a pyrex glass plate and the osteochondral specimens digested by enzymes as well as natural (undigested) specimens were measured, using a thrust collar apparatus. Normal saline, hyaluronic acid (HA) and a mixture of albumin, globulin, HA (AGH) were used as lubrication media. The surface irregularities usually observed in SEM studies were not apparent under AFM. The articular cartilage surface was resistant to hyaluronidase and also to chondroitinase ABC, but a fibrous structure was exhibited in alkaline protease enzymes-digested specimens. AFM analysis revealed that the thickness of the uppermost superficial surface layer of articular cartilage was between 800 nm and 2 μm in adult pig articular cartilage. The coefficient of friction (c.f.) was significantly higher in chondroitinase ABC and alkaline protease enzymes digested specimens. Generally, in normal saline lubrication medium, c.f. was higher in comparison to HA and AGH lubrication media. The role of the uppermost, superficial surface layer of articular cartilage in the lubrication mechanism of joints is discussed. PMID:11554503

  13. Role of uppermost superficial surface layer of articular cartilage in the lubrication mechanism of joints.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Oka, M; Toguchida, J; Kobayashi, M; Uchida, E; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, K

    2001-09-01

    The uppermost superficial surface layer of articular cartilage, the 'lamina splendens' which provides a very low friction lubrication surface in articular joints, was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Complementary specimens were also observed under SEM at -10 degrees C without dehydration or sputter ion coating. Fresh adult pig osteochondral specimens were prepared from the patellas of pig knee joints and digested with the enzymes, hyaluronidase, chondroitinase ABC and alkaline protease. Friction coefficients between a pyrex glass plate and the osteochondral specimens digested by enzymes as well as natural (undigested) specimens were measured, using a thrust collar apparatus. Normal saline, hyaluronic acid (HA) and a mixture of albumin, globulin, HA (AGH) were used as lubrication media. The surface irregularities usually observed in SEM studies were not apparent under AFM. The articular cartilage surface was resistant to hyaluronidase and also to chondroitinase ABC, but a fibrous structure was exhibited in alkaline protease enzymes-digested specimens. AFM analysis revealed that the thickness of the uppermost superficial surface layer of articular cartilage was between 800 nm and 2 microm in adult pig articular cartilage. The coefficient of friction (c.f.) was significantly higher in chondroitinase ABC and alkaline protease enzymes digested specimens. Generally, in normal saline lubrication medium, c.f. was higher in comparison to HA and AGH lubrication media. The role of the uppermost, superficial surface layer of articular cartilage in the lubrication mechanism of joints is discussed. PMID:11554503

  14. Role of Viscous Dissipative Processes on the Wetting of Textured Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, H. S.; Nam Kim, Hong; Cho, Il-Joo; Yoon, Eui-Sung

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of viscous forces on the wetting of hydrophobic, semi-hydrophobic, and hydrophilic textured surfaces as second-order effects. We show that during the initial contact, the transition from inertia- to viscous-dominant regime occurs regardless of their surface topography and chemistry. Furthermore, we demonstrate the effect of viscosity on the apparent contact angle under quasi-static conditions by modulating the ratio of a water/glycerol mixture and show the effect of viscosity, especially on the semi-hydrophobic and hydrophobic textured substrates. The reason why the viscous force does not affect the apparent contact angle of the hydrophilic surface is explained based on the relationship between the disjoining pressure and surface chemistry. We further propose a wetting model that can predict the apparent contact angle of a liquid drop on a textured substrate by incorporating a viscous force component in the force balance equation. This model can predict apparent contact angles on semi-hydrophobic and hydrophobic textured surfaces exhibiting Wenzel state more accurately than the Wenzel model, indicating the importance of viscous forces in determining the apparent contact angle. The modified model can be applied for estimating the wetting properties of arbitrary engineered surfaces. PMID:26390958

  15. Copper plasmonics and catalysis: role of electron-phonon interactions in dephasing localized surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qi-C.; Ding, Yuchen; Goodman, Samuel M.; H. Funke, Hans; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-10-01

    Copper metal can provide an important alternative for the development of efficient, low-cost and low-loss plasmonic nanoparticles, and selective nanocatalysts. However, poor chemical stability and lack of insight into photophysics and plasmon decay mechanisms has impeded study. Here, we use smooth conformal ALD coating on copper nanoparticles to prevent surface oxidation, and study dephasing time for localized surface plasmons on different sized copper nanoparticles. Using dephasing time as a figure of merit, we elucidate the role of electron-electron, electron-phonon, impurity, surface and grain boundary scattering on the decay of localized surface plasmon waves. Using our quantitative analysis and different temperature dependent measurements, we show that electron-phonon interactions dominate over other scattering mechanisms in dephasing plasmon waves. While interband transitions in copper metal contributes substantially to plasmon losses, tuning surface plasmon modes to infrared frequencies leads to a five-fold enhancement in the quality factor. These findings demonstrate that conformal ALD coatings can improve the chemical stability for copper nanoparticles, even at high temperatures (>300 °C) in ambient atmosphere, and nanoscaled copper is a good alternative material for many potential applications in nanophotonics, plasmonics, catalysis and nanoscale electronics.Copper metal can provide an important alternative for the development of efficient, low-cost and low-loss plasmonic nanoparticles, and selective nanocatalysts. However, poor chemical stability and lack of insight into photophysics and plasmon decay mechanisms has impeded study. Here, we use smooth conformal ALD coating on copper nanoparticles to prevent surface oxidation, and study dephasing time for localized surface plasmons on different sized copper nanoparticles. Using dephasing time as a figure of merit, we elucidate the role of electron-electron, electron-phonon, impurity, surface and grain

  16. Structure of GaAs(001) surfaces: The role of electrostatic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Northrup, J.E. ); Froyen, S. )

    1994-07-15

    We report first-principles total-energy calculations for the GaAs(001) surface. Our results indicate that the 2[times]4 reconstruction corresponds to the [beta]2(2[times]4) structure, which exhibits two As dimers in the top layer and a third As dimer in the third layer. This structure has a lower surface energy than the [beta](2[times]4) model, which has three As dimers in the top layer. We also find that a model recently proposed by Skala [ital et] [ital al]. [Phys. Rev. B [bold 48], 9138 (1993)] for the structure of the Ga-rich 4[times]2 phase is energetically unfavorable. From our results we conclude that electrostatic interactions between the charged building blocks of polar semiconductor surfaces play an important role in determining the equilibrium structure. We introduce a simple model for estimating these interactions.

  17. The role of substrate surface alteration in the fabrication of vertically aligned CdTe nanowires.

    PubMed

    Neretina, S; Hughes, R A; Devenyi, G A; Sochinskii, N V; Preston, J S; Mascher, P

    2008-05-01

    Previously we have described the deposition of vertically aligned wurtzite CdTe nanowires derived from an unusual catalytically driven growth mode. This growth mode could only proceed when the surface of the substrate was corrupted with an alcohol layer, although the role of the corruption was not fully understood. Here, we present a study detailing the remarkable role that this substrate surface alteration plays in the development of CdTe nanowires; it dramatically improves the size uniformity and largely eliminates lateral growth. These effects are demonstrated to arise from the altered surface's ability to limit Ostwald ripening of the catalytic seed material and by providing a surface unable to promote the epitaxial relationship needed to sustain a lateral growth mode. The axial growth of the CdTe nanowires is found to be exclusively driven through the direct impingement of adatoms onto the catalytic seeds leading to a self-limiting wire height associated with the sublimation of material from the sidewall facets. The work presented furthers the development of the mechanisms needed to promote high quality substrate-based vertically aligned CdTe nanowires. With our present understanding of the growth mechanism being a combination of selective area epitaxy and a catalytically driven vapour-liquid-solid growth mode, these results also raise the intriguing possibility of employing this growth mode in other material systems in an effort to produce superior nanowires.

  18. Titan's Aerosols Interacting with Its Surface: The Potential Role of Ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Patrice; Ramirez, S. I.; Buch, A.; Brassé, C.; Raulin, F.

    2009-09-01

    We performed a laboratory study on the chemical transformation of Titan's aerosols when placed under putative surface conditions of the satellite. Titan's surface was one of the targets of the Cassini-Huygens mission and of several of the Cassini orbiter instruments. The first images revealed an interesting solid surface with features that suggest aeolian, tectonic, fluvial processes and even an impact structure. Since then, more detailed descriptions of dunes, channels, lakes, impact craters and cryovolcanic structures have been documented. The existence of an internal liquid water ocean, containing a few percent ammonia has been proposed. It has also been proposed that ammonia-water mixtures can erupt from the putative subsurface ocean leading to cryovolcanism. The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper obtained SAR images that revealed a highly complex geology occurring at Titan's surface, among which cryovolcanic features play a central role. The composition of the cryomagma is mainly proposed to be a mixture of water ice and ammonia, although ammonia has not been directly detected on Titan. In order to understand the role that ammonia may have on the chemical transformation of the atmospheric aerosols once they reach the surface, we designed the following laboratory protocol: analogues of Titan's aerosols were synthesized from a N2:CH4 mixture irradiated under a continuous flow regime, inside which a cold plasma was established. The synthesized particles were then partitioned in several samples that were placed in aqueous ammonia solutions at different temperatures for 3 weeks. After a derivatization process performed to the refractory phase, the products were analyzed. We found derived residues related to glycine and alanine as well as urea, that may have important astrobiological implications to Titan's environment. Therefore, this kind of studies helps to better understand the geological processes of Titan's surface and its relationship with the active organic

  19. The Role of Body Surface Area in Quantity Discrimination in Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare)

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M.; Gerlai, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Although some fish species have been shown to be able to discriminate between two groups (shoals) of conspecifics differing in the number of members, most studies have not controlled for continuous variables that covary with number. Previously, using angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) we started the systematic analysis of the potential influence of such continuous variables, and found that they play different roles in shoal discrimination depending on whether large (≥4 fish) or small (<4 fish) shoals were contrasted. Here, we examine the potential role of the overall body surface area of stimulus fish in shoal preference, a prominent variable not yet examined in angelfish. We report that both when numerically large (5 versus 10 fish) and when small (2 versus 3 fish) shoals were contrasted, angelfish were unable to discriminate the numerically different shoals as long as the surface area of the contrasted shoals was equated. Thus, we conclude that body surface may be an important continuous variable in shoal discrimination. This conclusion was further supported by the analysis of preference when shoals of the same numerical size but different body surface area were contrasted. We found subjects to spend significantly more time close to the shoals with the greater overall surface area. Last, we conducted an experiment in which we simultaneously controlled a set of continuous variables, including overall surface area, and found angelfish to use the number of shoal members as a cue only in large shoal contrasts but not in small shoal contrasts. This result suggests the potential existence of different processing systems for large and small numbers in fish. PMID:24386299

  20. The role of lattice parameter in water adsorption and wetting of a solid surface.

    PubMed

    Massey, A; McBride, F; Darling, G R; Nakamura, M; Hodgson, A

    2014-11-21

    Ice formation is a complex cooperative process that is almost invariably catalysed by the presence of an interface on which ice crystals nucleate. As yet there is no clear picture of what factors make a surface particularly good at nucleating ice, but the importance of having a template with a suitable lattice parameter has often been proposed. Here we report the contrasting wetting behaviour of a series of pseudomorphic surfaces, designed to form an ordered template that matches the arrangement of water in a bulk ice Ih(0001) bilayer. The close-packed M(111) surfaces (M = Pt, Pd, Rh, Cu and Ni) form a (√3 × √3) R30° Sn substitutional alloy surface, with Sn atoms occupying sites that match the symmetry of an ice bilayer. The lattice constant of the alloy changes from 4% smaller to 7% greater than the lateral spacing of ice across the series. We show that only the PtSn surface, with a lattice parameter some 7% greater than that of a bulk ice layer, forms a stable water layer, all the other surfaces being non-wetting and instead forming multilayer ice clusters. This observation is consistent with the idea that the repeat spacing of the surface should ideally match the O-O spacing in ice, rather than the bulk ice lattice parameter, in order to form a continuous commensurate water monolayer. We discuss the role of the lattice parameter in stabilising the first layer of water and the factors that lead to formation of a simple commensurate structure rather than an incommensurate or large unit cell water network. We argue that lattice match is not a good criteria for a material to give low energy nucleation sites for bulk ice, and that considerations such as binding energy and mobility of the surface layer are more relevant. PMID:25286238

  1. Fluctuations Magnetiques des Gaz D'electrons Bidimensionnels: Application AU Compose Supraconducteur LANTHANE(2-X) Strontium(x) Cuivre OXYGENE(4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benard, Pierre

    Nous presentons une etude des fluctuations magnetiques de la phase normale de l'oxyde de cuivre supraconducteur La_{2-x}Sr _{x}CuO_4 . Le compose est modelise par le Hamiltonien de Hubbard bidimensionnel avec un terme de saut vers les deuxiemes voisins (modele tt'U). Le modele est etudie en utilisant l'approximation de la GRPA (Generalized Random Phase Approximation) et en incluant les effets de la renormalisation de l'interaction de Hubbard par les diagrammes de Brueckner-Kanamori. Dans l'approche presentee dans ce travail, les maximums du facteur de structure magnetique observes par les experiences de diffusion de neutrons sont associes aux anomalies 2k _{F} de reseau du facteur de structure des gaz d'electrons bidimensionnels sans interaction. Ces anomalies proviennent de la diffusion entre particules situees a des points de la surface de Fermi ou les vitesses de Fermi sont tangentes, et conduisent a des divergences dont la nature depend de la geometrie de la surface de Fermi au voisinage de ces points. Ces resultats sont ensuite appliques au modele tt'U, dont le modele de Hubbard usuel tU est un cas particulier. Dans la majorite des cas, les interactions ne determinent pas la position des maximums du facteur de structure. Le role de l'interaction est d'augmenter l'intensite des structures du facteur de structure magnetique associees a l'instabilite magnetique du systeme. Ces structures sont souvent deja presentes dans la partie imaginaire de la susceptibilite sans interaction. Le rapport d'intensite entre les maximums absolus et les autres structures du facteur de structure magnetique permet de determiner le rapport U_ {rn}/U_{c} qui mesure la proximite d'une instabilite magnetique. Le diagramme de phase est ensuite etudie afin de delimiter la plage de validite de l'approximation. Apres avoir discute des modes collectifs et de l'effet d'une partie imaginaire non-nulle de la self-energie, l'origine de l'echelle d'energie des fluctuations magnetiques est examinee

  2. Critical role of surface hydration on the dynamics of serum adsorption studied with monoethylene glycol adlayers on gold.

    PubMed

    Avci, Ceren; Sheikh, Sonia; Blaszykowski, Christophe; Thompson, Michael

    2013-01-18

    The dynamics of serum adsorption on bare and monoethylene glycol adlayer-modified gold surfaces is investigated using acoustic wave physics. Hydration experiments support the pivotal role ascribed to water in the antifouling of surfaces. Behavioural discrepancy is interpreted in terms of difference in water structuring properties (surface kosmotropicity).

  3. Wetting Properties of Chemically Modified Surfaces: The role of hydrogen bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekele, Selemon; Tsige, Mesfin

    2015-03-01

    Many industrial processing operations involve the spreading of a liquid on a solid material. Controlling the wetting of one material by another is of crucial importance in such applications as adhesion, coating and oil recovery. A strategy often employed to control the wettability of solid surfaces is a combination of surface patterning and chemical surface modification. In order to understand the effect of surface chemistry on the wetting process, we have carried out all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a water droplet spreading on pure and oxidized polystyrene surfaces. Our previous results show that the contact angle generally decreases with increasing oxygen concentration and there is a correlation between the spreading and hydrogen bonding. In this talk, we will present results on the structure and dynamics of the hydrogen bonds in the interfacial region between water and the polystyrene substrate. We will discuss our findings on hydrogen bond lifetimes, time correlations functions and number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule for the hydrogen bonds around the water/polystyrene interface which are found to play a role in the spreading process. This work was supported by NSF Grant DMR0847580.

  4. The role of surface kinetics on composition and quality of AlGaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Mita, Seiji; Rice, Anthony; Hussey, Lindsay; Shelton, Christopher; Tweedie, James; Maria, Jon-Paul; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko

    2016-10-01

    Metal-polar, Al-rich AlGaN films were grown on both single crystalline AlN and sapphire substrates. The role of surface morphology and surface kinetics on AlGaN composition is presented. With the reduced dislocation density of the films grown on AlN substrates, atomically smooth bilayer stepped surfaces are achieved with RMS roughness of less than 50 pm for a 5×5 μm2 AFM scan area. By controlling the surface supersaturation through adjusting the growth rate, a transition from 2D nucleation to step flow was observed. The critical misorientation angle for step-bunching in nominal Al0.70Ga0.30N grown with a growth rate of 600 nm/h on AlN substrates was found to be 0.4°. The composition of bilayer stepped AlGaN was strongly dependent on substrate misorientation angle, where a compositional variation by a factor of two for a change in misorientation angle from 0.05 to 0.40° was observed; this is explained by the different surface diffusion lengths of Ga and Al. Step-bunching resulted in strong compositional inhomogeneity as observed by photoluminescence and scanning transmission electron microscopy studies.

  5. Magnetism of Zn-doped SnO{sub 2}: Role of surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pushpa, Raghani Ramanujam, Balaji

    2014-05-07

    Surface effects on the magnetization of Zn-doped SnO{sub 2} are investigated using first principles method. Magnetic behavior of Zn-doped bulk and highest and lowest energy surfaces—(001) and (110), respectively, are investigated in presence and absence of other intrinsic defects. The Zn-doped (110) and (001) surfaces of SnO{sub 2} show appreciable increase in the magnetic moment (MM) compared to Zn-doped bulk SnO{sub 2}. Formation energies of Zn defects on both the surfaces are found to be lower than those in bulk SnO{sub 2}. Zn doping favors the formation of oxygen vacancies. The density of states analysis on the Zn-doped (110) surface reveals that the spin polarization of the host band occurs primarily from p-orbitals of bridging oxygen atoms and the Zn atom itself contributes minimally. The present work provides a key understanding on the role played by the surfaces in inducing the magnetism of doped nanoparticles and thin films.

  6. Copper plasmonics and catalysis: role of electron-phonon interactions in dephasing localized surface plasmons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi-C; Ding, Yuchen; Goodman, Samuel M; Funke, Hans H; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-11-01

    Copper metal can provide an important alternative for the development of efficient, low-cost and low-loss plasmonic nanoparticles, and selective nanocatalysts. However, poor chemical stability and lack of insight into photophysics and plasmon decay mechanisms has impeded study. Here, we use smooth conformal ALD coating on copper nanoparticles to prevent surface oxidation, and study dephasing time for localized surface plasmons on different sized copper nanoparticles. Using dephasing time as a figure of merit, we elucidate the role of electron-electron, electron-phonon, impurity, surface and grain boundary scattering on the decay of localized surface plasmon waves. Using our quantitative analysis and different temperature dependent measurements, we show that electron-phonon interactions dominate over other scattering mechanisms in dephasing plasmon waves. While interband transitions in copper metal contributes substantially to plasmon losses, tuning surface plasmon modes to infrared frequencies leads to a five-fold enhancement in the quality factor. These findings demonstrate that conformal ALD coatings can improve the chemical stability for copper nanoparticles, even at high temperatures (>300 °C) in ambient atmosphere, and nanoscaled copper is a good alternative material for many potential applications in nanophotonics, plasmonics, catalysis and nanoscale electronics.

  7. Role of water in alkali halide heterogeneous chemistry relevant to the atmosphere: A surface science study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosal, Sutapa

    2001-05-01

    Water is a ubiquitous atmospheric constituent. The interaction of water in its various forms (vapor, liquid, ice) with other atmospheric constituents has a significant impact on the chemistry of the atmosphere. Another class of compounds that are of considerable importance in atmospheric chemistry are alkali halide salts such as sea salt particles. Heterogeneous reactions of alkali halides with gas phase pollutants are believed to be an important source of halogens in the troposphere. There is an increasing amount of evidence that the presence of water plays an important role in the heterogeneous chemistry of alkali halide particles. It is the goal of this dissertation to contribute to the understanding of the interaction of water with alkali halide surfaces and its atmospheric implications. Surface processes are of fundamental importance in heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry, but they are often difficult to study because of their inherent complexity. As this dissertation shows, the use of modern surface science techniques offer valuable insights into these complex processes and as such offer complementary alternatives to the traditional atmospheric chemistry experiments. The surface science techniques used in this dissertation are X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning polarization force microscopy (SPFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Presented here are the results of the XPS and SEM studies undertaken to determine the nature and content of surface adsorbed water on NaCl as a function of surface defects. The details of HNO3 uptake on NaCl and the effect of surface adsorbed water on this uptake are also discussed. Our results show that the amount of ``strongly adsorbed water'' (SAW) on the surface of NaCl particles depends on the particle size and hence, on the concentration of surface defects. Unlike the (100) single crystal the more defective surfaces show dissociative water uptake at room temperature upon exposure to water vapor well below

  8. Bridging Adhesion of Mussel-Inspired Peptides: Role of Charge, Chain Length, and Surface Type

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa)-containing proteins of marine mussels provide attractive design paradigms for engineering synthetic polymers that can serve as high performance wet adhesives and coatings. Although the role of Dopa in promoting adhesion between mussels and various substrates has been carefully studied, the context by which Dopa mediates a bridging or nonbridging macromolecular adhesion to surfaces is not understood. The distinction is an important one both for a mechanistic appreciation of bioadhesion and for an intelligent translation of bioadhesive concepts to engineered systems. On the basis of mussel foot protein-5 (Mfp-5; length 75 res), we designed three short, simplified peptides (15–17 res) and one relatively long peptide (30 res) into which Dopa was enzymatically incorporated. Peptide adhesion was tested using a surface forces apparatus. Our results show that the short peptides are capable of weak bridging adhesion between two mica surfaces, but this adhesion contrasts with that of full length Mfp-5, in that (1) while still dependent on Dopa, electrostatic contributions are much more prominent, and (2) whereas Dopa surface density remains similar in both, peptide adhesion is an order of magnitude weaker (adhesion energy Ead ∼ −0.5 mJ/m2) than full length Mfp-5 adhesion. Between two mica surfaces, the magnitude of bridging adhesion was approximately doubled (Ead ∼ −1 mJ/m2) upon doubling the peptide length. Notably, the short peptides mediate much stronger adhesion (Ead ∼ −3.0 mJ/m2) between mica and gold surfaces, indicating that a long chain length is less important when different interactions are involved on each of the two surfaces. PMID:25540823

  9. A Role for TLR4 in Clostridium difficile Infection and the Recognition of Surface Layer Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Anthony; Lynch, Mark; Smith, Sinead M.; Amu, Sylvie; Nel, Hendrik J.; McCoy, Claire E.; Dowling, Jennifer K.; Draper, Eve; O'Reilly, Vincent; McCarthy, Ciara; O'Brien, Julie; Ní Eidhin, Déirdre; O'Connell, Mary J.; Keogh, Brian; Morton, Charles O.; Rogers, Thomas R.; Fallon, Padraic G.; O'Neill, Luke A.

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the etiological agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) and pseudomembranous colitis in humans. The role of the surface layer proteins (SLPs) in this disease has not yet been fully explored. The aim of this study was to investigate a role for SLPs in the recognition of C. difficile and the subsequent activation of the immune system. Bone marrow derived dendritic cells (DCs) exposed to SLPs were assessed for production of inflammatory cytokines, expression of cell surface markers and their ability to generate T helper (Th) cell responses. DCs isolated from C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice were used in order to examine whether SLPs are recognised by TLR4. The role of TLR4 in infection was examined in TLR4-deficient mice. SLPs induced maturation of DCs characterised by production of IL-12, TNFα and IL-10 and expression of MHC class II, CD40, CD80 and CD86. Furthermore, SLP-activated DCs generated Th cells producing IFNγ and IL-17. SLPs were unable to activate DCs isolated from TLR4-mutant C3H/HeJ mice and failed to induce a subsequent Th cell response. TLR4−/− and Myd88−/−, but not TRIF−/− mice were more susceptible than wild-type mice to C. difficile infection. Furthermore, SLPs activated NFκB, but not IRF3, downstream of TLR4. Our results indicate that SLPs isolated from C. difficile can activate innate and adaptive immunity and that these effects are mediated by TLR4, with TLR4 having a functional role in experimental C. difficile infection. This suggests an important role for SLPs in the recognition of C. difficile by the immune system. PMID:21738466

  10. Role of TLR-2 and fungal surface antigens on innate immune response against Sporothrix schenckii.

    PubMed

    Negrini, Thais de C; Ferreira, Lucas S; Alegranci, Pâmela; Arthur, Rodrigo A; Sundfeld, Pedro P; Maia, Danielle C G; Spolidorio, Luis C; Carlos, Iracilda Z

    2013-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in immunity, since they bind to pathogen surface antigens and initiate the immune response. However, little is known about the role of TLR-2 and fungal surface antigens in the recognition of S. schenckii and in the subsequent immune response. This study aimed to evaluate the involvement of TLR-2 and fungal surface soluble (SolAg) and lipidic (LipAg) antigens in phagocytosis of S. schenckii and production of immune mediators by macrophages obtained from WT and TLR-2(-/-) animals. The results showed that TLR-2(-/-) animals had had statistical lower percentage of macrophages with internalized yeasts compared to WT. SolAg and LipAg impaired phagocytosis and immunological mediator production for both WT and TLR-2(-/-). The absence of TLR-2 led to lower production of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-10 compared to WT animals. These results suggest a new insight in relation to how the immune system, through TLR-2, recognizes and induces the production of mediators in response to the fungus S. schenckii.

  11. Surface-mediated control of blood coagulation: the role of binding site densities and platelet deposition.

    PubMed Central

    Kuharsky, A L; Fogelson, A L

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model of the extrinsic or tissue factor (TF) pathway of blood coagulation is formulated and results from a computational study of its behavior are presented. The model takes into account plasma-phase and surface-bound enzymes and zymogens, coagulation inhibitors, and activated and unactivated platelets. It includes both plasma-phase and membrane-phase reactions, and accounts for chemical and cellular transport by flow and diffusion, albeit in a simplified manner by assuming the existence of a thin, well-mixed fluid layer, near the surface, whose thickness depends on flow. There are three main conclusions from these studies. (i) The model system responds in a threshold manner to changes in the availability of particular surface binding sites; an increase in TF binding sites, as would occur with vascular injury, changes the system's production of thrombin dramatically. (ii) The model suggests that platelets adhering to and covering the subendothelium, rather than chemical inhibitors, may play the dominant role in blocking the activity of the TF:VIIa enzyme complex. This, in turn, suggests that a role of the IXa-tenase pathway for activating factor X to Xa is to continue factor Xa production after platelets have covered the TF:VIIa complexes on the subendothelium. (iii) The model gives a kinetic explanation of the reduced thrombin production in hemophilias A and B. PMID:11222273

  12. The role of flexibility and molecular shape in the crystallization of proteins by surface mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Devedjiev, Yancho D

    2015-02-01

    Proteins are dynamic systems and interact with their environment. The analysis of crystal contacts in the most accurately determined protein structures (d < 1.5 Å) reveals that in contrast to current views, static disorder and high side-chain entropy are common in the crystal contact area. These observations challenge the validity of the theory that presumes that the occurrence of well ordered patches of side chains at the surface is an essential prerequisite for a successful crystallization event. The present paper provides evidence in support of the approach for understanding protein crystallization as a process dependent on multiple factors, each with its relative contribution, rather than a phenomenon driven by a few dominant physicochemical characteristics. The role of the molecular shape as a factor in the crystallization of proteins by surface mutagenesis is discussed.

  13. In-cell thermodynamics and a new role for protein surfaces.

    PubMed

    Smith, Austin E; Zhou, Larry Z; Gorensek, Annelise H; Senske, Michael; Pielak, Gary J

    2016-02-16

    There is abundant, physiologically relevant knowledge about protein cores; they are hydrophobic, exquisitely well packed, and nearly all hydrogen bonds are satisfied. An equivalent understanding of protein surfaces has remained elusive because proteins are almost exclusively studied in vitro in simple aqueous solutions. Here, we establish the essential physiological roles played by protein surfaces by measuring the equilibrium thermodynamics and kinetics of protein folding in the complex environment of living Escherichia coli cells, and under physiologically relevant in vitro conditions. Fluorine NMR data on the 7-kDa globular N-terminal SH3 domain of Drosophila signal transduction protein drk (SH3) show that charge-charge interactions are fundamental to protein stability and folding kinetics in cells. Our results contradict predictions from accepted theories of macromolecular crowding and show that cosolutes commonly used to mimic the cellular interior do not yield physiologically relevant information. As such, we provide the foundation for a complete picture of protein chemistry in cells.

  14. Roles of surface chemistry on safety and electrochemistry in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu Tae; Jeong, Sookyung; Cho, Jaephil

    2013-05-21

    Motivated by new applications including electric vehicles and the smart grid, interest in advanced lithium ion batteries has increased significantly over the past decade. Therefore, research in this field has intensified to produce safer devices with better electrochemical performance. Most research has focused on the development of new electrode materials through the optimization of bulk properties such as crystal structure, ionic diffusivity, and electric conductivity. More recently, researchers have also considered the surface properties of electrodes as critical factors for optimizing performance. In particular, the electrolyte decomposition at the electrode surface relates to both a lithium ion battery's electrochemical performance and safety. In this Account, we give an overview of the major developments in the area of surface chemistry for lithium ion batteries. These ideas will provide the basis for the design of advanced electrode materials. Initially, we present a brief background to lithium ion batteries such as major chemical components and reactions that occur in lithium ion batteries. Then, we highlight the role of surface chemistry in the safety of lithium ion batteries. We examine the thermal stability of cathode materials: For example, we discuss the oxygen generation from cathode materials and describe how cells can swell and heat up in response to specific conditions. We also demonstrate how coating the surfaces of electrodes can improve safety. The surface chemistry can also affect the electrochemistry of lithium ion batteries. The surface coating strategy improved the energy density and cycle performance for layered LiCoO2, xLi2MnO3·(1 - x)LiMO2 (M = Mn, Ni, Co, and their combinations), and LiMn2O4 spinel materials, and we describe a working mechanism for these enhancements. Although coating the surfaces of cathodes with inorganic materials such as metal oxides and phosphates improves the electrochemical performance and safety properties of

  15. Role of surface recombination in affecting the efficiency of nanostructured thin-film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Da, Yun; Xuan, Yimin

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured light trapping is a promising way to improve the efficiency in thin-film solar cells recently. In this work, both the optical and electrical properties of thin-film solar cells with 1D periodic grating structure are investigated by using photoelectric coupling model. It is found that surface recombination plays a key role in determining the performance of nanostructured thin-film solar cells. Once the recombination effect is considered, the higher optical absorption does not mean the higher conversion efficiency as most existing publications claimed. Both the surface recombination velocity and geometric parameters of structure have great impact on the efficiency of thin-film solar cells. Our simulation results indicate that nanostructured light trapping will not only improve optical absorption but also boost the surface recombination simultaneously. Therefore, we must get the tradeoffs between optical absorption and surface recombination to obtain the maximum conversion efficiency. Our work makes it clear that both the optical absorption and electrical recombination response should be taken into account simultaneously in designing the nanostructured thin-film solar cells.

  16. Role of needle surface waxes in dynamic exchange of mono- and sesquiterpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joensuu, Johanna; Altimir, Nuria; Hakola, Hannele; Rostás, Michael; Raivonen, Maarit; Vestenius, Mika; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Riederer, Markus; Bäck, Jaana

    2016-06-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) produced by plants have a major role in atmospheric chemistry. The different physicochemical properties of BVOCs affect their transport within and out of the plant as well as their reactions along the way. Some of these compounds may accumulate in or on the waxy surface layer of conifer needles and participate in chemical reactions on or near the foliage surface. The aim of this work was to determine whether terpenes, a key category of BVOCs produced by trees, can be found on the epicuticles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and, if so, how they compare with the terpenes found in shoot emissions of the same tree. We measured shoot-level emissions of pine seedlings at a remote outdoor location in central Finland and subsequently analysed the needle surface waxes for the same compounds. Both emissions and wax extracts were clearly dominated by monoterpenes, but the proportion of sesquiterpenes was higher in the wax extracts. There were also differences in the terpene spectra of the emissions and the wax extracts. The results, therefore, support the existence of BVOC associated to the epicuticular waxes. We briefly discuss the different pathways for terpenes to reach the needle surfaces and the implications for air chemistry.

  17. Revealing the role of catechol moieties in the interactions between peptides and inorganic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Das, Priyadip; Reches, Meital

    2016-08-18

    Catechol (1,2-dihydroxy benzene) moieties are being widely used today in new adhesive technologies. Understanding their mechanism of action is therefore of high importance for developing their applications in materials science. This paper describes a single-molecule study of the interactions between catechol-related amino acid residues and a well-defined titanium dioxide (TiO2) surface. It is the first quantified measurement of the adhesion of these residues with a well-defined TiO2 surface. Single-molecule force spectroscopy measurements with AFM determined the role of different substitutions of the catechol moiety on the aromatic ring in the adhesion to the surface. These results shed light on the nature of interactions between these residues and inorganic metal oxide surfaces. This information is important for the design and fabrication of catechol-based materials such as hydrogels, coatings, and composites. Specifically, the interaction with TiO2 is important for the development of solar cells. PMID:27503417

  18. Role of the surface chemistry of activated carbons in dye removal from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua-lei; Zhen, Wen-juan; Zhu, Qian; Wu, Xiao-bin; Chang, Zhi-dong; Li, Wen-jun

    2015-07-01

    Commercial activated carbons were modified by a series of chemical or physical treatments using H2O2, NH3, and heating under N2 flow without notably changing their pore structures. The resultant carbons were characterized by N2 adsorption and Bohem titration and then used to remove Ponceau 4R, methyl orange and brilliant blue from aqueous solutions. Surface chemistry was found to play a significantly different role in removing these three compounds. The removal of anionic Ponceau 4R increases with increasing carbon surface basicity due to the predominant dispersive interaction mechanism. In contrast, surface chemistry has little effect on the removal of anionic methyl orange, which can be explained by two parallel mechanisms involving electrostatic and dispersive interactions due to the basic amine group in a dye molecule. The influence of surface chemistry on the removal of amphoteric brilliant blue dye can also be ignored due to a weak interaction between the carbons and dye molecules, which is resulted from strong cohesive energy from electrostatic forces inside amphoteric dye molecules.

  19. The protective role of glass film over the surface of metallic particles of the lunar regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gornostaeva, T. A.; Mokhov, A. V.; Kartashov, P. M.; Bogatikov, O. A.

    2014-11-01

    In the course of examining the regolith samples delivered to the Earth by the Luna 16, Luna 20, and Luna 24 Soviet automatic stations, it was found by means of transmission and scanning electron microscopy that the lunar glasses are in general characterized by micro-heterogeneity exhibited both in their composition and in the structure. Moreover, the condensate glass film on the surface of metallic iron grains plays an isolating and protective role preventing oxidation, including under long-term storage under the Earth's atmosphere.

  20. Roles for glycosylation of cell surface receptors involved in cellular immune recognition.

    PubMed

    Rudd, P M; Wormald, M R; Stanfield, R L; Huang, M; Mattsson, N; Speir, J A; DiGennaro, J A; Fetrow, J S; Dwek, R A; Wilson, I A

    1999-10-22

    The majority of cell surface receptors involved in antigen recognition by T cells and in the orchestration of the subsequent cell signalling events are glycoproteins. The length of a typical N-linked sugar is comparable with that of an immunoglobulin domain (30 A). Thus, by virtue of their size alone, oligosaccharides may be expected to play a significant role in the functions and properties of the cell surface proteins to which they are attached. A databank of oligosaccharide structures has been constructed from NMR and crystallographic data to aid in the interpretation of crystal structures of glycoproteins. As unambiguous electron density can usually only be assigned to the glycan cores, the remainder of the sugar is then modelled into the crystal lattice by superimposing the appropriate oligosaccharide from the database. This approach provides insights into the roles that glycosylation might play in cell surface receptors, by providing models that delineate potential close packing interactions on the cell surface. It has been proposed that the specific recognition of antigen by T cells results in the formation of an immunological synapse between the T cell and the antigen-presenting cell. The cell adhesion glycoproteins, such as CD2 and CD48, help to form a cell junction, providing a molecular spacer between opposing cells. The oligosaccharides located on the membrane proximal domains of CD2 and CD48 provide a scaffold to orient the binding faces, which leads to increased affinity. In the next step, recruitment of the peptide major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) by the T-cell receptors (TCRs) requires mobility on the membrane surface. The TCR sugars are located such that they could prevent non-specific aggregation. Importantly, the sugars limit the possible geometry and spacing of TCR/MHC clusters which precede cell signalling. We postulate that, in the final stage, the sugars could play a general role in controlling the assembly and stabilisation of the

  1. Roles of surface water areas for water and solute cycle in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Kuroda, Keisuke; Do Thuan, An; Tran Thi Viet, Nga; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2013-04-01

    Hanoi city, the capital of Viet Nam, has developed beside the Red river. Recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced a large number of natural water areas such as lakes, ponds and canals not only in the central area but the suburban area. Contrary, the urbanization has increased artificial water areas such as pond for fish cultivation and landscaping. On the other hand, the urbanization has induced the inflow of waste water from households and various kinds of factories to these water areas because of delay of sewerage system development. Inflow of the waste water has induced eutrophication and pollution of these water areas. Also, there is a possibility of groundwater pollution by infiltration of polluted surface water. However, the role of these water areas for water cycle and solute transport is not clarified. Therefore, this study focuses on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city to evaluate appropriate land development and groundwater resource management. We are carrying out three approaches: a) understanding of geochemical characteristics of surface water and groundwater, b) monitoring of water levels of pond and groundwater, c) sampling of soil and pond sediment. Correlation between d18O and dD of precipitation (after GNIP), the Red River (after GNIR) and the water samples of this study showed that the groundwater is composed of precipitation, the Red River and surface water that has evaporation process. Contribution of the surface water with evaporation process was widely found in the study area. As for groundwater monitoring, the Holocene aquifers at two sites were in unconfined condition in dry season and the groundwater levels in the aquifer continued to increase through rainy season. The results of isotopic analysis and groundwater level monitoring showed that the surface water areas are one of the major groundwater sources. On the other hand, concentrations of dissolved Arsenic (filtered by 0.45um) in the pore

  2. Interfacial biocatalysis on charged and immobilized substrates: the roles of enzyme and substrate surface charge.

    PubMed

    Feller, Bob E; Kellis, James T; Cascão-Pereira, Luis G; Robertson, Channing R; Frank, Curtis W

    2011-01-01

    An enzyme charge ladder was used to examine the role of electrostatic interactions involved in biocatalysis at the solid-liquid interface. The reactive substrate consisted of an immobilized bovine serum albumin (BSA) multilayer prepared using a layer-by-layer technique. The zeta potential of the BSA substrate and each enzyme variant was measured to determine the absolute charge in solution. Enzyme adsorption and the rate of substrate surface hydrolysis were monitored for the enzyme charge ladder series to provide information regarding the strength of the enzyme-substrate interaction and the rate of interfacial biocatalysis. First, each variant of the charge ladder was examined at pH 8 for various solution ionic strengths. We found that for positively charged variants the adsorption increased with the magnitude of the charge until the surface became saturated. For higher ionic strength solutions, a greater positive enzyme charge was required to induce adsorption. Interestingly, the maximum catalytic rate was not achieved at enzyme saturation but at an invariable intermediate level of adsorption for each ionic strength value. Furthermore, the maximum achievable reaction rate for the charge ladder was larger for higher ionic strength values. We propose that diffusion plays an important role in interfacial biocatalysis, and for strong enzyme-substrate interaction, the rate of diffusion is reduced, leading to a decrease in the overall reaction rate. We investigated the effect of substrate charge by varying the solution pH from 6.1 to 8.7 and by examining multiple ionic strength values for each pH. The same intermediate level of adsorption was found to maximize the overall reaction rate. However, the ionic strength response of the maximum achievable rate was clearly dependent on the pH of the experiment. We propose that this observation is not a direct effect of pH but is caused by the change in substrate surface charge induced by changing the pH. To prove this

  3. Critical role of surface roughness on colloid retention and release in porous media.

    PubMed

    Torkzaban, Saeed; Bradford, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the critical role of surface roughness (both nano- and micro-scale) on the processes of colloid retention and release in porous media under steady-state and transient chemical conditions. Nanoscale surface roughness (NSR) in the order of a few nanometers, which is common on natural solid surfaces, was incorporated into extended-DLVO calculations to quantify the magnitudes of interaction energy parameters (e.g. the energy barrier to attachment, ΔΦa , and detachment, ΔΦd , from a primary minimum). This information was subsequently used to explain the behavior of colloid retention and release in column and batch experiments under different ionic strength (IS) and pH conditions. Results demonstrated that the density and height of NSR significantly influenced the interaction energy parameters and consequently the extent and kinetics of colloid retention and release. In particular, values of ΔΦa and ΔΦd significantly decreased in the presence of NSR. Therefore, consistent with findings of column experiments, colloid retention in the primary minimum was predicted to occur at some specific locations on the sand surface, even at low IS conditions. However, NSR yielded a much weaker primary minimum interaction compared with that of smooth surfaces. Colloid release from primary minima upon decreasing IS and increasing pH was attributed to the impact of NSR on the values of ΔΦd . Pronounced differences in the amount of colloid retention in batch and column experiments indicated that primary minimum interactions were weak even at high IS conditions. Negligible colloid retention in batch experiments was attributed to hydrodynamic torques overcoming adhesive torques, whereas significant colloid retention in column experiments was attributed to nano- and micro-scale roughness which would dramatically alter the lever arms associated with hydrodynamic and adhesive torques.

  4. The Role of the Persian Gulf in Shaping Southwest Asian Surface Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, J. S.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2015-12-01

    Summer surface climate of the Persian Gulf region is characterized by hot and humid conditions. Despite such conditions - which in other regions tends to trigger moist convection - typically this region experiences clear sky conditions and very little rainfall in the summer. In this study, we customize the MIT Regional Climate Model specifically for the Southwest Asia region and apply it at a 25-km grid spacing using reanalysis boundary conditions for present-day climate (1975-2005). Specific customizations include accurate representations of surface albedo and emissivity as well as mineral dust processes, all of which improve model bias. To assess the role of the Persian Gulf in shaping the region's climate, a 30-year experiment is performed without the Persian Gulf characterized. Results suggest that observed conditions over the Persian Gulf are due to a combination of physical processes involving adiabatic and diabatic descent. First, virtually clear sky conditions, due to subsidence during summer associated with the rising air motion over the monsoon region to the east, suppress upward motion and deep convection and increase incoming solar radiation. Second, the low surface albedo of the Persian Gulf results in enhanced absorption of solar radiation and total heat flux. Third, high evaporation rates increase water vapor, and therefore trap heat at the surface via the greenhouse effect for water vapor. Fourth, the relatively shallow boundary layer over the Persian Gulf concentrates water vapor and heat close to the surface. These combined factors maximize the total flux of heat in the boundary layer and hence moist static energy over the Persian Gulf.

  5. Critical role of surface roughness on colloid retention and release in porous media.

    PubMed

    Torkzaban, Saeed; Bradford, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the critical role of surface roughness (both nano- and micro-scale) on the processes of colloid retention and release in porous media under steady-state and transient chemical conditions. Nanoscale surface roughness (NSR) in the order of a few nanometers, which is common on natural solid surfaces, was incorporated into extended-DLVO calculations to quantify the magnitudes of interaction energy parameters (e.g. the energy barrier to attachment, ΔΦa , and detachment, ΔΦd , from a primary minimum). This information was subsequently used to explain the behavior of colloid retention and release in column and batch experiments under different ionic strength (IS) and pH conditions. Results demonstrated that the density and height of NSR significantly influenced the interaction energy parameters and consequently the extent and kinetics of colloid retention and release. In particular, values of ΔΦa and ΔΦd significantly decreased in the presence of NSR. Therefore, consistent with findings of column experiments, colloid retention in the primary minimum was predicted to occur at some specific locations on the sand surface, even at low IS conditions. However, NSR yielded a much weaker primary minimum interaction compared with that of smooth surfaces. Colloid release from primary minima upon decreasing IS and increasing pH was attributed to the impact of NSR on the values of ΔΦd . Pronounced differences in the amount of colloid retention in batch and column experiments indicated that primary minimum interactions were weak even at high IS conditions. Negligible colloid retention in batch experiments was attributed to hydrodynamic torques overcoming adhesive torques, whereas significant colloid retention in column experiments was attributed to nano- and micro-scale roughness which would dramatically alter the lever arms associated with hydrodynamic and adhesive torques. PMID:26512805

  6. Bicomponent lignocellulose thin films to study the role of surface lignin in cellulolytic reactions.

    PubMed

    Hoeger, Ingrid C; Filpponen, Ilari; Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Osterberg, Monika; Laine, Janne; Kelley, Stephen; Rojas, Orlando J

    2012-10-01

    Ultrathin bicomponent films of cellulose and lignin derivatives were deposited on silica supports by spin coating, and after conversion into the respective polymer precursor, they were used as a model system to investigate interfacial phenomena relevant to lignocellulose biocatalysis. Film morphology, surface chemical composition, and wettability were determined by atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and water contact angle, respectively. Phase separation of cellulose and lignin produced structures that resembled the cell wall of fibers and were used to monitor enzyme binding and cellulolytic reactions via quartz crystal microgravimetry. The rate and extent of hydrolysis was quantified by using kinetic models that indicated the role of the surface lignin domains in enzyme inhibition. Hydrophobic interactions between cellulases and the substrates and their critical role on irreversible adsorption were elucidated by using acetylated lignin films with different degrees of substitution. Overall, it is concluded that sensors based on the proposed ultrathin films of lignocellulose can facilitate a better understanding of the complex events that occur during bioconversion of cellulosic biomass. PMID:22954385

  7. Role of surface defects on the formation of the 2-dimensional electron gas at polar interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artacho, Emilio; Aguado-Puente, Pablo

    2014-03-01

    The discovery of a 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the interface between two insulators, LaAlO3 and SrTiO3, has fuelled a great research activity on this and similar systems in the last years. The electronic reconstruction model, typically invoked to explain the formation of the 2DEG, while being intuitive and successful on predicting fundamental aspects of this phenomenon like the critical thickness of LaAlO3, fails to explain many other experimental observations. Oxygen vacancies, on the other hand, are known to dramatically affect the physical behaviour of this system, but their role at the atomic level is far from well understood. Here we perform ab initio simulations in order to assess whether the formation of oxygen vacancies at the surface of the polar material can account for various recent experimental results that defy the current theoretical understanding of these interfaces. We simulate SrTiO3/LaAlO3 slabs with various concentrations of surface oxygen vacancies and analyze the role of the defects on the formation of the metallic interface, their electrostatic coupling with the 2DEG and the interplay with the different instabilities of the materials involved. Financial support from Spanish MINECO under grant FIS2012-37549-C05-01. Computational resources provided by the Red Espñola de Supercomputación and DIPC.

  8. The Role of Grain Surface Reactions in the Chemistry of Star Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Roberge, W. G.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of reactions at the surfaces of dust grains has long been recognized to be one of the two main chemical processes that form molecules in cold, dark interstellar clouds where simple, saturated (fully-hydrogenated) molecules such as H2 water, methanol, H2CO, H2S, ammonia and CH4 are present in quantities far too high to be consistent with their extremely low gas phase formation rates. In cold dark regions of interstellar space, dust grains provide a substrate onto which gas-phase species can accrete and react. Grains provide a "third body" or a sink for the energy released in the exothermic reactions that form chemical bonds. In essence, the surfaces of dust grains open up alternative reaction pathways to form observed molecules whose abundances cannot be explained with gas-phase chemistry alone. This concept is taken one step further in this work: instead of merely acting as a substrate onto which radicals and molecules may physically adsorb, some grains may actively participate in the reaction itself, forming chemical bonds with the accreting species. Until recently, surface chemical reactions had not been thought to be important in warm circumstellar media because adspecies rapidly desorb from grains at very low temperatures; thus, the residence times of molecules and radicals on the surface of grains at all but the lowest temperatures are far too short to allow these reactions to occur. However, if the adspecies could adsorb more strongly, via a true chemical bond with surfaces of some dust grains, then grain surface reactions will play an important role in warm circumstellar regions as well. In this work, the surface-catalyzed reaction CO + 3 H2 yields CH4 + H2O is studied in the context that it may be very effective at converting the inorganic molecule CO into the simplest organic compound, methane. H2 and CO are the most abundant molecules in space, and the reaction converting them to methane, while kinetically inhibited in the gas phase under

  9. Root surface acid phosphatases and their role in phosphorus assimilation by Eriophorum vaginatum

    SciTech Connect

    Kroehler, C.J.; Linkins, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    Eriophorum vaginatum is a dominant plant in much of the arctic tundra ecosystem where phosphorus is frequently a limiting nutrient. The mineralization of this organic phosphorus was thought to be principally controlled by microbial respiration, however, more recent work shows that extracellular soil phosphatases are the principal regulators. The existence of plant root and mycorrhizal surface phosphatases which are capable of hydrolyzing organic phosphorus compounds, suggests that soil organic phosphorus may be directly utilized by plants. Since E. vaginatum is a tussock forming sedge with a very dense annually produced rooting system which can exploit most of the tussock soil volume, its surface phosphatases may play a dominant role in organic phosphorus hydrolysis into inorganic phosphorus. Of equal significance would be the potential for this activity to contribute to the phosphorus nutrition through the coupling of phosphorus hydrolysis on the root and root uptake of the resultant inorganic phosphorus. Phosphatase activity was investigated and found to be uniformly distributed along the surface of the root. Kinetic analysis of the enzyme gave estimates of 9.23 mM for the apparent Km and 1.61 * 10/sup -3/ ..mu..moles mm-2 hr/sup -1/ for the apparent Vmax. Saturation values for E. vaginatum phosphatases are about 3 times higher than average soil solution organic phosphorus concentrations. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Role of surfaces and interfaces in controlling the mechanical properties of metallic alloys.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Jong; Chia, Wen-Jui; Wang, Jinliu; Chen, Yanfeng; Vaynman, Semyon; Fine, Morris E; Chung, Yip-Wah

    2010-11-01

    This article explores the subtle effects of surfaces and interfaces on the mechanical properties of bulk metallic alloys using three examples: environmental effects on fatigue life, hydrogen embrittlement effects on the ductility of intermetallics, and the role of coherent precipitates in the toughness of steels. It is demonstrated that the marked degradation of the fatigue life of metals is due to the strong chemisorption of adsorbates on exposed slip steps that are formed during fatigue deformation. These adsorbates reduce the reversibility of slip, thus accelerating fatigue damage in a chemically active gas environment. For certain intermetallic alloys such as Ni(3)Al and Ni(3)Fe, the ductility depends on the ambient gas composition and the atomic ordering in these alloys, both of which govern the complex surface chemical reactions taking place in the vicinity of crack tips. Finally, it is shown that local stresses at a coherent precipitate-matrix interface can activate dislocation motion at low temperatures, thus improving the fracture toughness of bulk alloys such as steels at cryogenic temperatures. These examples illustrate the complex interplay between surface chemistry and mechanics, often yielding unexpected results.

  11. Role of Surface Area, Primary Particle Size, and Crystal Phase on Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Dispersion Properties

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Characterizing nanoparticle dispersions and understanding the effect of parameters that alter dispersion properties are important for both environmental applications and toxicity investigations. The role of particle surface area, primary particle size, and crystal phase on TiO2 nanoparticle dispersion properties is reported. Hydrodynamic size, zeta potential, and isoelectric point (IEP) of ten laboratory synthesized TiO2 samples, and one commercial Degussa TiO2 sample (P25) dispersed in different solutions were characterized. Solution ionic strength and pH affect titania dispersion properties. The effect of monovalent (NaCl) and divalent (MgCl2) inert electrolytes on dispersion properties was quantified through their contribution to ionic strength. Increasing titania particle surface area resulted in a decrease in solution pH. At fixed pH, increasing the particle surface area enhanced the collision frequency between particles and led to a higher degree of agglomeration. In addition to the synthesis method, TiO2 isoelectric point was found to be dependent on particle size. As anatase TiO2 primary particle size increased from 6 nm to 104 nm, its IEP decreased from 6.0 to 3.8 that also results in changes in dispersion zeta potential and hydrodynamic size. In contrast to particle size, TiO2 nanoparticle IEP was found to be insensitive to particle crystal structure. PMID:27502650

  12. Solar Wind Sputtering of Lunar Surface Materials: Role and Some Possible Implications of Potential Sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Meyer, F.; Reinhold, c.

    2010-01-01

    Solar-wind induced sputtering of the lunar surface includes, in principle, both kinetic and potential sputtering. The role of the latter mechanism, however, in many focused studies has not been properly ascertained due partly to lack of data but can also be attributed to the assertion that the contribution of solar-wind heavy ions to the total sputtering is quite low due to their low number density compared to solar-wind protons. Limited laboratory measurements show marked enhancements in the sputter yields of slow-moving, highly-charged ions impacting oxides. Lunar surface sputtering yields are important as they affect, e.g., estimates of the compositional changes in the lunar surface, its erosion rate, as well as its contribution to the exosphere as well as estimates of hydrogen and water contents. Since the typical range of solar-wind ions at 1 keV/amu is comparable to the thickness of the amorphous rim found on lunar soil grains, i.e. few 10s nm, lunar simulant samples JSC-1A AGGL are specifically enhanced to have such rims in addition to the other known characteristics of the actual lunar soil particles. However, most, if not all laboratory studies of potential sputtering were carried out in single crystal targets, quite different from the rim s amorphous structure. The effect of this structural difference on the extent of potential sputtering has not, to our knowledge, been investigated to date.

  13. The role of d levels of substitutional magnetic impurities at the (110) GaAs surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahani, M. R.; Pertsova, Anna; Islam, Fhokrul; Canali, C. M.

    2013-03-01

    The study of the spin of individual transition-metal dopants in a semiconductor host is an emergent field known as magnetic solotronics, bearing exciting prospects for novel spintronics devices at the atomic scale. Advances in different STM based techniques allowed experimentalists to investigate substitutional dopants at a semiconductor surface with unprecedented accuracy and degree of details. Theoretical studies based both on microscopic tight-binding (TB) models and DFT techniques have contributed in elucidating the experimental findings. In particular, for the case of Mn dopants on the (110) GaAs surface, TB models have provided a quantitative description of the properties of the associated acceptor states. Most of these TB calculations ignore dealing explicitly with the Mn d-levels and treat the associated magnetic moment as a classical vector. However recent STM experiments involving other TM impurities, such as Fe, reveal topographic features that might be related to electronic transitions within the d-level shell of the dopant. In this work we have included explicitly the d levels in the Hamiltonian. The parameters of the model have been extracted from DFT calculations. We have investigated the role that d levels play on the properties of the acceptor states of the doped GaAs(110) surface, and analyzed their implications for STM spectroscopy.

  14. Role of LiCoO2 Surface Terminations in Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Kinetics

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Binghong; Qian, Danna; Risch, Marcel; Chi, Miaofang; Meng, Ying Shirley; Yang, Shao-horn

    2015-03-22

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activities of LiCoO2 nanorods with sizes in the range from 9 to 40 nm were studied in alkaline solution. The sides of these nanorods were terminated with low-index surfaces such as (003) while the tips were terminated largely with high-index surfaces such as (104) as revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Electron energy loss spectroscopy demonstrated that low-spin Co3+ prevailed on the sides, while the tips exhibited predominantly high- or intermediate-spin Co3+. We correlated the electronic and atomic structure to higher specific ORR and OER activities at the tips as comparedmore » to the sides, which was accompanied by more facile redox of Co2+/3+ and higher charge transferred per unit area. These findings highlight the critical role of surface terminations and electronic structures of transition metal oxides on the ORR and OER activity.« less

  15. Role of hydroxyl groups on the stability and catalytic activity of Au clusters on rutile surface

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyls are present as surface terminations of transition metal oxides under ambient conditions and may modify the properties of supported catalysts. We perform first-principles density functional theory calculations to investigate the role of hydroxyls on the catalytic activity of supported gold clusters on TiO{sub 2} (rutile). We find that they have a long-range effect increasing the adhesion of gold clusters on rutile. While hydroxyls make one gold atom more electronegative, a more complex charge-transfer scenario is observed on larger clusters which are important for catalytic applications. This enhances the molecular adsorption and coadsorption energies of CO and O{sub 2}, thereby increasing the catalytic activity of gold clusters for CO oxidation, consistent with reported experiments. Hydroxyls at the interface between gold and rutile surface are most important to this process, even when not directly bound to gold. As such, accurate models of catalytic processes on gold and other catalysts should include the effect of surface hydroxyls.

  16. Role of TI-VAMP and CD82 in EGFR cell-surface dynamics and signaling.

    PubMed

    Danglot, Lydia; Chaineau, Mathilde; Dahan, Maxime; Gendron, Marie-Claude; Boggetto, Nicole; Perez, Franck; Galli, Thierry

    2010-03-01

    The v-SNARE TI-VAMP (VAMP7) mediates exocytosis during neuritogenesis, phagocytosis and lysosomal secretion. It localizes to endosomes and lysosomes but also to the trans-Golgi network. Here we show that depletion of TI-VAMP enhances the endocytosis of activated EGF receptor (EGFR) without affecting constitutive endocytosis of EGFR, or transferrin uptake. This increased EGFR internalization is mainly clathrin dependent. Searching for defects in EGFR regulators, we found that TI-VAMP depletion reduces the cell surface amount of CD82, a tetraspanin known to control EGFR localization in microdomains. We further show that TI-VAMP is required for secretion from the Golgi apparatus to the cell surface, and that TI-VAMP-positive vesicles transport CD82. Quantum dots video-microscopy indicates that depletion of TI-VAMP, or its cargo CD82, restrains EGFR diffusion and the area explored by EGFR at the cell surface. Both depletions also impair MAPK signaling and enhance endocytosis of activated EGFR by increased recruitment of AP-2. These results highlight the role of TI-VAMP in the secretory pathway of a tetraspanin, and support a model in which CD82 allows EGFR entry in microdomains that control its clathrin-dependent endocytosis and signaling.

  17. Surface binding sites in amylase have distinct roles in recognition of starch structure motifs and degradation.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Darrell; Nielsen, Morten M; Christiansen, Camilla; Andersen, Joakim M; Rannes, Julie B; Blennow, Andreas; Svensson, Birte

    2015-04-01

    Carbohydrate converting enzymes often possess extra substrate binding regions that enhance their activity. These can be found either on separate domains termed carbohydrate binding modules or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) situated on the catalytic domain. SBSs are common in starch degrading enzymes and critically important for their function. The affinity towards a variety of starch granules as well as soluble poly- and oligosaccharides of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) wild-type and mutants of two SBSs (SBS1 and SBS2) was investigated using Langmuir binding analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy, affinity gel electrophoresis and surface plasmon resonance to unravel functional roles of the SBSs. SBS1 was critical for binding to different starch types as Kd increased by 7-62-fold or was not measurable upon mutation. By contrast SBS2 was particularly important for binding to soluble polysaccharides and oligosaccharides with α-1,6 linkages, suggesting that branch points are key structural elements in recognition by SBS2. Mutation at both SBS1 and SBS2 eliminated binding to all starch granule types tested. Taken together, the findings indicate that the two SBSs act in concert to localize AMY1 to the starch granule surface and that SBS2 works synergistically with the active site in the degradation of amylopectin.

  18. Fluoride adsorption onto amorphous aluminum hydroxide: Roles of the surface acetate anions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Xing; Jia, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Amorphous aluminum hydroxide with hydroxyl groups, acetate anions and chlorine anions enriched surface was synthesized, and was characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. Batch experiments were performed to study the influence of various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial fluoride concentration, temperature, pH value and the presence of competing anions on the adsorption of fluoride on amorphous aluminum hydroxide. The kinetic data was well fitted to pseudo-second-order model. The fluoride adsorption on the amorphous aluminum hydroxide can be well described by the Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 63.94mgg(-1) at pH 7.0. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy, standard enthalpy and standard entropy were calculated, and the results suggested that the adsorption of fluoride on the amorphous aluminum hydroxide was a feasible, spontaneous and exothermic process. The adsorption mechanism was revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The results suggested that the surface acetate anions and surface chlorine anions played important roles in the fluoride removal process. PMID:27565961

  19. Nanoparticle surface modification by amphiphilic polymers in aqueous media: role of polar organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Biswajit; Venugopal, Vinithra; Bodratti, Andrew M; Tsianou, Marina; Alexandridis, Paschalis

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the role of three polar organic solvents (dimethyl formamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and glycerol) on the interfacial behavior of Pluronic P105 poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymers on protonated silica nanoparticles in an aqueous dispersion. The polymer adsorption and self-assembly have been assessed from critical surface micelle concentration (csmc, measured by pyrene fluorescence spectroscopy) and adsorbed layer thickness (measured by capillary viscometry) data. Above its csmc, PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymers form hydrophobic domains on the nanoparticle surface. Below a critical concentration in water (known as critical displacer concentration, cdc), organic solvents act as displacers (molecules that can displace adsorbed polymer from a solid surface). The critical displacer concentration is obtained from the csmc and the polymer adsorbed layer thickness data. The cdc is found to be dependent on both the amount of nanoparticles present in the system as well as the nature of the displacer. Below the cdc, the csmc increases and the adsorbed polymer layer thickness decreases with increasing organic solvent concentration. Interfacial free energy calculations suggest that DMF, DMSO, and glycerol can adsorb onto the silica particles by displacing adsorbed PEO. These calculations are consistent with the experimental results in that, as a displacer, glycerol is the most effective and DMF is the least effective. Above the cdc, the influence of glycerol or DMSO on csmc is opposite to that of DMF which is attributed to the cosolvent effect.

  20. Role of Porphyromonas gingivalis protease activity in colonization of oral surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, M; Duncan, M; Cho, M I; Kuramitsu, H K

    1996-01-01

    Cysteine proteases, including Arg-gingipain of Porphyromonas gingivalis, have been implicated as important virulence factors in periodontal diseases. These enzymes are also involved in the hemagglutinating activity of the organisms. In order to determine the role of proteases in the colonization of the gingival margin, we have compared the attachment properties of P. gingivalis 381 with those of its Arg-gingipain-defective mutant, G-102. Interactions with gram-positive bacteria, human oral epithelial cells, extracellular matrix proteins, and type I collagen were evaluated. In all cases, mutant G-102 was deficient in attachment relative to the parental strain. The mutant's defects could be explained, in part, by the weak autoaggregation displayed by the mutant, which appeared to result from altered fimbrial expression. Both Western blot (immunoblot) and Northern (RNA) blot analyses indicated reduced expression of the major 43-kDa fimbrillin subunit in the mutant. These results suggest that Arg-gingipain may play both direct and indirect roles in the colonization of the gingival margin. In addition, fimbriae may play a direct role in interacting with some host surfaces. PMID:8926070

  1. Drought and Heat Waves: The Role of SST and Land Surface Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried

    2011-01-01

    Drought occurs on a wide range of time scales, and within a variety of different types of regional climates. At the shortest time scales it is often associated with heat waves that last only several weeks to a few months but nevertheless can have profound detrimental impacts on society (e.g., heat-related impacts on human health, desiccation of croplands, increased fire hazard), while at the longest time scales it can extend over decades and can lead to long term structural changes in many aspects of society (e.g., agriculture, water resources, wetlands, tourism, population shifts). There is now considerable evidence that sea surface temperatures (SSTs) play a leading role in the development of drought world-wide, especially at seasonal and longer time scales, though land-atmosphere feedbacks can also play an important role. At shorter (subseasonal) time scales, SSTs are less important, but land feedbacks can play a critical role in maintaining and amplifying the atmospheric conditions associated with heat waves and short-term droughts. This talk reviews our current understanding of the physical mechanisms that drive precipitation and temperature variations on subseasonal to centennial time scales. This includes an assessment of predictability, prediction skill, and user needs at all time scales.

  2. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  3. Inhomogeneites dans le Vent des Etoiles Wolf-Rayet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Carmelle

    1992-01-01

    autres, une correlation entre le nombre d'inhomogeneites detectees et la vitesse terminale. Cette relation explique bien l'anti-correlation observee entre le niveau de variabilite spectroscopique, photometrique ou polarimetrique et la vitesse terminale. On estime pour toutes les etoiles une masse moyenne des inhomogeneites de 7 times 10^{ -10} Modot et un taux de perte de masse sous la forme d'inhomogeneites detectables qui correspond a 10% de la perte de masse du vent total. L'histogramme du nombre d'inhomogeneites en fonction du leur flux pourrait cependant predire l'existence d'un grand nombre de petites structures non-detectees ici a cause du rapport signal sur bruit relativement trop faible. Ce resultat interessant, qui demande cependant a etre verifie, suggere que le vent pourrait etre forme d'un ensemble quasi infini d'inhomogeneites. En ajustant une loi de puissance dans l'histogramme du flux de chaque etoile, on calcule, pour les plus grosses structures, un exposant = -2.4 +/- 0.2. On constate alors que cette valeur est compatible avec celle que predit la turbulence supersonique. Les structures observees dans les spectres des etoiles WR ont des caracteristiques tres semblables a celles des etoiles O. On propose alors que les perturbations observees chez ces 2 types d'etoiles ont une meme origine. Parmi les mecanismes deja proposes dans le passe pour expliquer les variations des etoiles O et WR (instabilites radiatives, pulsations et champ magnetique) on ne saurait encore dire <=uel, ou lesquels, correspondent le mieux aux observations. Dans les projets futurs, on propose de considerer aussi le role que pourrait avoir la turbulence pour expliquer les perturbations du vent stellaire.

  4. The role of surface characteristics on intermittency and zero-crossing properties of atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cava, Daniela; Katul, Gabriel George; Molini, Annalisa; Elefante, Cosimo

    2012-01-01

    Clustering and intermittency in atmospheric turbulent flows above different natural surfaces are investigated with reference to their dependency on surface roughness and thermal stratification. The dualism between active and quiescent phases within measured time series is isolated by using the telegraphic approximation (TA), which is able to eliminate the contributions to intermittency originating from amplitude variability associated with the energetic states. The presence of linear correlation relating the scaling exponents of energy spectra for the original series (n) and its TA counterpart (m) within the inertial sub-range (ISR) suggests that amplitude variability acts as a de-correlation factor for the series. Clustering exponents α estimated from velocity and scalar time series exhibit a weak dependence on the Taylor micro-scale Reynolds number (Reλ). The average values of intermittency exponents for the original (μs) and the TA series (μTA) are linearly correlated to α for longitudinal velocity and scalars. The derived relationships shows that in the atmospheric surface layer (ASL), amplitude intermittency plays a smoothing role on the clusterization of events. On the other hand, within the canopy sublayer (CSL) above canopies, scalars are more clustered and amplitude excursions tend to amplify (or not alter) clusterization. Moreover, reducing surface roughness results in a de-correlation between α and μTA for the vertical velocity component. Additionally, the probability density functions of inter-pulse periods (Ip) were shown to be well approximated by the law p(Ip) ˜ Ip-γ for Ip within the ISR when γ ≈ 3 - m, which also holds for sand pile models of self organized criticality in the large pile limit.

  5. Role of Extracellular Polymeric Substances in the Surface Chemical Reactivity of Hymenobacter aerophilus, a Psychrotolerant Bacterium▿

    PubMed Central

    Baker, M. G.; Lalonde, S. V.; Konhauser, K. O.; Foght, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial surface layers, such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), are known to play an important role in metal sorption and biomineralization; however, there have been very few studies investigating how environmentally induced changes in EPS production affect the cell's surface chemistry and reactivity. Acid-base titrations, cadmium adsorption assays, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to characterize the surface reactivities of Hymenobacter aerophilus cells with intact EPS (WC) or stripped of EPS (SC) and purified EPS alone. Linear programming modeling of titration data showed SC to possess functional groups corresponding to phosphoryl (pKa ∼6.5), phosphoryl/amine (pKa ∼7.9), and amine/hydroxyl (pKa ∼9.9). EPS and WC both possess carboxyl groups (pKa ∼5.1 to 5.8) in addition to phosphoryl and amine groups. FT-IR confirmed the presence of polysaccharides and protein in purified EPS that can account for the additional carboxyl groups. An increased ligand density was observed for WC relative to that for SC, leading to an increase in the amount of Cd adsorbed (0.53 to 1.73 mmol/liter per g [dry weight] and 0.53 to 0.59 mmol/liter per g [dry weight], respectively). Overall, the presence of EPS corresponds to an increase in the number and type of functional groups on the surface of H. aerophilus that is reflected by increased metal adsorption relative to that for EPS-free cells. PMID:19915039

  6. Role of extracellular polymeric substances in the surface chemical reactivity of Hymenobacter aerophilus, a psychrotolerant bacterium.

    PubMed

    Baker, M G; Lalonde, S V; Konhauser, K O; Foght, J M

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial surface layers, such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), are known to play an important role in metal sorption and biomineralization; however, there have been very few studies investigating how environmentally induced changes in EPS production affect the cell's surface chemistry and reactivity. Acid-base titrations, cadmium adsorption assays, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to characterize the surface reactivities of Hymenobacter aerophilus cells with intact EPS (WC) or stripped of EPS (SC) and purified EPS alone. Linear programming modeling of titration data showed SC to possess functional groups corresponding to phosphoryl (pKa approximately 6.5), phosphoryl/amine (pKa approximately 7.9), and amine/hydroxyl (pKa approximately 9.9). EPS and WC both possess carboxyl groups (pKa approximately 5.1 to 5.8) in addition to phosphoryl and amine groups. FT-IR confirmed the presence of polysaccharides and protein in purified EPS that can account for the additional carboxyl groups. An increased ligand density was observed for WC relative to that for SC, leading to an increase in the amount of Cd adsorbed (0.53 to 1.73 mmol/liter per g [dry weight] and 0.53 to 0.59 mmol/liter per g [dry weight], respectively). Overall, the presence of EPS corresponds to an increase in the number and type of functional groups on the surface of H. aerophilus that is reflected by increased metal adsorption relative to that for EPS-free cells.

  7. Reactions in elastomeric nanoreactors reveal the role of force on the kinetics of the Huisgen reaction on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Bian, Shudan; Liang, Yong; Houk, K N; Braunschweig, Adam B

    2014-07-30

    The force dependence of the copper-free Huisgen cycloaddition between an alkyne and a surface-bound azide was examined in elastomeric nanoreactors. These studies revealed that pressure and chain length are critical factors that determine the reaction rate. These experiments demonstrate the central role of pressure and surface structure on interfacial processes that are increasingly important in biology, materials science, and nanotechnology.

  8. The Reduction of Aqueous Metal Species on the Surfaces of Fe(II)-Containing Oxides: The Role of Surface Passivation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.F.; Peterson, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The reduction of aqueous transition metal species at the surfaces of Fe(II)- containing oxides has important ramifications in predicting the transport behavior in ground water aquifers. Experimental studies using mineral suspensions and electrodes demonstrate that structural Fe(II) heterogeneously reduces aqueous ferric, cupric, vanadate and chromate ions on magnetite and ilmenite surfaces. The rates of metal reduction on natural oxides is strongly dependent on the extent of surface passivation and redox conditions in the weathering environment. Synchrotron studies show that surface oxidation of Fe(II)-containing oxide minerals decreases their capacity for Cr(VI) reduction at hazardous waste disposal sites.

  9. Role of electron carriers on local surface plasmon resonances in doped oxide semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Hiroaki Tabata, Hitoshi; Furuta, Shinya

    2014-05-26

    Optical properties of carrier-dependent local surface plasmons (LSPs) were studied using dopant-controlled In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn nanocrystals (NCs). From a systematic correlation between LSP excitations and electron carriers, electron-impurity scattering contributed towards plasmon damping as one of a factor that is absent in metal NCs. A threshold electron density (n{sub e}) from a damping dominated regime to a quenched damping regime appeared at around 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}. The validity of Mie theory failed in ITO NCs with high n{sub e} greater than 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} since the role of electron carriers could enhance LSPs with simultaneous damped plasmonic excitations, which is valuable information for optical applications.

  10. The Influence of Gender, Age, Matriline and Hierarchical Rank on Individual Social Position, Role and Interactional Patterns in Macaca sylvanus at 'La Forêt des Singes': A Multilevel Social Network Approach.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    A society is a complex system composed of individuals that can be characterized by their own attributes that influence their behaviors. In this study, a specific analytical protocol based on social network analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of four attributes (gender, age, matriline, and hierarchical rank) on affiliative (allogrooming) and agonistic networks in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus, at the park La Forêt des Singes in France. The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e., centric, peripheral) and role (i.e., implication in the network cohesiveness) of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns. Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network. High-ranking individuals are likely to receive fewer agonistic behaviors than low-ranking individuals, and high-ranking females receive more allogrooming. I also observe homophily for affiliative interactions regarding all attributes and homophily for agonistic interactions regarding gender and age. Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network. PMID:27148137

  11. The Influence of Gender, Age, Matriline and Hierarchical Rank on Individual Social Position, Role and Interactional Patterns in Macaca sylvanus at ‘La Forêt des Singes’: A Multilevel Social Network Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    A society is a complex system composed of individuals that can be characterized by their own attributes that influence their behaviors. In this study, a specific analytical protocol based on social network analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of four attributes (gender, age, matriline, and hierarchical rank) on affiliative (allogrooming) and agonistic networks in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus, at the park La Forêt des Singes in France. The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e., centric, peripheral) and role (i.e., implication in the network cohesiveness) of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns. Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network. High-ranking individuals are likely to receive fewer agonistic behaviors than low-ranking individuals, and high-ranking females receive more allogrooming. I also observe homophily for affiliative interactions regarding all attributes and homophily for agonistic interactions regarding gender and age. Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network. PMID:27148137

  12. The Influence of Gender, Age, Matriline and Hierarchical Rank on Individual Social Position, Role and Interactional Patterns in Macaca sylvanus at 'La Forêt des Singes': A Multilevel Social Network Approach.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    A society is a complex system composed of individuals that can be characterized by their own attributes that influence their behaviors. In this study, a specific analytical protocol based on social network analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of four attributes (gender, age, matriline, and hierarchical rank) on affiliative (allogrooming) and agonistic networks in a non-human primate species, Macaca sylvanus, at the park La Forêt des Singes in France. The results show significant differences with respect to the position (i.e., centric, peripheral) and role (i.e., implication in the network cohesiveness) of an individual within a social network and hence interactional patterns. Females are more central, more active, and have a denser ego network in the affiliative social network tan males; thus, they contribute in a greater way to the cohesive structure of the network. High-ranking individuals are likely to receive fewer agonistic behaviors than low-ranking individuals, and high-ranking females receive more allogrooming. I also observe homophily for affiliative interactions regarding all attributes and homophily for agonistic interactions regarding gender and age. Revealing the positions, the roles, and the interactional behavioral patterns of individuals can help understand the mechanisms that shape the overall structure of a social network.

  13. Role of temperature differences between surface and deep reservoirs in geyser dynamics: Insights from laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Saez, C.; Shteinberg, A.; Manga, M.

    2012-12-01

    Geysers are springs that produce episodic eruptions of steam, liquid water, and non-condensable gases. Their eruptions are smaller and more frequent than other eruptive processes (volcanic, or hydrothermal eruptions), providing a feasible natural laboratory to understand eruptive processes. Moreover, the fluid dynamics of geysers probe processes that operate in more inaccessible geothermal systems. We developed laboratory experiments to understand the role of the surface temperature on geyser dynamics. For the experimental model, we followed to model developed by Steinberg et al. (1982), which produced periodic eruptions. In this experimental model, eruptions are driven by the ascent of bubbles. The "explosive" ejection of fluid occurs when bubbles reach the surface of the conduit. The eruption of a bubble influences the nucleation on the next bubble through the pressure changes in the conduit. The experimental apparatus consists of a bottom reservoir and a vertical conduit that opens into an upper chamber that collects and returns liquid to the reservoir after the eruption. The reservoir was heated from below at a constant rate. The fluid used was Freon 113, which has a boiling point of 48°C. Temperature in the upper part of the tube was varied between 0° to 20°C. As we increase the temperature difference between the reservoir and the surface of the tube we find (1) that vapor contained in the upper part of bubble tends condense, impeding its ascent to the surface, (2) an increase the number of bubbles generated during the time between eruptions, (3) that the volume of vapor in the tube remain almost constant during the period between eruptions (4) an increase the frequency of eruptions, (5) an increase the escape speed of fluid from the tube, and (6) an increase in Reynolds number. We interpret these results in terms of heat transport by the rising bubbles. Bubbles transport the heat as latent heat of evaporation. Because the amount of heating was the same in

  14. Biofilm formation by Psychrobacter arcticus and the role of a large adhesin in attachment to surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hinsa-Leasure, Shannon M; Koid, Cassandra; Tiedje, James M; Schultzhaus, Janna N

    2013-07-01

    Psychrobacter arcticus strain 273-4, an isolate from a Siberian permafrost core, is capable of forming biofilms when grown in minimal medium under laboratory conditions. Biofilms form at 4 to 22°C when acetate is supplied as the lone carbon source and with 1 to 7% sea salt. P. arcticus is also capable of colonizing quartz sand. Transposon mutagenesis identified a gene important for biofilm formation by P. arcticus. Four transposon mutants were mapped to a 20.1-kbp gene, which is predicted to encode a protein of 6,715 amino acids (Psyc_1601). We refer to this open reading frame as cat1, for cold attachment gene 1. The cat1 mutants are unable to form biofilms at levels equivalent to that of the wild type, and there is no impact on the planktonic growth characteristics of the strains, indicating a specific role in biofilm formation. Through time course studies of the static microtiter plate assay, we determined that cat1 mutants are unable to form biofilms equivalent to that of the wild type under all conditions tested. In flow cell experiments, cat1 mutants initially are unable to attach to the surface. Over time, however, they form microcolonies, an architecture very different from that produced by wild-type biofilms. Our results demonstrate that Cat1 is involved in the initial stages of bacterial attachment to surfaces. PMID:23603675

  15. The role of surface charge in cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of medical nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Eleonore

    2012-01-01

    Many types of nanoparticles (NPs) are tested for use in medical products, particularly in imaging and gene and drug delivery. For these applications, cellular uptake is usually a prerequisite and is governed in addition to size by surface characteristics such as hydrophobicity and charge. Although positive charge appears to improve the efficacy of imaging, gene transfer, and drug delivery, a higher cytotoxicity of such constructs has been reported. This review summarizes findings on the role of surface charge on cytotoxicity in general, action on specific cellular targets, modes of toxic action, cellular uptake, and intracellular localization of NPs. Effects of serum and intercell type differences are addressed. Cationic NPs cause more pronounced disruption of plasma-membrane integrity, stronger mitochondrial and lysosomal damage, and a higher number of autophagosomes than anionic NPs. In general, nonphagocytic cells ingest cationic NPs to a higher extent, but charge density and hydrophobicity are equally important; phagocytic cells preferentially take up anionic NPs. Cells do not use different uptake routes for cationic and anionic NPs, but high uptake rates are usually linked to greater biological effects. The different uptake preferences of phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells for cationic and anionic NPs may influence the efficacy and selectivity of NPs for drug delivery and imaging. PMID:23144561

  16. Biofilm Formation by Psychrobacter arcticus and the Role of a Large Adhesin in Attachment to Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Koid, Cassandra; Tiedje, James M.; Schultzhaus, Janna N.

    2013-01-01

    Psychrobacter arcticus strain 273-4, an isolate from a Siberian permafrost core, is capable of forming biofilms when grown in minimal medium under laboratory conditions. Biofilms form at 4 to 22°C when acetate is supplied as the lone carbon source and with 1 to 7% sea salt. P. arcticus is also capable of colonizing quartz sand. Transposon mutagenesis identified a gene important for biofilm formation by P. arcticus. Four transposon mutants were mapped to a 20.1-kbp gene, which is predicted to encode a protein of 6,715 amino acids (Psyc_1601). We refer to this open reading frame as cat1, for cold attachment gene 1. The cat1 mutants are unable to form biofilms at levels equivalent to that of the wild type, and there is no impact on the planktonic growth characteristics of the strains, indicating a specific role in biofilm formation. Through time course studies of the static microtiter plate assay, we determined that cat1 mutants are unable to form biofilms equivalent to that of the wild type under all conditions tested. In flow cell experiments, cat1 mutants initially are unable to attach to the surface. Over time, however, they form microcolonies, an architecture very different from that produced by wild-type biofilms. Our results demonstrate that Cat1 is involved in the initial stages of bacterial attachment to surfaces. PMID:23603675

  17. In-cell thermodynamics and a new role for protein surfaces.

    PubMed

    Smith, Austin E; Zhou, Larry Z; Gorensek, Annelise H; Senske, Michael; Pielak, Gary J

    2016-02-16

    There is abundant, physiologically relevant knowledge about protein cores; they are hydrophobic, exquisitely well packed, and nearly all hydrogen bonds are satisfied. An equivalent understanding of protein surfaces has remained elusive because proteins are almost exclusively studied in vitro in simple aqueous solutions. Here, we establish the essential physiological roles played by protein surfaces by measuring the equilibrium thermodynamics and kinetics of protein folding in the complex environment of living Escherichia coli cells, and under physiologically relevant in vitro conditions. Fluorine NMR data on the 7-kDa globular N-terminal SH3 domain of Drosophila signal transduction protein drk (SH3) show that charge-charge interactions are fundamental to protein stability and folding kinetics in cells. Our results contradict predictions from accepted theories of macromolecular crowding and show that cosolutes commonly used to mimic the cellular interior do not yield physiologically relevant information. As such, we provide the foundation for a complete picture of protein chemistry in cells. PMID:26755596

  18. Interpretation of friction and wear in DLC film: role of surface chemistry and test environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polaki, S. R.; Kumar, N.; Madapu, K.; Ganesan, K.; Krishna, N. G.; Srivastava, S. K.; Abhaya, S.; Kamruddin, M.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2016-11-01

    In spite of the large amount of tribological work carried out to explain the friction and wear mechanism in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, some of the core issues relating to the evolution of reactive species across sliding interfaces and their role on the friction and wear mechanism remain unclear. The phase composition, film density and hydrogen content present in a DLC film can be tailored by substrate biasing during film deposition to achieve a nearly vanishing friction coefficient. Furthermore, nitrogen doping in DLC films significantly improves wear resistance, and sliding occurs in a nearly wearless regime. Undoped and nitrogen-doped DLC films exhibit a nearly frictionless value with ultra-low wear behavior when tests are performed in argon, nitrogen and methane atmospheres. The antifriction and antiwear properties of the DLC films were improved with the reduction of adsorbed oxygen impurities on the film surface. This behavior was understood by correlating the oxygen impurities present at the surface/subsurface region of the DLC film while using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and depth-resolved Auger electron spectroscopy.

  19. In-cell thermodynamics and a new role for protein surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Austin E.; Zhou, Larry Z.; Gorensek, Annelise H.; Senske, Michael; Pielak, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    There is abundant, physiologically relevant knowledge about protein cores; they are hydrophobic, exquisitely well packed, and nearly all hydrogen bonds are satisfied. An equivalent understanding of protein surfaces has remained elusive because proteins are almost exclusively studied in vitro in simple aqueous solutions. Here, we establish the essential physiological roles played by protein surfaces by measuring the equilibrium thermodynamics and kinetics of protein folding in the complex environment of living Escherichia coli cells, and under physiologically relevant in vitro conditions. Fluorine NMR data on the 7-kDa globular N-terminal SH3 domain of Drosophila signal transduction protein drk (SH3) show that charge–charge interactions are fundamental to protein stability and folding kinetics in cells. Our results contradict predictions from accepted theories of macromolecular crowding and show that cosolutes commonly used to mimic the cellular interior do not yield physiologically relevant information. As such, we provide the foundation for a complete picture of protein chemistry in cells. PMID:26755596

  20. Role of Surface Energy Coefficients and Temperature in the Fusion Reactions Induced by Weakly Bound Projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaei, R.; O. N., Ghodsi

    2015-08-01

    A systematic study is provided to analyze the behaviors of the interaction potential and complete fusion cross section which are influenced by the effects of the surface energy coefficients γ and temperature T. Our framework is restricted to the proximity formalism for fusion reactions induced by weakly bound projectiles 6Li, 7Li and 9Be. The different surface energy coefficients (γ-MN76, γ-MN95, γ-MS00 and γ-PD03) are used to study the role of the parameter γ in the proximity potentials AW 95 and BW 91. Comparison of the theoretical and the experimental values of the barrier characteristics (barrier heights and its positions) indicates that the modified versions AW 95 (γ-MS00) and BW 91 (γ-MS00) give the least deviations for fusion barrier heights. Moreover, it is shown that the temperature-dependence improves the calculated barrier heights based on the potentials AW 95 and BW 91. In the present study, the analysis of the mentioned effects on the complete fusion cross sections has been also discussed for the systems of interest. The obtained results reveal that the above-modified versions provide a more accurate description for behavior of the complete fusion cross sections than the original potentials at above-barrier energies. It is demonstrated that the increase of the temperature T enhances the complete fusion suppression at this energy range.

  1. An active role of extratropical sea surface temperature anomalies in determining anomalous turbulent heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Youichi; Nakamura, Hisashi; Kagimoto, Takashi; Yamane, Shozo

    2003-10-01

    Temporal and spatial structures of turbulent latent and sensible heat flux anomalies are examined in relation to dominant patterns of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) observed over the North Pacific. Relative importance among observed anomalies in SST, surface air temperature, and wind speed in determining the anomalous turbulent heat fluxes is assessed through linearizing the observed flux anomalies. Over the central basin of the North Pacific, changes in the atmospheric variables, including air temperature and wind speed, are primarily responsible for the generation of local SST variations by changing turbulent heat flux, which supports a conventional view of extratropical air-sea interaction. In the region where ocean dynamics is very important in forming SSTAs, in contrast, SSTAs that have been formed in early winter play the primary role in determining mid- and late-winter turbulent heat flux anomalies, indicative of the SST forcing upon the overlying atmosphere. Specifically, both decadal scale SSTAs in the western Pacific subarctic frontal zone and El Niño related SSTAs south of Japan are found to be engaged actively in such forcing on the atmosphere. The atmospheric response to this forcing appears to include the anomalous storm track activity. The observed atmospheric anomalies, which may be, in part, forced by the preexisting SSTAs in those two regions, act to force SSTAs in other portions of the basin, leading to the time evolution of SSTAs as observed in the course of the winter season.

  2. Role of algal biofilm in improving the performance of free surface, up-flow constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Badhe, Neha; Saha, Shaswati; Biswas, Rima; Nandy, Tapas

    2014-10-01

    The role of algal biofilm in a pilot-scale, free-surface, up-flow constructed wetland (CW), was studied for its effect on chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia and phosphate removal during three seasons-autumn, winter and early spring. Effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) was also investigated in presence and absence of algal biofilm. Principal Component Analysis was used to identify the independent factors governing the performance of CW. The study showed algal biofilm significantly improved nutrient removal, especially phosphate. Ammonia removal varied with HRT, biofilm and ambient temperature. Increase in biofilm thickness affected ammonia removal efficiency adversely. Algal biofilm-assisted COD removal compensated for reduced macrophyte density during winter. Two-way ANOVA test and the coefficients of dependent factors derived through multiple linear regression model confirmed role of algal biofilm in improving nutrient removal in CW. The study suggests that algal biofilm can be a green solution for bio-augmenting COD and nutrient removal in CW. PMID:25105266

  3. Role of Vibrio cholerae O139 surface polysaccharides in intestinal colonization.

    PubMed

    Nesper, Jutta; Schild, Stefan; Lauriano, Crystal M; Kraiss, Anita; Klose, Karl E; Reidl, Joachim

    2002-11-01

    Since the first occurrence of O139 Vibrio cholerae as a cause of cholera epidemics, this serogroup has been investigated intensively, and it has been found that its pathogenicity is comparable to that of O1 El Tor strains. O139 isolates express a thin capsule, composed of a polymer of repeating units structurally identical to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O side chain. In this study, we investigated the role of LPS O side chain and capsular polysaccharide (CPS) in intestinal colonization by with genetically engineered mutants. We constructed CPS-negative, CPS/LPS O side chain-negative, and CPS-positive/LPS O side chain-negative mutants. Furthermore, we constructed two mutants with defects in LPS core oligosaccharide (OS) assembly. Loss of LPS O side chain or CPS resulted in a approximately 30-fold reduction in colonization of the infant mouse small intestine, indicating that the presence of both LPS O side chain and CPS is important during the colonization process. The strain lacking both CPS and LPS O side chain and a CPS-positive, LPS O side chain-negative core OS mutant were both essentially unable to colonize. To characterize the role of surface polysaccharides in survival in the host intestine, resistance to several antimicrobial substances was investigated in vitro. These investigations revealed that the presence of CPS protects the cell against attack of the complement system and that an intact core OS is necessary for survival in the presence of bile. PMID:12379674

  4. The role of surfaces, chemical interfaces, and disorder on plutonium incorporation in pyrochlores.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Romain; Dholabhai, Pratik P; Uberuaga, Blas P

    2016-08-17

    Pyrochlores, a class of complex oxides with formula A2B2O7, are one of the candidates for nuclear waste encapsulation, due to the natural occurrence of actinide-bearing pyrochlore minerals and laboratory observations of high radiation tolerance. In this work, we use atomistic simulations to determine the role of surfaces, chemical interfaces, and cation disorder on the plutonium immobilization properties of pyrochlores as a function of pyrochlore chemistry. We find that both Pu(3+) and Pu(4+) segregate to the surface for the four low-index pyrochlore surfaces considered, and that the segregation energy varies with the chemistry of the compound. We also find that pyrochlore/pyrochlore bicrystals A2B2O7/A2'B2'O7 can be used to immobilize Pu(3+) and Pu(4+) either in the same or separate phases of the compound, depending on the chemistry of the material. Finally, we find that Pu(4+) segregates to the disordered phase of an order/disorder bicrystal, driven by the occurrence of local oxygen-rich environments. However, Pu(3+) is weakly sensitive to the oxygen environment, and therefore only slightly favors the disordered phase. This behavior suggests that, at some concentration, Pu incorporation can destabilize the pyrochlore structure. Together, these results provide new insight into the ability of pyrochlore compounds to encapsulate Pu and suggest new considerations in the development of waste forms based on pyrochlores. In particular, the phase structure of a multi-phase pyrochlore composite can be used to independently getter decay products based on their valence and size. PMID:27480791

  5. Role of Integrin Subunits in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Osteoblast Maturation on Graphitic Carbon-coated Microstructured Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Rodil, Sandra E.; Hyzy, Sharon L.; Dunn, Ginger R.; Almaguer-Flores, Argelia; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D.

    2015-01-01

    Surface roughness, topography, chemistry, and energy promote osteoblast differentiation and increase osteogenic local factor production in vitro and bone-to-implant contact in vivo, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. Knockdown of integrin heterodimer alpha2beta1 (α2β1) blocks the osteogenic effects of the surface, suggesting signaling by this integrin homodimer is required. The purpose of the present study was to separate effects of surface chemistry and surface structure on integrin expression by coating smooth or rough titanium (Ti) substrates with graphitic carbon, retaining surface morphology but altering surface chemistry. Ti surfaces (smooth [Ra<0.4μm], rough [Ra≥3.4μm]) were sputter-coated using a magnetron sputtering system with an ultrapure graphite target, producing a graphitic carbon thin film. Human mesenchymal stem cells and MG63 osteoblast-like cells had higher mRNA for integrin subunits α1, α2, αv, and β1 on rough surfaces in comparison to smooth, and integrin αv on graphitic-carbon-coated rough surfaces in comparison to Ti. Osteogenic differentiation was greater on rough surfaces in comparison to smooth, regardless of chemistry. Silencing integrins β1, α1, or α2 decreased osteoblast maturation on rough surfaces independent of surface chemistry. Silencing integrin αv decreased maturation only on graphitic carbon-coated surfaces, not on Ti. These results suggest a major role of the integrin β1 subunit in roughness recognition, and that integrin alpha subunits play a major role in surface chemistry recognition. PMID:25770999

  6. Catalytic Activity and Stability of Oxides: The Role of Near-Surface Atomic Structures and Compositions.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhenxing; Hong, Wesley T; Fong, Dillon D; Lee, Yueh-Lin; Yacoby, Yizhak; Morgan, Dane; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2016-05-17

    Electrocatalysts play an important role in catalyzing the kinetics for oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions for many air-based energy storage and conversion devices, such as metal-air batteries and fuel cells. Although noble metals have been extensively used as electrocatalysts, their limited natural abundance and high costs have motivated the search for more cost-effective catalysts. Oxides are suitable candidates since they are relatively inexpensive and have shown reasonably high activity for various electrochemical reactions. However, a lack of fundamental understanding of the reaction mechanisms has been a major hurdle toward improving electrocatalytic activity. Detailed studies of the oxide surface atomic structure and chemistry (e.g., cation migration) can provide much needed insights for the design of highly efficient and stable oxide electrocatalysts. In this Account, we focus on recent advances in characterizing strontium (Sr) cation segregation and enrichment near the surface of Sr-substituted perovskite oxides under different operating conditions (e.g., high temperature, applied potential), as well as their influence on the surface oxygen exchange kinetics at elevated temperatures. We contrast Sr segregation, which is associated with Sr redistribution in the crystal lattice near the surface, with Sr enrichment, which involves Sr redistribution via the formation of secondary phases. The newly developed coherent Bragg rod analysis (COBRA) and energy-modulated differential COBRA are uniquely powerful ways of providing information about surface and interfacial cation segregation at the atomic scale for these thin film electrocatalysts. In situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) studies under electrochemical operating conditions give additional insights into cation migration. Direct COBRA and APXPS evidence for surface Sr segregation was found for La1-xSrxCoO3-δ and (La1-ySry)2CoO4±δ/La1-xSrxCoO3-δ oxide thin films, and

  7. The role of nest surface temperatures and the brain in influencing ant metabolic rates.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Nigel R; Ghaedi, Behnaz; Groenewald, Berlizé

    2016-08-01

    Thermal limits of insects can be influenced by recent thermal history: here we used thermolimit respirometry to determine metabolic rate responses and thermal limits of the dominant meat ant, Iridomyrmex purpureus. Firstly, we tested the hypothesis that nest surface temperatures have a pervasive influence on thermal limits. Metabolic rates and activity of freshly field collected individuals were measured continuously while ramping temperatures from 44°C to 62°C at 0.25°C/minute. At all the stages of thermolimit respirometry, metabolic rates were independent of nest surface temperatures, and CTmax did not differ between ants collected from nest with different surface temperatures. Secondly, we tested the effect of brain control on upper thermal limits of meat ants via ant decapitation experiments ('headedness'). Decapitated ants exhibited similar upper critical temperature (CTmax) results to living ants (Decapitated 50.3±1.2°C: Living 50.1±1.8°C). Throughout the temperature ramping process, 'headedness' had a significant effect on metabolic rate in total (Decapitated V̇CO2 140±30µlCO2mg(-1)min(-1): Living V̇CO2 250±50 CO2mg(-1)min(-1)), as well as at temperatures below and above CTmax. At high temperatures (>44°C) pre- CTmax the relationships between I. purpureus CTmax values and mass specific metabolic rates for living ants exhibited a negative slope whilst decapitated ants exhibited a positive slope. The decapitated ants also had a significantly higher Q10:25-35°C when compared to living ants (1.91±0.43 vs. 1.29±0.35). Our findings suggest that physiological responses of ants may be able to cope with increasing surface temperatures, as shown by metabolic rates across the thermolimit continuum, making them physiologically resilient to a rapidly changing climate. We also demonstrate that the brain plays a role in respiration, but critical thermal limits are independent of respiration levels. PMID:27503725

  8. Kinetics and roles of solution and surface species of chalcopyrite dissolution at 650 mV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yubiao; Qian, Gujie; Li, Jun; Gerson, Andrea R.

    2015-07-01

    To better understand chalcopyrite dissolution in hydrogeochemical processes and the related environmental issue of acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD), the kinetics as well as the influence of solution composition and the nature of surface species formed during chalcopyrite dissolution have been examined under the controlled conditions of Eh 650 mV (SHE), pH 1.0-2.0 and 75 °C, with/without 4 mM Fe2+ addition. SEM and XPS analyses indicate that the surface products, both at micro- and nano-scales, did not passivate dissolution under the conditions examined. Extensive S0 was formed mostly as discrete particles rather than coatings on the chalcopyrite surface. Jarosite was only observed for dissolution at pH 2.0 with 4 mM added Fe2+. Without Fe2+ addition, the initial dissolution rate was observed to be only correlated to H+ activity as aH+0.12(±0.01), indicating chalcopyrite dissolution was controlled via chemical oxidation of chalcopyrite by H+/O2. When reaction between chalcopyrite and Fe3+ predominated chalcopyrite dissolution (i.e. later stage of dissolution without Fe2+ addition), the dissolution rate was found to be positively correlated to the activities of Fe3+, as aFe3+1.54(±0.07), and H+, as aH+0.13(±0.05). When 4 mM Fe2+ was added, no clear correlation was observed between the dissolution rate and the activities of either Fe3+or H+. It is proposed that the relative reactive surface area may not be proportional to that predicted by a shrinking sphere model as was assumed for derivation of the rate laws for the systems without added Fe2+, with the predicted rate being greater than the measured rate. Irrespective, it is clear that the addition of a relatively low Fe2+ concentration plays an important role in accelerating the copper dissolution rate at this Eh.

  9. The role of nest surface temperatures and the brain in influencing ant metabolic rates.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Nigel R; Ghaedi, Behnaz; Groenewald, Berlizé

    2016-08-01

    Thermal limits of insects can be influenced by recent thermal history: here we used thermolimit respirometry to determine metabolic rate responses and thermal limits of the dominant meat ant, Iridomyrmex purpureus. Firstly, we tested the hypothesis that nest surface temperatures have a pervasive influence on thermal limits. Metabolic rates and activity of freshly field collected individuals were measured continuously while ramping temperatures from 44°C to 62°C at 0.25°C/minute. At all the stages of thermolimit respirometry, metabolic rates were independent of nest surface temperatures, and CTmax did not differ between ants collected from nest with different surface temperatures. Secondly, we tested the effect of brain control on upper thermal limits of meat ants via ant decapitation experiments ('headedness'). Decapitated ants exhibited similar upper critical temperature (CTmax) results to living ants (Decapitated 50.3±1.2°C: Living 50.1±1.8°C). Throughout the temperature ramping process, 'headedness' had a significant effect on metabolic rate in total (Decapitated V̇CO2 140±30µlCO2mg(-1)min(-1): Living V̇CO2 250±50 CO2mg(-1)min(-1)), as well as at temperatures below and above CTmax. At high temperatures (>44°C) pre- CTmax the relationships between I. purpureus CTmax values and mass specific metabolic rates for living ants exhibited a negative slope whilst decapitated ants exhibited a positive slope. The decapitated ants also had a significantly higher Q10:25-35°C when compared to living ants (1.91±0.43 vs. 1.29±0.35). Our findings suggest that physiological responses of ants may be able to cope with increasing surface temperatures, as shown by metabolic rates across the thermolimit continuum, making them physiologically resilient to a rapidly changing climate. We also demonstrate that the brain plays a role in respiration, but critical thermal limits are independent of respiration levels.

  10. Synthese et utilisation de fibres cellulosiques phosphatees pour la valorisation de la fibre vegetale dans l'amelioration des proprietes de surface du papier et la fabrication de materiaux ignifuges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentsolo Yalli, Gym Clerc

    Dans cette etude, nous souhaitions principalement greffer des groupements phosphates directement sur la cellulose comme materiau modele, et par la suite transposer les conditions optimales du design concu pour la cellulose, determine par modelisation a l'aide de l'outil JMP, sur la pate kraft. Ensuite, evaluer les proprietes physico-chimiques, optiques, d'hydrophilie, thermiques et d'inflammabilite des materiaux fabriques (feuilles ou pastilles fabriquees) a partir des fibres phosphorylees. Pour ce faire, nous avons pretraite la cellulose et la pate kraft dans une solution aqueuse de 10 a 15 % de LiCl a 70°C pendant 7 heures. Par la suite, nous avons procede a la reaction de phosphorylation in situ avec l'acide phosphorique et l'uree, dans des conditions de temperatures et de reactifs decrites par un design experimental, pendant 3 heures. La reaction de phosphorylation s'est realisee avec succes pour l'ensemble des resultats sur la cellulose, avec des taux de greffage variables selon les conditions operatoires. Les degres de substitutions (DSP), determines par ICP-OES, et les degres de polymerisation (DP), determines par viscosimetrie, etaient aussi variables, selon les conditions. L'etude des parametres experimentaux a permis de determiner les conditions optimales transposables sur la pate kraft (DSP = 1,47 et DP = 142,42 pour la cellulose, qui represente un taux de coupure de 38% de la fibre) et les facteurs critiques de la reaction. Les resultats de la reaction sur la fibre ont permis, non seulement de constater que les conditions utilisees pour la cellulose n'etaient directement transposables a la fibre, mais permettaient quand d'obtenir un DSP interessant ≥ a 1 avec un taux de coupure de 50 a 60 %. La structure du produit principal de la reaction (le sel de calcium du pyrophosphate d'ester de cellulose ou de pate kraft) a ete determinee par les analyses FTIR, XPS, RMN-13C et RMN-31P. L'etude de l'effet de la reaction de phosphorylation sur les proprietes

  11. Developpement des betons semi autoplacants a rheologie adaptee pour des infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor Cruz, Cristian Daniel

    BSAP-I optimisés à travers une caractérisation complète des propriétés mécaniques et de la durabilité a été réalisée. A la suite de cette étude, les résultats obtenus nous permettent de conclure que : (1) L'utilisation d'un BSAP-I avec un gros granulat de 5 - 14 mm, des rapports E/L = 0,37 et S/G = 0,52 et une teneur en air de 6 à 9% a été possible en conférant un équilibre optimal fluidité / stabilité à l'état frais, ainsi qu'un niveau de thixotropie adéquate au chantier permettant d'optimiser la conception du coffrage des piliers de pont et de conférer des qualités de surfaces très acceptables de ces infrastructures. (2) La méthode adaptée pour l'essai L-Box contenant 2 barres et une vibration de 5 secondes a permis de bien caractériser la capacité de remplissage d'un BSAP-I. (3) L'utilisation d'un plan factoriel 23 a permis d'obtenir des modèles statistiques fiables, capables de prédire les propriétés rhéologiques à l'état frais et les résistances en compression des BSAP-I avec des dosages en liant entre 370 et 420 kg/m3, des rapports E/L entre 0,34 et 0,40 et S/G entre 0,47 et 0,53. (4) Des mesures de vitesse d'écoulement T40 d'un BSAP-I sont très semblables à celles d'un BAP. En plus, des valeurs T40 montrent une bonne corrélation linéaire avec celles de T400 mesurés dans la boîte L-Box. (5) À la frontière du BAP et du BCV, une bande rhéologique possédant un τ0 entre 30 et 320 Pa et un η entre 10 et 140 Pa.s a été trouvée pour la conception optimale des BSAP-I. (6) Les BSAP-I optimisés ont également conféré une très bonne performance à l'état frais, en permettant maintenir un bon équilibre entre la rhéologie et la stabilité dans le temps, lorsqu'on utilise une énergie de vibration minimale pour amorcer son écoulement. (7) À l'état durci Les BSAP-I ont conféré une bonne performance présentant des résistances mécaniques élevées et des niveaux négligeables de pénétration aux ions chlores

  12. Pneumococcal Surface Protein A Plays a Major Role in Streptococcus pneumoniae-Induced Immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Saumyaa; Pujanauski, Lindsey; Colino, Jesus; Flora, Michael; Torres, Raul M; Tuomanen, Elaine; Snapper, Clifford M

    2016-05-01

    Intact, inactivated Streptococcus pneumoniae [including the unencapsulated S. pneumoniae, serotype 2 strain (R36A)] markedly inhibits the humoral immune response to coimmunized heterologous proteins, a property not observed with several other intact Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we determined the nature of this immunosuppressive property. Because phosphorylcholine (PC), a major haptenic component of teichoic acid in the S. pneumoniae cell wall, and lipoteichoic acid in the S. pneumoniae membrane were previously reported to be immunosuppressive when derived from filarial parasites, we determined whether R36A lacking PC (R36A(pc-)) was inhibitory. Indeed, although R36A(pc-) exhibited a markedly reduced level of inhibition of the IgG response to coimmunized chicken OVA (cOVA), no inhibition was observed when using several other distinct PC-expressing bacteria or a soluble, protein-PC conjugate. Further, treatment of R36A with periodate, which selectively destroys PC residues, had no effect on R36A-mediated inhibition. Because R36A(pc-) also lacks choline-binding proteins (CBPs) that require PC for cell wall attachment, and because treatment of R36A with trypsin eliminated its inhibitory activity, we incubated R36A in choline chloride, which selectively strips CBPs from its surface. R36A lacking CBPs lost most of its inhibitory property, whereas the supernatant of choline chloride-treated R36A, containing CBPs, was markedly inhibitory. Coimmunization studies using cOVA and various S. pneumoniae mutants, each genetically deficient in one of the CBPs, demonstrated that only S. pneumoniae lacking the CBP pneumococcal surface protein A lost its ability to inhibit the IgG anti-cOVA response. These results strongly suggest that PspA plays a major role in mediating the immunosuppressive property of S. pneumoniae.

  13. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    . Dans la partie theorique, un modele traitant les aspects thermique, hydrodynamique et massique a ete elabore. Sur la base de ce modele a ete ecrit un programme informatique en langage FORTRAN 6.6. Il est base sur la discretisation du serpentin en volumes de controle, est entierement automatise et peut traiter des echangeurs de chaleur avec des circuits de refrigerant complexes pouvant avoir des entrees et sorties multiples ainsi que des bifurcations. La presence simultanee des trois phases thermodynamiques du refrigerant (liquide sous refroidi, fluide sature, vapeur surchauffee) dans le serpentin est aussi prise en charge. Le modele a ete valide pour un fonctionnement avec et sans formation de givre en utilisant des donnees experimentales disponibles dans la litterature et celles obtenues sur le banc d'essai de CanmetENERGIE. Celui-ci a ete mis a jour pour les besoins de la presente recherche et pour cela, un systeme de surchauffe et d'injection de la vapeur d'eau dans une enceinte a tres basse temperature a ete dimensionne, fabrique et installe. Un dispositif de visualisation de la formation de givre, ainsi qu'un equipement de mesure de la temperature, de la pression et de l'humidite relative de l'air ont aussi ete ajoutes. Une fois le modele valide, des simulations numeriques sur le serpentin avec et sans formation de givre ont ete effectuees. Un premier cas de base a servi comme reference pour d'autres cas pour lesquels une etude parametrique sur la geometrie et le fonctionnement a ete menee. Il a ete montre par rapport au cas de base que : 1. la diminution de la densite des ailettes sur des rangees specifiques du serpentin donne une surface minimale (Amin) plus grande, retardant ainsi l'obstruction totale du serpentin par le givre et permet donc un temps de fonctionnement plus grand et une frequence de degivrage plus faible. 2. une bonne configuration de circuit de refrigerant augmente le temps de fonctionnement du serpentin de 200 % et delivre une puissance

  14. The role of angiogenesis in implant dentistry part I: Review of titanium alloys, surface characteristics and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Asatourian, Armen; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Sheibani, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis plays an important role in osseointegration process by contributing to inflammatory and regenerative phases of surrounding alveolar bone. The present review evaluated the effect of titanium alloys and their surface characteristics including: surface topography (macro, micro, and nano), surface wettability/energy, surface hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity, surface charge, and surface treatments of dental implants on angiogenesis events, which occur during osseointegration period. Material and Methods An electronic search was performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases via OVID using the keywords mentioned in the PubMed and MeSH headings regarding the role of angiogenesis in implant dentistry from January 2000-April 2014. Results Of the 2,691 articles identified in our initial search results, only 30 met the inclusion criteria set for this review. The hydrophilicity and topography of dental implants are the most important and effective surface characteristics in angiogenesis and osteogenesis processes. The surface treatments or modifications of dental implants are mainly directed through the enhancement of biological activity and functionalization in order to promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis, and accelerate the osseointegration procedure. Conclusions Angiogenesis is of great importance in implant dentistry in a manner that most of the surface characteristics and treatments of dental implants are directed toward creating a more pro-angiogenic surface on dental implants. A number of studies discussed the effect of titanium alloys, dental implant surface characteristic and treatments on agiogenesis process. However, clinical trials and in-vivo studies delineating the mechanisms of dental implants, and their surface characteristics or treatments, action in angiogenesis processes are lagging. Key words:Angiogenesis, dental implant, osseointergration. PMID:27031073

  15. Investigating the role of surface micro/nano structure in cell adhesion behavior of superhydrophobic polypropylene/nanosilica surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Iman; Seyfi, Javad; Hejazi, Ehsan; Sadeghi, Gity Mir Mohamad; Jafari, Seyed Hassan; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali

    2015-03-01

    The main aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of different topographical features on the biological performance of polypropylene (PP)/silica coatings. To this end, a novel method including combined use of nanoparticles and non-solvent was used for preparation of superhydrophobic PP coatings. The proposed method led to a much more homogeneous appearance with a better adhesion to the glass substrate. Moreover, a notable reduction was observed in the required contents of nanoparticles (100-20 wt% with respect to the polymer) and non-solvent (35.5-9 vol%) for achieving superhydrophobicity. Surface composition and morphology of the coatings were also investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Based on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations, it was found that the superhydrophobic coatings with only nano-scale roughness strongly prevented adhesion and proliferation of 4T1 mouse mammary tumor cells as compared to the superhydrophobic surfaces with micro-scale structure. Such results demonstrate that the cell behavior could be controlled onto the polymer and nanocomposite-based surfaces via tuning the surface micro/nano structure.

  16. Two-dimensional silicene nucleation on a Ag(111) surface: structural evolution and the role of surface diffusion.

    PubMed

    Shu, Haibo; Cao, Dan; Liang, Pei; Wang, Xiaofang; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The structural evolution of planar Si clusters and the nucleation mechanism of silicene in the initial stages of silicene epitaxial growth on a Ag(111) surface are studied by using ab initio calculations and two-dimensional nucleation theory. The ground-state SiN clusters (1 ≤ N ≤ 25) on the Ag(111) surface are found to undergo a significant structural transition from non-hexagonal plane structures to fully-hexagonal ones at N = 22, which is a crucial step for growing a high-quality silicene nanosheet. Furthermore, important parameters for controlling silicene growth, including the diffusion barriers of Si clusters, nucleation barrier, nucleus size, and nucleation rate are explored. Compared to graphene nucleation on transition-metal (TM) surfaces, the low diffusion barrier of Si atoms and the low nucleation barrier are responsible for the rapid nucleation of silicene on a Ag(111) surface. Our calculations demonstrate that silicene should be synthesized at a relatively low growth temperature (~500 K) in order to reduce the defect density. The results can be successfully applied to explain the broad experimental observations where the growth temperature of silicene is below 550 K.

  17. The Role of Anthropogenic-Induced Surface Temperature Change on Regional Enhanced Warming over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, X.; Huang, J.; Guo, R.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the long-term trend and decadal variability of surface air temperature (SAT) are studied by using observation data from 1901-2009. We found that the warming trends of the semi-arid regions are higher than other lands, which have increased 2.42°C as compared to the global annual mean temperature increase of 1.13°C over land. To investigate the causes of Enhanced Semi-Arid Warming (ESAW), we used an advanced dynamic-adjusted method proposed by Wallace et al. (2012) to analyse the contribution of dynamically-induced and anthropogenic-induced SAT changes to ESAW. In the process of dynamic adjustment, the temperature has been divided into two parts, one for the dynamic forcing induced temperature, and the other for the temperature associated with the build-up of greenhouse gases and the other various radiative forcing. The results show that the anthropogenic-warming peak over semi-arid region plays the main role in the ESAW. Such anthropogenic warming peak may be related to reduction of snow cover due to black carbon (BC) emission by fuels for winter residential heating. Besides the impact of BC in snow, the agricultural mulch creation, wind farms and other types of human activities may also make attribution to local SAT changes that need to be further studied.

  18. The role of cell surface receptors in the activation of human B cells by phosphorothioate oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Liang, H; Reich, C F; Pisetsky, D S; Lipsky, P E

    2000-08-01

    Phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (sODN) containing the CpG motif or TCG repeats induce T cell-independent polyclonal activation of human B cells. To elucidate the mechanism of this response, the role of cell surface receptors was investigated. Sepharose beads coated with stimulatory but not nonstimulatory sODNs induced B cell proliferation comparably with soluble sODNs. The B cell stimulatory activity of Sepharose-bound sODN did not result from free sODN released from the beads since media incubated with coated beads were inactive. Using FITC-labeled sODNs as probes, binding to human B cells could be detected by flow cytometry. Binding was rapid, saturable, initially temperature independent, but with a rapid off-rate. Competition studies indicated that both stimulatory sODNs and minimally stimulatory sODNs bound to the same receptor. By contrast, phosphodiester oligonucleotides with the same nucleotide sequence as sODNs and bacterial DNA inhibited the binding of sODNs to B cells minimally. Charge appeared to contribute to the binding of sODNs to B cells since binding of sODNs was competitively inhibited by negatively charged molecules, including fucoidan, poly I, and polyvinyl sulfate. These data indicate that human B cells bind sODNs by a receptor-mediated mechanism that is necessary but not sufficient for polyclonal activation.

  19. Role of the North Pacific sea surface temperature in the East Asian winter monsoon decadal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianqi; Wu, Sha; Ao, Juan

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a possible mechanism for the decadal variability in the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is proposed. Specifically, the North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) may play an important role. An analysis of the observations shows that the North Pacific SST has a remarkable decadal pattern whose phase shifted around the mid-1980s. This North Pacific SST decadal pattern can weaken the East Asian trough and enhance the North Pacific Oscillation through changing air-sea interactions over the North Pacific. The weak East Asian trough enhances the zonal circulation and weakens the meridional circulation over East Asia, consequently leading to a weaker southward cold surge and East Asia warming around the mid-1980s. The numerical experiment further confirms the pronounced physical processes. In addition, over the longer period of 1871-2012, the indices of the EAWM and North Pacific SST decadal pattern are also highly consistent on the decadal timescale, which further confirms the impact of the North Pacific SST decadal pattern on the EAWM decadal variability.

  20. Role of volcanic and anthropogenic aerosols in the recent global surface warming slowdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Doug M.; Booth, Ben B. B.; Dunstone, Nick J.; Eade, Rosie; Hermanson, Leon; Jones, Gareth S.; Scaife, Adam A.; Sheen, Katy L.; Thompson, Vikki

    2016-10-01

    The rate of global mean surface temperature (GMST) warming has slowed this century despite the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Climate model experiments show that this slowdown was largely driven by a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), with a smaller external contribution from solar variability, and volcanic and anthropogenic aerosols. The prevailing view is that this negative PDO occurred through internal variability. However, here we show that coupled models from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project robustly simulate a negative PDO in response to anthropogenic aerosols implying a potentially important role for external human influences. The recovery from the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 also contributed to the slowdown in GMST trends. Our results suggest that a slowdown in GMST trends could have been predicted in advance, and that future reduction of anthropogenic aerosol emissions, particularly from China, would promote a positive PDO and increased GMST trends over the coming years. Furthermore, the overestimation of the magnitude of recent warming by models is substantially reduced by using detection and attribution analysis to rescale their response to external factors, especially cooling following volcanic eruptions. Improved understanding of external influences on climate is therefore crucial to constrain near-term climate predictions.

  1. The role of surface reactions on the active and selective catalyst design for bioethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, M.; Padilla, R.; Serrano-Lotina, A.; Rodríguez, L.; Brey, J. J.; Daza, L.

    In order to study the role of surface reactions involved in bioethanol steam reforming mechanism, a very active and selective catalyst for hydrogen production was analysed. The highest activity was obtained at 700 °C, temperature at which the catalyst achieved an ethanol conversion of 100% and a selectivity to hydrogen close to 70%. It also exhibited a very high hydrogen production efficiency, higher than 4.5 mol H 2 per mol of EtOH fed. The catalyst was operated at a steam to carbon ratio (S/C) of 4.8, at 700 °C and atmospheric pressure. No by-products, such as ethylene or acetaldehyde were observed. In order to consider a further application in an ethanol processor, a long-term stability test was performed under the conditions previously reported. After 750 h, the catalyst still exhibited a high stability and selectivity to hydrogen production. Based on the intermediate products detected by temperature programmed desorption and reaction (TPD and TPR) experiments, a reaction pathway was proposed. Firstly, the adsorbed ethanol is dehydrogenated to acetaldehyde producing hydrogen. Secondly, the adsorbed acetaldehyde is transformed into acetone via acetic acid formation. Finally, acetone is reformed to produce hydrogen and carbon dioxide, which were the final reaction products. The promotion of such reaction sequence is the key to develop an active, selective and stable catalyst, which is the technical barrier for hydrogen production by ethanol reforming.

  2. The role of Br2 and BrCl in surface ozone destruction at polar sunrise.

    PubMed

    Foster, K L; Plastridge, R A; Bottenheim, J W; Shepson, P B; Finlayson-Pitts, B J; Spicer, C W

    2001-01-19

    Bromine atoms are believed to play a central role in the depletion of surface-level ozone in the Arctic at polar sunrise. Br2, BrCl, and HOBr have been hypothesized as bromine atom precursors, and there is evidence for chlorine atom precursors as well, but these species have not been measured directly. We report here measurements of Br2, BrCl, and Cl2 made using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry at Alert, Nunavut, Canada. In addition to Br2 at mixing ratios up to approximately 25 parts per trillion, BrCl was found at levels as high as approximately 35 parts per trillion. Molecular chlorine was not observed, implying that BrCl is the dominant source of chlorine atoms during polar sunrise, consistent with recent modeling studies. Similar formation of bromine compounds and tropospheric ozone destruction may also occur at mid-latitudes but may not be as apparent owing to more efficient mixing in the boundary layer.

  3. The role of prenucleation clusters in surface-induced calcium phosphate crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Archan; Bomans, Paul H. H.; Müller, Frank A.; Will, Julia; Frederik, Peter M.; de With, Gijsbertus; Sommerdijk, Nico A. J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Unravelling the processes of calcium phosphate formation is important in our understanding of both bone and tooth formation, and also of pathological mineralization, for example in cardiovascular disease. Serum is a metastable solution from which calcium phosphate precipitates in the presence of calcifiable templates such as collagen, elastin and cell debris. A pathological deficiency of inhibitors leads to the uncontrolled deposition of calcium phosphate. In bone and teeth the formation of apatite crystals is preceded by an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) precursor phase. ACP formation is thought to proceed through prenucleation clusters-stable clusters that are present in solution already before nucleation-as was recently demonstrated for CaCO3 (refs 15,16). However, the role of such nanometre-sized clusters as building blocks for ACP has been debated for many years. Here we demonstrate that the surface-induced formation of apatite from simulated body fluid starts with the aggregation of prenucleation clusters leading to the nucleation of ACP before the development of oriented apatite crystals.

  4. Observation directe de la croissance d'hydrosilicate de calcium sur des surfaces d'alité et de silice par microscopie à force atomique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauffinet, Sandrine; Finot, Éric; Lesniewska, Eric; Nonat, André

    1998-08-01

    Direct observation of the growth of calcium silicate hydrates, the tricalcium silicate hydration products, at the solid-solution interface were performed by atomic force microscopy. The covering of the surface of alite or silica by a three-dimensional oriented aggregation of nano particles of calcium silicate hydrate is always observed whatever the sample. All observations and quantifications made on calcium silicate growth at the submicronic level are in agreement with the data deduced from the study of the system evolution at the macroscopic level.

  5. Possible role of pre-monsoon sea surface warming in driving the summer monsoon onset over the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kuiping; Liu, Yanliang; Yang, Yang; Li, Zhi; Liu, Baochao; Xue, Liang; Yu, Weidong

    2016-08-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) reaches its annual maximum just before the summer monsoon onset and collapses soon after in the central areas of the Bay of Bengal (BoB). Here, the impact of the peak in the pre-monsoon SST on triggering the earliest monsoon onset in the BoB is investigated, with a focus on the role they play in driving the first-branch northward-propagating intra-seasonal oscillations (FNISOs) over the equatorial Eastern Indian Ocean (EIO). During the calm pre-monsoon period, sea surface warming in the BoB could increase the surface equivalent potential temperature (θe) in several ways. Firstly, warming of the sea surface heats the surface air through sensible heating, which forces the air temperature to follow the SST. The elevated air surface temperature accounts for 30 % of the surface θe growth. Furthermore, the elevated air temperature raises the water vapor capacity of the surface air to accommodate more water vapor. Constrained by the observation that the surface relative humidity is maintained nearly constant during the monsoon transition period, the surface specific humidity exhibits a significant increase, according to the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. Budget analysis indicates that the additional moisture is primarily obtained from sea surface evaporation, which also exhibits a weak increasing trend due to the sea surface warming. In this way, it contributes about 70 % to the surface θe growth. The rapid SST increase during the pre-monsoon period preconditions the summer monsoon onset over the BoB through its contributions to significantly increase the surface θe, which eventually establishes the meridional asymmetry of the atmospheric convective instability in the EIO. The pre-established greater convective instability leads to the FNISO convections, and the summer monsoon is triggered in the BoB region.

  6. Dyes at Ag colloids: The role of energy transfer processes for surface fluorescence and surface enhanced resonance raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettinger, B.; Gerolymatou, A.

    1985-06-01

    The comparison of Raman spectra of a pure water solution with those of an aqueous AG colloid reveals only very weak differences. This indicates, not unexpectedly, a low electromagnetic (EM) enhancement factor ( F ≈ 100) for the Raman scattering of water. Just in opposite to these weak effects, the addition of Ag sol to a {10 -10 M }/{l} rhodamine 6G solution causes the replacement of the former solution fluorescence by a similar intense surface enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS). At higher dye concentrations (up to {10 -8 M }/{l}) it is replaced by both, by SERRS and surface fluorescence. The SERRS cross section is generally higher than 10 -20 cm 2 sr -1 molecule -1 photon -1. This indicates that a model based on a combination of weak EM resonances with molecular resonance Raman effects cannot explain a total enhancement by more than 10 orders of magnitude. An energy-transfer model seems to be more suitable.

  7. Role of surface tension and roughness on the wettability of Er:YAG laser irradiated dentin: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Brulat, Nathalie; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Darque-Ceretti, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this “in vitro” study was to evaluate the role of surface tension and surface roughness in the wettability, considered essential for a good adhesion, comparing Er:YAG laser - to bur-prepared dentin. Materials and Methods: Dentin surfaces of third human molars were Er:YAG laser- and bur-prepared to evaluate the effects of surface tension and roughness on wettability and interferometric analysis was used to compare the roughness of the two groups surfaces, after gold-coating them. Results: In bur-prepared samples the time taken for the water drop to spread out was approximately the same with or without metallization while, in the Er:YAG laser-prepared surfaces the spreading-out time was less than 10 seconds but longer after metallization i.e. nearly two minutes. Large differences in wettability measurements were observed because the water drop was almost immediately absorbed on the Er:YAG laser-prepared surface. The wettability test demonstrated that the porous and hydrophilic properties of Er:YAG laser-prepared surfaces are higher than bur-prepared surfaces. Conclusion: Surface tension, surface morphology and porosity had different effects on the spreading time of a water drop on both Er:YAG laser- and bur-prepared surfaces. And, while surface tension does not seem to influence the results, roughness appears to be the main parameter involved in water drop spreading, this being an indication, by the clinical point of view, to the choice of Er:YAG laser parameters in conservative dentistry. PMID:24204092

  8. Peste des petits ruminants in Arabian wildlife.

    PubMed

    Kinne, J; Kreutzer, R; Kreutzer, M; Wernery, U; Wohlsein, P

    2010-08-01

    Recurrence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was diagnosed in the United Arabian Emirates in several wild ruminants confirmed by morphological, immunohistochemical, serological and molecular findings. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus strain belongs to lineage IV, which is different to some previously isolated PPR strains from the Arabian Peninsula. This study shows that wild ruminants may play an important epidemiological role as virus source for domestic small ruminants.

  9. ROLE OF SURFACE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN THE CAPTURE OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY AND MERCURIC CHLORIDE BY ACTIVATED CARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses using a laboratory-scale, fixed bed apparatus to study the role of surface functional groups (SFGs) in the capture of mercuric chloride (HgC12) and elemental mercury (Hgo) in nitrogen (N2) prior to flue gas atmosphere studies. The study focused on two activat...

  10. On the Role of Discipline-Related Self-Concept in Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platow, Michael J.; Mavor, Kenneth I.; Grace, Diana M.

    2013-01-01

    The current research examined the role that students' discipline-related self-concepts may play in their deep and surface approaches to learning, their overall learning outcomes, and continued engagement in the discipline itself. Using a cross-lagged panel design of first-year university psychology students, a causal path was observed in which…

  11. Surface Characteristics and Adhesion Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7: Role of Extracellular Macromolecules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface macromolecule cleavage experiments were conducted on enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells to investigate the influence of these macromolecules on cell surface properties. Electrophoretic mobility, hydrophobicity, and titration experiments were carried out on proteinase K treate...

  12. How Escherichia coli lands and forms cell clusters on a surface: a new role of surface topography

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Huan; Chen, Aaron; Song, Xinran; Brasch, Megan E.; Henderson, James H.; Ren, Dacheng

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial response to surface topography during biofilm formation was studied using 5 μm tall line patterns of poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Escherichia coli cells attached on top of protruding line patterns were found to align more perpendicularly to the orientation of line patterns when the pattern narrowed. Consistently, cell cluster formation per unit area on 5 μm wide line patterns was reduced by 14-fold compared to flat PDMS. Contrasting the reduced colony formation, cells attached on narrow patterns were longer and had higher transcriptional activities, suggesting that such unfavorable topography may present a stress to attached cells. Results of mutant studies indicate that flagellar motility is involved in the observed preference in cell orientation on narrow patterns, which was corroborated by the changes in cell rotation pattern before settling on different surface topographies. These findings led to a set of new design principles for creating antifouling topographies, which was validated using 10 μm tall hexagonal patterns. PMID:27412365

  13. Using extremely halophilic bacteria to understand the role of surface charge and surface hydration in protein evolution, folding, and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Wouter; Deole, Ratnakar; Osu Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Halophilic Archaea accumulate molar concentrations of KCl in their cytoplasm as an osmoprotectant, and have evolved highly acidic proteomes that only function at high salinity. We examine osmoprotection in the photosynthetic Proteobacteria Halorhodospira halophila. We find that H. halophila has an acidic proteome and accumulates molar concentrations of KCl when grown in high salt media. Upon growth of H. halophila in low salt media, its cytoplasmic K + content matches that of Escherichia coli, revealing an acidic proteome that can function in the absence of high cytoplasmic salt concentrations. These findings necessitate a reassessment of two central aspects of theories for understanding extreme halophiles. We conclude that proteome acidity is not driven by stabilizing interactions between K + ions and acidic side chains, but by the need for maintaining sufficient solvation and hydration of the protein surface at high salinity through strongly hydrated carboxylates. We propose that obligate protein halophilicity is a non-adaptive property resulting from genetic drift in which constructive neutral evolution progressively incorporates weakly stabilizing K + binding sites on an increasingly acidic protein surface.

  14. How Escherichia coli lands and forms cell clusters on a surface: a new role of surface topography.

    PubMed

    Gu, Huan; Chen, Aaron; Song, Xinran; Brasch, Megan E; Henderson, James H; Ren, Dacheng

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial response to surface topography during biofilm formation was studied using 5 μm tall line patterns of poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Escherichia coli cells attached on top of protruding line patterns were found to align more perpendicularly to the orientation of line patterns when the pattern narrowed. Consistently, cell cluster formation per unit area on 5 μm wide line patterns was reduced by 14-fold compared to flat PDMS. Contrasting the reduced colony formation, cells attached on narrow patterns were longer and had higher transcriptional activities, suggesting that such unfavorable topography may present a stress to attached cells. Results of mutant studies indicate that flagellar motility is involved in the observed preference in cell orientation on narrow patterns, which was corroborated by the changes in cell rotation pattern before settling on different surface topographies. These findings led to a set of new design principles for creating antifouling topographies, which was validated using 10 μm tall hexagonal patterns. PMID:27412365

  15. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER: Role of the external photoelectric effect in surface microprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, Vladimir P.; Konov, Vitalii I.; Krechetov, A. I.

    1990-08-01

    An analysis is made of the photoemission of electrons in gases when the surface of a solid is subjected to high-intensity ultraviolet laser radiation which does not cause surface heating. Various situations are considered in which generation of high local electric fields and of a dense cloud of charged particles near the surface may alter and even determine the mechanism of laser-stimulated processes on surfaces of solids.

  16. Role of surface coating on cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Qin, Y.; Amine, K.; Sun, Y.-K.

    2010-01-01

    Surface coating of cathode materials has been widely investigated to enhance the life and rate capability of lithium-ion batteries. The surface coating discussed here was divided into three different configurations which are rough coating, core shell structure coating and ultra thin film coating. The mechanism of surface coating in achieving improved cathode performance and strategies to carry out this surface modification is discussed. An outlook on atomic layer deposition for lithium ion battery is also presented.

  17. Simulating the role of surface forcing on observed multidecadal upper-ocean salinity changes

    DOE PAGES

    Lago, Veronique; Wijffels, Susan E.; Durack, Paul J.; Church, John A.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.; Marsland, Simon J.

    2016-07-18

    The ocean’s surface salinity field has changed over the observed record, driven by an intensification of the water cycle in response to global warming. However, the origin and causes of the coincident subsurface salinity changes are not fully understood. The relationship between imposed surface salinity and temperature changes and their corresponding subsurface changes is investigated using idealized ocean model experiments. The ocean’s surface has warmed by about 0.5°C (50 yr)–1 while the surface salinity pattern has amplified by about 8% per 50 years. The idealized experiments are constructed for a 50-yr period, allowing a qualitative comparison to the observed salinitymore » and temperature changes previously reported. The comparison suggests that changes in both modeled surface salinity and temperature are required to replicate the three-dimensional pattern of observed salinity change. The results also show that the effects of surface changes in temperature and salinity act linearly on the changes in subsurface salinity. In addition, surface salinity pattern amplification appears to be the leading driver of subsurface salinity change on depth surfaces; however, surface warming is also required to replicate the observed patterns of change on density surfaces. This is the result of isopycnal migration modified by the ocean surface warming, which produces significant salinity changes on density surfaces.« less

  18. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  19. Potential role of surface wettability on the long-term stability of dentin bonds after surface biomodification

    PubMed Central

    Leme, Ariene A.; Vidal, Cristina M. P.; Hassan, Lina Saleh; Bedran-Russo, Ana K.

    2015-01-01

    Degradation of the adhesive interface contributes to the failure of resin composite restorations. The hydrophilicity of the dentin matrix during and after bonding procedures may result in an adhesive interface that is more prone to degradation over time. This study assessed the effect of chemical modification of dentin matrix on the wettability and the long-term reduced modulus of elasticity (Er) of the adhesive interfaces. Human molars were divided into groups according to the priming solutions: distilled water (control), 6.5% Proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract (PACs), 5.75% 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride/1.4% n-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) and 5% Glutaraldehyde (GA). The water-surface contact angle was verified before and after chemical modification of the dentin matrix. The demineralized dentin surface was treated with the priming solutions and restored with One Step Plus (OS) and Single Bond Plus (SB) and resin composite. The Er of the adhesive, hybrid layer and underlying dentin was evaluated after 24 h and 30 months in artificial saliva. The dentin hydrophilicity significantly decreased after application of the priming solutions. Aging significantly decreased the Er in the hybrid layer and underlying dentin of control groups. The Er of GA groups remained stable over time at the hybrid layer and underlying dentin. Significant higher Er was observed for PACs and EDC/NHS groups at the hybrid layer after 24 h. The decreased hydrophilicity of the modified dentin matrix likely influence the immediate mechanical properties of the hybrid layer. Dentin biomodification prevented substantial aging at the hybrid layer and underlying dentin after 30 months storage. PMID:25869721

  20. Potential role of surface wettability on the long-term stability of dentin bonds after surface biomodification.

    PubMed

    Leme, Ariene A; Vidal, Cristina M P; Hassan, Lina Saleh; Bedran-Russo, Ana K

    2015-07-16

    Degradation of the adhesive interface contributes to the failure of resin composite restorations. The hydrophilicity of the dentin matrix during and after bonding procedures may result in an adhesive interface that is more prone to degradation over time. This study assessed the effect of chemical modification of the dentin matrix on the wettability and the long-term reduced modulus of elasticity (Er) of adhesive interfaces. Human molars were divided into groups according to the priming solutions: distilled water (control), 6.5% Proanthocyanidin-rich grape seed extract (PACs), 5.75% 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride/1.4% n-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) and 5% Glutaraldehyde (GA). The water-surface contact angle was assessed before and after chemical modification of the dentin matrix. The demineralized dentin surface was treated with the priming solutions and restored with One Step Plus (OS) and Single Bond Plus (SB) and resin composite. Er of the adhesive, hybrid layer and underlying dentin was evaluated after 24h and 30 months in artificial saliva. The dentin hydrophilicity significantly decreased after application of the priming solutions. Aging significantly decreased Er in the hybrid layer and underlying dentin of control groups. Er of GA groups remained stable over time at the hybrid layer and underlying dentin. Significant higher Er was observed for PACs and EDC/NHS groups at the hybrid layer after 24h. The decreased hydrophilicity of the modified dentin matrix likely influence the immediate mechanical properties of the hybrid layer. Dentin biomodification prevented substantial aging at the hybrid layer and underlying dentin after 30 months storage.

  1. In situ investigation of titanium nitride surface dynamics: The role of surface and bulk mass transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bareno, Javier

    NaCl-structure TiN and related transition-metal (TM) nitrides are widely used as hard wear-resistant coatings on cutting tools, diffusion-barriers in microelectronic devices, corrosion-resistant layers on mechanical components, and abrasion-resistant thin films on optics and architectural glass. Since the elastic and physical properties of TiN are highly anisotropic, controlling the microstructural and surface morphological evolution of polycrystalline TM nitride films is important for all of the above applications. In this thesis, I used in-situ high-temperature low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) to gain insight into film growth and microstructure development dynamics by studying mass-transport processes occurring during annealing of three dimensional (3D) structures on TiN surfaces. Additionally, in order to extend the current understanding of nanostructure development in binary nitride films to more complex ternary TM-nitride-based nanocomposites, I employed in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), as well as ab-initio modeling, to investigate the atomic structure of the SiNx/TiN heterointerfaces which control the properties of SiNx-TiN nanocomposites. The LEEM studies of mass transport on TiN(111) focus on two specific surface morphologies which are observed to be present during growth of TiN single-crystals. (1) I investigated the temperature-dependent coarsening/decay kinetics of three-dimensional TiN island mounds on large (>1000 A) atomically-flat terraces; showing that TiN(111) steps are highly permeable and exhibit strong repulsive temperature-dependent step-step interactions that vary from 0.03 eV-A at 1559 K to 0.76 eV-A at 1651 K. (2) I studied the nucleation and growth of spiral steps originating at surface-terminated screw dislocations; I developed a model of spiral growth relating the emission rate of point defects from the bulk to the temperature-dependent spiral rotation frequency o(T); and I

  2. Cell surface hydrophobicity of Bacillus spp. as a function of nutrient supply and lipopeptides biosynthesis and its role in adhesion.

    PubMed

    Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Białas, Wojciech; Myszka, Kamila

    2008-01-01

    Cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) is recognised as a important factor in microbial adhesion to solid surfaces. Growth conditions have been found to determine the synthesis of extracellular molecules by microorganisms. It has major consequences in modification of bacterial surface properties and consequently, in bacterial adhesion to solid surfaces. In this paper, CSH properties of Bacillus spp. depending on the nutrient supply and lipopeptide biosynthesis and its role in bacterial adhesion to solid surfaces were investigated. The obtained results indicate that the examined factors (nitrogen and carbon availability) influence the CSH of Bacillus spp. cells. In most variants of the experiments the role of nutrient supply in adhesion process was characteristic for species. The strongest effect was observed for peptone concentration (P < 0.001). A decrease of CSH was noticed in optimal nitrogen availability (10 g/l) and it was connected with maximum yield of surfactin biosynthesis. The highest values of CSH of examined Bacillus spp. strains were observed under nitrogen starvation and in excess of carbon source. In these conditions the adhesion to stainless steel surface was more extensive.

  3. The surface layer of pharmaceutical compacts: the role of the punch surface and its impact on the mechanical properties of the compacts.

    PubMed

    Mazel, V; Busignies, V; Diarra, H; Reiche, I; Tchoreloff, P

    2013-02-14

    During pharmaceutical compaction, the interaction between the punch and the powder determines the formation and the aspect of the surface of the compact. In industry, the properties of the punch surface, which play a key role in this interaction, are sometimes changed by fixing an intermediate layer onto the punch to prevent sticking problems. In this article, the case of a polymer insert layer was studied. Firstly, sugar spheres were compacted with and without the polymer insert fixed onto the punches. After compaction with uncovered punches, the surface particles, which had been subjected to high deformation, were flattened on one side. However, it was observed, using confocal X-ray microfluorescence, that this kind of deformation was limited to the surface and that the bulk particles, which underwent a more isotropic deformation, still exhibited an approximately round shape. Secondly, the influence of the surface structure on the mechanical properties of the compacts was studied. The indentation hardness and the tensile strength of compacts of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and anhydrous calcium phosphate (aCP) were studied. No differences were found for the compacts of MCC produced with the two kinds of punches, but the compacts of aCP obtained with uncovered punches presented a higher hardness and a higher tensile strength than those obtained with covered punches.

  4. Role of proton ordering in adsorption preference of polar molecule on ice surface.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaoru; Pan, Ding; Xu, Limei; Wang, Enge

    2012-08-14

    Adsorption of polar monomers on ice surface, relevant to the physical/chemical reaction in ice clouds as well as growth of ice, remains an open issue partially due to the unusual surface characteristics with protons at the top layer of ice. Using first-principle calculations, we explore the adsorption properties of ice surface in terms of a surface proton order parameter, which characterizes the inhomogeneity of the dangling atoms on ice surface. We show that, due to an effective electric field created by dangling OH bonds and lone pairs of water molecules not only directly neighboring but also further away from the adsorbed polar molecule on the ice surface, the adsorption energy of polar monomer on ice surface exhibits large variance and a strong correlation with the proton order parameter of ice surface. Our results about the positive correlation between the inhomogeneity of ice surface and adsorption energies suggest that the physical/chemical reactions as well as the growth of ice may prefer to occur firstly on surfaces with larger proton order parameter.

  5. Identification des facteurs environnementaux responsables de la presence de Campylobacter Jejuni dans les eaux de surface de l'Estrie (Quebec)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfils, Djoan

    Background: The sources and the epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni (CJ) in environmental water are not well understood. We developed a spatial analysis methodology able to identify the main environmental factors predicting the presence and quantity of Campylobacter in river water. Methods: For two years, water samples were collected weekly and scanned for CJ and fecal coliforms at 32 sampling sites of Estrie hydrographic network, Québec. The quantity of CJ in water was estimated using the Most Probable Number method (MPN). The 32 sampling sites were linked to their catchment area; 10 of them were excluded from the analysis, because their hydrographic basin was not independent from the other sites. For each site, the following environmental variables were included: Water flow, slope, land-cover, land-use including type of farming, animal density, total precipitation in the 3 days prior to water sampling. A stepwise multivariate regression was realized across the different analysis windows to define the size of the area upstream from the sampling sites (from 1.5 to 24 km) which was the most closely associated with the mean quantity of CJ, and which environmental factors were associated with a higher mean quantity of CJ in water. Results: Preliminary results show that an area defined by a radius of 14 km upstream of the sample site was the most contributing zone for the bacteria (r2=0.38, p=0.002). Within this 14 km area, the only significant variable associated with a higher mean quantity of CJ was bovine density (p=0.002). When analyzing the data within a 120 m buffer zone across 14 km upstream of the sampling sites (r2=0.40, p=0.001), the only significant variable associated with a higher mean quantity of CJ was the percentage of agricultural surface (p=0.001). Conclusions: These results suggest a strong implication of bovine density in conjunction with

  6. Note des Éditeurs scientifiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbuch, P.

    'équilibre, une séparation de l'énergie libre en énergie libre de volume et en énergie libre de surface devrait donner les mêmes résultats ; par contre les choses deviennent troublantes dès que l'on passe aux coefficients de transport, c'est-à-dire à l'aspect macroscopique de la dynamique moléculaire. Il y a là un écart notable avec les conceptions courantes, ce qui rend très surprenante la lecture de ces articles. On peut mentionner la liste des problèmes théoriques posés par la description phénoménologique qui est celle de cette série d'articles : la généralisation de lois d'échelle en dehors de zones critiques n'est pas absolument nouvelle, par contre la simplicité des lois reliant l'exposant v à la température pose problème ; le sens des temps de relaxation utilisés est sans doute également à préciser. Enfin les modes considérés semblent n'intervenir dans les propriétés thermodynamiques que par un facteur par mode, comme si seulement l'énergie potentielle devait intervenir, les termes cinétiques ne participant pas vraiment aux transitions de phase. Tout cela pose donc problème, et l'on peut se demander si un pareil modèle peut être compatible avec tout ce qui est connu par ailleurs en physique statistique. Mais s'il rend bien compte de beaucoup de résultats expérimentaux, ce sont ces derniers qui seraient en difficulté avec la mécanique statistique. Il a donc semblé préférable de publier le modèle, sa justification expérimentale et de poser quelques problèmes, tant aux théoriciens, qui pourraient expliquer pourquoi un tel modèle rend compte de résultats observés, qu'aux expérimentateurs, qui pourraient reprendre certaines mesures, et délimiter le caractère plus ou moins général du modèle.

  7. Facilitated biological reduction of nitroaromatic compounds by reduced graphene oxide and the role of its surface characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Liu, Qi; Wang, Yi-Xuan; Zhao, Han-Qing; He, Chuan-Shu; Yang, Hou-Yun; Gong, Li; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-01-01

    How reduced graphene oxide (RGO) mediates the reductive transformation of nitroaromatic pollutants by mixed cultures and the role of its surface characteristics were evaluated in this study. Different electron donors were applied to investigate the interaction between RGO and anaerobic microbes. Moreover, the influence of the surface properties of RGO on biological nitroaromatic removal was further elucidated. The results show that RGO could achieve an approximate one-fold rate increase of nitrobenzene reduction by mixed culture with glucose as an electron donor. Selective elimination of oxygen moieties on the RGO surface, such as quinone groups, decreased the nitrobenzene transformation rate, whereas doping nitrogen into the RGO framework exhibited a positive effect. The study indicates that graphene-based carbon nanomaterials have the potential to accelerate the biological transformation of nitroaromatic compounds and that the functionalization of these carbon nanomaterials, especially through surface modification, would further enhance the conversion efficiency of contaminants. PMID:27439321

  8. The Role of Surface Preparation Parameters on Cold Roll Bonding of Aluminum Strips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamaati, Roohollah; Toroghinejad, Mohammad Reza

    2011-03-01

    It is the objective of this article to investigate the influence of surface preparation on the cold roll bonding (CRB) process. In this context, the effects of surface preparation parameters consisting of surface preparation method, surface roughness, scratch-brushing parameters, and the delay time between surface preparation and rolling are investigated on the bond strength of aluminum strips. The bond strength of two adjacent aluminum strips produced by the CRB process is evaluated by the peeling test. Furthermore, the interface region is investigated by metallographic observations. Our findings indicate that higher surface roughness values and shorter delay times improve the bond strength. It is also found that degreasing followed by scratch-brushing yield the best bonding properties.

  9. Role of the non-opioid dynorphin peptide des-Tyr-dynorphin (DYN-A(2-17)) in food intake and physical activity, and its interaction with orexin-A.

    PubMed

    Gac, L; Butterick, T A; Duffy, C M; Teske, J A; Perez-Leighton, C E

    2016-02-01

    Food intake and physical activity are regulated by multiple neuropeptides, including orexin and dynorphin (DYN). Orexin-A (OXA) is one of two orexin peptides with robust roles in regulation of food intake and spontaneous physical activity (SPA). DYN collectively refers to several peptides, some of which act through opioid receptors (opioid DYN) and some whose biological effects are not mediated by opioid receptors (non-opioid DYN). While opioid DYN is known to increase food intake, the effects of non-opioid DYN peptides on food intake and SPA are unknown. Neurons that co-express and release OXA and DYN are located within the lateral hypothalamus. Limited evidence suggests that OXA and opioid DYN peptides can interact to modulate some aspects of behaviors classically related to orexin peptide function. The paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) is a brain area where OXA and DYN peptides might interact to modulate food intake and SPA. We demonstrate that injection of des-Tyr-dynorphin (DYN-A(2-17), a non opioid DYN peptide) into the PVN increases food intake and SPA in adult mice. Co-injection of DYN-A(2-17) and OXA in the PVN further increases food intake compared to DYN-A(2-17) or OXA alone. This is the first report describing the effects of non-opioid DYN-A(2-17) on food intake and SPA, and suggests that DYN-A(2-17) interacts with OXA in the PVN to modulate food intake. Our data suggest a novel function for non-opioid DYN-A(2-17) on food intake, supporting the concept that some behavioral effects of the orexin neurons result from combined actions of the orexin and DYN peptides. PMID:26654796

  10. On the role of the three-phase contact line in surface deformation.

    PubMed

    Leh, Aisha; N'guessan, Hartmann E; Fan, Jianguo; Bahadur, Prashant; Tadmor, Rafael; Zhao, Yiping

    2012-04-01

    Viscoelastic braking theories developed by Shanahan and de Gennes and by others predict deformation of a solid surface at the solid-liquid-air contact line. This phenomenon has only been observed for soft smooth surfaces and results in a protrusion of the solid surface at the three-phase contact line, in agreement with the theoretical predictions. Despite the large (enough to break chemical bonds) forces associated with it, this deformation was not confirmed experimentally for hard surfaces, especially for hydrophobic ones. In this study we use superhydrophobic surfaces composed of an array of silicon nanostructures whose Young modulus is 4 orders of magnitude higher than that of surfaces in earlier recorded viscoelastic braking experiments. We distinguish between two cases: when a water drop forms an adhesive contact, albeit small, with the apparent contact angle θ < 180° and when the drop-surface adhesion is such that the conditions for placing a resting drop on the surface cannot be reached (i.e., θ = 180°). In the first case we show that there is a surface deformation at the three-phase contact line which is associated with a reduction in the hydrophobicity of the surface. For the second case, however, there cannot be a three-phase contact line associated with a drop in contact with the surface, and indeed, if we force-place a drop on the surface by holding it with a needle, no deformation is detected, nor is there a reduction in the hydrophobic properties of the surface. Yet, if we create a long horizontal three-phase contact line by partially immersing the superhydrophobic substrate in a water bath, we see a localized reduction in the hydrophobic properties of the surface in the region where the three-phase contact line used to be. The SEM scan of that region shows a narrow horizontal stripe where the nanorods are no longer there, and instead there is only a shallow structure that is lower than the nanorods height and resembles fused or removed nanorods

  11. Surface modification influencing adsorption of red wine constituents: The role of functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A.

    2016-11-01

    The adsorption of wine constituents at solid surfaces is important in applications such as filtration and membrane fouling, binding to tanks and fittings and interactions with processing aids such as bentonite. The interaction of wine constituents with surfaces is mediated through adsorbed wine components, where the type of constituents, amount, orientation, and conformation are of consequence for the surface response. This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of red wine constituents. Plasma-polymerized films rich in amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, formyl and methyl functional groups were generated on solid substrates whereas, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride was covalently attached to allylamine plasma-polymer modified surface and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) was electrostatically adsorbed to an amine plasma-polymerized surface. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ability of different substrates to adsorb red wine constituents was evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that substrates modified with -SO3H and -COOH groups can adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds whereas -NH2 and -NR3 groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. Red wine constituents after filtration were adsorbed in higher extend on -NR3 and -CHO surfaces. The -OH modified surfaces had the lowest ability to absorb wine components.

  12. Entropic depletion in colloidal suspensions and polymer liquids: role of nanoparticle surface topography.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debapriya; Yang, Jian; Schweizer, Kenneth S

    2015-12-21

    We employ a hybrid Monte Carlo plus integral equation theory approach to study how dense fluids of small nanoparticles or polymer chains mediate entropic depletion interactions between topographically rough particles where all interaction potentials are hard core repulsion. The corrugated particle surfaces are composed of densely packed beads which present variable degrees of controlled topographic roughness and free volume associated with their geometric crevices. This pure entropy problem is characterized by competing ideal translational and (favorable and unfavorable) excess entropic contributions. Surface roughness generically reduces particle depletion aggregation relative to the smooth hard sphere case. However, the competition between ideal and excess packing entropy effects in the bulk, near the particle surface and in the crevices, results in a non-monotonic variation of the particle-monomer packing correlation function as a function of the two dimensionless length scale ratios that quantify the effective surface roughness. As a result, the inter-particle potential of mean force (PMF), second virial coefficient, and spinodal miscibility volume fraction vary non-monotonically with the surface bead to monomer diameter and particle core to surface bead diameter ratios. A miscibility window is predicted corresponding to an optimum degree of surface roughness that completely destroys depletion attraction resulting in a repulsive PMF. Variation of the (dense) matrix packing fraction can enhance or suppress particle miscibility depending upon the amount of surface roughness. Connecting the monomers into polymer chains destabilizes the system via enhanced contact depletion attraction, but the non-monotonic variations with surface roughness metrics persist.

  13. The role of electrostatic interactions in protease surface diffusion and the consequence for interfacial biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Feller, Bob E; Kellis, James T; Cascão-Pereira, Luis G; Robertson, Channing R; Frank, Curtis W

    2010-12-21

    This study examines the influence of electrostatic interactions on enzyme surface diffusion and the contribution of diffusion to interfacial biocatalysis. Surface diffusion, adsorption, and reaction were investigated on an immobilized bovine serum albumin (BSA) multilayer substrate over a range of solution ionic strength values. Interfacial charge of the enzyme and substrate surface was maintained by performing the measurements at a fixed pH; therefore, electrostatic interactions were manipulated by changing the ionic strength. The interfacial processes were investigated using a combination of techniques: fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, surface plasmon resonance, and surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy. We used an enzyme charge ladder with a net charge ranging from -2 to +4 with respect to the parent to systematically probe the contribution of electrostatics in interfacial enzyme biocatalysis on a charged substrate. The correlation between reaction rate and adsorption was determined for each charge variant within the ladder, each of which displayed a maximum rate at an intermediate surface concentration. Both the maximum reaction rate and adsorption value at which this maximum rate occurs increased in magnitude for the more positive variants. In addition, the specific enzyme activity increased as the level of adsorption decreased, and for the lowest adsorption values, the specific enzyme activity was enhanced compared to the trend at higher surface concentrations. At a fixed level of adsorption, the specific enzyme activity increased with positive enzyme charge; however, this effect offers diminishing returns as the enzyme becomes more highly charged. We examined the effect of electrostatic interactions on surface diffusion. As the binding affinity was reduced by increasing the solution ionic strength, thus weakening electrostatic interaction, the rate of surface diffusion increased considerably. The enhancement in specific activity achieved at

  14. Role of Point Defects on the Reactivity of Reconstructed Anatase Titanium Dioxide (001) Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yang; Sun, Huijuan; Tan, Shijing; Feng, Hao; Cheng, Zhengwang; Zhao, Jin; Zhao, Aidi; Wang, Bing; Luo, Yi; Yang, Jinlong; Hou, J. G.

    2013-07-30

    The chemical reactivity of different surfaces of titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been the subject of extensive studies in recent decades. The anatase TiO2(001) and its (1x4) reconstructed surfaces were theoretically considered to be the most reactive and have been heavily pursued by synthetic chemists. However, the lack of direct experimental verification or determination of the active sites on these surfaces has caused controversy and debate. Here we report a systematic study on an anatase TiO2(001)-(1x4) surface by means of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques in combination with first-principles calculations. Two types of intrinsic point defects are identified, among which only the Ti3+ defect site on the reduced surface demonstrates considerable chemical activity. The perfect surface itself can be fully oxidized, but shows no obvious activity. Our findings suggest that the reactivity of the anatase TiO2(001) surface should depend on its reduction status, similar to that of rutile TiO2 surfaces.

  15. Role of Subsurface Physics in the Assimilation of Surface Soil Moisture Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, R. H.

    2010-01-01

    Root zone soil moisture controls the land-atmosphere exchange of water and energy and exhibits memory that may be useful for climate prediction at monthly scales. Assimilation of satellite-based surface soil moisture observations into a land surface model is an effective way to estimate large-scale root zone soil moisture. The propagation of surface information into deeper soil layers depends on the model-specific representation of subsurface physics that is used in the assimilation system. In a suite of experiments we assimilate synthetic surface soil moisture observations into four different models (Catchment, Mosaic, Noah and CLM) using the Ensemble Kalman Filter. We demonstrate that identical twin experiments significantly overestimate the information that can be obtained from the assimilation of surface soil moisture observations. The second key result indicates that the potential of surface soil moisture assimilation to improve root zone information is higher when the surface to root zone coupling is stronger. Our experiments also suggest that (faced with unknown true subsurface physics) overestimating surface to root zone coupling in the assimilation system provides more robust skill improvements in the root zone compared with underestimating the coupling. When CLM is excluded from the analysis, the skill improvements from using models with different vertical coupling strengths are comparable for different subsurface truths. Finally, the skill improvements through assimilation were found to be sensitive to the regional climate and soil types.

  16. Role of point defects on the reactivity of reconstructed anatase titanium dioxide (001) surface

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Sun, Huijuan; Tan, Shijing; Feng, Hao; Cheng, Zhengwang; Zhao, Jin; Zhao, Aidi; Wang, Bing; Luo, Yi; Yang, Jinlong; Hou, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The chemical reactivity of different surfaces of titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been the subject of extensive studies in recent decades. The anatase TiO2(001) and its (1 × 4) reconstructed surfaces were theoretically considered to be the most reactive and have been heavily pursued by synthetic chemists. However, the lack of direct experimental verification or determination of the active sites on these surfaces has caused controversy and debate. Here we report a systematic study on an anatase TiO2(001)-(1 × 4) surface by means of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques in combination with first-principles calculations. Two types of intrinsic point defects are identified, among which only the Ti3+ defect site on the reduced surface demonstrates considerable chemical activity. The perfect surface itself can be fully oxidized, but shows no obvious activity. Our findings suggest that the reactivity of the anatase TiO2(001) surface should depend on its reduction status, similar to that of rutile TiO2 surfaces. PMID:23896829

  17. The Role of Surface Viscosity in the Escape Mechanism of the Stenus Beetle.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Alexander A; Hofmann, Matthias J; Motschmann, Hubert

    2016-07-28

    Beetles of the species Stenus comma live and hunt close to ponds and rivers, where they occasionally fall on the water surface. To escape this jeopardized state, the beetle developed a strategy relying on the excretion of a secretion containing the substances stenusine and norstenusine. They reduce surface tension and propel the bug to the saving river bank. These substances were synthesized and analyzed with respect to their equilibrium and dynamic adsorption properties at the air-water interface (pH 7, 23 ± 1 °C). The surface dilatational rheological characteristics in a frequency range from 2 to 500 Hz at molar bulk concentrations of 20.6 mmol L(-1) were studied using the oscillating bubble technique. Both alkaloids formed surface viscoelastic adsorption layers. The frequency dependence of the surface dilatational modulus E could successfully be described by the extended Lucassen-van den Tempel model accounting for a nonzero intrinsic surface viscosity κ. The findings confirmed a dual purpose of the spreading alkaloids in the escape mechanism of the Stenus beetle. Next to generating a surface pressure, a transition to surface viscoelastic behavior of the adsorbed layers was observed. PMID:27367059

  18. A Spectral Analysis of the Surface Temperature Field During Evaporative Convection: The Role of Surfactant Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J. R.; Smith, G. B.; Flack, K. A.

    1999-11-01

    The presence of a surfactant monolayer changes the hydrodynamic boundary condition of a free surface from one which is shear-free to one which supports shear. This change in boundary condition alters the temperature field observed at the free surface. In this work the surface temperature field of a body of water undergoing evaporation was measured using infrared imaging techniques. These temperature fields were acquired rapidly in time, revealing both the spatial characteristics and the temporal evolution of the surface temperature field during evaporative convection. The temporal and spatial spectra of the surface temperature field are presented for the case of a clean water surface and of a water surface coated with a monolayer of oleyl alcohol. Both experimental cases were conducted at the same heat flux. The spectra reveal significant differences between the clean and surfactant cases. Images of the surface temperature fields for the two cases will be presented along with the spectra. The effect of heat flux on the spectra will also be discussed.

  19. Survival following a vertical free fall from 300 feet: the crucial role of body position to impact surface.

    PubMed

    Weckbach, Sebastian; Flierl, Michael A; Blei, Michael; Burlew, Clay Cothren; Moore, Ernest E; Stahel, Philip F

    2011-10-25

    We report the case of a 28-year old rock climber who survived an "unsurvivable" injury consisting of a vertical free fall from 300 feet onto a solid rock surface. The trauma mechanism and injury kinetics are analyzed, with a particular focus on the relevance of body positioning to ground surface at the time of impact. The role of early patient transfer to a level 1 trauma center, and "damage control" management protocols for avoiding delayed morbidity and mortality in this critically injured patient are discussed.

  20. Role of surface finishing on pitting corrosion of a duplex stainless steel in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah-Rousset, N. Ben; Chaouachi, M. A.; Chellouf, A.

    1996-04-01

    Localized corrosion of duplex UNS S32550 stainless steel in seawater was investigated in the laboratory and in field trials for several surface finish conditions: polished, ground, and sandblasted. Electrochemical data obtained by polarization curves showed that the smoother, polished surface had better characteristics (higher pitting and protection potentials) than the ground or sandblasted surfaces. However, despite its high degree of roughness, the sandblasted surface was the most resistant in field conditions, exhibiting the lowest number of sites attacked. Internal compressive stresses created by sandblasting seem also to have an “unsensitizing” effect on sensitized zones that exist in cast steel (due to repairs of mold defects), reducing its susceptibility to microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Such stresses are not generated in polished or ground surfaces, and localized MIC attack can occur.

  1. The possible role of solid surface area in condensation reactions during chemical evolution - Reevaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahav, N.; Chang, S.

    1976-01-01

    Using surface concentration and reaction rate as the main criteria for the feasibility of condensation reactions, four types of prebiotic environments were analyzed: (1) an ocean-sediment system, (2) a dehydrated lagoon bed produced by evaporation, (3) the surface of a frozen sediment, and (4) a fluctuating system where hydration (rainstorms, tidal variations, flooding) and dehydration (evaporation) take place in a cyclic manner. With the possible exception of nucleotides, low adsorption of organomonomers on sediment surfaces of a prebiotic ocean (pH 8) is expected, and significant condensation is considered unlikely. In dehydrated and frozen systems, high surface concentrations are probable and condensation is more likely. In fluctuating environments, condensation rates will be enhanced and the size distribution of the oligomers formed during dehydration may be influenced by a 'redistribution mechanism' in which adsorbed oligomers and monomers are desorbed and redistributed on the solid surface during the next hydration-dehydration cycle.

  2. Role of roughness parameters on the tribology of randomly nano-textured silicon surface.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, E; Pugno, N; Rota, A; Spagni, A; Lepore, E; Valeri, S

    2011-10-01

    This experimental work is oriented to give a contribution to the knowledge of the relationship among surface roughness parameters and tribological properties of lubricated surfaces; it is well known that these surface properties are strictly related, but a complete comprehension of such correlations is still far to be reached. For this purpose, a mechanical polishing procedure was optimized in order to induce different, but well controlled, morphologies on Si(100) surfaces. The use of different abrasive papers and slurries enabled the formation of a wide spectrum of topographical irregularities (from the submicro- to the nano-scale) and a broad range of surface profiles. An AFM-based morphological and topographical campaign was carried out to characterize each silicon rough surface through a set of parameters. Samples were subsequently water lubricated and tribologically characterized through ball-on-disk tribometer measurements. Indeed, the wettability of each surface was investigated by measuring the water droplet contact angle, that revealed a hydrophilic character for all the surfaces, even if no clear correlation with roughness emerged. Nevertheless, this observation brings input to the purpose, as it allows to exclude that the differences in surface profile affect lubrication. So it is possible to link the dynamic friction coefficient of rough Si samples exclusively to the opportune set of surface roughness parameters that can exhaustively describe both height amplitude variations (Ra, Rdq) and profile periodicity (Rsk, Rku, Ic) that influence asperity-asperity interactions and hydrodynamic lift in different ways. For this main reason they cannot be treated separately, but with dependent approach through which it was possible to explain even counter intuitive results: the unexpected decreasing of friction coefficient with increasing Ra is justifiable by a more consistent increasing of kurtosis Rku.

  3. The role of phosphorylation in dentin phosphoprotein peptide absorption to hydroxyapatite surfaces: a molecular dynamics study

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo; Garduño-Juarez, Ramon; Gericke, Arne; Boskey, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) is a protein expressed mainly in dentin and to a lesser extent in bone. DPP has a disordered structure, rich in glutamic acid, aspartic acid and phosphorylated serine/threonine residues. It has a high capacity for binding to calcium ions and to hydroxyapatite (HA) crystal surfaces. We used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as a method for virtually screening interactions between DPP motifs and HA. The goal was to determine which motifs are absorbed to HA surfaces. For these simulations, we considered five peptides from the human DPP sequence. All-atom MD simulations were performed using GROMACS, the peptides were oriented parallel to the {100} HA crystal surface, the distance between the HA and the peptide was 3 nm. The system was simulated for 20 ns. Preliminary results show that for the unphosphorylated peptides, the acidic amino acids present an electrostatic attraction where their side chains are oriented towards HA. This attraction, however, is slow to facilitate bulk transport to the crystal surface. On the other hand, the phosphorylated (PP) peptides are rapidly absorbed on the surface of the HA with their centers of mass closer to the HA surface. More importantly, the root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) indicates that the average structures of the phosphorylated peptides are very inflexible and elongate, while that of the unphosphorylated peptides are flexible. Radius of gyration (Rg) analysis showed the compactness of un-phosphorylated peptides is lower than phosphorylated peptides. Phosphorylation of the DPP peptides is necessary for binding to HA surfaces. PMID:25158198

  4. Binding of Recombinant Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Surface Glycoprotein to Feline Cells: Role of CXCR4, Cell-Surface Heparans, and an Unidentified Non-CXCR4 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    de Parseval, Aymeric; Elder, John H.

    2001-01-01

    To address the role of CXCR4 in the cell-surface attachment of the feline immunodeficency virus (FIV), a soluble fusion protein, gp95-Fc, consisting of the surface glycoprotein (SU, gp95) of either a primary (PPR) or cell line-adapted (34TF10) FIV strain was fused in frame with the Fc domain of human immunoglobulin G1. The recombinant SU-immunoadhesins were used as probes to investigate the cellular binding of FIV SU. In agreement with the host cell range properties of both viruses, binding of 34TF10 gp95-Fc was observed for all cell lines tested, whereas PPR gp95-Fc bound only to primary feline T cells. 34TF10 gp95-Fc also bound to Jurkat and HeLa cells, consistent with the ability of FIV to use human CXCR4 as a fusion receptor. As expected, 34TF10 gp95-Fc binding to Jurkat cells was blocked by addition of stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α), as was binding to the 3201 feline lymphoma cell line. However, SDF-1α, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein 1β, and heparin all failed to inhibit the binding of either gp95-Fc to primary T cells, suggesting that a non-CXCR4 receptor is involved in the binding of FIV SU. In this regard, an unidentified 40-kDa protein species from the surface of primary T cells but not Jurkat and 3201 cells specifically coprecipitated with both gp95-Fc. Yet another type of binding of 34TF10 gp95-Fc to adherent kidney cells was noted. SDF-1α failed to block the binding of 34TF10 gp95-Fc to either HeLa, Crandel feline leukemia, or G355-5 cells. However, binding was severely impaired in the presence of soluble heparin, as well as after enzymatic removal of surface heparans or on cells deficient in heparan expression. These overall findings suggest that in addition to CXCR4, a non-CXCR4 receptor and cell-surface heparans also play an important role in FIV gp95 cell surface interactions on specific target cells. PMID:11312323

  5. Grundlagen des Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Jörg; Blum, Janaki; Wintermantel, Erich

    Die Organtransplantation stellt eine verbreitete Therapie dar, um bei krankheitsoder unfallbedingter Schädigung eines Organs die Gesamtheit seiner Funktionen wieder herzustellen, indem es durch ein Spenderorgan ersetzt wird. Organtransplantationen werden für die Leber, die Niere, die Lunge, das Herz oder bei schweren grossflächigen Verbrennungen der Haut vorgenommen. Der grosse apparative, personelle und logistische Aufwand und die Risiken der Transplantationschirurgie (Abstossungsreaktionen) sowie die mangelnde Verfügbarkeit von immunologisch kompatiblen Spenderorganen führen jedoch dazu, dass der Bedarf an Organtransplantaten nur zu einem sehr geringen Teil gedeckt werden kann. Sind Spenderorgane nicht verfügbar, können in einzelnen Fällen lebenswichtige Teilfunktionen, wie beispielsweise die Filtrationsfunktion der Niere durch die Blutreinigung mittels Dialyse ersetzt oder, bei mangelnder Funktion der Bauchspeicheldrüse (Diabetes), durch die Verabreichung von Insulin ein normaler Zustand des Gesamtorganismus auch über Jahre hinweg erhalten werden. Bei der notwendigen lebenslangen Anwendung apparativer oder medikamentöser Therapie können für den Patienten jedoch häufig schwerwiegende, möglicherweise lebensverkürzende Nebenwirkungen entstehen. Daher werden in der Forschung Alternativen gesucht, um die Funktionen des ausgefallenen Organs durch die Implantation von Zellen oder in vitro gezüchteten Geweben möglichst umfassend wieder herzustellen. Dies erfordert biologisch aktive Implantate, welche die für den Stoffwechsel des Organs wichtigen Zellen enthalten und einen organtypischen Stoffwechsel entfalten.

  6. Multifunctional and Redundant Roles of Borrelia burgdorferi Outer Surface Proteins in Tissue Adhesion, Colonization, and Complement Evasion

    PubMed Central

    Caine, Jennifer A.; Coburn, Jenifer

    2016-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease in the U.S., with at least 25,000 cases reported to the CDC each year. B. burgdorferi is thought to enter and exit the bloodstream to achieve rapid dissemination to distal tissue sites during infection. Travel through the bloodstream requires evasion of immune surveillance and pathogen clearance in the host, a process at which B. burgdorferi is adept. B. burgdorferi encodes greater than 19 adhesive outer surface proteins many of which have been found to bind to host cells or components of the extracellular matrix. Several others bind to host complement regulatory factors, in vitro. Production of many of these adhesive proteins is tightly regulated by environmental cues, and some have been shown to aid in vascular interactions and tissue colonization, as well as survival in the blood, in vivo. Recent work has described multifaceted and redundant roles of B. burgdorferi outer surface proteins in complement component interactions and tissue targeted adhesion and colonization, distinct from their previously identified in vitro binding capabilities. Recent insights into the multifunctional roles of previously well-characterized outer surface proteins such as BBK32, DbpA, CspA, and OspC have changed the way we think about the surface proteome of these organisms during the tick–mammal life cycle. With the combination of new and old in vivo models and in vitro techniques, the field has identified distinct ligand binding domains on BBK32 and DbpA that afford tissue colonization or blood survival to B. burgdorferi. In this review, we describe the multifunctional and redundant roles of many adhesive outer surface proteins of B. burgdorferi in tissue adhesion, colonization, and bloodstream survival that, together, promote the survival of Borrelia spp. throughout maintenance in their multi-host lifestyle.

  7. Role of boric acid in nickel nanotube electrodeposition: a surface-directed growth mechanism.

    PubMed

    Graham, Lauren M; Cho, Seungil; Kim, Sung Kyoung; Noked, Malachi; Lee, Sang Bok

    2014-01-18

    Nickel nanotubes have been synthesized by the popular and versatile method of template-assisted electrodeposition, and a surface-directed growth mechanism based on the adsorption of the nickel-borate complex has been proposed.

  8. Role of surface vibrational properties on cooperative phenomena in spin-crossover nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolasek, Mirko; Félix, Gautier; Molnár, Gábor; Terki, Férial; Nicolazzi, William; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2014-08-01

    The influence of surface/interface on the lattice dynamics of spin crossover nanoparticles has been investigated by a spring-ball model solved by Monte Carlo methods. The bond cohesion energy of the model has been extracted from Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements performed on the model compound Ni3[Fe(CN)6]. We show that the coupling between bulk and surface vibrational properties, which drastically affects the mechanical properties of the whole particle below a characteristic size, has a major impact on the phase stability of the particles. In the case of free surfaces, the Debye temperature decreases with the size and the first-order nature of the spin transition disappears. On the other hand, a hardening of the surface bonds leads to increasing particle stiffness with the size reduction. In this case, a persistence of the hysteretic behavior in the spin transition curve is also predicted in good agreement with previous theoretical and experimental results.

  9. Biophysical bases of human plasma lipoprotein polydispersity: role of surface modification

    SciTech Connect

    Shahrokh, Z.

    1984-11-01

    Metabolic depletion of the core of the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins via lipolysis results in the production of polydisperse species of particles within the density range of low density lipoproteins (LDL). Modifications of surface properties of plasma LDL may further contribute to LDL polydispersity. In this dissertation, we study the interactions with LDL of models of lipolysis-related surface products (i.e., phosphatidylcholine vesicles (PCV) and discoidal complexes (DC) of apoprotein AI and phosphatidylcholine) and examine the influence on such interactions of high density lipoproteins (HDL) and other relevant plasma components (lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), albumin, lysolecithin (LPC)). Based on the studies obtained in this dissertation LDL surface modification may contribute to LDL polydispersity. Since HDL is a major acceptor of PL, formation of surface-modified LDL (e.g., PL-enriched, larged LDL) in vivo would depend on LDL/HDL weight ratio in plasma. 140 references, 50 figures, 15 tables.

  10. Computational Microscopy of the Role of Protonable Surface Residues in Nanoprecipitation Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.; Schulten, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    A novel phenomenon has recently been reported in polymeric nanopores. This phenomenon, so-called nanoprecipitation, is characterized by the transient formation of precipitates in the nanopore lumen, producing a sequence of low and high conductance states in the ionic current through the pore. By means of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we studied nanoprecipitation for polyethylene terephthalate nanopore immersed in electrolytic solution containing calcium phosphate, covering a total simulation time of 1.24 microseconds. Our results suggest that protonable surface residues at the nanopore surface, namely carboxyl groups, trigger the formation of precipitates which strongly adhere to the surface, blocking the pore and producing the low conductance state. Based on the simulations, we propose a mechanism for the formation of the high conductance state; the mechanism involves detachment of the precipitate from the surface due to reprotonation of carboxyl groups and subsequent translocation of the precipitate out of the pore. PMID:20597534

  11. Condensed-Phase Photochemical Processes in Titan's Aerosols and Surface: The Role of Longer Wavelength Photochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Jacovi, Ronen; Lignell, Antti; Couturier, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    We will discuss photochemical properties of Titan's organic molecules in the condensed phase as solid aerosols or surface material, from small linear polyyenes (polyacetylenes and polycyanoacetylenes) such as C2H2, C4N2, HC5N, etc. In particular we will focus on photochemistry caused by longer wavelength UV-VIS photons (greater than 250 nm) photons that make it through Titan's atmosphere to the haze region (approximately 100 km) and on to the surface of Titan.

  12. The role of surface treatments on the bond between acrylic denture base and teeth.

    PubMed

    Bragaglia, Lauro Egídio; Prates, Luiz Henrique Maykot; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the bond strength between acrylic denture base and teeth subjected to 6 surface treatments. Ninety-six specimens were made with poly(methylmethacrylate) teeth bonded to a microwave-polymerized acrylic denture base material. The specimens were distributed into 6 groups (n=16) according to surface treatments: CT - no treatment (control); MN - methylmethacrylate monomer etching; AO - 50-microm-particle aluminum oxide air abrasion; BR - glaze removal with a round bur; ST - surface grinding with an aluminum oxide abrasive stone; group CV - cavity preparation (diatorics). The control and surface-treated groups were subjected to a compressive load at 45 masculine angle to the long axis of the teeth. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Scheffé's test (p<0.05). Bond strength means and (SD) in kgf for groups were: CT: 18.19 (7.14), MN: 18.34 (5.28), AO: 23.82 (5.40), BR: 23.30 (4.79), ST: 25.39 (7.80) and CV: 17.48 (7.17). There was statistically significant difference (p=0.037997) only between ST and CV. In conclusion, ridge lap surface grinding with an aluminum oxide abrasive stone provided the highest bond strength, though it differed significantly only when compared to diatorics. The other surface treatments provided similar bond between the acrylic denture base and teeth. PMID:19738950

  13. Role of Exposed Surfaces on Zinc Oxide Nanostructures in the Catalytic Ethanol Transformation.

    PubMed

    Morales, María V; Asedegbega-Nieto, Esther; Iglesias-Juez, Ana; Rodríguez-Ramos, Inmaculada; Guerrero-Ruiz, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    For a series of nanometric ZnO materials, the relationship between their morphological and surface functionalities and their catalytic properties in the selective decomposition of ethanol to yield acetaldehyde was explored. Six ZnO solids were prepared by a microemulsion-precipitation method and the thermal decomposition of different precursors and compared with a commercial sample. All these materials were characterized intensively by XRD and SEM to obtain their morphological specificities. Additionally, surface area determinations and IR spectroscopy were used to detect differences in the surface properties. The density of acid surface sites was determined quantitatively using an isopropanol dehydration test. Based on these characterization studies and on the results of the catalytic tests, it has been established that ZnO basal surfaces seem to be responsible for the production of ethylene as a minor product as well as for secondary reactions that yield acetyl acetate. Furthermore, one specific type of exposed hydroxyl groups appears to govern the surface catalytic properties. PMID:26087720

  14. On the role of surface rheology in a magnetohydrodynamic swirling flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacroix, Jules; Davoust, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    The original coupling between the surface rheology of a liquid metal surface and a supporting annular Couette magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow is theoretically and numerically investigated in this paper, in the general layout of the classical annular viscometer, as developed by Mannheimer and Schechter ["An improved apparatus and analysis for surface rheological measurements," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 32, 195-211 (1970)]. The purely hydrodynamic interplay between the main azimuthal flow (induced by a rotating floor) and the secondary overturning flow (generated by centrifugation) is found to be strongly affected by both surface viscous shear and surface viscous dilatation. When the flow is subjected to an outer vertical magnetic field, the impact of varying interface boundary conditions (through the surface shear and dilatational viscosities) at the gas/liquid interface profoundly alters the MHD flow topology. Particularly, when centrifugation competes with electromagnetic effects, advection of the main flow by the secondary flow is proved to affect significantly the core MHD flow, leading to a variety of atypical MHD flow patterns.

  15. The Role of Iron-Bearing Minerals in NO2 to HONO Conversion on Soil Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Mulu A; Bish, David L; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Engelhard, Mark H; Raff, Jonathan D

    2016-08-16

    Nitrous acid (HONO) accumulates in the nocturnal boundary layer where it is an important source of daytime hydroxyl radicals. Although there is clear evidence for the involvement of heterogeneous reactions of NO2 on surfaces as a source of HONO, mechanisms remain poorly understood. We used coated-wall flow tube measurements of NO2 reactivity on environmentally relevant surfaces (Fe (hydr)oxides, clay minerals, and soil from Arizona and the Saharan Desert) and detailed mineralogical characterization of substrates to show that reduction of NO2 by Fe-bearing minerals in soil can be a more important source of HONO than the putative NO2 hydrolysis mechanism. The magnitude of NO2-to-HONO conversion depends on the amount of Fe(2+) present in substrates and soil surface acidity. Studies examining the dependence of HONO flux on substrate pH revealed that HONO is formed at soil pH < 5 from the reaction between NO2 and Fe(2+)(aq) present in thin films of water coating the surface, whereas in the range of pH 5-8 HONO stems from reaction of NO2 with structural iron or surface complexed Fe(2+) followed by protonation of nitrite via surface Fe-OH2(+) groups. Reduction of NO2 on ubiquitous Fe-bearing minerals in soil may explain HONO accumulation in the nocturnal boundary layer and the enhanced [HONO]/[NO2] ratios observed during dust storms in urban areas. PMID:27409359

  16. (A structural assessment of the role of the cell surface carbohydrates of Rhizobium in the Rhizobium/legume symbiosis)

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, R.I.

    1991-01-01

    Research continued on the study of cell surface carbohydrates of Rhizobium. Objectives include: To characterize, at a structural level, the differences between the lipopolysaccharides of a representative number of strains from different Rhizobium species to determine which features of LPS structure are species-specific and might, therefore, be determinants of host specificity. Determine the effect(s) of nod gene induction on the structure of Rhizobium lipopolysaccharides and determine whether synthesis of a modified LPS molecule or a new surface glycoconjugate is initiated by nod gene induction. Develop a non-chemical means for rapidly screening large numbers of bacterial strains in order to determine which glycoconjugate structural features are conserved between strains of the same species. Provide the necessary structural information which, when coupled with developments in the rapidly expanding field of Rhizobium genetics, should lead to a clear understanding of the role of Rhizobium surface glycoconjugates in host/symbiont interactions. Progress is discussed.

  17. Magnetic frustration, short-range correlations and the role of the paramagnetic Fermi surface of PdCrO2

    PubMed Central

    Billington, David; Ernsting, David; Millichamp, Thomas E.; Lester, Christopher; Dugdale, Stephen B.; Kersh, David; Duffy, Jonathan A.; Giblin, Sean R.; Taylor, Jonathan W.; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry D.; Takatsu, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Frustrated interactions exist throughout nature, with examples ranging from protein folding through to frustrated magnetic interactions. Whilst magnetic frustration is observed in numerous electrically insulating systems, in metals it is a rare phenomenon. The interplay of itinerant conduction electrons mediating interactions between localised magnetic moments with strong spin-orbit coupling is likely fundamental to these systems. Therefore, knowledge of the precise shape and topology of the Fermi surface is important in any explanation of the magnetic behaviour. PdCrO2, a frustrated metallic magnet, offers the opportunity to examine the relationship between magnetic frustration, short-range magnetic order and Fermi surface topology. By mapping the short-range order in reciprocal space and experimentally determining the electronic structure, we have identified the dual role played by the Cr electrons in which the itinerant ones on the nested paramagnetic Fermi surface mediate the frustrated magnetic interactions between local moments. PMID:26206589

  18. Role of Extracellular Structures of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Initial Attachment to Biotic and Abiotic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Attila; Mowery, Joseph; Bauchan, Gary R.; Wang, Lili; Nichols-Russell, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Infection by human pathogens through the consumption of fresh, minimally processed produce and solid plant-derived foods is a major concern of the U.S. and global food industries and of public health services. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a frequent and potent foodborne pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. Biofilms formed by E. coli O157:H7 facilitate cross-contamination by sheltering pathogens and protecting them from cleaning and sanitation operations. The objective of this research was to determine the role that several surface structures of E. coli O157:H7 play in adherence to biotic and abiotic surfaces. A set of isogenic deletion mutants lacking major surface structures was generated. The mutant strains were inoculated onto fresh spinach and glass surfaces, and their capability to adhere was assessed by adherence assays and fluorescence microscopy methods. Our results showed that filament-deficient mutants bound to the spinach leaves and glass surfaces less strongly than the wild-type strain did. We mimicked the switch to the external environment—during which bacteria leave the host organism and adapt to lower ambient temperatures of cultivation or food processing—by decreasing the temperature from 37°C to 25°C and 4°C. We concluded that flagella and some other cell surface proteins are important factors in the process of initial attachment and in the establishment of biofilms. A better understanding of the specific roles of these structures in early stages of biofilm formation can help to prevent cross-contaminations and foodborne disease outbreaks. PMID:25956766

  19. Two modes of surface roughening during plasma etching of silicon: Role of ionized etch products

    SciTech Connect

    Nakazaki, Nobuya Tsuda, Hirotaka; Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi

    2014-12-14

    Atomic- or nanometer-scale surface roughening has been investigated during Si etching in inductively coupled Cl{sub 2} plasmas, as a function of rf bias power or ion incident energy E{sub i}, by varying feed gas flow rate, wafer stage temperature, and etching time. The experiments revealed two modes of surface roughening which occur depending on E{sub i}: one is the roughening mode at low E{sub i} < 200–300 eV, where the root-mean-square (rms) roughness of etched surfaces increases with increasing E{sub i}, exhibiting an almost linear increase with time during etching (t < 20 min). The other is the smoothing mode at higher E{sub i}, where the rms surface roughness decreases substantially with E{sub i} down to a low level < 0.4 nm, exhibiting a quasi-steady state after some increase at the initial stage (t < 1 min). Correspondingly, two different behaviors depending on E{sub i} were also observed in the etch rate versus √(E{sub i}) curve, and in the evolution of the power spectral density distribution of surfaces. Such changes from the roughening to smoothing modes with increasing E{sub i} were found to correspond to changes in the predominant ion flux from feed gas ions Cl{sub x}{sup +} to ionized etch products SiCl{sub x}{sup +} caused by the increased etch rates at increased E{sub i}, in view of the results of several plasma diagnostics. Possible mechanisms for the formation and evolution of surface roughness during plasma etching are discussed with the help of Monte Carlo simulations of the surface feature evolution and classical molecular dynamics simulations of etch fundamentals, including stochastic roughening and effects of ion reflection and etch inhibitors.

  20. Role for Rhizobium rhizogenes K84 cell envelope polysaccharides in surface interactions.

    PubMed

    Abarca-Grau, Ana M; Burbank, Lindsey P; de Paz, Héctor D; Crespo-Rivas, Juan C; Marco-Noales, Ester; López, María M; Vinardell, Jose M; von Bodman, Susanne B; Penyalver, Ramón

    2012-03-01

    Rhizobium rhizogenes strain K84 is a commercial biocontrol agent used worldwide to control crown gall disease. The organism binds tightly to polypropylene substrate and efficiently colonizes root surfaces as complex, multilayered biofilms. A genetic screen identified two mutants in which these surface interactions were affected. One of these mutants failed to attach and form biofilms on the abiotic surface although, interestingly, it exhibited normal biofilm formation on the biological root tip surface. This mutant is disrupted in a wcbD ortholog gene, which is part of a large locus predicted to encode functions for the biosynthesis and export of a group II capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Expression of a functional copy of wcbD in the mutant background restored the ability of the bacteria to attach and form normal biofilms on the abiotic surface. The second identified mutant attached and formed visibly denser biofilms on both abiotic and root tip surfaces. This mutant is disrupted in the rkpK gene, which is predicted to encode a UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase required for O-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and K-antigen capsular polysaccharide (KPS) biosynthesis in rhizobia. The rkpK mutant from strain K84 was deficient in O-antigen synthesis and exclusively produced rough LPS. We also show that strain K84 does not synthesize the KPS typical of some other rhizobia strains. In addition, we identified a putative type II CPS, distinct from KPS, that mediates cell-surface interactions, and we show that O antigen of strain K84 is necessary for normal cell-cell interactions in the biofilms. PMID:22210213

  1. Role of Surface Roughness on Reversible Primary Minimum Interactions: Implications for Colloid Attachment and Detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkzaban, Saeed; Bradford, Scott A.

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of and ability to predict the fate and transport of colloids in porous media are of great importance in many environmental and industrial applications. In this study, the extended-DLVO theory accounting for nanosale surface roughness was employed to calculate interaction energy parameters such as the magnitude of primary energy minimum (Φ_(10 min)), the height of energy barrier against primary minimum attachment (∆Φ_a), and the height of energy barrier against detachment from the primary minimum (∆Φ_d). Packed-bed column and batch experiments were also conducted to examine effects of solution chemistry and flow velocity on the attachment and detachment processes of colloids. Theoretical analysis was employed to qualitatively explain the experimental observations of colloid attachment and detachment processes in porous media. It was demonstrated that the density and height of nanoscale roughness on the solid surfaces of porous media significantly influenced the interaction energy parameters and would subsequently affect the colloid attachment and detachment processes. Specifically, theoretical analysis indicated that the values of ∆Φa and ∆Φd notably decreased when nanoscale surface roughness was considered in the calculations. It was predicted that, under bulk unfavourable conditions at low to moderate solution IS, colloid attachment in the primary minimum may occur in some localised locations on the solid surface. However, nanoscale surface roughness yields a much weaker primary minimum interaction compared with that of smooth surfaces. The detachment of the colloids attached in the primary minimum was found to increase with decreasing IS and increasing pH due to the impact of nanoscale roughness of the solid surfaces on the values of ∆Φ_a. The results suggest that changes in chemical conditions caused the disappearance of the detachment energy barrier for only a fraction of the attached colloids in the primary minimum.

  2. The role of phosphorylation in dentin phosphoprotein peptide absorption to hydroxyapatite surfaces: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo; Garduño-Juarez, Ramón; Gericke, Arne; Boskey, Adele

    2014-08-01

    Dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) is a protein expressed mainly in dentin and to a lesser extent in bone. DPP has a disordered structure, rich in glutamic acid, aspartic acid and phosphorylated serine/threonine residues. It has a high capacity for binding to calcium ions and to hydroxyapatite (HA) crystal surfaces. We used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as a method for virtually screening interactions between DPP motifs and HA. The goal was to determine which motifs are absorbed to HA surfaces. For these simulations, we considered five peptides from the human DPP sequence. All-atom MD simulations were performed using GROMACS, the peptides were oriented parallel to the {100} HA crystal surface, the distance between the HA and the peptide was 3 nm. The system was simulated for 20 ns. Preliminary results show that for the unphosphorylated peptides, the acidic amino acids present an electrostatic attraction where their side chains are oriented towards HA. This attraction, however, is slow to facilitate bulk transport to the crystal surface. On the other hand, the phosphorylated (PP) peptides are rapidly absorbed on the surface of the HA with their centers of mass closer to the HA surface. More importantly, the root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) indicates that the average structures of the phosphorylated peptides are very inflexible and elongate, while that of the unphosphorylated peptides are flexible. Radius of gyration (Rg) analysis showed the compactness of un-phosphorylated peptides is lower than phosphorylated peptides. Phosphorylation of the DPP peptides is necessary for binding to HA surfaces.

  3. The role of surface charge on the uptake and biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with osteoblast cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Mccrate, Joseph M.; C-M Lee, James; Li, Hao

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles with different surface charges on the cellular uptake behavior and in vitro cell viability and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cell lines (osteoblast). The nanoparticles' surface charge was varied by surface modification with two carboxylic acids: 12-aminododecanoic acid (positive) and dodecanedioic acid (negative). The untreated HAP nanoparticles and dodecanoic acid modified HAP nanoparticles (neutral) were used as the control. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that surface modifications by the three carboxylic acids did not change the crystal structure of HAP nanoparticles; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the adsorption and binding of the carboxylic acids on the HAP nanoparticles' surfaces; and zeta potential measurement confirmed that the chemicals successfully modified the surface charge of HAP nanoparticles in water based solution. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that positively charged, negatively charged and untreated HAP nanoparticles, with similar size and shape, all penetrated into the cells and cells had more uptake of HAP nanoparticles with positive charge compared to those with negative charge, which might be attributed to the attractive or repulsive interaction between the negatively charged cell membrane and positively/negatively charged HAP nanoparticles. The neutral HAP nanoparticles could not penetrate the cell membrane due to their larger size. MTT assay and LDH assay results indicated that as compared with the polystyrene control, greater cell viability and cell proliferation were measured on MC3T3-E1 cells treated with the three kinds of HAP nanoparticles (neutral, positive, and untreated), among which positively charged HAP nanoparticles showed the strongest improvement for cell viability and cell proliferation. In summary, the surface charge of HAP nanoparticles can be modified to influence the cellular uptake of

  4. Les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux cibles des effets des rayonnements ionisants : altérations fonctionnelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linard, C.; Esposito, V.; Wysocki, J.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptoms associated with exposure to ionizing radiation are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. The response of the gut is complex involving modifications of motility and fluid and electrolyte transport. Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides have an important role in these functions. This study showed that radiation-induced tissue variations of neuropeptides have some repercussions on intestinal biological activity of these peptides soon after irradiation. In addition such modifications are also seen a few years after irradiation. Les symptômes associés à l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants sont des nausées, vomissements et diarrhées. La réponse du système digestif est complexe, impliquant des modifications de la motilité et du transport d'eau et d'électrolytes. les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux ont un rôle important dans ces fonctions. Cette étude montre que les variations tissulaires de ces neuropeptides induites par l'irradiation ont des répercussions sur l'activité biologique intestinale pour des temps précoces mais que ces perturbations sont encore visibles quelques années après l'irradiation.

  5. La physique des bulles de champagne Une première approche des processus physico-chimiques liés à l'effervescence des vins de Champagne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liger-Belair, G.

    2002-07-01

    bubble interface continuously increases and therefore continuously offers newly created surface to the adsorbed surface-active materials (around 5 mg/l, mostly composed of proteins and glycoproteins). Champagne bubbles experience an interesting competition between two opposing effects. Our results suggest that the bubble growth during ascent approximately balance the adsorption rate of surface-active compounds on the rising bubble. We also compared the behaviour of champagne bubbles with that of beer bubbles. It was found that beer bubbles showed a behaviour, very close to that of rigid spheres. This is not a surprising result, since beer contains much higher amounts of surface-active molecules (of order of several hundreds mg/l) likely to be adsorbed at a bubble interface. Furthermore, since the gas content is lower in beer, growth rates of beer bubbles are lower than those of champagne. As a result, the dilution effect due to the rate of dilatation of the bubble area may be too weak to avoid the rigidification of the beer bubble interface. In a third set of experiments, we used instantaneous high-speed photography techniques to freeze the dynamics of bubbles collapsing at the free surface of a glass poured with champagne. The process following bubble collapse and leading to the projection of a high-speed liquid jet above the free surface was captured. A structural analogy between the liquid jet following a bubble collapse and the liquid jet following a drop impact was presented. By drawing a parallel between the fizz in champagne wines and the “fizz of the ocean", we also suggested that droplets issued from champagne bursting bubbles contain much higher amounts of surface-active and potentially aromatic materials than the liquid bulk. The bursting of champagne bubbles is thus expected to play a major role in flavour release. Otherwise, since the first photographic investigation were published about fifty years ago, numerous experiments have been conducted with single

  6. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  7. Actin microfilaments play a critical role in endocytosis at the apical but not the basolateral surface of polarized epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Treatment with cytochalasin D, a drug that acts by inducing the depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton, selectively blocked endocytosis of membrane bound and fluid phase markers from the apical surface of polarized MDCK cells without affecting the uptake from the basolateral surface. Thus, in MDCK cell transformants that express the VSV G protein, cytochalasin blocked the internalization of an anti-G mAb bound to apical G molecules, but did not reduce the uptake of antibody bound to the basolateral surface. The selective effect of cytochalasin D on apical endocytosis was also demonstrated by the failure of the drug to reduce the uptake of 125I-labeled transferrin, which occurs by receptor-mediated endocytosis, via clathrin-coated pits, almost exclusively from the basolateral surface. The actin cytoskeleton appears to play a critical role in adsorptive as well as fluid phase apical endocytic events, since treatment with cytochalasin D prevented the apical uptake of cationized ferritin, that occurs after the marker binds to the cell surface, as well as uptake of Lucifer yellow, a fluorescent soluble dye. Moreover, the drug efficiently blocked infection of the cells with influenza virus, when the viral inoculum was applied to the apical surface. On the other hand, it did not inhibit the basolateral uptake of Lucifer yellow, nor did it prevent infection with VSV from the basolateral surface, or with influenza when this virus was applied to monolayers in which the formation of tight junctions had been prevented by depletion of calcium ions. EM demonstrated that cytochalasin D leads to an increase in the number of coated pits in the apical surface where it suppresses the pinching off of coated vesicles. In addition, in drug-treated cells cationized ferritin molecules that were bound to microvilli were not cleared from the microvillar surface, as is observed in untreated cells. These findings indicate that there is a fundamental difference in the process by which

  8. The role of van der Waals interactions in the adsorption of noble gases on metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, De-Li; Al-Saidi, W A; Johnson, J Karl

    2012-10-03

    Adsorption of noble gases on metal surfaces is determined by weak interactions. We applied two versions of the nonlocal van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) to compute adsorption energies of Ar, Kr, and Xe on Pt(111), Pd(111), Cu(111), and Cu(110) metal surfaces. We have compared our results with data obtained using other density functional approaches, including the semiempirical vdW corrected DFT-D2. The vdW-DF results show considerable improvements in the description of adsorption energies and equilibrium distances over other DFTbased methods, giving good agreement with experiments. We have also calculated perpendicular vibrational energies for noble gases on the metal surfaces using vdWDF data and found excellent agreement with available experimental results. Our vdW-DF calculations show that adsorption of noble gases on low-coordination sites is energetically favored over high-coordination sites, but only by a few meV. Analysis of the 2-dimensional potential energy surface shows that the high-coordination sites are local maxima on the 2-dimensional potential energy surface and therefore unlikely to be observed in experiments, which provides an explanation of the experimental observations. The DFT-D2 approach with the standard parameterization was found to overestimate the dispersion interactions, and to give the wrong adsorption site preference for four of the nine systems we studied.

  9. The role of fire on soil mounds and surface roughness in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Esque, Todd C.; Bedford, David R.; Bond, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in arid land management centers on understanding the long-term effects of fire on desert ecosystems. To assess the effects of fire on surface topography, soil roughness, and vegetation, we used terrestrial (ground-based) LiDAR to quantify the differences between burned and unburned surfaces by creating a series of high-resolution vegetation structure and bare-earth surface models for six sample plots in the Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, Arizona. We find that 11 years following prescribed burns, mound volumes, plant heights, and soil-surface roughness were significantly lower on burned relative to unburned plots. Results also suggest a linkage between vegetation and soil mounds, either through accretion or erosion mechanisms such as wind and/or water erosion. The biogeomorphic implications of fire-induced changes are significant. Reduced plant cover and altered soil surfaces from fire likely influence seed residence times, inhibit seed germination and plant establishment, and affect other ecohydrological processes.

  10. The role of electronic mechanisms in surface erosion and glow phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haglund, Richard F., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental studies of desorption induced by electronic transitions (DIET) are described. Such studies are producing an increasingly complete picture of the dynamical pathways through which incident electronic energy is absorbed and rechanneled to produce macroscopic erosion and glow. These mechanistic studies can determine rate constants for erosion and glow processes in model materials and provide valuable guidance in materials selection and development. Extensive experiments with electron, photon, and heavy particle irradiation of alkali halides and other simple model materials have produced evidence showing that: (1) surface erosion, consisting primarily in the ejection or desorption of ground-state neutral atoms, occurs with large efficiencies for all irradiated species; (2) surface glow, resulting from the radiative decay of desorbed atoms, likewise occurs for all irradiating species; (3) the typical mechanism for ground-state neutral desorption is exciton formation, followed by relaxation to a permanent, mobile electronic defect which is the precursor to bond-breaking in the surface or near-surface bulk of the material; and (4) the mechanisms for excited atom formation may include curve crossing in atomic collisions, interactions with surface defect or impurity states, or defect diffusion.

  11. The role of haptic cues from rough and slippery surfaces in human postural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeka, J. J.; Lackner, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    Haptic information is critically important in complex sensory-motor tasks such as manipulating objects. Its comparable importance in spatial orientation is only beginning to be recognized. We have shown that postural sway in humans is significantly reduced by lightly touching a stable surface with a fingertip at contact force levels far below those physically necessary to stabilize the body. To investigate further the functional relationship between contact forces at the hand and postural equilibrium, we had subjects stand in the tandem Romberg stance while being allowed physically supportive (force contact) and non-physically supportive (touch contact) amounts of index fingertip force on surfaces with different frictional characteristics. Mean sway amplitude (MSA) was reduced by over 50% with both touch and force contact of the fingertip, compared to standing without fingertip contact. No differences in MSA were observed when touching rough or slippery surfaces. The amplitude of EMG activity in the peroneal muscles and the timing relationships between fingertip forces, body sway and EMG activity suggested that with touch contact of the finger or with force contact on a slippery surface long-loop "reflexes" involving postural muscles were stabilizing sway. With force contact of the fingertip on a rough surface, MSA reduction was achieved primarily through physical support of the body. This pattern of results indicates that light touch contact cues from the fingertip in conjunction with proprioceptive signals about arm configuration are providing information about body sway that can be used to reduce MSA through postural muscle activation.

  12. On the role of surface plasmon polaritons in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures upon irradiation of silicon by femtosecond-laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bonse, Joern; Krueger, Joerg; Rosenfeld, Arkadi

    2009-11-15

    The formation of nearly wavelength-sized laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSSs) on single-crystalline silicon upon irradiation with single or multiple femtosecond-laser pulses (pulse duration tau=130 fs and central wavelength lambda=800 nm) in air is studied experimentally and theoretically. In our theoretical approach, we model the LIPSS formation by combining the generally accepted first-principles theory of Sipe and co-workers with a Drude model in order to account for transient intrapulse changes in the optical properties of the material due to the excitation of a dense electron-hole plasma. Our results are capable to explain quantitatively the spatial periods of the LIPSSs being somewhat smaller than the laser wavelength, their orientation perpendicular to the laser beam polarization, and their characteristic fluence dependence. Moreover, evidence is presented that surface plasmon polaritons play a dominant role during the initial stage of near-wavelength-sized periodic surface structures in femtosecond-laser irradiated silicon, and it is demonstrated that these LIPSSs can be formed in silicon upon irradiation by single femtosecond-laser pulses.

  13. Utilisation des micro-ordinateurs en ecriture aux cycles primaire et moyen: methodes, roles, attitudes et produits. L'education et la technologie (Writing with Microcomputers in the Elementary Grades: Process, Roles, Attitudes, and Products. Education and Technology Series).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larter, Sylvia; And Others

    A study examined and compared writing with and without microcomputers in elementary schools. Specifically, the study examined (1) how the products of writing instruction with a computer differ from the products of traditionally taught writing, (2) the process of teaching writing, (3) teacher-pupil roles when pupils are writing, (4) teacher…

  14. La microscopie ionique analytique des tissus biologiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galle, P.

    Proposed in 1960 by R. Castaing and G. Slodzian, secondary ion emission microanalysis is a microanalytical method which is now largely used for the study of inert material. The instrument called the analytical ion microscope can also be used for the study of biological spécimens ; images representing the distribution of a given stable or radioactive isotope in a tissue section are obtained with a resolution of 0.5 μm. Among the characteristics of this method, two are of particular interest in biological research : its capacity for isotopic analysis and its very high sensitivity which makes possible for the first time a chemical analysis of element at a very low or even at a trace concentration in a microvolume. Proposé en 1960 par R. Castaing et G. Slodzian, la microanalyse par émission ionique secondaire est une méthode qui permet, entre autre, d'obtenir des images représentant la distribution des isotopes présents à la surface d'un échantillon solide avec une résolution de 0,5 μm. D'intérêt très général, cette méthode a été d'abord largement utilisée pour l'étude des matériaux inertes. Elle offre en outre des possibilités entièrement nouvelles dans le domaine de la recherche biomédicale. L'instrument réalisé, le microscope ionique analytique présente deux caractéristiques particulièrement intéressantes pour la biologie : la possibilité d'analyse isotopique, et l'extrême sensibilité permettant de détecter et de localiser dans une coupe histologique des éléments à des concentrations très faibles voire à l'état de trace.

  15. On the role of surface shape in a micro-scale heat conduction problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinler, A.; Graur, I. A.; Barber, R. W.; Emerson, D. R.; Perrier, P.

    2012-05-01

    The present study investigates the importance of the surface shape in a micro-scale heat conduction problem. A heated infinitely-thin cylindrical shell is positioned in the middle of two concentric cylinders, and the heat transfer through a rarefied gas between the shell and the confining inner (or outer) cylinder is investigated. The study initially considers the solution of the first- and second-order temperature-jump models (i.e. the conventional heat equation with temperature-jump boundary conditions). The study then examines the numerical solution of the nonlinear Shakhov model kinetic equation subject to the Maxwell boundary condition using the discrete velocity method (DVM). The variable-hard-sphere molecular interaction model is taken into account in the temperature-jump models allowing the presence of significant temperature differences between surfaces to be considered. Anomalous temperature profiles near the convex (or concave) side of the shell are attributed to the effects of surface shape.

  16. The dominant role of surface conduction in electro-osmotic flows through periodically varying narrow channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludar, Lotan; Yariv, Ehud

    2015-11-01

    As surface conduction has no effect on electro-osmosis in uniform channel flows, where the tangential Debye-layer currents are longitudinally uniform, it may appear as it would only result in a small modifying correction in lubrication analyses of slowly varying channels. This misconception is refuted here by analyzing flows through periodic channels of slowly varying but otherwise arbitrary geometry. Assuming that the channel width is still large compared with the Debye thickness we employ the simplest thin-double-layer model which incorporates surface conduction. We find that surface conduction affects the leading-order flow and the consequent net volumetric flux, introducing a nonlinear dependence upon the zeta potential. Remarkably, as the channel becomes more and more narrow, the scaled flux approaches a limit which is independent of the Dukhin number yet different from that calculated for zero Dukhin number.

  17. Role of Tensorial Electronic Friction in Energy Transfer at Metal Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Askerka, Mikhail; Maurer, Reinhard J; Batista, Victor S; Tully, John C

    2016-05-27

    An accurate description of nonadiabatic energy relaxation is crucial for modeling atomistic dynamics at metal surfaces. Interfacial energy transfer due to electron-hole pair excitations coupled to motion of molecular adsorbates is often simulated by Langevin molecular dynamics with electronic friction. Here, we present calculations of the full electronic friction tensor by using first order time-dependent perturbation theory at the density functional theory level. We show that the friction tensor is generally anisotropic and nondiagonal, as found for hydrogen atom on Pd(100) and CO on Cu(100) surfaces. This implies that electron-hole pair induced nonadiabatic coupling at metal surfaces leads to friction-induced mode coupling, therefore, opening an additional channel for energy redistribution. We demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of our results by direct comparison to established methods and experimental data. PMID:27284673

  18. Role of Tensorial Electronic Friction in Energy Transfer at Metal Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askerka, Mikhail; Maurer, Reinhard J.; Batista, Victor S.; Tully, John C.

    2016-05-01

    An accurate description of nonadiabatic energy relaxation is crucial for modeling atomistic dynamics at metal surfaces. Interfacial energy transfer due to electron-hole pair excitations coupled to motion of molecular adsorbates is often simulated by Langevin molecular dynamics with electronic friction. Here, we present calculations of the full electronic friction tensor by using first order time-dependent perturbation theory at the density functional theory level. We show that the friction tensor is generally anisotropic and nondiagonal, as found for hydrogen atom on Pd(100) and CO on Cu(100) surfaces. This implies that electron-hole pair induced nonadiabatic coupling at metal surfaces leads to friction-induced mode coupling, therefore, opening an additional channel for energy redistribution. We demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of our results by direct comparison to established methods and experimental data.

  19. Electrocardiographic markers of ischemia during mental stress testing in postinfarction patients. Role of body surface mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Bosimini, E.; Galli, M.; Guagliumi, G.; Giubbini, R.; Tavazzi, L. )

    1991-04-01

    In patients with coronary artery disease, radionuclide investigations have documented a high incidence of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in the absence of significant electrocardiographic changes and/or angina. To investigate the causes of the low electrocardiographic sensitivity, we recorded body surface maps during mental arithmetic in 22 normal volunteers and 37 postinfarction patients with residual exercise ischemia. Myocardial perfusion was studied with thallium-201 or technetium-99 (SESTAMIBI) planar scans. In 14 patients, body surface maps were also recorded during atrial pacing at the heart rate values achieved during mental stress. While taking the body surface maps, the area from J point to 80 msec after this point (ST-80) was analyzed by integral maps, difference maps, and departure maps. The body surface mapping criteria for ischemia were a new negative area on the integral maps, a negative potential of more than 2 SD from mean normal values on the difference maps, and a negative departure index of more than 2. Scintigraphy showed asymptomatic myocardial hypoperfusion in 33 patients. Eight patients had significant ST segment depression. The ST-80 integral and difference maps identified 17 ischemic patients. Twenty-four patients presented abnormal departure maps. One patient presented ST depression and abnormal body surface maps without reversible tracer defect. In 14 of 14 patients, atrial pacing did not reproduce the body surface map abnormalities. The analyses of the other electrocardiographic variables showed that in patients with mental stress-induced perfusion defects, only changes of T apex-T offset (aT-eT) interval in Frank leads and changes of maximum negative potential value of aT-eT integral maps significantly differed from those of normal subjects.

  20. Accuracy of surface tension measurement from drop shapes: the role of image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kalantarian, Ali; Saad, Sameh M I; Neumann, A Wilhelm

    2013-11-01

    Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis (ADSA) has been extensively used for surface tension measurement. In essence, ADSA works by matching a theoretical profile of the drop to the extracted experimental profile, taking surface tension as an adjustable parameter. Of the three main building blocks of ADSA, i.e. edge detection, the numerical integration of the Laplace equation for generating theoretical curves and the optimization procedure, only edge detection (that extracts the drop profile line from the drop image) needs extensive study. For the purpose of this article, the numerical integration of the Laplace equation for generating theoretical curves and the optimization procedure will only require a minor effort. It is the aim of this paper to investigate how far the surface tension accuracy of drop shape techniques can be pushed by fine tuning and optimizing edge detection strategies for a given drop image. Two different aspects of edge detection are pursued here: sub-pixel resolution and pixel resolution. The effect of two sub-pixel resolution strategies, i.e. spline and sigmoid, on the accuracy of surface tension measurement is investigated. It is found that the number of pixel points in the fitting procedure of the sub-pixel resolution techniques is crucial, and its value should be determined based on the contrast of the image, i.e. the gray level difference between the drop and the background. On the pixel resolution side, two suitable and reliable edge detectors, i.e. Canny and SUSAN, are explored, and the effect of user-specified parameters of the edge detector on the accuracy of surface tension measurement is scrutinized. Based on the contrast of the image, an optimum value of the user-specified parameter of the edge detector, SUSAN, is suggested. Overall, an accuracy of 0.01mJ/m(2) is achievable for the surface tension determination by careful fine tuning of edge detection algorithms.

  1. Surface states in a 3D topological insulator: The role of hexagonal warping and curvature

    SciTech Connect

    Repin, E. V.; Burmistrov, I. S.

    2015-09-15

    We explore a combined effect of hexagonal warping and a finite effective mass on both the tunneling density of electronic surface states and the structure of Landau levels of 3D topological insulators. We find the increasing warping to transform the square-root van Hove singularity into a logarithmic one. For moderate warping, an additional logarithmic singularity and a jump in the tunneling density of surface states appear. By combining the perturbation theory and the WKB approximation, we calculate the Landau levels in the presence of hexagonal warping. We predict that due to the degeneracy removal, the evolution of Landau levels in the magnetic field is drastically modified.

  2. Symmetry plays a key role in the erasing of patterned surface features

    SciTech Connect

    Benzaquen, Michael; Salez, Thomas; Raphaël, Elie; Ilton, Mark; Massa, Michael V.; Fowler, Paul; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2015-08-03

    We report on how the relaxation of patterns prepared on a thin film can be controlled by manipulating the symmetry of the initial shape. The validity of a lubrication theory for the capillary-driven relaxation of surface profiles is verified by atomic force microscopy measurements, performed on films that were patterned using focused laser spike annealing. In particular, we observe that the shape of the surface profile at late times is entirely determined by the initial symmetry of the perturbation, in agreement with the theory. The results have relevance in the dynamical control of topographic perturbations for nanolithography and high density memory storage.

  3. The role of protein kinase C in cell surface signal transduction and tumour promotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizuka, Yasutomi

    1984-04-01

    Protein kinase C has a crucial role in signal transduction for a variety of biologically active substances which activate cellular functions and proliferation. When cells are stimulated, protein kinase C is transiently activated by diacylglycerol which is produced in the membrane during the signal-induced turnover of inositol phospholipids. Tumour-promoting phorbol esters, when intercalated into the cell membrane, may substitute for diacylglycerol and permanently activate protein kinase C. The enzyme probably serves as a receptor for the tumour promoters. Further exploration of the roles of this enzyme may provide clues for understanding the mechanism of cell growth and differentiation.

  4. Role of surface charge in determining the biological effects of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiangqiang; Li, Hongxia; Xia, Qiyue; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The growing potential of quantum dots (QDs) in biomedical applications has provoked the urgent need to thoroughly address their interaction with biological systems. However, only limited studies have been performed to explore the effects of surface charge on the biological behaviors of QDs. In the present study, three commercially available QDs with different surface coatings were used to systematically evaluate the effects of surface charge on the cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and in vivo biodistribution of QDs. Our results demonstrated that charged QDs entered both cancer cells and macrophages more efficiently than neutral ones, while negative QDs internalized mostly. Upon entry into cells, QDs were localized in different subcellular compartments (eg, cytoplasm and lysosomes) depending on the surface charge. Interestingly, inconsistent with the result of internalization, positive QDs but not negative QDs exhibited severe cytotoxicity, which was likely due to their disruption of cell membrane integrity, and production of reactive oxygen species. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that negative and neutral QDs preferentially distributed in the liver and the spleen, whereas positive QDs mainly deposited in the kidney with obvious uptake in the brain. In general, surface charge plays crucial roles in determining the biological interactions of QDs. PMID:26604757

  5. Positive role of surface defects on carbon nanotube cathodes in overpotential and capacity retention of rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shiting; Fan, Wugang; Guo, Xiangxin; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-12-10

    Surface defects on carbon nanotube cathodes have been artificially introduced by bombardment with argon plasma. Their roles in the electrochemical performance of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries have been investigated. In batteries with tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME)- and N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide (PP13TFSI)-based electrolytes, the defects increase the number of nucleation sites for the growth of Li2O2 particles and reduce the size of the formed particles. This leads to increased discharge capacity and reduced cycle overpotential. However, in the former batteries, the hydrophilic surfaces induced by the defects promote carbonate formation, which imposes a deteriorating effect on the cycle performance of the Li-O2 batteries. In contrast, in the latter case, the defective cathodes promote Li2O2 formation without enhancing formation of carbonates on the cathode surfaces, resulting in extended cycle life. This is most probably attributable to the passivation effect on the functional groups of the cathode surfaces imposed by the ionic liquid. These results indicate that defects on carbon surfaces may have a positive effect on the cycle performance of Li-O2 batteries if they are combined with a helpful electrolyte solvent such as PP13TFSI. PMID:25397991

  6. Bidirectional diffusion of ammonium and sodium cations in forward osmosis: role of membrane active layer surface chemistry and charge.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinglin; Boo, Chanhee; Ma, Jun; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-12-16

    Systematic fundamental understanding of mass transport in osmosis-driven membrane processes is important for further development of this emerging technology. In this work, we investigate the role of membrane surface chemistry and charge on bidirectional solute diffusion in forward osmosis (FO). In particular, bidirectional diffusion of ammonium (NH4(+)) and sodium (Na(+)) is examined using FO membranes with different materials and surface charge characteristics. Using an ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) draw solution, we observe dramatically enhanced cation fluxes with sodium chloride feed solution compared to that with deionized water feed solution for thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane. However, the bidirectional diffusion of cations does not change, regardless of the type of feed solution, for cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane. We relate this phenomenon to the membrane fixed surface charge by employing different feed solution pH to foster different protonation conditions for the carboxyl groups on the TFC membrane surface. Membrane surface modification is also carried out with the TFC membrane using ethylenediamine to alter carboxyl groups into amine groups. The modified TFC membrane, with less negatively charged groups, exhibits a significant decrease in the bidirectional diffusion of cations under the same conditions employed with the pristine TFC membrane. Based on our experimental observations, we propose Donnan dialysis as a mechanism responsible for enhanced bidirectional diffusion of cations in TFC membranes.

  7. Bidirectional diffusion of ammonium and sodium cations in forward osmosis: role of membrane active layer surface chemistry and charge.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinglin; Boo, Chanhee; Ma, Jun; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-12-16

    Systematic fundamental understanding of mass transport in osmosis-driven membrane processes is important for further development of this emerging technology. In this work, we investigate the role of membrane surface chemistry and charge on bidirectional solute diffusion in forward osmosis (FO). In particular, bidirectional diffusion of ammonium (NH4(+)) and sodium (Na(+)) is examined using FO membranes with different materials and surface charge characteristics. Using an ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) draw solution, we observe dramatically enhanced cation fluxes with sodium chloride feed solution compared to that with deionized water feed solution for thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane. However, the bidirectional diffusion of cations does not change, regardless of the type of feed solution, for cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane. We relate this phenomenon to the membrane fixed surface charge by employing different feed solution pH to foster different protonation conditions for the carboxyl groups on the TFC membrane surface. Membrane surface modification is also carried out with the TFC membrane using ethylenediamine to alter carboxyl groups into amine groups. The modified TFC membrane, with less negatively charged groups, exhibits a significant decrease in the bidirectional diffusion of cations under the same conditions employed with the pristine TFC membrane. Based on our experimental observations, we propose Donnan dialysis as a mechanism responsible for enhanced bidirectional diffusion of cations in TFC membranes. PMID:25418020

  8. The role of surface charge density in cationic liposome-promoted dendritic cell maturation and vaccine-induced immune responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yifan; Zhuang, Yan; Xie, Xiaofang; Wang, Ce; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Dongmei; Zeng, Jianqiang; Cai, Lintao

    2011-05-01

    Cationic liposomes have emerged as a novel adjuvant and antigen delivery system to enhance vaccine efficacy. However, the role of surface charge density in cationic liposome-regulated immune responses has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we prepared a series of DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposomes with different surface densities by incorporating varying amounts of DOPC (a neutral lipid) into DOTAP (a cationic lipid). The results showed that DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposome-regulated immune responses relied on the surface charge density, and might occur through ROS signaling. The liposomes with a relatively high charge density, such as DOTAP/DOPC 5 : 0 and 4 : 1 liposomes, potently enhanced dendritic cell maturation, ROS generaion, antigen uptake, as well as the production of OVA-specific IgG2a and IFN-γ. In contrast, low-charge liposomes, such as DOTAP/DOPC 1 : 4 liposome, failed to promote immune responses even at high concentrations, confirming that the immunoregulatory effect of cationic liposomes is mostly attributable to their surface charge density. Moreover, the DOTAP/DOPC 1 : 4 liposome suppressed anti-OVA antibody responses in vivo. Overall, maintaining an appropriate surface charge is crucial for optimizing the adjuvant effect of cationic liposomes and enhancing the efficacy of liposome-based vaccines.

  9. Positive role of surface defects on carbon nanotube cathodes in overpotential and capacity retention of rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shiting; Fan, Wugang; Guo, Xiangxin; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-12-10

    Surface defects on carbon nanotube cathodes have been artificially introduced by bombardment with argon plasma. Their roles in the electrochemical performance of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries have been investigated. In batteries with tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME)- and N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethansulfonyl)imide (PP13TFSI)-based electrolytes, the defects increase the number of nucleation sites for the growth of Li2O2 particles and reduce the size of the formed particles. This leads to increased discharge capacity and reduced cycle overpotential. However, in the former batteries, the hydrophilic surfaces induced by the defects promote carbonate formation, which imposes a deteriorating effect on the cycle performance of the Li-O2 batteries. In contrast, in the latter case, the defective cathodes promote Li2O2 formation without enhancing formation of carbonates on the cathode surfaces, resulting in extended cycle life. This is most probably attributable to the passivation effect on the functional groups of the cathode surfaces imposed by the ionic liquid. These results indicate that defects on carbon surfaces may have a positive effect on the cycle performance of Li-O2 batteries if they are combined with a helpful electrolyte solvent such as PP13TFSI.

  10. Critical role of surface roughness on colloid retention and release in porous media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A thorough understanding of colloid transport in porous media is of great importance in many environmental and industrial applications. Extended-DLVO theory was employed to investigate the influence of nanoscale surface roughness (NSR) on the magnitudes of the secondary (F2min) and primary energy (F...

  11. Roles for Cell Wall Glycopeptidolipid in Surface Adherence and Planktonic Dispersal of Mycobacterium avium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium is a significant inhabitant of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems. M. avium expresses on its cell surface serovar-specific glycopeptidolipids (ssGPLs). Studies have implicated the core GPL in biofilm formation by M. aviu...

  12. Role of surface plasmon polaritons and other waves in the radiation of resonant optical dipole antennas.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongwei; Liu, Haitao; Zhong, Ying

    2015-02-13

    The radiation of an electric dipole emitter can be drastically enhanced if the emitter is placed in the nano-gap of a metallic dipole antenna. By assuming that only surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are excited on the antenna, we build up an intuitive pure-SPP model that is able to comprehensively predict the electromagnetic features of the antenna radiation, such as the total or radiative emission rate and the far-field radiation pattern. With the model we can distinguish the respective contributions from SPPs and from other surface waves to the antenna radiation. It is found that for antennas with long arms that support higher-order resonances, SPPs provide a dominant contribution to the antenna radiation, while for other cases, the contribution of surface waves other than SPPs should be considered. The model reveals an intuitive picture that the enhancement of the antenna radiation is due to surface waves that are resonantly excited on the two antenna arms and that are further coupled into the nano-gap or scattered into free space. From the model we can derive a phase-matching condition that predicts the antenna resonance and the resultant enhanced radiation. The model is helpful for a physical understanding and intuitive design of antenna devices.

  13. Adsorption of protein-coated lipid droplets to mixed biopolymer hydrogel surfaces: role of biopolymer diffusion.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Maria; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, D Julian

    2007-12-18

    The adsorption of charged particles to hydrogel surfaces is important in a number of natural and industrial processes. In this study, the adsorption of cationic lipid droplets to the surfaces of anionic hydrogels was examined. An oil-in-water emulsion containing cationic beta-lactoglobulin-coated lipid droplets was prepared (d32=0.24 microm, zeta=+74 mV, pH 3.0). An anionic hydrogel containing 0.1 wt % beet pectin and 1.5 wt % agar (pH 3.0) was prepared. Emulsions containing different lipid droplet concentrations (0.3-5 wt %) were brought into contact with the hydrogel surfaces for different times (0-24 h). The adsorption of lipid droplets to the hydrogel surfaces could not be explained by a typical adsorption isotherm. We found that the electrical charge on the nonadsorbed lipid droplets became less positive or even became negative in the presence of the hydrogel and that extensive droplet aggregation occurred, which was attributed to the ability of pectin molecules to diffuse through the hydrogels and interact with the lipid droplets. These results may have important consequences for understanding certain industrial and biological processes, as well as for the design of controlled or triggered release systems.

  14. The role of deformable structured surfaces on viscous forces during peeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhong, Charles; Frechette, Joelle

    It is known that tree frogs are able to adhere well in flooded environments, presumably due to their interconnected network of drainage channels formed by hexagonal epithelial cells in their toe pads. To investigate this effect, a patterned surface of hexagonally arranged cylindrical posts was brought close to a stationary substrate in a submerged, viscous fluid via a normal load, and then peeled off to measure a retraction force. Because these structured surfaces were made from PDMS, they are able to deform throughout the process. We find that these deformable surfaces further reduce the work required to peel apart the two surfaces, even when compared to previous studies in the same system with rigid structures, and we isolated these contributions independent of conservative forces. We then conducted experiments to compare the effect of deformation on the viscous forces and conservative forces. We find that there are several regimes where deformation either increases or decreases the retraction force since we have found that elasticity decreases retraction forces when considering viscous contributions but is also known to increase adhesion in the context of conservative forces. Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation, Hopkins Extreme Materials Institute.

  15. Role of surface chemistry in modified ACF (activated carbon fiber)-catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shiying; Li, Lei; Xiao, Tuo; Zheng, Di; Zhang, Yitao

    2016-10-01

    A commercial activated carbon fiber (ACF-0) was modified by three different methods: nitration treatment (ACF-N), heat treatment (ACF-H) and heat treatment after nitration (ACF-NH), and the effects of textural and chemical properties on the ability of the metal-free ACF-catalyzed peroxymonosulfate (PMS) oxidation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5), an azo dye being difficultly adsorbed onto ACF, in aqueous solution were investigated in this work. Surface density of functional groups, surface area changes, surface morphology and the chemical state inside ACF samples were characterized by Boehm titration, N2 adsorption, scanning electron microscopy in couple with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. XPS spectra deconvolution was applied to figure out the importance of surface nitrogen-containing function groups. We found that π-π, pyridine and amine have promoting effect on the catalytic oxidation while the -NO2 has inhibitory effect on the ACF/PMS systems for RB5 destroy. Sustainability and renewability of the typical ACF-NH for catalytic oxidation of RB5 were also discussed in detail. Information about our conclusions are useful to control and improve the performance of ACF-catalyzed PMS oxidation for organic pollutants in wastewater treatment.

  16. The role of the surface on microglia function: implications for central nervous system tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Liliana R.; Rocha, Daniela N.; Ambrosio, Luigi; Pêgo, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    In tissue engineering, it is well accepted that a scaffold surface has a decisive impact on cell behaviour. Here we focused on microglia—the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS)—and on their response to poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-ε-caprolactone) (P(TMC-CL)) fibrous and flat surfaces obtained by electrospinning and solvent cast, respectively. This study aims to provide cues for the design of instructive surfaces that can contribute to the challenging process of CNS regeneration. Cell morphology was evidently affected by the substrate, mirroring the surface main features. Cells cultured on flat substrates presented a round shape, while cells with elongated processes were observed on the electrospun fibres. A higher concentration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α was detected in culture media from microglia on fibres. Still, astrogliosis is not exacerbated when astrocytes are cultured in the presence of microglia-conditioned media obtained from cultures in contact with either substrate. Furthermore, a significant percentage of microglia was found to participate in the process of myelin phagocytosis, with the formation of multinucleated giant cells being observed only on films. Altogether, the results presented suggest that microglia in contact with the tested substrates may contribute to the regeneration process, putting forward P(TMC-CL) substrates as supporting matrices for nerve regeneration. PMID:25540243

  17. The role of hydrology in connecting agricultural phosphorus sources to surface water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minimizing the risk of phosphorus (P) loss from land to water represents one of the most important priorities of nutrient management in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Simply put, for P to pose a water quality problem, there must be a source of P that can readily be connected to surface water by hydro...

  18. The role of ovarian surface epithelium in folliculogenesis during fetal development of the bovine ovary: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kenngott, R A M; Vermehren, M; Ebach, K; Sinowatz, F

    2013-01-01

    Although many aspects of ovarian differentiation have been established, comparatively little is known about prenatal follicle formation and differentiation of bovine ovaries. The objective of this investigation was to study the role of the surface epithelium during the development of germ cell nests, germ cell cords and follicle formation in the fetal bovine ovary. Associated important proliferation and apoptotic features were further investigated. Additionally, the expression pattern of the S100 protein was detected. A strong increase of mitotic figures was detected in the surface epithelium, germ cell nests and germ cell cords of ovaries with a crown-rump length (CRL) of 13.0-58.0 cm. Oocytes were positively stained with S100 in bovine ovaries from fetuses with a CRL of 21.0 cm. The staining intensity enhanced parallel to increasing oocyte and follicle sizes during the ovary development. In later stages, a strong staining for S100 was observed in healthy oocytes in contradistinction to atretic oocytes where no expression of the S100 protein could be found. In conclusion, increasing mitosis index of surface epithelium cells, as well as oogonia directly beneath the surface epithelium, in combination with open surface connection during stages from a CRL of 11.0-94.0 cm of bovine fetal ovaries could play an important role in the period of time of ongoing folliculogenesis and derivation of granulosa cells. Additionally, S100-positive oocytes in primordial and later follicle stages joined by a high rate of Ki67-positive index in surrounding granulosa cells indicate that in the oocytes the S100 protein can perhaps be a useful marker for intact oocytes in bovine ovaries.

  19. Adhesion of phospholipid vesicles to Chinese hamster fibroblasts: Role of cell surface proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, RE; Takeichi, M

    1977-01-01

    The adhesion of artificially generated lipid membrane vesicles to Chinese hamster V79 fibroblasts in suspension was used as a model system for studying membrane interactions. Below their gel-liquid crystalline phase transition temperature, vesicles comprised of dipalmitoyl lecithin (DPL) or dimyristoyl lecithin (DML) absorbed to the surfaces of EDTA- dissociated cells. These adherent vesicles could not be removed by repeated washings of the treated cells but could be released into the medium by treatment with trypsin. EM autoradiographic studies of cells treated with[(3)H]DML or [(3)H]DPL vesicles showed that most of the radioactive lipids were confined to the cell periphery. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy further confirmed the presence of adherent vesicles at the cell surface. Adhesion of DML or DPL vesicles to EDTA-dissociated cells modified the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination pattern of the cell surface proteins; the inhibition of labeling of two proteins with an approximately 60,000- dalton mol wt was particularly evident. Incubation of cells wit h (3)H-lipid vesicles followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that some of the (3)H-lipid migrated preferentially with these approximately 60,000-mol wt proteins. Studies of the temperature dependence of vesicle uptake and subsequent release by trypsin showed that DML or DPL vesicle adhesion to EDTA- dissociated cells increased with decreasing temperatures. In contrast, cells trypsinized before incubation with vesicles showed practically no temperature dependence of vesicle uptake. These results suggest two pathways for adhesion of lipid vesicles to the cell surface-a temperature-sensitive one involving cell surface proteins, and a temperature-independent one. These findings are discussed in terms of current models for cell-cell interactions. PMID:407233

  20. A Magellanic origin of the DES dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jethwa, P.; Erkal, D.; Belokurov, V.

    2016-09-01

    We establish the connection between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) and the dwarf galaxy candidates discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) by building a dynamical model of the MC satellite populations, based on an extensive suite of tailor-made numerical simulations. Our model takes into account the response of the Galaxy to the MCs infall, the dynamical friction experienced by the MCs and the disruption of the MC satellites by their hosts. The simulation suite samples over the uncertainties in the MC's proper motions, the masses of the MW and the Clouds themselves, and allows for flexibility in the intrinsic volume density distribution of the MC satellites. As a result, we can accurately reproduce the DES satellites' observed positions and kinematics. Assuming that Milky Way (MW) dwarfs follow the distribution of sub-haloes in Λ cold dark matter, we further demonstrate that, of 14 observed satellites, the MW halo contributes fewer than 4(8) of these with 68(95) per cent confidence and that 7(12) DES dwarfs have probabilities greater than 0.7(0.5) of belonging to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Marginalizing over the entire suite, we constrain the number of Magellanic satellites in the range -7 < MV < -1 which exceed the DES surface brightness threshold at ˜70, and the mass of the LMC around 1011 M⊙. The data also strongly support a first-infall scenario for the LMC. Finally, we give predictions for the line-of-sight velocities and the proper motions of the satellites discovered in the vicinity of the LMC.

  1. Quantifying the role of forest soil and bedrock in the acid neutralization of surface water in steep hillslopes.

    PubMed

    Asano, Yuko; Uchida, Taro

    2005-02-01

    The role of soil and bedrock in acid neutralizing processes has been difficult to quantify because of hydrological and biogeochemical uncertainties. To quantify those roles, hydrochemical observations were conducted at two hydrologically well-defined, steep granitic hillslopes in the Tanakami Mountains of Japan. These paired hillslopes are similar except for their soils; Fudoji is leached of base cations (base saturation <6%), while Rachidani is covered with fresh soil (base saturation >30%), because the erosion rate is 100-1000 times greater. The results showed that (1) soil solution pH at the soil-bedrock interface at Fudoji (4.3) was significantly lower than that of Rachidani (5.5), (2) the hillslope discharge pH in both hillslopes was similar (6.7-6.8), and (3) at Fudoji, 60% of the base cations leaching from the hillslope were derived from bedrock, whereas only 20% were derived from bedrock in Rachidani. Further, previously published results showed that the stream pH could not be predicted from the acid deposition rate and soil base saturation status. These results demonstrate that bedrock plays an especially important role when the overlying soil has been leached of base cations. These results indicate that while the status of soil acidification is a first-order control on vulnerability to surface water acidification, in some cases such as at Fudoji, subsurface interaction with the bedrock determines the sensitivity of surface water to acidic deposition.

  2. Springtime high surface ozone events over the western United States: Quantifying the role of stratospheric intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, A. M.; Lin, M.; Cooper, O. R.; Horowitz, L. W.; Naik, V.; Levy, H.; Langford, A. O.; Johnson, B. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Senff, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    As the National Ambient Air Quality (NAAQS) standard for ozone (O_{3}) is lowered, it pushes closer to policy-relevant background levels (O_{3} concentrations that would exist in the absence of North American anthropogenic emissions), making attainment more difficult with local controls. We quantify the Asian and stratospheric components of this North American background, with a primary focus on the western United States. Prior work has identified this region as a hotspot for deep stratospheric intrusions in spring. We conduct global simulations at 200 km and 50 km horizontal resolution with the GFDL AM3 model, including a stratospheric O_{3} tracer and two sensitivity simulations with anthropogenic emissions from Asia and North America turned off. The model is evaluated with a suite of in situ and satellite measurements during the NOAA CalNex campaign (May-June 2010). The model reproduces the principle features in the observed surface to near tropopause distribution of O_{3} along the California coast, including its latitudinal variation and the development of regional high-O_{3} episodes. Four deep tropopause folds are diagnosed and we find that the remnants of these stratospheric intrusions are transported to the surface of Southern California and Western U.S. Rocky Mountains, contributing 10-30 ppbv positive anomalies relative to the simulated campaign mean stratospheric component in the model surface layer. We further examine the contribution of North American background, including its stratospheric and Asian components, to the entire distribution of observed MDA8 O_{3} at 12 high-elevation CASTNet sites in the Mountain West. We find that the stratospheric O_{3} tracer constitutes 50% of the North American background, and can enhance surface maximum daily 8-hour average (MDA8) O_{3} by 20 ppb when observed surface O_{3} is in the range of 60-80 ppbv. Our analysis highlights the potential for natural sources such as deep stratospheric intrusions to contribute

  3. Delineation of flooding within the upper Mississippi River Basin-flood of June 18 through August 4, 1993, in Des Moines and vicinity, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaap, Bryan D.

    1996-01-01

    This hydrologic investigations atlas shows the areas in and near Des Moines, Iowa, that were flooded by the Des Moines and the Raccoon Rivers and Walnut, Fourmile, and Beaver Creeks from June 18 through August 4, 1993. This map also depicts the Federal Emergency Management Agency 100-year flood boundaries. The area drained by the Des Moines River upstream from Des Moines received more than 100 percent of normal rainfall in May, June, and July, 1993. At Boone, which is located about 35 miles north-northeast of Des Moines, July rainfall was 424 percent of normal. The discharges at streamflow- gaging stations on the Des Moines River near Stratford, downstream from Saylorville Lake, and at Des Moines are shown. The cumulative discharge for inflow-gaging stations in the Des Moines area and discharge for the Des Moines River below the Raccoon River at Des Moines from July 8 through 21, 1993, are shown. The water-surface elevations of Saylorville Lake from June 18 through August 4, 1993, are shown. Profiles of the maximum water- surface elevations of the Des Moines and Raccoon Rivers during the 1993 flood in Des Moines and vicinity are higher than the respective Federal Emergency Management Agency 100- and 500-year flood profiles.

  4. Chemisorption of biomolecules on a metal surface and its role in anomalously intensive Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabiev, I. R.; Chumanov, G. D.; Manykin, É. A.

    1985-03-01

    Amino acids and their derivatives are used as an example to study the mechanism of enhancement of the Raman spectra of molecules adsorbed on silver hydrosols. It is shown that adsorption occurs as a result of unshared electron pairs of nitrogen and oxygen atoms in amino and carboxyl groups, as well as a result of the formation of π-electron bonds between aromatic rings and adsorption centers on the surface of the metal. It is shown that only the groups of atoms in direct contact with the metal undergo enhancement, i.e., the enhancement mechanism is local in character. A model of the bonding of amino acids with the metal surface is presented.

  5. Chemisorption of biomolecules on a metal surface and its role in anomalously intensive Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Nabiev, I.R.; Chumanov, G.D.; Manykin, E.A.

    1985-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of amino acids and their derivatives as an example to study the mechanism of enhancement of the Raman spectra of molecules adsorbed on silver hydrosols. It is shown that adsorption occurs as the result of unshared electron pairs of nitrogen and oxygen atoms in amino and carboxyl groups, as well as a result of the formation of pi-electron bonds between aromatic rings and adsorption centers on the surface of the metal. It is shown that only the groups of atoms in direct contact with the metal undergo enhancement; i.e., the enhancement mechanism is local in character. A model of the bonding of amino acids with the metal surface is presented.

  6. The role of surface modification for TiO2 nanoparticles in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Pan, Xiaobo; Wang, Mengyan; Ma, Jiong; Fei, Yiyan; Wang, Pei-Nan; Mi, Lan

    2016-07-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have a potential in the field of biological application. However, its poor dispersibility in water hampered its applications. In this study, 3-phosphonopropionic acid and 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane were respectively used for surface modification on TiO2 NPs with negative and positive surface charges (denoted as TiO2-COOH and TiO2-NH2). Zeta potentials of the prepared samples with high absolute value demonstrate the great improvement in their dispersibility. In terms of viability experiment, both TiO2-COOH and TiO2-NH2 showed low cytotoxicity. The cellular uptake efficiency and the uptake pathways of TiO2-COOH and TiO2-NH2 for cancer cells were studied. The exocytosis of TiO2-NH2 was also observed in the experiment. PMID:27003465

  7. The role of hydrogen in room-temperature ferromagnetism at graphite surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ohldag, H.; Esquinazi, P.; Arenholz, E.; Spemann, D.; Rothermel, M.; Setzer, A.; Butz, T.

    2010-05-01

    We present a x-ray dichroism study of graphite surfaces that addresses the origin and magnitude of ferromagnetism in metal-free carbon. We find that, in addition to carbon {pi} states, also hydrogen-mediated electronic states exhibit a net spin polarization with significant magnetic remanence at room temperature. The observed magnetism is restricted to the top {approx}10 nm of the irradiated sample where the average magnetization reaches {approx_equal} 15 emu/g at room temperature. We prove that the ferromagnetism found in metal-free untreated graphite is intrinsic and has a similar origin as the one found in proton bombarded graphite. Also, our findings show that the magnetic properties of graphite surfaces, thin films or two dimensional graphene samples can be reliably studied using soft x-ray dichroism. Fundamental new insight into the magnetic properties of carbon based systems can thus be obtained.

  8. Reduction of Water/Oil Interfacial Tension by Model Asphaltenes: The Governing Role of Surface Concentration.

    PubMed

    Jian, Cuiying; Poopari, Mohammad Reza; Liu, Qingxia; Zerpa, Nestor; Zeng, Hongbo; Tang, Tian

    2016-06-30

    In this work, pendant drop techniques and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed to investigate the effect of asphaltene concentrations on the interfacial tension (IFT) of the oil/water interface. Here, oil and asphaltene were represented by, respectively, common organic solvents and Violanthrone-79, and two types of concentration, i.e., bulk concentration and surface concentration, were examined. Correlations between the IFTs from experiments and MD simulations revealed that surface concentration, rather than the commonly used bulk concentration, determines the reduction of oil/water IFTs. Through analyzing the hydrogen bonding, the underlying mechanism for the IFT reduction was proposed. Our discussions here not only enable the direct comparison between experiments and MD simulations on the IFTs but also help with future interfacial studies using combined experimental and simulation approaches. The methodologies used in this work can be extended to many other oil/water interfaces in the presence of interfacially active compounds. PMID:27268710

  9. On the role of terahertz field acceleration and beaming of surface plasmon generated ultrashort electron pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Greig, S. R. Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2014-07-28

    A mechanism for control of the energy and pitch angle of surface plasmon accelerated electron pulses is proposed. Electrons generated via multi-photon absorption in a silver film on a glass prism are ponderomotively accelerated in the surface plasmon field excited by a 30 fs, 800 nm optical pulse. Through introduction of a single-cycle terahertz (THz) pulse, the energy spectrum and trajectory of the generated electron pulse can be controlled via the THz field strength. Generated electron pulses achieve peak kinetic energies up to 1.56 keV, while utilizing an incident optical field strength five times less than comparable plasmon accelerated electron pulses. These results demonstrate that THz pulses can be utilized to achieve tunable, high energy, trajectory controlled electron pulses necessary for various applications that require ultrafast electron pulse manipulation.

  10. Reduction of Water/Oil Interfacial Tension by Model Asphaltenes: The Governing Role of Surface Concentration.

    PubMed

    Jian, Cuiying; Poopari, Mohammad Reza; Liu, Qingxia; Zerpa, Nestor; Zeng, Hongbo; Tang, Tian

    2016-06-30

    In this work, pendant drop techniques and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed to investigate the effect of asphaltene concentrations on the interfacial tension (IFT) of the oil/water interface. Here, oil and asphaltene were represented by, respectively, common organic solvents and Violanthrone-79, and two types of concentration, i.e., bulk concentration and surface concentration, were examined. Correlations between the IFTs from experiments and MD simulations revealed that surface concentration, rather than the commonly used bulk concentration, determines the reduction of oil/water IFTs. Through analyzing the hydrogen bonding, the underlying mechanism for the IFT reduction was proposed. Our discussions here not only enable the direct comparison between experiments and MD simulations on the IFTs but also help with future interfacial studies using combined experimental and simulation approaches. The methodologies used in this work can be extended to many other oil/water interfaces in the presence of interfacially active compounds.

  11. The Role of Hierarchy in Response Surface Modeling of Wind Tunnel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLoach, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper is intended as a tutorial introduction to certain aspects of response surface modeling, for the experimentalist who has started to explore these methods as a means of improving productivity and quality in wind tunnel testing and other aerospace applications. A brief review of the productivity advantages of response surface modeling in aerospace research is followed by a description of the advantages of a common coding scheme that scales and centers independent variables. The benefits of model term reduction are reviewed. A constraint on model term reduction with coded factors is described in some detail, which requires such models to be well-formulated, or hierarchical. Examples illustrate the consequences of ignoring this constraint. The implication for automated regression model reduction procedures is discussed, and some opinions formed from the author s experience are offered on coding, model reduction, and hierarchy.

  12. The role of soil surface crusting in desertification and strategies to reduce crusting.

    PubMed

    Fox, D M; Bryan, R B; Price, A G

    2004-12-01

    Soil crusting decreases infiltration, increases erosion, and impedes vegetation establishment, so reducing the impact of crusting is of major importance in combating desertification. Although surface crusting has been the subject of considerable research over the past 50 years or more, the practical management of soil crusts remains a challenge for many dryland communities. Crusting occurs in two steps, an initial aggregate breakdown period that occurs under rainfall and a subsequent hardening phase during drying. Several factors influence crust development, but the single most important one is soil aggregate stability. Strategies to reduce crusting can be based either on protecting the surface from raindrop impact or improving aggregate stability, or a combination of both. However, crust control is labor and/or capital intensive and must be thought out clearly in terms of the benefits to be achieved.

  13. The Eco-Hydrological Role of Physical Surface Sealing in Dry Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sela, Shai; Svoray, Tal; Assouline, Shmuel

    2016-04-01

    Soil surface sealing is a widespread natural process in dry environments occurring frequently in bare soil areas between vegetation patches. The low hydraulic conductivity that characterizes the seal layer reduces both infiltration and evaporation fluxes from the soil, and thus has the potential to affect local vegetation water availability and consequently transpiration rates. This effect is investigated here using two separate physically based models - a runoff model, and a root water uptake model. High resolution rainfall data is used to demonstrate the seal layer effect on runoff generation and vegetation water availability, while the seal layer effect on vegetation water uptake is studied using a long-term climatic dataset (44 years) from three dry sites presenting a climatic gradient in the Negev Desert, Israel. The Feddes water uptake parameters for the dominant shrub at the study site (Sarcopoterium spinosum) were acquired using an inverse calibration procedure using data from a lysimeter experiment. The results indicate that the presence of surface sealing increases significantly vegetation water availability through runoff generation. Following water infiltration, the shrub transpiration generally increases if the shrub is surrounded by a seal layer, but this effect can switch from positive to negative depending on initial soil water content, rainfall intensity, and the duration of the subsequent drying intervals. These factors have a marked effect on inter-annual variability of the seal layer effect on the shrub transpiration, which on average was found to be 26% higher under sealed conditions than in the case of unsealed soil surfaces. These results shed light on the importance of surface sealing on the eco-hydrology of dry environments and its contribution to the resilience of woody vegetation.

  14. Biomaterial design for specific cellular interactions: Role of surface functionalization and geometric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolhar, Poornima

    The areas of drug delivery and tissue engineering have experienced extraordinary growth in recent years with the application of engineering principles and their potential to support and improve the field of medicine. The tremendous progress in nanotechnology and biotechnology has lead to this explosion of research and development in biomedical applications. Biomaterials can now be engineered at a nanoscale and their specific interactions with the biological tissues can be modulated. Various design parameters are being established and researched for design of drug-delivery carriers and scaffolds to be implanted into humans. Nanoparticles made from versatile biomaterial can deliver both small-molecule drugs and various classes of bio-macromolecules, such as proteins and oligonucleotides. Similarly in the field of tissue engineering, current approaches emphasize nanoscale control of cell behavior by mimicking the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) unlike, traditional scaffolds. Drug delivery and tissue engineering are closely connected fields and both of these applications require materials with exceptional physical, chemical, biological, and biomechanical properties to provide superior therapy. In the current study the surface functionalization and the geometric features of the biomaterials has been explored. In particular, a synthetic surface for culture of human embryonic stem cells has been developed, demonstrating the importance of surface functionalization in maintaining the pluripotency of hESCs. In the second study, the geometric features of the drug delivery carriers are investigated and the polymeric nanoneedles mediated cellular permeabilization and direct cytoplasmic delivery is reported. In the third study, the combined effect of surface functionalization and geometric modification of carriers for vascular targeting is enunciated. These studies illustrate how the biomaterials can be designed to achieve various cellular behaviors and control the

  15. Unravelling the surface chemistry of metal oxide nanocrystals, the role of acids and bases.

    PubMed

    De Roo, Jonathan; Van den Broeck, Freya; De Keukeleere, Katrien; Martins, José C; Van Driessche, Isabel; Hens, Zeger

    2014-07-01

    We synthesized HfO2 nanocrystals from HfCl4 using a surfactant-free solvothermal process in benzyl alcohol and found that the resulting nanocrystals could be transferred to nonpolar media using a mixture of carboxylic acids and amines. Using solution (1)H NMR, FTIR, and elemental analysis, we studied the details of the transfer reaction and the surface chemistry of the resulting sterically stabilized nanocrystals. As-synthesized nanocrystals are charge-stabilized by protons, with chloride acting as the counterion. Treatment with only carboxylic acids does not lead to any binding of ligands to the HfO2 surface. On the other hand, we find that the addition of amines provides the basic environment in which carboxylic acids can dissociate and replace chloride. This results in stable, aggregate-free dispersions of HfO2 nanocrystals, sterically stabilized by carboxylate ligands. Moreover, titrations with deuterated carboxylic acid show that the charge on the carboxylate ligands is balanced by coadsorbed protons. Hence, opposite from the X-type/nonstoichiometric nanocrystals picture prevailing in literature, one should look at HfO2/carboxylate nanocrystals as systems where carboxylic acids are dissociatively adsorbed to bind to the nanocrystals. Similar results were obtained with ZrO2 NCs. Since proton accommodation on the surface is most likely due to the high Brønsted basicity of oxygen, our model could be a more general picture for the surface chemistry of metal oxide nanocrystals with important consequences on the chemistry of ligand exchange reactions.

  16. Structure of Est3 reveals a bimodal surface with differential roles in telomere replication

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Timsi; Lubin, Johnathan W.; Armstrong, Geoffrey S.; Tucey, Timothy M.; Lundblad, Victoria; Wuttke, Deborah S.

    2014-01-01

    Telomerase is essential for continuous cellular proliferation. Substantial insights have come from studies of budding yeast telomerase, which consists of a catalytic core in association with two regulatory proteins, ever shorter telomeres 1 and 3 (Est1 and Est3). We report here a high-resolution structure of the Est3 telomerase subunit determined using a recently developed strategy that combines minimal NMR experimental data with Rosetta de novo structure prediction algorithms. Est3 adopts an overall protein fold which is structurally similar to that adopted by the shelterin component TPP1. However, the characteristics of the surface of the experimentally determined Est3 structure are substantially different from those predicted by prior homology-based models of Est3. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the complete surface of the Est3 protein reveals two adjacent patches on a noncanonical face of the protein that differentially mediate telomere function. Mapping these two patches on the Est3 structure defines a set of shared features between Est3 and HsTPP1, suggesting an analogous multifunctional surface on TPP1. PMID:24344315

  17. Structure of Est3 reveals a bimodal surface with differential roles in telomere replication.

    PubMed

    Rao, Timsi; Lubin, Johnathan W; Armstrong, Geoffrey S; Tucey, Timothy M; Lundblad, Victoria; Wuttke, Deborah S

    2014-01-01

    Telomerase is essential for continuous cellular proliferation. Substantial insights have come from studies of budding yeast telomerase, which consists of a catalytic core in association with two regulatory proteins, ever shorter telomeres 1 and 3 (Est1 and Est3). We report here a high-resolution structure of the Est3 telomerase subunit determined using a recently developed strategy that combines minimal NMR experimental data with Rosetta de novo structure prediction algorithms. Est3 adopts an overall protein fold which is structurally similar to that adopted by the shelterin component TPP1. However, the characteristics of the surface of the experimentally determined Est3 structure are substantially different from those predicted by prior homology-based models of Est3. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the complete surface of the Est3 protein reveals two adjacent patches on a noncanonical face of the protein that differentially mediate telomere function. Mapping these two patches on the Est3 structure defines a set of shared features between Est3 and HsTPP1, suggesting an analogous multifunctional surface on TPP1.

  18. The role of willow-birch forest in the surface energy balance at arctic treeline

    SciTech Connect

    Blanken, P.D. ); Rouse, W.R. )

    1994-11-01

    Continuous measurements of the energy balance components were made during the 1991 growing season over a willow-birch forest located near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. On the basis of measurements of leaf area index, the growing season was divided into three distinct periods: growth, mature, and senescence. Changes in surface albedo were strongly correlated with changing leaf area index during the growth period with albedo increasing as leaf area increased. The latent heat flux density, Q[sub E], represented 74% of net radiation during the mature period compared to 55 and 54% during the growth and senescence periods, respectively. The greater Q[sub E] at plant maturity is due primarily to canopy transpiration. The sensitivity of Q[sub E] to net radiation was largest during the growth period. In contrast, the sensitivity of Q[sub E] to the surface resistance and aerodynamic resistance was the largest during the mature period. The implications of climate variability on the timing of leaf development and the surface energy and water balance are discussed. 28 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Untangling the biological effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles: the role of surface valence states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido-Reyes, Gerardo; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Das, Soumen; Sakthivel, Tamil Selvan; Leganes, Francisco; Rosal, Roberto; Seal, Sudipta; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca

    2015-10-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria; CNPs) have been found to have both pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant effects on different cell systems or organisms. In order to untangle the mechanisms which underlie the biological activity of nanoceria, we have studied the effect of five different CNPs on a model relevant aquatic microorganism. Neither shape, concentration, synthesis method, surface charge (ζ-potential), nor nominal size had any influence in the observed biological activity. The main driver of toxicity was found to be the percentage of surface content of Ce3+ sites: CNP1 (58%) and CNP5 (40%) were found to be toxic whereas CNP2 (28%), CNP3 (36%) and CNP4 (26%) were found to be non-toxic. The colloidal stability and redox chemistry of the most and least toxic CNPs, CNP1 and CNP2, respectively, were modified by incubation with iron and phosphate buffers. Blocking surface Ce3+ sites of the most toxic CNP, CNP1, with phosphate treatment reverted toxicity and stimulated growth. Colloidal destabilization with Fe treatment only increased toxicity of CNP1. The results of this study are relevant in the understanding of the main drivers of biological activity of nanoceria and to define global descriptors of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) bioactivity which may be useful in safer-by-design strategies of nanomaterials.

  20. Tuning surface reactivity by finite size effects: role of orbital symmetry in the d - band model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snijders, Paul; Yin, Xiangshi; Cooper, Valentino; Weitering, Hanno

    Catalytic activity depends sensitively on the strength of the interactions between reactant molecules and catalyst surface: too weak and the catalyst cannot capture enough molecules to react; too strong and the reaction products do not desorb, blocking further reactions. The ability to control the binding strength of molecules to metal surfaces is thus fundamental to the design of efficient and selective catalysts. Catalyst design often relies on increasing the interaction strength on relatively non-reactive materials by introducing active sites. Here, we present a complementary approach: we exploit finite size effects in the electronic structure of ultrathin Pd(111) films grown on Ru(0001) to tune their reactivity by changing the film thickness one atom layer at a time. While bulk Pd(111) is reactive toward oxygen, we find that Pd films thinner than 6 atom layers are surprisingly inert to oxidation. This observation can be explained with the d-band model only when it is applied to the orbitals directly involved in the bonding. The insight into orbital specific contributions to surface reactivity could be useful in the design of catalysts. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  1. Untangling the biological effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles: the role of surface valence states

    PubMed Central

    Pulido-Reyes, Gerardo; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Das, Soumen; Sakthivel, Tamil Selvan; Leganes, Francisco; Rosal, Roberto; Seal, Sudipta; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria; CNPs) have been found to have both pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant effects on different cell systems or organisms. In order to untangle the mechanisms which underlie the biological activity of nanoceria, we have studied the effect of five different CNPs on a model relevant aquatic microorganism. Neither shape, concentration, synthesis method, surface charge (ζ-potential), nor nominal size had any influence in the observed biological activity. The main driver of toxicity was found to be the percentage of surface content of Ce3+ sites: CNP1 (58%) and CNP5 (40%) were found to be toxic whereas CNP2 (28%), CNP3 (36%) and CNP4 (26%) were found to be non-toxic. The colloidal stability and redox chemistry of the most and least toxic CNPs, CNP1 and CNP2, respectively, were modified by incubation with iron and phosphate buffers. Blocking surface Ce3+ sites of the most toxic CNP, CNP1, with phosphate treatment reverted toxicity and stimulated growth. Colloidal destabilization with Fe treatment only increased toxicity of CNP1. The results of this study are relevant in the understanding of the main drivers of biological activity of nanoceria and to define global descriptors of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) bioactivity which may be useful in safer-by-design strategies of nanomaterials. PMID:26489858

  2. Computational analysis of microbubble flows in bifurcating airways: role of gravity, inertia, and surface tension.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaodong; Zielinski, Rachel; Ghadiali, Samir N

    2014-10-01

    Although mechanical ventilation is a life-saving therapy for patients with severe lung disorders, the microbubble flows generated during ventilation generate hydrodynamic stresses, including pressure and shear stress gradients, which damage the pulmonary epithelium. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics to investigate how gravity, inertia, and surface tension influence both microbubble flow patterns in bifurcating airways and the magnitude/distribution of hydrodynamic stresses on the airway wall. Direct interface tracking and finite element techniques were used to simulate bubble propagation in a two-dimensional (2D) liquid-filled bifurcating airway. Computational solutions of the full incompressible Navier-Stokes equation were used to investigate how inertia, gravity, and surface tension forces as characterized by the Reynolds (Re), Bond (Bo), and Capillary (Ca) numbers influence pressure and shear stress gradients at the airway wall. Gravity had a significant impact on flow patterns and hydrodynamic stress magnitudes where Bo > 1 led to dramatic changes in bubble shape and increased pressure and shear stress gradients in the upper daughter airway. Interestingly, increased pressure gradients near the bifurcation point (i.e., carina) were only elevated during asymmetric bubble splitting. Although changes in pressure gradient magnitudes were generally more sensitive to Ca, under large Re conditions, both Re and Ca significantly altered the pressure gradient magnitude. We conclude that inertia, gravity, and surface tension can all have a significant impact on microbubble flow patterns and hydrodynamic stresses in bifurcating airways.

  3. Soil surface acidity plays a determining role in the atmospheric-terrestrial exchange of nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Melissa A; Bish, David L; Raff, Jonathan D

    2014-12-30

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important hydroxyl (OH) radical source that is formed on both ground and aerosol surfaces in the well-mixed boundary layer. Recent studies report the release of HONO from nonacidic soils, although it is unclear how soil that is more basic than the pKa of HONO (∼ 3) is capable of protonating soil nitrite to serve as an atmospheric HONO source. Here, we used a coated-wall flow tube and chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) to study the pH dependence of HONO uptake onto agricultural soil and model substrates under atmospherically relevant conditions (1 atm and 30% relative humidity). Experiments measuring the evolution of HONO from pH-adjusted surfaces treated with nitrite and potentiometric titrations of the substrates show, to our knowledge for the first time, that surface acidity rather than bulk aqueous pH determines HONO uptake and desorption efficiency on soil, in a process controlled by amphoteric aluminum and iron (hydr)oxides present. The results have important implications for predicting when soil nitrite, whether microbially derived or atmospherically deposited, will act as a net source or sink of atmospheric HONO. This process represents an unrecognized mechanism of HONO release from soil that will contribute to HONO emissions throughout the day.

  4. On the role of surface charges for homogeneous freezing of supercooled water microdroplets.

    PubMed

    Rzesanke, Daniel; Nadolny, Jens; Duft, Denis; Müller, René; Kiselev, Alexei; Leisner, Thomas

    2012-07-14

    Charge induced changes in homogeneous freezing rates of water have been proposed to constitute a possible link between the global atmospheric electric circuit and cloud microphysics and thus climate. We report here on high precision measurements of the homogeneous nucleation rate of charged, electro-dynamically levitated single water droplets as a function of their surface charge. No evidence has been found that the homogeneous volume specific ice nucleation rate of supercooled microdroplets is influenced by surface charges in the range between +/-200 elementary charges per μm(2). It has also been suggested that filamentation in highly electrified liquids can induce freezing at temperatures well above the homogeneous freezing limit. We report here the observation of Coulomb instabilities of highly charged droplets that are accompanied with the formation and ejection of fine filaments from the liquid supercooled droplets. Down to temperatures of 240 K, which is close to the homogeneous freezing limit of uncharged water, no filamentation induced freezing has been detected. At even lower temperatures, the droplets froze before the instability was reached. These findings rule out that filamentation exerts an important influence on ice formation in supercooled water. Combining these findings, we conclude that the surface charges (even at their maximum possible density) have no significant effect on the homogeneous ice nucleation rate of supercooled cloud droplets. PMID:22294097

  5. Untangling the biological effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles: the role of surface valence states.

    PubMed

    Pulido-Reyes, Gerardo; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Das, Soumen; Sakthivel, Tamil Selvan; Leganes, Francisco; Rosal, Roberto; Seal, Sudipta; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria; CNPs) have been found to have both pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant effects on different cell systems or organisms. In order to untangle the mechanisms which underlie the biological activity of nanoceria, we have studied the effect of five different CNPs on a model relevant aquatic microorganism. Neither shape, concentration, synthesis method, surface charge (ζ-potential), nor nominal size had any influence in the observed biological activity. The main driver of toxicity was found to be the percentage of surface content of Ce(3+) sites: CNP1 (58%) and CNP5 (40%) were found to be toxic whereas CNP2 (28%), CNP3 (36%) and CNP4 (26%) were found to be non-toxic. The colloidal stability and redox chemistry of the most and least toxic CNPs, CNP1 and CNP2, respectively, were modified by incubation with iron and phosphate buffers. Blocking surface Ce(3+) sites of the most toxic CNP, CNP1, with phosphate treatment reverted toxicity and stimulated growth. Colloidal destabilization with Fe treatment only increased toxicity of CNP1. The results of this study are relevant in the understanding of the main drivers of biological activity of nanoceria and to define global descriptors of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) bioactivity which may be useful in safer-by-design strategies of nanomaterials.

  6. Role of Resonances in the Transmission of Surface Plasmon Polaritons between Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Johns, Paul; Yu, Kuai; Devadas, Mary Sajini; Hartland, Gregory V

    2016-03-22

    Understanding how surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagate in metal nanostructures is important for the development of plasmonic devices. In this paper, we study the transmission of SPPs between single-crystal gold nanobars on a glass substrate using transient absorption microscopy. The coupled structures were produced by creating gaps in single nanobars by focused ion beam milling. SPPs were launched by focusing the pump laser at the end of the nanobar, and the transmission across the gaps was imaged by scanning the probe laser over the nanostructure. The results show larger losses at small gap sizes. Finite element method calculations were used to investigate this effect. The calculations show two main modes for nanobars on a glass surface: a leaky mode localized at the air-gold interface, and a bound mode localized at the glass-gold interface. At specific gap sizes (approximately 50 nm for our system), these SPP modes can excite localized surface plasmon modes associated with the gap, which dissipate energy. This increases the energy losses at small gap sizes. Experiments and simulations were also performed for the nanobars in microscope immersion oil, which creates a more homogeneous optical environment, and consistent results were observed. PMID:26866536

  7. The role of beaded activated carbon's surface oxygen groups on irreversible adsorption of organic vapors.

    PubMed

    Jahandar Lashaki, Masoud; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher; Phillips, John H; Anderson, James E; Nichols, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of surface oxygen groups to irreversible adsorption (aka heel formation) during cyclic adsorption/regeneration of organic vapors commonly found in industrial systems, including vehicle-painting operations. For this purpose, three chemically modified activated carbon samples, including two oxygen-deficient (hydrogen-treated and heat-treated) and one oxygen-rich sample (nitric acid-treated) were prepared. The samples were tested for 5 adsorption/regeneration cycles using a mixture of nine organic compounds. For the different samples, mass balance cumulative heel was 14 and 20% higher for oxygen functionalized and hydrogen-treated samples, respectively, relative to heat-treated sample. Thermal analysis results showed heel formation due to physisorption for the oxygen-deficient samples, and weakened physisorption combined with chemisorption for the oxygen-rich sample. Chemisorption was attributed to consumption of surface oxygen groups by adsorbed species, resulting in formation of high boiling point oxidation byproducts or bonding between the adsorbates and the surface groups. Pore size distributions indicated that different pore sizes contributed to heel formation - narrow micropores (<7Å) in the oxygen-deficient samples and midsize micropores (7-12Å) in the oxygen-rich sample. The results from this study help explain the heel formation mechanism and how it relates to chemically tailored adsorbent materials. PMID:27295065

  8. Developmental prosopagnosia and super-recognition: no special role for surface reflectance processing

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Richard; Chatterjee, Garga; Nakayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Face recognition by normal subjects depends in roughly equal proportions on shape and surface reflectance cues, while object recognition depends predominantly on shape cues. It is possible that developmental prosopagnosics are deficient not in their ability to recognize faces per se, but rather in their ability to use reflectance cues. Similarly, super-recognizers’ exceptional ability with face recognition may be a result of superior surface reflectance perception and memory. We tested this possibility by administering tests of face perception and face recognition in which only shape or reflectance cues are available to developmental prosopagnosics, super-recognizers, and control subjects. Face recognition ability and the relative use of shape and pigmentation were unrelated in all the tests. Subjects who were better at using shape or reflectance cues were also better at using the other type of cue. These results do not support the proposal that variation in surface reflectance perception ability is the underlying cause of variation in face recognition ability. Instead, these findings support the idea that face recognition ability is related to neural circuits using representations that integrate shape and pigmentation information. PMID:22192636

  9. Self-assembly of decoupled borazines on metal surfaces: the role of the peripheral groups.

    PubMed

    Kalashnyk, Nataliya; Ganesh Nagaswaran, Praveen; Kervyn, Simon; Riello, Massimo; Moreton, Ben; Jones, Tim S; De Vita, Alessandro; Bonifazi, Davide; Costantini, Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    Two borazine derivatives have been synthesised to investigate their self-assembly behaviour on Au(111) and Cu(111) surfaces by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and theoretical simulations. Both borazines form extended 2D networks upon adsorption on both substrates at room temperature. Whereas the more compact triphenyl borazine 1 arranges into close-packed ordered molecular islands with an extremely low density of defects on both substrates, the tris(phenyl-4-phenylethynyl) derivative 2 assembles into porous molecular networks due to its longer lateral substituents. For both species, the steric hindrance between the phenyl and mesityl substituents results in an effective decoupling of the central borazine core from the surface. For borazine 1, this is enough to weaken the molecule-substrate interaction, so that the assemblies are only driven by attractive van der Waals intermolecular forces. For the longer and more flexible borazine 2, a stronger molecule-substrate interaction becomes possible through its peripheral substituents on the more reactive copper surface. PMID:25079120

  10. The Interaction of Streptococcal Enolase with Canine Plasminogen: The Role of Surfaces in Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    Balhara, Vinod; Deshmukh, Sasmit S.; Kálmán, László; Kornblatt, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    The enolase from Streptococcus pyogenes (Str enolase F137L/E363G) is a homo-octamer shaped like a donut. Plasminogen (Pgn) is a monomeric protein composed of seven discrete separated domains organized into a lock washer. The enolase is known to bind Pgn. In past work we searched for conditions in which the two proteins would bind to one another. The two native proteins in solution would not bind under any of the tried conditions. We found that if the structures were perturbed binding would occur. We stated that only the non-native Str enolase or Pgn would interact such that we could detect binding. We report here the results of a series of dual polarization interferometry (DPI) experiments coupled with atomic force microscopy (AFM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and fluorescence. We show that the critical condition for forming stable complexes of the two native proteins involves Str enolase binding to a surface. Surfaces that attract Str enolase are a sufficient condition for binding Pgn. Under certain conditions, Pgn adsorbed to a surface will bind Str enolase. PMID:24520380

  11. Roles of the reproductive tract in modifications of the sperm membrane surface

    PubMed Central

    KUO, Yu-Wen; LI, Sheng-Hsiang; MAEDA, Kei-Ichiro; GADELLA, Bart M.; TSAI, Pei Shiue J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful fertilization requires viable and functional spermatozoa to recognize and fuse with the oocyte. In most mammalian species, mature spermatozoa are not capable of fertilizing the oocytes immediately after ejaculation. However, unlike somatic cells, spermatozoa, after leaving the testis, are transcriptionally and translationally silent; therefore, upon completion of spermiogenesis, spermatozoa carry only a minimal amount of essential proteins on their membranes as well as within their restricted volume of cytoplasm. To develop into a fully functional and competent sperm that is capable of successful fertilization, modifications of the sperm membrane surface during its transit in the reproductive tracts is critical. These post-spermatogenesis modifications advance the maturation of epididymal spermatozoa. In addition, components secreted into the lumen of the reproductive tracts that are later added onto the sperm membrane surface also regulate (inhibit or activate) the functions of the spermatozoa. This acquisition of additional proteins from the reproductive tracts may compensate for the inactivity of morphologically mature spermatozoa. In this review, we discuss the contributions of the male and female genital tracts to modifications of the sperm membrane surface at different stages of fertilization. PMID:27009019

  12. Soil surface acidity plays a determining role in the atmospheric-terrestrial exchange of nitrous acid

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Melissa A.; Bish, David L.; Raff, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important hydroxyl (OH) radical source that is formed on both ground and aerosol surfaces in the well-mixed boundary layer. Recent studies report the release of HONO from nonacidic soils, although it is unclear how soil that is more basic than the pKa of HONO (∼3) is capable of protonating soil nitrite to serve as an atmospheric HONO source. Here, we used a coated-wall flow tube and chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) to study the pH dependence of HONO uptake onto agricultural soil and model substrates under atmospherically relevant conditions (1 atm and 30% relative humidity). Experiments measuring the evolution of HONO from pH-adjusted surfaces treated with nitrite and potentiometric titrations of the substrates show, to our knowledge for the first time, that surface acidity rather than bulk aqueous pH determines HONO uptake and desorption efficiency on soil, in a process controlled by amphoteric aluminum and iron (hydr)oxides present. The results have important implications for predicting when soil nitrite, whether microbially derived or atmospherically deposited, will act as a net source or sink of atmospheric HONO. This process represents an unrecognized mechanism of HONO release from soil that will contribute to HONO emissions throughout the day. PMID:25512517

  13. Role of different classes of mammalian cell surface molecules in adherence of coagulase positive and coagulase negative staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Mohamed M; Aboulwafa, Mohammad M; Yassien, Mahmoud A; Hassouna, Nadia A

    2008-10-01

    In the present study the role of different mammalian cell receptors in adherence of the coagulase positive pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus and some coagulase negative staphylococci, namely Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus was investigated. Upon testing the adherence to Vero and Hep-2 cells, S. aureus isolates showed an adherence to both cell lines while S. epidermidis and S. saprophyticus isolates adhered to Vero cells only. According to the obtained results, both O-linked and N-linked mammalian cell surface glycoproteins are involved in the adherence of S. aureus isolates to Vero and Hep-2 cells, whereas only the O-linked ones serve as receptors for adherence of S. epidermidis and S. saprophyticus isolates to Vero cells. Of the O-linked glycoproteins, GAG-like receptors are involved in adherence of all tested isolates to Vero cells. The coagulase positive staphylococci preferred to adhere to the highly sulphated GAGs (Heparin and chondroitin sulphate B) while the coagulase negative isolates showed higher affinity to the less sulphated ones (Chondroitin sulphate A and C). Mucin like receptors appeared to be important for the adherence of all tested staphylococci. The role exhibited by fibronectin- and fibrinogen-like receptors was detected with S. aureus and S. epidermidis but not with S. saprophyticus isolates. While, collagen and gelatin were found to contribute to the adherence of S. aureus isolates only. Neither carbohydrate moieties of the glycoconjugates nor lipid molecules on the mammalian cell surface played a role in the adherence of the tested staphylococcal isolates. Taken together, the results revealed that both coagulase negative and coagulase positive staphylococcal tested isolates adhere to the same classes of mammalian cell surface receptors such as mucin-like, fibrinogen-like, fibronectin-like and GAG-like receptors. However, the tested isolates exhibited different degrees of affinities to such receptors.

  14. Using AFM to probe the complexation of DNA with anionic lipids mediated by Ca(2+): the role of surface pressure.

    PubMed

    Luque-Caballero, Germán; Martín-Molina, Alberto; Sánchez-Treviño, Alda Yadira; Rodríguez-Valverde, Miguel A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, Miguel A; Maldonado-Valderrama, Julia

    2014-04-28

    Complexation of DNA with lipids is currently being developed as an alternative to classical vectors based on viruses. Most of the research to date focuses on cationic lipids owing to their spontaneous complexation with DNA. Nonetheless, recent investigations have revealed that cationic lipids induce a large number of adverse effects on DNA delivery. Precisely, the lower cytotoxicity of anionic lipids accounts for their use as a promising alternative. However, the complexation of DNA with anionic lipids (mediated by cations) is still in early stages and is not yet well understood. In order to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the complexation of anionic lipids and DNA we proposed a combined methodology based on the surface pressure-area isotherms, Gibbs elasticity and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). These techniques allow elucidation of the role of the surface pressure in the complexation and visualization of the interfacial aggregates for the first time. We demonstrate that the DNA complexes with negatively charged model monolayers (DPPC/DPPS 4 : 1) only in the presence of Ca(2+), but is expelled at very high surface pressures. Also, according to the Gibbs elasticity plot, the complexation of lipids and DNA implies a whole fluidisation of the monolayer and a completely different phase transition map in the presence of DNA and Ca(2+). AFM imaging allows identification for the first time of specific morphologies associated with different packing densities. At low surface coverage, a branched net like structure is observed whereas at high surface pressure fibers formed of interfacial aggregates appear. In summary, Ca(2+) mediates the interaction between DNA and negatively charged lipids and also the conformation of the ternary system depends on the surface pressure. Such observations are important new generic features of the interaction between DNA and anionic lipids. PMID:24668321

  15. Spectral engineering of LaF3:Ce3+ nanoparticles: The role of Ce3+ in surface sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsohn, L. G.; Toncelli, A.; Sprinkle, K. B.; Kucera, C. J.; Ballato, J.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the high surface-to-volume ratio, luminescence centers on the surface have relative dominance in the overall spectral response of nanoparticles. The luminescence of LaF3:Ce3+ nanoparticles was investigated in the spectral and temporal domains with a particular focus on the role of Ce3+ on the surface. These nanoparticles present two luminescence bands at 4.10 eV and 4.37 eV attributed to Ce3+ transitions from the 5d level to the spin-orbit split 4f ground levels 2F5/2 and 2F7/2, in addition to a low-energy band at 3.62 eV that has been attributed to Ce3+ ions residing in perturbed sites. The growth of up to three undoped shells, ca. 0.9 nm thick each, around the core promoted a progressive enhancement of luminescence output, concomitant with an increase in the fluorescence lifetime due to the weakening of energy transfer through multipolar interaction between Ce3+ in the core and quenching defects on the surface. Also, the growth of the first shell led to a decrease in the relative intensity of the low-energy band and a 0.23 eV shift to higher energies. These results were interpreted as being due to the existence of two types of perturbed sites, one on the surface that is eliminated by the growth of the first shell, and another within the volume of the nanoparticle, similar to observations in bulk single crystals. This work demonstrates how surface engineering can affect and control the luminescence behavior of this nanomaterial.

  16. Physiologic variations of the internal jugular vein surface, role of the omohyoid muscle, a preliminary echographic study.

    PubMed

    Patra, P; Gunness, T K; Robert, R; Rogez, J M; Heloury, Y; Le Hur, P A; Leborgne, J; Laude, M; Barbin, J Y

    1988-01-01

    The action of the omohyoid muscle on the hemodynamics of the internal jugular vein is controversial. For some authors, contraction of this muscle, by tightening the cervical fascia, promotes jugular venous return. For others, contraction of this muscle compresses the jugular vein in its cervical path. With this latter point in mind, the hemodynamics of the internal jugular vein have been studied in its cervical path by echography in 10 healthy volunteers. One hundred twenty measurements of the venous surface were made at rest, with the mouth open and during deep inspiration. In the last 2 situations, evidence of a significant increase in the venous surface was found above the omohyoid muscle. These data confirm the role of compression of the vein by the omohyoid muscle, leading to modifications in intracerebral venous hemodynamics, which can be affected in yawning.

  17. Role of atmospheric corrosion of aluminum alloys in viability of intrinsic-surface methods for tagging military hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Maiya, P.S.; Kassner, T.F.

    1991-11-01

    A primary requirement for authentication of tags for military equipment desigated as treaty-limited items (TLIs) is that the surface topograhy of the tag area be maintained after exposure to a variety of atmospheric conditions over many years. This report summarizes the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric as they relate to localized corrosion of aluminum and aluminum alloys. The role of impurity species that exacerbate corrison, and that hence may interfere with tag verification, is discussed. Because exposure times for the tag materials are much longer than those practical in laboratory experiments, it is important to understand the kinetics of processes occurring in these alloys and the viability of various protection schemes. General principles and limitations of testing in natural atmospheres and in the laboratory are discussed. Corrosion results indicate that the tag surface must be protected, and a tag protection scheme is proposed.

  18. Mesdc2 plays a key role in cell-surface expression of Lrp4 and postsynaptic specialization in myotubes.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Taisuke; Tezuka, Tohru; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Natsume, Tohru; Yamanashi, Yuji

    2013-11-29

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (Lrp4) is essential for pre- and post-synaptic specialization at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), an indispensable synapse between a motor nerve and skeletal muscle. Muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK must form a complex with Lrp4 to organize postsynaptic specialization at NMJs. Here, we show that the chaperon Mesdc2 binds to the intracellular form of Lrp4 and promotes its glycosylation and cell-surface expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Mesdc2 suppresses cell-surface expression of Lrp4, activation of MuSK, and postsynaptic specialization in muscle cells. These results suggest that Mesdc2 plays an essential role in NMJ formation by promoting Lrp4 maturation. PMID:24140340

  19. On the critical role of Rayleigh scattering in single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering via a plasmonic nanogap.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bao-Qin; Zhang, Chao; Li, Jiafang; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Xia, Younan

    2016-08-25

    Electromagnetic and chemical enhancement mechanisms are commonly used to account for single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SM-SERS). Due to many practical limitations, however, the overall enhancement factor summed up from these two mechanisms is typically 5-6 orders of magnitude below the level of 10(14)-10(15) required for SM-SERS. Here, we demonstrate that the multiple elastic Rayleigh scattering of a molecule could play a critical role in further enhancing the Raman signal, when the molecule is trapped in a 2 nm gap between two Ag nanoparticles, pushing the overall enhancement factor close to the level needed for SM-SERS. As a universal physical process for all molecules interacting with light, we believe that Rayleigh scattering plays a pivotal and as yet unrecognized role in SERS, in particular, for enabling single-molecule sensitivity. PMID:27526632

  20. The role of surface chemical analysis in a study to select replacement processes for TCA vapor degreasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesley, Michael W.; Davis, Lawrence E.; Moulder, John F.; Carlson, Brad A.

    1995-01-01

    The role of surface-sensitive chemical analysis (ESCA, AES, and SIMS) in a study to select a process to replace 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane (TCA) vapor degreasing as a steel and aluminum bonding surface preparation method is described. The effort was primarily concerned with spray-in-air cleaning processes involving aqueous alkaline and semi-aqueous cleaners and a contamination sensitive epoxy-to-metal bondline. While all five cleaners tested produced bonding strength results equal to or better than those produced by vapor degreasing, the aqueous alkaline cleaners yielded results which were superior to those produced by the semi-aqueous cleaners. The main reason for the enhanced performance appears to be a silicate layer left behind by the aqueous alkaline cleaners. The silicate layer increases the polarity of the surface and enhances epoxy-to-metal bonding. On the other hand, one of the semi-aqueous cleaners left a nonpolar carbonaceous residue which appeared to have a negative effect on epoxy-to-metal bonding. Differences in cleaning efficiency between cleaners/processes were also identified. These differences in surface chemistry, which were sufficient to affect bonding, were not detected by conventional chemical analysis techniques.

  1. Role of GaAs surface clearing in plasma deposition of silicon nitride films for encapsulated annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Valco, G.J.; Kapoor, V.J.

    1985-06-01

    The role of GaAs surface cleaning and plasma reactor cleaning prior to deposition of silicon nitride films for encapsulated annealing has been investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to determine the surface characteristics of GaAs treated with HCl, HF, and NH4OH solutions preceded by a degreasing procedure. The HCl clean left the least amount of oxygen on the surface. Fluorine contamination resulting from the CF4 plasma used to clean the reactor was found to be located at the film-substrate interface by Auger electron spectroscopy with argon-ion sputtering. A modified deposition procedure was developed to eliminate the fluorine contamination. Plasma deposition of silicon nitride encapsulating films was found to modify the I-V characteristics of Schottky diodes subsequently formed on GaAs surface. The reverse current of the diodes was slightly reduced. Substrates implanted with Si at 100 keV and a dose of 5 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm showed a peak electron concentration of 1.7 x 10 to the 17th/cu cm at a depth of 0.1-micron with 60 percent activation after encapsulation and annealing at 800 C for 7 min. 9 references.

  2. Unraveling the Role of Surface Mucus-Binding Protein and Pili in Muco-Adhesion of Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Duviau, Marie-Pierre; Meyrand, Mickael; Guérardel, Yann; Castelain, Mickaël; Loubière, Pascal; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; Dague, Etienne; Mercier-Bonin, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    Adhesion of bacteria to mucus may favor their persistence within the gut and their beneficial effects to the host. Interactions between pig gastric mucin (PGM) and a natural isolate of Lactococcus lactis (TIL448) were measured at the single-cell scale and under static conditions, using atomic force microscopy (AFM). In parallel, these interactions were monitored at the bacterial population level and under shear flow. AFM experiments with a L. lactis cell-probe and a PGM-coated surface revealed a high proportion of specific adhesive events (60%) and a low level of non-adhesive ones (2%). The strain muco-adhesive properties were confirmed by the weak detachment of bacteria from the PGM-coated surface under shear flow. In AFM, rupture events were detected at short (100−200 nm) and long distances (up to 600−800 nm). AFM measurements on pili and mucus-binding protein defective mutants demonstrated the comparable role played by these two surface proteinaceous components in adhesion to PGM under static conditions. Under shear flow, a more important contribution of the mucus-binding protein than the pili one was observed. Both methods differ by the way of probing the adhesion force, i.e. negative force contact vs. sedimentation and normal-to-substratum retraction vs. tangential detachment conditions, using AFM and flow chamber, respectively. AFM blocking assays with free PGM or O-glycan fractions purified from PGM demonstrated that neutral oligosaccharides played a major role in adhesion of L. lactis TIL448 to PGM. This study dissects L. lactis muco-adhesive phenotype, in relation with the nature of the bacterial surface determinants. PMID:24260308

  3. A specific mechanomodulatory role for p38 MAPK in embryonic joint articular surface cell MEK-ERK pathway regulation.

    PubMed

    Lewthwaite, Jo C; Bastow, Edward R; Lamb, Katherine J; Blenis, John; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline P D; Pitsillides, Andrew A

    2006-04-21

    Mechanisms regulating cell behavior and extracellular matrix composition in response to mechanical stimuli remain unresolved. Our previous studies have established that the MEK-ERK cascade plays a specific role in the mechano-dependent joint formation process by promoting the assembly of pericellular matrices reliant upon hyaluronan (HA) for their integrity. Here we demonstrate: (i) novel cross-talk between p38 MAPK and MEK-ERK signaling pathways that is specific for mechanical stimuli and (ii) a role for p38 MAPK in facilitating HA production by cells derived from the articular surface of embryonic chick tibiotarsal joints. We find that p38 MAPK blockade restricts pericellular assembly of HA-rich matrices and reduces basal as well as mechanical strain-induced release of HA. p38 MAPK blockers potentiated early strain-induced increases but restricted sustained increases in MEK/ERK phosphorylation at later times; c-Fos hyperphosphorylation at threonine 325 was found to parallel this p38 MAPK-mediated modulation of ERK activation. In contrast, p38 MAPK inhibitors had no detectable effect on the ERK activation induced by fibroblast growth factor 2 or pervanadate, a phosphatase inhibitor, and MEK inhibitors did not influence p38 MAPK phosphorylation, confirming both the specificity and unidirectionality of p38 MAPK-ERK cross-talk. Immunochemical and immunoblotting studies revealed constitutive p38 MAPK activation in cells at, or derived from, developing articular joint surfaces. Unlike the MEK-ERK pathway, however, p38 MAPK was not further stimulated by mechanical stimulation in vitro. Thus, p38 MAPK specifically facilitates ERK activation and downstream signaling in response to mechanical stimuli. These results suggest that constitutively active p38 MAPK serves an essential, permissive role in mechanically induced changes in ERK activation and in the accumulation of HA-rich extracellular matrices that serve a key role in joint development.

  4. Cwp84, a Surface-associated Cysteine Protease, Plays a Role in the Maturation of the Surface Layer of Clostridium difficile*

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Jonathan M.; Ahern, Helen; Roberts, April K.; Kumar, Vivek; Freeman, Zoe; Acharya, K. Ravi; Shone, Clifford C.

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a major and growing problem as a hospital-associated infection that can cause severe, recurrent diarrhea. The mechanism by which the bacterium colonizes the gut during infection is poorly understood but undoubtedly involves protein components within the surface layer (S-layer), which play a role in adhesion. In C. difficile, the S-layer is composed of two principal components, the high and low molecular weight S-layer proteins, which are formed from the post-translational cleavage of a single precursor, SlpA. In the present study, we demonstrate that a recently characterized cysteine protease, Cwp84 plays a role in maturation of SlpA. Using a gene knock-out approach, we show that inactivation of the Cwp84 gene in C. difficile 630ΔErm results in a bacterial phenotype in which only immature, single chain SlpA comprises the S-layer. The Cwp84 knock-out mutants (CDΔCwp84) displayed significantly different colony morphology compared with the wild-type strain and grew more slowly in liquid medium. SlpA extracted from CDΔCwp84 was readily cleaved into its mature subunits by trypsin treatment. Addition of trypsin to the growth medium also cleaved SlpA on CDΔCwp84 and increased the growth rate of the bacterium in a dose-dependent manner. Using the hamster model for C. difficile infection, CDΔCwp84 was found to be competent at causing disease with a similar pathology to the wild-type strain. The data show that whereas Cwp84 plays a role in the cleavage of SlpA, it is not an essential virulence factor and that bacteria expressing immature SlpA are able to cause disease. PMID:19808679

  5. The role of hydrogen in room-temperature ferromagnetism at graphite surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ohldag, Hendrik

    2011-08-12

    We present a x-ray dichroism study of graphite surfaces that addresses the origin and magnitude of ferromagnetism in metal-free carbon. We find that, in addition to carbon {pi} states, also hydrogen-mediated electronic states exhibit a net spin polarization with significant magnetic remanence at room temperature. The observed magnetism is restricted to the top {approx}10 nm of the irradiated sample where the actual magnetization reaches {approx_equal} 15 emu/g at room temperature. We prove that the ferromagnetism found in metal-free untreated graphite is intrinsic and has a similar origin as the one found in proton bombarded graphite.

  6. Surface voltage gradient role in high voltage solar array-plasma interaction: Center Director's discretionary fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A large amount of experimental and analytical effort has been directed toward understanding the plasma sheath growth and discharge phenomena which lead to high voltage solar array-space plasma interactions. An important question which has not been addressed is how the surface voltage gradient on such an array may affect these interactions. The results of this study indicate that under certain conditions, the voltage gradient should be taken into account when evaluating the effect on a solar array operating in a plasma environment.

  7. A critical study of the role of the surface oxide layer in titanium bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, S.; Wightman, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope/X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SEM/XPS) analysis of fractured adhesively bonded Ti 6-4 samples is discussed. The text adhesives incuded NR 056X polyimide, polypheylquinoxaline (PPQ), and LARC-13 polyimide. Differentiation between cohesive and interfacial failure was based on the absence of presence of a Ti 2p XPS photopeak. In addition, the surface oxide layer on Ti-(6A1-4V) adherends is characterized and bond strength and durability are addressed. Bond durability in various environmental conditions is discussed.

  8. Sex Discrimination in Gerris remigis: Role of a Surface Wave Signal.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, R S

    1979-12-14

    Even when blinded with masks, adult male water striders (Gerris remigis) accurately ascertain the sex of other adult water striders in the laboratory. Freely moving females that were artificially made to play back computer-generated male surface wave and body-contact signals of about 90 waves per second were treated as males by the masked males and as females when no such playbacks were made. Thus, the males can use presence or absence of the male signal as the sole means for sex discrimination.

  9. The Role of Channel Bar Influences on Groundwater / Surface Water Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, C. L.; Constantz, J. E.; Cooper, C. A.; McKay, W. A.

    2010-12-01

    Channel bars are dominant in-stream geomorphic island features present in a large range of river classes throughout the world, particularly in the arid western United States. A quantitative understanding of groundwater and surface water exchange through channel bar features is necessary to understand near-stream hyporheic flow patterns. The Truckee River in northwestern Nevada was used as a research site to quantitatively examine the influence of channel bars on near-stream water fluxes using heat as a tracer. This study provided the near-stream hydraulic physical framework for current and future research on nutrient cycling and biogeochemical impacts of near-stream exchange and can be used for assessing critical water quality impacts. Field activities included the installation and development of monitoring wells and piezometers, instrumentation of the piezometers with pressure transducers and temperature thermistors, and slug tests to estimate hydraulic conductivity. The potentiometric surface throughout the study site was monitored over time and the temperature thermistors were used to estimate transport using heat as a tracer. Horizontal and vertical Darcian water fluxes were estimated from field observations. To increase confidence in the hydraulic conductivity values for water flux estimates, heat-based numerical simulations were completed. Three-dimensional models of the channel bar study area were constructed and hydraulic conductivity was inversely estimated by minimizing the difference between observed and simulated head and temperature measurements. Numerical simulations indicated that lateral water fluxes between the channel bar and the stream were an order of magnitude greater than between the adjacent streambank and the stream. The fluxes at the downstream end of the channel bar were an order of magnitude greater than upstream fluxes. Net groundwater and surface water fluxes at the channel bar and stream interface were at least 2 times greater than

  10. Role of intermediate states in low-velocity friction between amorphous surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woo Kyun; Falk, Michael L.

    2011-10-01

    Simulated sliding between an oxidized silicon tip and surface over six decades of velocity using accelerated molecular dynamics (MD) reproduces the experimental velocity dependences of the friction. Unlike in the crystalline case, as increasing forces are applied to the amorphous tip, intermediate states arise. These intermediate states serve as critical transition pathways. The emergence of such states leads to the emergence of a plateau in sliding velocity at lower sliding speeds and higher temperatures. A simple theory based on these observations successfully describes both the experimental and simulated data.

  11. Factors Affecting P Loads to Surface Waters: Comparing the Roles of Precipitation and Land Management Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motew, M.; Booth, E.; Carpenter, S. R.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Surface water quality is a major concern in the Yahara watershed (YW) of southern Wisconsin, home to a thriving dairy industry, the city of Madison, and five highly valued lakes that are eutrophic. Despite management interventions to mitigate runoff, there has been no significant trend in P loading to the lakes since 1975. Increases in manure production and heavy rainfall events over this time period may have offset any effects of management. We developed a comprehensive, integrated modeling framework that can simulate the effects of multiple drivers on ecosystem services, including surface water quality. The framework includes process-based representation of terrestrial ecosystems (Agro-IBIS) and groundwater flow (MODFLOW), hydrologic routing of water and nutrients across the landscape (THMB), and assessment of lake water quality (YWQM). Biogeochemical cycling and hydrologic transport of P have been added to the framework to enable detailed simulation of P dynamics within the watershed, including interactions with climate and management. The P module features in-soil cycling of organic, inorganic, and labile forms of P; manure application, decomposition, and subsequent loss of dissolved P in runoff; loss of particulate-bound P with erosion; and transport of dissolved and particulate P within waterways. Model results will compare the effects of increased heavy rainfall events, increased manure production, and implementation of best management practices on P loads to the Yahara lakes.

  12. Space Weathering Effects in Lunar Soils: The Roles of Surface Exposure Time and Bulk Chemical Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Shouliang; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering effects on lunar soil grains result from both radiation-damaged and deposited layers on grain surfaces. Typically, solar wind irradiation forms an amorphous layer on regolith silicate grains, and induces the formation of surficial metallic Fe in Fe-bearing minerals [1,2]. Impacts into the lunar regolith generate high temperature melts and vapor. The vapor component is largely deposited on the surfaces of lunar soil grains [3] as is a fraction of the melt [4, this work]. Both the vapor-deposits and the deposited melt typically contain nanophase Fe metal particles (npFe0) as abundant inclusions. The development of these rims and the abundance of the npFe0 in lunar regolith, and thus the optical properties, vary with the soil mineralogy and the length of time the soil grains have been exposed to space weathering effects [5]. In this study, we used the density of solar flare particle tracks in soil grains to estimate exposure times for individual grains and then perform nanometer-scale characterization of the rims using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The work involved study of lunar soil samples with different mineralogy (mare vs. highland) and different exposure times (mature vs. immature).

  13. The complementary role of SMOS sea surface salinity observations for estimating global ocean salinity state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zeting; Cheng, Lijing; Zhu, Jiang; Lin, Renping

    2016-06-01

    Salinity is a key ocean state property, changes in which reveal the variation of the water cycle and the ocean thermohaline circulation. However, prior to this century, in situ salinity observations were extremely sparse, which decreased the reliability of simulations of ocean general circulation by ocean and climate models. In 2009, sea surface salinity (SSS) observations covered the global ocean via the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, and several versions of global SSS products were subsequently released. How can these data benefit model performance? Previous studies found contradictory results. In this work, we assimilated SMOS-SSS data into the LASG/IAP Climate system Ocean Model (LICOM) using the Ensemble Optimum Interpolation (EnOI) assimilation scheme. To assess and quantify the contribution of SMOS-SSS data to model performance, several tests were conducted. The results indicate that the CECOS/CATDS 2010.V02 SMOS-SSS product can significantly improve model simulations of sea surface/subsurface salinity fields. This study provides the basis for the future assimilation of SMOS-SSS data for short-range climate forecasting.

  14. Role of substrate in the surface diffusion and kinetic roughening of nanocrystallised nickel electrodeposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nzoghe-Mendome, L.; Aloufy, A.; Ebothé, J.; El Messiry, M.; Hui, D.

    2009-02-01

    The surface growth and roughening of nano-crystallised Ni electrodeposits prepared at the same conditions have been studied on Cu, Au and ITO substrates. The Ni films obtained are characterised by the same face-centred cubic structure with a texture affected by the substrate chemical nature. Practically, the same small-sized grains of 83 nm mean height depicting a statistical mono-mode feature grow on Cu. A three-modal feature corresponding to the biggest and compact crystallites of 335, 368 and 400 nm mean height is obtained with Au. Two typical modes, respectively, linked to isolated big crystallites of 343 nm mean height and large zones of small grains of 170 nm height, result from the ITO effect. The surface transport properties of Ni ad-atoms on each substrate have been studied from the theoretical approach including the film global roughness measured by AFM. It is shown that the ad-atom diffusion coefficients ( D s) ranged in the interval 10 -10-10 -9 cm 2 s -1 are greatly affected by the non-equilibrium conditions of the film formation. Cu and ITO, respectively, lead to Λ s=11.92 and 14.30 nm, while the higher D s value and diffusion length Λ s=37.32 nm are obtained with Au substrate.

  15. Role of an Oxidant Mixture as Surface Modifier of Porous Silicon Microstructures Evaluated by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry.

    PubMed

    Montiel-González, Zeuz; Escobar, Salvador; Nava, Rocío; del Río, J Antonio; Tagüeña-Martínez, Julia

    2016-04-21

    Current research on porous silicon includes the construction of complex structures with luminescent and/or photonic properties. However, their preparation with both characteristics is still challenging. Recently, our group reported a possible method to achieve that by adding an oxidant mixture to the electrolyte used to produce porous silicon. This mixture can chemically modify their microstructure by changing the thickness and surface passivation of the pore walls. In this work, we prepared a series of samples (with and without oxidant mixture) and we evaluated the structural differences through their scanning electron micrographs and their optical properties determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The results showed that ellipsometry is sensitive to slight variations in the porous silicon structure, caused by changes in their preparation. The fitting process, based on models constructed from the features observed in the micrographs, allowed us to see that the mayor effect of the oxidant mixture is on samples of high porosity, where the surface oxidation strongly contributes to the skeleton thinning during the electrochemical etching. This suggests the existence of a porosity threshold for the action of the oxidant mixture. These results could have a significant impact on the design of complex porous silicon structures for different optoelectronic applications.

  16. Role of an Oxidant Mixture as Surface Modifier of Porous Silicon Microstructures Evaluated by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-González, Zeuz; Escobar, Salvador; Nava, Rocío; del Río, J. Antonio; Tagüeña-Martínez, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Current research on porous silicon includes the construction of complex structures with luminescent and/or photonic properties. However, their preparation with both characteristics is still challenging. Recently, our group reported a possible method to achieve that by adding an oxidant mixture to the electrolyte used to produce porous silicon. This mixture can chemically modify their microstructure by changing the thickness and surface passivation of the pore walls. In this work, we prepared a series of samples (with and without oxidant mixture) and we evaluated the structural differences through their scanning electron micrographs and their optical properties determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The results showed that ellipsometry is sensitive to slight variations in the porous silicon structure, caused by changes in their preparation. The fitting process, based on models constructed from the features observed in the micrographs, allowed us to see that the mayor effect of the oxidant mixture is on samples of high porosity, where the surface oxidation strongly contributes to the skeleton thinning during the electrochemical etching. This suggests the existence of a porosity threshold for the action of the oxidant mixture. These results could have a significant impact on the design of complex porous silicon structures for different optoelectronic applications. PMID:27097767

  17. The role of carbon surface diffusion on the growth of epitaxial graphene on SiC.

    SciTech Connect

    Thurmer, Konrad; Ohta, Taisuke; Nie, Shu; Bartelt, Norman Charles; Kellogg, Gary Lee

    2010-03-01

    Growth of high quality graphene films on SiC is regarded as one of the more viable pathways toward graphene-based electronics. Graphitic films form on SiC at elevated temperature because of preferential sublimation of Si. Little is known, however, about the atomistic processes of interrelated SiC decomposition and graphene growth. We have observed the formation of graphene on SiC by Si sublimation in an Ar atmosphere using low energy electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microcopy and atomic force microscopy. This work reveals that the growth mechanism depends strongly on the initial surface morphology, and that carbon diffusion governs the spatial relationship between SiC decomposition and graphene growth. Isolated bilayer SiC steps generate narrow ribbons of graphene, whereas triple bilayer steps allow large graphene sheets to grow by step flow. We demonstrate how graphene quality can be improved by controlling the initial surface morphology specifically by avoiding the instabilities inherent in diffusion-limited growth.

  18. The role of SO42- surface distribution in arsenic removal by iron oxy-hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tresintsi, S.; Simeonidis, K.; Pliatsikas, N.; Vourlias, G.; Patsalas, P.; Mitrakas, M.

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the contribution of chemisorbed SO42- in improving arsenic removal properties of iron oxy-hydroxides through an ion-exchange mechanism. An analytical methodology was developed for the accurate quantification of sulfate ion (SO42-) distribution onto the surface and structural compartments of iron oxy-hydroxides synthesized by FeSO4 precipitation. The procedure is based on the sequential determination of SO42- presence in the diffuse and Stern layers, and the structure of these materials as defined by the sulfate-rich environments during the reaction and the variation in acidity (pH 3-12). Physically sorbed SO42-, extracted in distilled water, and physically/chemically adsorbed ions on the oxy-hydroxide's surface leached by a 5 mM NaOH solution, were determined using ion chromatography. Total sulfate content was gravimetrically measured by precipitation as BaSO4. To validate the suggested method, results were verified by X-ray photoelectron and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. Results showed that low precipitation pH-values favor the incorporation of sulfate ions into the structure and the inner double layer, while under alkaline conditions ions shift to the diffuse layer.

  19. [Role of polymer complexes in the formation of biofilms by corrosive bacteria on steel surfaces].

    PubMed

    Purish, L M; Asaulenko, L G; Abdulina, D R; Vasil'ev, V N; Iutinskaia, G A

    2012-01-01

    The composition of exopolymer complexes (EPCs), synthesized by the monocultures Desulfovibrio sp. 10, Bacillus subtilis 36, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27 and by microbial associations involved in the corrosion of metal surfaces has been studied. An analysis of the monosaccharide composition of carbohydrate components, as well as the fatty acid composition of the lipid part of EPCs, was carried out by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). It was found that bacteria in biofilms synthesized polymers; this process was dominated by glucose, while the growth of bacteria in a suspension was marked by a high rhamnose content. Hexouronic acids and hexosamine have been revealed as a part of B. subtilis 36 and P. aeruginosa 27 EPCs. Qualitative differences were revealed in the fatty acid composition ofexopolymers in biofilms and in a bacterial suspension. It was shown that the transition to a biofilm form of growth led to an increase in the unsaturation degree of fatty acids in the exopolymers of associative cultures. The results can be used to develop methods to control microbial corrosion of metal surfaces.

  20. Role of surface charge in cytotoxicity of charged manganese ferrite nanoparticles towards macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seung-Hyun; Heo, Dan; Park, Jinsung; Na, Sungsoo; Suh, Jin-Suck; Haam, Seungjoo; Park, Sahng Wook; Huh, Yong-Min; Yang, Jaemoon

    2012-12-01

    Amphiphilic surfactants have been used to disperse magnetic nanoparticles in biological media, because they exhibit a dual hydrophobic/hydrophilic affinity that facilitates the formation of a nanoemulsion, within which nanoparticle surfaces can be modified to achieve different physicochemical properties. For the investigation of the interactions of cells with charged magnetic nanoparticles in a biological medium, we selected the nanoemulsion method to prepare water-soluble magnetic nanoparticles using amphiphilic surfactant (polysorbate 80). The hydroxyl groups of polysorbate 80 were modified to carboxyl or amine groups. The chemical structures of carboxylated and aminated polysorbate 80 were confirmed, and water-soluble manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MFNPs) were synthesized with three types of polysorbate 80. Colloidal size, morphology, monodispersity, solubility and T2 relaxivity were found to be similar between the three types of MFNP. However, cationic MFNPs exhibited greater cytotoxicity in macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) and lower cellular membrane effective stiffness than anionic and non-ionic MFNPs. Moreover, cationic MFNPs exhibited large uptake efficiency for RAW264.7 cells compared with anionic or non-ionic MFNPs under the same conditions. Therefore, we propose that surface charge should be a key consideration factor in the design of magnetic nanoparticles for theragnostic applications.

  1. Possible role of alpha-1-microglobulin in mediating bacterial attachment to model surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wassall, M A; Santin, M; Peluso, G; Denyer, S P

    1998-06-01

    Urine proteins in the molecular weight range of 9-137 kDa deposit to an equal extent from pooled human urine onto glass (12.7 +/- 1.9 micrograms/cm) and polystyrene (11.8 +/- 1.8 micrograms/cm). Selective desorption of the proteins was achieved by washing with water or water/isopropanol mixtures. Irrespective of the washing process, proteins of molecular weight greater than 90 kDa remained associated with both surfaces while water washings alone removed most low molecular weight material. A 29 kDa protein, alpha-1-microglobulin, was removed from glass by water washing but required a 30% (v/v) isopropanol wash to desorb from polystyrene, implying attachment via hydrophobic bonding. The adhesion to polystyrene surfaces of Pseudomonas aeruginosa B4, a clinical isolate from a urinary tract infection (UTI), was strongly associated with the presence of alpha-1-microglobulin, which may be acting as a mediator of bacterial adhesion.

  2. The role of a coarse surface layer in impeding evaporation from gravel bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmaier, Katharina; Peter, Molnar; Clémentine, Cyprien; Paolo, Burlando

    2010-05-01

    The presence of a coarse surface layer (CSL) on bars in gravel bed rivers is expected to have an influence on evaporation rates from these surfaces and thereby on the water content in the underlying gravel-sand matrix. A statistically significant increase in soil water content in the presence of a CSL has recently been demonstrated in outdoor experiments by Meier and Hauer (2010). The authors argued that the CSL leads to a reduction in available energy for evaporation, decreases the advection of water vapour from the evaporating surface and reduces the supply of water from the underlying matrix to the evaporating surface. These findings are important because the germination of seeds and vegetative reproduction of riparian species on gravel bars are presumed to be driven by local soil moisture availability. Therefore local conditions of erosion-deposition which lead to the presence or absence of a CSL could be a crucial parameter for successful vegetation establishment on gravel bars. We conducted a simple laboratory experiment to verify the findings of Meier and Hauer (2010) under more controlled conditions. In the experiment 6 cylindrical buckets with a surface area of 720 cm2 and total volume of 19500 cm3 were filled with a sand-gravel mixture to replicate the sediment composition in the Thur River, Switzerland (d50 = 8 mm). This site is part of the research project RECORD (www.record.ethz.ch), which focuses on river restoration issues. Three treatments were investigated, each with a CSL of different thickness (H = 0, 40 and 80 mm) with one replicate each, roughly corresponding to 2 and 4 layers of typical CSL gravel diameters in the Thur River. We also measured the temperature in the sediment matrix underneath the CSL. The samples were saturated over several days and subsequently gravitationally drained in order to retain water held only by capillary forces as the initial condition. The samples were then weighed daily for 47 days and the evaporation rates and

  3. Role of Mechanical Stress in Regulating Airway Surface Hydration and Mucus Clearance Rates

    PubMed Central

    Button, Brian; Boucher, Richard C.

    2008-01-01

    Effective clearance of mucus is a critical innate airway defense mechanism, and under appropriate conditions, can be stimulated to enhance clearance of inhaled pathogens. It has become increasingly clear that extracellular nucleotides (ATP and UTP) and nucleosides (adenosine) are important regulators of mucus clearance in the airways as a result of their ability to stimulate fluid secretion, mucus hydration, and cilia beat frequency (CBF). One ubiquitous mechanism to stimulate ATP release is through external mechanical stress. This article addresses the role of physiologically-relevant mechanical forces in the lung and their effects on regulating mucociliary clearance (MCC). The effects of mechanical forces on the stimulating ATP release, fluid secretion, CBF, and MCC are discussed. Also discussed is evidence suggesting that airway hydration and stimulation of MCC by stress-mediated ATP release may play a role in several therapeutic strategies directed at improving mucus clearance in patients with obstructive lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PMID:18585484

  4. Polydopamine-based surface modification of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as pH-sensitive drug delivery vehicles for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Danfeng; Gao, Yongfeng; Wang, Lijun; Liu, Gan; Chen, Yuhan; Wang, Teng; Tao, Wei; Mei, Lin; Huang, Laiqiang; Zeng, Xiaowei

    2016-02-01

    A novel pH-sensitive drug delivery system of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) which were modified by polydopamine (PDA) for controlled release of cationic amphiphilic drug desipramine (DES) was prepared. MSNs-DES-PDA were characterized in terms of size, size distribution, surface morphology, BET surface area, mesoporous size and pore volume, drug loading content and in vitro drug release profile. MSNs-DES-PDA had high drug loading content and pH sensitivity. The DES release profiles of MSNs-DES and MSNs-DES-PDA were totally different, and the drug release of MSNs-DES-PDA accelerated with increasing acidity. MSNs-DES-PDA can be internalized into cells. In vitro experiments demonstrated that MSNs-DES-PDA had higher cytotoxicity and inhibitory effects on acid sphingomyelinase than those of free DES. This drug delivery system was beneficial for controlled release and cancer therapy.

  5. The Role of Gas-Silicate Chemisorption Reactions in Modifying Planetary Crusts and Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, P. L.; Henley, R. W.; Wykes, J. L.; Renggli, C.; Troitzsch, U.; Clark, D.; O'Neill, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for gas-solid reactions is found throughout the solar system: for example, sulfidation reactions in some meteorites and secondary phases coating lunar pyroclastic glasses. On Earth, the products of gas-solid reactions are documented in volcanic systems, metalliferous mineral deposits, impact craters, and on dust or meteorites after passage through the atmosphere - such reactions are also likely on the surfaces of Mars and Venus. To understand the chemical dynamics of such gas-solid reactions, we are undertaking systematic experiments and thermochemical modelling. Experiments were conducted in a vertical gas-mixing furnace at 600 - 800 °C and 1 bar, using SO2and a range of Ca-bearing materials: labradorite, feldspar glass and anorthosite (rock). In each case, anhydrite formed rapidly. In shorter experiments with labradorite, isolated anhydrite is observed surrounded by 'moats' of Ca-depleted silicate. In longer experiments, anhydrite is found as clusters of crystals that, in some cases, extend from the substrate forming precarious 'towers' (Figure). Anhydrite fills cracks in porous samples. We propose that the nucleation and rapid growth of anhydrite on the surface of these Ca-rich phases occurs by chemisorption of SO2(g) molecules with slightly negatively charged oxygen onto available near-surface calcium with slight positive charge. Anhydrite growth is sustained by SO2(g) chemisorption and Ca migration through the reacting silicate lattice, accelerated by increased bond lengths at high temperature. Significantly, the chemisorption reaction indicates that SO2 disproportionates to form both oxidized sulfur (as anhydrite) and a reduced sulfur species (e.g., an S* radical ion). On Earth, in the presence of H2O, the predominant reduced sulfur species is H2S, through an overall reaction: 3CaAl2Si2O8 + 4 SO2(g)+ H2O(g) → 3CaSO4 + 3Al2SiO5 + 3SiO2 + H2S(g)The reduced sulfur may react with gas phase Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu cluster compounds to form metal sulfides

  6. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  7. High second-order nonlinear response of platinum nanoflowers: the role of surface corrugation.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Hoang Minh; Lai, Ngoc Diep; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle

    2016-02-14

    Platinum nanoflowers (PtNFs) were elaborated using the seed-mediated growth technique applied to monodisperse platinum nanoparticles (∼3.0 nm) synthesized by the chemical reduction method. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of face-centered-cubic platinum nanocrystals. We report the Harmonic Light Scattering (HLS) properties of PtNFs for six different diameters (∼7.0; 8.0; 10.0; 14.0; 20.0 and 31.0 nm). From these HLS data we infer, for the first time, large hyperpolarizability β values of PtNFs. These very high β values of PtNFs are assigned mainly to highly corrugated surfaces for nanoparticles with irregular shapes.

  8. Role of Surface Water-Groundwater Interaction in Regulating Stream Water Chemistry in Urban Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledford, S. H.; Lautz, L. K.; Holdsworth, M.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization is a major cause of stream degradation in the United States. Surface water -groundwater interaction may naturally mitigate impaired water quality associated with urbanization. Meadowbrook Creek, in Syracuse, New York, flows along a declining urbanization gradient, from headwaters that are highly channelized with armored banks to an outlet that is unconstrained and meanders through a broad, riparian floodplain. Biweekly, longitudinal stream samples were collected every 100 - 600 m in the summer and every 500 - 1000 m in the winter and analyzed for conductivity and major ions. A five well transect in the downstream floodplain was also sampled. A constant rate tracer test was used to quantify groundwater inflow longitudinally during summer baseflow. Specific conductivity decreased along the urban, channelized reach and then increased along the meandering, unconstrained section during the summer, while the opposite occurred during the winter. Nitrate concentrations along the channelized reach were low to below detection (<0.09 - 1.48 mg/L NO3-) in summer; however, nitrate concentrations were consistently higher along the unconstrained reach, ranging from 2.96 - 4.03 mg/L NO3-. The entire stream length had uniformly low nitrate concentrations during winter (0.12-0.57 mg/L NO3-). Sodium and chloride concentrations varied greatly between seasons, with stream concentrations similar to groundwater in the summer (93.28 - 176.45 mg/L Na+ in surface water, 94.81 - 227.05 mg/L Na+ in groundwater; 181.97 - 304.71 mg/L Cl- in surface water, 150.72 - 330.60 mg/L Cl- in groundwater) and an order of magnitude higher in winter, during snowmelt events (450 - 1956 mg/L Na+ and 805.12 - 4517.88 mg/L Cl- in stream water). In winter, sodium and chloride concentrations declined by a maximum of 1189 and 3176.21 mg/L respectively with distance in the unconstrained reach, whereas in summer they increased by 10.01 and 16.12 mg/L respectively with distance. The unconstrained

  9. Role of the Cell Surface of Methanosarcina mazei in Cell Aggregation †

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Ralph W.; Aldrich, H. C.; Hurst, Steven F.; Bleiweis, A. S.

    1985-01-01

    Colonial aggregates of Methanosarcina (= Methanococcus) mazei were examined with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Cells are irregular and grouped into multicellular sarcinal colonies, which may disaggregate in older cultures. The protoplast is bounded by a typical trilaminar plasma membrane, outside of which is a matrix of loose fibrils. The presence and compactness of matrix material are responsible for the close packing of cells, and colony disaggregation seems to be the result of matrix shedding and degradation. The cell envelope contains complex hetero polysaccharides of N-acetylgalactosamine and galacturonic and glucuronic acids. Polymers extruded by M. mazei are likely quite adhesive in nature, accounting for its strong adherence to surfaces and hardiness compared with many other methanogens. Images PMID:16346718

  10. Nanoparticle technology for treatment of Parkinson's disease: the role of surface phenomena in reaching the brain.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Gómez, Gerardo; Cortés, Hernán; Magaña, Jonathan J; Leyva-García, Norberto; Quintanar-Guerrero, David; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-07-01

    The absence of a definitive treatment for Parkinson's disease has driven the emerging investigation in the search for novel therapeutic alternatives. At present, the formulation of different drugs on nanoparticles has represented several advantages over conventional treatments. This type of multifunctional carrier, owing to its size and composition, has different interactions in biological systems that can lead to a decrease in ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, this review focuses on the latest advances in obtaining nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease and provides an overview of technical aspects in the design of brain drug delivery of nanoparticles and an analysis of surface phenomena, a key aspect in the development of functional nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease.

  11. Role of Polymer Segment-Particle Surface Interactions in Controlling Nanoparticle Dispersions in Concentrated Polymer Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, So Youn; Zukoski, Charles F.

    2014-09-24

    The microstructure of particles suspended in concentrated polymer solutions is examined with small-angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering. Of interest are changes to long wavelength particle density fluctuations in ternary mixtures of silica nanoparticles suspended in concentrated solutions of poly(ethylene glycol). The results are understood in terms of application of the pseudo-two-component polymer reference interaction site model (PRISM) theory modified to account for solvent addition via effective contact strength of interfacial attraction, εpc, in an implicit manner. The combined experimental-theoretical study emphasizes the complex interactions between solvent, polymer, and particle surface that control particle miscibility but also demonstrate that these factors can all be understood in terms of variations of εpc.

  12. The role of nanotechnology in control of human diseases: perspectives in ocular surface diseases.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mahendra; Ingle, Avinash P; Gaikwad, Swapnil; Padovani, Felipe Hering; Alves, Monica

    2016-10-01

    Nanotechnology is the creation and use of materials and devices on the same scale as molecules and intracellular structures, typically less than 100 nm in size. It is an emerging science and has made its way into pharmaceuticals to significantly improve the delivery and efficacy of drugs in a number of therapeutic areas, due to development of various nanoparticle-based products. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence that nanotechnology can help to overcome many of the ocular diseases and hence researchers are keenly interested in this science. Nanomedicines offer promise as viable alternatives to conventional drops, gels or ointments to improve drug delivery to the eye. Because of their small size, they are well tolerated, thus preventing washout, increase bioavailability and also help in specific drug delivery. This review describes the application of nanotechnology in the control of human diseases with special emphasis on various eye and ocular surfaces diseases.

  13. The role of GMES / Sentinels in Land-Surface Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J.

    2009-04-01

    A general trend in the current status of representation of Land Surface schemes into Earth System models is driven by the parameterisation of "cycles" instead of individual processes. Particular emphasis is made to account for couplings among the individual cycles, as between the carbon and water cycles. Moreover, the current tendency is to use the measured data -time series in most cases- together with models, in a data assimilation scenario where inputs from multiple sources are integrated. Such approach is more and more necessary as land models tend to be more complex, and particularly due to the fact that land surface variability is not just driven by physical and chemical processes, but intricate biological processes also altered by anthropogenic influences. Human influences in the land system (land use changes, urban development, etc.) and the impacts of natural disasters are becoming also part of land models, but critical data in high spatial and temporal resolutions are needed to properly model such processes. Until now, problems with data availability, data inconsistency and lack of adequate temporal sampling have limited the potential usefulness of such observations in modelling land surface processes. The availability of the GMES / Sentinel series of satellites represents a quite unique opportunity for consolidation of current tendencies and development of new science based on the new type of data that soon will become available. The usefulness of the different Sentinel missions for Land science has been recognised. Although the Sentinel satellite series were primarily designed to provide observations for operational services and routine applications, there is a growing interest in the scientific community towards the usage of Sentinel data for more advanced and innovative science. Moreover, the availability of consistent time series covering a period of over 20 years opens possibilities never explored before, such as systematic data assimilation

  14. Flavonoid-membrane Interactions: A Protective Role of Flavonoids at the Membrane Surface?

    PubMed Central

    Oteiza, Patricia I.; Erlejman, Alejandra G.; Verstraeten, Sandra V.; Keen, Carl L.; Fraga, César G.

    2005-01-01

    Flavonoids can exert beneficial health effects through multiple mechanisms. In this paper, we address the important, although not fully understood, capacity of flavonoids to interact with cell membranes. The interactions of polyphenols with bilayers include: (a) the partition of the more non-polar compounds in the hydrophobic interior of the membrane, and (b) the formation of hydrogen bonds between the polar head groups of lipids and the more hydrophilic flavonoids at the membrane interface. The consequences of these interactions are discussed. The induction of changes in membrane physical properties can affect the rates of membrane lipid and protein oxidation. The partition of certain flavonoids in the hydrophobic core can result in a chain breaking antioxidant activity. We suggest that interactions of polyphenols at the surface of bilayers through hydrogen bonding, can act to reduce the access of deleterious molecules (i.e. oxidants), thus protecting the structure and function of membranes. PMID:15712595

  15. The Role of the Exploration Science Officer in Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, John H.

    2009-01-01

    A review has been performed of exploration science and payload operations during the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs to extract information of potential usefulness to the Constellation program. That work has resulted in creation of the concept for a unique type of flight controller: the exploration science officer. The controller s primary responsibility is to integrate the tasks and goals of the spacecraft flight control team and the science team in order to maximize science return while maximizing crew safety. Far from being just a mouthpiece for either team, this individual must be fluent in the knowledge and language of two communities: spacecraft operations and planetary science. Responsibilities begin during the requirements phase of vehicle and lunar surface systems development and continue through development, training, planning, mission execution, and post-flight mission phases.

  16. The role of diffusive architectural surfaces on auditory spatial discrimination in performance venues.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Philip W; Pätynen, Jukka; Lokki, Tapio; Jang, Hyung Suk; Jeon, Jin Yong; Xiang, Ning

    2013-06-01

    In musical or theatrical performance, some venues allow listeners to individually localize and segregate individual performers, while others produce a well blended ensemble sound. The room acoustic conditions that make this possible, and the psycho-acoustic effects at work are not fully understood. This research utilizes auralizations from measured and simulated performance venues to investigate spatial discrimination of multiple acoustic sources in rooms. Signals were generated from measurements taken in a small theater, and listeners in the audience area were asked to distinguish pairs of speech sources on stage with various spatial separations. This experiment was repeated with the proscenium splay walls treated to be flat, diffusive, or absorptive. Similar experiments were conducted in a simulated hall, utilizing 11 early reflections with various characteristics, and measured late reverberation. The experiments reveal that discriminating the lateral arrangement of two sources is possible at narrower separation angles when reflections come from flat or absorptive rather than diffusive surfaces.

  17. Nanoparticle technology for treatment of Parkinson's disease: the role of surface phenomena in reaching the brain.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Gómez, Gerardo; Cortés, Hernán; Magaña, Jonathan J; Leyva-García, Norberto; Quintanar-Guerrero, David; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-07-01

    The absence of a definitive treatment for Parkinson's disease has driven the emerging investigation in the search for novel therapeutic alternatives. At present, the formulation of different drugs on nanoparticles has represented several advantages over conventional treatments. This type of multifunctional carrier, owing to its size and composition, has different interactions in biological systems that can lead to a decrease in ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, this review focuses on the latest advances in obtaining nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease and provides an overview of technical aspects in the design of brain drug delivery of nanoparticles and an analysis of surface phenomena, a key aspect in the development of functional nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease. PMID:25701281

  18. Modulatory Role of Surface Coating of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoworms in Complement Opsonization and Leukocyte Uptake.

    PubMed

    Inturi, Swetha; Wang, Guankui; Chen, Fangfang; Banda, Nirmal K; Holers, V Michael; Wu, LinPing; Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Simberg, Dmitri

    2015-11-24

    Notwithstanding rapid advances of nanotechnology in diagnostic imaging and drug delivery, the engineered nanocarriers still exhibit substantial lack of hemocompatibility. Thus, when injected systemically, nanoparticles are avidly recognized by blood leukocytes and platelets, but the mechanisms of immune recognition are not well understood and strategies to mitigate these phenomena remain underexplored. Using superparamagnetic dextran iron oxide (SPIO) nanoworms (NWs) we demonstrate an efficient and predominantly complement-dependent uptake by mouse lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes from normal and tumor bearing mice in vitro. Following intravenous injection into wild type mice, blood leukocytes as well as platelets became magnetically labeled, while the labeling was decreased by 95% in complement C3-deficient mice. Using blood cells from healthy and cancer patient donors, we demonstrated that neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes and eosinophils took up SPIO NWs, and the uptake was prevented by EDTA (a general complement inhibitor) and by antiproperdin antibody (an inhibitor of the alternative pathway of the complement system). Cross-linking and hydrogelation of SPIO NWs surface by epichlorohydrin decreased C3 opsonization in mouse serum, and consequently reduced the uptake by mouse leukocytes by more than 70% in vivo. Remarkably, the cross-linked particles did not show a decrease in C3 opsonization in human serum, but showed a significant decrease (over 60%) of the uptake by human leukocytes. The residual uptake of cross-linked nanoparticles was completely blocked by EDTA. These findings demonstrate species differences in complement-mediated nanoparticle recognition and uptake by leukocytes, and further show that human hemocompatibility could be improved by inhibitors of complement alternative pathway and by nanoparticle surface coating. These results provide important insights into the mechanisms of hemocompatibility of nanomedicines.

  19. Role of calcium in growth inhibition induced by a novel cell surface sialoglycopeptide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, N. A.; Westhoff, B. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Our laboratory has purified an 18 kDa cell surface sialoglycopeptide growth inhibitor (CeReS-18) from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells. Evidence presented here demonstrates that sensitivity to CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition in BALB-c 3T3 cells is influenced by calcium, such that a decrease in the calcium concentration in the growth medium results in an increase in sensitivity to CeReS-18. Calcium did not alter CeReS-18 binding to its cell surface receptor and CeReS-18 does not bind calcium directly. Addition of calcium, but not magnesium, to CeReS-18-inhibited 3T3 cells results in reentry into the cell cycle. A greater than 3-hour exposure to increased calcium is required for escape from CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition. The calcium ionophore ionomycin could partially mimic the effect of increasing extracellular calcium, but thapsigargin was ineffective in inducing escape from growth inhibition. Increasing extracellular calcium 10-fold resulted in an approximately 7-fold increase in total cell-associated 45Ca+2, while free intracellular calcium only increased approximately 30%. However, addition of CeReS-18 did not affect total cell-associated calcium or the increase in total cell-associated calcium observed with an increase in extracellular calcium. Serum addition induced mobilization of intracellular calcium and influx across the plasma membrane in 3T3 cells, and pretreatment of 3T3 cells with CeReS-18 appeared to inhibit these calcium mobilization events. These results suggest that a calcium-sensitive step exists in the recovery from CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition. CeReS-18 may inhibit cell proliferation through a novel mechanism involving altering the intracellular calcium mobilization/regulation necessary for cell cycle progression.

  20. High second-order nonlinear response of platinum nanoflowers: the role of surface corrugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Hoang Minh; Lai, Ngoc Diep; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    Platinum nanoflowers (PtNFs) were elaborated using the seed-mediated growth technique applied to monodisperse platinum nanoparticles (~3.0 nm) synthesized by the chemical reduction method. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of face-centered-cubic platinum nanocrystals. We report the Harmonic Light Scattering (HLS) properties of PtNFs for six different diameters (~7.0 8.0; 10.0; 14.0; 20.0 and 31.0 nm). From these HLS data we infer, for the first time, large hyperpolarizability β values of PtNFs. These very high β values of PtNFs are assigned mainly to highly corrugated surfaces for nanoparticles with irregular shapes.Platinum nanoflowers (PtNFs) were elaborated using the seed-mediated growth technique applied to monodisperse platinum nanoparticles (~3.0 nm) synthesized by the chemical reduction method. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of face-centered-cubic platinum nanocrystals. We report the Harmonic Light Scattering (HLS) properties of PtNFs for six different diameters (~7.0 8.0; 10.0; 14.0; 20.0 and 31.0 nm). From these HLS data we infer, for the first time, large hyperpolarizability β values of PtNFs. These very high β values of PtNFs are assigned mainly to highly corrugated surfaces for nanoparticles with irregular shapes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The recalculated β and β' values inferred from data by Galletto et al.15 in AuNSs using their reported β values per nanoparticle corrected. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07571h

  1. The Role of Mass Transfer between Martian satellites on Surface Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, M.; Nimmo, F.; Udrea, B.

    2015-12-01

    It has recently been recognized that impact ejecta can lead not only to prompt secondary craters, but projectiles that reimpact the target body or nearby companions after an extended period, producing so-called sesquinary craters [1]. Here we examine sesquinary cratering on the moons of Mars (cf. [2] for Phobos). We model the impact that formed Voltaire, the largest crater on Deimos, and explore the orbital evolution of resulting ejecta across 500 years using four-body physics and particle following. The bulk of mass transfer to Phobos occurs in the first 100 years after impact, while reaccretions of ejecta to Deimos continue out to the 104 year timescale as predicted by [3]. In the velocity range capable of reaching Phobos, 25-42% of ejecta mass reaccretes to Deimos and 12-21% impacts Phobos. Mass flux to Mars is <10%. The time-averaged flux of Deimos material to Phobos can be as high as 11% of the background direct-to-Phobos impactor flux, a relatively minor contribution. However the ejecta mass reaccreted to Deimos from a Voltaire-sized impact is comparable to the expected direct-to-Deimos mass accumulated between Voltaire-size events. We find that the characteristic impact velocity of sesquinaries is an order of magnitude smaller than those of background (heliocentric) hypervelocity impactors and will likely result in different crater morphologies. A Voltaire-sized impact could feasibly resurface large parts of the moon, erasing the previous geological record. Dating the surface of Deimos may be more challenging than previously suspected. Deimos craters have been characterized as containing large amounts of fill due to sediment deposition [4]; our results suggest this fill to be sesquinary, as opposed to suborbital, in nature, which may also have implications for the smoothness of the Deimos surface. [1] Zahnle et al., 2008, Icarus. [2] Chappaz et al., 2011, AAS. [3] Soter, 1971, Cornell. [4] Thomas and Veverka, 1980, Icarus.

  2. Modulatory Role of Surface Coating of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoworms in Complement Opsonization and Leukocyte Uptake.

    PubMed

    Inturi, Swetha; Wang, Guankui; Chen, Fangfang; Banda, Nirmal K; Holers, V Michael; Wu, LinPing; Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Simberg, Dmitri

    2015-11-24

    Notwithstanding rapid advances of nanotechnology in diagnostic imaging and drug delivery, the engineered nanocarriers still exhibit substantial lack of hemocompatibility. Thus, when injected systemically, nanoparticles are avidly recognized by blood leukocytes and platelets, but the mechanisms of immune recognition are not well understood and strategies to mitigate these phenomena remain underexplored. Using superparamagnetic dextran iron oxide (SPIO) nanoworms (NWs) we demonstrate an efficient and predominantly complement-dependent uptake by mouse lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes from normal and tumor bearing mice in vitro. Following intravenous injection into wild type mice, blood leukocytes as well as platelets became magnetically labeled, while the labeling was decreased by 95% in complement C3-deficient mice. Using blood cells from healthy and cancer patient donors, we demonstrated that neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes and eosinophils took up SPIO NWs, and the uptake was prevented by EDTA (a general complement inhibitor) and by antiproperdin antibody (an inhibitor of the alternative pathway of the complement system). Cross-linking and hydrogelation of SPIO NWs surface by epichlorohydrin decreased C3 opsonization in mouse serum, and consequently reduced the uptake by mouse leukocytes by more than 70% in vivo. Remarkably, the cross-linked particles did not show a decrease in C3 opsonization in human serum, but showed a significant decrease (over 60%) of the uptake by human leukocytes. The residual uptake of cross-linked nanoparticles was completely blocked by EDTA. These findings demonstrate species differences in complement-mediated nanoparticle recognition and uptake by leukocytes, and further show that human hemocompatibility could be improved by inhibitors of complement alternative pathway and by nanoparticle surface coating. These results provide important insights into the mechanisms of hemocompatibility of nanomedicines. PMID:26488074

  3. CHEMICAL MODELING OF INFRARED DARK CLOUDS: THE ROLE OF SURFACE CHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Vasyunina, T.; Vasyunin, A. I.; Herbst, Eric; Linz, H.

    2012-06-01

    We simulate the chemistry of infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) with a model in which the physical conditions are homogeneous and time independent. The chemistry is solved as a function of time with three networks: one purely gas phase, one that includes accretion and desorption, and one, the complete gas-grain network, that includes surface chemistry in addition. We compare our results with observed molecular abundances for two representative IRDCs-IRDC013.90-1 and IRDC321.73-1-using the molecular species N{sub 2}H{sup +}, HC{sub 3}N, HNC, HCO{sup +}, HCN, C{sub 2}H, NH{sub 3}, and CS. IRDC013.90-1 is a cold IRDC, with a temperature below 20 K, while IRDC321.73-1 is somewhat warmer, in the range 20-30 K. We find that the complete gas-grain model fits the data very well, but that the goodness of fit is not sharply peaked at a particular temperature. Surface processes are important for the explanation of the high gas-phase abundance of N{sub 2}H{sup +} in IRDC321.73-1. The general success of the zero-dimensional model in reproducing single-dish observations of our limited sample of eight species shows that it is probably sufficient for an explanation of this type of data. To build and justify more complicated models, including spatial temperature and density structure, contraction, and heating, we require high-resolution interferometric data.

  4. On the role of long range interactions for the adsorption of sexithiophene on Ag(110) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, Jeronimo; Rojas, Tomas; Yildirim, Handan E-mail: Abdelkader.Kara@ucf.edu; Kara, Abdelkader E-mail: Abdelkader.Kara@ucf.edu

    2014-04-14

    The adsorption characteristics of the sexithiophene (6T) molecule on Ag(110) are studied using density functional theory with the inclusion of van der Waals (vdW) interactions. The stable adsorption configurations on 6T on Ag(110) as well as the nature of bonding the Ag substrate are evaluated. We also assess the performance of the vdW-DF method in describing the adsorption, energetics, heights, as well as the interface characteristics with the Ag(110) surface. We find two lowest adsorption energy configurations, at which the 6T molecule aligns with its molecular long axis parallel and perpendicular to the [001] direction, to be energetically close to each other, suggesting that they may coexist. Our findings indicate a significant increase in the 6T adsorption energies upon the inclusion of vdW interactions with the highest increase obtained using the opt-type functionals, in particular with the optB86b-vdW functional. The revPBE-vdW and rPW86-vdW2 functionals lead to less enhancement in adsorption energies that is attributed to the strong repulsive nature of these functionals, in agreement with earlier predictions. Upon adsorption of the 6T molecule, the changes in the atomic and electronic structures of the 6T molecule and Ag surface are found to be negligible; there is no charge transfer, and no interface state is observed. The work function is reduced upon adsorption with the largest change is ∼0.6 eV obtained using the optB88-vdW functional. The results are in good agreement with the available experimental observations of the adsorption configurations and the work function changes. Based on our results, we conclude that the nature of bonding for 6T on Ag(110) can be classified as strong physisorption.

  5. Role of rainfall intensity and hydrology in nutrient transport via surface runoff.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Peter J A; Srinivasan, M S; Dell, Curtis J; Schmidt, John P; Sharpley, Andrew N; Bryant, Ray B

    2006-01-01

    Loss of soil nutrients in runoff accelerates eutrophication of surface waters. This study evaluated P and N in surface runoff in relation to rainfall intensity and hydrology for two soils along a single hillslope. Experiments were initiated on 1- by 2-m plots at foot-slope (6%) and mid-slope (30%) positions within an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) field. Rain simulations (2.9 and 7.0 cm h(-1)) were conducted under wet (spring) and dry (late-summer) conditions. Elevated, antecedent soil moisture at the foot-slope during the spring resulted in less rain required to generate runoff and greater runoff volumes, compared with runoff from the well-drained mid-slope in spring and at both landscape positions in late summer. Phosphorus in runoff was primarily in dissolved reactive form (DRP averaged 71% of total P), with DRP concentrations from the two soils corresponding with soil test P levels. Nitrogen in runoff was mainly nitrate (NO3-N averaged 77% of total N). Site hydrology, not chemistry, was primarily responsible for variations in mass N and P losses with landscape position. Larger runoff volumes from the foot-slope produced higher losses of total P (0.08 kg ha(-1)) and N (1.35 kg ha(-1)) than did runoff from the mid-slope (0.05 total P kg ha(-1); 0.48 kg N ha(-1)), particularly under wet, spring-time conditions. Nutrient losses were significantly greater under the high intensity rainfall due to larger runoff volumes. Results affirm the critical source area concept for both N and P: both nutrient availability and hydrology in combination control nutrient loss.

  6. Probing roles of lipopolysaccharide, type 1 fimbria, and colanic acid in the attachment of Escherichia coli strains on inert surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yuanqing; Zhang, Tong

    2011-09-20

    The roles of bacterial surface polymers in reversible (phase I) and irreversible (phase II) attachment (i.e., lipopolysaccharides (LPS), type 1 fimbria, and capsular colanic acid (CA)) were investigated in situ by combining fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Fluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate the phase I attachment by counting the total number of cells on the substrata, and AFM was applied to image the phase II cells and measure the lateral detachment force to characterize phase II attachment. Also, by comparing the number of cells in phases I and II, the transformation ratio was calculated and used as an index to evaluate the roles of different polymers in the attachment process. Escherichia coli K-12 and its six mutants, which had different surface polymers in terms of LPS structures, CA contents, and type 1 fimbriae, were used as the test strains. Six different materials were applied as substrata, including glass, two metals (aluminum and stainless steel), and three plastics (polyvinyl chloride, polycarbonate, and polyethylene). The results indicated that LPS significantly enhanced phases I and II attachment as well as the transformation ratio from phase I to II. Like LPS, type 1 fimbriae largely increased the phase I attachment and the transformation ratio; however, they did not significantly influence the adhesion strength in phase II. CA had a negative effect on attachment in phases I and II by decreasing the adhered number of cells and the lateral detachment force, respectively, but had no influence on the transformation ratio. PMID:21842859

  7. Mecanique et mecanisme de la dechirure des materiaux textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triki, Ennouri

    Cette thèse vise à apporter une contribution à l’étude et à la modélisation de la déchirure des textiles et des textiles enduits. Notons que la résistance à la déchirure est l’une des caractéristiques mesurées pour les équipements de protection contre les agresseurs mécaniques en milieu de travail. Jusqu'à présent, ce comportement en déchirure a été étudié en mesurant la force de déchirure et le travail de déchirure. De fait, aucun critère de rupture en déchirure n’existe actuellement. Par conséquent, en s’inspirant de la théorie du Griffith et de la mécanique de la rupture, une formulation d’un nouveau critère de rupture des structures textiles a été proposée. Cette approche offre la possibilité de déterminer d’une manière plus précise l’énergie nécessaire pour la création d’une nouvelle surface de rupture. Ce critère nous permet d’analyser l’effet des caractéristiques des tissus sur la variation de l’énergie de rupture. Cette étude montre que la résistance au glissement des fils dans la structure est le principal facteur qui contrôle la propagation de la fissure. En se basant sur la théorie de la mécanique de la rupture, un modèle de calcul de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure a été aussi élaboré. Ce modèle de déchirure relie l’énergie aux paramètres caractérisant les phénomènes affectant la déchirure des tissus, notamment la force de glissement et la force à la rupture des fils. Cette modélisation a tenu compte de certaines caractéristiques des tissus tels que l’épaisseur du matériau, la densité des fils, etc. Par l’étude de la variation de l’énergie de rupture par déchirure en fonction du rapport établi entre la force à la rupture et la force de glissement d’un fil ( FYB/FS), l’effet des mécanismes de la propagation de la fissure dans les tissus sur leur comportement en déchirure a été aussi observé. Les résultats obtenus

  8. The role of GMES / Sentinels in Land-Surface Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J.

    2009-04-01

    A general trend in the current status of representation of Land Surface schemes into Earth System models is driven by the parameterisation of "cycles" instead of individual processes. Particular emphasis is made to account for couplings among the individual cycles, as between the carbon and water cycles. Moreover, the current tendency is to use the measured data -time series in most cases- together with models, in a data assimilation scenario where inputs from multiple sources are integrated. Such approach is more and more necessary as land models tend to be more complex, and particularly due to the fact that land surface variability is not just driven by physical and chemical processes, but intricate biological processes also altered by anthropogenic influences. Human influences in the land system (land use changes, urban development, etc.) and the impacts of natural disasters are becoming also part of land models, but critical data in high spatial and temporal resolutions are needed to properly model such processes. Until now, problems with data availability, data inconsistency and lack of adequate temporal sampling have limited the potential usefulness of such observations in modelling land surface processes. The availability of the GMES / Sentinel series of satellites represents a quite unique opportunity for consolidation of current tendencies and development of new science based on the new type of data that soon will become available. The usefulness of the different Sentinel missions for Land science has been recognised. Although the Sentinel satellite series were primarily designed to provide observations for operational services and routine applications, there is a growing interest in the scientific community towards the usage of Sentinel data for more advanced and innovative science. Moreover, the availability of consistent time series covering a period of over 20 years opens possibilities never explored before, such as systematic data assimilation

  9. Activation of cord T lymphocytes. IV. Analysis of surface expression and functional role of 1F7 (CD26) molecule.

    PubMed

    Gerli, R; Agea, E; Muscat, C; Ercolani, R; Bistoni, O; Tognellini, R; Mariggió, M A; Spinozzi, F; Bertotto, A

    1994-04-15

    A role for CD26 surface antigen (Ag) in both CD3- and CD2-mediated T cell activation has been previously demonstrated. To analyze the functional role of CD26 in the CD3- and CD2-induced activation pathways of cord T cells, which represent the most reliable source of Ag-unprimed T cells, we employed a newly developed anti-CD26 monoclonal antibody, termed anti-1F7, anti-CD3 and anti-CD2 in activating T lymphocytes. The results showed that CD26 Ag is expressed on the surface of almost all resting cord T cells and that its fluorescence intensity is enhanced by activation. The binding of anti-1F7 induced a decrease in CD26 membrane expression, with no detectable effect on the surface expression of other cord T cell-related molecules. Moreover, the modulation of CD26 resulted in an increase in anti-CD3-mediated cord T cell activation through an enhancement in intracellular calcium levels, IL-2 receptor expression, and IL-2 synthesis, whereas it had no effect on cord T cell activation induced by anti-CD2 or anti-CD2 plus exogenous IL-2. The fact that the selective involvement of CD26 in the activation pathway triggered by anti-CD3, but not anti-CD2, could be reversed by prior stimulation of cord T cells with anti-CD3 suggests that this functional feature, which resembles that of mature thymocytes, may be linked to the Ag-unprimed cell phenotype of cord T lymphocytes. PMID:7909498

  10. The role of direct photolysis and indirect photochemistry in the environmental fate of ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC) in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Vione, D; Calza, P; Galli, F; Fabbri, D; Santoro, V; Medana, C

    2015-12-15

    The aquatic environmental fate of ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC), one of the most used UVB filters worldwide, was studied by assessing its environmental persistence and photoinduced transformations. The role of direct and indirect photolysis was evaluated. Direct photolysis was shown to play a key role, and this process is expected to be the main attenuation route of EHMC in sunlit surface waters. In contrast, the reaction with OH radicals would be negligible and that with (3)CDOM* would at most be a secondary process. The measurement of the quantum yield of direct photolysis and of the rate constants of reaction with photogenerated transient species (or, sometimes, the use of reasonable values for the latter) allowed the prediction of the EHMC half-life time in surface waters, by means of a validated photochemical model. The predicted EHMC lifetime is of the order of hours to a few days in fair-weather summertime, and the main factors controlling the EHMC phototransformation in sunlit surface waters would be the water depth and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. The formation of transformation products (TPs) was followed as well via HPLC/HRMS. Three TPs were detected in the samples exposed to UVA radiation, while one additional TP was detected in the samples exposed to UVB radiation. The detected TPs comprised 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, a hydroxylated derivative and dimeric species. Through the use of heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2, seven additional TPs were identified, most of them resulting from the further degradation of primary TPs formed through direct photolysis and that might be detected in aquatic systems as well. The photodegradation of EHMC in the presence of TiO2 yielded more toxic TPs than the parent compound (as determined with the Vibrio fischeri Microtox assay). The increased toxicity is partially accounted for by the formation of 4-methoxybenzaldehyde.

  11. Role of Sea Surface Warming in Triggering Amplification of Coastal Rainfall Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Edmund; Semenov, Vladimir; Maraun, Douglas; Park, Wonsun; Chernokulsky, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Whether recent changes in the occurrence of meteorological extremes are attributable to a warmer climate remains a challenging question. One area where the potential for extreme summertime convective precipitation has grown recently, along with substantial sea surface temperature (SST) increase, is the Black Sea and Mediterranean (BSM) region. To study mechanisms through which SST increase may impact BSM convective extremes, we take the July 2012 precipitation extreme near the Black Sea town of Krymsk as a recent showcase example. The event was related to a slow moving low pressure system crossing the eastern Black Sea, advecting warm and moist air towards the coast. Two waves of convection resulted in precipitation totals that dwarfed all previous events in the instrumental record, dating back to the 1930s, and over 170 deaths. The synoptic environment which led to this event is typical of that found with intense summertime precipitation in the BSM region. We carry out ensemble sensitivity experiments over an eastern Black Sea domain with the WRF regional model, using multiply nested sub-domains, increasing to 600 m convection resolving resolution. The model's ability to reproduce the event with observed SST forcing is first verified, before a series of additional ensembles with altered SST is created. These ensembles consist of subtracting (adding) the 1982 - 2012 trend in Black Sea SST from (to) the observed 2012 SST field in 20% increments, giving a total of 11 ensembles whose SST differ from the observed field by between -100% and +100% of the warming trend. We demonstrate that such an intense precipitation event would not have been possible without the recent Black Sea warming. The increased SST enhances low-level instability, allowing deep convection to be triggered and causing a more than 300% increase in precipitation. Additionally, a highly nonlinear precipitation response to incrementally increasing SST suggests that Black Sea SSTs have exceeded a

  12. The role of soil moisture in land surface-atmosphere coupling: climate model sensitivity experiments over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Charles; Turner, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    It is generally acknowledged that anthropogenic land use changes, such as a shift from forested land into irrigated agriculture, may have an impact on regional climate and, in particular, rainfall patterns in both time and space. India provides an excellent example of a country in which widespread land use change has occurred during the last century, as the country tries to meet its growing demand for food. Of primary concern for agriculture is the Indian summer monsoon (ISM), which displays considerable seasonal and subseasonal variability. Although it is evident that changing rainfall variability will have a direct impact on land surface processes (such as soil moisture variability), the reverse impact is less well understood. However, the role of soil moisture in the coupling between the land surface and atmosphere needs to be properly explored before any potential impact of changing soil moisture variability on ISM rainfall can be understood. This paper attempts to address this issue, by conducting a number of sensitivity experiments using a state-of-the-art climate model from the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre: HadGEM2. Several experiments are undertaken, with the only difference between them being the extent to which soil moisture is coupled to the atmosphere. Firstly, the land surface is fully coupled to the atmosphere, globally (as in standard model configurations); secondly, the land surface is entirely uncoupled from the atmosphere, again globally, with soil moisture values being prescribed on a daily basis; thirdly, the land surface is uncoupled from the atmosphere over India but fully coupled elsewhere; and lastly, vice versa (i.e. the land surface is coupled to the atmosphere over India but uncoupled elsewhere). Early results from this study suggest certain 'hotspot' regions where the impact of soil moisture coupling/uncoupling may be important, and many of these regions coincide with previous studies. Focusing on the third experiment, i

  13. Early cystic fibrosis lung disease: Role of airway surface dehydration and lessons from preventive rehydration therapies in mice.

    PubMed

    Mall, Marcus A; Graeber, Simon Y; Stahl, Mirjam; Zhou-Suckow, Zhe

    2014-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease starts in the first months of life and remains one of the most common fatal hereditary diseases. Early therapeutic interventions may provide an opportunity to prevent irreversible lung damage and improve outcome. Airway surface dehydration is a key disease mechanism in CF, however, its role in the in vivo pathogenesis and as therapeutic target in early lung disease remains poorly understood. Mice with airway-specific overexpression of the epithelial Na(+) channel (βENaC-Tg) recapitulate airway surface dehydration and phenocopy CF lung disease. Recent studies in neonatal βENaC-Tg mice demonstrated that airway surface dehydration produces early mucus plugging in the absence of mucus hypersecretion, which triggers airway inflammation, promotes bacterial infection and causes early mortality. Preventive rehydration therapy with hypertonic saline or amiloride effectively reduced mucus plugging and mortality in neonatal βENaC-Tg mice. These results support clinical testing of preventive/early rehydration strategies in infants and young children with CF. PMID:24561284

  14. Unforeseen distance-dependent SERS spectroelectrochemistry from surface-tethered Nile Blue: the role of molecular orientation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew J; Willets, Katherine A

    2016-08-15

    Covalent immobilization of redox-active dyes is an important strategy to evaluate structure-activity relationships in nanoscale electrochemistry by using optical readouts such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Here we investigate the role of the tether length in the SERS spectroelectrochemistry of surface-attached Nile Blue. Differential pulse voltammetry and a potential-dependent SERS derivative analysis reveal that the Nile Blue molecules adopt a different orientation with respect to the electrode surface as the number of carbons in a carboxylic acid-terminated alkanethiol monolayer is varied, which leads to unique SERS spectroelectrochemical behaviors. We use the relative molecular orientations and spectral characteristics to propose a model in which tethers shorter than the length of the molecule limit molecular motion under electrochemical perturbation, but tethers longer than the length of the molecule allow dye intercalation into the hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer, producing an unexpected decrease in the SERS intensity when the molecule is in the oxidized form. PMID:27337143

  15. The Role of Large-Coherent-Eddy Transport in the Atmospheric Surface Layer Based on CASES-99 Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jielun; Lenschow, Donald H.; LeMone, Margaret A.; Mahrt, Larry

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of momentum and heat fluxes from the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study 1999 (CASES-99) field experiment is extended throughout the diurnal cycle following the investigation of nighttime turbulence by Sun et al. (J Atmos Sci 69:338-351, 2012). Based on the observations, limitations of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) are examined in detail. The analysis suggests that strong turbulent mixing is dominated by relatively large coherent eddies that are not related to local vertical gradients as assumed in MOST. The HOckey-Stick Transition (HOST) hypothesis is developed to explain the generation of observed large coherent eddies over a finite depth and the contribution of these eddies to vertical variations of turbulence intensity and atmospheric stratification throughout the diurnal cycle. The HOST hypothesis emphasizes the connection between dominant turbulent eddies and turbulence generation scales, and the coupling between the turbulence kinetic energy and the turbulence potential energy within the turbulence generation layer in determining turbulence intensity. For turbulence generation directly influenced by the surface, the HOST hypothesis recognizes the role of the surface both in the vertical variation of momentum and heat fluxes and its boundary effect on the size of the dominant turbulence eddies.

  16. Institutional outbreaks of rotavirus diarrhoea: potential role of fomites and environmental surfaces as vehicles for virus transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Sattar, S. A.; Lloyd-Evans, N.; Springthorpe, V. S.; Nair, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    To assess the potential of fomites and environmental surfaces as vehicles in the transmission of rotaviral diarrhoea, disks (1 cm diameter) of various porous and non-porous materials were contaminated with about 10(5) plaque-forming units of the Wa strain of human rotavirus (HRV) suspended in faecal matter. The contaminated disks were then held for 10 days at either room temperature (22 +/- 2 degrees C) or 4 degrees C with the relative humidity (RH) at the high (85 +/- 5%), medium (50 +/- 5%) or low (25 +/- 5%) level. Survival was longer on non-porous surfaces at the lower temperature and at lower humidity. In contrast, survival on porous surfaces was very variable; better on cotton-polyester than on poster card or paper currency on which HRV survived very poorly. These results suggest that under the right environmental conditions, HRV-contaminated objects could play a role in the transmission of rotavirus infections in hospitals, nursing homes and day-care centres. PMID:3701042

  17. Role of LiCoO2 Surface Terminations in Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Binghong; Qian, Danna; Risch, Marcel; Chi, Miaofang; Meng, Ying Shirley; Yang, Shao-horn

    2015-03-22

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activities of LiCoO2 nanorods with sizes in the range from 9 to 40 nm were studied in alkaline solution. The sides of these nanorods were terminated with low-index surfaces such as (003) while the tips were terminated largely with high-index surfaces such as (104) as revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Electron energy loss spectroscopy demonstrated that low-spin Co3+ prevailed on the sides, while the tips exhibited predominantly high- or intermediate-spin Co3+. We correlated the electronic and atomic structure to higher specific ORR and OER activities at the tips as compared to the sides, which was accompanied by more facile redox of Co2+/3+ and higher charge transferred per unit area. These findings highlight the critical role of surface terminations and electronic structures of transition metal oxides on the ORR and OER activity.

  18. Role of surface-electrical properties on the cell-viability of carbon thin films grown in nanodomain morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javid, Amjed; Kumar, Manish; Yoon, Seokyoung; Lee, Jung Heon; Tajima, Satomi; Hori, Masaru; Geon Han, Jeon

    2016-07-01

    Carbon thin films, having a combination of unique physical and chemical properties, exhibit an interesting biocompatibility and biological response to living entities. Here, the carbon films are developed in the morphology form of nano-domains with nanoscale inter-domain separations, tuned by plasma conditions in the facing target magnetron sputtering process. The wettability and surface energy are found to have a close relation to the inter-domain separations. The chemical structure of carbon films exhibited the relative enhancement of sp3 in comparison to sp2 with the increase of domain separations. The cell-viability of these films shows promising results for L929 mouse fibroblast and Saos-2 bone cells, when inter-domain separation is increased. Electrical conductivity and surface energy are identified to play the key role in different time-scales during the cell-proliferation process. The contribution from electrical conductivity is dominant in the beginning of the cultivation, whereas with the passage of time (~3-5 d) the surface energy takes control over conductivity to enhance the cell proliferation.

  19. Roles of ionic strength and biofilm roughness on adhesion kinetics of Escherichia coli onto groundwater biofilm grown on PVC surfaces.

    PubMed

    Janjaroen, Dao; Ling, Fangqiong Q; Ling, Fangqiong; Monroy, Guillermo; Derlon, Nicolas; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Mogenroth, Eberhard; Boppart, Stephen A; Liu, Wen-Tso; Nguyen, Thanh H

    2013-05-01

    Mechanisms of Escherichia coli attachment on biofilms grown on PVC coupons were investigated. Biofilms were grown in CDC reactors using groundwater as feed solution over a period up to 27 weeks. Biofilm physical structure was characterized at the micro- and meso-scales using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), respectively. Microbial community diversity was analyzed with Terminal Restricted Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). Both physical structure and microbial community diversity of the biofilms were shown to be changing from 2 weeks to 14 weeks, and became relatively stable after 16 weeks. A parallel plate flow chamber coupled with an inverted fluorescent microscope was also used to monitor the attachment of fluorescent microspheres and E. coli on clean PVC surfaces and biofilms grown on PVC surfaces for different ages. Two mechanisms of E. coli attachment were identified. The adhesion rate coefficients (kd) of E. coli on nascent PVC surfaces and 2-week biofilms increased with ionic strength. However, after biofilms grew for 8 weeks, the adhesion was found to be independent of solution chemistry. Instead, a positive correlation between kd and biofilm roughness as determined by OCT was obtained, indicating that the physical structure of biofilms could play an important role in facilitating the adhesion of E. coli cells.

  20. Roles of ionic strength and biofilm roughness on adhesion kinetics of Escherichia coli onto groundwater biofilm grown on PVC surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Janjaroen, Dao; Ling, Fangqiong; Monroy, Guillermo; Derlon, Nicolas; Mogenroth, Eberhard; Boppart, Stephen A.; Liu, Wen-Tso; Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms of Escherichia coli attachment on biofilms grown on PVC coupons were investigated. Biofilms were grown in CDC reactors using groundwater as feed solution over a period up to 27 weeks. Biofilm physical structure was characterized at the micro- and meso-scales using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), respectively. Microbial community diversity was analyzed with Terminal Restricted Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP). Both physical structure and microbial community diversity of the biofilms were shown to be changing from 2 weeks to 14 weeks, and became relatively stable after 16 weeks. A parallel plate flow chamber coupled with an inverted fluorescent microscope was also used to monitor the attachment of fluorescent microspheres and E. coli on clean PVC surfaces and biofilms grown on PVC surfaces for different ages. Two mechanisms of E. coli attachment were identified. The adhesion rate coefficients (kd) of E. coli on nascent PVC surfaces and 2-week biofilms increased with ionic strength. However, after biofilms grew for 8 weeks, the adhesion was found to be independent of solution chemistry. Instead, a positive correlation between kd and biofilm roughness as determined by OCT was obtained, indicating that the physical structure of biofilms could play an important role in facilitating the adhesion of E. coli cells. PMID:23497979

  1. Role of surface-electrical properties on the cell-viability of carbon thin films grown in nanodomain morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javid, Amjed; Kumar, Manish; Yoon, Seokyoung; Lee, Jung Heon; Tajima, Satomi; Hori, Masaru; Geon Han, Jeon

    2016-07-01

    Carbon thin films, having a combination of unique physical and chemical properties, exhibit an interesting biocompatibility and biological response to living entities. Here, the carbon films are developed in the morphology form of nano-domains with nanoscale inter-domain separations, tuned by plasma conditions in the facing target magnetron sputtering process. The wettability and surface energy are found to have a close relation to the inter-domain separations. The chemical structure of carbon films exhibited the relative enhancement of sp3 in comparison to sp2 with the increase of domain separations. The cell-viability of these films shows promising results for L929 mouse fibroblast and Saos-2 bone cells, when inter-domain separation is increased. Electrical conductivity and surface energy are identified to play the key role in different time-scales during the cell-proliferation process. The contribution from electrical conductivity is dominant in the beginning of the cultivation, whereas with the passage of time (~3–5 d) the surface energy takes control over conductivity to enhance the cell proliferation.

  2. Dominant Role of Molybdenum in the Electrochemical Deposition of Biological Macromolecules on Metallic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The corrosion of CoCrMo, an alloy frequently used in orthopedic implants, was studied with an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) in three physiologically relevant solutions. Mass changes were measured during potentiodynamic tests, showing material deposition in protein solutions at potential levels that caused mass loss when the proteins were not present. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data indicated that the deposited material was primarily organic and therefore was most likely derived from proteins in the electrolyte. Material deposition consistently occurred at a critical potential and was not dependent on the current density or total charge released into solution. Corrosion studies on pure Co, Cr, and Mo in protein solutions found material deposition only on Mo. We hypothesize that organic deposition results from the interaction of Mo(VI) with proteins in the surrounding solution. The organic layer is reminiscent of tribochemical reaction layers that form on the surface of CoCrMo hip bearings, suggesting that these types of layers can be formed by purely electrochemical means. PMID:23550942

  3. Role of soil health in maintaining environmental sustainability of surface coal mining.

    PubMed

    Acton, Peter M; Fox, James F; Campbell, J Elliott; Jones, Alice L; Rowe, Harold; Martin, Darren; Bryson, Sebastian

    2011-12-01

    Mountaintop coal mining (MCM) in the Southern Appalachian forest region greatly impacts both soil and aquatic ecosystems. Policy and practice currently in place emphasize water quality and soil stability but do not consider upland soil health. Here we report soil organic carbon (SOC) measurements and other soil quality indicators for reclaimed soils in the Southern Appalachian forest region to quantify the health of the soil ecosystem. The SOC sequestration rate of the MCM soils was 1.3 MgC ha(-1) yr(-1) and stocks ranged from 1.3 ± 0.9 to 20.9 ± 5.9 Mg ha(-1) and contained only 11% of the SOC of surrounding forest soils. Comparable reclaimed mining soils reported in the literature that are supportive of soil ecosystem health had SOC stocks 2.5-5 times greater than the MCM soils and sequestration rates were also 1.6-3 times greater. The high compaction associated with reclamation in this region greatly reduces both the vegetative rooting depth and infiltration of the soil and increases surface runoff, thus bypassing the ability of soil to naturally filter groundwater. In the context of environmental sustainability of MCM, it is proposed that the entire watershed ecosystem be assessed and that a revision of current policy be conducted to reflect the health of both water and soil.

  4. Role of Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Cerys A; Lewis, Paul D; Dunstan, Peter R; Harris, Dean A

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cancer in the United Kingdom and is the second largest cause of cancer related death in the United Kingdom after lung cancer. Currently in the United Kingdom there is not a diagnostic test that has sufficient differentiation between patients with cancer and those without cancer so the current referral system relies on symptomatic presentation in a primary care setting. Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) are forms of vibrational spectroscopy that offer a non-destructive method to gain molecular information about biological samples. The techniques offer a wide range of applications from in vivo or in vitro diagnostics using endoscopic probes, to the use of micro-spectrometers for analysis of biofluids. The techniques have the potential to detect molecular changes prior to any morphological changes occurring in the tissue and therefore could offer many possibilities to aid the detection of CRC. The purpose of this review is to look at the current state of diagnostic technology in the United Kingdom. The development of Raman spectroscopy and SERS in clinical applications relation for CRC will then be discussed. Finally, future areas of research of Raman/SERS as a clinical tool for the diagnosis of CRC are also discussed. PMID:27190582

  5. The Role of OOH Binding Site and Pt Surface Structure on ORR Activities

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Qingying; Caldwell, Keegan; Ziegelbauer, Joseph M.; Kongkanand, Anusorn; Wagner, Frederick T.; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Ramaker, David E.

    2015-01-01

    We present experimentally observed molecular adsorbate coverages (e.g., O(H), OOH and HOOH) on real operating dealloyed bimetallic PtMx (M = Ni or Co) catalysts under oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) conditions obtained using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). The results reveal a complex Sabatier catalysis behavior and indicate the active ORR mechanism changes with Pt–O bond weakening from the O2 dissociative mechanism, to the peroxyl mechanism, and finally to the hydrogen peroxide mechanism. An important rearrangement of the OOH binding site, an intermediate in the ORR, enables facile H addition to OOH and faster O–O bond breaking on 111 faces at optimal Pt–O bonding strength, such as that occurring in dealloyed PtM core-shell nanoparticles. This rearrangement is identified by previous DFT calculations and confirmed from in situ measured OOH adsorption coverages during the ORR. The importance of surface structural effects and 111 ordered faces is confirmed by the higher specific ORR rates on solid core vs porous multi-core nanoparticles. PMID:26190857

  6. Osteogenic lineage restriction by osteoprogenitors cultured on nanometric grooved surfaces: the role of focal adhesion maturation.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, John W; Roberts, Jemma N; Smith, Carol-Anne; Robertson, Mary; White, Kate; Biggs, Manus J; Oreffo, Richard O C; Dalby, Matthew J

    2014-02-01

    The differentiation of progenitor cells is dependent on more than biochemical signalling. Topographical cues in natural bone extracellular matrix guide cellular differentiation through the formation of focal adhesions, contact guidance, cytoskeletal rearrangement and ultimately gene expression. Osteoarthritis and a number of bone disorders present as growing challenges for our society. Hence, there is a need for next generation implantable devices to substitute for, or guide, bone repair in vivo. Cellular responses to nanometric topographical cues need to be better understood in vitro in order to ensure the effective and efficient integration and performance of these orthopedic devices. In this study, the FDA-approved plastic polycaprolactone was embossed with nanometric grooves and the response of primary and immortalized osteoprogenitor cells observed. Nanometric groove dimensions were 240 nm or 540 nm deep and 12.5 μm wide. Cells cultured on test surfaces followed contact guidance along the length of groove edges, elongated along their major axis and showed nuclear distortion; they formed more focal complexes and lower proportions of mature adhesions relative to planar controls. Down-regulation of the osteoblast marker genes RUNX2 and BMPR2 in primary and immortalized cells was observed on grooved substrates. Down-regulation appeared to directly correlate with focal adhesion maturation, indicating the involvement of ERK 1/2 negative feedback pathways following integrin-mediated FAK activation. PMID:24252447

  7. Role of Carbon-Addition and Hydrogen-Migration Reactions in Soot Surface Growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Bo; Hou, Dingyu; Law, Chung K; You, Xiaoqing

    2016-02-11

    Using density functional theory and master equation modeling, we have studied the kinetics of small unsaturated aliphatic molecules reacting with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules having a diradical character. We have found that these reactions follow the mechanism of carbon addition and hydrogen migration (CAHM) on both spin-triplet and open-shell singlet potential energy surfaces at a rate that is about ten times those of the hydrogen-abstraction-carbon-addition (HACA) reactions at 1500 K in the fuel-rich postflame region. The results also show that the most active reaction sites are in the center of the zigzag edges of the PAHs. Furthermore, the reaction products are more likely to form straight rather than branched aliphatic side chains in the case of reacting with diacetylene. The computed rate constants are also found to be independent of pressure at conditions of interest in soot formation, and the activation barriers of the CAHM reactions are linearly correlated with the diradical characters.

  8. Surface Glycans of Candida albicans and Other Pathogenic Fungi: Physiological Roles, Clinical Uses, and Experimental Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Masuoka, James

    2004-01-01

    Although fungi have always been with us as commensals and pathogens, fungal infections have been increasing in frequency over the past few decades. There is a growing body of literature describing the involvement of carbohydrate groups in various aspects of fungal disease. Carbohydrates comprising the cell wall or capsule, or as a component of glycoproteins, are the fungal cell surface entities most likely to be exposed to the surrounding environment. Thus, the fungus-host interaction is likely to involve carbohydrates before DNA, RNA, or even protein. The interaction between fungal and host cells is also complex, and early studies using whole cells or crude cell fractions often produced seemingly conflicting results. What was needed, and what has been developing, is the ability to identify specific glycan structures and determine how they interact with immune system components. Carbohydrate analysis is complicated by the complexity of glycan structures and by the challenges of separating and detecting carbohydrates experimentally. Advances in carbohydrate chemistry have enabled us to move from the foundation of composition analysis to more rapid characterization of specific structures. This, in turn, will lead to a greater understanding of how fungi coexist with their hosts as commensals or exist in conflict as pathogens. PMID:15084502

  9. The role of Ag buffer layer in Fe islands growth on Ge (111) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Tsu-Yi Wu, Jia-Yuan; Jhou, Ming-Kuan; Hsu, Hung-Chan

    2015-05-07

    Sub-monolayer iron atoms were deposited at room temperature on Ge (111)-c(2 × 8) substrates with and without Ag buffer layers. The behavior of Fe islands growth was investigated by using scanning tunneling microscope (STM) after different annealing temperatures. STM images show that iron atoms will cause defects and holes on substrates at room temperature. As the annealing temperature rises, iron atoms pull out germanium to form various kinds of alloyed islands. However, the silver layer can protect the Ag/Ge(111)-(√3×√3) reconstruction from forming defects. The phase diagram shows that ring, dot, and triangular defects were only found on Ge (111)-c(2 × 8) substrates. The kinds of islands found in Fe/Ge system are similar to Fe/Ag/Ge system. It indicates that Ge atoms were pulled out to form islands at high annealing temperatures whether there was a Ag layer or not. But a few differences in big pyramidal or strip islands show that the silver layer affects the development of islands by changing the surface symmetry and diffusion coefficient. The structure characters of various islands are also discussed.

  10. Role of Carbon-Addition and Hydrogen-Migration Reactions in Soot Surface Growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Bo; Hou, Dingyu; Law, Chung K; You, Xiaoqing

    2016-02-11

    Using density functional theory and master equation modeling, we have studied the kinetics of small unsaturated aliphatic molecules reacting with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules having a diradical character. We have found that these reactions follow the mechanism of carbon addition and hydrogen migration (CAHM) on both spin-triplet and open-shell singlet potential energy surfaces at a rate that is about ten times those of the hydrogen-abstraction-carbon-addition (HACA) reactions at 1500 K in the fuel-rich postflame region. The results also show that the most active reaction sites are in the center of the zigzag edges of the PAHs. Furthermore, the reaction products are more likely to form straight rather than branched aliphatic side chains in the case of reacting with diacetylene. The computed rate constants are also found to be independent of pressure at conditions of interest in soot formation, and the activation barriers of the CAHM reactions are linearly correlated with the diradical characters. PMID:26799641

  11. Surface plasmon polaritons in a semi-bounded degenerate plasma: Role of spatial dispersion and collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Tyshetskiy, Yu.; Kompaneets, R.; Vladimirov, S. V.

    2012-11-15

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in a semi-bounded degenerate plasma (e.g., a metal) are studied using the quasiclassical mean-field kinetic model, taking into account the spatial dispersion of the plasma (due to quantum degeneracy of electrons) and electron-ion (electron-lattice, for metals) collisions. SPP dispersion and damping are obtained in both retarded ({omega}/k{sub z}{approx}c) and non-retarded ({omega}/k{sub z} Much-Less-Than c) regions, as well as in between. It is shown that the plasma spatial dispersion significantly affects the properties of SPPs, especially at short wavelengths (less than the collisionless skin depth, {lambda} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To c/{omega}{sub pe}). Namely, the collisionless (Landau) damping of SPPs (due to spatial dispersion) is comparable to the purely collisional (Ohmic) damping (due to electron-lattice collisions) in a wide range of SPP wavelengths, e.g., from {lambda}{approx}20 nm to {lambda}{approx}0.8 nm for SPP in gold at T = 293 K and from {lambda}{approx}400 nm to {lambda}{approx}0.7 nm for SPPs in gold at T = 100 K. The spatial dispersion is also shown to affect, in a qualitative way, the dispersion of SPPs at short wavelengths {lambda} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To c/{omega}{sub pe}.

  12. THE ROLE OF MASS BALANCE EQUATIONS IN GROWTH MECHANICS ILLUSTRATED IN SURFACE AND VOLUME DISSOLUTION

    PubMed Central

    ATESHIAN, GERARD A.

    2011-01-01

    Growth mechanics problems require the solution of mass balance equations that include supply terms and account for mass exchanges among constituents of a mixture. Though growth may often be accompanied by a variety of concomitant phenomena that increase modeling complexity, such as solid matrix deformation, evolving traction-free configurations, cell division, active cell contraction, etc., it is important to distinguish these accompanying phenomena from the fundamental growth process that consists of deposition or removal of mass from the solid matrix. Therefore the objective of the current study is to present a canonical problem of growth, namely dissolution of a rigid solid matrix in a solvent. This problem illustrates a case of negative growth (loss of mass) of the solid, in a mixture framework that includes three species: a solid, a solvent and a solute, where the solute is the product of the solid dissolution. By analyzing both volumetric and surface dissolution, the two fundamental modes of growth are investigated within the unified framework of mixture theory. PMID:21186900

  13. Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

  14. Quantification of biofilms in a sub-surface flow wetland and their role in nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Larsen, E; Greenway, M

    2004-01-01

    Subsurface flow wetlands contain gravel or sand substrates through which the wastewater flows vertically or horizontally. The aims of this study were, firstly, to quantify biofilm development associated with different size gravel in sections of a subsurface flow wetland with and without plants, and secondly, to conduct laboratory experiments to examine the role of biofilms in nutrient removal. Techniques to quantify biofilm included: bacterial cell counts, EPS and total protein extraction. Based on comparative gravel sample volume, only EPS was greater on the smaller 5 mm gravel particles. There was no significant difference between biofilm growth in sections with and without plants. Two vertical flow laboratory-scale reactors, one containing fresh wetland gravel, the other containing autoclaved gravel, were constructed to determine nutrient transformations. The autoclaved gravel in the "sterile" reactor rapidly became colonised with biofilm. Both reactors were dosed with two types of influent. Initially the influent contained 7.25 mg/L NO3-N and 0.3 mg/L NH4-N; the biofilm reactor removed most of the ammonium and nitrite but nitrate concentrations were only reduced by 20%. In the "sterile" reactor there was negligible removal of ammonium and nitrite indicating little nitrification, however nitrate was reduced by 72%, possibly due to assimilatory nitrate reduction associated with new biofilm development. When the influent contained 3 mg/L NO3-N and 16 mg/L NH4-N almost 100% removal and transformation of NH4-N occurred in both reactors providing an effluent high in NO3-N. Organic P was reduced but inorganic soluble P increased possibly due to mineralisation. PMID:15303731

  15. Role of the extracellular domain of human herpesvirus 7 glycoprotein B in virus binding to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed Central

    Secchiero, P; Sun, D; De Vico, A L; Crowley, R W; Reitz, M S; Zauli, G; Lusso, P; Gallo, R C

    1997-01-01

    In an attempt to identify the human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) envelope protein(s) involved in cell surface binding, the extracellular domain of the HHV-7 glycoprotein B (gB) homolog protein was cloned and expressed as a fusion product with the Fc domain of human immunoglobulin G heavy chain gamma1 (gB-Fc) in an eukaryotic cell system. Indirect immunofluorescence followed by flow cytometric analysis revealed specific binding of gB-Fc to the membrane of SupT1 cells but not to other CD4+ T-lymphoblastoid cell lines, such as Jurkat or PM1, clearly indicating that gB-Fc did not bind to the CD4 molecule. This was also suggested by the ability of gB-Fc to bind to CD4-negative fibroblastoid Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The binding was abrogated by enzymatic removal of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans by heparinase and heparitinase but not by treatment with condroitinase ABC. In addition, binding of the gB-Fc fusion protein to CHO cells was severely impaired in the presence of soluble heparin, as well as when heparan sulfate-deficient mutant CHO cells were used. Consistent with these findings, soluble heparin was found to block HHV-7 infection and syncytium formation in the SupT1 cell line. Although the CD4 antigen is a critical component of the receptor for the T-lymphotropic HHV-7, these findings suggest that heparin-like molecules also play an important role in HHV-7-cell surface interactions required for infection and that gB represents one of the HHV-7 envelope proteins involved in the adsorption of virus-to-cell surface proteoglycans. PMID:9151851

  16. Role of Rective Mineral Surface Area on the CO2 Mineralisation of CO2 Under Natural Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuddas, P.; Rillard, J.

    2011-12-01

    The understanding of complex reactions between CO2 rich fluids and rock is fundamental to secured, long-term CO2 storage in geological reservoirs. A natural hydrothermal field is considered to be a useful analogue of carbon dioxide mineralization because it integrates the long-term interaction signal. The hydrothermal field of Galicia (Spain) is characterized by co-genetic fluids resulting from a mostly homogeneous granite reservoir with pCO2 partial pressure ranging from 104 to105 Pa and pH from 10 to 6. Fluids are characterized by an increase of major elements (Ca, Mg, K and Na) and alkalinity, both correlated to pCO2. We evaluated the effects of deep CO2 perturbation on the fluid-rock interaction system. Mineral reactivity which produces changes in the fluid mineral composition is mainly dependent on the 'real' reactive surface area. The mineral surface area participating in reactions resulting from this pCO2 gradient was estimated by an inverse model approach. Input data was based on the chemical composition of the fluids we sampled. The rate of mineral dissolution was estimated by the observed pH and equilibrium conditions. Moreover, the major elemental concentrations allowed us to quantify the variation of the reactive surface area of minerals involved with the overall water-rock interaction. The irreversible mass transfer process, ruled by the continuum equilibrium condition, was defined by the overall degree of reaction advancement, using a set of polynomial equations solved independently of time scale. We found that reactive surface area of calcite, albite and K-feldspar increases by 2 orders of magnitude over the entire CO2 fluid-rock interaction process, while the reactive surface area of biotite increases by 4 orders of magnitude. This shows that fluid neutralisation and consequent CO2 mineralization under the form of carbonate species is greatly dependent on the behaviour of the reactive surface area of the mineral association in this geological

  17. cAMP increases surface expression of NKCC2 in rat thick ascending limbs: role of VAMP.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Pablo A

    2006-03-01

    NaCl absorption by the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL) is mediated by the apical Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC2. cAMP increases NaCl absorption in the TAL by stimulating NKCC2. In oocytes, cAMP increases NKCC2 activity by regulating its trafficking. However, the mechanism by which cAMP stimulates NKCC2 in TALs is not clear. We hypothesized that cAMP increases surface expression of NKCC2 and NaCl absorption in TALs and that vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) is involved in this mechanism. We used surface biotinylation of rat medullary TALs (mTAL) to examine surface and total NKCC2 levels. When mTAL suspensions were treated with dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP) or forskolin plus IBMX for 20 min, surface NKCC2 expression increased by 126 +/- 23 and 92 +/- 17% above basal, respectively (P < 0.03). No changes in total NKCC2 expression were observed, suggesting that cAMP increased translocation of NKCC2. We studied the role of VAMP in NKCC2 translocation and found that incubating mTALs with tetanus toxin (30 nM), which inhibits vesicle trafficking by inactivating VAMP-2 and -3, completely blocked the stimulatory effect of db-cAMP on surface NKCC2 expression (tetanus toxin = 100% vs. tetanus toxin + db-cAMP = 102 +/- 21% of control; not significant). We studied VAMP-2 and -3 expression and localization in isolated perfused TALs by confocal microscopy and found that both of them were located in the subapical space of the TAL. Finally, in isolated perfused mTALs, db-cAMP increased net Cl absorption by 95.0 +/- 34.8% (P < 0.03), and pretreatment of TALs with tetanus toxin blocked the stimulation of Cl absorption (from 110.9 +/- 15.9 to 109.7 +/- 15.6 pmol.min(-1).mm(-1); not significant). We concluded that cAMP increases NKCC2 surface expression by a mechanism involving VAMP and that NKCC2 trafficking to the apical membrane is involved in the stimulation of TAL NaCl absorption by cAMP.

  18. Fish population losses from Adirondack Lakes: The role of surface water acidity and acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Joan P.; Warren-Hicks, William J.; Gallagher, James; Christensen, Sigurd W.

    1993-04-01

    Changes over time in the species composition of fish communities in Adirondack lakes were assessed to determine (1) the approximate numbers offish populations that have been lost and (2) the degree to which fish population losses may have resulted from surface water acidification and acidic deposition. Information on the present-day status offish communities was obtained by the Adirondack Lakes Survey Corporation, which surveyed 1469 Adirondack lakes in 1984-1987 (53% of the total ponded waters in the Adirondack ecological zone). Two hundred and ninety-five of these lakes had been surveyed in 1929-1934 during the first statewide biological survey; 720 had been surveyed in one or more years prior to 1970. Sixteen to 19% of the lakes with adequate historical data appeared to have lost one or more fish populations as a result of acidification. Brook trout and acid-sensitive minnow species had experienced the most widespread effects. Populations of brook trout and acid-sensitive minnows had been lost apparently as a result of acidification from 11% and 19%, respectively, of the lakes with confirmed historical occurrence of these taxa. By contrast, fish species that tend to occur primarily in lower elevation and larger lakes, such as largemouth and smallmouth bass and brown trout, have experienced little to no documented adverse effects. Lakes that were judged to have lost fish populations as a result of acidification had significantly lower; pH and, in most cases, also had higher estimated concentrations of inorganic aluminum and occurred at higher elevations than did lakes with the fish species still present. No other lake characteristics were consistently associated with fish population losses attributed to acidification. The exact numbers and proportions of fish populations affected could not be determined because of limitations on the quantity and quality of historical data. Lakes for which we had adequate historical data to assess long-term trends in fish

  19. A role of Bradyrhizobium elkanii and closely related strains in the degradation of methoxychlor in soil and surface water environments.

    PubMed

    Satsuma, Koji; Masuda, Minoru; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We have reported that a leguminous bacterial strain, Bradyrhizobium sp. strain 17-4, isolated from river sediment, phylogenetically very close to Bradyrhizobium elkanii, degraded methoxychlor through O-demethylation and oxidative dechlorination. In the present investigation, we found that B. elkanii (USDA94), a standard species deposited in the Culture Collection, degraded methoxychlor. Furthermore, Bradyrhizobium sp. strain 4-1, also very close to B. elkanii, isolated from Japanese paddy field soil, degraded methoxychlor. These B. elkanii and closely related strains degraded methoxychlor through almost identical metabolic pathways, and cleaved the phenyl ring and mineralized. In contrast, another representative Bradyrhizobium species, B. japonicum (USDA110), did not degrade methoxychlor at all. Based on these findings, B. elkanii and closely related strains are likely to play an important role not only in providing the readily biodegradable substrates but also in completely degrading (mineralizing) methoxychlor by themselves in the soil and surface water environment.

  20. Selectivity tailoring of Pd/CNTs in phenol hydrogenation by surface modification: Role of Csbnd O oxygen species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tieyong; Zhang, Qunfeng; Cen, Jie; Xiang, Yizhi; Li, Xiaonian

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different types of oxygen containing groups (OCGs) on the catalytic performance was investigated in this paper by performing the selective hydrogenation of phenol in aqueous phase over the carbon supported Pd catalysts. The type of OCGs on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was regulated by pretreating it with HNO3, or HNO3 followed by hydrothermal or thermal oxidation treatment. A distinct difference in the amount of phenolic/ether groups (Csbnd O) was observed for CNTs treated by different methods, while the difference in the amount of carbonyl groups (Cdbnd O) and carboxylic groups was much smaller. The results showed that the selectivity to cyclohexanone decreased with the increase of Csbnd O amount on carbon surface. Csbnd O groups played an important role in adsorption/desorption behavior of phenol/cyclohexanone and was considered to be responsible for the dramatic selectivity difference.

  1. Role of electronic, geometric, and surface properties on the mechanism of the electrochemical hydriding/dehydriding reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, S.; Zhang, W.; Kumar, M.P.S.

    1996-03-01

    Since 1990 there has been an ongoing collaboration among the authors to investigate the role of individual elements on the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydriding/dehydriding reactions. This review article presents the electrochemical and physicochemical characteristics of hydriding/dehydriding reactions from the point of view of their dependence on electronic, geometric and surface properties of the hydride materials. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) studies were based on AB{sub 5} type alloys, partially substituted by other elements. Expansion of the unit cell volume and a larger Ni d band vacancy are beneficial for increasing the amount of the hydrogen storage. XAS and SVET showed that the Ce substitution for La in an AB{sub 5} alloy enhances the lifetime of hydride electrode.

  2. Dual role of CO in the stability of subnano Pt clusters at the Fe3O4(001) surface

    PubMed Central

    Bliem, Roland; van der Hoeven, Jessi E. S.; Hulva, Jan; Pavelec, Jiri; Gamba, Oscar; de Jongh, Petra E.; Schmid, Michael; Blaha, Peter; Diebold, Ulrike; Parkinson, Gareth S.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between catalytically active metal particles and reactant gases depend strongly on the particle size, particularly in the subnanometer regime where the addition of just one atom can induce substantial changes in stability, morphology, and reactivity. Here, time-lapse scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT)-based calculations are used to study how CO exposure affects the stability of Pt adatoms and subnano clusters at the Fe3O4(001) surface, a model CO oxidation catalyst. The results reveal that CO plays a dual role: first, it induces mobility among otherwise stable Pt adatoms through the formation of Pt carbonyls (Pt1–CO), leading to agglomeration into subnano clusters. Second, the presence of the CO stabilizes the smallest clusters against decay at room temperature, significantly modifying the growth kinetics. At elevated temperatures, CO desorption results in a partial redispersion and recovery of the Pt adatom phase. PMID:27457953

  3. The Role of Defects in the Local Reaction Kinetics of CO Oxidation on Low-Index Pd Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The role of artificially created defects and steps in the local reaction kinetics of CO oxidation on the individual domains of a polycrystalline Pd foil was studied by photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), mass spectroscopy (MS), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The defects and steps were created by STM-controlled Ar+ sputtering and the novel PEEM-based approach allowed the simultaneous determination of local kinetic phase transitions on differently oriented μm-sized grains of a polycrystalline sample. The independent (single-crystal-like) reaction behavior of the individual Pd(hkl) domains in the 10–5 mbar pressure range changes upon Ar+ sputtering to a correlated reaction behavior, and the reaction fronts propagate unhindered across the grain boundaries. The defect-rich surface shows also a significantly higher CO tolerance as reflected by the shift of both the global (MS-measured) and the local (PEEM-measured) kinetic diagrams toward higher CO pressure. PMID:23785524

  4. The geological history of deep-sea colonization by echinoids: roles of surface productivity and deep-water ventilation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew B; Stockley, Bruce

    2005-04-22

    The origins and geological history of the modern fauna of deep-sea echinoids is explored using a combination of palaeontological and molecular data. We demonstrate that, whereas generalist omnivores have migrated into the deep sea in low numbers over the past 200 Myr, there was a short time-interval between approximately 75 and 55 Myr when the majority of specialist detritivore clades independently migrated off-shelf. This coincides with a marked increase in seasonality, continental run-off and surface water productivity, and suggests that increasing organic carbon delivery into ocean basins was an important controlling factor. Oceanic anoxic events, by contrast, appear to have played a subsidiary role in controlling deep-sea diversity.

  5. Dual role of CO in the stability of subnano Pt clusters at the Fe3O4(001) surface.

    PubMed

    Bliem, Roland; van der Hoeven, Jessi E S; Hulva, Jan; Pavelec, Jiri; Gamba, Oscar; de Jongh, Petra E; Schmid, Michael; Blaha, Peter; Diebold, Ulrike; Parkinson, Gareth S

    2016-08-01

    Interactions between catalytically active metal particles and reactant gases depend strongly on the particle size, particularly in the subnanometer regime where the addition of just one atom can induce substantial changes in stability, morphology, and reactivity. Here, time-lapse scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT)-based calculations are used to study how CO exposure affects the stability of Pt adatoms and subnano clusters at the Fe3O4(001) surface, a model CO oxidation catalyst. The results reveal that CO plays a dual role: first, it induces mobility among otherwise stable Pt adatoms through the formation of Pt carbonyls (Pt1-CO), leading to agglomeration into subnano clusters. Second, the presence of the CO stabilizes the smallest clusters against decay at room temperature, significantly modifying the growth kinetics. At elevated temperatures, CO desorption results in a partial redispersion and recovery of the Pt adatom phase. PMID:27457953

  6. Role of Rhizobium endoglucanase CelC2 in cellulose biosynthesis and biofilm formation on plant roots and abiotic surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The synthesis of cellulose is among the most important but poorly understood biochemical processes, especially in bacteria, due to its complexity and high degree of regulation. In this study, we analyzed both the production of cellulose by all known members of the Rhizobiaceae and the diversity of Rhizobium celABC operon predicted to be involved in cellulose biosynthesis. We also investigated the involvement in cellulose production and biofilm formation of celC gene encoding an endoglucanase (CelC2) that is required for canonical symbiotic root hair infection by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii. Results ANU843 celC mutants lacking (ANU843ΔC2) or overproducing cellulase (ANU843C2+) produced greatly increased or reduced amounts of external cellulose micro fibrils, respectively. Calcofluor-stained cellulose micro fibrils were considerably longer when formed by ANU843ΔC2 bacteria rather than by the wild-type strain, in correlation with a significant increase in their flocculation in batch culture. In contrast, neither calcofluor-stained extracellular micro fibrils nor flocculation was detectable in ANU843C2+ cells. To clarify the role of cellulose synthesis in Rhizobium cell aggregation and attachment, we analyzed the ability of these mutants to produce biofilms on different surfaces. Alteration of wild-type CelC2 levels resulted in a reduced ability of bacteria to form biofilms both in abiotic surfaces and in planta. Conclusions Our results support a key role of the CelC2 cellulase in cellulose biosynthesis by modulating the length of the cellulose fibrils that mediate firm adhesion among Rhizobium bacteria leading to biofilm formation. Rhizobium cellulose is an essential component of the biofilm polysaccharidic matrix architecture and either an excess or a defect of this “building material” seem to collapse the biofilm structure. These results position cellulose hydrolytic enzymes as excellent anti-biofilm candidates. PMID:22970813

  7. The Role of Putative Phosphatidylserine-Interactive Residues of Tissue Factor on Its Coagulant Activity at the Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Shabbir A.; Pendurthi, Usha R.; Sen, Prosenjit; Rao, L. Vijaya Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer leaflet of the cell membrane is thought to play a critical role in tissue factor (TF) decryption. Recent molecular dynamics simulation studies suggested that the TF ectodomain may directly interact with PS. To investigate the potential role of TF direct interaction with the cell surface phospholipids on basal TF activity and the enhanced TF activity following the decryption, one or all of the putative PS-interactive residues in the TF ectodomain were mutated and tested for their coagulant activity in cell systems. Out of the 9 selected TF mutants, five of them -TFS160A, TFS161A, TFS162A, TFK165A, and TFD180A- exhibited a similar TF coagulant activity to that of the wild-type TF. The specific activity of three mutants, TFK159A, TFS163A, and TFK166A, was reduced substantially. Mutation of the glycine residue at the position 164 markedly abrogated the TF coagulant activity, resulting in ~90% inhibition. Mutation of all nine lipid binding residues together did not further decrease the activity of TF compared to TFG164A. A similar fold increase in TF activity was observed in wild-type TF and all TF mutants following the treatment of THP-1 cells with either calcium ionomycin or HgCl2, two agents that are commonly used to decrypt TF. Overall, our data show that a few select TF residues that are implicated in interacting with PS contribute to the TF coagulant activity at the cell surface. However, our data also indicate that TF regions outside of the putative lipid binding region may also contribute to PS-dependent decryption of TF. PMID:27348126

  8. Variability and Predictability of West African Droughts. A Review in the Role of Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen; Mohino, Elsa; Mechoso, Carlos R.; Caminade, Cyril; Biasutti, Michela; Gaetani, Marco; Garcia-Serrano, J.; Vizy, Edward K.; Cook, Kerry; Xue, Yongkang; Polo, Irene; Losada, Teresa; Druyan, Leonard M.; Fontaine, Bernard; Bader, Juergen; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.; Goddard, Lisa; Janicot, Serge; Arribas, Alberto; Lau, William; Colman, Andrew; Vellinga, M.; Rowell, David P.; Kucharski, Fred; Voldoire, Aurore

    2015-01-01

    The Sahel experienced a severe drought during the 1970s and 1980s after wet periods in the 1950s and 1960s. Although rainfall partially recovered since the 1990s, the drought had devastating impacts on society. Most studies agree that this dry period resulted primarily from remote effects of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies amplified by local land surface-atmosphere interactions. This paper reviews advances made during the last decade to better understand the impact of global SST variability on West African rainfall at interannual to decadal time scales. At interannual time scales, a warming of the equatorial Atlantic and Pacific/Indian Oceans results in rainfall reduction over the Sahel, and positive SST anomalies over the Mediterranean Sea tend to be associated with increased rainfall. At decadal time scales, warming over the tropics leads to drought over the Sahel, whereas warming over the North Atlantic promotes increased rainfall. Prediction systems have evolved from seasonal to decadal forecasting. The agreement among future projections has improved from CMIP3 to CMIP5, with a general tendency for slightly wetter conditions over the central part of the Sahel, drier conditions over the western part, and a delay in the monsoon onset. The role of the Indian Ocean, the stationarity of teleconnections, the determination of the leader ocean basin in driving decadal variability, the anthropogenic role, the reduction of the model rainfall spread, and the improvement of some model components are among the most important remaining questions that continue to be the focus of current international projects.

  9. An experimental investigation of the role of microfracture surfaces in controlling quartz precipitation rate: Applications to fault zone diagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Randolph T.; Farver, John R.; Onasch, Charles M.; Winslow, Daniel F.

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of quartz growth experiments, which were designed to assess the role of microfracture surfaces in controlling quartz-precipitation rates during fault-zone diagenesis. Experiments were run in hydrothermal cold-seal vessels at 300-450 °C and 150 MPa confining pressure for up to 1344 h. Microfractures routinely form at grain contacts during these experiments. Microfracture kinematic-aperture distributions indicate that microfractures form within the first 48 h of each experiment. Regardless of experimental temperature or duration, microfracture-sealing cements account for approximately the same amount of new quartz cement in each experiment. With increasing experimental duration, sealed microfractures were progressively overgrown by grain-boundary overgrowth cements. Spatial and temporal trends in the distribution of overgrowth- and microfracture-sealing cements indicate that precipitation rates on newly formed microfractures greatly exceed those on detrital-grain boundaries. This effect persists regardless of natural iron-oxide grain coatings present in a subset of our experiments. While our results agree with previous research that demonstrated increased growth rates on fracture surfaces in faults in fully lithified rock, fundamental differences in the nature of deformation in our experiments provide insight into quartz cementation in cataclastic deformation bands in faults offsetting high-porosity sandstones.

  10. Role of surface oxides in the formation of solid-electrolyte interphases at silicon electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Kjell W; Dylla, Anthony G; Harris, Stephen J; Webb, Lauren J; Stevenson, Keith J

    2014-12-10

    Nonaqueous solvents in modern battery technologies undergo electroreduction at negative electrodes, leading to the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI). The mechanisms and reactions leading to a stable SEI on silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries are still poorly understood. This lack of understanding inhibits the rational design of electrolyte additives, active material coatings, and the prediction of Li-ion battery life in general. We prepared SEI with a common nonaqueous solvent (LiPF6 in PC and in EC/DEC 1:1 by wt %) on silicon oxide and etched silicon (001) surfaces in various states of lithiation to understand the role of surface chemistry on the SEI formation mechanism and SEI structure. Anhydrous and anoxic techniques were used to prevent air and moisture contamination of prepared SEI films, allowing for more accurate characterization of SEI chemical stratification and composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) depth profiling. Additionally, multivariate statistical methods were used to better understand TOF-SIMS depth profiling studies. We conclude that the absence of native-oxide layer on silicon has a significant impact on the formation, composition, structure, and thickness of the SEI. PMID:25402271

  11. Using Ensemble Sensitivity to Understand the Role of Sea Surface Temperatures in Midlatitude Storm Development in the Gulf Stream Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, J. F.; Thompson, L.; Kelly, K. A.; Bates, S. C.; Patoux, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Gulf Stream region is a local maximum for midlatitude storm cyclogenesis. However, regarding individual storm's development, the relative roles of the sea surface temperature (SST) values versus the SST gradients remains an open question. The work discussed herein uses the NCAR Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model to examine midlatitude storm development in the Gulf Stream region. QuikSCAT winds are used for verification/comparison of the model's 10m winds. Ensembles of modeled storms are created in which the only parameter changed is the SST boundary condition. There are three different ensembles: (1) uniform increase and decrease in the SST for the whole domain, (2) uniform increase and decrease of the SST on the warm side or cold side of the SST front only, (3) changes to the SST that strengthen the meridional gradient but maintain the meridional mean SST temperature across the Gulf Stream extension. Linear regression analysis is applied to the ensembles to determine the most important factors that force changes in the storm strength. The storms' strength is most sensitive to the vertically and horizontally integrated diabatic heating near the storms' center, as compared to the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat. These results suggest that the absolute temperatures of the warm core of the Gulf Stream are most important for midlatitude cyclone intensification.

  12. Critical hydraulic gradient for nonlinear flow through rock fracture networks: The roles of aperture, surface roughness, and number of intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Richeng; Li, Bo; Jiang, Yujing

    2016-02-01

    Transition of fluid flow from the linear to the nonlinear regime has been confirmed in single rock fractures when the Reynolds number (Re) exceeds some critical values, yet the criterion for such a transition in discrete fracture networks (DFNs) has received little attention. This study conducted flow tests on crossed fracture models with a single intersection and performed numerical simulations on fluid flow through DFNs of various geometric characteristics. The roles of aperture, surface roughness, and number of intersections of fractures on the variation of the critical hydraulic gradient (Jc) for the onset of nonlinear flow through DFNs were systematically investigated. The results showed that the relationship between hydraulic gradient (J) and flow rate can be well quantified by Forchheimer's law; when J drops below Jc, it reduces to the widely used cubic law, by diminishing the nonlinear term. Larger apertures, rougher fracture surfaces, and a greater number of intersections in a DFN would result in the onset of nonlinear flow at a lower Jc. Mathematical expressions of Jc and the coefficients involved in Forchheimer's law were developed based on multi-variable regressions of simulation results, which can help to choose proper governing equations when solving problems associated with fluid flow in fracture networks.

  13. Buffering the negative effects of employee surface acting: the moderating role of employee-customer relationship strength and personalized services.

    PubMed

    Wang, Karyn L; Groth, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The impact of emotional labor on customer outcomes is gaining considerable attention in the literature, with research suggesting that the authenticity of emotional displays may positively impact customer outcomes. However, research investigating the impact of more inauthentic emotions on service delivery outcomes is mixed (see Chi, Grandey, Diamond, & Krimmel, 2011). This study explores 2 potential reasons for why the service outcomes of inauthentic emotions are largely inconsistent: the impact of distinct surface acting strategies and the role of service delivery context. Drawing on social-functional theories of emotions, we surveyed 243 dyads of employees and customers from a wide variety of services to examine the links between employee surface acting and customer service satisfaction, and whether this relationship is moderated by relationship strength and service personalization. Our findings suggest that faking positive emotions has no bearing on service satisfaction, but suppressing negative emotions interacts with contextual factors to predict customers' service satisfaction, in line with social-functional theories of emotions. Specifically, customers who know the employee well are less sensitive to the negative effects of suppressed negative emotions, and customers in highly personalized service encounters are more sensitive to the negative effects of suppressed negative emotions. We conclude with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications. PMID:24079672

  14. Buffering the negative effects of employee surface acting: the moderating role of employee-customer relationship strength and personalized services.

    PubMed

    Wang, Karyn L; Groth, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The impact of emotional labor on customer outcomes is gaining considerable attention in the literature, with research suggesting that the authenticity of emotional displays may positively impact customer outcomes. However, research investigating the impact of more inauthentic emotions on service delivery outcomes is mixed (see Chi, Grandey, Diamond, & Krimmel, 2011). This study explores 2 potential reasons for why the service outcomes of inauthentic emotions are largely inconsistent: the impact of distinct surface acting strategies and the role of service delivery context. Drawing on social-functional theories of emotions, we surveyed 243 dyads of employees and customers from a wide variety of services to examine the links between employee surface acting and customer service satisfaction, and whether this relationship is moderated by relationship strength and service personalization. Our findings suggest that faking positive emotions has no bearing on service satisfaction, but suppressing negative emotions interacts with contextual factors to predict customers' service satisfaction, in line with social-functional theories of emotions. Specifically, customers who know the employee well are less sensitive to the negative effects of suppressed negative emotions, and customers in highly personalized service encounters are more sensitive to the negative effects of suppressed negative emotions. We conclude with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications.

  15. Role of wavelength and pulse duration in laser ablation: implications to beam delivery, surface modifications, and diagnostic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    1999-05-01

    The basic interaction mechanism of pulsed laser ablation of tissue reveals a complexity of parameters, such as the optical properties of the tissue and the technical characteristics of the laser beam. The role of the laser wavelength, the pulse duration, the energy fluence, etc. as well as the implications on the beam delivery means, the ablated surface modifications and the diagnostic techniques employed are under investigation. For example, it was experimentally verified that when using mid-infrared lasers with pulse durations in the ns range, the photothermal mechanism involved exhibits strong absorption restricting the residual thermal damage to a relatively small zone. On the other hand the ablation of tissue with ultrashort, picosecond and femtosecond, visible and near-infrared laser pulses has been investigated as an alternative, as the energy threshold for ablation biological tissue, depends approximately on the square root of the pulse duration. However the pulse length shortening creates problems to the fibers or the waveguides ends, due to the very high laser power densities involved. Conventional and advanced microscopy, scanning electron microscopy--SEM and atomic force microscopy--AFM, were used to study the surface and ends alterations of the delivery system involved and the surface alterations of the soft or the hard tissue target in pulsed laser ablation. Finally differentiation between the normal and the pathological tissue was achieved by employing the laser induced fluorescence--LIF diagnostic technique in a long term effort to develop a computer aided system, which will facilitate the automated, real-time characterization of healthy or atherosclerotic plaques in a less invasive laser ablation clinical procedure.

  16. A three-dimensional WRF-based precipitation equation and its application in the analysis of roles of surface evaporation in a torrential rainfall event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongjie; Cui, Xiaopeng; Li, Xiaofan

    2016-03-01

    Based on the governing equations for water species in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a three-dimensional WRF-based surface precipitation equation was obtained and applied to investigate the surface rainfall processes of a torrential rain event. Sensitivity experiments were performed to further explore roles of surface evaporation in the heavy rainfall event. The results show that the contributions of moisture-related processes to precipitation (QWV, including water vapor local change (QWVL), surface evaporation (QWVE), moisture advection (QWVA), and so on) dominate the torrential rain event, while the contributions of cloud-related processes (QCM) also play indispensable roles whose maximum net contributions could exceed 20%. QWVA dominates the budget of water vapor, while QWVL and QWVE play smaller but by no means negligible roles in the event. Sensitivity experiments show that the changes of surface evaporation affect both moisture-related processes and cloud-related processes, and then influence the intensity and regional redistribution of precipitation. Surface evaporation favors the accumulation of convective available potential energy and enhances the instability of atmosphere, being prone to the development of convective systems. Meanwhile, it also affects the development of vertical motions and cloud systems. Thus accurate estimation of surface evaporation is necessary for accurate simulation and forecast of surface precipitation.

  17. Peste des petits ruminants.

    PubMed

    Parida, S; Muniraju, M; Mahapatra, M; Muthuchelvan, D; Buczkowski, H; Banyard, A C

    2015-12-14

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants.

  18. Peste des petits ruminants.

    PubMed

    Parida, S; Muniraju, M; Mahapatra, M; Muthuchelvan, D; Buczkowski, H; Banyard, A C

    2015-12-14

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  19. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  20. Approche à l’égard des nouveaux anticoagulants oraux en pratique familiale

    PubMed Central

    Douketis, James; Bell, Alan David; Eikelboom, John; Liew, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Comparer les caractéristiques principales des nouveaux anticoagulants oraux (NACO), soit le dabigatran, le rivaroxaban et l’apixaban, et répondre aux questions qui font surface lors de la comparaison de ces agents. Qualité des données Une recherche dans PubMed a été effectuée afin de relever les études cliniques récentes (de janvier 2008 à la semaine 32 de 2013) portant sur l’emploi des NACO pour la prévention des AVC dans les cas de fibrillation auriculaire (FA) et pour le traitement de la thromboembolie veineuse aiguë. Message principal Selon 3 essais d’envergure, tous les NACO sont au moins aussi efficaces que la warfarine dans la prévention des AVC chez les patients atteints d’une FA non valvulaire, et au moins aussi sûrs pour ce qui est du risque de saignement. Des méta-analyses de ces essais ont montré que, comparativement au traitement par la warfarine, les NACO avaient réduit la mortalité totale, la mortalité d’origine cardiovasculaire et les saignements intracrâniens, et était aussi ressortie une tendance vers la réduction des saignements généraux. Du côté pratique, les avantages des NACO par rapport à la warfarine sont : posologie orale fixe uniquotidienne ou biquotidienne sans devoir surveiller la coagulation et peu d’interactions connues ou définies avec d’autres médicaments ou des aliments. Les désavantages potentiels des NACO sont notamment un risque de saignement qui serait accru chez les patients de plus de 75 ans, une hausse des saignements gastro-intestinaux majeurs avec des doses élevées de dabigatran, une hausse des cas de dyspepsie avec le dabigatran, l’absence d’un test de laboratoire de routine visant à mesurer de façon fiable l’effet anticoagulant et l’absence d’antidote pour renverser l’effet anticoagulant. Aucun essai randomisé contrôlé n’a effectué de comparaison directe des NACO, et le choix d’un NACO est influencé par les caract

  1. Profil épidemio-clinique et radiologique des atteintes ostéo-articulaires des hémophiles à Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Narindra, Lova Hasina Rajaonarison Ny Ony; Rabemanorintsoa, Feno Hasina; Randrianantenaina, Faralahy Ravelonarivo; Rakoto, Olivat Alson Aimée; Ahmad, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Déterminer le profil épidémio-clinique et radiologique des atteintes ostéo-articulaires des hémophiles malagasy. Méthodes Une étude prospective, descriptive portant sur 25 patients hémophiles venant de tout Madagascar a été réalisée. Des radiographies numérisées des genoux, des chevilles et des coudes en incidence de face et de profil ainsi qu'une échographie des hanches, des genoux, des chevilles et des coudes ont été réalisées chez ces patients. Le type et la sévérité de la maladie ainsi que l'aspect de la cavité articulaire, la synoviale, les noyaux épiphysaires et les surfaces articulaires ont été analysés. Résultats Soixante-huit pourcent des patients étaient hémophiles de type A et 32 % de type B. Quarante pourcent étaient classés sévères, 28 % modérés et 32 % mineurs. Les atteintes ostéo-articulaires ont été retrouvées chez 56 % des patients. Il n'existait pas de prédominance d'atteinte selon le type ni la sévérité de la maladie. Les plus jeunes étaient les plus atteints et l'articulation du genou et de la cheville étaient les plus touchées. Conclusion Les complications ostéo-articulaire de l'hémophilie sont graves et ne dépendent pas du type ni de la sévérité de l'affection. Elles touchent surtout les enfants d'âge scolaire. Le couple radiographie-échographie permet de diagnostiquer et de surveiller ces lésions. PMID:25870742

  2. A study into the role of surface capping on energy transfer in metal cluster-semiconductor nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Dipankar; Paramanik, Bipattaran; Sadhu, Suparna; Patra, Amitava

    2015-12-01

    Metal cluster-semiconductor nanocomposite materials remain a frontier area of research for the development of optoelectronic, photovoltaic and light harvesting devices because metal nanoclusters and semiconductor QDs are promising candidates for photon harvesting. Here, we have designed well defined metal cluster-semiconductor nanostructures using different surface capped negatively charged Au25 nanoclusters (Au NCs) and positively charged cysteamine capped CdTe quantum dots using electrostatic interactions. The main focus of this article is to address the impact of surface capping agents on the photophysical properties of Au cluster-CdTe QD hybrid nanocomposites. Steady state and time resolved spectroscopic studies reveal that photoluminescence quenching, radiative and nonradiative rate, and energy transfer between Au nanoclusters and CdTe QDs have been influenced by the nature of the capping agent. We have calculated the energy transfer related parameters such as the overlap integral, distance between donor and acceptor, Förster distance, efficiency of energy transfer and rate of energy transfer from CdTe QDs to three different Au NCs. Photoluminescence quenching varies from 73% to 43% when changing the capping agents from bovine serum albumin (BSA) to glutathione (GSH). The efficiency of the energy transfer from CdTe QDs to BSA-capped Au NCs is found to be 83%, for Cys-capped Au NCs it was 46% and for GSH-capped Au NCs it was 35%. The efficiency depends on the number of Au clusters attached per QD. This reveals that the nature of capping ligands plays a crucial role in the energy transfer phenomena from CdTe QDs to Au NCs. Interesting findings reveal that the efficient energy transfer in metal cluster-semiconductor nanocomposites may open up new possibilities in designing artificial light harvesting systems for future applications.Metal cluster-semiconductor nanocomposite materials remain a frontier area of research for the development of optoelectronic

  3. Critical role of surface chemical modifications induced by length shortening on multi-walled carbon nanotubes-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bussy, Cyrill; Pinault, Mathieu; Cambedouzou, Julien; Landry, Marion Julie; Jegou, Pascale; Mayne-L'hermite, Martine; Launois, Pascale; Boczkowski, Jorge; Lanone, Sophie

    2012-11-27

    Given the increasing use of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in composite materials and their possible expansion to new areas such as nanomedicine which will both lead to higher human exposure, a better understanding of their potential to cause adverse effects on human health is needed. Like other nanomaterials, the biological reactivity and toxicity of CNT were shown to depend on various physicochemical characteristics, and length has been suggested to play a critical role. We therefore designed a comprehensive study that aimed at comparing the effects on murine macrophages of two samples of multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) specifically synthesized following a similar production process (aerosol-assisted CVD), and used a soft ultrasonic treatment in water to modify the length of one of them. We showed that modification of the length of MWCNT leads, unavoidably, to accompanying structural (i.e. defects) and chemical (i.e. oxidation) modifications that affect both surface and residual catalyst iron nanoparticle content of CNT. The biological response of murine macrophages to the two different MWCNT samples was evaluated in terms of cell viability, pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion and oxidative stress. We showed that structural defects and oxidation both induced by the length reduction process are at least as responsible as the length reduction itself for the enhanced pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative response observed with short (oxidized) compared to long (pristine) MWCNT. In conclusion, our results stress that surface properties should be considered, alongside the length, as essential parameters in CNT-induced inflammation, especially when dealing with a safe design of CNT, for application in nanomedicine for example.

  4. A study into the role of surface capping on energy transfer in metal cluster-semiconductor nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Bain, Dipankar; Paramanik, Bipattaran; Sadhu, Suparna; Patra, Amitava

    2015-12-28

    Metal cluster-semiconductor nanocomposite materials remain a frontier area of research for the development of optoelectronic, photovoltaic and light harvesting devices because metal nanoclusters and semiconductor QDs are promising candidates for photon harvesting. Here, we have designed well defined metal cluster-semiconductor nanostructures using different surface capped negatively charged Au25 nanoclusters (Au NCs) and positively charged cysteamine capped CdTe quantum dots using electrostatic interactions. The main focus of this article is to address the impact of surface capping agents on the photophysical properties of Au cluster-CdTe QD hybrid nanocomposites. Steady state and time resolved spectroscopic studies reveal that photoluminescence quenching, radiative and nonradiative rate, and energy transfer between Au nanoclusters and CdTe QDs have been influenced by the nature of the capping agent. We have calculated the energy transfer related parameters such as the overlap integral, distance between donor and acceptor, Förster distance, efficiency of energy transfer and rate of energy transfer from CdTe QDs to three different Au NCs. Photoluminescence quenching varies from 73% to 43% when changing the capping agents from bovine serum albumin (BSA) to glutathione (GSH). The efficiency of the energy transfer from CdTe QDs to BSA-capped Au NCs is found to be 83%, for Cys-capped Au NCs it was 46% and for GSH-capped Au NCs it was 35%. The efficiency depends on the number of Au clusters attached per QD. This reveals that the nature of capping ligands plays a crucial role in the energy transfer phenomena from CdTe QDs to Au NCs. Interesting findings reveal that the efficient energy transfer in metal cluster-semiconductor nanocomposites may open up new possibilities in designing artificial light harvesting systems for future applications. PMID:26603192

  5. Role of competing ions in the mobilization of arsenic in groundwater of Bengal Basin: insight from surface complexation modeling.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ashis; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Neidhardt, Harald; Halder, Dipti; Kundu, Amit K; Chatterjee, Debashis; Berner, Zsolt; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2014-05-15

    This study assesses the role of competing ions in the mobilization of arsenic (As) by surface complexation modeling of the temporal variability of As in groundwater. The potential use of two different surface complexation models (SCMs), developed for ferrihydrite and goethite, has been explored to account for the temporal variation of As(III) and As(V) concentration, monitored in shallow groundwater of Bengal Basin over a period of 20 months. The SCM for ferrihydrite appears as the better predictor of the observed variation in both As(III) and As(V) concentrations in the study sites. It is estimated that among the competing ions, PO4(3-) is the major competitor of As(III) and As(V) adsorption onto Fe oxyhydroxide, and the competition ability decreases in the order PO4(3-) ≫ Fe(II) > H4SiO4 = HCO3(-). It is further revealed that a small change in pH can also have a significant effect on the mobility of As(III) and As(V) in the aquifers. A decrease in pH increases the concentration of As(III), whereas it decreases the As(V) concentration and vice versa. The present study suggests that the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxide alone cannot explain the observed high As concentration in groundwater of the Bengal Basin. This study supports the view that the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxide followed by competitive sorption reactions with the aquifer sediment is the processes responsible for As enrichment in groundwater.

  6. Role of the Surface in Solid-Solid Phase Transitions: Molecular Dynamics Study of the α-γ Transition in Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Binjun; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2016-05-01

    Using classical molecular dynamics simulation, we study the role of surfaces on solid-solid phase transformations. We contrast the transformation behavior of a thin film (two free surfaces) with a bulk system and with a system containing only one free surface. We focus on bcc Fe and induce the transformation from the bcc to the fcc phase by applying biaxial strain. We find that the critical strain at which the material transforms is independent of whether the system has a free surface or not. However, the nucleation mechanism of the new phase and also the transformation speed are strongly influenced by the existence of surfaces. While bulk systems fail early (after phase transformation to a polycrystal) under the applied load, systems with a free surface show a considerably higher ductility.

  7. Etude des Abondances de MG et de fe dans la Composante Stellaire des Disques des Galaxies Spirales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, Dominique

    Je presente ici une technique d'observation par imagerie des disques stellaires des galaxies spirales. Je tente, a l'aide d'un modele evolutif multiphase, de determiner les abondances de fer et de magnesium dans les disques. Dans ce but, je mesure les indices Mg2 et Fe5270 du systeme de Lick. Ces elements representent un choix judicieux d'indicateurs car ils sont formes par des supernovae de deux types differents ayant des durees de vie differentes. Le rapport d'abondances de ces deux elements est un indicateur du taux de formation des populations stellaires. Je decris, en premier lieu, les observations, la technique de mesure, ainsi que son application. J'analyse ensuite les indices mesures. A partir du modele multiphase, j'explore differents parametres physiques des spirales comme le taux de formation stellaire, l'evolution des abondances, les effets possibles de la presence de la barre, etc.

  8. Classification of 20 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. M.; Kim, A. G.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Sharp, R.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lewis, G. F.; Sommer, N. E.; Martini, P.; Mould, J.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  9. Classification of 8 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, A.; Moller, A.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Childress, M. J.; Lewis, G. F.; Lidman, C.; OâNeill, C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.

    2016-09-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  10. Classification of 13 DES supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, N.; Tucker, B. E.; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Gshwend, J.; Martini, P.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.

    2016-09-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  11. Classification of 3 DES Supernovae with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  12. Classification of 2 DES supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, C. R.; Moller, A.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Childress, M. J.; Lewis, G. F.; Lidman, C.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; D'Andrea, C.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Prajs, S.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Gupta, R.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Papadopoulos, A.; Morganson, E.

    2016-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  13. Extrapolating surface structures to depth in transpressional systems: the role of rheology and convergence angle deduced from analogue experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Shang Yu; Neubauer, Franz; Cloetingh, Sierd; Willingshofer, Ernst; Sokoutis, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    thin and rheologically weaker layer in the middle of the brittle layer, deformation is distributed over more faults and the geometry of the fault zone below and above the weak zone shows significant differences, suggesting that the correlation of structures across a weak layer has to be supported by geophysical data, which help constraining the geometry of the deep part. This latter experiment has significantly similar phenomena in reality, such as few pressure ridges along Altyn fault. The experimental results underline the need to understand the role of the convergence angle and the influence of rheology on fault evolution, in order to connect between surface deformation and subsurface geometry. References Leever, K. A., Gabrielsen, R. H., Sokoutis, D., Willingshofer, E., 2011. The effect of convergence angle on the kinematic evolution of strain partitioning in transpressional brittle wedges: Insight from analog modeling and high-resolution digital image analysis. Tectonics, 30(2), TC2013. Molnar, P., Dayem, K.E., 2010. Major intracontinental strike-slip faults and contrasts in lithospheric strength. Geosphere, 6, 444-467.

  14. The microbiome of coral surface mucus has a key role in mediating holobiont health and survival upon disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Glasl, Bettina; Herndl, Gerhard J; Frade, Pedro R

    2016-01-01

    Microbes are well-recognized members of the coral holobiont. However, little is known about the short-term dynamics of mucus-associated microbial communities under natural conditions and after disturbances, and how these dynamics relate to the host's health. Here we examined the natural variability of prokaryotic communities (based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing) associating with the surface mucus layer (SML) of Porites astreoides, a species exhibiting cyclical mucus aging and shedding. Shifts in the prokaryotic community composition during mucus aging led to the prevalence of opportunistic and potentially pathogenic bacteria (Verrucomicrobiaceae and Vibrionaceae) in aged mucus and to a twofold increase in prokaryotic abundance. After the release of aged mucus sheets, the community reverted to its original state, dominated by Endozoicimonaceae and Oxalobacteraceae. Furthermore, we followed the fate of the coral holobiont upon depletion of its natural mucus microbiome through antibiotics treatment. After re-introduction to the reef, healthy-looking microbe-depleted corals started exhibiting clear signs of bleaching and necrosis. Recovery versus mortality of the P. astreoides holobiont was related to the degree of change in abundance distribution of the mucus microbiome. We conclude that the natural prokaryotic community inhabiting the coral SML contributes to coral health and that cyclical mucus shedding has a key role in coral microbiome dynamics. PMID:26953605

  15. Evidence for the significant role of sea surface temperature distributions over remote tropical oceans in tropical cyclone intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Anitha Kumari; Kawamura, Ryuichi; Kawano, Tetsuya

    2016-07-01

    The role of remote ocean sea surface temperature (SST) in regulating tropical cyclone (TC) characteristics has been examined by performing numerical experiments with a regional scale model. Model simulations have been carried out to simulate typhoon Man-yi (July 2007), in our case study, under a range of SST conditions over the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. The intensity and track of the cyclone have been systematically changed in sensitivity simulations of cool and warm SSTs over that region, following its peak phase. Warm oceans can substantially reduce the intensification of western North Pacific cyclones, whereas cool oceans can enhance their strength. This is intimately associated with the enhancement/weakening of the moisture supply through the moisture conveyor belt (MCB) in the lower troposphere, from the Indian Ocean and South China Sea into the vicinity of the cyclone center. When the MCB is interrupted over the South China Sea in warm SST occurrences, the large-scale transport of moisture into the cyclone system is significantly reduced, leading to the weakening of the cyclone intensity and to the eastward shift of its track. This study shows that changes in remote tropical ocean SST can also modulate TCs and thus can help in improving the forecasting of TC intensities and tracks.

  16. The microbiome of coral surface mucus has a key role in mediating holobiont health and survival upon disturbance.

    PubMed

    Glasl, Bettina; Herndl, Gerhard J; Frade, Pedro R

    2016-09-01

    Microbes are well-recognized members of the coral holobiont. However, little is known about the short-term dynamics of mucus-associated microbial communities under natural conditions and after disturbances, and how these dynamics relate to the host's health. Here we examined the natural variability of prokaryotic communities (based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing) associating with the surface mucus layer (SML) of Porites astreoides, a species exhibiting cyclical mucus aging and shedding. Shifts in the prokaryotic community composition during mucus aging led to the prevalence of opportunistic and potentially pathogenic bacteria (Verrucomicrobiaceae and Vibrionaceae) in aged mucus and to a twofold increase in prokaryotic abundance. After the release of aged mucus sheets, the community reverted to its original state, dominated by Endozoicimonaceae and Oxalobacteraceae. Furthermore, we followed the fate of the coral holobiont upon depletion of its natural mucus microbiome through antibiotics treatment. After re-introduction to the reef, healthy-looking microbe-depleted corals started exhibiting clear signs of bleaching and necrosis. Recovery versus mortality of the P. astreoides holobiont was related to the degree of change in abundance distribution of the mucus microbiome. We conclude that the natural prokaryotic community inhabiting the coral SML contributes to coral health and that cyclical mucus shedding has a key role in coral microbiome dynamics. PMID:26953605

  17. The microbiome of coral surface mucus has a key role in mediating holobiont health and survival upon disturbance.

    PubMed

    Glasl, Bettina; Herndl, Gerhard J; Frade, Pedro R

    2016-09-01

    Microbes are well-recognized members of the coral holobiont. However, little is known about the short-term dynamics of mucus-associated microbial communities under natural conditions and after disturbances, and how these dynamics relate to the host's health. Here we examined the natural variability of prokaryotic communities (based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing) associating with the surface mucus layer (SML) of Porites astreoides, a species exhibiting cyclical mucus aging and shedding. Shifts in the prokaryotic community composition during mucus aging led to the prevalence of opportunistic and potentially pathogenic bacteria (Verrucomicrobiaceae and Vibrionaceae) in aged mucus and to a twofold increase in prokaryotic abundance. After the release of aged mucus sheets, the community reverted to its original state, dominated by Endozoicimonaceae and Oxalobacteraceae. Furthermore, we followed the fate of the coral holobiont upon depletion of its natural mucus microbiome through antibiotics treatment. After re-introduction to the reef, healthy-looking microbe-depleted corals started exhibiting clear signs of bleaching and necrosis. Recovery versus mortality of the P. astreoides holobiont was related to the degree of change in abundance distribution of the mucus microbiome. We conclude that the natural prokaryotic community inhabiting the coral SML contributes to coral health and that cyclical mucus shedding has a key role in coral microbiome dynamics.

  18. The role of water in the molecular structure and properties of soft contact lenses and surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, Patrizia; Simoni, Rosa

    1992-06-01

    The role played by water in the molecular structure and properties of commercial soft contact lenses (hydrogels) based on poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA) or poly vinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was investigated by means of vibrational spectroscopy and thermal analyses. The results of this study show that the materials having the greatest water percentage have elastic properties closer to those of the ocular tissues with which they come into contact. Water interacts by hydrogen bonding with the hydrophilic groups present in the polymers, and the strength of this interaction depends on the type of hydrophilic group involved. Moreover, in the case of PVP materials, water also modifies the conformation of the hydrophobic groups. The arrangement of surface water molecules can explain the different adhesion capability of Staphilococcus aureus on this type of lens depending on the water content. In connection with this, a simple model is presented. The water molecules present in the hydrogel structures completely exchange with those of the biological environment. A quantitative analytical method for evaluating the amount of water in commercial lenses by means of Raman spectroscopy is reported.

  19. [Role of exopolymeric substances of corrosion-aggressive bacteria in the biofilm formation on the steel surface].

    PubMed

    Purish, L M; Asaulenko, L H; Abdulina, D R; Vasyl'ev, V M; Iutyns'ka, H O

    2011-01-01

    It had been done the comparative study of the exopolymeric substances (EPS) synthesized by the sulfidogenic microbial community and monocultures of Desulfovibrio sp. 10, Bacillus subtilis 36 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27 under various growth models as biofilm and plankton was performed. It was established that biofilm-produced exopolymers contained increased amount of glucose and fucose, while planktonic ones had more amount of mannose and rhamnose. The amount of rhamnose was 24% of the total amount of carbohydrates in the planktonic-produced exopolymers synthesized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27 and Bacillus subtilis 36. Glucuronic acid, galactosamine and glucosamine along with neutral carbohydrates were found in the composition of EPS synthesized by associative cultures, while only galactosamine was found in EPS synthesized by Desulfovibrio sp. 10. The amount of hexuronic acids and hexozamines was, respectively, 4.6 and 1.6 times higher in the biofilm formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27 on the steel surface, than in the planktonic exopolymers. It is discussed the role in the biofilm formation of dominative members of the corrosion-aggressive microbial community.

  20. Role of polyphosphate kinase gene (ppk) for survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 in surface water of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Jahid, Iqbal Kabir; Hasan, Md Mahmud; Abdul Matin, Mohammad; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Neogi, Sucharit Basu; Uddin, Md Hafiz; Islam, Md Sirajul

    2013-11-15

    Polyphosphate provides a substitute for ATP and energy source when phosphorus is a limiting resource in nature. The present study focuses on the role ofpolyphosphate for the survival of Vibrio cholerae in the aquatic habitats as an autochthonous bacterium. The survival advantages of polyphosphate of V. cholerae O1 having (wild type) and lacking (mutant) polyphosphate kinase (ppk) gene in surface water and with Anabaena variabilis were compared by cultural, Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) and polymerase chain reaction methods in natural water microcosms. The microcosm's water was prepared by filtering and physicochemical parameters were also investigated by standard methods. The results revealed that both fresh and saline water, the wild type strain enhanced survival in cultural conditioned than ppk mutant strain. However, Fluorescent Antibody Direct Viable Counts (FADVC) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) results noted both strains have the equal survival strategy in viable but nonculturable state (VNC). In conclusion, it could be hypothesized that the polyphosphate inclusion body might keep cultivable and survivable at low phosphate natural environment of the aquatic bacterium.

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa DesB Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Growth Inhibition in Coculture by Controlling the Synthesis of HAQs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sejeong; Yoon, Yohan; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogen that can cause serious infections and usually coexists with other pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Virulence factors are important for maintaining a presence of the organisms in these multispecies environments, and DesB plays an important role in P. aeruginosa virulence. Therefore, we investigated the effect of DesB on S. aureus reduction under competitive situation. Liquid cultures of P. aeruginosa wild type (WT) and its desB mutant were spotted on agar plates containing S. aureus, and the size of the clear zones was compared. In addition, interbacterial competition between P. aeruginosa and S. aureus was observed over time during planktonic coculture. The transcriptional profiles of the WT and desB mutant were compared by qRT-PCR and microarray to determine the role of DesB in S. aureus reduction at the molecular level. As a result, the clear zone was smaller for the desB mutant than for P. aeruginosa PAO1 (WT), and in planktonic coculture, the number of S. aureus cells was reduced in the desB mutant. qRT-PCR and microarray revealed that the expression of MvfR-controlled pqsA-E and phnAB operons was significantly decreased, but the mexEF-oprN operon was highly expressed. The results indicate that intracellular levels of 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline (HHQ), a ligand of MvfR, are reduced due to MexEF-OprN-mediated efflux in desB mutant, resulting in the decrease of MvfR binding to pqsA-E promoter and the reduction of 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs) synthesis. Overexpression of mexEF-oprN operon in desB mutant was phenotypically confirmed by observing significantly increased resistance to chloramphenicol. In conclusion, these results suggest that DesB plays a role in the inhibition of S. aureus growth by controlling HAQ synthesis. PMID:26230088

  2. Modelisation de la diffusion sur les surfaces metalliques: De l'adatome aux processus de croissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, Ghyslain

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude des processus de diffusion en surface dans le but ultime de comprendre, et de modeliser, la croissance d'une couche mince. L'importance de bien mai triser la croissance est primordiale compte tenu de son role dans la miniaturisation des circuits electroniques. Nous etudions ici les surface des metaux nobles et de ceux de la fin de la serie de transition. Dans un premier temps, nous nous interessons a la diffusion d'un simple adatome sur une surface metallique. Nous avons, entre autres, mis en evidence l'apparition d'une correlation entre evenements successifs lorsque la temperature est comparable a la barriere de diffusion, i.e., la diffusion ne peut pas etre associee a une marche aleatoire. Nous proposons un modele phenomenologique simple qui reproduit bien les resultats des simulations. Ces calculs nous ont aussi permis de montrer que la diffusion obeit a la loi de Meyer-Neldel. Cette loi stipule que, pour un processus active, le prefacteur augmente exponentiellement avec la barriere. En plus, ce travail permet de clarifier l'origine physique de cette loi. En comparant les resultats dynamiques aux resultats statiques, on se rend compte que la barriere extraite des calculs dynamiques est essentiellement la meme que celle obtenue par une approche statique, beaucoup plus simple. On peut donc obtenir cette barriere a l'aide de methodes plus precises, i.e., ab initio, comme la theorie de la fonctionnelle de la densite, qui sont aussi malheureusement beaucoup plus lourdes. C'est ce que nous avons fait pour plusieurs systemes metalliques. Nos resultats avec cette derniere approche se comparent tres bien aux resultats experimentaux. Nous nous sommes attardes plus longuement a la surface (111) du platine. Cette surface regorge de particularites interessantes, comme la forme d'equilibre non-hexagonale des i lots et deux sites d'adsorption differents pour l'adatome. De plus, des calculs ab initio precedents n'ont pas reussi a confirmer la

  3. The role of free stream turbulence and blade surface conditions on the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, Victor Hugo

    with a 24-grit abrasive sheet. The role of turbulence and surface roughness on the aerodynamic performance of the wind turbine blade was investigated utilizing the following experimental techniques: (i) static pressure measurements around the blade, (ii) constant temperature anemometry (CTA) hot-wire and pitottube measurements of the velocity deficit at the wake, and (iii) two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (2-D PIV) measurements of the mean global flow. Results indicate that turbulence significantly increases the blade's lift coefficient for moderate to post-stall angles of attack (where the range tested was from zero to 18 degrees). This was accompanied without an increase in the drag coefficient for angles of attack below 14 degrees (prior to stall) and a significant reduction in drag for post-stall angles of attack at 16 and 18 degrees. This resulted in considerable increases to the aerodynamic efficiency of the blade, as quantified by the lift to drag ratio, L/D for all angles of attack except zero degrees. Conversely, surface roughness had a detrimental effect on the aerodynamic performance, as verified by 2-D PIV measurements of the mean flow which indicates that surface roughness promotes flow separation. Vortex generators (which are a form of passive flow control and sometimes utilized in wind turbine blades to mitigate the adverse effects of surface roughness) were demonstrated to be very effective in restoring aerodynamic performance. There was a significant increase in the lift coefficient of the blade (while marginally reducing the drag coefficient) thereby increasing the L/D ratio drastically from 1.076 to 2.791 at 18 degrees angle of attack. Finally, earlier work focused on the feasibility of synthetic jets (active flow control) to improve the aerodynamic and aeroelastic performance of wind turbine blades without free stream turbulence or surface roughness. Wind turbine models (including S809 airfoil-based) demonstrated a re-attachment of the

  4. Effects of the surface mobility on the oxidation of adsorbed CO on platinum electrodes in alkaline media. The role of the adlayer and surface defects.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Enrique; Chen, Qing-Song; Hernández, Javier; Sun, Shi-Gang; Feliu, Juan M

    2011-10-01

    The oxidation of adsorbed CO on Pt single crystal electrodes has been studied in alkaline media. The surfaces used in this study were the Pt(111) electrode and vicinal stepped and kinked surfaces with (111) terraces. The kinked surfaces have either (110) steps broken by (100) kinks or (100) steps broken by (110) kinks and different kink densities. The voltammetric profiles for the CO stripping on those electrodes show peaks corresponding to the oxidation of CO on the (111) terraces, on the (100) steps/kinks and on the (110) steps/kinks at very distinctive potentials. Additionally, the stripping voltammograms always present a prewave. The analysis of the results with the different stepped and kinked surfaces indicates that the presence of the prewave is not associated with defects or kinks in the electrode surface. Also, the clear separation of the CO stripping process in different peak contributions indicates that the mobility of CO on the surface is very low. Using partial CO stripping experiments and studies at different pH, it has been proposed that the low mobility is a consequence of the negative absolute potential at which the adlayers are formed in alkaline media. Also, the surface diffusion coefficient for CO in these media has been estimated from the dependence of the stripping charge of the peaks with the scan rate of the voltammetry. PMID:21863178

  5. Role of crystallographic anisotropy in the formation of surface layers of single NiTi crystals after ion-plasma alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Poletika, T. M. Girsova, S. L.; Meisner, L. L. Meisner, S. N.; Shulepov, I. A.

    2015-10-27

    The structure of the surface and near-surface layers of single crystals of NiTi, differently oriented relative to the direction of ion beam treatment was investigated. The role of the crystallographic orientation in formation of structure of surface layers after ion-plasma alloying was revealed. It was found that the orientation effects of selective sputtering and channeling determine the thickness of the oxide and amorphous layers, the depth of penetration of ions and impurities, the distribution of Ni with depth.

  6. The role of aluminum surface alloying in improving the corrosion resistance of silicon nitride under the influence of sodium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Yong Suk

    Corrosion of silicon nitride (Sisb3Nsb4) and associated degradation processes can severely limit the performance and reliability of advanced engine and structural systems employing it as a key component. The corrosion resistance of Sisb3Nsb4 is adversely affected by sodium, a reactive species commonly present in many service environments. Despite a number of studies on the sodium-accelerated corrosion, few attempts have been made to reduce the adverse effects of sodium on the corrosion resistance of Sisb3Nsb4. This work aimed to investigate the detailed role of aluminum surface alloying in minimizing the detrimental effect of sodium on the corrosion behavior of Sisb3Nsb4. Ion implantation was used as an alloying tool and pure hot-isostatically-pressed Sisb3Nsb4 as a base material. Surface regions (˜200nm) of highly polished Sisb3Nsb4 platelets were implanted with aluminum at multi-energies and multi-doses to achieve a uniform concentration distribution of 1, 5, and 10 at.%. Unimplanted and implanted Sisb3Nsb4 samples were exposed in atmospheric pressure oxygen enriched with 100 and 220 ppm sodium nitrate vapor at 900sp°-1100sp°C for 0.5 to 8 hours. Kinetics of corrosion were evaluated using profilometry in conjunction with etch patterning. The morphological, structural, and chemical characteristics of the corrosion layers were studied using various analytical techniques which include x-ray diffraction, secondary electron microscopy, atomic absorption analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. This investigation has shown that, under the influence of sodium, corrosion of unimplanted Sisb3Nsb4 follows a rapid and linear kinetic law. The corrosion layers are non-protective and rough. They also exhibit a high degree of morphological and phase instability, which can be attributed to increased thermodynamic and kinetic tendency towards the formation of low eutectic products, phase separation, and devitrification in the corrosion layer. Aluminum

  7. Influence des défauts de la structure du verre sur la résistance mécanique des fibres optiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmel, A.; Baptizmanski, V. V.; Kharshak, A. A.

    1992-12-01

    For silica (pure and doped) optical fibers prepared from preforms irradiated by thermal neutrons and Ar^+ ions, the measurements of lifetime under transverse stress were carried out. It is found that the neutron bombardment leads to decrease of the lifetime and the strength of fiber while the ion implantation results in increasing of these parameters. The influence of particle irradiation on the glass strength is explained by the generation of structural defects which were observed by the infrared an Raman spectroscopy methods. The direction of the change of mechanical properties of fibers is determined by the type of defects and their distribution in the cross-section of fiber. Des préformes de fibres optiques de silice ont été exposées à un bombardement par des faisceaux de neutrons thermiques et d'ions Ar^+ à énergie de 40 keV afin d'engendrer des défauts de la structure respectivement dans le volume ou dans la couche superficielle des échantillons. Les fibres obtenues des préformes irradiées et non irradiées ont été mises en charge de flexion. On a déterminé leur temps de rupture sous diverses contraintes de traction sur la surface extérieure de la fibre en flexion. On a observé une diminution du temps de rupture des fibres après le bombardement neutronique et une augmentation après l'implantation ionique. L'analyse de la nature des défauts en faisant appel à la spectroscopie infrarouge et Raman a fait ressortir que l'irradiation aux ions entraînait essentiellement des liaisons chimiques dans une fine couche superficielle de l'échantillon alors que l'irradiation aux neutrons occasionnait une déformation des zones du réseau silicique dans toute la section de la préforme et de la fibre. L'amélioration de la résistance mécanique s'explique par une augmentation de la mobilité des éléments structuraux de la matrice de verre par suite d'une rupture partielle des liaisons chimiques et sa diminution par l'apparition de concentrateurs

  8. L'astronomie des Anciens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2009-04-01

    Quelle que soit la civilisation à laquelle il appartient, l'être humain cherche dans le ciel des réponses aux questions qu'il se pose sur son origine, son avenir et sa finalité. Le premier mérite de ce livre est de nous rappeler que l'astronomie a commencé ainsi à travers les mythes célestes imaginés par les Anciens pour expliquer l'ordre du monde et la place qu'ils y occupaient. Mais les savoirs astronomiques passés étaient loin d'être négligeables et certainement pas limités aux seuls travaux des Grecs : c'est ce que l'auteur montre à travers une passionnante enquête, de Stonehenge à Gizeh en passant par Pékin et Mexico, fondée sur l'étude des monuments anciens et des sources écrites encore accessibles. Les tablettes mésopotamiennes, les annales chinoises, les chroniques médiévales, etc. sont en outre d'une singulière utilité pour les astronomes modernes : comment sinon remonter aux variations de la durée du jour au cours des siècles, ou percer la nature de l'explosion qui a frappé tant d'observateurs en 1054 ? Ce livre offre un voyage magnifiquement illustré à travers les âges, entre astronomie et archéologie.

  9. Cytochrome C on a gold surface: investigating structural relaxations and their role in protein-surface electron transfer by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Siwko, Magdalena E; Corni, Stefano

    2013-04-28

    Proteins immobilized on inorganic surfaces are important in technological fields such as biosensors, enzymatic biofuel cells and biomolecular electronics. In these frameworks, it has been demonstrated that some proteins are able to keep their functionality, although the latter may be somewhat modified by the interaction with the surface. Cytochrome C, an heme-based electron transfer protein, has been found to be able to exchange electrons with the gold surface on which it is immobilized, but some deviations from the expected electron transfer rates were evidenced [C. A. Bortolotti, et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 2007, 111, 12100-12105]. In this work we have used molecular dynamics simulations of (native and mutated) yeast cytochrome C supported on Au(111) to investigate the microscopic picture behind the experimental behavior of the molecule. In particular, we have focused on the structural re-arrangements due to the interactions with the surface. We found that, despite being secondary-structure preserving, they can profoundly affect protein-surface electronic coupling and, in turn, electron transfer rates, explaining experimental findings. The conformational flexibility of the protein in the region of the protein-surface bond is thus pivotal in determining the resulting ET functionality of the immobilized protein.

  10. Dual oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles of the promyelocytic leukemia gene in hepatocarcinogenesis associated with hepatitis B virus surface antigen.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yih-Lin; Wu, Mei-Ling

    2016-05-10

    Proteasome-mediated degradation of promyelocytic leukemia tumor suppressor (PML) is upregulated in many viral infections and cancers. We previously showed that PML knockdown promotes early-onset hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)-transgenic mice. Here we report the effects of PML restoration on late-onset HBsAg-induced HCC. We compared protein expression patterns, genetic mutations and the effects of pharmacologically targeting PML in wild-type, PML-/-, PML+/+HBsAgtg/o and PML-/-HBsAgtg/o mice. PML-/- mice exhibited somatic mutations in DNA repair genes and developed severe steatosis and proliferative disorders, but not HCC. PML-/-HBsAgtg/o mice exhibited early mutations in cancer driver genes and developed hyperplasia, fatty livers and indolent adipose-like HCC. In PML+/+HBsAg-transgenic mice, HBsAg expression declined over time, and HBsAg-associated PML suppression was concomitantly relieved. Nevertheless, these mice accumulated mutations in genes contributing to oxidative stress pathways and developed aggressive late-onset angiogenic trabecular HCC. PML inhibition using non-toxic doses of arsenic trioxide selectively killed long-term HBsAg-affected liver cells in PML+/+HBsAgtg/o mice with falling HBsAg and rising PML levels, but not normal liver cells or early-onset HCC cells in PML-/-HBsAgtg/0 mice. These findings suggest dual roles for PML as a tumor-suppressor lost in early-onset HBsAg-induced hepatocarcinogenesis and as an oncogenic promoter in late-onset HBsAg-related HCC progression. PMID:27058621

  11. Dual oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles of the promyelocytic leukemia gene in hepatocarcinogenesis associated with hepatitis B virus surface antigen

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yih-Lin; Wu, Mei-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Proteasome-mediated degradation of promyelocytic leukemia tumor suppressor (PML) is upregulated in many viral infections and cancers. We previously showed that PML knockdown promotes early-onset hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)-transgenic mice. Here we report the effects of PML restoration on late-onset HBsAg-induced HCC. We compared protein expression patterns, genetic mutations and the effects of pharmacologically targeting PML in wild-type, PML−/−, PML+/+HBsAgtg/o and PML−/−HBsAgtg/o mice. PML−/− mice exhibited somatic mutations in DNA repair genes and developed severe steatosis and proliferative disorders, but not HCC. PML−/−HBsAgtg/o mice exhibited early mutations in cancer driver genes and developed hyperplasia, fatty livers and indolent adipose-like HCC. In PML+/+HBsAg-transgenic mice, HBsAg expression declined over time, and HBsAg-associated PML suppression was concomitantly relieved. Nevertheless, these mice accumulated mutations in genes contributing to oxidative stress pathways and developed aggressive late-onset angiogenic trabecular HCC. PML inhibition using non-toxic doses of arsenic trioxide selectively killed long-term HBsAg-affected liver cells in PML+/+HBsAgtg/o mice with falling HBsAg and rising PML levels, but not normal liver cells or early-onset HCC cells in PML−/−HBsAgtg/0 mice. These findings suggest dual roles for PML as a tumor-suppressor lost in early-onset HBsAg-induced hepatocarcinogenesis and as an oncogenic promoter in late-onset HBsAg-related HCC progression. PMID:27058621

  12. An extensive computational study of the adsorption of thiophene on transition metal surfaces: role of van der Waals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Tomas; Kara, Abdelkader

    2014-03-01

    Van der Waals (vdWs) interactions play a significant role in the determination of the adsorption characteristics at the interface between a molecule and a substrate. In this study, self-consistent inclusion of vdW interactions in density functional theory provides a good perspective to understand the interaction between organic adsorbates and inorganic interfaces. We present the results of adsorption of thiophene (C4H4S) on various transition metal surfaces with the goal of comparing the performance of five different vdW functionals (optB86, optB88, optPBE, revPBE, rPW86). Seven metallic substrates (100) are used for our study; three coinage metals (Au, Ag, Cu) and four reactive metals (Pt, Pd, Rh, Ni). The results show that vdWs inclusion enhances the interaction for Ag (0.08 to 0.73 eV), Au (0.14 to 0.86 eV), Cu (0.12 eV to 0.77 eV), Ni(1.56 to 2.34 eV), Pt (1.6 to 2.51 eV), Pd (1.67 to 2.54), Rh (1.74 to 2.96 eV). In addition, we performed calculations for adsorption heights along with analysis of the electronic changes (charge transfer, changes in the d-band of the substrate, and change in the work function) to complement our understanding of these systems. This work is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Basic Energy Science under Contract No DE-FG02-11ER16243.

  13. Possible role of a cell surface carbohydrate in evolution of resistance to viral infections in old world primates.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Idalia A; Welsh, Raymond M

    2013-08-01

    Due to inactivation of the α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene (GGTA1, or the α1,3GT gene) approximately 28 million years ago, the carbohydrate αGal (Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc) is not expressed on the cells of Old World monkeys and apes (including humans) but is expressed in all other mammals. The proposed selective advantage of this mutation for these primates is the ability to produce anti-Gal antibodies, which may be an effective immune component in neutralizing αGal-expressing pathogens. However, loss of α1,3GT expression may have been advantageous by providing natural resistance against viral pathogens that exploited the α1,3GT pathway or cell surface αGal for infection. Infections of paired cell lines with differential expression of α1,3GT showed that Sindbis viruses (SINV) preferentially replicate in α1,3GT-positive cells, whereas herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) preferentially grow in cells lacking α1,3GT. Viral growth and spread correlated with the ability of the different viruses to successfully initiate infection in the presence or absence of α1,3GT expression. GT knockout (KO) suckling mice infected with SINV strains (AR339 and S.A.AR86) experienced significant delay in onset of disease symptoms and mortality compared to wild-type (WT) B6 suckling mice. In contrast, HSV-2-infected GT KO mice had higher viral titers in spleen and liver and exhibited significantly more focal hepatic necrosis than WT B6 mice. This study demonstrates that α1,3GT activity plays a role in the course of infections for certain viruses. Furthermore, this study has implications for the evolution of resistance to viral infections in primates.

  14. Lessons learnt from the Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004: the role of surface and subsurface topography in deep water tsunami propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattiaratchi, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    The Indian Ocean experienced its most devastating natural disaster through the action of a Tsunami, resulting from of an earthquake off the coast of Sumatra on 26th of December 2004. This resulted in widespread damage both to property and human lives with over 250,000 deaths in the region and many millions homeless. Our understanding of tsunami generation and propagation has increased significantly over the past decade. In this presentation, results obtained from detailed analysis of sea level data from Western Australia and Sri Lanka together with numerical modelling are presented to highlight the effects of topography both at the surface and subsurface. The major effects are due to wave reflection and refraction. Examples of wave reflection include: impacts on Malaysia/Thailand, Sri Lanka and Western Australia due to wave reflection from Sri Lanka, Maldives and Mascarene Ridge, respectively. In the case of Sri Lanka, the maximum wave height recorded along the west coast during the 2004 tsunami was due to the reflected wave from Maldives impacting 3 hours after the arrival of the initial waves. Similarly, along the West coast of Australia highest waves occurred 15 hours after the arrival of the first wave. Here, based on travel times, we postulate that the waves were reflected from the Mascarene Ridge and/or the island of Madagascar (Figure 1b). The conclusions based on observations were verified using numerical model simulations using the MOST and ComMIT models. Numerical modelling using the MOST model indicated the role of offshore susurface topography on tsunami propagation through wave wave refraction. Examples of wave refraction included the effects of deep water seamounts (Venin Meinesz) and plateaus (Wallaby, Cuvier and Exmouth) on tsunami propagation along the West Australian coast. The tsunami waves are first scattered by the Venin Meinesz seamounts and were then refracted by the Wallaby and Cuvier plateaus resulting in waves being deflected onto the

  15. Possible Role of a Cell Surface Carbohydrate in Evolution of Resistance to Viral Infections in Old World Primates

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Idalia A.

    2013-01-01

    Due to inactivation of the α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene (GGTA1, or the α1,3GT gene) approximately 28 million years ago, the carbohydrate αGal (Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc) is not expressed on the cells of Old World monkeys and apes (including humans) but is expressed in all other mammals. The proposed selective advantage of this mutation for these primates is the ability to produce anti-Gal antibodies, which may be an effective immune component in neutralizing αGal-expressing pathogens. However, loss of α1,3GT expression may have been advantageous by providing natural resistance against viral pathogens that exploited the α1,3GT pathway or cell surface αGal for infection. Infections of paired cell lines with differential expression of α1,3GT showed that Sindbis viruses (SINV) preferentially replicate in α1,3GT-positive cells, whereas herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) preferentially grow in cells lacking α1,3GT. Viral growth and spread correlated with the ability of the different viruses to successfully initiate infection in the presence or absence of α1,3GT expression. GT knockout (KO) suckling mice infected with SINV strains (AR339 and S.A.AR86) experienced significant delay in onset of disease symptoms and mortality compared to wild-type (WT) B6 suckling mice. In contrast, HSV-2-infected GT KO mice had higher viral titers in spleen and liver and exhibited significantly more focal hepatic necrosis than WT B6 mice. This study demonstrates that α1,3GT activity plays a role in the course of infections for certain viruses. Furthermore, this study has implications for the evolution of resistance to viral infections in primates. PMID:23740988

  16. The role of current characteristics of the arc evaporator in formation of the surface metal-coating composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plikhunov, V. V.; Petrov, L. M.; Grigorovich, K. V.

    2016-07-01

    The influence of current characteristics of the vacuum arc evaporator on the interaction process of plasma streams with the surface under treatment during generation of the physicochemical properties of the formed metal-coating composite is considered. It is shown that the interaction of plasma streams with the processed surface provides surface heating, defects elimination, change in energy properties, and mass transfer of plasma stream elements activating surface diffusion processes whose intensity is evaluated by the arc current magnitude and location of the processed surface relative to the cathode axis.

  17. Roles of oxygen for methanol adsorption on polycrystalline copper surface revealed by sum frequency generation imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ming; Santos, Greggy; Chen, Xiaole; Baldelli, Steven

    2016-06-01

    The adsorption of atmospheric pressure methanol on the polycrystalline copper surface has been studied by a combination of sum frequency generation imaging microscopy (SFGIM) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Methoxy species can be generated by exposing the polycrystalline copper surface to methanol vapor at room temperature. SFGIM results demonstrate that oxygen promotes the surface adsorption of methanol and the increase in the amount of methoxy produced on copper surface. SFGIM orientation analysis suggests the methoxy monolayer is oriented closer to the surface normal with introduction of oxygen. Employing the image statistical analysis approach, the heterogeneities and conformation distribution of methoxy monolayers on copper surface with and without oxygen adsorption are compared. These results illustrate SFGIM indeed could provide more insight for understanding the heterogeneous metal/metal oxide surface in the molecular level.

  18. Role of surface alteration in determining the mobility of U(VI) in the presence of citrate: implications for extraction of U(VI) from soils.

    PubMed

    Logue, Brian A; Smith, Robert W; Westall, John C

    2004-07-01

    In the present study, the adsorption of U(VI) by a natural iron-rich sand in the presence of citrate was studied over a range of citrate concentrations and pH values. Adsorption of U(VI) on the iron-rich sand decreased in the presence of increasing concentrations of citrate. Adsorption of citrate to the sand was weak under most conditions studied. Several explanations for the adsorption behavior of U(VI) and citrate were investigated, including aqueous complexation of U(VI) by citrate, competition of U(VI) and citrate for adsorption sites, and extraction of Fe and Al from the sorbent surface by citrate (surface alteration). Although aqueous complexation of U(VI) by citrate may still play a significant role, both competitive adsorption and aqueous complexation proved to be inadequate explanations of the adsorption behavior. Both physical surface alteration (i.e., loss of surface area) and chemical surface alteration (i.e., change in the chemical composition of the sand surface) were investigated, with chemical surface alteration controlling the bulk of U(VI) adsorption. Considering these results, remediation schemes that involve organic complexing agents should address the possibility of surface alteration affecting radionuclide adsorption and mobility.

  19. Role of disulfide linkages in desulfurization chemistry. The reactions of benzenethiol on a sulfur-covered Mo(110) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Weldon, M.K.; Napier, M.E.; Wiegand, B.C.; Friend, C.M.; Uvdal, P.

    1994-09-07

    The reactions of benzenethiol on a sulfur-covered Mo(110) surface were studied using temperature programmed reaction, X-ray photoelectron, and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopies. The sulfur overlayer profoundly alters the kinetics and selectivity for desulfurization and dehydrogenation. By using isotopic labeling, we have established that phenyl disulfide (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}S-S-) is formed via S-H bond scission and S-S bond formation on Mo(110) at 100 K. The S-S- linkage is oriented perpendicular and the phenyl ring parallel to the surface. The disulfide subsequently forms an upright phenylthiolate species, bound directly to the Mo(110) surface, prior to the onset of benzene formation at 300 K. In contrast to the clean surface, where only the low-temperature state is observed, a second benzene peak is observed at 500 K on the sulfur-covered surface. This feature is attributed to disproportionation of surface phenyl groups to produce gaseous benzene and surface benzyne. In addition, gaseous phenyl also desorbs from the surface in the same temperature range, due to a lack of available surface hydrogen. The selectivity for gaseous hydrocarbon production is approximately 80%, nearly twice that on the clean surface, while the total amount of reaction remains the same. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Competition between Displacement and Dissociation of a Strong Acid Compared to a Weak Acid Adsorbed on Silica Particle Surfaces: The Role of Adsorbed Water.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Tang, Mingjin; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-06-16

    The adsorption of nitric (HNO3) and formic (HCOOH) acids on silica particle surfaces and the effect of adsorbed water have been investigated at 296 K using transmission FTIR spectroscopy. Under dry conditions, both nitric and formic acids adsorb reversibly on silica. Additionally, the FTIR spectra show that both of these molecules remain in the protonated form. At elevated relative humidities (RH), adsorbed water competes both for surface adsorption sites with these acids as well as promotes their dissociation to hydronium ions and the corresponding anions. Compared to HNO3, the extent of dissociation is much smaller for HCOOH, very likely because it is a weaker acid. This study provides valuable insights into the interaction of HNO3 and HCOOH with silica surface on the molecular level and further reveals the complex roles of surface-adsorbed water in atmospheric heterogeneous chemistry of mineral dust particles-many of these containing silica.

  1. Competition between Displacement and Dissociation of a Strong Acid Compared to a Weak Acid Adsorbed on Silica Particle Surfaces: The Role of Adsorbed Water.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Tang, Mingjin; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-06-16

    The adsorption of nitric (HNO3) and formic (HCOOH) acids on silica particle surfaces and the effect of adsorbed water have been investigated at 296 K using transmission FTIR spectroscopy. Under dry conditions, both nitric and formic acids adsorb reversibly on silica. Additionally, the FTIR spectra show that both of these molecules remain in the protonated form. At elevated relative humidities (RH), adsorbed water competes both for surface adsorption sites with these acids as well as promotes their dissociation to hydronium ions and the corresponding anions. Compared to HNO3, the extent of dissociation is much smaller for HCOOH, very likely because it is a weaker acid. This study provides valuable insights into the interaction of HNO3 and HCOOH with silica surface on the molecular level and further reveals the complex roles of surface-adsorbed water in atmospheric heterogeneous chemistry of mineral dust particles-many of these containing silica. PMID:27220375

  2. Formation versus Hydrolysis of the Peptide Bond from a Quantum-mechanical Viewpoint: The Role of Mineral Surfaces and Implications for the Origin of Life

    PubMed Central

    Rimola, Albert; Ugliengo, Piero; Sodupe, Mariona

    2009-01-01

    The condensation (polymerization by water elimination) of molecular building blocks to yield the first active biopolymers (e.g. of amino acids to form peptides) during primitive Earth is an intriguing question that nowadays still remains open since these processes are thermodynamically disfavoured in highly dilute water solutions. In the present contribution, formation and hydrolysis of glycine oligopeptides occurring on a cluster model of sanidine feldspar (001) surface have been simulated by quantum mechanical methods. Results indicate that the catalytic interplay between Lewis and Brønsted sites both present at the sanidine surface, in cooperation with the London forces acting between the biomolecules and the inorganic surface, plays a crucial role to: i) favour the condensation of glycine to yield oligopeptides as reaction products; ii) inhibit the hydrolysis of the newly formed oligopeptides. Both facts suggest that mineral surfaces may have helped in catalyzing, stabilizing and protecting from hydration the oligopeptides formed in the prebiotic era. PMID:19399219

  3. The role of surface charge and hydrophobicity in the attachment of Anoxybacillus flavithermus isolated from milk powder.

    PubMed

    Palmer, J S; Flint, S H; Schmid, J; Brooks, J D

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the attachment mechanisms that enable the thermophile Anoxybacillus flavithermus (B12) to attach to stainless-steel surfaces. Passing a B12 culture through a column of stainless-steel chips, collecting the first cells to pass through, re-culturing, and repeating the process six times, resulted in the isolation of a mutant, labeled X7, with tenfold reduced ability to attach to stainless steel as well as a reduced ability to attach to plastic. A comparison of bacterial cell-surface properties indicated that X7 was less hydrophobic than its parental strain B12. Cell-surface charge measurements also suggest that X7 had a lower net-negative surface charge. Disruption of extracellular polysaccharides and DNA appeared to have no effect on the attachment process. Removal of surface proteins caused a reduction in attachment of both B12 and X7, suggesting surface protein involvement in attachment. PMID:20574738

  4. MMENT>Computational study of complete methanol dehydrogenation on Au(100) and Au(310) surfaces: Dominant role of atomic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, A.; Shah, S. H.

    2014-02-01

    Methanol dehydrogenation to CO and H2 has been systematically investigated on Au(100) and Au(310) surfaces using density functional theory (DFT). All possible intermediates involved are calculated. Methanol and formaldehyde being saturated molecules adsorb weakly on both the surfaces. The thermochemistry and kinetics of the decomposition via sequential hydrogen abstraction are both found to be highly unfavorable for these species. Nevertheless, atomic oxygen pre-covered surfaces substantially enhance CH3OH and CH2O (resulting in CH2O2 complex formation) interaction with Au and offer weak activation barrier for methanol disintegration into CH3O and H. On the other hand, methoxy, formyl, and atomic hydrogen are predicted to make strong chemical bonds with the clean Au surfaces. The abstraction of hydrogen from the methoxy intermediate on bare gold surfaces is practical, while formyl splits instantaneously during optimization. A feasible mechanism on oxygen pre-covered surfaces for complete methanol dehydrogenation has been presented.

  5. The role of electrostatic charge in the adhesion of spherical particles onto planar surfaces in atmospheric systems

    DOE PAGES

    Kweon, Hyojin; Yiacoumi, Sotira Z.; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-06-19

    In this study, the influence of electrostatic charge on the adhesive force between spherical particles and planar surfaces in atmospheric systems was studied using atomic force microscopy. Electrical bias was applied to modify the surface charge, and it was found that application of a stronger positive bias to a particle induces a stronger total adhesive force. The sensitivity of the system to changes in the bias depended on the surface charge density. For larger-size particles, the contribution of the electrostatic force decreased, and the capillary force became the major contributor to the total adhesive force. The influence of water adsorptionmore » on the total adhesive force and, specifically, on the contribution of the electrostatic force depended on the hydrophobicity of interacting surfaces. For a hydrophilic surface, water adsorption either attenuated the surface charge or screened the effect of surface potential. An excessive amount of adsorbed water provided a path to surface charge leakage, which might cancel out the electrostatic force, leading to a reduction in the adhesive force. Theoretically calculated forces were comparable with measured adhesive forces except for mica which has a highly localized surface potential. The results of this study provide information on the behavior of charged colloidal particles in atmospheric systems.« less

  6. The role of electrostatic charge in the adhesion of spherical particles onto planar surfaces in atmospheric systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kweon, Hyojin; Yiacoumi, Sotira Z.; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-06-19

    In this study, the influence of electrostatic charge on the adhesive force between spherical particles and planar surfaces in atmospheric systems was studied using atomic force microscopy. Electrical bias was applied to modify the surface charge, and it was found that application of a stronger positive bias to a particle induces a stronger total adhesive force. The sensitivity of the system to changes in the bias depended on the surface charge density. For larger-size particles, the contribution of the electrostatic force decreased, and the capillary force became the major contributor to the total adhesive force. The influence of water adsorption on the total adhesive force and, specifically, on the contribution of the electrostatic force depended on the hydrophobicity of interacting surfaces. For a hydrophilic surface, water adsorption either attenuated the surface charge or screened the effect of surface potential. An excessive amount of adsorbed water provided a path to surface charge leakage, which might cancel out the electrostatic force, leading to a reduction in the adhesive force. Theoretically calculated forces were comparable with measured adhesive forces except for mica which has a highly localized surface potential. The results of this study provide information on the behavior of charged colloidal particles in atmospheric systems.

  7. Role of the cell surface in selection during transport of proteins from mother to foetus and newly born.

    PubMed

    Wild, A E

    1975-07-17

    The transport of immunoglobulins from mother to foetus and newly born mammal involves selective events which are independent of molecular size, related to immunoglobulin class, structure, and species of origin, and involve considerable protein degradation. Such events are briefly described as background information to a discussion of how selection of proteins might take place during transport across the cellular barriers concerned, namely the yolk sac splanchnopleur, chorio-allantoic placenta, and small intesting. Until recently the Brambell hypothesis has been the most favoured explanation. This implies that selection occurs intracellularly, within endodermal cells of the yolk sac splanchnopleur and small intestine, and within the syncytiotrophoblast of the chorio-allantoic placenta, of certain species. It also suggests that specific receptors are present which give attached proteins protection from degradation when the vesicles containing them fuse with lysosomes; such protected proteins are then liberated from the vesicle by exocytosis. This hypothesis is examined in the light of what is now known about the mechanism of uptake and transport of proteins by the endodermal cells and syncytiotrophoblast. It is suggested that rather than being an intracellular event, involving protection from proteolytic degradation, selection takes place at the cell surface. Evidence is presented, some direct and some circumstantial, that proteins may be selectively endocytosed by coated micropinocytotic vesicles, and non-selectively endocytosed through a complex apical canalicular system leading to macropinocytotic vesicle formation. In the small intesting of the suckling rat these two processes appear to be segregated, selective uptake occurring in the proximal half and non-selective uptake occurring in the distal half. In the endodermal cells of the rabbit yolk sac splanchnopleur, and by implication in the syncytiotrophoblast of man and monkey, it is suggested that both selective

  8. Angiogenic Role of MMP-2/9 Expressed on the Cell Surface of Early Endothelial Progenitor Cells/Myeloid Angiogenic Cells.

    PubMed

    Kanayasu-Toyoda, Toshie; Tanaka, Takeshi; Ishii-Watabe, Akiko; Kitagawa, Hiroko; Matsuyama, Akifumi; Uchida, Eriko; Yamaguchi, Teruhide

    2015-11-01

    Since the introduction of angiogenic cell therapy using early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), myeloid angiogenic cells (MACs) have been expected to be useful in treating ischemic diseases. In order to elucidate the angiogenic properties of MACs/EPCs, we clarified the characteristics of MACs as compared to M2 macrophages (Mϕs). Comparison of the gene expression profiles of MACs and late EPCs revealed that MACs expressed greater amounts of metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. It should be noted that the profile of MMP-2/9 expression on the cell surface of MACs was similar to that of M2 Mϕs, and that cell surface MMP-2/9 might be an active form based on molecular size. In addition, the invasion of MACs was prohibited not only by MMP-2/9 inhibitor, but also by the hyaluronidase treatment that caused the down-regulation of MMP-9 on the cell surface of MACs and inhibited their invasion activity. These results indicate that cell surface MMP-2/9 plays an important role in the high invasion ability of MACs. The conditioned medium of both MACs and M2 Mϕs stimulated tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro. MACs caused an increase in vessel formation in in vivo models through the production of IL-8. We propose that the role of MACs with cell surfaces expressing MMP-2/9 is rapidly invading ischemic tissue. PMID:25820539

  9. Quantification of the relative role of land-surface processes and large-scale forcing in dynamic downscaling over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yanhong; Xiao, Linhong; Chen, Deliang; Chen, Fei; Xu, Jianwei; Xu, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Dynamical downscaling modeling (DDM) is important to understand regional climate change and develop local mitigation strategies, and the accuracy of DDM depends on the physical processes involved in the regional climate model as well as the forcing datasets derived from global models. This study investigates the relative role of the land surface schemes and forcing datasets in the DDM over the Tibet Plateau (TP), a region complex in topography and vulnerable to climate change. Three Weather Research and Forecasting model dynamical downscaling simulations configured with two land surface schemes [Noah versus Noah with multiparameterization (Noah-MP)] and two forcing datasets are performed over the period of 1980-2005. The downscaled temperature and precipitation are evaluated with observations and inter-compared regarding temporal trends, spatial distributions, and climatology. Results show that the temporal trends of the temperature and precipitation are determined by the forcing datasets, and the forcing dataset with the smallest trend bias performs the best. Relative to the forcing datasets, land surface processes play a more critical role in the DDM over the TP due to the strong heating effects on the atmospheric circulation from a vast area at exceptionally high elevations. By changing the vertical profiles of temperature in the atmosphere and the horizontal patterns of moisture advection during the monsoon seasons, the land surface schemes significantly regulate the downscaled temperature and precipitation in terms of climatology and spatial patterns. This study emphasizes the selection of land surface schemes is of crucial importance in the successful DDM over the TP.

  10. CELL MEMBRANE SURFACE POTENTIAL (PSI 0) PLAYS A DOMINANT ROLE IN THE PHYTOTOXICITY OF COPPER AND ARSENATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Negative charges at cell membrane surfaces (CMS) create a surface electrical potential (Psi 0) which affects ion concentrations at the CMS and consequently affects the phytotoxicity of metallic cations and metalloid anions in different ways. The zeta potentials of root protoplasts of wheat (Triticu...

  11. Role of surface chemistry in adhesion between ZnO nanowires and carbon fibers in hybrid composites.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Gregory J; Galan, Ulises; Sodano, Henry A

    2013-02-01

    Low interface strength is a persistent problem in composite materials and cascades to limit a variety of bulk material properties such as lamina shear strength. Whiskerization has long been pursued as a method to reinforce the interphase and improve both the single fiber interface strength as well as the bulk properties. Recent developments have shown that ZnO nanowire whiskerization can effectively improve the properties of a bulk composite without requiring the high temperatures that previous deposition processes needed. Although the efficacy of a ZnO nanowire interphase has been established, the mechanism for adhesion of the interphase to the fiber has not been identified. Specifically, the addition of the ZnO nanowires to the surface of the fibers requires that the ZnO nanowires have strong chemical adhesion to the fiber surface. This work will create a variety of chemical environments on the surface of the fibers through new and common chemical functionalization procedures and quantify the surface chemistry through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effect of fiber surface chemistry on the adhesion of the ZnO is assessed through single fiber fragmentation testing. The interface strength is found to strongly correlate with the concentration of ketone groups on the surface of the fibers. Following the experimental observations, liftoff of a ZnO crystal from a graphene surface was simulated with a variety of surface functionalizations. The computational models confirm the preference for ketone groups in promoting adhesion between ZnO and graphite.

  12. The roles of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in regulating MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast proliferation and differentiation on SLA and SLActive titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ying-Xin; Du, Juan; Si, Mi-Si; Mo, Jia-Ji; Qiao, Shi-Chong; Lai, Hong-Chang

    2013-03-01

    Chemical modification to produce a hydrophilic microrough titanium (Ti) implant surface has been shown to increase osseointegration compared with microrough topography alone. This study aimed to investigate the roles of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in regulating proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts in response to surface microroughness and hydrophilicity. Ti disks were manufactured to present different surface morphologies: a smooth pretreatment surface (PT), a rough hydrophobic surface that was sand-blasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA), and an SLA surface with the same roughness that was chemically modified to possess high wettability/hydrophilicity (SLActive/modSLA). MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on these substrates with or without LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, and their behaviors, including cell viability (MTT colorimetric assay), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and osteogenic genes expression of osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OCN) were measured. Western blot was applied to detect the expression of PI3K/Akt signal pathway proteins. The results showed that a decrease in osteoblast proliferation associated with the Ti surfaces (SLActive > SLA > PT) correlated with an increase in activity of the osteogenic differentiation markers ALP. The peak of ALP activity appeared earlier at 7 days for the SLActive surfaces compared with the SLA and PT surfaces. Osteoblast proliferation, as well as the level of p-Akt, was significantly inhibited by LY294002 in all three Ti surfaces. The top value of ALP activity was increased with the inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway while the time of the peak appeared was not advanced. The expression levels of OPN and OCN were upregulated by the effect of surface roughness and hydrophilicity, which were further enhanced by LY294002. In conclusion, osteogenic responses to SLActive surface were moderately better than the SLA surface and protein expression studies indicated that PI3K/Akt signaling activation may be

  13. Transport quantique dans des nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, C.

    2002-09-01

    structure des oscillations de conductance en fonction du flux du champ magnétique de période h/e dont l'amplitude est beaucoup plus importante que celle mesurée sur un réseau carré de même dimension. Cette différence constitue une signature d'un effet de localisation induit par le champ magnétique sur la topologie mathcal{T}3. Pour des valeurs spécifiques du champ magnétique, du fait des interférences destructives Aharonov-Bohm, la propagation des fonctions d'ondes est limitée à un ensemble fini de cellule du réseau appelé cage. De la dépendance en température des oscillations de période h/e mesurées sur le réseau mathcal{T}3 nous avons tiré une longueur caractéristique qui peut être rattachée au périmètre des cages. Un phénomène inattendu fut l'observation, pour des champs magnétiques plus importants, d'un doublement de fréquence des oscillations. Ces oscillations de période h/2e pouvant avoir une amplitude supérieure aux oscillations de période h/e, une interprétation en terme d'harmonique n'est pas possible. Enfin, l'influence de la largeur électrique des fils constituant le réseau et donc celle du nombre de canaux par brin a été étudiée en réalisant des grilles électrostatique. Les variations de l'amplitude des signaux en h/e et h/2e en fonction de la tension de grille ont été mesurés.

  14. [Role of surface-generated gas-phase radicals in heterogeneous catalysis] Final Technical Report, January 1, 1994 - December 31, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, Jack H.

    2002-03-20

    A major theme in this research has been the role of surface-generated gas-phase radicals in heterogeneous catalysis, with emphasis on methyl radicals formed from methane. The activation of methane is of particular interest because of its abundance as a hydrocarbon resource. Previous studies on methyl radicals showed that they are an intermediate in the oxidative coupling of methane to form ethane and subsequently ethylene. More recent research on methyl radicals has focused on their coupling with allyl radicals, derived from propylene, to produce 1-butene and the methylation of ethylene to form propylene. As an extension of the work on methyl radicals, it has been shown that their reaction with vanadium oxide yields surface methoxide ions which either decompose to formaldehyde or react with water to form methanol. The surface and gas phase chemistry of methyl radicals also provided a link to the removal of NOx. In an attempt to explore the validity of a mechanism put forth by Vannice and co-workers, it was shown under this DOE grant that over basic metal oxides methyl radicals indeed react with gas phase NO to form nitrosomethane which is believed to be an intermediate in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Over one of these basic oxide catalysts (BaO/MgO), the decomposition of N2O was studied to determine the role of peroxide ions as an intermediate. Hydroxyl radicals also may be formed on surfaces and enter the gas phase where they can promote chain branching reactions during hydrocarbon oxidation. The formation of these radicals during the reaction of water with molecular oxygen over basic oxide catalysts has been studied in detail. A kinetic model provided evidence that these surface generated radicals may play a role in catalytic combustion. Since the hydroxyl radicals may undergo secondary reactions with a surface, this aspect of their chemistry was also explored. In contrast to the low probability of methyl radicals reacting with metal oxide surfaces

  15. In Situ Experiments To Reveal the Role of Surface Feature Sidewalls in the Cassie–Wenzel Transition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Waterproof and self-cleaning surfaces continue to attract much attention as they can be instrumental in various different technologies. Such surfaces are typically rough, allowing liquids to contact only the outermost tops of their asperities, with air being entrapped underneath. The formed solid–liquid–air interface is metastable and, hence, can be forced into a completely wetted solid surface. A detailed understanding of the wetting barrier and the dynamics of this transition is critically important for the practical use of the related surfaces. Toward this aim, wetting transitions were studied in situ at a set of patterned perfluoropolyether dimethacrylate (PFPEdma) polymer surfaces exhibiting surface features with different types of sidewall profiles. PFPEdma is intrinsically hydrophobic and exhibits a refractive index very similar to water. Upon immersion of the patterned surfaces into water, incident light was differently scattered at the solid–liquid–air and solid–liquid interface, which allows for distinguishing between both wetting states by dark-field microscopy. The wetting transition observed with this methodology was found to be determined by the sidewall profiles of the patterned structures. Partial recovery of the wetting was demonstrated to be induced by abrupt and continuous pressure reductions. A theoretical model based on Laplace’s law was developed and applied, allowing for the analytical calculation of the transition barrier and the potential to revert the wetting upon pressure reduction. PMID:25496232

  16. In situ experiments to reveal the role of surface feature sidewalls in the Cassie-Wenzel transition.

    PubMed

    Hensel, René; Finn, Andreas; Helbig, Ralf; Killge, Sebastian; Braun, Hans-Georg; Werner, Carsten

    2014-12-23

    Waterproof and self-cleaning surfaces continue to attract much attention as they can be instrumental in various different technologies. Such surfaces are typically rough, allowing liquids to contact only the outermost tops of their asperities, with air being entrapped underneath. The formed solid-liquid-air interface is metastable and, hence, can be forced into a completely wetted solid surface. A detailed understanding of the wetting barrier and the dynamics of this transition is critically important for the practical use of the related surfaces. Toward this aim, wetting transitions were studied in situ at a set of patterned perfluoropolyether dimethacrylate (PFPEdma) polymer surfaces exhibiting surface features with different types of sidewall profiles. PFPEdma is intrinsically hydrophobic and exhibits a refractive index very similar to water. Upon immersion of the patterned surfaces into water, incident light was differently scattered at the solid-liquid-air and solid-liquid interface, which allows for distinguishing between both wetting states by dark-field microscopy. The wetting transition observed with this methodology was found to be determined by the sidewall profiles of the patterned structures. Partial recovery of the wetting was demonstrated to be induced by abrupt and continuous pressure reductions. A theoretical model based on Laplace's law was developed and applied, allowing for the analytical calculation of the transition barrier and the potential to revert the wetting upon pressure reduction. PMID:25496232

  17. The proliferation of surface-to-surface missiles and weapons of mass destruction and the emerging role of tactical missile defenses in Israel, Syria and Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    The proliferation of surface-to-surface missiles (SSMs) and weapons of mass destruction has become one of the more serious security threats to post-Cold War peace. This dissertation examines the history of proliferation within the Middle East by focusing primarily on three trend-setting countries: Israel, Syria and Iran. Building on the theoretical framework established by Lewis A. Dunn and Herman Kahn, this dissertation examines why and how Israel, Syria and Iran have procured SSMs and weapons of mass destruction. The author also includes an analysis of tactical missile defenses and their impact on proliferation trends. The final section investigates the numerous arms control treaties and supplier cartels designed to halt or slow the pace of unconventional weapons proliferation. In many instances, Iraq serves as the primary example of how well-intentioned nonproliferation efforts have fallen short. This dissertation reveals some of the major flaws in these regimes while proposing necessary improvements if nonproliferation efforts are to succeed. In conclusion, this dissertation returns to the expanded Dunn-Kahn nuclear proliferation model. By categorizing the various reasons as to why countries choose to procure unconventional weapons, a more successful nonproliferation policy can be constructed. However, this dissertation warns that without political solutions to long-term disputes in the region, western-imposed nonproliferation regimes will fail. Thus, nonproliferation policies must be accompanied or preceded by a vigorous diplomatic and political effort to solve seemingly intractable differences.

  18. The role of surface energy and water wettability in aminoalkyl/fluorocarbon/hydrocarbon-modified xerogel surfaces in the control of marine biofouling.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Stephanie M; Finlay, John A; Gunari, Nikhil; Wells, David D; Meyer, Anne E; Walker, Gilbert C; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Bright, Frank V; Detty, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    Xerogel films with uniform surface topogrophy, as determined by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, were prepared from aminopropylsilyl-, fluorocarbonsilyl-, and hydrocarbonsilyl- containing precursors. Young's modulus was determined from AFM indentation measurements. The xerogel coatings gave reduced settlement of zoospores of the marine fouling alga Ulva compared to a poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer (PDMSE) standard. Increased settlement correlated with decreased water wettability as measured by the static water contact angle, theta(Ws), or with decreased polar contribution (gamma(P)) to the surface free energy (gamma(S)) as measured by comprehensive contact angle analysis. The strength of attachment of 7-day sporelings (young plants) of Ulva on several of the xerogels was similar to that on PDMSE although no overall correlation was observed with either theta(Ws) or gamma(S). For sporelings attached to the fluorocarbon/hydrocarbon-modified xerogels, the strength of attachment increased with increased water wettability. The aminopropyl-modified xerogels did not follow this trend.

  19. Relative roles of differential SST warming, uniform SST warming and land surface warming in determining the Walker circulation changes under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Most of CMIP5 models projected a weakened Walker circulation in tropical Pacific, but what causes such change is still an open question. By conducting idealized numerical simulations separating the effects of the spatially uniform sea surface temperature (SST) warming, extra land surface warming and differential SST warming, we demonstrate that the weakening of the Walker circulation is attributed to the western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon and South America land effects. The effect of the uniform SST warming is through so-called "richest-get-richer" mechanism. In response to a uniform surface warming, the WNP monsoon is enhanced by competing moisture with other large-scale convective branches. The strengthened WNP monsoon further induces surface westerlies in the equatorial western-central Pacific, weakening the Walker circulation. The increase of the greenhouse gases leads to a larger land surface warming than ocean surface. As a result, a greater thermal contrast occurs between American Continent and equatorial Pacific. The so-induced zonal pressure gradient anomaly forces low-level westerly anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific and weakens the Walker circulation. The differential SST warming also plays a role in driving low-level westerly anomalies over tropical Pacific. But such an effect involves a positive air-sea feedback that amplifies the weakening of both east-west SST gradient and Pacific trade winds.

  20. Transmission of SARS and MERS coronaviruses and influenza virus in healthcare settings: the possible role of dry surface contamination.

    PubMed

    Otter, J A; Donskey, C; Yezli, S; Douthwaite, S; Goldenberg, S D; Weber, D J

    2016-03-01

    Viruses with pandemic potential including H1N1, H5N1, and H5N7 influenza viruses, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)/Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses (CoV) have emerged in recent years. SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and influenza virus can survive on surfaces for extended periods, sometimes up to months. Factors influencing the survival of these viruses on surfaces include: strain variation, titre, surface type, suspending medium, mode of deposition, temperature and relative humidity, and the method used to determine the viability of the virus. Environmental sampling has identified contamination in field-settings with SARS-CoV and influenza virus, although the frequent use of molecular detection methods may not necessarily represent the presence of viable virus. The importance of indirect contact transmission (involving contamination of inanimate surfaces) is uncertain compared with other transmission routes, principally direct contact transmission (independent of surface contamination), droplet, and airborne routes. However, influenza virus and SARS-CoV may be shed into the environment and be transferred from environmental surfaces to hands of patients and healthcare providers. Emerging data suggest that MERS-CoV also shares these properties. Once contaminated from the environment, hands can then initiate self-inoculation of mucous membranes of the nose, eyes or mouth. Mathematical and animal models, and intervention studies suggest that contact transmission is the most important route in some scenarios. Infection prevention and control implications include the need for hand hygiene and personal protective equipment to minimize self-contamination and to protect against inoculation of mucosal surfaces and the respiratory tract, and enhanced surface cleaning and disinfection in healthcare settings. PMID:26597631

  1. Transmission of SARS and MERS coronaviruses and influenza virus in healthcare settings: the possible role of dry surface contamination.

    PubMed

    Otter, J A; Donskey, C; Yezli, S; Douthwaite, S; Goldenberg, S D; Weber, D J

    2016-03-01

    Viruses with pandemic potential including H1N1, H5N1, and H5N7 influenza viruses, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)/Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses (CoV) have emerged in recent years. SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and influenza virus can survive on surfaces for extended periods, sometimes up to months. Factors influencing the survival of these viruses on surfaces include: strain variation, titre, surface type, suspending medium, mode of deposition, temperature and relative humidity, and the method used to determine the viability of the virus. Environmental sampling has identified contamination in field-settings with SARS-CoV and influenza virus, although the frequent use of molecular detection methods may not necessarily represent the presence of viable virus. The importance of indirect contact transmission (involving contamination of inanimate surfaces) is uncertain compared with other transmission routes, principally direct contact transmission (independent of surface contamination), droplet, and airborne routes. However, influenza virus and SARS-CoV may be shed into the environment and be transferred from environmental surfaces to hands of patients and healthcare providers. Emerging data suggest that MERS-CoV also shares these properties. Once contaminated from the environment, hands can then initiate self-inoculation of mucous membranes of the nose, eyes or mouth. Mathematical and animal models, and intervention studies suggest that contact transmission is the most important route in some scenarios. Infection prevention and control implications include the need for hand hygiene and personal protective equipment to minimize self-contamination and to protect against inoculation of mucosal surfaces and the respiratory tract, and enhanced surface cleaning and disinfection in healthcare settings.

  2. The roles of different scale ranges of surface implant topography on the stability of the bone/implant interface.

    PubMed

    Davies, John E; Ajami, Elnaz; Moineddin, Rahim; Mendes, Vanessa C

    2013-05-01

    We sought to deconvolute the effects of sub-micron topography and microtopography on the phenomena of bone bonding and interfacial stability of endosseous implants. To address this experimentally, we implanted custom-made titanium alloy implants of varying surface topographical complexity in rat femora, for 6, 9 or 12 days. The five surfaces were polished, machined, dual acid etched, and two forms of grit blasted and acid etched; each surface type was further modified with the deposition of nanocrystals of calcium phosphate to make a total of 10 materials groups (n = 10 for each time point; total 300 implants). At sacrifice, we subjected the bone-implant interface to a mechanical disruption test. We found that even the smoothest surfaces, when modified with sub-micron scale crystals, could be bone-bonding. However, as locomotor loading through bone to the implant increased with time of healing, such interfaces failed while others, with sub-micron features superimposed on surfaces of increasing microtopographical complexity remained intact under loading. We demonstrate here that higher order, micron or coarse-micron, topography is a requirement for longer-term interfacial stability. We show that each of these topographical scale-ranges represents a scale-range seen in natural bone tissue. Thus, what emerges from an analysis of our findings is a new means by which biologically-relevant criteria can be employed to assess the importance of implant surface topography at different scale-ranges. PMID:23415644

  3. The role of surface preparation in corrosion protection of copper with nanometer-thick ALD alumina coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhashemihaghighi, Shadi; Światowska, Jolanta; Maurice, Vincent; Seyeux,