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Sample records for surface water snail

  1. Crawling beneath the free surface: Water snail locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungyon; Bush, John W. M.; Hosoi, A. E.; Lauga, Eric

    2008-08-01

    Land snails move via adhesive locomotion. Through muscular contraction and expansion of their foot, they transmit waves of shear stress through a thin layer of mucus onto a solid substrate. Since a free surface cannot support shear stress, adhesive locomotion is not a viable propulsion mechanism for water snails that travel inverted beneath the free surface. Nevertheless, the motion of the freshwater snail, Sorbeoconcha physidae, is reminiscent of that of its terrestrial counterparts, being generated by the undulation of the snail foot that is separated from the free surface by a thin layer of mucus. Here, a lubrication model is used to describe the mucus flow in the limit of small-amplitude interfacial deformations. By assuming the shape of the snail foot to be a traveling sine wave and the mucus to be Newtonian, an evolution equation for the interface shape is obtained and the resulting propulsive force on the snail is calculated. This propulsive force is found to be nonzero for moderate values of the capillary number but vanishes in the limits of high and low capillary number. Physically, this force arises because the snail's foot deforms the free surface, thereby generating curvature pressures and lubrication flows inside the mucus layer that couple to the topography of the foot.

  2. Snail

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yadi

    2010-01-01

    Snail has moved into the fast lane of development and cancer biology with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) emerging as one of the hottest topics in medical science within the past few years. Snail not only acts primarily as a key inducer of EMT but also plays an important role in cell survival, immune regulation and stem cell biology. This review focuses on the regulation of Snail and discusses the EMT-dependent and -independent functions of Snail in development and disease. Understanding the regulation and functional roles of Snail will shed new light on the mechanism of tumor progression and the development of novel cancer therapies. PMID:20168078

  3. Movements of florida apple snails in relation to water levels and drying events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.; Miller, S.J.; Percival, H.F.

    2002-01-01

    Florida apple snails (Pomacea Paludosa) apparently have only a limited tolerance to wetland drying events (although little direct evidence exists), but their populations routinely face dry downs under natural and managed water regimes. In this paper, we address speculation that apple snails respond to decreasing water levels and potential drying events by moving toward refugia that remain inundated. We monitored the movements of apple snails in central Florida, USA during drying events at the Blue Cypress Marsh (BC) and at Lake Kissimmee (LK). We monitored the weekly movements of 47 BC snails and 31 LK snails using radio-telemetry. Snails tended to stop moving when water depths were 10 cm. Snails moved along the greatest positive depth gradient (i.e., towards deeper water) when they encountered water depths between 10 and 20 cm. Snails tended to move toward shallower water in water depths ???50 cm, suggesting that snails were avoiding deep water areas such as canals and sloughs. Of the 11 BC snails originally located in the area that eventually went dry, three (27%) were found in deep water refugia by the end of the study. Only one of the 31 LK snails escaped the drying event by moving to deeper water. Our results indicate that some snails may opportunistically escape drying events through movement. The tendency to move toward deeper water was statistically significant and indicates that this behavioral trait might enhance survival when the spatial extent of a dry down is limited. However, as water level falls below 10 cm, snails stop moving and become stranded. As the spatial extent of a dry down increases, we predict that the number of snails stranded would increase proportionally. Stranded Pomacea paludosa must contend with dry marsh conditions, possibly by aestivation. Little more than anecdotal information has been published on P. paludosa aestivation, but it is a common adaptation among other apple snails (Caenogastropoda: Ampullaridae). ?? 2002, The Society

  4. Wet Adhesion and Adhesive Locomotion of Snails on Anti-Adhesive Non-Wetting Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J.; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Creating surfaces capable of resisting liquid-mediated adhesion is extremely difficult due to the strong capillary forces that exist between surfaces. Land snails use this to adhere to and traverse across almost any type of solid surface of any orientation (horizontal, vertical or inverted), texture (smooth, rough or granular) or wetting property (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) via a layer of mucus. However, the wetting properties that enable snails to generate strong temporary attachment and the effectiveness of this adhesive locomotion on modern super-slippy superhydrophobic surfaces are unclear. Here we report that snail adhesion overcomes a wide range of these microscale and nanoscale topographically structured non-stick surfaces. For the one surface which we found to be snail resistant, we show that the effect is correlated with the wetting response of the surface to a weak surfactant. Our results elucidate some critical wetting factors for the design of anti-adhesive and bio-adhesion resistant surfaces. PMID:22693563

  5. Exploring the temporal effects of seasonal water availability on the snail kite of Florida: Part III

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooij, Wolf M.; Martin, Julien; Kitchens, Wiley M.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Bissonette, John A.; Storch, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    The Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) is an endangered raptor that occurs as an isolated population, currently of about 2,000 birds, in the wetlands of southern and central Florida, USA. Its exclusive prey species, the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) is strongly influenced by seasonal changes in water abundance. Droughts during the snail kite breeding season have a direct negative effect on snail kite survival and reproduction, but droughts are also needed to maintain aquatic vegetation types favorable to snail kite foraging for snails. We used a spatially explicit matrix model to explore the effects of temporal variation in water levels on the viability of the snail kite population under different temporal drought regimes in its wetland breeding habitat. We focused on three aspects of variations in water levels that were likely to affect kites: (1) drought frequency; (2) drought duration; and (3) drought timing within the year. We modeled a 31-year historical scenario using four different scenarios in which the average water level was maintained constant, but the amplitude of water level fluctuations was modified. Our results reveal the complexity of the effects of temporal variation in water levels on snail kite population dynamics. Management implications of these results are discussed. In particular, management decisions should not be based on annual mean water levels alone, but must consider the intra-annual variability.

  6. Fasciola hepatica in snails collected from water-dropwort fields using PCR.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwang-Yong; Choi, In-Wook; Kim, Yeon-Rok; Quan, Juan-Hua; Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Cha, Guang-Ho; Hong, Sung-Jong; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-12-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a trematode that causes zoonosis mainly in cattle and sheep and occasionally in humans. Fascioliasis has been reported in Korea; however, determining F. hepatica infection in snails has not been done recently. Thus, using PCR, we evaluated the prevalence of F. hepatica infection in snails at 4 large water-dropwort fields. Among 349 examined snails, F. hepatica-specific internal transcribed space 1 (ITS-1) and/or ITS-2 markers were detected in 12 snails and confirmed using sequence analysis. Morphologically, 213 of 349 collected snails were dextral shelled, which is the same aperture as the lymnaeid snail, the vectorial host for F. hepatica. Among the 12 F. hepatica-infected snails, 6 were known first intermediate hosts in Korea (Lymnaea viridis and L. ollula) and the remaining 6 (Lymnaea sp.) were potentially a new first intermediate host in Korea. It has been shown that the overall prevalence of the snails contaminated with F. hepatica in water-dropwort fields was 3.4%; however, the prevalence varied among the fields. This is the first study to estimate the prevalence of F. hepatica infection using the vectorial capacity of the snails in Korea.

  7. Copper toxicity to the fresh water snail, Lymnaea luteola

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, N.M.; Rao, P.V.

    1987-07-01

    Haemocyanins are found in arthropoda and mollusca and show a copper content characteristic for each phylum. Heavy metal accumulation by mollusks is widely reported. Approximately one third of the enzymes either required addition of a metal ion as a cofactor in order to exhibit maximum activity or contained a slightly bound metal ion which appeared to be involved in the catalytic process. Copper is the only metal which has been detected in significant amounts in amino oxidase. The present study is designed to evaluate the influence of such copper, which is of such common occurrence in biological material, on some of the lipolytic enzymes of fresh water pulmonate snail, Lymnaea luteola when added to ambient medium. The present study also highlights the possible detoxification mechanism prevailing in this fresh water mollusk.

  8. Effect of soil surface salt on the density and distribution of the snail Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Suwannatrai, Kulwadee; Haruay, Surat; Piratae, Supawadee; Thammasiri, Chalida; Khampoosa, Panita; Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Tarbsripair, Pairat; Suwanwerakamtorn, Rasamee; Sukchan, Somsak; Boonmars, Thidarut; Malone, John B; Kearney, Michael T; Tesana, Smarn

    2011-05-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini infection is associated with human cholangiocarcinoma and northeast Thailand has the highest incidence of this disease in the world. Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos is the major freshwater snail intermediate host of O. viverrini in this area and an analysis based on geographical information systems was used to determine the effect of variation in soil surface salt on the density and distribution of this snail. A malacological survey was carried out in 56 water bodies in the Khorat basin, northeast Thailand at locations with various soil surface salt levels. Mollusk samples were collected from 10 ecologically representative water body sites with 10-20 sampling stations in each. The shoreline of clear, shallow water bodies was found to be the preferred B. s. goniomphalos habitat. The snails were exclusively found in water with salinity levels ranging between 0.05 and 22.11 parts per thousand (ppt), which supports the notion that B. s. goniomphalos prefers water with some saline content over pure, freshwater. The highest snail population densities were in rice fields, ponds, road-side ditches and canals within a water salinity range of 2.5-5.0 ppt. However, the presence of B. s. goniomphalos was negatively correlated with water salinity (P ≤0.05), both with regard to density and distribution. The areas with the highest density of B. s. goniomphalos were those with less than 1% soil surface salt (potential index = 0.314), while the lowest densities were found in areas exceeding 50% soil surface salt (potential index = 0.015).

  9. Supercharged Snails for Stream Ecology & Water-Quality Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Arthur J.; Ryon, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Gill-breathing freshwater snails (Family "Pleuroceridae") are ecologically important, abundant in many streams in the United States, and easy to collect and maintain under classroom conditions. These snails can be used in classroom tests to demonstrate effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms. In more advanced classes, students can cage the…

  10. Susceptibility of Iraqi fresh water snails to infection with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni Egyptian strains.

    PubMed

    Wajdi, N A; Hussain, W I; El-Hawary, M F

    1979-01-01

    A great number of Egyptian workers and farmers are seeking settlement in Iraq and some of them proved to have either Schistosoma Haematobium (S.h.) or Schistosoma mansoni (S.m) or even mixed infection. Besides, there is the possibility that some of the Iraqi fresh water snails may prove to be susceptible to infection by one or both of the Schistosoma Egyptian strains. The present study deals with investigations on the susceptibility of Iraqi B. truncatus, Gyranaulus ehrenbergi, Physa c.f. fontinalis, Lymnea lagetis, Melanoides tuberculata and Melanopsis nodes by these parasites. Egyptian S. haematobium but not Egyptian S. mansoni infect Iraqi B. truncatus and both proved to be unable to infect any of the other snails included in the study. Yet, the number of cercariae shedded by B. truncatus snails infected with the Egyptian S. haematobium strain, was much less that the number of cercariae shedded by these snails when infected with the Iraqi S. Haematobium strain.

  11. Stable isotope composition of land snail body water and its relation to environmental waters and shell carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodfriend, Glenn A.; Magaritz, Mordeckai; Gat, Joel R.

    1989-12-01

    Day-to-day and within-day (diel) variations in δD and δ18O of the body water of the land snail, Theba pisana, were studied at a site in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three phases of variation, which relate to isotopic changes in atmospheric water vapor, were distinguished: 1) on rain days, snail water becomes isotopically depleted approximately in the direction of the rain isotope values, but always less depleted in D as is atmospheric water vapor; 2) during the 1-3 days following a rain, the snail water becomes isotopically enriched along a line with slope < 8, in δD vs. δ18O space (this relates to an increasing influence of humidity derived from the Mediterranean Sea); 3) a period of relative stability of the isotopic composition persists until the next rain event. The isotopic variations can be explained by isotopic equilibration with atmospheric water vapor and/or uptake of dew derived therefrom. During the winter, when the snails are active, there is only very minor enrichment in 18O relative to equilibrium with water vapor or dew, apparently as a result of metabolic activity. But this enrichment becomes pronounced after long periods of inactivity. Within-day variation in body water isotopic composition is minor on non-rain days. Shell carbonate is enriched in 18O by ca. 1-2%. relative to equilibrium with body water. In most regions, the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor (or dew) is a direct function of that of rain. Because the isotopic composition of snail body water is related to that of atmospheric water vapor and the isotopic composition of shell carbonate in turn is related to that of body water, land snail shell carbonate 18O should provide a reliable indication of rainfall 18O. However, local environmental conditions and the ecological properties of the snail species must be taken into account.

  12. Stable isotope composition of land snail body water and its relation to environmental waters and shell carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Goodfriend, G.A.; Magaritz, M.; Gat, J.R. )

    1989-12-01

    Day-to-day and within-day (diel) variations in {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O of the body water of the land snail, Theba pisana, were studied at a site in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three phases of variation, which relate to isotopic changes in atmospheric water vapor, were distinguished. The isotopic variations can be explained by isotopic equilibration with atmospheric water vapor and/or uptake of dew derived therefrom. During the winter, when the snails are active, there is only very minor enrichment in {sup 18}O relative to equilibrium with water vapor or dew, apparently as a result of metabolic activity. But this enrichment becomes pronounced after long periods of inactivity. Within-day variation in body water isotopic composition is minor on non-rain days. Shell carbonate is enriched in {sup 18}O by ca. 1-2% relative to equilibrium with body water. In most regions, the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor (or dew) is a direct function of that of rain. Because the isotopic composition of snail body water is related to that of atmospheric water vapor and the isotopic composition of shell carbonate in turn is related to that of body water, land snail shell carbonate {sup 18}O should provide a reliable indication of rainfall {sup 18}O. However, local environmental conditions and the ecological properties of the snail species must be taken into account.

  13. Heat shock proteins (Hsp70) and water content in the estivating Mediterranean Grunt Snail (Cantareus apertus).

    PubMed

    Reuner, Andy; Brümmer, Franz; Schill, Ralph O

    2008-09-01

    Pulmonate land snails often are able to estivate to survive dry hot seasons were water and food are scarce. The aperture of the shell is closed with an epiphragm, and metabolism is depressed to approximately one fourth of basal metabolism. We investigated a molecular aspect of estivation focussing on the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) stress response during estivation in the Mediterranean Grunt Snail Cantareus apertus. Sequences of a new inducible hsp70 and of actin are presented and expression of the hsp70 gene as well as Hsp70 protein content was measured in estivating animals. Both Hsp70 protein and mRNA do not show a significant change from the control, although there is a trend that hsp70 mRNA is less abundant in estivating specimens. After heat shock, the expression of hsp70 increased and a higher Hsp70 protein content was detected. Water relations were also investigated. After a period of 6 months in the dormant state, the snails contained 14% less water than active ones, implying a constricted protection against desiccation, compared to the desert snail Sphincterochila zonata, and a Mediterranean-type water economy.

  14. Use of ice water and salt treatments to eliminate an exotic snail, red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus, from small immersible fisheries equipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ice water and salt treatments were evaluated for disinfection of fisheries equipment contaminated with a non-indigenous tropical snail, the red-rim melania Melanoides tuberculatus. The snail can displace native snails and can transmit trematodes directly to fishes and indirectly to other animals, i...

  15. Survival of the faucet snail after chemical disinfection, pH extremes, and heated water bath treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, A.J.; Cole, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The faucet snail Bithynia tentaculata, a nonindigenous aquatic snail from Eurasia, was introduced into Lake Michigan in 1871 and has spread to the mid-Atlantic states, the Great Lakes region, Montana, and most recently, the Mississippi River. The faucet snail serves as intermediate host for several trematodes that have caused large-scale mortality among water birds, primarily in the Great Lakes region and Montana. It is important to limit the spread of the faucet snail; small fisheries equipment can serve as a method of snail distribution. Treatments with chemical disinfection, pH extremes, and heated water baths were tested to determine their effectiveness as a disinfectant for small fisheries equipment. Two treatments eliminated all test snails: (1) a 24-h exposure to Hydrothol 191 at a concentration of at least 20 mg/L and (2) a treatment with 50??C heated water for 1 min or longer. Faucet snails were highly resistant to ethanol, NaCl, formalin, Lysol, potassium permanganate, copper sulfate, Baquacil, Virkon, household bleach, and pH extremes (as low as 1 and as high as 13).

  16. A water snail catches a ride on STS-90 as part of Neurolab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A water snail (Biomphalaria glabrata), like those that are part of the Neurolab payload on Space Shuttle Mission STS-90, is held up for inspection in the Operations and Checkout Building. The snails will fly in the Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (CEBAS) Minimodule, a middeck locker-sized fresh water habitat, designed to allow the controlled incubation of aquatic species in a self-stabilizing, artifical ecosystem for up to three weeks under space conditions. Investigations during the Neurolab mission will focus on the effects of microgravity on the nervous system. The crew of STS-90, slated for launch April 16 at 2:19 p.m. EDT, includes Commander Richard Searfoss, Pilot Scott Altman, Mission Specialists Richard Linnehan, D.V.M., Dafydd (Dave) Williams, M.D., and Kathryn (Kay) Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey, M.D., and James Pawelczyk, Ph.D.

  17. Water balance and resistance to desiccation in rock-dwelling snails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arad, Zeev; Goldenberg, Shoshana; Heller, Joseph

    1995-06-01

    We have examined the resistance to desiccation among rock-dwelling land snails of various phylogenetic groups: Cristataria genezarethana (Clausiliidae), Rupestrella rhodia (Chondrinidae) and Levantina caesareana (Helicidae), all from the same location in Israel. L. caesareana was the most resistant and R. rhodia the least resistant to desiccation and C. genezarethana was of intermediate resistance. Differences in the rates of water loss during desiccation were determined mainly by rate of water loss during the first 2 days of desiccation. The high rates of water loss in rock-dwelling species exceed those of other snails in the Mediterranean habitat of Israel. However, snails collected in the field at the end of aestivation were in only a mild state of dehydration, suggesting that the rocky habitat protects its occupants against desiccation. We also suggest that among the rock-dwelling species, the protective role of the rock is more important in the more evolutionarily primitive genera (the chondrinid Rupestrella and the clausiliid Cristataria) and that physiological capacities are more effective in the more highly evolved helicid Levantina.

  18. Accumulation and distributions of {sup 137}Cs in fresh water snail Pila ampullacea

    SciTech Connect

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-10-24

    Pila ampullacea are found in tropical freshwaters of Indonesia. This snail exhibit several characteristics of ideal indicator organisms in order to understand the bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs. Biokinetic experiment was performaced in aquaria system and under influenced of concentration K{sup +} in water. The result of experiment shown that Under difference K{sup +} concentration in water, Pila ampullacea have capability to accumulated {sup 137}Cs with CF value range 8.95 to 12.52 ml.g{sup −1}. Both uptake and depuration rate were influenced by concentration of K{sup +} in water.

  19. Snail Snooping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Dorothy

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students in grades 5-8 learn about snail reproduction by observing and charting the activities of land snails, freshwater snails, and slugs. Instructions to implement and extend the activity are provided. (MDH)

  20. An artificial perch to help Snail Kites handle an exotic Apple Snail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pias, Kyle E.; Welch, Zach C.; Kitchens, Wiley M.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, the Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) is a federally endangered species and restricted to the wetlands of south-central Florida where the current population numbers less than 1,500. The Snail Kite is an extreme dietary specialist, previously feeding almost exclusively on one species of snail, the Florida Apple Snail (Pomacea paludosa). Within the past decade, an exotic species of apple snail, the Island Apple Snail (Pomacea insularum), has become established on lakes in central Florida. Island Apple Snails are larger than the native Florida Apple Snails, and Snail Kites handle the exotic snails less efficiently. Juvenile Snail Kites, in particular, have lower daily energy balances while feeding on Island Apple Snails. An inexpensive, easy-to-construct platform was developed that would provide Snail Kites with a flat, stable surface on which to extract snails. The platform has the potential to reduce the difficulties Snail Kites experience when handling exotic snails, and may benefit the Snail Kite population as a whole. Initial observations indicate that Snail Kites use the platforms frequently, and snails extracted at the platforms are larger than snails extracted at other perches.

  1. The effects of water quality and age on the acute toxicity of copper to the Florida apple snail, Pomacea paludosa.

    PubMed

    Rogevich, E C; Hoang, T C; Rand, G M

    2008-05-01

    Copper (Cu)-containing compounds have been used in Florida as fungicides, herbicides, and soil amendments, resulting in elevated Cu in the aquatic ecosystem. The Florida apple snail (Pomacea paludosa), a key species in south Florida, may be adversely affected by Cu. Water-quality parameters, such as hardness, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH, and alkalinity, affect metal bioavailability and toxicity in aquatic organisms; however, it is uncertain to what extent these factors affect Cu toxicity in the Florida apple snail. The research presented here characterized the acute (96-hour) toxicity of Cu in water to the Florida apple snail at various life stages and under different water-quality parameters. Cu was more toxic to juvenile than adult apple snails. There was no difference between the 96-hour LC(50) at pH 5.5 and 6.5; however, the 96-hour LC(50 )values at pH 7.5 and 8.5 were greater than at lower pHs. The decrease in Cu(2+) above pH 7, as predicted by the MINTEQ model, accounted for the pH effect. Cu toxicity decreased as DOC increased from 0.2 to 30 mg/L. Unlike other aquatic organisms, hardness had no effect on Cu toxicity to the Florida apple snail, suggesting another mechanism of toxicity. Whole-body tissue analysis indicated that the lethal body burden of 120-day-old snails exposed to Cu for 4 days was 30 mg/kg Cu dry weight. Multiple regression analysis indicated that Cu toxicity was a function of organism age, DOC, and pH.

  2. Predation potential of the water bugs Sphaerodema rusticum on the sewage snails Physa acuta.

    PubMed

    Aditya, G; Raut, S K

    2002-06-01

    The sewage snail Physa acuta is a serious threat to certain economic plants and to the purification plant of sewage works by rendering the biofilters ineffective. Various attempts are being made to control it. The efficacy of the predacious water bugs Sphaerodema rusticum was judged experimentally, in the laboratory in the potential control of P. acuta. It is revealed that, when supplied separately, the first, second and third instar and the adult S. rusticum did not attack P. acuta belonging to 3.1-8 mm, 5.1-8 mm, 7.1-8 mm and water bugs belonging to the third, fourth, fifth instar and adult stages though preyed upon P. acuta with 3.1-8 mm shell length. The average rate of predation by a single S. rusticum varied from 0.14-3.08 individuals per day depending upon the size of P. acuta and the stage of S. rusticum. A single S. rusticum, irrespective of instar and adult stages, destroyed on average 4.16 P. acuta daily irrespective of sizes. It is estimated that one S. rusticum could destroy 1,360 P. acuta in its life time. The results clearly indicate that the water bug S. rusticum may be used to control the snails P. acuta.

  3. A comparison of metal levels and antioxidant enzymes in freshwater snails, Lymnaea natalensis, exposed to sediment and water collected from Wright Dam and Lower Mguza Dam, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Siwela, A H; Nyathi, C B; Naik, Y S

    2010-10-01

    We compared the bioaccumulation of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) with antioxidant enzyme activity in tissues of the snails, Lymnaea natalensis, exposed to elements of two differently polluted dams. 45 snails were exposed to sediment and water collected from Wight Dam (reference) whilst another 45 snails were also exposed to sediment and water collected from Lower Mguza Dam (polluted dam). Except for Fe in sediment and Pb in water, metal concentrations were statistically higher in sediment and water collected from Lower Mguza Dam. Lead, Cd and Zn were two times higher in tissues of snails exposed to Lower Mguza Dam elements. On one hand, superoxide dismutase (SOD), diphosphotriphosphodiaphorase (DTD) and catalase (CAT) activities were significantly lower whilst malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly higher in tissues of snails exposed to Lower Mguza Dam sediment and water. On the other hand, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPX) activity was significantly elevated in tissues of snails exposed to Lower Mguza Dam sediment and water. Snails exposed to Lower Mguza Dam elements seem to have responded to pollution by increasing CAT and Se-GPX specific activity in an effort to detoxify peroxides produced as a result of metal induced oxidative stress.

  4. Dry down impacts on apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) demography: Implications for wetland water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, P.C.; Bennetts, R.E.; Percival, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa Say) are prey for several wetland-dependent predators, most notably for the endangered Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis Vieillot). Management concerns for kites have been raised regarding the impacts of wetland dry downs on snails, but little data exists to validate these concerns. We simulated drying events in experimental tanks, where we observed that snail survival patterns, regardless of hydrology, were driven by a post-reproductive die off. In contrast to earlier reports of little to no dry down tolerance, we found that 70% of pre-reproductive adult-sized snails survived a 12-week dry down. Smaller size classes of snails exhibited significantly lower survival rates (< 50% after eight weeks dry). Field surveys showed that 77% of egg production occurs in April-June. Our hydrologic analyses of six peninsular Florida wetlands showed that most dry downs overlapped a portion of the peak snail breeding season, and 70% of dry downs were ??? 12 weeks in duration. Dry down timing can affect recruitment by truncating annual egg production and stranding juveniles. Dry down survival rates and seasonal patterns of egg cluster production helped define a range of hydrologic conditions that support robust apple snail populations, and illustrate why multiple characteristics of dry down events should be considered in developing target hydrologic regimes for wetland fauna. ?? 2008, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  5. Does water chemistry limit the distribution of New Zealand mud snails in Redwood National Park?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vazquez, Ryan; Ward, Darren M.; Sepulveda, Adam

    2016-01-01

    New Zealand mud snails (NZMS) are exotic mollusks present in many waterways of the western United States. In 2009, NZMS were detected in Redwood Creek in Redwood National Park, CA. Although NZMS are noted for their ability to rapidly increase in abundance and colonize new areas, after more than 5 years in Redwood Creek, their distribution remains limited to a ca. 300 m reach. Recent literature suggests that low specific conductivity and environmental calcium can limit NZMS distribution. We conducted laboratory experiments, exposing NZMS collected from Redwood Creek to both natural waters and artificial treatment solutions, to determine if low conductivity and calcium concentration limit the distribution of NZMS in Redwood National Park. For natural water exposures, we held NZMS in water from their source location (conductivity 135 μS/cm, calcium 13 mg/L) or water from four other locations in the Redwood Creek watershed encompassing a range of conductivity (77–158 μS/cm) and calcium concentration (<5–13 mg/L). For exposures in treatment solutions, we manipulated both conductivity (range 20–200 μS/cm) and calcium concentration (range <5–17.5 mg/L) in a factorial design. Response variables measured included mortality and reproductive output. Adult NZMS survived for long periods (>4 months) in the lowest conductivity waters from Redwood Creek and all but the lowest-conductivity treatment solutions, regardless of calcium concentration. However, reproductive output was very low in all natural waters and all low-calcium treatment solutions. Our results suggest that water chemistry may inhibit the spread of NZMS in Redwood National Park by reducing their reproductive output.

  6. /sup 45/Ca uptake from water by snails (Lymnaea vulgaris) in control and detergent-polluted samples

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, V.; Lal, H.; Viswanathan, P.N.; Murti, C.R.

    1984-02-01

    A biostatic assay method involving /sup 45/Ca uptake into shells and tissues of snails (Lymnaea vulgaris) in 72 hr was developed to follow the effect of detergent-polluted water on ecosystems. There was a marked decrease in the /sup 45/Ca uptake by shells and tissues of linear alkyl benzene sulfonate-exposed animals as compared to controls. No change in /sup 45/Ca uptake was observed in dead shells, thereby excluding the possibility of passive exchange.

  7. Survival and behavior of Chinese mystery snails (Bellamya chinensis) in response to simulated water body drawdowns and extended air exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unstad, Kody M.; Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Chaine, Noelle M.; Haak, Danielle M.; Kill, Robert A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Wong, Alec

    2013-01-01

    Nonnative invasive mollusks degrade aquatic ecosystems and induce economic losses worldwide. Extended air exposure through water body drawdown is one management action used for control. In North America, the Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is an invasive aquatic snail with an expanding range, but eradication methods for this species are not well documented. We assessed the ability of B. chinensis to survive different durations of air exposure, and observed behavioral responses prior to, during, and following desiccation events. Individual B. chinensis specimens survived air exposure in a laboratory setting for > 9 weeks, and survivorship was greater among adults than juveniles. Several B. chinensis specimens responded to desiccation by sealing their opercula and/or burrowing in mud substrate. Our results indicate that drawdowns alone may not be an effective means of eliminating B. chinensis. This study lays the groundwork for future management research that may determine the effectiveness of drawdowns when combined with factors such as extreme temperatures, predation, or molluscicides.

  8. Snail Trails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galus, Pamela

    2002-01-01

    The slime trails of snails lead the author's students to a better understanding of science as inquiry and the processes of science. During this five-day activity, students get up close and personal with one of her favorite creatures, the land snail. Students begin by observing the organism and recording their observations. After making initial…

  9. Does water chemistry affect the dietary uptake and toxicity of silver nanoparticles by the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    López-Serrano Oliver, Ana; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Stoiber, Tasha L.; Tejamaya, Mila; Römer, Isabella; Lead, Jamie R.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in many applications and likely released into the aquatic environment. There is increasing evidence that Ag is efficiently delivered to aquatic organisms from AgNPs after aqueous and dietary exposures. Accumulation of AgNPs through the diet can damage digestion and adversely affect growth. It is well recognized that aspects of water quality, such as hardness, affect the bioavailability and toxicity of waterborne Ag. However, the influence of water chemistry on the bioavailability and toxicity of dietborne AgNPs to aquatic invertebrates is largely unknown. Here we characterize for the first time the effects of water hardness and humic acids on the bioaccumulation and toxicity of AgNPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) to the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis after dietary exposures. Our results indicate that bioaccumulation and toxicity of Ag from PVP-AgNPs ingested with food are not affected by water hardness and by humic acids, although both could affect interactions with the biological membrane and trigger nanoparticle transformations. Snails efficiently assimilated Ag from the PVP-AgNPs mixed with diatoms (Ag assimilation efficiencies ranged from 82 to 93%). Rate constants of Ag uptake from food were similar across the entire range of water hardness and humic acid concentrations. These results suggest that correcting regulations for water quality could be irrelevant and ineffective where dietary exposure is important.

  10. Snails home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunstan, D. J.; Hodgson, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    Many gardeners and horticulturalists seek non-chemical methods to control populations of snails. It has frequently been reported that snails that are marked and removed from a garden are later found in the garden again. This phenomenon is often cited as evidence for a homing instinct. We report a systematic study of the snail population in a small suburban garden, in which large numbers of snails were marked and removed over a period of about 6 months. While many returned, inferring a homing instinct from this evidence requires statistical modelling. Monte Carlo techniques demonstrate that movements of snails are better explained by drift under the influence of a homing instinct than by random diffusion. Maximum likelihood techniques infer the existence of two groups of snails in the garden: members of a larger population that show little affinity to the garden itself, and core members of a local garden population that regularly return to their home if removed. The data are strongly suggestive of a homing instinct, but also reveal that snail-throwing can work as a pest management strategy.

  11. Causes of Late Pleistocene water level change in Lake Victoria, Equatorial East Africa, derived from clumped isotopes of land snails and fresh water mollusks. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaarur, S.; Affek, H. P.; Tryon, C.; Peppe, D. J.; Faith, J.

    2013-12-01

    Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry is based on the dependence of 13C-18O bond abundance in the carbonate lattice (measured as Δ47) on the carbonate formation temperature. Most marine and freshwater biogenic carbonates are found to be in agreement with the clumped isotopes - temperature calibration. Clumped isotope thermometry is particularly useful in terrestrial environments where the interpretation of carbonate δ18O is limited due to difficulty in estimating the paleo-water isotopic composition. Clumped isotope-derived temperatures from land snails are generally higher than the ambient environmental temperatures, but show no evidence for disequilibrium. We attribute these higher body temperatures to snail eco-physiological adaptations through shell color, morphology, and behavior. We use the clumped isotope-derived temperatures in combination with shell δ18O to calculate snail body water δ18O composition. This parameter is interpreted as a paleo-hydrological indicator that reflects the isotopic composition of local precipitation modified by local evaporation. Rusinga and Mfangano Islands in Lake Victoria provide a unique opportunity to compare extant species of modern and fossil freshwater mollusks and land snails from the same location to examine lake paleo-hydrology. This location is particularly interesting as Lake Victoria itself is the main source of rain-water in the region such that the isotopic composition of land snail body water can be related back to the source waters. We combine clumped isotope and oxygen isotope measurements of both freshwater mollusks and land snails to examine the water balance of the lake, testing hypotheses about the mechanism of a significant rise in lake level in Lake Victoria ~35 - 40 ka BP. Outcrops of paleo-beach deposits ~18 m above the modern day lake level indicate high water stands at ~35-40 ka BP. Based on water balance models for Lake Victoria, an increase in lake level of this magnitude could be driven by local

  12. Modeling apple snail population dynamics on the Everglades landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darby, Phil; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Romanach, Stephanie; Suir, Kevin J.; Bridevaux, Joshua L.

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of model output to empirical data indicate the need for more data to better understand, and eventually parameterize, several aspects of snail ecology in support of EverSnail. A primary value of EverSnail is its capacity to describe the relative response of snail abundance to alternative hydrologic scenarios considered for Everglades water management and restoration.

  13. Effects of natal departure and water level on survival of juvenile snail kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis) in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dreitz, V.J.; Kitchens, W.M.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Survival rate from fledging to breeding, or juvenile survival, is an important source of variation in lifetime reproductive success in birds. Therefore, determining the relationship between juvenile survival and environmental factors is essential to understanding fitness consequences of reproduction in many populations. With increases in density of individuals and depletion of food resources, quality of most habitats deteriorates during the breeding season. Individuals respond by dispersing in search of food resources. Therefore, to understand the influence of environmental factors on juvenile survival, it is also necessary to know how natal dispersal influences survival of juveniles. We examined effects of various environmental factors and natal dispersal behavior on juvenile survival of endangered Snail Kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis) in central and southern Florida, using a generalized estimating equations (GEEs) approach and model selection criteria. Our results suggested yearly effects and an influence of age and monthly minimum hydrologic levels on juvenile Snail Kite survival. Yearly variation in juvenile survival has been reported by other studies, and other reproductive components of Snail Kites also exhibit such variation. Age differences in juvenile survival have also been seen in other species during the juvenile period. Our results demonstrate a positive relationship between water levels and juvenile survival. We suggest that this is not a direct linear relationship, such that higher water means higher juvenile survival. The juvenile period is concurrent with onset of the wet season in the ecosystem we studied, and rainfall increases as juveniles age. For management purposes, we believe that inferences suggesting increasing water levels during the fledging period will increase juvenile survival may have short-term benefits but lead to long-term declines in prey abundance and possibly wetland vegetation structure.

  14. Surface-water surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  15. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    PubMed

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies.

  16. The Effect of Simulating Different Intermediate Host Snail Species on the Link between Water Temperature and Schistosomiasis Risk

    PubMed Central

    McCreesh, Nicky; Booth, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A number of studies have attempted to predict the effects of climate change on schistosomiasis risk. The importance of considering different species of intermediate host snails separately has never previously been explored. Methods An agent-based model of water temperature and Biomphalaria pfeifferi population dynamics and Schistosoma mansoni transmission was parameterised to two additional species of snail: B. glabrata and B. alexandrina. Results Simulated B. alexandrina populations had lower minimum and maximum temperatures for survival than B. pfeifferi populations (12.5–29.5°C vs. 14.0–31.5°C). B. glabrata populations survived over a smaller range of temperatures than either B. pfeifferi or B. alexandrina (17.0°C–29.5°C). Infection risk peaked at 16.5°C, 25.0°C and 19.0°C respectively when B. pfeifferi, B. glabrata and B. alexandrina were simulated. For all species, infection risk increased sharply once a minimum temperature was reached. Conclusions The results from all three species suggest that infection risk may increase dramatically with small increases in temperature in areas at or near the currents limits of schistosome transmission. The effect of small increases in temperature in areas where schistosomiasis is currently found will depend both on current temperatures and on the species of snail acting as intermediate host(s) in the area. In most areas where B. pfeifferi is the host, infection risk is likely to decrease. In cooler areas where B. glabrata is the host, infection risk may increase slightly. In cooler areas where B. alexandrina is the host, infection risk may more than double with only 2°C increase in temperature. Our results show that it is crucial to consider the species of intermediate host when attempting to predict the effects of climate change on schistosomiasis. PMID:24988377

  17. Spot light survey on fresh-water snails of medical importance in Al Fayoum Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abo-Madyan, Ahmed A; Morsy, Tosson A; Motawea, Saad M; El Garhy, Manal F; Massoud, Ahmed M A

    2005-04-01

    In a survey carried out during Summer and Autumn of 2004, for snails of medical importance, nine species were recovered. These were Biomphalaria alexandrina, B. glabrata, B. pfeifferi, Bulinus truncatus, B. forskalii, Lymnaea natalensis, Bellamya (=Vivipara) unicolor, Physa acuta and Hydrobia musaensis. Parasitological examination revealed that B. alexandrina, B. glabrata and L. natalensis harboured immature stages of their concerned trematode parasites. Moreover, P. acuta harboured the immature stage of the nematode parasite Parastrongylus cantonensis.

  18. Water surface is acidic

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Victoria; Milet, Anne; Vácha, Robert; Jungwirth, Pavel; Devlin, J. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Water autoionization reaction 2H2O → H3O− + OH− is a textbook process of basic importance, resulting in pH = 7 for pure water. However, pH of pure water surface is shown to be significantly lower, the reduction being caused by proton stabilization at the surface. The evidence presented here includes ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations of water slabs with solvated H3O+ and OH− ions, density functional studies of (H2O)48H+ clusters, and spectroscopic isotopic-exchange data for D2O substitutional impurities at the surface and in the interior of ice nanocrystals. Because H3O+ does, but OH− does not, display preference for surface sites, the H2O surface is predicted to be acidic with pH < 4.8. For similar reasons, the strength of some weak acids, such as carbonic acid, is expected to increase at the surface. Enhanced surface acidity can have a significant impact on aqueous surface chemistry, e.g., in the atmosphere. PMID:17452650

  19. Surface Water in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Delwyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Surface water in Hawaii is a valued resource as well as a potential threat to human lives and property. The surface-water resources of Hawaii are of significant economic, ecologic, cultural, and aesthetic importance. Streams supply more than 50 percent of the irrigation water in Hawaii, and although streams supply only a few percent of the drinking water statewide, surface water is the main source of drinking water in some places. Streams also are a source of hydroelectric power, provide important riparian and instream habitats for many unique native species, support traditional and customary Hawaiian gathering rights and the practice of taro cultivation, and possess valued aesthetic qualities. Streams affect the physical, chemical, and aesthetic quality of receiving waters, such as estuaries, bays, and nearshore waters, which are critical to the tourism-based economy of the islands. Streams in Hawaii pose a danger because of their flashy nature; a stream's stage, or water level, can rise several feet in less than an hour during periods of intense rainfall. Streams in Hawaii are flashy because rainfall is intense, drainage basins are small, basins and streams are steep, and channel storage is limited. Streamflow generated during periods of heavy rainfall has led to loss of property and human lives in Hawaii. Most Hawaiian streams originate in the mountainous interiors of the islands and terminate at the coast. Streams are significant sculptors of the Hawaiian landscape because of the erosive power of the water they convey. In geologically young areas, such as much of the southern part of the island of Hawaii, well-defined stream channels have not developed because the permeability of the surface rocks generally is so high that rainfall infiltrates before flowing for significant distances on the surface. In geologically older areas that have received significant rainfall, streams and mass wasting have carved out large valleys.

  20. Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Sokolow, Susanne H; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M

    2014-04-01

    Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5-2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development.

  1. Effect of pond water depth on snail populations and fish-borne zoonotic trematode transmission in juvenile giant gourami (Osphronemus goramy) aquaculture nurseries.

    PubMed

    Thien, P C; Madsen, H; Nga, H T N; Dalsgaard, A; Murrell, K D

    2015-12-01

    Infection with fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) is an important public health problem in many parts of Southeast Asia. People become infected with FZT when eating raw or undercooked fish that contain the infective stage (metacercariae) of FZT. The parasites require specific freshwater snails as first intermediate host and a variety of fish species, both wild caught and cultured, as second intermediate host. Aquaculture production has grown almost exponentially in SE Asia and in order to produce fish free from FZT metacercariae, it is important to mitigate factors promoting transmission to fish. Here we report results from a cross-sectional study to look at the association between pond depth and infection with FZT in giant gourami nursery ponds. Density of intermediate host snails was positively associated with pond depth (count ratio associated with a 1m increase in pond depth was 10.4 (95% C.L.: 1.61-67.1, p<0.5)) and this may partly explain the higher prevalence and intensity of FZT infection in juvenile fish. High fry stocking density (>200 fry m(-3)) was associated with lower host snail density (count ratio=0.15) than low stocking density (<100 fry m(3)). Ponds stocked with 100-200 fry m(-3) had snail counts 0.76 (95% C.L.: 0.33-1.75, p n.s.) of those in ponds stocked with fry density of <100 fry m(-3). Since density of intermediate snail hosts was associated with FZT transmission to fish, effort should be taken to reduce snail density prior to stocking the fry, but focus should also be on habitats surrounding ponds as transmission may occur through cercariae produced outside ponds and carried into ponds with water pumped into ponds.

  2. The snail hosts of schistosomiasis: some evolutionary and ecological perspectives in relation to control.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J D

    1995-01-01

    Despite opportunities for radiation provided by spatio-temporal isolation, the basic morphological plan of pulmonate snails has remained conservative. In consequence of the resulting dearth of morphological characters and their plasticity, there is a case for using biochemical characters such as exogenous chemicals released by the snails (e.g. amino acids) and their chemoreception niche as taxonomic aids to classify snails of medical importance. As these same chemicals are used by snails to distinguish conspecifics they could also be used as "environmental antibodies" in controlled release formulations (CRF's) designed to remove target snails in a specific, cost-effective and ecologically acceptable manner. The snails, surface-living bacteria, algae and macrophytic plants are considered as co-evolved, interactive modular systems with strong mutualistic elements. Recently, anthropogenic perturbations such as deforestation, and damming of flowing waters, have benefited these modules whereas others such as river canalization, acid deposition, accumulation of pesticide residues and eutrophication have harmed them. Research is needed to elucidate the factors which limit the growth of snails in primitive habitats, uninfluenced by man, as well as in those subject to harmful anthropogenic factors. The understanding thus gained could be applied to develop cost-effective primary health care strategies to reduce or prevent transmission of schistosomiasis and other water related diseases.

  3. Cryptosporidiosis and surface water.

    PubMed Central

    Gallaher, M M; Herndon, J L; Nims, L J; Sterling, C R; Grabowski, D J; Hull, H F

    1989-01-01

    In the period July through October, 1986, 78 laboratory-confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis were identified in New Mexico. To determine possible risk factors for development of this disease, we conducted a case-control study; 24 case-patients and 46 neighborhood controls were interviewed. Seventeen (71 per cent) of the 24 case-patients were females, seven (29%) were males; their ages ranged from 4 months to 44 years, median 3 years. There was a strong association between drinking surface water and illness: five of the 24 case-patients, but none of the 46 controls drank untreated surface water. Among children, illness was also associated with attending a day care center where other children were ill (odds ratio = 13.1). PMID:2909180

  4. Influence of an extreme high water event on survival, reproduction, and distribution of snail kites in Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennetts, R.E.; Kitchens, W.M.; Dreitz, V.J.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrology frequently has been reported as the environmental variable having the greatest influence on Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) populations. Although drought has received the most attention, high-water conditions also have been reported to affect kites. Years of high water generally have been reported to be favorable for nesting, although prolonged high water may be detrimental to sustaining suitable habitat. During 1994 and 1995, southern Florida experienced an extreme high water event. This event enabled us to compare survival, nesting success, number of young per successful nest, and spatial distribution of nesting before, during, and after the event. We found no evidence of an effect (either negative or positive) on survival of adult kites. In contrast, juvenile kites experienced the highest survival during the event, although our data suggest greater annual variability than can be explained by the event alone. We found no evidence of an effect of the high water event on nest success or number of young per successful nest. Nest success was highest during the event in the southern portion of the range but was quite similar to other years, both before and after the event. Our data do indicate a substantial shift in the spatial distribution of nesting birds. During the event, nesting activity shifted to higher elevations (i.e., shallower water) in the major nesting areas of the Everglades region. Nesting also occurred in Big Cypress National Preserve during the event, which is typically too dry to support nesting kites. Thus, our data indicate a potential short-term benefit of increased juvenile survival and an expansion of nesting habitat. However, the deterioration of habitat quality from prolonged high water precludes any recommendation for such conditions to be maintained for extended periods. ?? 2002, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  5. Molluscicidal activity of Saraca asoca and Thuja orientalis against the fresh water snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arundhati; Singh, V K

    2009-10-14

    The molluscicidal activity of bark powder of Saraca asoca, leaf powder of Thuja orientalis against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was studied. The molluscicidal activity of all the plant products was found to be both time and concentration dependent. The 96 h LC(50) of T. orientalis leaf powder against L. acuminata was 250.5mg/l. Ethanol extracts were more toxic than other organic extracts. The ethanol extract of T. orientalis leaf (24h LC(50): 32.74 mg/l) was more effective than that of S. asoca bark (24h LC(50): 82.38 mg/l). The 24h LC(50) of column purified fraction of T. orientalis leaf and S. asoca bark powder was 29.25 and 64.89 mg/l, respectively. Saponin and thujone were identified as active molluscicide components in the bark of S. asoca and leaf of T. orientalis, respectively. The product of S. asoca and T. orientalis may be used as potent molluscicides.

  6. Internal Surface Water Flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, Mitchell H.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction The South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Program is an intergovernmental effort to reestablish and maintain the ecosystem of south Florida. One element of the restoration effort is the development of a firm scientific basis for resource decision making.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides scientitic information as part of the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Program. The USGS began its own project, called the South Florida Ecosystem Project in fiscal year 1995 for the purpose of gathering hydrologic, cartographic, and geologic data that relate to the mainland of south Florida, Florida Bay, and the Florida Keys and Reef ecosystems. Historical changes in water-management practices to accommodate a large and rapidly growing urban population along the Atlantic coast, as well as intensive agricultural activities, have resulted in a highly managed hydrologic system with canals, levees, and pumping stations. These structures have altered the hydology of the Everglades ecosystem on both coastal and interior lands. Surface-water flows in a direction south of Lake Okeechobee have been regulated by an extensive canal network, begun in the 1940's, to provide for drainage, flood control, saltwater intrusion control, agricultural requirements, and various environmental needs. Much of the development and subsequent monitoring of canal and river discharge south of Lake Okeechobee has traditionally emphasized the eastern coastal areas of Florida. Recently, more emphasis has been placed on providing a more accurate water budget for internal canal flows.

  7. Molluscicidal activity of crude water and hexane extracts of Hypericum species to snails (Radix peregra).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Tânia; Rainha, Nuno; Rosa, José Silvino; Lima, Elisabete; Baptista, José

    2012-04-01

    In spite of intense research on both chemical constituency and biological activity of Hypericum species, potential applications of their active components for pest control have been less well investigated. In the present study, Hypericum androsaemum (tutsan), Hypericum foliosum (malfurada), and Hypericum undulatum (wavy St. John's wort) aqueous and hexane extracts were studied for their molluscicidal and ovicidal activities against Radix peregra. The molluscicidal activity of the aqueous extracts was low, except for H. androsaemum infusion (median lethal concentration [LC50](adults)  = 317.1 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 415 ppm), and less important compared with the toxicity of all three hexane extracts tested: H. androsaemum (LC50(adults)  = 30.47 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 73.25 ppm), H. undulatum (LC50(adults)  = 30.55 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 60.54 ppm), and H. foliosum (LC50(adults)  = 48.61 ppm; LC50(juveniles)  = 38.81 ppm). An ovicidal effect was observed only with H. androsaemum infusion (1.85% of hatching at 500 ppm) and H. foliosum hexane extract (0.0% of hatching at 100 ppm). A preliminary phytochemical investigation of the lipophylic extracts from these Hypericum sp. revealed a different chemical profile and confirmed the presence of ursolic acid only in H. undulatum as the main compound. The present study indicates that products from hexane extracts of the Hypericum sp. analyzed may be used as potential molluscicides to control snails responsible for transmitting fasciolosis.

  8. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Nandy, Krishanu; Schutzius, Thomas M.; Varanasi, Kripa K.; Megaridis, Constantine M.; Walther, Jens H.; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Espinosa, Horacio D.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2015-08-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

  9. Sustaining dry surfaces under water.

    PubMed

    Jones, Paul R; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Nandy, Krishanu; Schutzius, Thomas M; Varanasi, Kripa K; Megaridis, Constantine M; Walther, Jens H; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Espinosa, Horacio D; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2015-08-18

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

  10. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Nandy, Krishanu; Schutzius, Thomas M.; Varanasi, Kripa K.; Megaridis, Constantine M.; Walther, Jens H.; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Espinosa, Horacio D.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2015-01-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys – thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments. PMID:26282732

  11. Production of apple snail for space diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g

  12. Water surface depth instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Q. C., IV

    1970-01-01

    Measurement gage provides instant visual indication of water depth based on capillary action and light diffraction in a group of solid, highly polished polymethyl methacrylate rods. Rod lengths are adjustable to measure various water depths in any desired increments.

  13. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in water, sediments, aquatic plant and histopathological effects on the golden apple snail in Beung Boraphet reservoir, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Dummee, Vipawee; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Trinachartvanit, Wachareeporn; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Damrongphol, Praneet

    2012-12-01

    Changes in the seasonal concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, Pb and Cd) were determined in water, sediments, snails (Pomacea canaliculata) and aquatic plants (Ipomoea aquatica) in three selected tributaries of the Beung Boraphet reservoir, Nakhon Sawan Province, central Thailand. Only Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn were detected by FAAS in all samples collected. The water quality of Beung Boraphet was medium clean with Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations well below internationally accepted limits. According to the criteria proposed for sediments by the EPA Region V, Zn and Mn concentrations were within the non-polluted range while Fe and Cu (wet season) concentrations fell into the class of severely polluted sediment. Both P. canaliculata and I. aquatica bioconcentrated more Mn in their tissues than were found in sediments, especially in the wet season. The results of Pearson correlation study and BCF values also indicated similar findings. Only Mn showed the importance of sediment-to-snail concentration and high BCF values in both snails and plants. P. canaliculata exposed to contaminated sediment for two months, showed higher accumulation of metals (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) in the digestive tracts and digestive glands than in the foot muscles. Histopathological changes included alterations in the epithelial lining of the digestive tracts, digestive glands and the gills. Loss of cilia and increase in mucous cells were observed in the digestive tracts and gills, while the digestive glands exhibited an increase of dark granules and basophilic cells, and dilation of digestive cells. The results indicated that both P. canaliculata and I. aquatica could be used as biomonitors of sedimentary metal contamination for the Beung Boraphet reservoir.

  14. Regulation of laboratory populations of snails (Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp.) by river prawns, Macrobrachium spp. (Decapoda, Palaemonidae): implications for control of schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2014-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis is a common parasitic disease endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. One barrier to achieving long-term control of this disease has been re-infection of treated patients when they swim, bathe, or wade in surface fresh water infested with snails that harbor and release larval parasites. Because some snail species are obligate intermediate hosts of schistosome parasites, removing snails may reduce parasitic larvae in the water, reducing re-infection risk. Here, we evaluate the potential for snail control by predatory freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and M. vollenhovenii, native to Asia and Africa, respectively. Both prawn species are high value, protein-rich human food commodities, suggesting their cultivation may be beneficial in resource-poor settings where few other disease control options exist. In a series of predation trials in laboratory aquaria, we found both species to be voracious predators of schistosome-susceptible snails, hatchlings, and eggs, even in the presence of alternative food, with sustained average consumption rates of 12% of their body weight per day. Prawns showed a weak preference for Bulinus truncatus over Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Consumption rates were highly predictable based on the ratio of prawn: snail body mass, suggesting satiation-limited predation. Even the smallest prawns tested (0.5–2g) caused snail recruitment failure, despite high snail fecundity. With the World Health Organization turning attention toward schistosomiasis elimination, native prawn cultivation may be a viable snail control strategy that offers a win-win for public health and economic development. PMID:24388955

  15. Surface Water Response Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    During response to spills, or for facility planning, the vulnerability of downstream water resources is a major concern. How long and at what concentration do spilled contaminants reach downstream receptors? Models have the potential to answer these questions, but only if they ...

  16. Water in Biomaterials Surface Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morra, M.

    2001-10-01

    Presents the latest ideas and research on molecular hydration and hydration forces, and how they determine the interaction between water molecules and biomaterials surfaces. Consisting of three sections; theoretical aspects, analytical aspects and practical applications, it begins by placing the properties of water in a proper molecular perspective. The analytical aspects and practical applications offer a complete overview with new insights into the biomaterials/water interface by: - Discussing the latest approaches to the characterisation of water at interfaces and surface modification of biomaterials - Examining the problems related to the understanding and characterisation of interfacial water - Providing new perspectives of the interfacial interactions between materials and the physiological aqueous environment An invaluable resource for researchers in biomaterials surface science and the biotechnology industry.

  17. Cercarial Dermatitis Transmitted by Exotic Marine Snail

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Andrew N.; James, David; Hui, Lucia; Hom, Albert; Loker, Eric S.

    2010-01-01

    Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer’s itch) is caused by the penetration of human skin by cercariae of schistosome parasites that develop in and are released from snail hosts. Cercarial dermatitis is frequently acquired in freshwater habitats, and less commonly in marine or estuarine waters. To investigate reports of a dermatitis outbreak in San Francisco Bay, California, we surveyed local snails for schistosome infections during 2005–2008. We found schistosomes only in Haminoea japonica, an Asian snail first reported in San Francisco Bay in 1999. Genetic markers place this schistosome within a large clade of avian schistosomes, but do not match any species for which there are genetic data. It is the second known schistosome species to cause dermatitis in western North American coastal waters; these species are transmitted by exotic snails. Introduction of exotic hosts can support unexpected emergence of an unknown parasite with serious medical or veterinary implications. PMID:20735918

  18. Snails and trematode infection after Indian Ocean tsunami in Phang-Nga Province, southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa; Pornpimol, Surinthwong; Butraporn, Piyarat; Lohachit, Chantima

    2010-01-01

    The tsunami and non-tsunami affected areas of Takua Pa District, Phang-Nga Province were investigated for fresh- and brackish-water snails that transmit human parasitic diseases during 2006 and 2007. Among 46 snail species found, 17 species of 8 families were freshwater snails, 28 species of another 7 families were brackish-water snails, and 1 species was a land snail. Of these species, 11 freshwater snails, 4 brackish-water snails and 1 land snail were of medical importance. The fresh-water snails were Pomacea canaliculata, Pila angelica, P. gracilis, P. polita, Filopaludina (S.) martensi, F. (F.) s. polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Indoplanorbis exuxtus, Radix rubiginosa, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus. Four brackish-water snails were Cerithidea cingulata, C. djadjarensis, C. alata, Sermyla riqueti and Achatina fulica was the land snail. I. exutus, M. tuberculata and F. (F.) s. polygramma harbored Xiphidio, Microcercus, Furocercus, Echinostome cercariae, and cercaria without eyespots or tail with hair. Three species of brackish-water snails, Cerithidia cingulata, C. djadjariensis, and C. alata presented with 6 types of trematode cercariae and rediae. Knowledge of medically important snails and their parasitic diseases, and prevention were given to Takua Pa people by poster, pamphlets and broadcasting through community radio.

  19. Ocean Surface Water Sampling Devices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-10-01

    also parachuted, captures a volume of the water surface by a cookie cutter action and drew it into a 1-liter Thermos bottle for protection from...effective in landing upright on the water. Faster Dewar samplers without the cookie cutter action but with the same intake method proved about 95

  20. Ichthyotoxicity caused by marine cone snail venoms?

    PubMed

    Mebs, Dietrich; Kauferstein, Silke

    2005-09-01

    Ten venoms from marine cone snails were tested for ichthyotoxic effects on zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) when added to the water. Only two venoms, from Conus capitaneus and Conus episcopatus, produced lethal effects at high concentrations (50-300 microg/ml) within 20-90 min. No sedative or hypnotic symptoms were observed. The experiments confirm that Conus venoms exert a quick and prompt activity only by parenteral injection into the prey as it is performed by the snail.

  1. Biogeography: molecular trails from hitch-hiking snails.

    PubMed

    Gittenberger, Edmund; Groenenberg, Dick S J; Kokshoorn, Bas; Preece, Richard C

    2006-01-26

    Darwin was fascinated by the transportation of land snails across great swathes of open ocean by birds--he even immersed snails in sea water to see how long they would survive. Here we follow a molecular phylogenetic trail that reveals the incredible transequatorial dispersal of the land snail Balea from Europe to the Azores and the Tristan da Cunha islands, and back again. This long-distance dispersal is unexpected for what are proverbially considered the most pedestrian of creatures.

  2. Snail Shell Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Catherine

    1992-01-01

    Presents three inquiry-based lessons to develop the science process skills of observation, identification, and classification. Activities use whelk eggs and snail shells as the focus of the students' inquiries. Provides a list of 19 facts about whelks and snails. (MDH)

  3. The Classroom Animal: Snails.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Points out that snails are interesting and easily-managed classroom animals. One advantage of this animal is that it requires no special attention over weekends or holidays. Background information, anatomy, reproduction, and feeding are discussed, along with suggestions for housing aquatic and/or land snails. (DH)

  4. Water molecules orientation in surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingo, V. V.

    2000-08-01

    The water molecules orientation has been investigated theoretically in the water surface layer. The surface molecule orientation is determined by the direction of a molecule dipole moment in relation to outward normal to the water surface. Entropy expressions of the superficial molecules in statistical meaning and from thermodynamical approach to a liquid surface tension have been found. The molecules share directed opposite to the outward normal that is hydrogen protons inside is equal 51.6%. 48.4% water molecules are directed along to surface outward normal that is by oxygen inside. A potential jump at the water surface layer amounts about 0.2 volts.

  5. Aquatic snails, passive hosts of Mycobacterium ulcerans.

    PubMed

    Marsollier, Laurent; Sévérin, Tchibozo; Aubry, Jacques; Merritt, Richard W; Saint André, Jean-Paul; Legras, Pierre; Manceau, Anne-Lise; Chauty, Annick; Carbonnelle, Bernard; Cole, Stewart T

    2004-10-01

    Accumulative indirect evidence of the epidemiology of Mycobacterium ulcerans infections causing chronic skin ulcers (i.e., Buruli ulcer disease) suggests that the development of this pathogen and its transmission to humans are related predominantly to aquatic environments. We report that snails could transitorily harbor M. ulcerans without offering favorable conditions for its growth and replication. A novel intermediate link in the transmission chain of M. ulcerans becomes likely with predator aquatic insects in addition to phytophage insects. Water bugs, such as Naucoris cimicoides, a potential vector of M. ulcerans, were shown to be infected specifically by this bacterium after feeding on snails experimentally exposed to M. ulcerans.

  6. An ecological study of Bithynia snails, the first intermediate host of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Chen; Ho, Richard Cheng Yong; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Namsanor, Jutamas; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the food-borne trematodiasis, liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia. While epidemiology and parasitic incidence in humans are well studied, ecological information on the O. viverrini intermediate hosts remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the distribution and abundance of the first intermediate host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos snails. Water quality and snails were sampled in 31 sites in Muang District, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand from June 2012 to January 2013 to characterize the B.s. goniomphalos snail habitats. Species relative abundance and Shannon's diversity and evenness indices were employed to describe snail compositions and diversities across different habitat types. Statistical analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which the water quality variables and species interactions account for the relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails. The results showed that the freshwater habitats of ponds, streams and rice paddies possessed significantly different abiotic water qualities, with water temperature and pH showing distinct statistical differences (P<0.05). Different habitats had different snail diversity and species evenness, with high B.s. goniomphalos snail abundance at rice paddy habitats. The differences in snail abundance might be due to the distinct sets of abiotic water qualities associated with each habitat types. The relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails was found to be negatively correlated with that of Filopaludina martensi martensi snails (r=-0.46, P<0.05), underscoring the possible influence of species interaction on B.s. goniomphalos snail population. Field work observations revealed that rice planting seasons and irrigation could regulate snail population dynamics at rice paddy habitats. This study provides new ecological insights into the factors affecting Bithynia snail distribution and abundance. It bridges the

  7. Surface water discharges from onshore stripper wells.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-01-16

    Under current US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules, small onshore oil producers are allowed to discharge produced water to surface waters with approval from state agencies; but small onshore gas producers, however, are prohibited from discharging produced water to surface waters. The purpose of this report is to identify those states that allow surface water discharges from small onshore oil operations and to summarize the types of permitting controls they use. It is intended that the findings of this report will serve as a rationale to encourage the EPA to revise its rules and to remove the prohibition on surface water discharges from small gas operations.

  8. Water surface capturing by image processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An alternative means of measuring the water surface interface during laboratory experiments is processing a series of sequentially captured images. Image processing can provide a continuous, non-intrusive record of the water surface profile whose accuracy is not dependent on water depth. More trad...

  9. Modeling snail breeding in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..

    It is known that snail meat is a high quality food that is rich in protein. Hence, heliciculture or land snail farming spreads worldwide because it is a profitable business. The possibility to use the snails of Helix pomatia in Biological Life Support System (BLSS) was studied by Japanese Researches. In that study land snails were considered to be producers of animal protein. Also, snail breeding was an important part of waste processing, because snails were capable to eat the inedible plant biomass. As opposed to the agricultural snail farming, heliciculture in BLSS should be more carefully planned. The purpose of our work was to develop a model for snail breeding in BLSS that can predict mass flow rates in and out of snail facility. There are three linked parts in the model called “Stoichiometry”, “Population” and “Mass balance”, which are used in turn. Snail population is divided into 12 age groups from oviposition to one year. In the submodel “Stoichiometry” the individual snail growth and metabolism in each of 12 age groups are described with stoichiometry equations. Reactants are written on the left side of the equations, while products are written on the right side. Stoichiometry formulas of reactants and products consist of four chemical elements: C, H, O, N. The reactants are feed and oxygen, products are carbon dioxide, metabolic water, snail meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs. If formulas of substances in the stoichiometry equations are substituted with their molar masses, then stoichiometry equations are transformed to the equations of molar mass balance. To get the real mass balance of individual snail growth and metabolism one should multiply the value of each molar mass in the equations on the scale parameter, which is the ratio between mass of monthly consumed feed and molar mass of feed. Mass of monthly consumed feed and stoichiometry coefficients of formulas of meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs should be determined experimentally

  10. Some aspects of snail ecology in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    de Meillon, B.; Frank, G. H.; Allanson, B. R.

    1958-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present the preliminary results of a recent ecological survey of some rivers in the Transvaal, Union of South Africa. Representative samples of the molluscan fauna of the rivers were collected and chemical analyses of the river waters were carried out. In addition, such characteristics as current speed, temperature, turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, and amount of oxygen absorbed from potassium permanganate were determined. No evidence was obtained to show that the chemical composition of natural, unpolluted waters plays any part in determining vector snail habitats. Current speed was found to have some effect, bilharzia vector snails not being found in fast-flowing waters. Of the other factors, turbidity was shown to be of some importance, probably because it affects the growth of the algae on which certain snails seem to depend for their proper development, and severe pollution with sewage and industrial wastes also appeared to have an adverse affect on the snail population. PMID:13573112

  11. Ground water and surface water; a single resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Thomas C.; Harvey, Judson W.; Franke, O. Lehn; Alley, William M.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of considering ground water and surface water as a single resource has become increasingly evident. Issues related to water supply, water quality, and degradation of aquatic environments are reported on frequently. The interaction of ground water and surface water has been shown to be a significant concern in many of these issues. Contaminated aquifers that discharge to streams can result in long-term contamination of surface water; conversely, streams can be a major source of contamination to aquifers. Surface water commonly is hydraulically connected to ground water, but the interactions are difficult to observe and measure. The purpose of this report is to present our current understanding of these processes and activities as well as limitations in our knowledge and ability to characterize them.

  12. Surface Water Treatment Rules State Implementation Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These documents provide guidance to states, tribes and U.S. EPA Regions exercising primary enforcement responsibility under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The documents contain EPA’s recommendations for implementation of the Surface Water Treatment Rules.

  13. Hydrology: The dynamics of Earth's surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Dai; Trigg, Mark A.

    2016-12-01

    High-resolution satellite mapping of Earth's surface water during the past 32 years reveals changes in the planet's water systems, including the influence of natural cycles and human activities. See Letter p.418

  14. Lichen endozoochory by snails.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Werth, Silke; Rüetschi, Jörg; Fischer, Markus

    2011-04-13

    Endozoochory plays a prominent role for the dispersal of seed plants. However, for most other plant taxa it is not known whether this mode of dispersal occurs at all. Among those other taxa, lichens as symbiotic associations of algae and fungi are peculiar as their successful dispersal requires movement of propagules that leaves the symbiosis functional. However, the potential for endozoochorous dispersal of lichen fragments has been completely overlooked. We fed sterile thalli of two foliose lichen species (Lobaria pulmonaria and Physcia adscendens) differing in habitat and air-quality requirements to nine snail species common in temperate Europe. We demonstrated morphologically that L. pulmonaria regenerated from 29.0% of all 379 fecal pellets, whereas P. adscendens regenerated from 40.9% of all 433 fecal pellets, showing that lichen fragments survived gut passage of all snail species. Moreover, molecular analysis of regenerated lichens confirmed the species identity for a subset of samples. Regeneration rates were higher for the generalist lichen species P. adscendens than for the specialist lichen species L. pulmonaria. Furthermore, lichen regeneration rates varied among snail species with higher rates after gut passage of heavier snail species. We suggest that gastropods generally grazing on lichen communities are important, but so far completely overlooked, as vectors for lichen dispersal. This opens new ecological perspectives and questions the traditional view of an entirely antagonistic relationship between gastropods and lichens.

  15. Interaction between water and defective silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yunwen; Cheng Haiping

    2011-03-21

    We use the density functional theory method to study dry (1 x 1) {alpha}-quartz (0001) surfaces that have Frenkel-like defects such as oxygen vacancy and oxygen displacement. These defects have distinctively different effects on the water-silica interface depending on whether the adsorbent is a single water molecule, a cluster, or a thin film. The adsorption energies, bonding energies, and charge transfer or redistributions are analyzed, from which we find that the existence of a defect enhances the water molecule and cluster surface interaction by a large amount, but has little or even negative effect on water thin film-silica surface interaction. The origin of the weakening in film-surface systems is the collective hydrogen bonding that compromises the water-surface interaction in the process of optimizing the total energy. For clusters on surfaces, the lowest total energy states lower both the bonding energy and the adsorption energy.

  16. Food composition and feeding habits of some fresh water fishes in various water systems at Abbassa, Egypt, with special reference to snails transmitting diseases.

    PubMed

    El Gamal, Abd El-Rahman A; Ismail, Nahed M M

    2005-08-01

    Study of feeding habits of freshwater fishes collected from ponds at World Fish Center (ICLARM) showed that the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus and Forskal catfish, Bagras bayad had the highest proportion of full stomachs (31-58% & 44-45% respectively). In cichlid fishes, the rate of full stomachs was much lower, being 0.0-12.5% and showed higher incidence of empty stomachs that varied from 37.5% for Oreochromis niloticus to 78.3% for Sarotherodon galilaeus. Food items were analyzed by the percentage of point assessment (P%), abundance (N%) and frequency of occurrence (F%). Results of the three methods of analyses (Index of relative importance, I.R.I) emphasized the importance of plants (1214.7) as a major food resource in the stomach of Nile tilapia, O. niloticus followed by shell fragments (628.5), whereas, snail soft bodies were the main food category in the diet of hybrid tilapia O. niloticus x O. aureus (2539.3). Shell fragments (652) and snail soft bodies (296.9) were the 1st in relative importance as foods of O. aurea. In case of S. galillae, shell fragments (338) came 2nd in I.R.I. after plants (559). Present investigation shows that shell fragments were represented by 11.1% and 15.1% in the diet of African catfish, C. gariepinus by (N%) and (P%) methods, however, they came as the second food item in its diet by I.R.I (1237.3). According to F% method, both shell fragments and Crustacea were present in the diet of C. gariepinus considerable proportions each of 47.4%. Shell fragments were represented by low proportions in the diet of B. bayad 3.9, 2.1 and 22.2 by N%, P% and F% respectively.

  17. Inquiry, Land Snails, and Environmental Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Krantz, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces land snails for use in inquiry-based science activities. Describes common characteristics and safety considerations while introducing students to land snails. Explains procedures for inquiry-based use of land snails in classrooms. (YDS)

  18. Gray solitons on the surface of water.

    PubMed

    Chabchoub, A; Kimmoun, O; Branger, H; Kharif, C; Hoffmann, N; Onorato, M; Akhmediev, N

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of surface gravity water waves can be described by the self-defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Recent observations of black solitons on the surface of water confirmed its validity for finite, below critical depth. The black soliton is a limiting case of a family of gray soliton solutions with finite amplitude depressions. Here, we report observations of gray solitons in water waves, thus, complementing our previous observations of black solitons.

  19. Combining Remotely Sensed Environmental Characteristics with Social and Behavioral Conditions that Affect Surface Water Use in Spatiotemporal Modelling of Schistosomiasis in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulinkina, A. V.; Walz, Y.; Liss, A.; Kosinski, K. C.; Biritwum, N. K.; Naumova, E. N.

    2016-06-01

    Schistosoma haematobium transmission is influenced by environmental conditions that determine the suitability of the parasite and intermediate host snail habitats, as well as by socioeconomic conditions, access to water and sanitation infrastructure, and human behaviors. Remote sensing is a demonstrated valuable tool to characterize environmental conditions that support schistosomiasis transmission. Socioeconomic and behavioral conditions that propagate repeated domestic and recreational surface water contact are more difficult to quantify at large spatial scales. We present a mixed-methods approach that builds on the remotely sensed ecological variables by exploring water and sanitation related community characteristics as independent risk factors of schistosomiasis transmission.

  20. Heavy metal concentrations in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria alexandrina uninfected or infected with cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni and/or Echinostoma liei in Egypt: the potential use of this snail as a bioindicator of pollution.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, O M S; Mossa, A-T H; El Einin, H M A

    2014-12-01

    In spite of using aquatic snails as bioindicators for water pollution, little attention has been paid to the effect of parasitism upon the concentration of heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) in these organisms. The present study therefore aimed to compare the concentrations of heavy metals in trematode-infected Biomphalaria alexandrina collected from Kafer Alsheikh and Menofia provinces, Egypt, with uninfected snails from the same sites, in order to assess the effect of parasitism on the use of these snails as bioindicators. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soft parts and shells of snails were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the heavy metal profile in snails infected with Echinostoma liei was very different from that in snails infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The total concentration of heavy metals in E. liei-infected snails collected from Kafer Alsheikh or Menofia province was greater than in uninfected snails. In contrast, the total concentration of heavy metals in S. mansoni-infected snails was reduced compared with uninfected snails. In conclusion, the status of snails with respect to parasitic infection must be taken into consideration when these snails are used as bioindicators.

  1. A Review of Surface Water Quality Models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shibei; Jia, Peng; Qi, Changjun; Ding, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Surface water quality models can be useful tools to simulate and predict the levels, distributions, and risks of chemical pollutants in a given water body. The modeling results from these models under different pollution scenarios are very important components of environmental impact assessment and can provide a basis and technique support for environmental management agencies to make right decisions. Whether the model results are right or not can impact the reasonability and scientificity of the authorized construct projects and the availability of pollution control measures. We reviewed the development of surface water quality models at three stages and analyzed the suitability, precisions, and methods among different models. Standardization of water quality models can help environmental management agencies guarantee the consistency in application of water quality models for regulatory purposes. We concluded the status of standardization of these models in developed countries and put forward available measures for the standardization of these surface water quality models, especially in developing countries. PMID:23853533

  2. Surface Water Treatment Workshop Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to increase the knowledge of experienced water treatment plant operators. Each of the fourteen lessons in this document has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in this manual include: basic water…

  3. Water vapor retrieval over many surface types

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.C.; Johnson, J.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper we present a study of of the water vapor retrieval for many natural surface types which would be valuable for multi-spectral instruments using the existing Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) for the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature. An atmospheric code (6S) and 562 spectra were used to compute the top of the atmosphere radiance near the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature in steps of 2.5 nm as a function of precipitable water (PW). We derive a novel technique called ``Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption`` (APDA) and show that APDA performs better than the CIBR over many surface types.

  4. Shallow water sound propagation with surface waves.

    PubMed

    Tindle, Chris T; Deane, Grant B

    2005-05-01

    The theory of wavefront modeling in underwater acoustics is extended to allow rapid range dependence of the boundaries such as occurs in shallow water with surface waves. The theory allows for multiple reflections at surface and bottom as well as focusing and defocusing due to reflection from surface waves. The phase and amplitude of the field are calculated directly and used to model pulse propagation in the time domain. Pulse waveforms are obtained directly for all wavefront arrivals including both insonified and shadow regions near caustics. Calculated waveforms agree well with a reference solution and data obtained in a near-shore shallow water experiment with surface waves over a sloping bottom.

  5. Evidence for water structuring forces between surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, Christopher B; Rau, Dr. Donald

    2011-01-01

    Structured water on apposing surfaces can generate significant energies due to reorganization and displacement as the surfaces encounter each other. Force measurements on a multitude of biological structures using the osmotic stress technique have elucidated commonalities that point toward an underlying hydration force. In this review, the forces of two contrasting systems are considered in detail: highly charged DNA and nonpolar, uncharged hydroxypropyl cellulose. Conditions for both net repulsion and attraction, along with the measured exclusion of chemically different solutes from these macromolecular surfaces, are explored and demonstrate features consistent with a hydration force origin. Specifically, the observed interaction forces can be reduced to the effects of perturbing structured surface water.

  6. Clean Air Markets - Monitoring Surface Water Chemistry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about how EPA uses Long Term Monitoring (LTM) and Temporily Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) to track the effect of the Clean Air Act Amendments on acidity of surface waters in the eastern U.S.

  7. Subsurface And Surface Water Flow Interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this chapter we present basic concepts and principles underlying the phenomena of groundwater and surface water interactions. Fundamental equations and analytical and numerical solutions describing stream-aquifer interactions are presented in hillslope and riparian aquifer en...

  8. Inland surface water: Chapter 18

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, J.S.; Driscoll, C.T.; Stoddard, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater aquatic ecosystems include rivers and streams, large and small lakes, reservoirs, and ephemeral ponds. Wetlands are defi ned and discussed in Chapter 17 of this report. It is estimated that there are 123,400 lakes with a surface area greater than 4 ha in the United States. Most lakes, however, are smaller than 4 ha; small lakes account for the majority of lake surface area both globally and in the United States (Table 18.1; Downing et al. 2006). Th e density of lakes varies greatly by region of the country, from 8.4 lakes per 100 km2 in the upper Midwest and 7.8 lakes per 100 km2 in Florida, to much lower values in other areas of the country (e.g., mid-Atlantic, Southeast, and West <1.0 lakes per 100 km2 ) ( Eilers and Selle 1991). Th e cumulative surface area of these lakes is approximately 9.5 million ha. Th e U.S. Geologic Survey's National Hydrographic Dataset (NHD) estimates that there are approximately 1.1 million km of perennial fl owing streams in the United States. Of these about 91 percent are fi rst through fourth order (“wadeable”) (US EPA 2006).

  9. Pharmaceutical bioaccumulation by periphyton and snails in an effluent-dependent stream during an extreme drought.

    PubMed

    Du, Bowen; Haddad, Samuel P; Scott, W Casan; Chambliss, C Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that pharmaceutical bioaccumulate in fish collected downstream from municipal wastewater effluent discharges. However, studies of pharmaceutical bioaccumulation by other aquatic organisms, including primary producers (e.g., periphyton) and grazers (e.g., snails), are lacking in wadeable streams. Here, we examined environmental occurrence and bioaccumulation of a range of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants of emerging concern in surface water, a common snail (Planorbid sp.) and periphyton from an effluent-dependent stream in central Texas, USA, during a historic drought, because such limited dilution and instream flows may represent worst-case exposure scenarios for aquatic life to pharmaceuticals. Water and tissue samples were liquid-liquid extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization. Target analytes included 21 pharmaceuticals across multiple drug classes and 2 pharmacologically active metabolites. Several pharmaceuticals were detected at up to 4.7 μg kg(-1) in periphyton and up to 42 μg kg(-1) in Planorbid sp. We then identified limitations of several bioconcentration factor and bioaccumulation factor models, developed for other invertebrates, to assist interpretation of such field results. Observations from the present study suggest that waterborne exposure to pharmaceuticals may be more important than dietary exposure for snails.

  10. The Dynamic Surface Tension of Water.

    PubMed

    Hauner, Ines M; Deblais, Antoine; Beattie, James K; Kellay, Hamid; Bonn, Daniel

    2017-03-23

    The surface tension of water is an important parameter for many biological or industrial processes, and roughly a factor of 3 higher than that of nonpolar liquids such as oils, which is usually attributed to hydrogen bonding and dipolar interactions. Here we show by studying the formation of water drops that the surface tension of a freshly created water surface is even higher (∼90 mN m(-1)) than under equilibrium conditions (∼72 mN m(-1)) with a relaxation process occurring on a long time scale (∼1 ms). Dynamic adsorption effects of protons or hydroxides may be at the origin of this dynamic surface tension. However, changing the pH does not significantly change the dynamic surface tension. It also seems unlikely that hydrogen bonding or dipole orientation effects play any role at the relatively long time scale probed in the experiments.

  11. The Dynamic Surface Tension of Water

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The surface tension of water is an important parameter for many biological or industrial processes, and roughly a factor of 3 higher than that of nonpolar liquids such as oils, which is usually attributed to hydrogen bonding and dipolar interactions. Here we show by studying the formation of water drops that the surface tension of a freshly created water surface is even higher (∼90 mN m–1) than under equilibrium conditions (∼72 mN m–1) with a relaxation process occurring on a long time scale (∼1 ms). Dynamic adsorption effects of protons or hydroxides may be at the origin of this dynamic surface tension. However, changing the pH does not significantly change the dynamic surface tension. It also seems unlikely that hydrogen bonding or dipole orientation effects play any role at the relatively long time scale probed in the experiments.

  12. Mars water vapor, near-surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. A.; Sharman, R. D.; Lucich, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    In a previous paper we concluded that the temperature sensors aboard the Viking landers (VL-1 and VL-2) were detecting the water vapor frost point. Analysis of one Mars year of data at both lander sites substantiates this conclusion. At VL-1 it is found that the water vapor mixing ratio is constant with height through the bulk of the atmosphere, most of the time. Exceptions are during the onset phases of the two major dust storms when temporary enhancement of near-surface vapor occurs (the same phenomenon is observed at VL-2), and some depletion of near-surface vapor during the decay phase of the first storm, possibly the second storm as well. The former suggests near-surface, northward transport of water vapor with the storms. The latter suggests adsorption of vapor on dust particles followed by surface deposition. At VL-2, severe near-surface depletion of water vapor occurs during northern autumn and winter. The residual vapor is in equilibrium with the surface condensate observed at the site during this period, indicating that the source region for the condensate must be aloft with downward transport by dust fall-out. Since the near-surface water vapor mixing ratio and concentration at VL-1 generally parallels the column abundance over VL-1 obtained by the orbiters, this suggests that VL-1 can be used to give a measure of column abundance for as long as the temperature sensors remain operational.

  13. Copper uptake and depuration by juvenile and adult Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa).

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Rogevich, Emily C; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2008-10-01

    The present study characterized copper (Cu) uptake and depuration by juvenile and adult Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) from water, soil, and diet. During a 28-day uptake period, juvenile apple snails were exposed to aqueous Cu and adult apple snails were exposed to Cu-contaminated soil, water, and food. In the follow-up 14-day depuration period, both juvenile and adult apple snails were held in laboratory freshwater with background Cu concentrations<4 microg/l. For juvenile apple snails, whole body Cu concentrations increased with time and reached a plateau after 14 days. The data followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics rather than a one compartment first order kinetics model. The mean Cu bioconcentration factor (BCF) for juvenile apple snails was 1493 and the depuration half-life was 10.5-13.8 days. For adult snails, dietary uptake of Cu resulted in higher bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) compared to uptake from soil. Most of the accumulated Cu was located in soft tissue (about 60% in the viscera and 40% in the foot). The shell contained <1% of the total accumulated copper. Soft tissue is usually consumed by predators of the apple snail. Therefore, the results of the present study show that Cu transfer through the food chain to the apple snail may lead to potential risk to its predators.

  14. Water drop friction on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Olin, Pontus; Lindström, Stefan B; Pettersson, Torbjörn; Wågberg, Lars

    2013-07-23

    To investigate water drop friction on superhydrophobic surfaces, the motion of water drops on three different superhydrophobic surfaces has been studied by allowing drops to slide down an incline and capturing their motion using high-speed video. Two surfaces were prepared using crystallization of an alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) wax, and the third surface was the leaf of a Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera). The acceleration of the water droplets on these superhydrophobic surfaces was measured as a function of droplet size and inclination of the surface. For small capillary numbers, we propose that the energy dissipation is dominated by intermittent pinning-depinning transitions at microscopic pinning sites along the trailing contact line of the drop, while at capillary numbers exceeding a critical value, energy dissipation is dominated by circulatory flow in the vicinity of the contacting disc between the droplet and the surface. By combining the results of the droplet acceleration with a theoretical model based on energy dissipation, we have introduced a material-specific coefficient called the superhydrophobic sliding resistance, b(sh). Once determined, this parameter is sufficient for predicting the motion of water drops on superhydrophobic surfaces of a general macroscopic topography. This theory also infers the existence of an equilibrium sliding angle, β(eq), at which the drop acceleration is zero. This angle is decreasing with the radius of the drop and is in quantitative agreement with the measured tilt angles required for a stationary drop to start sliding down an incline.

  15. Bulk water freezing dynamics on superhydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, S.; Carpenter, J.; Nallapaneni, M.; Chen, J. Y.; Miljkovic, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we elucidate the mechanisms governing the heat-transfer mediated, non-thermodynamic limited, freezing delay on non-wetting surfaces for a variety of characteristic length scales, Lc (volume/surface area, 3 mm < Lc < 6 mm) using carefully designed freezing experiments in a temperature-controlled, zero-humidity environment on thin water slabs. To probe the effect of surface wettability, we investigated the total time for room temperature water to completely freeze into ice on superhydrophilic ( θaapp→ 0°), hydrophilic (0° < θa < 90°), hydrophobic (90° < θa < 125°), and superhydrophobic ( θaapp→ 180°) surfaces. Our results show that at macroscopic length scales, heat conduction through the bulk water/ice layer dominates the freezing process when compared to heat conduction through the functional coatings or nanoscale gaps at the superhydrophobic substrate-water/ice interface. In order to verify our findings, and to determine when the surface structure thermal resistance approaches the water/ice resistance, we fabricated and tested the additional substrates coated with commercial superhydrophobic spray coatings, showing a monotonic increase in freezing time with coating thickness. The added thermal resistance of thicker coatings was much larger than that of the nanoscale superhydrophobic features, which reduced the droplet heat transfer and increased the total freezing time. Transient finite element method heat transfer simulations of the water slab freezing process were performed to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient at the substrate-water/ice interface during freezing, and shown to be in the range of 1-2.5 kW/m2K for these experiments. The results shown here suggest that in order to exploit the heat-transfer mediated freezing delay, thicker superhydrophobic coatings must be deposited on the surface, where the coating resistance is comparable to the bulk water/ice conduction resistance.

  16. Radiolysis of water with aluminum oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, Sarah C.; LaVerne, Jay A.

    2017-02-01

    Aluminum oxide, Al2O3, nanoparticles with water were irradiated with γ-rays and 5 MeV He ions followed by the determination of the production of molecular hydrogen, H2, and characterization of changes in the particle surface. Surface analysis techniques included: diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), nitrogen absorption with the Brunauer - Emmett - Teller (BET) methodology for surface area determination, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Production of H2 by γ-ray radiolysis was determined for samples with adsorbed water and for Al2O3 - water slurries. For Al2O3 samples with adsorbed water, the radiation chemical yield of H2 was measured as 80±20 molecules/100 eV (1 molecule/100 eV=1.04×10-7 mol/J). The yield of H2 was observed to decrease as the amount of water present in the Al2O3 - water slurries increased. Surface studies indicated that the α-phase Al2O3 samples changed phase following irradiation by He ions, and that the oxyhydroxide layer, present on the pristine sample, is removed by γ-ray and He ion irradiation.

  17. Water vapor interactions with polycrystalline titanium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azoulay, A.; Shamir, N.; Volterra, V.; Mintz, M. H.

    1999-02-01

    The initial interactions of water vapor with polycrystalline titanium surfaces were studied at room temperature. Measurements of water vapor surface accumulation were performed in a combined surface analysis system incorporating direct recoils spectrometry (DRS), Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The kinetics of accommodation of the water dissociation fragments (H, O and OH) displayed a complex behavior depending not only on the exposure dose but also on the exposure pressure. For a given exposure dose the efficiency of chemisorption increased with increasing exposure pressure. DRS measurements indicated the occurrence of clustered hydroxyl moieties with tilted O-H bonds formed even at very low surface coverage. A model which assumes two parallel routes of chemisorption, by direct collisions (Langmuir type) and by a precursor state is proposed to account for the observed behavior. The oxidation efficiency of water seemed to be much lower than that of oxygen. No Ti 4+ states were detected even at high water exposure values. It is likely that hydroxyl species play an important role in the reduced oxidation efficiency of water.

  18. Polarimetric thermal emission from periodic water surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, S. H.; Nghiem, S. V.; Kwok, R.; Wilson, W. J.; Li, F. K.; Johnson, J. T.; Kong, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental results and theoretical calculations are presented to study the polarimetric emission from water surfaces with directional features. For our ground-based Ku-band radiometer measurements, a water pool was constructed on the roof of a building in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and a fiberglass surface with periodic corrugations in one direction was impressed on the top of the water surface to create a stationary water surface underneath it. It is observed that the measured Stokes parameters of corrugated fiberglass-covered water surfaces are functions of azimuth angles and agree very well with the theoretical calculations. The theory, after being verified by the experimental data, was then used to calculate the Stokes parameters of periodic surfaces without fiberglass surface layer and with rms height of the order of wind-generated water ripples. The magnitudes of the azimuthal variation of the calculated emissivities at horizontal and vertical polarizations corresponding to the first two Stokes parameters are found to be comparable to the values measured by airborne radiometers and SSM/I. In addition, the third Stokes parameter not shown in the literature is seen to have approximately twice the magnitude of the azimuth variation of either T(sub h) or T(sub v), which may make it more sensitive to the row direction, while less susceptive to noises because the atmospheric and system noises tend to be unpolarized and are expected to be cancelled out when the third Stokes parameter is derived as the difference of two or three power measurements, as indicated by another experiment carried out at a swimming pool with complicated surroundings. The results indicate that passive polarimetry is a potential technology in the remote sensing of ocean wind vector which is a crucial component in the understanding of global climate change. Issues related to the application of microwave passive polarimetry to ocean wind are also discussed.

  19. Water surface locomotion in tropical canopy ants.

    PubMed

    Yanoviak, S P; Frederick, D N

    2014-06-15

    Upon falling onto the water surface, most terrestrial arthropods helplessly struggle and are quickly eaten by aquatic predators. Exceptions to this outcome mostly occur among riparian taxa that escape by walking or swimming at the water surface. Here we document sustained, directional, neustonic locomotion (i.e. surface swimming) in tropical arboreal ants. We dropped 35 species of ants into natural and artificial aquatic settings in Peru and Panama to assess their swimming ability. Ten species showed directed surface swimming at speeds >3 body lengths s(-1), with some swimming at absolute speeds >10 cm s(-1). Ten other species exhibited partial swimming ability characterized by relatively slow but directed movement. The remaining species showed no locomotory control at the surface. The phylogenetic distribution of swimming among ant genera indicates parallel evolution and a trend toward negative association with directed aerial descent behavior. Experiments with workers of Odontomachus bauri showed that they escape from the water by directing their swimming toward dark emergent objects (i.e. skototaxis). Analyses of high-speed video images indicate that Pachycondyla spp. and O. bauri use a modified alternating tripod gait when swimming; they generate thrust at the water surface via synchronized treading and rowing motions of the contralateral fore and mid legs, respectively, while the hind legs provide roll stability. These results expand the list of facultatively neustonic terrestrial taxa to include various species of tropical arboreal ants.

  20. A Water Rich Mars Surface Mission Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen; Andrews, Alida; Joosten, Kent; Watts, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The surface of Mars once had abundant water flowing on its surface, but now there is a general perception that this surface is completely dry. Several lines of research have shown that there are sources of potentially large quantities of water at many locations on the surface, including regions considered as candidates for future human missions. Traditionally, system designs for these human missions are constrained to tightly recycle water and oxygen, and current resource utilization strategies involve ascent vehicle oxidizer production only. But the assumption of relatively abundant extant water may change this. Several scenarios were constructed to evaluate water requirements for human Mars expeditions to assess the impact to system design if locally produced water is available. Specifically, we have assessed water resources needed for 1) ascent vehicle oxidizer and fuel production, 2) open-loop water and oxygen life support requirements along with more robust usage scenarios, and 3) crew radiation protection augmentation. In this assessment, production techniques and the associated chemistry to transform Martian water and atmosphere into these useful commodities are identified, but production mass and power requirements are left to future analyses. The figure below illustrates the type of water need assessment performed and that will be discussed. There have been several sources of feedstock material discussed in recent literature that could be used to produce these quantities of water. This paper will focus on Mars surface features that resemble glacier-like forms on Earth. Several lines of evidence indicate that some of these features are in fact buried ice, likely remnants from an earlier ice age on Mars. This paper examines techniques and hardware systems used in the polar regions of Earth to access this buried ice and withdraw water from it. These techniques and systems will be described to illustrate options available. A technique known as a Rodriguez Well

  1. Water dynamics near solutes and surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moilanen, David Emil

    The hydrogen bonding structure and dynamics of water are fundamentally important in a wide range of chemical, biological, geological, and industrial systems. Infrared spectroscopy of the OD stretch of dilute HOD in H2 O provides a sensitive probe of the hydrogen bonding network of water. Water forms a nominally tetrahedral hydrogen bonding network as a liquid but rapid hydrogen bond switching events lead to fast water reorientation. A mechanism for water reorientation that involves large amplitude angular jumps has recently been proposed to describe the long time orientational dynamics. At short times, water molecules quickly sample a restricted range of angular space within an intact hydrogen bonding configuration. The amplitude of this inertial reorientation depends on the strength of the local hydrogen bonding network. When hydrogen bonds are stronger, the water is restricted to a smaller angular range about the hydrogen bond axis. Weaker hydrogen bonds allow larger angular excursions. A simple model for the angular hydrogen bond potential energy surface is presented based on the experimental data. Water is rarely found as a pure liquid in real systems. Often it is in contact with a surface and its dynamics are modified near the surface. Reverse micelles formed using the surfactant Aerosol-OT (AOT), water, and isooctane, as well as AOT lamellar structures provide well-defined, tunable model systems to study the dynamics of water interacting with an interface. Reverse micelles are spherical water pools with radii that can be varied from less than one nanometer up to tens of nanometers. Lamellar structures are surfactant bilayers separated by thin sheets of water ranging in thickness from approximately one nanometer up to four nanometers. In large reverse micelles and lamellar structures, the confined water can be separated into two components, a core of bulk-like water and a shell of interfacial water. Polarization selective pump-probe spectroscopy of the OD

  2. Coupled surface-water and ground-water model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric D.; Wexler, Eliezer J.

    1991-01-01

    In areas with dynamic and hydraulically well connected ground-water and surface-water systems, it is desirable that stream-aquifer interaction be simulated with models of equal sophistication and accuracy. Accordingly, a new, coupled ground-water and surface-water model was developed by combining the U.S. Geological Survey models MODFLOW and BRANCH. MODFLOW is the widely used modular three-dimensional, finite-difference, ground-water model and BRANCH is a one-dimensional numerical model commonly used to simulate flow in open-channel networks. Because time steps used in ground-water modeling commonly are much longer than those used in surface-water simulations, provision has been made for handling multiple BRANCH time steps within one MODFLOW time step. Verification testing of the coupled model was done using data from previous studies and by comparing results with output from a simpler four-point implicit open-channel flow model linked with MODFLOW.

  3. Surface Modification of Water Purification Membranes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Daniel J; Dreyer, Daniel R; Bielawski, Christopher W; Paul, Donald R; Freeman, Benny D

    2017-04-18

    Polymeric membranes are an energy-efficient means of purifying water, but they suffer from fouling during filtration. Modification of the membrane surface is one route to mitigating membrane fouling, as it helps to maintain high levels of water productivity. Here, a series of common techniques for modification of the membrane surface are reviewed, including surface coating, grafting, and various treatment techniques such as chemical treatment, UV irradiation, and plasma treatment. Historical background on membrane development and surface modification is also provided. Finally, polydopamine, an emerging material that can be easily deposited onto a wide variety of substrates, is discussed within the context of membrane modification. A brief summary of the chemistry of polydopamine, particularly as it may pertain to membrane development, is also described.

  4. Snails from heavy-metal polluted environments have reduced sensitivity to carbon dioxide-induced acidity.

    PubMed

    Lefcort, Hugh; Cleary, David A; Marble, Aaron M; Phillips, Morgan V; Stoddard, Timothy J; Tuthill, Lara M; Winslow, James R

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 reacts with water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) which increases water acidity. While marine acidification has received recent consideration, less attention has been paid to the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide on freshwater systems-systems that often have low buffering potential. Since many aquatic systems are already impacted by pollutants such as heavy metals, we wondered about the added effect of rising atmospheric CO2 on freshwater organisms. We studied aquatic pulmonate snails (Physella columbiana) from both a heavy-metal polluted watershed and snails from a reference watershed that has not experienced mining pollution. We used gaseous CO2 to increase water acidity and we then measured changes in antipredatory behavior and also survival. We predicted a simple negative additive effect of low pH. We hypothesized that snails from metal-polluted environments would be physiologically stressed and impaired due to defense responses against heavy metals. Instead, snails from populations that acclimated or evolved in the presence of heavy metal mining pollution were more robust to acidic conditions than were snails from reference habitats. Snails from mining polluted sites seemed to be preadapted to a low pH environment. Their short-term survival in acidic conditions was better than snails from reference sites that lacked metal pollution. In fact, the 48 h survival of snails from polluted sites was so high that it did not significantly differ from the 24 h survival of snails from control sites. This suggests that the response of organisms to a world with rising anthropogenic carbon dioxide levels may be complex and difficult to predict. Snails had a weaker behavioral response to stressful stimuli if kept for 1 month at a pH that differed from their lake of origin. We found that snails raised at a pH of 5.5 had a weaker response (less of a decrease in activity) to concentrated heavy metals than did snails raised at their natal pH of

  5. Surface-Water Conditions in Georgia, Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Painter, Jaime A.; Landers, Mark N.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Georgia Water Science Center-in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies-collected surface-water streamflow, water-quality, and ecological data during the 2005 Water Year (October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005). These data were compiled into layers of an interactive ArcReaderTM published map document (pmf). ArcReaderTM is a product of Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc (ESRI?). Datasets represented on the interactive map are * continuous daily mean streamflow * continuous daily mean water levels * continuous daily total precipitation * continuous daily water quality (water temperature, specific conductance dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity) * noncontinuous peak streamflow * miscellaneous streamflow measurements * lake or reservoir elevation * periodic surface-water quality * periodic ecological data * historical continuous daily mean streamflow discontinued prior to the 2005 water year The map interface provides the ability to identify a station in spatial reference to the political boundaries of the State of Georgia and other features-such as major streams, major roads, and other collection stations. Each station is hyperlinked to a station summary showing seasonal and annual stream characteristics for the current year and for the period of record. For continuous discharge stations, the station summary includes a one page graphical summary page containing five graphs, a station map, and a photograph of the station. The graphs provide a quick overview of the current and period-of-record hydrologic conditions of the station by providing a daily mean discharge graph for the water year, monthly statistics graph for the water year and period of record, an annual mean streamflow graph for the period of record, an annual minimum 7-day average streamflow graph for the period of record, and an annual peak streamflow graph for the period of record. Additionally, data can be accessed through the layer's link

  6. Ultra Water Repellent Polypropylene Surfaces with Tunable Water Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tang; Cai, Chao; Guo, Jing; Wang, Rong; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Jian

    2017-03-09

    Polypropylene (PP), including isotactic PP (i-PP) and atactic PP (a-PP) with distinct tacticity, is one of the most widely used general plastics. Herein, ultra water repellent PP coatings with tunable adhesion to water were prepared via a simple casting method. The pure i-PP coating shows a hierarchical morphology with micro/nanobinary structures, exhibiting a water contact angle (CA) larger than 150° and a sliding angle less than 5° (for 5 μL water droplet). In contrast, the pure a-PP coating has a less rough morphology with a water contact angle of about 130°, and the water droplets stick on the coating at any tilted angles. For the composite i-PP/a-PP coatings, however, ultra water repellency with CA > 150° but water adhesion tailorable from slippery to sticky can be realized, depending on the contents of a-PP and i-PP. The different wetting behaviors are due to the various microstructures of the composite coatings resulting from the distinct crystallization ability of a-PP and i-PP. Furthermore, the existence of a-PP in the composite coatings enhances the mechanical properties compared to the i-PP coating. The proposed method is feasible to modify various substrates and potential applications in no-loss liquid transportation, slippery surfaces, and patterned superhydrophobic surfaces are demonstrated.

  7. Residential yards as designer ecosystems: effects of yard management on land snail species composition.

    PubMed

    Bergey, Elizabeth A; Figueroa, Laura L

    2016-12-01

    Residential yards comprise the majority of green space in urban landscapes, yet are an understudied system because of access issues and because yards may be considered biologically depauperate. Yards are purposely created and managed and, hence, qualify as designer ecosystems, a term borrowed from restoration ecology. We investigated whether yard management (watering regime, mulching, and chemical use) or dog presence affected land snail assemblage composition and described the pattern of native vs. nonnative species among yards. Land snails form an appropriate model system for yard-scale studies because snails are speciose, common, and have limited mobility. We found 32 land snail species in our survey of 61 yards in Norman, Oklahoma, USA (population size of 118,000). Snail richness in individual yards averaged nine species, with a range of three to 14 species. Native snails were found in all yards and nonnative snails were found in all but one yard. Although some of the nine nonnative species were rare, the most frequently encountered species was the nonnative Triodopsis hopetonensis. All encountered nonnative species also occur in Oklahoma plant nurseries, indicating possible introduction through the plant trade. Yard-scale watering regime and the presence of dogs were associated with differences in snail species composition but not species richness. Pesticide use and mulch type had little, if any, association with snail composition. Effects may have been diluted by treating yards as units, whereas snails were concentrated in specific microhabitats, such as under shrubs. Soil type also influenced snail assemblages and acted at a scale larger than individual yards. Considering yards as designer ecosystems facilitates investigation of how local variation in management affects biota within yards and across the residential landscape, and highlights the importance of variation among residential yards in understanding patterns of urban biodiversity.

  8. Pollution of surface water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of surface water in 18 European countries. For each an account is given of its physical character, population, industries, and present condition of water supplies; the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling pollution are then described, and an outline is given of current research on the difficulties peculiar to each country. A general discussion of various aspects common to the European problem of water pollution follows; standards of quality are suggested; some difficulties likely to arise in the near future are indicated, and international collaboration, primarily by the exchange of information, is recommended to check or forestall these trends. PMID:13374532

  9. Surface-Water Data, Georgia, Water Year 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alhadeff, S. Jack; Landers, Mark N.; McCallum, Brian E.

    1999-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1999 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in one volume in a digital format on a CD-ROM. This volume contains discharge records of 121 gaging stations; stage for 13 gaging stations; stage and contents for 18 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water quality records for 10 stations; and the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 75 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia. Records of discharge and stage of streams, and contents or stage of lakes and reservoirs were first published in a series of U.S. Geological water-supply papers entitled, 'Surface-Water Supply of the United States.' Through September 30, 1960, these water-supply papers were in an annual series and then in a 5-year series for 1961-65 and 1966-70. Records of chemical quality, water temperature, and suspended sediment were published from 1941 to 1970 in an annual series of water-supply papers entitled, 'Quality of Surface Waters of the United States.' Records of ground-water levels were published from 1935 to 1974 in a series of water-supply papers entitled, 'Ground-Water Levels in the United States.' Water-supply papers may be consulted in the libraries of the principal cities in the United States or may be purchased from the U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Information Services, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225. For water years 1961 through 1970, streamflow data were released by the U.S. Geological Survey in annual reports on a State-boundary basis prior to the two 5-year series water-supply papers, which cover this period. The data contained in the water-supply papers are considered the official record. Water-quality records for water years 1964 through 1970 were similarly released

  10. Global modelling of Cryptosporidium in surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, Lucie; Hofstra, Nynke

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Waterborne pathogens that cause diarrhoea, such as Cryptosporidium, pose a health risk all over the world. In many regions quantitative information on pathogens in surface water is unavailable. Our main objective is to model Cryptosporidium concentrations in surface waters worldwide. We present the GloWPa-Crypto model and use the model in a scenario analysis. A first exploration of global Cryptosporidium emissions to surface waters has been published by Hofstra et al. (2013). Further work has focused on modelling emissions of Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus to surface waters from human sources (Vermeulen et al 2015, Kiulia et al 2015). A global waterborne pathogen model can provide valuable insights by (1) providing quantitative information on pathogen levels in data-sparse regions, (2) identifying pathogen hotspots, (3) enabling future projections under global change scenarios and (4) supporting decision making. Material and Methods GloWPa-Crypto runs on a monthly time step and represents conditions for approximately the year 2010. The spatial resolution is a 0.5 x 0.5 degree latitude x longitude grid for the world. We use livestock maps (http://livestock.geo-wiki.org/) combined with literature estimates to calculate spatially explicit livestock Cryptosporidium emissions. For human Cryptosporidium emissions, we use UN population estimates, the WHO/UNICEF JMP sanitation country data and literature estimates of wastewater treatment. We combine our emissions model with a river routing model and data from the VIC hydrological model (http://vic.readthedocs.org/en/master/) to calculate concentrations in surface water. Cryptosporidium survival during transport depends on UV radiation and water temperature. We explore pathogen emissions and concentrations in 2050 with the new Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) 1 and 3. These scenarios describe plausible future trends in demographics, economic development and the degree of global integration. Results and

  11. Supercooling ability is surprisingly invariable in eggs of the land snail Cantareus aspersus.

    PubMed

    Ansart, Armelle; Madec, Luc; Vernon, Philippe

    2007-02-01

    From an ontogenetic point of view, invertebrate eggs are generally the most freezing intolerant stage of a species. Development state, water content and acclimation may affect their supercooling ability. In this study, we measured fresh mass, water content and temperature of crystallisation (T(c)) of eggs of the edible land snail Cantareus aspersus, depending on its form ("aspersa"vs. "maxima"), incubation temperature (20, 12 and 7 degrees C) and physiological age (as part of the complete development). We also tested their tolerance to freezing. Despite a high number of individual observations (n=759) and significant differences of fresh mass and water content between both subspecies, no effect of origin, incubation temperature or development state has been found in this study. T(c) remained constant whatever the condition, with an overall mean of -5.40+/-0.24 degrees C (mean+/-SD). We suggest that fresh mass is important, a high water content and a constantly wet surface confer to land snail eggs a poor ability to supercool. Moreover, the presence of ice nucleating agents at the egg surface (microorganisms present in the soil, calcium carbonate crystals of the egg shell) might induce freezing. Thus, considering the present results, to delay hatching by cryopreservation of eggs does not seem possible.

  12. Global modeling of fresh surface water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierkens, M. F.; Eikelboom, T.; van Vliet, M. T.; Van Beek, L. P.

    2011-12-01

    Temperature determines a range of water physical properties, the solubility of oxygen and other gases and acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing chemical reaction rates, phytoplankton and zooplankton composition and the presence or absence of pathogens. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems the thermal regime affects the geographical distribution of aquatic species through their growth and metabolism, tolerance to parasites, diseases and pollution and life history. Compared to statistical approaches, physically-based models of surface water temperature have the advantage that they are robust in light of changes in flow regime, river morphology, radiation balance and upstream hydrology. Such models are therefore better suited for projecting the effects of global change on water temperature. Till now, physically-based models have only been applied to well-defined fresh water bodies of limited size (e.g., lakes or stream segments), where the numerous parameters can be measured or otherwise established, whereas attempts to model water temperature over larger scales has thus far been limited to regression type of models. Here, we present a first attempt to apply a physically-based model of global fresh surface water temperature. The model adds a surface water energy balance to river discharge modelled by the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. In addition to advection of energy from direct precipitation, runoff and lateral exchange along the drainage network, energy is exchanged between the water body and the atmosphere by short and long-wave radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Also included are ice-formation and its effect on heat storage and river hydraulics. We used the coupled surface water and energy balance model to simulate global fresh surface water temperature at daily time steps on a 0.5x0.5 degree grid for the period 1970-2000. Meteorological forcing was obtained from the CRU data set, downscaled to daily values with ECMWF

  13. NANOFILTRATION FOULANTS FROM A TREATED SURFACE WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The foulant from pilot nanofiltration membrane elements fed conventionally-treated surface water for 15 months was analyzed for organic, inorganic, and biological parameters. The foulant responsible for flux loss was shown to be a film layer 20 to 80 um thick with the greatest de...

  14. Water at surfaces with tunable surface chemistries and the chiral imprint of water around DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Poul

    Aqueous interfaces are ubiquitous in atmospheric chemistry and biological systems but are notoriously hard to probe experimentally. Surface-specific vibrational spectroscopy offers an avenue to directly probe the vibrational modes of the water OH stretching band but this method is challenging to implement to buried surfaces. Here we present results from sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy probing the buried interface between a functionalized surface and aqueous solutions. Studying such buried surfaces offers the advantage of being able to systematically tune the surface chemistry using self-assembled monolayers, i.e. the hydrophobic and hydrophilic character, and examine the effect on the interfacial water. In addition to water at these controlled surfaces, we have initiated studying water at biological surfaces. This includes the solvation structure around DNA. X-ray experiments at cryogenic temperatures have found crystallographic water in the minor grove of DNA giving rise to the notion of a spine of hydration surrounding DNA. Such structured water should exhibit a chiral structure adapted from DNA. We investigate if such a chiral water structure exist around DNA at room temperature using chiral SFG. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under a NSF CAREER Grant (CHE-1151079).

  15. A Water Rich Mars Surface Mission Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Andrews, Alida; Joosten, B. Kent; Watts, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    In an on-going effort to make human Mars missions more affordable and sustainable, NASA continues to investigate the innovative leveraging of technological advances in conjunction with the use of accessible Martian resources directly applicable to these missions. One of the resources with the broadest utility for human missions is water. Many past studies of human Mars missions assumed a complete lack of water derivable from local sources. However, recent advances in our understanding of the Martian environment provides growing evidence that Mars may be more "water rich" than previously suspected. This is based on data indicating that substantial quantities of water are mixed with surface regolith, bound in minerals located at or near the surface, and buried in large glacier-like forms. This paper describes an assessment of what could be done in a "water rich" human Mars mission scenario. A description of what is meant by "water rich" in this context is provided, including a quantification of the water that would be used by crews in this scenario. The different types of potential feedstock that could be used to generate these quantities of water are described, drawing on the most recently available assessments of data being returned from Mars. This paper specifically focuses on sources that appear to be buried quantities of water ice. (An assessment of other potential feedstock materials is documented in another paper.) Technologies and processes currently used in terrestrial Polar Regions are reviewed. One process with a long history of use on Earth and with potential application on Mars - the Rodriguez Well - is described and results of an analysis simulating the performance of such a well on Mars are presented. These results indicate that a Rodriguez Well capable of producing the quantities of water identified for a "water rich" human mission are within the capabilities assumed to be available on the Martian surface, as envisioned in other comparable Evolvable

  16. Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR) builds on the requirements of the Surface Water Treatment Rule and specifies treatment requirements to address Cryptosporidium m and other microbial contaminants in public water systems.

  17. Water droplet impact on elastic superhydrophobic surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Weisensee, Patricia B.; Tian, Junjiao; Miljkovic, Nenad; King, William P.

    2016-01-01

    Water droplet impact on surfaces is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature and industry, where the time of contact between droplet and surface influences the transfer of mass, momentum and energy. To manipulate and reduce the contact time of impacting droplets, previous publications report tailoring of surface microstructures that influence the droplet - surface interface. Here we show that surface elasticity also affects droplet impact, where a droplet impacting an elastic superhydrophobic surface can lead to a two-fold reduction in contact time compared to equivalent rigid surfaces. Using high speed imaging, we investigated the impact dynamics on elastic nanostructured superhydrophobic substrates having membrane and cantilever designs with stiffness 0.5–7630 N/m. Upon impact, the droplet excites the substrate to oscillate, while during liquid retraction, the substrate imparts vertical momentum back to the droplet with a springboard effect, causing early droplet lift-off with reduced contact time. Through detailed experimental and theoretical analysis, we show that this novel springboarding phenomenon is achieved for a specific range of Weber numbers (We >40) and droplet Froude numbers during spreading (Fr >1). The observation of the substrate elasticity-mediated droplet springboard effect provides new insight into droplet impact physics. PMID:27461899

  18. Slime-trail tracking in the predatory snail, Euglandina rosea.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Kavan T; Gross, Liaini; Johnson, Kwame; Martin, Khalil J; Shaheen, Nagma; Harrington, Melissa A

    2003-10-01

    Euglandina rosea, a predatory land snail, tracks prey and mates by following slime trails. Euglandina follow slime trails more than 80% of the time, following trails of their own species, but not those of prey snails, in the direction that they were laid. The attractive elements of prey slime are small, water-soluble compounds detected by specialized lip extensions. Although olfaction plays no role in trail following, strong odors disrupt tracking. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase also disrupts slime trail following, suggesting a role for nitric oxide in neural processing of slime trail stimuli. Euglandina can be conditioned to follow novel trails of glutamate or arginine paired with feeding on prey snails. These experiments demonstrate that slime-trail tracking in Euglandina is a robust, easily measured behavior that makes a good model system for studying sensory processing and learning in a novel modality.

  19. Source Water Assessment for the Las Vegas Valley Surface Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, S. P.; Piechota, T. C.

    2003-12-01

    The 1996 amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 created the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) with an objective to evaluate potential sources of contamination to drinking water intakes. The development of a Source Water Assessment Plan for Las Vegas Valley surface water runoff into Lake Mead is important since it will guide future work on source water protection of the main source of water. The first step was the identification of the watershed boundary and source water protection area. Two protection zones were delineated. Zone A extends 500 ft around water bodies, and Zone B extends 3000 ft from the boundaries of Zone A. These Zones extend upstream to the limits of dry weather flows in the storm channels within the Las Vegas Valley. After the protection areas were identified, the potential sources of contamination in the protection area were inventoried. Field work was conducted to identify possible sources of contamination. A GIS coverage obtained from local data sources was used to identify the septic tank locations. Finally, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits were obtained from the State of Nevada, and included in the inventory. After the inventory was completed, a level of risk was assigned to each potential contaminating activity (PCA). The contaminants of concern were grouped into five categories: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), synthetic organic compounds (SOCs), inorganic compounds (IOCs), microbiological, and radionuclides. The vulnerability of the water intake to each of the PCAs was assigned based on these five categories, and also on three other factors: the physical barrier effectiveness, the risk potential, and the time of travel. The vulnerability analysis shows that the PCAs with the highest vulnerability rating include septic systems, golf courses/parks, storm channels, gas stations, auto repair shops, construction, and the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Based on the current water quality

  20. Water quality analysis of surface water: a Web approach.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Poonam; Chaurasia, Meenal; Sohony, R A; Gupta, Indrani; Kumar, R

    2013-07-01

    The chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water with respect to its suitability describe its quality. Concentration of pesticides or fertilisers degrades the water quality and affects marine life. A comprehensive environmental data information system helps to perform and complete common tasks in less time with less effort for data verification, data calculations, graph generation, and proper monitoring, which helps in the further mitigation step. In this paper, focus is given to a web-based system developed to express the quality of water in the imprecise environment of monitoring data. Water samples were analyzed for eight different surface water parameters, in which four parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and fecal coliform were used for the water quality index calculation following MPCB Water Quality Standards of class A-II for best designated use. The analysis showed that river points in a particular year were in very bad category with certainty level of 0-38% which is unsuitable for drinking purposes; samples in bad category had certainty level that ranged from 38 to 50%; samples in medium to good category had certainty levels from 50 to 100%, and the remaining samples were in good to excellent category, suitable for drinking purposes, with certainty levels from 63 to 100%.

  1. Atmospheric radiation model for water surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.; Gaskill, D. W.; Lierzer, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    An atmospheric correction model was extended to account for various atmospheric radiation components in remotely sensed data. Components such as the atmospheric path radiance which results from singly scattered sky radiation specularly reflected by the water surface are considered. A component which is referred to as the virtual Sun path radiance, i.e. the singly scattered path radiance which results from the solar radiation which is specularly reflected by the water surface is also considered. These atmospheric radiation components are coded into a computer program for the analysis of multispectral remote sensor data over the Great Lakes of the United States. The user must know certain parameters, such as the visibility or spectral optical thickness of the atmosphere and the geometry of the sensor with respect to the Sun and the target elements under investigation.

  2. The feeding habits of the snail kite in Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    The feeding habits of the Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) were observed intermittently from 1967-1980 in Florida, USA. Approximately 97% of all observed foraging bouts were over marshes having sparse emergent vegetation. The visually-hunting kite was unable to forage over floating mats of exotic water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Male kites had shorter hunting bouts than females. For still-hunting, the birds' perches ranged from 0.15-4.6 m high and captures occurred an average of 5.8 m from perches. Females were significantly more successful (70%) for course-hunting than males (48%), but I found no difference for still-hunting. Birds tended to forage throughout the day, except for occasional inactive periods by some individuals during midday. On cooler days, foraging commenced slightly later in the morning than on warmer days. Kites probably capture freshwater apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) as deep as 16 cm. Capture rates for adults generally ranged from 1.7-3.4 snails per hour. Kites usually foraged over a common hunting area, and defense of foraging sites was rare. Handling of snails, from the kite's arrival at the feeding perch unit consumption, averaged 2.7 min, with no significant difference between sexes. However, adult females were more efficient at the extraction portion of this process than were adult males. Snails were usually extracted before being brought to the nest, except in the latter part of the nestling period when some snails were extracted at or near the nest and some were brought intact. Adults feed small chicks bill to bill, and both parents generally shared equally in care of the young, except at two nests where the females did 67% or more of the feeding. Mean length of snails taken by kites was 42.8 mm (range 25.2-71.3 n=697) and mean diameter was 45.8 mm (range 27.4-82.4, n=697). The most common size classes tkaen were 30-60 mm in length and diameter. Nutritional and gross energy values were determined for apple snails. Female

  3. Simulation of lakes and surface water heat exchangers for design of surface water heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conjeevaram Bashyam, Krishna

    Surface Water Heat Pump (SWHP) system utilize surface water bodies, such as ponds, lakes, rivers, and the sea, as heat sources and/or sinks. These systems may be open-loop, circulating water between the surface water body and a heat exchanger on dry land, or closed-loop, utilizing a submerged surface water heat exchanger (SWHE). Both types of SWHP systems have been widely used, but little in the way of design data, design procedures, or energy calculation procedures is available to aid engineers in the design and analysis of these systems. For either type of SWHP system, the ability to predict the evolution of lake temperature with time is an important aspect of needed design and energy analysis procedures. This thesis describes the development and validation of a lake model that is coupled with a surface water heat exchanger model to predict both the lake dynamics (temperature, stratification, ice/snow cover) and the heat transfer performance of different types of SWHE. This one-dimensional model utilizes a detailed surface heat balance model at the upper boundary, a sediment conduction heat transfer model at the lower boundary, and an eddy diffusion model to predict transport within the lake. The lake model is implemented as part of the developed software design tool, which can be used as an aid in the sizing of SWHE used in closed loop SWHP systems.

  4. Optical Triangulation on Instationary Water Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulsow, C.; Maas, H.-G.; Hentschel, B.

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of water surfaces is a key task in the field of experimental hydromechanics. Established techniques are usually gauge-based and often come with a large instrumental effort and a limited spatial resolution. The paper shows a photogrammetric alternative based on the well-known laser light sheet projection technique. While the original approach is limited to surfaces with diffuse reflection properties, the developed technique is capable of measuring dynamically on reflecting instationary surfaces. Contrary to the traditional way, the laser line is not observed on the object. Instead, using the properties of water, the laser light is reflected on to a set of staggered vertical planes. The resulting laser line is observed by a camera and measured by subpixel operators. A calibration based on known still water levels provides the parameters for the translation of image space measurements into water level and gradient determination in dynamic experiments. As a side-effect of the principle of measuring the reflected laser line rather than the projected one, the accuracy can be improved by almost a factor two. In experiments a standard deviation of 0.03 mm for water level changes could be achieved. The measuring rate corresponds to the frame rate of the camera. A complete measuring system is currently under development for the Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute (BAW). This article shows the basic principle, potential and limitations of the method. Furthermore, several system variants optimised for different requirements are presented. Besides the geometrical models of different levels of complexity, system calibration procedures are described too. The applicability of the techniques and their accuracy potential are shown in several practical tests.

  5. Exploring global Cryptosporidium emissions to surface water.

    PubMed

    Hofstra, N; Bouwman, A F; Beusen, A H W; Medema, G J

    2013-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium is a major cause of diarrhoea worldwide. This paper presents the first model-based inventory with 0.5 by 0.5 degree resolution of global Cryptosporidium emissions for the year 2000 from humans and animals to surface water. The model is based on nutrient distribution modelling, because the sources and transport of oocysts and nutrients to the surface water are comparable. Total emissions consist of point source emissions from wastewater and nonpoint source emissions by runoff of oocysts in manure from agricultural lands. Results indicate a global emission of 3 × 10(17) oocysts per year, with comparable contributions from point and nonpoint sources. Hot-spot areas for point sources are big cities in China, India and Latin America, while the area with the largest nonpoint source emissions is in China. Uncertainties in the model are large. Main areas for further study are (i) excretion rates of oocysts by humans and animals, (ii) emissions of humans not connected to sewage systems, and (iii) retention of oocysts to determine surface water pathogen concentrations rather than emissions. Our results are useful to health organisations to identify priority areas for further study and intervention.

  6. How Water Advances on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellenberger, Frank; Encinas, Noemí; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Superliquid repellency can be achieved by nano- and microstructuring surfaces in such a way that protrusions entrap air underneath the liquid. It is still not known how the three-phase contact line advances on such structured surfaces. In contrast to a smooth surface, where the contact line can advance continuously, on a superliquid-repellent surface, the contact line has to overcome an air gap between protrusions. Here, we apply laser scanning confocal microscopy to get the first microscopic videos of water drops advancing on a superhydrophobic array of micropillars. In contrast to common belief, the liquid surface gradually bends down until it touches the top face of the next micropillars. The apparent advancing contact angle is 180°. On the receding side, pinning to the top faces of the micropillars determines the apparent receding contact angle. Based on these observations, we propose that the apparent receding contact angle should be used for characterizing superliquid-repellent surfaces rather than the apparent advancing contact angle and hysteresis.

  7. Field Techniques for Estimating Water Fluxes Between Surface Water and Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; LaBaugh, James W.

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on measuring the flow of water across the interface between surface water and ground water, rather than the hydrogeological or geochemical processes that occur at or near this interface. The methods, however, that use hydrogeological and geochemical evidence to quantify water fluxes are described herein. This material is presented as a guide for those who have to examine the interaction of surface water and ground water. The intent here is that both the overview of the many available methods and the in-depth presentation of specific methods will enable the reader to choose those study approaches that will best meet the requirements of the environments and processes they are investigating, as well as to recognize the merits of using more than one approach. This report is designed to make the reader aware of the breadth of approaches available for the study of the exchange between surface and ground water. To accomplish this, the report is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 describes many well-documented approaches for defining the flow between surface and ground waters. Subsequent chapters provide an in-depth presentation of particular methods. Chapter 2 focuses on three of the most commonly used methods to either calculate or directly measure flow of water between surface-water bodies and the ground-water domain: (1) measurement of water levels in well networks in combination with measurement of water level in nearby surface water to determine water-level gradients and flow; (2) use of portable piezometers (wells) or hydraulic potentiomanometers to measure hydraulic gradients; and (3) use of seepage meters to measure flow directly. Chapter 3 focuses on describing the techniques involved in conducting water-tracer tests using fluorescent dyes, a method commonly used in the hydrogeologic investigation and characterization of karst aquifers, and in the study of water fluxes in karst terranes. Chapter 4 focuses on heat as a tracer in hydrological

  8. River regulation and interactions groundwater - surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colleuille, H.; Wong, W. K.; Dimakis, P.; Pedersen, T. S.

    2003-04-01

    The determination of a minimum acceptable flow in a river affected by regulation is a major task in management of hydropower development. The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), responsible for administrating the nation's water resources, requires an objective system that takes into account the needs of the developer and the rivers environment such as water quality, river biota, landscape, erosion and groundwater. A research project has been initiated with focus on interactions between groundwater and surface water. The purpose of the project is to provide the licensing authorities with tools for quantitative assessment of the effects of regulation on groundwater resources and at the same time the effect of groundwater abstraction on river flows. A small, urbanised alluvial plain (2 km^2) by the river Glomma in Central Southern Norway is used as a case study. The local aquifer consists of heterogeneous glaciofluvial and fluvial deposit, mainly sand and gravel. Two three-dimensional numerical models (Visual Modflow 3.0 and Feflow 5.0) have been used for this study. The models were calibrated with hydro-geological data collected in the field. Aquifer and river sediment has been examined by use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and soil samples collection. Preferential flow has been examined by tracer tests. Water level, temperature and electric conductivity have been recorded in both aquifer and river. Hydro-climatic regime has been analysed by statistical tools. The first task of the project is to carry out water balance studies in order to estimate the change in rate of groundwater recharge from and to the river along a normal hydrologic year with snowmelting, flood, and baseflow. The second task is to analyse the potential effect of change in the river water regime (due to regulation and consecutive clogging) on groundwater resources and their interaction with stream water.

  9. Small Molecules in the Cone Snail Arsenal.

    PubMed

    Neves, Jorge L B; Lin, Zhenjian; Imperial, Julita S; Antunes, Agostinho; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Olivera, Baldomero M; Schmidt, Eric W

    2015-10-16

    Cone snails are renowned for producing peptide-based venom, containing conopeptides and conotoxins, to capture their prey. A novel small-molecule guanine derivative with unprecedented features, genuanine, was isolated from the venom of two cone snail species. Genuanine causes paralysis in mice, indicating that small molecules and not just polypeptides may contribute to the activity of cone snail venom.

  10. [Prevalence of Aeromonas spp. in surface water].

    PubMed

    Hernández, P; Rodríguez de García, R

    1997-03-01

    Some Aeromonas strains are well recognized enteropathogens according to microbiological, clinical, immunological and epidemiological evidence. The main source of infection seems to be untreated water, these microorganisms can be found in virtually all aquatic environments. Additionally, some Aeromonas, which include enterotoxigenic strains, are capable of rapid growth at 5 degrees C and even of producing toxins. Vegetable products irrigated with contaminated water may reach critical Aeromonas levels after being kept under refrigeration, this could represent a public health risk when they are consumed as uncooked salads. This study was pursued to evaluate such risk. Surface water samples were streaked on starch ampicillin and inositol-brilliant green-bile salts agar dishes. In addition, 100 ml of each sample were filtered through a 0.45 micron Millipore membrane filter. The filters were incubated on alkaline peptone water as enrichment media during 24 h at 35 degrees C. Enrichment broth was then streaked on the selective agars above mentioned. Isolates from both tests were identified using the API 20 E System. The prevalence of Aeromonas strains in the analyzed samples was 17.8%. A higher isolation rate was observed after the enrichment technique. Starch ampicillin agar showed a higher recuperation rate. A Veronii biotype sobria (formerly A. sobria) was isolated with higher frequency. Since this species has been associated with the greatest virulence, the use of contaminated water to irrigate vegetable products that are to be kept under refrigeration and consumed without ulterior cooking may represent a risk to the public health.

  11. The Effect of Aquatic Plant Abundance on Shell Crushing Resistance in a Freshwater Snail

    PubMed Central

    Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M.; García de León, Francisco J.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures. PMID:22970206

  12. The effect of aquatic plant abundance on shell crushing resistance in a freshwater snail.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Campos, Johel; Coghill, Lyndon M; García de León, Francisco J; Johnson, Steven G

    2012-01-01

    Most of the shell material in snails is composed of calcium carbonate but the organic shell matrix determines the properties of calcium carbonate crystals. It has been shown that the deposition of calcium carbonate is affected by the ingestion of organic compounds. We hypothesize that organic compounds not synthesized by the snails are important for shell strength and must be obtained from the diet. We tested this idea indirectly by evaluating whether the abundance of the organic matter that snails eat is related to the strength of their shells. We measured shell crushing resistance in the snail Mexipyrgus churinceanus and the abundance of the most common aquatic macrophyte, the water lily Nymphaea ampla, in ten bodies of water in the valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We used stable isotopes to test the assumption that these snails feed on water lily organic matter. We also measured other factors that can affect crushing resistance, such as the density of crushing predators, snail density, water pH, and the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the water. The isotope analysis suggested that snails assimilate water lily organic matter that is metabolized by sediment bacteria. The variable that best explained the variation in crushing resistance found among sites was the local abundance of water lilies. We propose that the local amount of water lily organic matter provides organic compounds important in shell biomineralization, thus determining crushing resistance. Hence, we propose that a third trophic level could be important in the coevolution of snail defensive traits and predatory structures.

  13. Chemical composition of Texas surface waters, 1949

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irelan, Burdge

    1950-01-01

    This report is the fifth the a series of publications by the Texas Board of Water Engineers giving chemical analyses of the surface waters in the State of Texas. The samples for which data are given were collected between October 1, 1948 and September 30, 1949. During the water year 25 daily sampling stations were maintained by the Geological Survey. Sampled were collected less frequently during the year at many other points. Quality of water records for previous years can be found in the following reports: "Chemical Composition of Texas Surface Waters, 1938-1945," by W. W. Hastings, and J. H. Rowley; "Chemical Composition of Texas Surface Waters, 1946," by W. W. Hastings and B. Irelan; "Chemical Composition of Texas Surface Waters, 1947," by B. Irelan and J. R. Avrett; "Chemical Composition of Texas Surface Waters, 1948," by B. Irelan, D. E. Weaver, and J. R. Avrett. These reports may be obtained from the Texas Board of Water Engineers and Geological Survey at Austin, Texas. Samples for chemical analysis were collected daily at or near points on streams where gaging stations are maintained for measurement of discharge. Most of the analyses were made of 10-day composites of daily samples collected for a year at each sampling point. Three composite samples were usually prepared each month by mixing together equal quantities of daily samples collected for the 1st to the 10th, from the 11th to the 20th, and during the remainder of the month. Monthly composites were made at a few stations where variation in daily conductance was small. For some streams that are subject to sudden large changes in chemical composition, composite samples were made for shorter periods on the basis of the concentration of dissolved solids as indicated by measurement of specific conductance of the daily samples. The mean discharge for the composite period is reported in second-feet. Specific conductance values are expressed as "micromhos, K x 10 at 25° C." Silica, calcium, magnesium, sodium

  14. Acidic deposition and surface water chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, M. R.

    A pair of back-to-back (morning and afternoon) hydrology sessions, held December 10, 1987, at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., covered “Predicting the Effects of Acidic Deposition on Surface Water Chemistry.” The combined sessions included four invited papers, 12 contributed papers, and a panel discussion at its conclusion. The gathering dealt with questions on a variety of aspects of modeling the effects of acidic deposition on surface water chemistry.Contributed papers included discussions on the representation of processes in models as well as limiting assumptions in model application (V. S. Tripathi et al., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., and E. C. Krug, Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign), along with problems in estimating depositional inputs to catchments and thus inputs to be used in the simulation of catchment response (M. M. Reddy et al., U.S. Geological Survey, Lakewood, Colo.; and E. A. McBean, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada). L. A. Baker et al. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) dealt with the problem of modeling seepage lake systems, an exceedingly important portion of the aquatic resources in Florida and parts of the upper U.S. Midwest. J. A. Hau and Y. Eckstein (Kent State University, Kent, Ohio) considered equilibrium modeling of two northern Ohio watersheds that receive very different loads of acidic deposition but are highly similar in other respects.

  15. Malacological survey and geographical distribution of vector snails for schistosomiasis within informal settlements of Kisumu City, western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although schistosomiasis is generally considered a rural phenomenon, infections have been reported within urban settings. Based on observations of high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in schools within the informal settlements of Kisumu City, a follow-up malacological survey incorporating 81 sites within 6 informal settlements of the City was conducted to determine the presence of intermediate host snails and ascertain whether active transmission was occurring within these areas. Methods Surveyed sites were mapped using a geographical information system. Cercaria shedding was determined from snails and species of snails identified based on shell morphology. Vegetation cover and presence of algal mass at the sites was recorded, and the physico-chemical characteristics of the water including pH and temperature were determined using a pH meter with a glass electrode and a temperature probe. Results Out of 1,059 snails collected, 407 (38.4%) were putatively identified as Biomphalaria sudanica, 425 (40.1%) as Biomphalaria pfeifferi and 227 (21.5%) as Bulinus globosus. The spatial distribution of snails was clustered, with few sites accounting for most of the snails. The highest snail abundance was recorded in Nyamasaria (543 snails) followed by Nyalenda B (313 snails). As expected, the mean snail abundance was higher along the lakeshore (18 ± 12 snails) compared to inland sites (dams, rivers and springs) (11 ± 32 snails) (F1, 79 = 38.8, P < 0.0001). Overall, 19 (1.8%) of the snails collected shed schistosome cercariae. Interestingly, the proportion of infected Biomphalaria snails was higher in the inland (2.7%) compared to the lakeshore sites (0.3%) (P = 0.0109). B. sudanica was more abundant in sites along the lakeshore whereas B. pfeifferi and B. globosus were more abundant in the inland sites. Biomphalaria and Bulinus snails were found at 16 and 11 out of the 56 inland sites, respectively. Conclusions The high abundance of Biomphalaria and

  16. Water evaporation on highly viscoelastic polymer surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pu, Gang; Severtson, Steven J

    2012-07-03

    Results are reported for a study on the evaporation of water droplets from a highly viscoelastic acrylic polymer surface. These are contrasted with those collected for the same measurements carried out on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). For PDMS, the evaporation process involves the expected multistep process including constant drop area, constant contact angle, and finally a combination of these steps until the liquid is gone. In contrast, water evaporation from the acrylic polymer shows a constant drop area mode throughout. Furthermore, during the evaporation process, the drop area actually expands on the acrylic polymer. The single mode evaporation process is consistent with formation of wetting structures, which cannot be propagated by the capillary forces. Expansion of the drop area is attributed to the influence of the drop capillary pressure. Furthermore, the rate of drop area expansion is shown to be dependent on the thickness of the polymer film.

  17. Taken to the limit--Is desiccation stress causing precocious encystment of trematode parasites in snails?

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Katie; Poulin, Robert

    2015-12-01

    When hosts experience environmental stress, the quantity and quality of resources they provide for parasites may be diminished, and host longevity may be decreased. Under stress, parasites may adopt alternative strategies to avoid fitness reductions. Trematode parasites typically have complex life cycles, involving asexual reproduction in a gastropod first intermediate host. A rare phenomenon, briefly mentioned in the literature, and termed 'precocious encystment' involves the next stage in the parasites' life cycle (metacercarial cyst) forming within the preceding stage (redia), while still inside the snail. In the trematode Parorchis sp. NZ using rocky shore snails exposed to long periods outside water, we hypothesised that this might be an adaptive strategy against desiccation, preventing parasite emergence from the snail. To test this, we first investigated the effect of prolonged desiccation on the survival of two species of high intertidal snails. Secondly, we measured the reproductive output (cercarial production) of the parasite under wet and dry conditions. Finally, we quantified the influence of desiccation stress on the occurrence of precocious encystment. Snail mortality was higher under dry conditions, indicating stress, and it was somewhat exacerbated for infected snails. Parasite reproductive output differed between wet and dry conditions, with parasites of snails kept in dry conditions producing more cercariae when placed in water. Little variation was observed in the occurrence of precocious encystment, although some subtle patterns emerged. Given the stresses associated with living in high intertidal environments, we discuss precocious encystment as a possible stress response in this trematode parasite.

  18. Protonation and Deprotonation on Water's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colussi, A. J.; Enami, S.; Stewart, L.; Hoffmann, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    How the acidity of bulk water (pHbulk) regulates the degree of protonation of Brönsted acids and bases on water surfaces facing hydrophobic media is a key unresolved issue in chemistry and biology. We addressed experimentally the important case of the air/water interface and report the strikingly dissimilar pHbulk-dependences of the protonation/deprotonation of aqueous versus gaseous n-hexanoic acid (HxOH) determined on the surface of aqueous microjets by online electrospray mass spectrometry. We confirm that HxOH(aq) is deprotonated at pHbulk > pKa(HxOH) = 4.8, but find that the deprotonation of HxOH(g) into interfacial HxO-(s) displays two equivalence points at pHbulk ~ 2.5 and ~ 10.0. The weak base HxOH(aq) (pKa(HxOH2+) < - 4) is barely protonated at pHbulk > 1, whereas HxOH(g) is significantly protonated to HxOH2+(s) on pHbulk < 4 water, as expected from the proton affinities PA(HxOH) > PA(H2O) of gas-phase species. The exceptionally large kinetic isotope effect for the protonation of HxOH(g) on D2O/H2O: KIE = HxOH2+/HxODH+ ~ 100, is ascribed to a desolvated transition state. Since ion creation at the interface via proton transfer between H2O itself and neutral species is thermodynamically disallowed i.e., HxOH(g) is actually deprotonated by interfacial OH-(s), whereas Me3N(g) is hardly protonated by H3O+(s) on pHbulk ~ 4 - 8 water (Enami et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1599) we conclude that [OH-(s)] > [H3O+(s)] above pHbulk ~ 4, at variance with inferences drawn from spectroscopic signatures or model calculations of water’s surface.

  19. Relaxations and Interfacial Water Ordering at the Corundum (110) Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2010-09-17

    In situ high resolution specular X-ray reflectivity measurements were used to examine relaxations and interfacial water ordering occurring at the corundum (110)-water interface. Sample preparation affected the resulting surface structure. Annealing in air at 1373 K produced a reconstructed surface formed through an apparently ordered aluminum vacancy. The effect of the reconstruction on in-plane periodicity was not determined. The remaining aluminum sites on the surface maintain full coordination by oxygen and the surface was coated with a layer of physically adsorbed water. Ordering of water further from the surface was not observed. Acid etching of this surface and preparing a surface through annealing at 723 K both produced an unreconstructed surface with identical relaxations and water ordering. Relaxations were confined primarily to the top {approx}4 {angstrom} of the surface and were dominated by an increased distribution width of the fully occupied surface aluminum site and outward relaxation of the oxygen surface functional groups. A layer of adsorbed water fully coated the surface and occurred in two distinct sites. Water above this showed signs of layering and indicated that water ordering extended 7-10 {angstrom} from the surface. Relaxations and the arrangement of interfacial water were nearly identical on both the unreconstructed corundum and isostructural hematite (110) surfaces. Comparison to corundum and hematite (012) suggests that the arrangement of interfacial water is primarily controlled by mineral surface structure.

  20. Ground Water / Surface Water Exchange: Streambed Versus a Channel Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, C. L.; Constantz, J. E.; Cooper, C. A.; McKay, W. A.

    2007-12-01

    The streambed is important in controlling exchange of water, solutes, and heat between streams and ground water. Processes such as sedimentation, erosion, and fluctuations in diurnal temperatures can have significant effects on the streambed hydraulic conductivity, which in turn affects fluid velocities across the streambed. The objectives of this study are to quantify the difference in flux magnitude and direction within and around a channel bar. The focus of this presentation is to compare fluxes in channel bar sediments with fluxes in the streambed to determine the effect of the upper boundary conditions on sediment fluxes. A network of piezometers was installed on and around a channel bar located within the Truckee River, a dense 6th order river network, located primarily in northwest Nevada. Instruments used were temperature loggers, pressure transducers, and stage recorders. Several methods were simultaneously utilized to quantify water and heat fluxes and to interpret the hydrodynamic processes through the streambed sediments. Numerical simulations are being completed to quantify the spatial and temporal fluid flux and heat transport in relation to varied hydraulic parameters such as variable river stage, geometry, and hydraulic conductivity. In general, we have found that surface water exchange to the streambed occurs at the upstream portion of bed features and streambed discharge dominates at the downstream bed feature. This exchange is evidenced at the channel bar as well as localized riffles and point bars adjacent to the channel bar. We found that at least two separate hydraulic conditions are evident during our study. The range in water levels between the piezometers was altered from approximately 1.25 m to a minimum of 0.10 m and the mean potentiometric surface increased by 1 m. These variations are geomorphic responses due to a flood event, inundating the channel bar, and a channel restoration project both upstream and downstream of the study area

  1. Distribution and abundance of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis host snails along the Mara River in Kenya and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dida, Gabriel O; Gelder, Frank B; Anyona, Douglas N; Matano, Ally-Said; Abuom, Paul O; Adoka, Samson O; Ouma, Collins; Kanangire, Canisius K; Owuor, Phillip O; Ofulla, Ayub V O

    2014-01-01

    We purposively selected 39 sampling sites along the Mara River and its two perennial tributaries of Amala and Nyangores and sampled snails. In addition, water physicochemical parameters (temperature, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, alkalinity, salinity and pH) were taken to establish their influence on the snail abundance and habitat preference. Out of the 39 sites sampled, 10 (25.6%) had snails. The snail species encountered included Biomphalaria pfeifferi Krauss - the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, Bulinus africanus - the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, and Lymnaea natalensis Krauss - the intermediate host of both Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica Cobbold. Ceratophallus spp., a non-vector snail was also encountered. Most (61.0%) of the snails were encountered in streamside pools. Schistosomiasis-transmitting host snails, B. pfeifferi and B. africanus, were fewer than fascioliasis-transmitting Lymnaea species. All the four different snail species were found to be attached to different aquatic weeds, with B. pfeifferi accounting for over half (61.1%) of the snails attached to the sedge, followed by B. africanus and Lymnaea spp., accounting for 22.2 and 16.7%, respectively. Ceratophallus spp. were non-existent in sedge. The results from this preliminary study show that snails intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis exists in different habitats, in few areas along the Mara River, though their densities are still low to have any noticeable impacts on disease transmission in case they are infected. The mere presence of the vector snails in these focal regions calls for their immediate control and institution of proper regulations, management, and education among the locals that can help curtail the spread of the snails and also schistosomiasis and fascioliasis within the Mara River basin.

  2. Water: one molecule, two surfaces, one mistake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    In order to rigorously evaluate the energy and dipole moment of a certain configuration of molecules, one needs to solve the Schrödinger equation. Repeating this for many different configurations allows one to determine the potential energy surface (PES) and the dipole moment surface (DMS). Since the early days of computer simulation, it has been implicitly accepted that for empirical potentials the charges used to fit the PES should also be used to describe the DMS. This is a mistake. Partial charges are not observable magnitudes. They should be regarded as adjustable fitting parameters. Optimal values used to describe the PES are not necessarily the best to describe the DMS. One could use two fits: one for the PES and the other for the DMS. This is a common practice in the quantum chemistry community, but not used so often by the community performing computer simulations. This idea affects all types of modelling of water (with the exception of ab initio calculations) from coarse-grained to non-polarisable and polarisable models. We anticipate that an area that will benefit dramatically from having both, a good PES and a good DMS, is the modelling of water in the presence of electric fields.

  3. Combinatorial peptide libraries in drug design: lessons from venomous cone snails.

    PubMed

    Olivera, B M; Hillyard, D R; Marsh, M; Yoshikami, D

    1995-10-01

    Many present-day drugs are derived from compounds that are natural products, a traditional source of which is fermentation broths of microorganisms. The venoms of cone snails are a new natural resource of peptides that may have a pharmaceutical potential equivalent to those from traditional sources, particularly for developing drugs that target cell-surface receptors or ion channels. In effect, cone snails have used a combinatorial library strategy to evolve their small, highly bioactive venom peptides. The methods by which the snails have generated thousands of peptides with remarkable specificity and high affinity for their targets may provide important lessons in designing combinatorial libraries for drug development.

  4. Effects of Washing Produce Contaminated with the Snail and Slug Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis with Three Common Household Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Norine W; Hayes, Kenneth A

    2013-01-01

    The emerging infectious disease angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease) is caused by ingesting snails and slugs infected by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The definitive hosts of A. cantonensis are rats and the obligatory intermediate hosts are slugs and snails. Many cases result from accidentally ingesting infected snails or slugs on produce (eg, lettuce). This study assessed three readily available household products as washing solutions for removing snails and slugs from produce (romaine lettuce) to lower the probability of accidentally ingesting them. The solutions were acetic acid (vinegar), sodium hypochlorite (bleach), and sodium chloride (domestic salt). Snail and slug species known to be intermediate hosts and that are common in the Hawaiian Islands were used in the experiments: the alien snail Succinea tenella, the alien semi-slug Parmarion martensi, and the alien slugs Veronicella cubensis and Deroceras laeve. None of the products was any more effective than washing and rinsing with tap water alone. Most snails and slugs were removed after treatment but some remained on the lettuce even after washing and rinsing the produce. Only washing, rinsing, and then rinsing each leaf individually resulted in complete removal of all snails and slugs. The study did not address removal of any remaining slime left by the snails and slugs, nor did it address killing of worms. PMID:23901391

  5. Effects of washing produce contaminated with the snail and slug hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis with three common household solutions.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Norine W; Hayes, Kenneth A; Cowie, Robert H

    2013-06-01

    The emerging infectious disease angiostrongyliasis (rat lungworm disease) is caused by ingesting snails and slugs infected by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The definitive hosts of A. cantonensis are rats and the obligatory intermediate hosts are slugs and snails. Many cases result from accidentally ingesting infected snails or slugs on produce (eg, lettuce). This study assessed three readily available household products as washing solutions for removing snails and slugs from produce (romaine lettuce) to lower the probability of accidentally ingesting them. The solutions were acetic acid (vinegar), sodium hypochlorite (bleach), and sodium chloride (domestic salt). Snail and slug species known to be intermediate hosts and that are common in the Hawaiian Islands were used in the experiments: the alien snail Succinea tenella, the alien semi-slug Parmarion martensi, and the alien slugs Veronicella cubensis and Deroceras laeve. None of the products was any more effective than washing and rinsing with tap water alone. Most snails and slugs were removed after treatment but some remained on the lettuce even after washing and rinsing the produce. Only washing, rinsing, and then rinsing each leaf individually resulted in complete removal of all snails and slugs. The study did not address removal of any remaining slime left by the snails and slugs, nor did it address killing of worms.

  6. Surface-water quality-assurance plan for the USGS Georgia Water Science Center, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey requires that each Water Science Center prepare a surface-water quality-assurance plan to describe policies and procedures that ensure high quality surface-water data collection, processing, analysis, computer storage, and publication. The Georgia Water Science Center's standards, policies, and procedures for activities related to the collection, processing, analysis, computer storage, and publication of surface-water data are documented in this Surface-Water Quality-Assurance Plan for 2010.

  7. Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doell, Petra; Hoffmann-Dobrev, Heike; Portmann, Felix T.; Siebert, Stefan; Eicker, Annette; Rodell, Matthew; Strassberg, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to our assessment, the source of 35% of the water withdrawn worldwide (4300 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002) is groundwater. Groundwater contributes 42%, 36% and 27% of water used for irrigation, households and manufacturing, respectively, while we assume that only surface water is used for livestock and for cooling of thermal power plants. Consumptive water use was 1400 cubic km/yr during 1998-2002. It is the sum of the net abstraction of 250 cubic km/yr of groundwater (taking into account evapotranspiration and return flows of withdrawn surface water and groundwater) and the net abstraction of 1150 km3/yr of surface water. Computed net abstractions indicate, for the first time at the global scale, where and when human water withdrawals decrease or increase groundwater or surface water storage. In regions with extensive surface water irrigation, such as Southern China, net abstractions from groundwater are negative, i.e. groundwater is recharged by irrigation. The opposite is true for areas dominated by groundwater irrigation, such as in the High Plains aquifer of the central USA, where net abstraction of surface water is negative because return flow of withdrawn groundwater recharges the surface water compartments. In intensively irrigated areas, the amplitude of seasonal total water storage variations is generally increased due to human water use; however, in some areas, it is decreased. For the High Plains aquifer and the whole Mississippi basin, modeled groundwater and total water storage variations were compared with estimates of groundwater storage variations based on

  8. Organic acids in naturally colored surface waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamar, William L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1966-01-01

    Most of the organic matter in naturally colored surface waters consists of a mixture of carboxylic acids or salts of these acids. Many of the acids color the water yellow to brown; however, not all of the acids are colored. These acids range from simple to complex, but predominantly they are nonvolatile polymeric carboxylic acids. The organic acids were recovered from the water by two techniques: continuous liquid-liquid extraction with n-butanol and vacuum evaporation at 50?C (centigrade). The isolated acids were studied by techniques of gas, paper, and column chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. About 10 percent of the acids recovered were volatile or could be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Approximately 30 of these carboxylic acids were isolated, and 13 of them were individually identified. The predominant part of the total acids could not be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Infrared examination of many column chromatographic fractions indicated that these nonvolatile substances are primarily polymeric hydroxy carboxylic acids having aromatic and olefinic unsaturation. The evidence suggests that some of these acids result from polymerization in aqueous solution. Elemental analysis of the sodium fusion products disclosed the absence of nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens.

  9. Landscape approach to identifying environments where ground water and surface water are closely interrelated

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Thomas C.

    1995-01-01

    Understanding the interaction of ground water and surface water is fundamental to solving many of the water resource problems facing the Nation. To facilitate efficient management of the Nation's water resources, a program of study and evaluation of the interaction of ground water and surface water is proposed that would emphasize intersite comparison between 24 environments throughout the Nation.

  10. Phenotypic plasticity in the common garden snail: big guts and heavier mucus glands compete in snails faced with the dual challenge of poor diet and coarse substrate.

    PubMed

    Munn, Adam J; Treloar, Marguerite

    2016-12-26

    Phenotypic plasticity allows animals to manage environmental challenges. Studies aimed at quantifying plasticity often focus on one challenge, such as diet, and one organ system, such the gastrointestinal tract, but this approach may not adequately reflect how plasticity could buffer multiple challenges. Thus, we investigated the outcomes of a dual challenge experiment that fed land snails either a high-fibre (low quality) or a low-fibre (high quality) diet, and simultaneously exercised them daily over 1.2 m on either a smooth surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or a rough sandpaper. By the end of 20 days, snails fed the poor quality diet had a longer crop and oesophagus and a heavier intestine and rectum than those offered a low-fibre diet. Additionally, high-fibre fed snails had a smaller spermoviduct and oviduct. When also exercised on sandpaper, high-fibre fed snails had a smaller digestive gland, a main energy store, than those exercised on PVC. All snails exercised on sandpaper had a heavier pedal mucus gland, used a loping gait and used less mucus than those on PVC plastic, but there was no difference in the average speed of snails on either surface, supporting the conclusion that loping is a mucus conserving gait. Notably, snails faced with both a diet and substrate challenge had a smaller kidney, which could directly effect fecundity. This demonstrates that our dual challenge approach has potential for evaluating the costs and limits of the plasticity necessary to fully appreciate the evolutionary significance of plasticity in snails and other species.

  11. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2001, Volume 3A. Southwest Florida Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Y.E.; Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 406 streams, periodic discharge for 12 streams, continuous daily stage for 142 streams, periodic stage for 12 streams, peak stage and discharge for 37 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 11 lakes, periodic elevations for 30 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 424 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,426 wells, and quality-of-water data for 80 surface-water sites and 245 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains continuous or daily discharge for 83 streams, periodic discharge for 10 streams, continuous or daily stage for 43 streams, peak stage and discharge for 8 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 2 lakes, periodic elevations for 26 lakes, and quality-of-water data for 37 surface-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  12. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2002, Volume 3A. Southwest Florida Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 392 streams, periodic discharge for 15 streams, continuous daily stage for 191 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 33 streams and peak discharge for 33 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 14 lakes, periodic elevations for 49 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 418 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,287 wells, and quality-of-water data for 116 surface-water sites and 291 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains continuous or daily discharge for 99 streams, periodic discharge for 11 streams, continuous or daily stage for 63 streams, peak stage and discharge for 7 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 2 lakes, periodic elevations for 26 lakes, and quality-of-water data for 59 surface-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  13. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003, Volume 3A: Southwest Florida Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 36 streams and peak discharge for 36 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,227 wells, and quality-of-water data for 133 surface-water sites and 308 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains continuous or daily discharge for 103 streams, periodic discharge for 7 streams, continuous or daily stage for 67 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage and discharge for 8 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 2 lakes, periodic elevations for 26 lakes, and quality-of-water data for 62 surface-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  14. Structured free-water clusters near lubricating surfaces are essential in water-based lubrication.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jiapeng; Veeregowda, Deepak H; de Vries, Joop; Van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2016-10-01

    Water-based lubrication provides cheap and environmentally friendly lubrication and, although hydrophilic surfaces are preferred in water-based lubrication, often lubricating surfaces do not retain water molecules during shear. We show here that hydrophilic (42° water contact angle) quartz surfaces facilitate water-based lubrication to the same extent as more hydrophobic Si crystal surfaces (61°), while lubrication by hydrophilic Ge crystal surfaces (44°) is best. Thus surface hydrophilicity is not sufficient for water-based lubrication. Surface-thermodynamic analyses demonstrated that all surfaces, regardless of their water-based lubrication, were predominantly electron donating, implying water binding with their hydrogen groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that Ge crystal surfaces providing optimal lubrication consisted of a mixture of -O and =O functionalities, while Si crystal and quartz surfaces solely possessed -O functionalities. Comparison of infrared absorption bands of the crystals in water indicated fewer bound-water layers on hydrophilic Ge than on hydrophobic Si crystal surfaces, while absorption bands for free water on the Ge crystal surface indicated a much more pronounced presence of structured, free-water clusters near the Ge crystal than near Si crystal surfaces. Accordingly, we conclude that the presence of structured, free-water clusters is essential for water-based lubrication. The prevalence of structured water clusters can be regulated by adjusting the ratio between surface electron-donating and electron-accepting groups and between -O and =O functionalities.

  15. Surface water quality-assurance plan, U.S. Geological Survey, Kentucky Water Science Center, water year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    This Surface Water Quality-Assurance Plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Kentucky Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of surface-water data.

  16. Metolachlor and atrazine fate in surface water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, P.J.; Anderson, T.A.; Coats, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    The detection of pesticides in surface water and ground water provokes concern involving human health risks associated with pesticide exposure. Monitoring studies of surface waters have detected concentrations of herbicides that exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed maximum contamination level (MCL) for drinking water. Conventional water treatment processes do not remove many herbicides. Tap water drawn from surface-water sources has been reported to contain levels of herbicides above the regulatory limits. There is current interest in the use of artificial wetlands and macrophyte-cultured ponds in waste-water-treatment systems. Aquatic plant-based water treatment systems improve waste water effluent by solid filtration and nutrient assimilation. Various aquatic plants have been shown to accumulate metals, absorb inorganic ions, and accelerate the biodegradation of complex organics. Our research evaluates the fate of metolachlor and atrazine in surface water, surface water/sediment, and surface water/aquatic plant incubation systems to study the influence of sediment and aquatic plants in the removal and biotransformation of herbicides from contaminated waters. Aquatic macrophyte systems may prove to be useful in the remediation of herbicide contaminated surface waters in water treatment facilities or in the reduction of herbicide concentrations from tile drain effluents prior to entering watersheds.

  17. Novel shell device for gas exchange in an operculate land snail.

    PubMed

    Páll-Gergely, Barna; Naggs, Fred; Asami, Takahiro

    2016-07-01

    The operculum of terrestrial snails tightly seals the shell aperture providing protection from predators and body-water loss. To allow respiration with a closed operculum, operculate land snails repeatedly evolved shell devices such as tubes or channels that open to the air. In all Asian members of the Alycaeidae, an externally closed tube lies along the suture behind the aperture that possesses a small internal opening into the last whorl at the tube's anterior end. However, this structure presents a paradox: how is gas exchanged through an externally closed tube? Here we show that many microtunnels open into the tube and run beneath radial ribs along the growth line of the last whorl in Alycaeus conformis These tunnels open to the outside of the shell surface near the umbilicus. Examination under high magnification revealed that the outermost shell layer forms these tunnels only in the whorl range beneath the sutural tube. Each tunnel (ca 16 µm diameter) is far narrower than any known metazoan parasite. These findings support our hypothesis that the externally closed sutural tube functions with microtunnels as a specialized apparatus for predator-free gas exchange with minimal water loss when the operculum seals the aperture.

  18. Surface-water availability, Tuscaloosa County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, Alfred L.; Davis, Marvin E.

    1975-01-01

    The average annual runoff, about 1,270 mgd (million gallons per day), originating in Tuscaloosa County is equivalent to 20 inches or 0.95 mgd per square mile. The Black Warrior and Sipsey Rivers, the largest streams in the county, have average flows of 5,230 mgd and 580 mgd, respectively, where they leave the county, and median annual 7-day low flows in excess of 150 mgd and 35 mgd, respectively. North River, Big Sandy Creek, and Hurricane Creek have average flows in excess of 100 mgd and median annual 7-day low flows in excess of 2 mgd. Surface water generally contains less than 100 mg/l (milligrams per liter) dissolved solids, less than 10 mg/l chloride, and is soft to moderately hard. Streams having the higher hardness and the higher dissolved-solids content are in eastern Tuscaloosa County.

  19. Arsenic speciation in freshwater snails and its life cycle variation.

    PubMed

    Lai, Vivian W-M; Kanaki, Katerina; Pergantis, Spiros A; Cullen, William R; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2012-03-01

    Terrestrial snails are consumed by humans occasionally and they are an important food source for many creatures including fish and birds. Little is known about arsenic speciation in these gastropods, let alone life cycle variations. Here we report on the arsenic speciation in freshwater snails from Pender Island and Vancouver Island, B.C., Canada, which was determined on methanol/water extracts (43-59% extraction efficiency) by using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The tetramethylarsonium ion, oxo-arsenosugars and thio-arsenosugars are the main arsenic species encountered. Arsenobetaine, which is commonly found in the marine environment, is minor. Live bearing snails Viviparidae sp. from Pender Island were maintained in aquaria and the arsenic speciation in the unborn, newly born, and adult animals was monitored. Oxo-arsenosugars predominate in the adults, whereas thio-arsenosugars seem to predominate in juveniles, suggesting that these arsenicals are snail metabolites.

  20. Effects of exposure of aquatic snails to sublethal concentrations of waste drilling fluid.

    PubMed

    Ekundayo, J A; Benka-Coker, M O

    1994-05-01

    Static bioassays were carried out using two aquatic snails (Pilia sp. and Lanistes sp.) as test organisms in soft natural dilution water, with waste drilling fluid as the test material, at 28±2°C. Comparison of results for the control and different concentrations of the waste drilling fluid were made by means of the F-statistic method. The waste drilling fluid was practically non-toxic to the two aquatic snails.

  1. Grooved organogel surfaces towards anisotropic sliding of water droplets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengchao; Liu, Hongliang; Meng, Jingxin; Yang, Gao; Liu, Xueli; Wang, Shutao; Jiang, Lei

    2014-05-21

    Periodic micro-grooved organogel surfaces can easily realize the anisotropic sliding of water droplets attributing to the formed slippery water/oil/solid interface. Different from the existing anisotropic surfaces, this novel surface provides a versatile candidate for the anisotropic sliding of water droplets and might present a promising way for the easy manipulation of liquid droplets for water collection, liquid-directional transportation, and microfluidics.

  2. Failure of transmission of low-pathogenic avian influenza virus between Mallards and freshwater snails: an experimental evaluation.

    PubMed

    Oesterle, Paul T; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Orahood, Darcy; Mooers, Nicole; Sullivan, Heather; Franklin, Alan B; Root, J Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    In aquatic bird populations, the ability of avian influenza (AI) viruses to remain infectious in water for extended periods provides a mechanism that allows viral transmission to occur long after shedding birds have left the area. However, this also exposes other aquatic organisms, including freshwater invertebrates, to AI viruses. Previous researchers found that AI viral RNA can be sequestered in snail tissues. Using an experimental approach, we determined whether freshwater snails (Physa acuta and Physa gyrina) can infect waterfowl with AI viruses by serving as a means of transmission between infected and naïve waterfowl via ingestion. In our first experiment, we exposed 20 Physa spp. snails to an AI virus (H3N8) and inoculated embryonated specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicken eggs with the homogenized snail tissues. Sequestered AI viruses remain infectious in snail tissues; 10% of the exposed snail tissues infected SPF eggs. In a second experiment, we exposed snails to water contaminated with feces of AI virus-inoculated Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to evaluate whether ingestion of exposed freshwater snails was an alternate route of AI virus transmission to waterfowl. None of the immunologically naïve Mallards developed an infection, indicating that transmission via ingestion likely did not occur. Our results suggest that this particular trophic interaction may not play an important role in the transmission of AI viruses in aquatic habitats.

  3. Photochemical Transformation Processes in Sunlit Surface Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vione, D.

    2012-12-01

    Photochemical reactions are major processes in the transformation of hardly biodegradable xenobiotics in surface waters. They are usually classified into direct photolysis and indirect or sensitised degradation. Direct photolysis requires xenobiotic compounds to absorb sunlight, and to get transformed as a consequence. Sensitised transformation involves reaction with transient species (e.g. °OH, CO3-°, 1O2 and triplet states of chromophoric dissolved organic matter, 3CDOM*), photogenerated by so-called photosensitisers (nitrate, nitrite and CDOM). CDOM is a major photosensitiser: is it on average the main source of °OH (and of CO3-° as a consequence, which is mainly produced upon oxidation by °OH of carbonate and bicarbonate) and the only important source of 1O2 and 3CDOM* [1, 2]. CDOM origin plays a key role in sensitised processes: allochthonous CDOM derived from soil runoff and rich in fulvic and humic substances is usually more photoactive than autochthonous CDOM (produced by in-water biological processes and mainly consisting of protein-like material) or of CDOM derived from atmospheric deposition. An interesting gradual evolution of CDOM origin and photochemistry can be found in mountain lakes across the treeline, which afford a gradual transition of allochthonous- autochtonous - atmopheric CDOM when passing from trees to alpine meadows to exposed rocks [3]. Another important issue is the sites of reactive species photoproduction in CDOM. While there is evidence that smaller molecular weight fractions are more photoactive, some studies have reported considerable 1O2 reactivity in CDOM hydrophobic sites and inside particles [4]. We have recently addressed the problem and found that dissolved species in standard humic acids (hydrodynamic diameter < 0.1 μm) account for the vast majority of 1O2 and triplet states photoproduction. In hydrophobic sites of particles, the formation rate of 1O2 is considerably lower than in the solution bulk [5], but the absence

  4. Influence of blooms of phytoplankton on concentrations of hydrophobic organic chemicals in sediments and snails in a hyper-eutrophic, freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Yu, Nanyang; Jiang, Xia; Han, Zhihua; Wang, Shuhang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wei, Si; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hongxia

    2017-01-31

    Blooms of phytoplankton, which are common in freshwater ecosystems, might not only affect quality of water but also influence biogeochemical processing of pollutants. Based on three years of field observations in sediments of Tai Lake, China, concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in areas where blooms occurred were 2.4 and 3.4 times greater than concentrations in areas without blooms. Concentrations of octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in areas where blooms did not occur were 3.8, 4.4 and 2.6 times greater than concentrations in areas where blooms did occur. To explain the differences, simultaneous, seasonally determinations of the water-sediment-phytoplankton-snails disequilibria were determined empirically. Greater sinking and lesser diffusion were shown to be probable drivers of the burial of δ-HCH, 4-ring and 5-ring PAHs in surface sediments of areas in which blooms occurred, being as much as 0.58, 38 and 45 g month(-1). Large biodegradation and low burial was shown to be the probable reason of the inverse proportion of NP, OP and BPA in both water and sediment to biomass which might be due to the enhanced metabolic capacity of bacterial community associated with algae blooms. These phenomena further influence the persistent hydrophobic organic chemicals in the snail species (Bellamya quadrata) being greater in winter but lesser in summer, which is probably due to the positive relationship with the concentrations in sediment when snails were dormant and with the concentrations in water after dormancy. Thus, in Tai Lake, the fate and distribution of persistent and biodegradable contaminants in sediments and snails is influenced by blooms of phytoplankton, which should be included in models of environmental fates of contaminants.

  5. Structure and reactivity of water at biomaterial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Vogler, E A

    1998-02-01

    Molecular self association in liquids is a physical process that can dominate cohesion (interfacial tension) and miscibility. In water, self association is a powerful organizational force leading to a three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded network (water structure). Localized perturbations in the chemical potential of water as by, for example, contact with a solid surface, induces compensating changes in water structure that can be sensed tens of nanometers from the point of origin using the surface force apparatus (SFA) and ancillary techniques. These instruments reveal attractive or repulsive forces between opposing surfaces immersed in water, over and above that anticipated by continuum theory (DLVO), that are attributed to a variable density (partial molar volume) of a more-or-less ordered water structure, depending on the water wettability (surface energy) of the water-contacting surfaces. Water structure at surfaces is thus found to be a manifestation of hydrophobicity and, while mechanistic/theoretical interpretation of experimental results remain the subject of some debate in the literature, convergence of experimental observations permit, for the first time, quantitative definition of the relative terms 'hydrophobic' and 'hydrophilic'. In particular, long-range attractive forces are detected only between surfaces exhibiting a water contact angle theta > 65 degrees (herein defined as hydrophobic surfaces with pure water adhesion tension tau O = gamma O cos theta < 30 dyn/cm where gamma O is water interfacial tension = 72.8 dyn/cm). Repulsive forces are detected between surfaces exhibiting theta < 65 degrees (hydrophilic surfaces, tau O > 30 dyn/cm). These findings suggest at least two distinct kinds of water structure and reactivity: a relatively less-dense water region against hydrophobic surfaces with an open hydrogen-bonded network and a relatively more-dense water region against hydrophilic surfaces with a collapsed hydrogen-bonded network. Importantly

  6. Floating Vegetated Mats For Improving Surface Water Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of surface and ground waters is an environmental concern. Pollution from both point and nonpoint sources can render water unsuitable for use. Surface waters of concern include streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, canals, and wastewater lagoons. Lagooned wastewater from confined animal feedi...

  7. 40 CFR 258.27 - Surface water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.27 Surface water requirements. MSWLF..., that violates any requirement of an area-wide or State-wide water quality management plan that has been... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface water requirements....

  8. 40 CFR 258.27 - Surface water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Surface water requirements. 258.27... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.27 Surface water requirements. MSWLF... wetlands, that violates any requirements of the Clean Water Act, including, but not limited to,...

  9. 40 CFR 258.27 - Surface water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface water requirements. 258.27... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.27 Surface water requirements. MSWLF... wetlands, that violates any requirements of the Clean Water Act, including, but not limited to,...

  10. 40 CFR 258.27 - Surface water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface water requirements. 258.27... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.27 Surface water requirements. MSWLF... wetlands, that violates any requirements of the Clean Water Act, including, but not limited to,...

  11. 40 CFR 258.27 - Surface water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface water requirements. 258.27... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.27 Surface water requirements. MSWLF... wetlands, that violates any requirements of the Clean Water Act, including, but not limited to,...

  12. Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Haraguchi, Misako; Indo, Hiroko P.; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Iwashita, Yoichiro; Fukushige, Tomoko; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Kanekura, Takuro; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ► MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ► TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of

  13. Celss nutrition system utilizing snails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midorikawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Ohira, A.; Nitta, K.

    At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants—rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry—were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m 3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B 2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the abovementioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.

  14. CELSS nutrition system utilizing snails.

    PubMed

    Midorikawa, Y; Fujii, T; Ohira, A; Nitta, K

    1993-08-01

    At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants--rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry--were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the above mentioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.

  15. Fungal farming in a snail

    PubMed Central

    Silliman, Brian R.; Newell, Steven Y.

    2003-01-01

    Mutualisms between fungi and fungus-growing animals are model systems for studying coevolution and complex interactions between species. Fungal growing behavior has enabled cultivating animals to rise to major ecological importance, but evolution of farming symbioses is thought to be restricted to three terrestrial insect lineages. Surveys along 2,000 km of North America's Atlantic coast documented that the marine snail Littoraria irrorata grazes fungus-infected wounds on live marsh grass throughout its range. Field experiments demonstrate a facultative, farming mutualism between Littoraria and intertidal fungi. Snails graze live grass primarily not to feed but to prepare substrate for fungal growth and consume invasive fungi. Fungal removal experiments show that snails and fungi act synergistically to suppress marsh grass production. These results provide a case of fungus farming in the marine environment and outside the class Insecta and reveal a previously undemonstrated ecological mechanism (i.e., facilitation of fungal invasion) by which grazers can exert top-down control of marine plant production. PMID:14657360

  16. Snails, stable iostopes, and southwestern desert paleoclimates

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, S.E.; Whelan, J.F.; Forester, R.M.; Burdett, J.

    1995-09-01

    Modern and fossil molluscs (snails) occur in many localities in and semi-arid regions throughout the desert southwest. Live terrestrial snails are found under rocks and in forest litter and aquatic taxa inhabit springs, seeps, and/or wetlands. Molluscs uptake local water during their growing season (spring and summer) and incorporate its delta 180 signature into their shells. Preliminary 180 analysis of modem shells from the southern Great Basin indicates that the shells probably reflect meteoric water 180 values during the growing season. This provides a way to estimate the delta 180 value of precipitation and, thereby, the source of the moisture-bearing air masses. Significant 180 variability in shells analyzed include geographic location, elevation, taxonomy, and habitat (terrestrial, spring, or wetland). We found a rough inverse correlation with elevation in modem shells from the Spring Range in southern Nevada. The delta 180 values of modem and fossil shells are also very different; modem values in this location are much higher than those from nearby late Pleistocene-age molluscs suggesting that the Pleistocene summers were variously colder and wetter than today or less evaporative (more humid). Assuming shell material directly reflects the 180 of the growing-season environment, comparison of modem and fossil shell delta 180 values can potentially identify changes in air-mass moisture sources and can help to define seasonal precipitation change through time. Comprehension and quantification of community and isotopic variability in modem gastropods is required to create probabilistic valid transfer functions with fossil materials. Valid inferences about past environmental conditions can then be established with known confidence limits.

  17. Integrating nonindigenous aquatic plant control with protection of snail kite nests in Florida.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, J A; Smith, H T; Thayer, D D

    2001-07-01

    The endangered snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) feeds primarily on the freshwater apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) in Florida. The nonindigenous, floating water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) impede kites from finding snails. Effective control of these aquatic plants in the littoral zone of central and south Florida lakes benefits kites by maintaining open foraging habitat. However, incidental herbicide spraying of nesting substrates result in nest collapse when kites breed in nonwoody, emergent plants [cattail (Typha spp.) and giant bulrush (Scirpus validus)] in the outer littoral zone during lower lake levels. Many endangered species recovery plans and their implementation have experienced problems due to inaction and/or noncooperation by various governmental agencies and their personnel. Herein, we describe the development and implementation of a buffer zone strategy to prevent secondary impacts from an aquatic plant control program to snail kites nesting on lakes in central and south Florida. A strategy was jointly developed by personnel of five state and federal agencies to control herbicide application near kite nesting areas during the normal breeding season. Although requiring various modifications during its implementation, this cooperative effort successfully integrated aquatic plant control objectives with snail kite conservation on Lake Okeechobee during 1988. The program was expanded the following year to lakes Kissimmee and Tohopekaliga. Since the implementation of the snail kite impact preclusion program, no nest loss was attributed to incidental herbicide applications on lakes Okeechobee, Kissimmee, and Tohopekaliga.

  18. Impact of invasive apple snails on the functioning and services of natural and managed wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, Finbarr G.; Stuart, Alexander M.; Kudavidanage, Enoka P.

    2014-01-01

    At least 14 species of apple snail (Ampullariidae) have been released to water bodies outside their native ranges; however, less than half of these species have become widespread or caused appreciable impacts. We review evidence for the impact of apple snails on natural and managed wetlands focusing on those studies that have elucidated impact mechanisms. Significant changes in wetland ecosystems have been noted in regions where the snails are established: Two species in particular (Pomacea canaliculata and Pomacea maculata) have become major pests of aquatic crops, including rice, and caused enormous increases in molluscicide use. Invasive apple snails have also altered macrophyte community structure in natural and managed wetlands through selective herbivory and certain apple snail species can potentially shift the balance of freshwater ecosystems from clear water (macrophyte dominated) to turbid (plankton dominated) states by depleting densities of native aquatic plants. Furthermore, the introductions of some apple snail species have altered benthic community structure either directly, through predation, or indirectly, through exploitation competition or as a result of management actions. To date much of the evidence for these impacts has been based on correlations, with few manipulative field or mesocosm experiments. Greater attention to impact monitoring is required, and, for Asia in particular, a landscape approach to impact management that includes both natural and managed-rice wetlands is recommended.

  19. Physicochemical properties of concentrated Martian surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosca, Nicholas J.; McLennan, Scott M.; Lamb, Michael P.; Grotzinger, John P.

    2011-05-01

    Understanding the processes controlling chemical sedimentation is an important step in deciphering paleoclimatic conditions from the rock records preserved on both Earth and Mars. Clear evidence for subaqueous sedimentation at Meridiani Planum, widespread saline mineral deposits in the Valles Marineris region, and the possible role of saline waters in forming recent geomorphologic features all underscore the need to understand the physical properties of highly concentrated solutions on Mars in addition to, and as a function of, their distinct chemistry. Using thermodynamic models predicting saline mineral solubility, we generate likely brine compositions ranging from bicarbonate-dominated to sulfate-dominated and predict their saline mineralogy. For each brine composition, we then estimate a number of thermal, transport, and colligative properties using established models that have been developed for highly concentrated multicomponent electrolyte solutions. The available experimental data and theoretical models that allow estimation of these physicochemical properties encompass, for the most part, much of the anticipated variation in chemistry for likely Martian brines. These estimates allow significant progress in building a detailed analysis of physical sedimentation at the ancient Martian surface and allow more accurate predictions of thermal behavior and the diffusive transport of matter through chemically distinct solutions under comparatively nonstandard conditions.

  20. Water Resources Data: New Jersey, Water Year 1998, Volume 1, Surface-Water Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, T.J.; Centinaro, G.L.; Dudek, J.F.; Corcino, V.; Stekroadt, G.C.; McTigure, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    This volume of the annual hydrologic data report of New Jersey is one of a series of annual reports that document hydrologic data gathered from the U.S. Geological Survey's surface- and ground-water data-collection networks in each State, Puerto Rico, and the Trust Territories. These records of streamflow, ground-water levels, and water quality provide the hydrologic information needed by state, local and federal agencies, and the private sector for developing and managing our Nation's land and water resources.

  1. Survival and growth of freshwater pulmonate and nonpulmonate snails in 28-day exposures to copper, ammonia, and pentachlorophenol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    We performed toxicity tests with two species of pulmonate snails (Lymnaea stagnalis and Physa gyrina) and four taxa of nonpulmonate snails in the family Hydrobiidae (Pyrgulopsis robusta,Taylorconcha serpenticola, Fluminicola sp., and Fontigens aldrichi). Snails were maintained in static-renewal or recirculating culture systems with adults removed periodically to isolate cohorts of offspring for toxicity testing. This method successfully produced offspring for both species of pulmonate snails and for two hydrobiid species, P. robusta and Fluminicola sp. Toxicity tests were performed for 28 days with copper, ammonia, and pentachlorophenol in hard reconstituted water with endpoints of survival and growth. Tests were started with 1-week-old L. stagnalis, 2-week-old P. gyrina, 5- to 13-week-old P. robusta and Fluminicola sp., and older juveniles and adults of several hydrobiid species. For all three chemicals, chronic toxicity values for pulmonate snails were consistently greater than those for hydrobiid snails, and hydrobiids were among the most sensitive taxa in species sensitivity distributions for all three chemicals. These results suggest that the toxicant sensitivity of nonpulmonate snails in the family Hydrobiidae would not be adequately represented by results of toxicity testing with pulmonate snails.

  2. Survival and Growth of Freshwater Pulmonate and Nonpulmonate Snails in 28-Day Exposures to Copper, Ammonia, and Pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Besser, John M; Dorman, Rebecca A; Hardesty, Douglas L; Ingersoll, Christopher G

    2016-02-01

    We performed toxicity tests with two species of pulmonate snails (Lymnaea stagnalis and Physa gyrina) and four taxa of nonpulmonate snails in the family Hydrobiidae (Pyrgulopsis robusta, Taylorconcha serpenticola, Fluminicola sp., and Fontigens aldrichi). Snails were maintained in static-renewal or recirculating culture systems with adults removed periodically to isolate cohorts of offspring for toxicity testing. This method successfully produced offspring for both species of pulmonate snails and for two hydrobiid species, P. robusta and Fluminicola sp. Toxicity tests were performed for 28 days with copper, ammonia, and pentachlorophenol in hard reconstituted water with endpoints of survival and growth. Tests were started with 1-week-old L. stagnalis, 2-week-old P. gyrina, 5- to 13-week-old P. robusta and Fluminicola sp., and older juveniles and adults of several hydrobiid species. For all three chemicals, chronic toxicity values for pulmonate snails were consistently greater than those for hydrobiid snails, and hydrobiids were among the most sensitive taxa in species sensitivity distributions for all three chemicals. These results suggest that the toxicant sensitivity of nonpulmonate snails in the family Hydrobiidae would not be adequately represented by results of toxicity testing with pulmonate snails.

  3. Section 11: Surface Water Pathway - Likelihood of Release

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Surface water releases can include the threat to targets from overland flow of hazardous substances and from flooding or the threat from the release of hazardous substances to ground water and the subsequent discharge of contaminated ground w

  4. The glass-liquid transition of water on hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Souda, Ryutaro

    2008-09-28

    Interactions of thin water films with surfaces of graphite and vitrified room-temperature ionic liquid [1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF(6)])] were investigated using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry as a function of temperature and annealing time to elucidate the glass-liquid transition of water at the molecular level. Surface diffusion of water occurs at temperatures higher than 120 K, thereby forming three-dimensional clusters (a two-dimensional layer) on the [bmim][PF(6)] (graphite) surface. The hydrophobic effect of the surface decreases with increasing coverage of water; the bulklike properties evolve up to 40 ML, as evidenced by the occurrence of film dewetting at around the conventional glass transition temperature (140 K). Results also showed that aging is necessary for the water monolayer (a 40 ML water film) to dewet the graphite ([bmim][PF(6)]) surface. The occurrence of aging is explainable by the successive evolution of two distinct liquids during the glass-liquid transition: low density liquid is followed by supercooled liquid water. The water monolayer on graphite is characterized by the preferred orientation of unpaired OH groups toward the surface; this structure is arrested during the aging time despite the occurrence of surface diffusion. However, the water monolayer formed on the [bmim][PF(6)] surface agglomerates immediately after the commencement of surface diffusion. The structure of low density liquid tends to be arrested by the attractive interaction with the neighbors.

  5. Relaxational dynamics of water molecules at protein surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellerue, S.; Bellissent-Funel, M.-C.

    2000-08-01

    Relaxational dynamics of water molecules at the surface of a C-phycocyanin protein is studied by high resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The neutron quasi-elastic spectra are well described by the α-relaxation process of mode coupling theory of supercooled liquids. The relaxation times of interfacial water exhibit a power law dependence on the wave vector Q. The average diffusion coefficient is 10 times lower than that of bulk water. This confirms that there is a retardation of water molecules at the protein surface which is in good agreement with the results of water at the surface of hydrophilic model systems.

  6. Structure of water adsorbed on a mica surface

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung-Ho; Sposito, Garrison

    2002-01-29

    Monte Carlo simulations of hydration water on the mica (001) surface under ambient conditions revealed water molecules bound closely to the ditrigonal cavities in the surface, with a lateral distribution of approximately one per cavity, and water molecules interposed between K{sup +} counter ions in a layer situated about 2.5 {angstrom} from a surface O along a direction normal to the (001) plane. The calculated water O density profile was in quantitative agreement with recent X-ray reflectivity measurements indicating strong lateral ordering of the hydration water but liquid-like disorder otherwise.

  7. Spreading of Cholera through Surface Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertuzzo, E.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2009-12-01

    Cholera epidemics are still a major public health concern to date in many areas of the world. In order to understand and forecast cholera outbreaks, one of the most important factors is the role played by the environmental matrix in which the disease spreads. We study how river networks, acting as environmental corridors for pathogens, affect the spreading of cholera epidemics. The environmental matrix in which the disease spreads is constituted by different human communities and their hydrologic interconnections. Each community is characterized by its spatial position, population size, water resources availability and hygiene conditions. By implementing a spatially explicit cholera model we seek the effects on epidemic dynamics of: i) the topology and metrics of the pathogens pathways that connect different communities; ii) the spatial distribution of the population size; and iii) the spatial distributions and quality of surface water resources and public health conditions, and how they vary with population size. The model has been applied to study the space-time evolution of a well documented cholera epidemic occurred in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The epidemic lasted for two years and involved about 140,000 confirmed cholera cases. The model does well in reproducing the distribution of the cholera cases during the two outbreaks as well as their spatial spreading. We further extend the model by deriving the speed of propagation of traveling fronts in the case of uniformly distributed systems for different topologies: one and two dimensional lattices and river networks. The derivation of the spreading celerity proves instrumental in establishing the overall conditions for the relevance of spatially explicit models. The conditions are sought by comparison between spreading and disease timescales. Consider a cholera epidemic that starts from a point and spreads throughout a finite size system, it is possible to identify two different timescales: i

  8. Surface Tension: The Ways of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donalson-Sams, Marilyn

    1988-01-01

    Describes activities which help students understand several basic scientific concepts regarding water. Outlines objectives, materials needed, procedures, and questions to ask about student observations. Investigations include working with the self-sealing property of water, talcum powder, paper clips, and making water wetter. (RT)

  9. Water ordering and surface relaxations at the hematite (110) water interface

    SciTech Connect

    Catalano, Jeffrey G.; Fenter, Paul; Park, Changyong

    2009-02-07

    Structural characterization of iron oxide-water interfaces provides insight into the mechanisms through which these minerals control contaminant fate and element cycling in soil, sedimentary, and groundwater systems. Ordering of interfacial water and structural relaxations at the hematite (1 1 0) surface have been investigated in situ using high-resolution specular X-ray reflectivity. These measurements demonstrate that relaxations are constrained to primarily the top ~5 Å of the surface. Near-surface iron atoms do not relax substantially, although the uppermost layer displays an increased distribution width, while the undercoordinated oxygens on the surface uniformly relaxed outward. Two sites of adsorbed water and additional layering of water farther from the surface were observed. Water fully covers the (1 1 0) surface and appears to form a continuous network extending into bulk solution, with positional order decreasing to that of a disordered bulk fluid within 1 nm. The arrangement of water is similar to that on the hematite (0 1 2) surface, which has a similar surface topography, although these surfaces display different vibrational amplitudes or positional disorder of adsorbed water molecules and average spacings of near-surface layered water. Comparison between these surfaces suggests that interfacial water ordering on hematite is controlled primarily by surface structure and steric constraints and that highly ordered water is likely common to most hematite-water interfaces.

  10. Activities affecting surface water resources: A general overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    In November 1987, P.E.I. signed a federal/provincial work-sharing arrangement on water resource management focusing on groundwater pollution, surface water degradation and estuarine eutrophication. The surface water program was designed to identify current surface water uses and users within 12 major watersheds across the Island containing 26 individual rivers, as well as problems arising due to practices that degrade the quality of surface water and restricts its value to other user groups. This report presents a general overview of the program, covering the general characteristics of the Island; operations in agriculture, fish and wildlife, forestry, recreation, fisheries, and industry; alterations of natural features of waterways; wetlands; additional watershed activities such as hydrometric stations and subdivision development; and activities affecting surface water resources such as sedimentation sources, pollution point sources and instream obstructions.

  11. An ontology design pattern for surface water features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinha, Gaurav; Mark, David; Kolas, Dave; Varanka, Dalia; Romero, Boleslo E.; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Usery, E. Lynn; Liebermann, Joshua; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities exist due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology for other more context-dependent ontologies. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex or specialized surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this ontology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is implemented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided in this paper. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. Also provided is a discussion of why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, especially the previously developed Surface Network pattern. Finally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through an annotated geospatial dataset and sample queries using the classes of the Surface Water pattern.

  12. Release of Lungworm Larvae from Snails in the Environment: Potential for Alternative Transmission Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Giannelli, Alessio; Colella, Vito; Abramo, Francesca; do Nascimento Ramos, Rafael Antonio; Falsone, Luigi; Brianti, Emanuele; Varcasia, Antonio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Knaus, Martin; Fox, Mark T.; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastropod-borne parasites may cause debilitating clinical conditions in animals and humans following the consumption of infected intermediate or paratenic hosts. However, the ingestion of fresh vegetables contaminated by snail mucus and/or water has also been proposed as a source of the infection for some zoonotic metastrongyloids (e.g., Angiostrongylus cantonensis). In the meantime, the feline lungworms Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior are increasingly spreading among cat populations, along with their gastropod intermediate hosts. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of alternative transmission pathways for A. abstrusus and T. brevior L3 via the mucus of infected Helix aspersa snails and the water where gastropods died. In addition, the histological examination of snail specimens provided information on the larval localization and inflammatory reactions in the intermediate host. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-four specimens of H. aspersa received ~500 L1 of A. abstrusus and T. brevior, and were assigned to six study groups. Snails were subjected to different mechanical and chemical stimuli throughout 20 days in order to elicit the production of mucus. At the end of the study, gastropods were submerged in tap water and the sediment was observed for lungworm larvae for three consecutive days. Finally, snails were artificially digested and recovered larvae were counted and morphologically and molecularly identified. The anatomical localization of A. abstrusus and T. brevior larvae within snail tissues was investigated by histology. L3 were detected in the snail mucus (i.e., 37 A. abstrusus and 19 T. brevior) and in the sediment of submerged specimens (172 A. abstrusus and 39 T. brevior). Following the artificial digestion of H. aspersa snails, a mean number of 127.8 A. abstrusus and 60.3 T. brevior larvae were recovered. The number of snail sections positive for A. abstrusus was higher than those for T. brevior

  13. Adsorption mechanism of water molecule on goethite (010) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Fangyuan; Zhou, Long; Xia, Shuwei; Yu, Liangmin

    2016-12-01

    Goethite widely exists among ocean sediments; it plays an important role in fixing heavy metals and adsorbing organic contaminants. So the understanding of the adsorbing process of water molecule on its surface will be very helpful to further reveal such environmental friendly processes. The configuration, electronic properties and interaction energy of water molecules adsorbed on pnma goethite (010) surface were investigated in detail by using density functional theory on 6-31G (d,p) basis set and projector- augment wave (PAW) method. The mechanism of the interaction between goethite surface and H2O was proposed. Despite the differences in total energy, there are four possible types of water molecule adsorption configurations on goethite (010) surface (Aa, Ab, Ba, Bb), forming coordination bond with surface Fe atom. Results of theoretical modeling indicate that the dissociation process of adsorbed water is an endothermic reaction with high activation energy. The dissociation of adsorbed water molecule is a proton transportation process between water's O atoms and surface. PDOS results indicate that the bonding between H2O and (010) surface is due to the overlapping of water's 2p orbitals and Fe's 3d orbitals. These results clarify the mechanism on how adsorbed water is dissociated on the surface of goethite and potentially provide useful information of the surface chemistry of goethite.

  14. Inquiry, Land Snails, and Environmental Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Krantz, Patrick D.

    2005-01-01

    Land snails are common invertebrates that fascinate children. Unfortunately, they are seldom used for activities in the science classroom. Snails are inexpensive, take up little space in the classroom, and require only low maintenance, and their learning dividends can be enormous. For example, students can use them in inquiry-based activities that…

  15. Deterministic assembly of land snail communities according to species size and diet.

    PubMed

    Schamp, Brandon; Horsák, Michal; Hájek, Michal

    2010-07-01

    1. We investigated whether coexisting snail species in 145 treeless fen communities in the Western Carpathian Mountains differed more in size and diet than would be expected by chance, as predicted for traits commonly associated with competition and differential resource acquisition under limiting similarity theory. 2. Contrary to expectations, coexisting snail species were no more different in body size than expected by chance under a null model. However, variation in body size played a significant role in structuring snail communities: coexisting snail species were significantly more similar with respect to body size. 3. We developed two new test statistics to expand our investigation of limiting similarity to include diet, a nominal trait. We tested whether communities of snails were characterized by a greater richness of diet, and whether different diets were represented more or less evenly within communities. Communities of snails were significantly less evenly distributed than expected by chance, with detritivores being over-represented relative to predatory strategies. 4. We also examined the effect of water pH and conductivity, herbaceous cover, and bryophyte and vascular plant richness, on these trends by examining how the effect size of our tests varied across these gradients. Convergence in species size increased with increasing habitat pH. Specifically, smaller snail species were over-represented in fen communities in general, and this effect was accentuated in increasingly calcareous fens. 5. Theory predicts that traits related strongly to environmental conditions are more likely to be convergent. Our findings support this suggestion, as small snail species have an advantage in tolerating freezing conditions over winter when refuges are limited. 6. These results add to the growing body of literature demonstrating that variation in body size and diet play a strong role in structuring communities, although frequently in ways not predicted by limiting

  16. Shading decreases the abundance of the herbivorous California horn snail, Cerithidea californica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorda, Julio; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the intertidal zone in estuaries of California, USA and Baja California, Mexico is covered with vascular vegetation. Shading by these vascular plants influences abiotic and biotic processes that shape benthic community assemblages. We present data on the effects of shading on the California horn snail, Cerithidea californica. This species is important because it is the most common benthic macrofaunal species in these systems and acts as an obligate intermediate host of several species of rematode parasites that infect several other species. Using observational and experimental studies, we found a negative effect of shade on the distribution and abundance of the California horn snail. We hypothesized that shading reduces the abundance of the epipelic diatoms that the snails feeds on, causing snails to leave haded areas. We observed a negative relationship between vascular plant cover, sub-canopy light levels, and snail density in Mugu Lagoon. Then we experimentally manipulated light regimes, by clipping vegetation and adding shade structures, and found higher snail densities at higher light levels. In Goleta Slough, we isolated the effect of shade from vegetation by documenting a negative relationship between the shade created by two bridges and diatom and snail densities. We also found that snails moved the greatest distances over shaded channel banks compared to unshaded channel banks. Further, we documented the effect of water depth and channel bank orientation on shading in this system. An additional effect of shading is the reduction of temperature, providing an alternative explanation for some of our results. These results broaden our knowledge of how variation in the light environment influences the ecology of estuarine ecosystems.

  17. Molecular dynamics studies of interfacial water at the alumina surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Argyris, Dr. Dimitrios; Ho, Thomas; Cole, David

    2011-01-01

    Interfacial water properties at the alumina surface were investigated via all-atom equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations at ambient temperature. Al-terminated and OH-terminated alumina surfaces were considered to assess the structural and dynamic behavior of the first few hydration layers in contact with the substrates. Density profiles suggest water layering up to {approx}10 {angstrom} from the solid substrate. Planar density distribution data indicate that water molecules in the first interfacial layer are organized in well-defined patterns dictated by the atomic terminations of the alumina surface. Interfacial water exhibits preferential orientation and delayed dynamics compared to bulk water. Water exhibits bulk-like behavior at distances greater than {approx}10 {angstrom} from the substrate. The formation of an extended hydrogen bond network within the first few hydration layers illustrates the significance of water?water interactions on the structural properties at the interface.

  18. Toxicity of copper sulfate and rotenone to Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haak, Danielle M.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Kill, Robert A.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Allen, Craig R.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a freshwater snail native to Southeast Asia, Japan, and Russia and is currently classified as an invasive species in at least 27 states in the USA. The species tolerates a wide range of environmental conditions, making management of established populations difficult. We tested the efficacy of two traditional chemical treatments, rotenone and copper sulfate, on the elimination of adult Chinese mystery snails in laboratory experiments. All snails (N=50) survived 72-hour exposure to rotenone-treated lake water, and 96% (N=25) survived 72-hour exposure to pre-determined rotenone concentrations of 0.25, 2.5, and 25.0 mg/L. All snails (N=10) survived exposure to 1.25 mg/L copper sulfate solution, 90% (N=10) survived exposure to 2.50 mg/L copper sulfate solution, and 80% (N=5) survived exposure to 5.0 mg/L copper sulfate solution. Neither rotenone nor copper sulfate effectively killed adult Chinese mystery snails in laboratory experiments, most likely due to their relatively large size, thick shell, and operculum. Therefore, it appears that populations will be very difficult to control once established, and management should focus on preventing additional spread or introductions of this species.

  19. Effect of Metal Surface on Molecular Behavior of Supercooled Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okawa, Seiji; Saito, Akio; Hosoya, Kazuhiro

    Study on surface effect of heterogeneous nucleation was investigated using molecular dynamics method with NPT ensemble. Around 1000 water molecules were used and set in a periodic cell. Platinum was selected as material for top and bottom surfaces, since its lattice constant fits closely with ice Ih. Temperature and pressure were set at 250 K and 0. 1 MPa, respectively, for each calculation. Behavior of ice Ih on fcc(111) surface was examined. It was found that the structure of ice remained stable in a case of platinum surface and the structure was destroyed in a case of having a slightly different lattice constant. Behavior of water on Pt surface was also investigated by varying the shape of the surface. Three types of surface were selected, namely, a flat surface, a surface with one projection and a surface with three projections. It was found that, in a case of a flat plate, water next to Pt surface was strongly influenced by the surface and was prevented from forming ice structure. In a case of having one projection, there was a tendency to form an ice structure near the surface. In a case of having three projections, however, the tendency was weakened. Hence, it was concluded that heterogeneous nucleation of water is affected by a lattice constant of the substance as well as the shape of the surface.

  20. Investigation of surface water behavior during glaze ice accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Turnock, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    A series of experimental investigations that focused on isolating the primary factors that control the behavior of unfrozen surface water during glaze ice accretion were conducted. Detailed microvideo observations were made of glaze ice accretions on 2.54 cm diam cylinders in a closed-loop refrigerated wind tunnel. Distinct zones of surface water behavior were observed; a smooth wet zone in the stagnation region with a uniform water film, a rough zone where surface tension effects caused coalescence of surface water into stationary beads, and a zone where surface water ran back as rivulets. The location of the transition from the smooth to the rough zone was found to migrate towards the stagnation point with time. Comparative tests were conducted to study the effect of the substrate thermal and roughness properties on ice accretion. The importance of surface water behavior was evaluated by the addition of a surface tension reducing agent to the icing tunnel water supply, which significantly altered the accreted glaze ice shape. Measurements were made to determine the contact angle behavior of water droplets on ice. A simple multizone modification to current glaze ice accretion models was proposed to include the observed surface roughness behavior.

  1. Economic Impacts of Surface Mining on Household Drinking Water Supplies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides information on the economic and social impacts of contaminated surface and ground water supplies on residents and households near surface mining operations. The focus is on coal slurry contamination of water supplies in Mingo County, West Virginia, and descr...

  2. Models of Fate and Transport of Pollutants in Surface Waters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okome, Gloria Eloho

    2013-01-01

    There is the need to answer very crucial questions of "what happens to pollutants in surface waters?" This question must be answered to determine the factors controlling fate and transport of chemicals and their evolutionary state in surface waters. Monitoring and experimental methods are used in establishing the environmental states.…

  3. Biogeochemistry of DMS in Surface Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacey, J. W. H.

    1997-01-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is important in influencing the formation of aerosols in the troposphere over large areas of the world's oceans. Understanding the dynamics of aerosols is important to understanding the earth's radiation balance. In evaluating the factors controlling DMS in the troposphere it is vital to understand the dynamics of DMS in the surface ocean. The biogeochemical processes controlling DMS concentration in seawater are myriad; modeling and theoretical estimation are problematic. At the beginning of this project we believed that we were on the verge of simplifying the ship-track measurement of DMS, and we proposed to deploy such a system to develop a database relating high frequency DMS measurements to biological and physicochemical and optical properties of surface water that can be quantified by remote sensing techniques. We designed a system to measure DMS concomitantly with other basic chemical and biological data in a flow-through system. The project was collaborative between Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and Bermuda Biological Station for Research (BBSR). The project on which we are reporting was budgeted for only one year with a one year no-cost extension. At WHOI our effort was directed towards designing traps which would be used to concentrate DMS from seawater and allow storage for subsequent analysis. At that time, GC systems were too large for easy long-term deployment on a research vessel like R/V Weatherbird, so we focused on simplifying the shipboard sampling procedure. Initial studies of sample recovery with high levels of DMS suggested that Carboxen 1000, a relatively new carbon molecular sieve, could be used as a stable storage medium. The affinity of Carboxen for DMS is several orders of magnitude higher than gold wool (another adsorbent used for DMS collection) on a weight or volume basis. Furthermore, Carboxen's affinity for DMS is also far less susceptible to humidity than gold wool. Unfortunately, further

  4. Sea-ice and surface water circulation, Alaskan continental shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, F. F.; Sharma, G. D.; Burns, J. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Over 1500 water samples from surface and from standard hydrographic depths were collected during June and July 1973 from Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. The measurement of temperature, salinity, and productivity indicated that various distinct water masses cover the Bering Sea Shelf. The suspended load in surface waters will be correlated with the ERTS-1 imagery as it becomes available to delineate the surface water circulation. The movement of ice floes in the Bering Strait and Bering Sea indicated that movement of ice varies considerably and may depend on wind stress as well as ocean currents.

  5. Water resources data, New Jersey, water year 2005. Volume 1 - surface-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, B.T.; Hoppe, H.L.; Centinaro, G.L.; Dudek, J.F.; Painter, B.S.; Protz, A.R.; Reed, T.J.; Shvanda, J.C.; Watson, A.F.

    2006-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2005 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water-quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water-quality of ground water. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 103 gaging stations; tide summaries at 28 tidal gaging stations; stage and contents at 34 lakes and reservoirs; and diversions from 50 surface-water sources. Also included are stage and discharge for 116 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage-only at 33 tidal crest-stage gages, and discharge for 155 low-flow partial-record stations. Locations of these sites are shown in figures 8-11. Additional discharge measurements were made at 222 miscellaneous sites that are not part of the systematic data-collection program. Discontinued station tables for gaging stations, crest-stage gages, tidal crest-stage and tidal gaging stations show historical coverage. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Information System (NWIS) data collected by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Hydrologic conditions are also described for this water year, including stream-flow, precipitation, reservoir conditions, and air temperatures.

  6. Water resources data, New Jersey, water year 2004-volume 1. surface-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Centinaro, G.L.; White, B.T.; Hoppe, H.L.; Dudek, J.F.; Protz, A.R.; Reed, T.J.; Shvanda, J.C.; Watson, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water-quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water-quality of ground water. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 105 gaging stations; tide summaries at 27 tidal gaging stations; stage and contents at 39 lakes and reservoirs; and diversions from 51 surface-water sources. Also included are stage and discharge for 108 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage-only at 34 tidal crest-stage gages, and discharge for 124 low-flow partial-record stations. Locations of these sites are shown in figures 8-11. Additional discharge measurements were made at 131 miscellaneous sites that are not part of the systematic data-collection program. Discontinued station tables for gaging stations, crest-stage gages, tidal crest-stage and tidal gaging stations show historical coverage. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Information System (NWIS) data collected by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Hydrologic conditions are also described for this water year, including stream-flow, precipitation, reservoir conditions, and air temperatures.

  7. Water Interaction with Pristine and Nanopatterned Graphite Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakarov, Dinko

    2015-03-01

    We used number of surface sensitive techniques to study and compare the interaction of water with pristine surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and model nanostructured surfaces fabricated by hole-mask colloidal lithography and oxygen plasma etching. Surface morphology and concentration of defects play important role and determine the amount of water bound in two- and three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded networks and thus the structure of ice films. Similarly, the amount and concentration of intersheet openings control the rate of water intercalation into graphite structures. The new findings are of particular interest for development of graphene exfoliation methods and for better understanding of graphene functionalization.

  8. Herbicide Metabolites in Surface Water and Groundwater: Introduction and Overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Meyer, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    Several future research topics for herbicide metabolites in surface and ground water are outlined in this chapter. They are herbicide usage, chemical analysis of metabolites, and fate and transport of metabolites in surface and ground water. These three ideas follow the themes in this book, which are the summary of a symposium of the American Chemical Society on herbicide metabolites in surface and ground water. First, geographic information systems allow the spatial distribution of herbicide-use data to be combined with geochemical information on fate and transport of herbicides. Next these two types of information are useful in predicting the kinds of metabolites present and their probable distribution in surface and ground water. Finally, methods development efforts may be focused on these specific target analytes. This chapter discusses these three concepts and provides an introduction to this book on the analysis, chemistry, and fate and transport of herbicide metabolites in surface and ground water.

  9. Adsorption of n-alkane vapours at the water surface.

    PubMed

    Biscay, Frédéric; Ghoufi, Aziz; Malfreyt, Patrice

    2011-06-21

    Monte Carlo simulations are reported here to predict the surface tension of the liquid-vapour interface of water upon adsorption of alkane vapours (methane to hexane). A decrease of the surface tension has been established from n-pentane. A correlation has been evidenced between the decrease of the surface tension and the absence of specific arrangement at the water surface for n-pentane and n-hexane. The thermodynamic stability of the adsorption layer and the absence of film for longer alkanes have been checked through the calculation of a potential of mean force. This complements the work recently published [Ghoufi et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2010, 12, 5203] concerning the adsorption of methane at the water surface. The decrease of the surface tension has been interpreted in terms of the degree of hydrogen bonding of water molecules at the liquid-vapour interface upon adsorption.

  10. Field and laboratory evaluation of the influence of copper-diquat on apple snails in southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Imlay, M.J.; McMillan, W.E.; Martin, T.W.; Takekawa, J.; Johnson, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    The recent decline of apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) populations in canals surrounding Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge in southern Florida coincided with the use of copper-diquat for the control of the aquatic weed hydrilla (Hydrilla ver/icillara). Field and laboratory studies were designed to assess the effects of copper-diquat on apple snails, which are the primary food of the endangered snail kite Rostrhamus sociabilis (formerly known as the Everglade kite). Acute toxicities (96-h LC50 values) of Cutrine-Plus and Komeen (chelated formulations of copper) to immature apple snails were 22 and 241-?g/L, respectively. Diquat was toxic at a concentration of 1,800 I-?g/L and did not increase the toxicity of copper when the chemicals were used in combination. Evaluation of field samples indicated that copper concentrations were higher in detritus than in water. plants and mud, and that there was a gradient of copper concentration from the canal to the interior, the highest residues being in samples from the canal. Copper associated with detritus (up to 150 ?g/g) had no effect on growth or survival of apple snails in field cage and tank studies. Also, field applications of copper.diquat to hydrilla had no effect on survival of caged adult and immature snails. Copper from field applications was rapidly taken out of solution by plants and organic material in the water and subsequently incorporated into the bottom detritus. Although the effects of repeated applications of copper-diquat and high body burdens of copper (accumulated during exposure to herbicidal treatment) on survival and reproduction of apple snails are not known, the information available indicates that treatment of hydrilla with copper-diquat was probably not responsible for the decline in the apple snail population. Application at recommended rates should pose no threat to these snails in the organically rich waters of southern Florida.

  11. 40 CFR 257.3-3 - Surface water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Surface water. 257.3-3 Section 257.3-3... and Practices § 257.3-3 Surface water. (a) For purposes of section 4004(a) of the Act, a facility... Water Act, as amended. (b) For purposes of section 4004(a) of the Act, a facility shall not cause...

  12. 40 CFR 257.3-3 - Surface water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface water. 257.3-3 Section 257.3-3... and Practices § 257.3-3 Surface water. (a) For purposes of section 4004(a) of the Act, a facility... Water Act, as amended. (b) For purposes of section 4004(a) of the Act, a facility shall not cause...

  13. 40 CFR 257.3-3 - Surface water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Surface water. 257.3-3 Section 257.3-3... and Practices § 257.3-3 Surface water. (a) For purposes of section 4004(a) of the Act, a facility... Water Act, as amended. (b) For purposes of section 4004(a) of the Act, a facility shall not cause...

  14. 40 CFR 257.3-3 - Surface water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface water. 257.3-3 Section 257.3-3... and Practices § 257.3-3 Surface water. (a) For purposes of section 4004(a) of the Act, a facility... Water Act, as amended. (b) For purposes of section 4004(a) of the Act, a facility shall not cause...

  15. 40 CFR 257.3-3 - Surface water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface water. 257.3-3 Section 257.3-3... and Practices § 257.3-3 Surface water. (a) For purposes of section 4004(a) of the Act, a facility... Water Act, as amended. (b) For purposes of section 4004(a) of the Act, a facility shall not cause...

  16. Metabolic acceleration in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, Elke I.; Ducrot, V.; Jager, T.; Koene, J.; Lagadic, L.; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.

    2014-11-01

    Under constant environmental conditions, most animals tend to grow following the von Bertalanffy growth curve. Deviations from this curve can point to changes in the environment that the animals experience, such as food limitation when the available food is not sufficient or suitable. However, such deviations can also point to a phenomenon called metabolic acceleration, which is receiving increasing attention in the field of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) modeling. Reasons for such an acceleration are usually changes in shape during ontogeny, which cause changes in the surface area to volume ratio of the organism. Those changes, in turn, lead to changes in some of the model parameters that have length in their dimension. The life-history consequences of metabolic acceleration as implemented in the DEB theory are an s-shaped growth curve (when body size is expressed as a length measure) and a prolongation of the hatching time. The great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis was earlier found to be food limited during the juvenile phase in laboratory experiments conducted under classical ecotoxicity test protocols. The pond snail has isomorphic shell growth but yet does not exhibit the expected von Bertalanffy growth curve under food limitation. When applying the standard DEB model to data from such life-cycle experiments, we also found that the hatching time is consistently underestimated, which could be a sign of metabolic acceleration. We here present an application of the DEB model including metabolic acceleration to the great pond snail. We account for the simultaneous hermaphroditism of the snail by including a model extension that describes the relative investment into the male and female function. This model allowed us to adequately predict the life history of the snail over the entire life cycle. However, the pond snail does not change in shape substantially after birth, so the original explanation for the metabolic acceleration does not hold. Since the change in shape

  17. Surface-Water Quality-Assurance Plan for the USGS Wisconsin Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garn, H.S.

    2007-01-01

    This surface-water quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Wisconsin Water Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Discipline, for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, management, and publication of surface-water data. The roles and responsibilities of Water Science Center personnel in following these policies and procedures including those related to safety and training are presented.

  18. Simulating continental surface waters: An application to Holocene northern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, M.T.

    1997-07-01

    A model (SWAM) to predict surface waters (lakes and wetlands) on the scale of atmospheric general circulation models is developed. SWAM is based on a linear reservoir hydrologic model and is driven by runoff, precipitation, evaporation, topography, and water transport directions. SWAM is applied to the modern climate using observed estimates of the hydrologic variables and a 5{prime} {times} 5{prime} digital terrain model to represent topography. It simulates the surface water area of northern Africa (about 1% of the land area) in reasonable agreement with observed estimates (0.65%). A middle Holocene (6000 yr BP) simulation using the results of the GENESIS atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) illustrates the sensitivity of the simulated surface waters to climatic changes and the model`s utility as a diagnostic tool for AGCMs. SWAM and GENESIS capture the general pattern of climate change 6000 yr BP. There is an increase in the simulated surface water area from about 1% to about 3% of the land area, including an increase in the area of Lake Chad by about five times and extensive surface water throughout northern Mali, consistent with observed patterns of surface water change during the Holocene. Limitations in the modeling of surface waters appear to result from the relatively coarse resolution of global elevation data. 73 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Implementation of remote-sensed surface water condition into a land surfaces model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Ui-Yong; Sung, Hyun Min; Hong, Je-Woo; Hong, Jinkyu; Kunstmann, Harald; Arnault, Joel

    2016-04-01

    We will present our current efforts to incorporate remote-sensed surface water conditions into a land surface model in the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) for better representation of cropland in East Asia. In this presentation, we introduce the model development and discuss its regional impacts on hydrological cycle in perspectives of the PBL-surface interactions and surface evapotranspiration tagging.

  20. Water Quality Indicators Guide [and Teacher's Handbook]: Surface Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Charles R.; Perfetti, Patricia Bytnar

    This guide aids in finding water quality solutions to problems from sediment, animal wastes, nutrients, pesticides, and salts. The guide allows users to learn the fundamental concepts of water quality assessment by extracting basic tenets from geology, hydrology, biology, ecology, and wastewater treatment. An introduction and eight chapters are…

  1. Layers of Porous Superhydrophobic Surfaces for Robust Water Repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Farzad; Boreyko, Jonathan; Nature-Inspired Fluids; Interfaces Team

    2015-11-01

    In nature, birds exhibit multiple layers of superhydrophobic feathers that repel water. Inspired by bird feathers, we utilize porous superhydrophobic surfaces and compare the wetting and dewetting characteristics of a single surface to stacks of multiple surfaces. The superhydrophobic surfaces were submerged in water in a closed chamber. Pressurized gas was regulated to measure the critical pressure for the water to fully penetrate through the surfaces. In addition to using duck feathers, two-tier porous superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated to serve as synthetic mimics with a controlled surface structure. The energy barrier for the wetting transition was modeled as a function of the number of layers and their orientations with respect to each other. Moreover, after partial impalement into a subset of the superhydrophobic layers, it was observed that a full dewetting transition was possible, which suggests that natural organisms can exploit their multiple layers to prevent irreversible wetting.

  2. Water resources data, Iowa, water year 2001, Volume 2. surface water--Missouri River basin, and ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nalley, G.M.; Gorman, J.G.; Goodrich, R.D.; Miller, V.E.; Turco, M.J.; Linhart, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State, county, municipal, and other Federal agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Iowa each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make this data readily available to interested parties outside of the Geological Survey, the data is published annually in this report series entitled “Water Resources Data - Iowa” as part of the National Water Data System. Water resources data for water year 2001 for Iowa consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report, in two volumes, contains stage or discharge records for 132 gaging stations; stage records for 9 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records for 4 gaging stations; sediment records for 13 gaging stations; and water levels for 163 ground-water observation wells. Also included are peak-flow data for 92 crest-stage partial-record stations, water-quality data from 86 municipal wells, and precipitation data collected at 6 gaging stations and 2 precipitation sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published here as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Iowa.Records of discharge or stage of streams, and contents or stage of lakes and reservoirs were first published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey water-supply papers entitled “Surface Water Supply of the United States.” Through September 30, 1960, these water-supply papers were published in an annual series; during 1961-65 and 1966-70, they

  3. Surface properties of a single perfluoroalkyl group on water surfaces studied by surface potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Shimoaka, Takafumi; Tanaka, Yuki; Shioya, Nobutaka; Morita, Kohei; Sonoyama, Masashi; Amii, Hideki; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Kanamori, Toshiyuki; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    A discriminative study of a single perfluoroalkyl (Rf) group from a bulk material is recently recognized to be necessary toward the total understanding of Rf compounds based on a primary chemical structure. The single molecule and the bulk matter have an interrelationship via an intrinsic two-dimensional (2D) aggregation property of an Rf group, which is theorized by the stratified dipole-arrays (SDA) theory. Since an Rf group has dipole moments along many C-F bonds, a single Rf group would possess a hydrophilic-like character on the surface. To reveal the hydration character of a single Rf group, in the present study, surface potential (ΔV) measurements are performed for Langmuir monolayers of Rf-containing compounds. From a comparative study with a monolayer of a normal hydrocarbon compound, the hydration/dehydration dynamics of a lying Rf group on water has first been monitored by ΔV measurements, through which a single Rf group has been revealed to have a unique "dipole-interactive" character, which enables the Rf group interacted with the water 'surface.' In addition, the SDA theory proves to be useful to predict the 2D aggregation property across the phase transition temperature of 19°C by use of the ΔV measurements.

  4. Interaction of Water with Metal Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-18

    Government This document has been approved for public release and sale; its distribution is unlimited 94-06693 94 2 28 1104 IIIi Ih im1lii P Best...label w) To begin, consider a perfect crystal surface in which the basic vectors of the lattice are a, and a 2. Next consider a point particle p at r...pp, zp) where zp is the perpendicular distance above the surface and pp is the projection of rp onto the surface plane. The label p stands for 0 or

  5. Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The IESWTR balances the need for treatment with potential increases in disinfection by -products. The materials found on this page are intended to assist public water systems and state in the implementation of the IESWTR.

  6. OCCURRENCE OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN SURFACE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human enteric viruses cause a number of diseases when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking & recreational waters. Vaccination against poliovirus has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis from the planet. Other members of enterovirus group cause numerous diseases. Hepatit...

  7. Mathematical simulation of an aquatic snail population*

    PubMed Central

    Jobin, W. R.; Michelson, E. H.

    1967-01-01

    Techniques for controlling the intermediate snail hosts of schistosomiasis have had to be evaluated by field trials, since the complexity of snail population dynamics has so far made it impossible to predict the effects of these techniques and thereby avoid costly field testing. However, in laboratory studies with Biomphalaria glabrata it was found that the fecundity of these snails was directly proportional to F/NV, where F is the total amount of food in the habitat, N the number of snails, and V the volume of the habitat. The use of this fecundity variable together with data published on snail longevity and fecundity made it possible to construct a mathematical model of a snail population which may eventually be useful for evaluating snail control methods. For preliminary verification of the model, its predictions were compared with a published history of a population of Bulinus globosus in a small pond. The general agreement of the predicted and observed population data indicated that the basic structure of the model was sound. PMID:5301741

  8. Summary of surface-water quality, ground-water quality, and water withdrawals for the Spirit Lake Reservation, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vining, Kevin C.; Cates, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    Available surface-water quality, ground-water quality, and water-withdrawal data for the Spirit Lake Reservation were summarized. The data were collected intermittently from 1948 through 2004 and were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey databases, North Dakota State Water Commission databases, and Spirit Lake Nation tribal agencies. Although the quality of surface water on the reservation generally is satisfactory, no surface-water sources are used for consumable water supplies. Ground water on the reservation is of sufficient quality for most uses. The Tokio and Warwick aquifers have better overall water quality than the Spiritwood aquifer. Water from the Spiritwood aquifer is used mostly for irrigation. The Warwick aquifer provides most of the consumable water for the reservation and for the city of Devils Lake. Annual water withdrawals from the Warwick aquifer by the Spirit Lake Nation ranged from 71 million gallons to 122 million gallons during 2000-04.

  9. Interfacial entropy of water on rigid hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Taherian, Fereshte; Leroy, Frédéric; van der Vegt, Nico F A

    2013-08-06

    A simple theoretical model is proposed for computing the interfacial entropy of water at rigid hydrophobic surfaces. The interfacial entropy, which is not considered in mean field models of static wettability, is evaluated from the fluctuations of the water-surface dispersion energy at the single particle level and represents the configurational bias imposed on the fluid molecules by the attractive external potential of a solid wall. A comparison with results obtained from molecular dynamics simulations shows that the model quantitatively describes the entropy loss of water when a water-vapor interface turns to water in contact with hydrophobic surfaces such as graphene, graphite, and diamond, while it overestimates this quantity on hydrophilic surfaces.

  10. Quality of Surface Water in Missouri, Water Year 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otero-Benitez, William; Davis, Jerri V.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2007 water year (October 1, 2006 through September 30, 2007), data were collected at 67 stations including two U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations and one spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrite plus nitrte, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and selected pesticide data summaries are presented for 64 of these stations, which primarily have been classified in groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, main land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State during water year 2007 is presented.

  11. Interaction Of Water Molecules With SiC(001) Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero, G; Catellani, A; Galli, G

    2004-08-10

    We have investigated the interaction of water molecules with the polar Si- and C- terminated surfaces of cubic Silicon Carbide by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at finite temperature. Different water coverages were considered, from {1/4} to a complete monolayer. Irrespective of coverage, we find that water dissociates on the silicon terminated surfaces, leading to important changes in both its structural and electronic properties. On the contrary, the carbon terminated surface remains inert when exposed to water. We propose experiments to reveal the ionic and electronic structure of wet Si-terminated surfaces predicted by our calculations, which at full coverage are notably different from those of hydrated Si(001) substrates. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for SiC surface functionalization.

  12. Liquid water can slip on a hydrophilic surface

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Tuan Anh; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V.; Lee, Lloyd L.; Striolo, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Understanding and predicting the behavior of water, especially in contact with various surfaces, is a scientific challenge. Molecular-level understanding of hydrophobic effects and their macroscopic consequences, in particular, is critical to many applications. Macroscopically, a surface is classified as hydrophilic or hydrophobic depending on the contact angle formed by a water droplet. Because hydrophobic surfaces tend to cause water slip whereas hydrophilic ones do not, the former surfaces can yield self-cleaning garments and ice-repellent materials whereas the latter cannot. The results presented herein suggest that this dichotomy might be purely coincidental. Our simulation results demonstrate that hydrophilic surfaces can show features typically associated with hydrophobicity, namely liquid water slip. Further analysis provides details on the molecular mechanism responsible for this surprising result. PMID:21911406

  13. Interaction between water cluster ions and mica surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ryuto, Hiromichi Ohmura, Yuki; Nakagawa, Minoru; Takeuchi, Mitsuaki; Takaoka, Gikan H.

    2014-03-15

    Water cluster ion beams were irradiated on mica surfaces to investigate the interaction between molecular cluster ions and a mica surface. The contact angle of the mica surface increased with increasing dose of the water cluster ion beam, but the increase in the contact angle was smaller than that induced by an ethanol cluster ion beam. The surface roughness also increased with increasing dose of the water cluster ion beam, whereas the intensity of K 2p x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy peaks decreased with increasing dose of the water cluster ion beam. The decrease in the number of potassium atoms together with the increase in the surface roughness may be the causes of the increase in the contact angle.

  14. Intermittent Surface Water Connectivity: Fill and Spill vs. Fill ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intermittent surface connectivity can influence aquatic systems, since chemical and biotic movements are often associated with water flow. Although often referred to as fill and spill, wetlands also fill and merge. We examined the effects of these connection types on water levels, ion concentrations, and biotic communities of eight prairie pothole wetlands between 1979 and 2015. Fill and spill caused pulsed surface water connections that were limited to periods following spring snow melt. In contrast, two wetlands connected through fill and merge experienced a nearly continuous, 20-year surface water connection and had completely coincident water levels. Fill and spill led to minimal convergence in dissolved ions and macroinvertebrate composition, while these constituents converged under fill and merge. The primary factor determining difference in responses was duration of the surface water connection between wetland pairs. Our findings suggest that investigations into the effects of intermittent surface water connections should not consider these connections generically, but need to address the specific types of connections. In particular, fill and spill promotes external water exports while fill and merge favors internal storage. The behaviors of such intermittent connections will likely be accentuated under a future with more frequent and severe climate extremes. Under the Safe and Sustainable Water Resources National Program, work is being done to qu

  15. Georgia's Surface-Water Resources and Streamflow Monitoring Network, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Surface water provides 5 billion gallons per day, or 78 percent, of the total freshwater used (including thermoelectric) in Georgia (Fanning, 2003). Climate, geology, and landforms control the natural distribution of Georgia's water resources. Georgia is a 'headwaters' State, with most of the rivers beginning in northern Georgia and increasing in size downstream (see map at right for major watersheds). Surface water is the primary source of water in the northern one-half of the State, including the Atlanta metropolitan area, where limited ground-water resources are difficult to obtain. In Georgia, periodic droughts exacerbate competition for surface-water supplies. Many areas of Georgia also face a threat of flooding because of spring frontal thunderstorms and the potential for hurricanes from both the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. As the population of Georgia increases, these flood risks will increase with development in flood-risk zones, particularly in the coastal region.

  16. Reactions and clustering of water with silica surface.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuchen; Foster, A S; Nieminen, R M

    2005-04-08

    The interaction between silica surface and water is an important topic in geophysics and materials science, yet little is known about the reaction process. In this study we use first-principles molecular dynamics to simulate the hydrolysis process of silica surface using large cluster models. We find that a single water molecule is stable near the surface but can easily dissociate at three-coordinated silicon atom defect sites in the presence of other water molecules. These extra molecules provide a mechanism for hydrogen transfer from the original water molecule, hence catalyzing the reaction. The two-coordinated silicon atom is inert to the water molecule, and water clusters up to pentamer could be stably adsorbed at this site at room temperature.

  17. Investigation of surface water behavior during glaze ice accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.; Turnock, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    Microvideo observations of glaze ice accretions on 1-in-diameter cylinders in a closed-loop refrigerated wind tunnel were obtained to study factors controlling the behavior of unfrozen surface water during glaze ice accretion. Three zones of surface water behavior were noted, each with a characteristic roughness. The effect of substrate thermal and roughness properties on ice accretions was also studied. The contact angle and hysteresis were found to increase sharply at temperatures just below 0 C, explaining the high resistance to motion of water beads observed on accreting glaze ice surfaces. Based on the results, a simple multizone modification to the current glaze ice accretion model is proposed.

  18. [Equipment for biological experiments with snails aboard piloted orbital stations].

    PubMed

    Gorgiladze, G I; Korotkova, E V; Kuznetsova, E E; Mukhamedieva, L N; Begrov, V V; Pepeliaev, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    To fly biological experiments aboard piloted orbital stations, research equipment was built up of an incubation container, filter system and automatic temperature controller. Investigations included analysis of the makeup and concentrations of gases produced by animals (snails) during biocycle, and emitted after death. Filters are chemisorption active fibrous materials (AFM) with high sorption rate and water receptivity (cation exchange fiber VION-KN-1 and anion exchange fiber VION-AS-1), and water-repellent carbon adsorbent SKLTS. AFM filters were effective in air cleaning and practically excluded ingress of chemical substances from the container into cabin atmosphere over more than 100 days.

  19. Thin Water Films at Multifaceted Hematite Particle Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Boily, Jean-François; Yeşilbaş, Merve; Uddin, Munshi Md Musleh; Baiqing, Lu; Trushkina, Yulia; Salazar-Alvarez, Germàn

    2015-12-08

    Mineral surfaces exposed to moist air stabilize nanometer- to micrometer-thick water films. This study resolves the nature of thin water film formation at multifaceted hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticle surfaces with crystallographic faces resolved by selected area electron diffraction. Dynamic vapor adsorption (DVA) in the 0-19 Torr range at 298 K showed that these particles stabilize water films consisting of up to 4-5 monolayers. Modeling of these data predicts water loadings in terms of an "adsorption regime" (up to 16 H2O/nm(2)) involving direct water binding to hematite surface sites, and of a "condensation regime" (up to 34 H2O/nm(2)) involving water binding to hematite-bound water nanoclusters. Vibration spectroscopy identified the predominant hematite surface hydroxo groups (-OH, μ-OH, μ3-OH) through which first layer water molecules formed hydrogen bonds, as well as surface iron sites directly coordinating water molecules (i.e., as geminal η-(OH2)2 sites). Chemometric analyses of the vibration spectra also revealed a strong correspondence in the response of hematite surface hydroxo groups to DVA-derived water loadings. These findings point to a near-saturation of the hydrogen-bonding environment of surface hydroxo groups at a partial water vapor pressure of ∼8 Torr (∼40% relative humidity). Classical molecular dynamics (MD) resolved the interfacial water structures and hydrogen bonding populations at five representative crystallographic faces expressed in these nanoparticles. Simulations of single oriented slabs underscored the individual roles of all (hydro)oxo groups in donating and accepting hydrogen bonds with first layer water in the "adsorption regime". These analyses pointed to the preponderance of hydrogen bond-donating -OH groups in the stabilization of thin water films. Contributions of μ-OH and μ3-OH groups are secondary, yet remain essential in the stabilization of thin water films. MD simulations also helped resolve crystallographic

  20. Seasonal variation in abiotic factors and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    PubMed

    Agrahari, P; Singh, D K

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory evaluation was made to access the seasonal variations in abiotic environmental factors temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, electrical conductivity and ferulic acid toxicity in snail-attractant pellets (SAP) against the intermediate host snail Lymnaea acuminata in each month of the years 2010 and 2011. On the basis of a 24-h toxicity assay, it was noted that lethal concentration values of 4.03, 3.73% and 4.45% in SAP containing starch and 4.16, 4.23% and 4.29% in SAP containing proline during the months of May, June and September, respectively, were most effective in killing the snails, while SAP containing starch/proline + ferulic acid was least effective in the month of January/February (24-h lethal concentration value was 7.67%/7.63% in SAP). There was a significant positive correlation between lethal concentration value of ferulic acid containing SAP and levels of dissolved O2 /pH of water in corresponding months. On the contrary, a negative correlation was observed between lethal concentration value and dissolved CO2 /temperature of test water in the same months. To ascertain that such a relationship between toxicity and abiotic factors is not co-incidental, the nervous tissue of treated (40% and 80% of 24-h lethal concentration value) and control group of snails was assayed for the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in each of the 12 months of the same year. There was a maximum inhibition of 58.43% of AChE, in snails exposed to 80% of the 24-h lethal concentration value of ferulic acid + starch in the month of May. This work shows conclusively that the best time to control snail population with SAP containing ferulic acid is during the months of May, June and September.

  1. Interactions between ground water and surface water in the Suwannee River basin, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; DeHan, R.S.; Hirten, J.J.; Catches, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Ground water and surface water constitute a single dynamic system in roost parts of the Suwannee River basin due to the presence of karat features that facilitate the interaction between the surface and subsurface. Low radon-222 concentrations (below background levels) and enriched amounts of oxygen-18 and deuterium in ground water indicate mixing with surface water in parts of the basin. Comparison of surface water and regional ground water flow patterns indicate that boundaries for ground water basins typically do not coincide with surface water drainage subbasins. There are several areas in the basin where ground water flow that originates outside of the Suwannee River basin crosses surface water basin boundaries during both low-flow and high-flow conditions. In a study area adjacent to the Suwannee River that consists predominantly of agricultural land use, 18 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer and 7 springs were sampled three times during 1990 through 1994 for major dissolved inorganic constituents, trace elements, and nutrients. During a period of above normal rainfall that resulted in high river stage and high ground water levels in 1991, the combination of increased amounts of dissolved organic carbon and decreased levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water created conditions favorable for the natural reduction of nitrate by denitrification reactions in the aquifer. As a result, less nitrate was discharged by ground water to the Suwannee River.

  2. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2012 water year (October 1, 2011, through September 30, 2012), data were collected at 81 stations—73 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 6 alternate Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 78 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  3. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.; Schneider, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2013 water year (October 1, 2012, through September 30, 2013), data were collected at 79 stations—73 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 4 alternate Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, Escherichia coli bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 76 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  4. Surface waters of Kansas, 1895-1919

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, R.C.

    1921-01-01

    The collection of long-time records of stream-flow in Kansas which is published in this volume has been prepared for the use of those who are concerned with the different phases of the utilization of water in the state.

  5. Third Stokes parameter emission from a periodic water surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. T.; Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T.; Staelin, D. H.; Oneill, K.; Lohanick, A.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment in which the third Stokes parameter thermal emission from a periodic water surface was measured is documented. This parameter is shown to be related to the direction of periodicity of the periodic surface and to approach brightnesses of up to 30 K at X band for the surface used in the experiment. The surface actually analyzed was a 'two-layer' periodic surface; the theory of thermal emission from such a surface is derived and the theoretical results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental measurements. These results further the idea of using the third Stokes parameter emission as an indicator of wind direction over the ocean.

  6. New forcefield for water nanodroplet on a graphene surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Włoch, Jerzy; Terzyk, Artur P.; Kowalczyk, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    We propose a new forcefield for water TIP4P/2005 nanodroplet sitting on a surface of a graphene. Existing in literature forcefield uses the SPC/E model. However, this model does not predict the accurate water surface tension, and in this way a contact angle (CA) can also be incorrect. Additionally, our new calibration bases on the results of long - term simulation, and on a new procedure of CA calculation, and this is crucial for the estimation of precise and equilibrium values. Finally, we discuss the new dependence of the water nanodroplet line tension on the energy of water - graphene interactions.

  7. Anomalously Rapid Hydration Water Diffusion Dynamics Near DNA Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Franck, John M; Ding, Yuan; Stone, Katherine; Qin, Peter Z; Han, Songi

    2015-09-23

    The emerging Overhauser effect dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP) technique measures the translational mobility of water within the vicinity (5-15 Å) of preselected sites. The work presented here expands the capabilities of the ODNP technique and illuminates an important, previously unseen, property of the translational diffusion dynamics of water at the surface of DNA duplexes. We attach nitroxide radicals (i.e., spin labels) to multiple phosphate backbone positions of DNA duplexes, allowing ODNP to measure the hydration dynamics at select positions along the DNA surface. With a novel approach to ODNP analysis, we isolate the contributions of water molecules at these sites that undergo free translational diffusion from water molecules that either loosely bind to or exchange protons with the DNA. The results reveal that a significant population of water in a localized volume adjacent to the DNA surface exhibits fast, bulk-like characteristics and moves unusually rapidly compared to water found in similar probe volumes near protein and membrane surfaces. Control studies show that the observation of these characteristics are upheld even when the DNA duplex is tethered to streptavidin or the mobility of the nitroxides is altered. This implies that, as compared to protein or lipid surfaces, it is an intrinsic feature of the DNA duplex surface that it interacts only weakly with a significant fraction of the surface hydration water network. The displacement of this translationally mobile water is energetically less costly than that of more strongly bound water by up to several kBT and thus can lower the activation barrier for interactions involving the DNA surface.

  8. Chloride in ground water and surface water in the vicinity of selected surface-water sampling sites of the beneficial use monitoring program of Oklahoma, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Sughru, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The Oklahoma Water Resources Board Beneficial Use Monitoring Program reported exceedances of beneficial-use standards for chloride at 11 surface-water sampling sites from January to October 2002. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, conducted a study to determine the chloride concentrations in ground water in the vicinity of Beneficial Use Monitoring Program surface-water sampling sites not meeting beneficial use standards for chloride and compare chloride concentrations in ground water and surface water. The chloride-impaired Beneficial Use Monitoring Program surface-water sampling sites are located in the western and southern regions of Oklahoma. The ground-water sampling sites were placed in proximity to the 11 surface-water sampling sites designated impaired by chloride by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. Two surface-water sampling sites were located on the Beaver River (headwaters of the North Canadian River), three sites on the Cimarron River, one site on Sandy Creek, one site on North Fork Red River, and four sites on the Red River. Six ground-water samples were collected, when possible, from two test holes located upstream from each of the 11 Beneficial Use Monitoring Program surface-water sampling sites. One test hole was placed on the left bank and right bank, when possible, of each Beneficial Use Monitoring Program surfacewater sampling site. All test holes were located on alluvial deposits adjacent to the Beneficial Use Monitoring Program surface-water sampling sites within 0.5 mile of the stream. Top, middle, and bottom ground-water samples were collected from the alluvium at each test hole, when possible. Water properties of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen were recorded in the field before sampling for chloride. The ground-water median chloride concentrations at 8 of the 11 Beneficial Use Monitoring Program sites were less than the surface-water median

  9. Identifying and Mapping Seasonal Surface Water Frost with MGS TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bapst, J.; Bandfield, J. L.; Wood, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared bolometers measured surface broadband albedo and temperature for more than three Mars years. As seasons progress on Mars, surface temperatures may fall below the frost point of volatiles in the atmosphere (namely, carbon dioxide and water). Systematic mapping of the spatial and temporal occurrence of these volatiles in the martian atmosphere, on the surface, and in the subsurface has shown their importance in understanding the climate of Mars. However, few studies have investigated seasonal surface water frost and its role in the global water cycle. We examine zonally-averaged TES daytime albedo, temperature, and water vapor abundance data [after Smith, 2004] to map the presence of surface water frost on Mars. Surface water frost occurs in the polar and mid latitudes, in regions with surface temperatures less than 220 K and above 150 K, and can significantly increase albedo relative to the bare surface. In the northern hemisphere water frost is most apparent in late fall/early winter, before the onset of carbon dioxide frost. Dust storms occurring near northern winter solstice affect albedo data and prevent us from putting a latitudinal lower limit on the water frost in the northern hemisphere. Regardless, seasonal water frost occurs at least as low as 48°N in Utopia Planitia, beginning at Ls=~230°, as observed by Viking Lander 2 [Svitek and Murray, 1990]. Daytime surface water frost was also observed at the Phoenix Lander site (68°N) beginning at Ls=~160° [Cull et al., 2010]. The timing of albedo variations observed by TES agree relatively well with lander observations of seasonal frost. Seasonal water frost is not detected during fall in the southern hemisphere. A potential explanation for this discrepancy, compared with frost detections in the north, is the disparity in atmospheric water vapor abundance between the two hemispheres. The frost point temperatures for water vapor

  10. Water diffusion on TiO2 anatase surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosta, L.; Gala, F.; Zollo, G.

    2015-06-01

    Compatibility between biological molecules and inorganic materials, such as crystalline metal oxides, is strongly dependent on the selectivity properties and the adhesion processes at the interface between the two systems. Among the many different aspects that affect the adsorption processes of peptides or proteins onto inorganic surfaces, such as the charge state of the amino acids, the peptide 3D structure, the surface roughness, the presence of vacancies or defects on and below the surface, a key role is certainly played by the water solvent whose molecules mediate the interaction. Then the surface hydration pattern may strongly affect the adsorption behavior of biological molecules. For the particular case of (101) anatase TiO2 surface that has a fundamental importance in the interaction of biocompatible nano-devices with biological environment, it was shown, both theoretically and experimentally, that various hydration patterns are close in energy and that the water molecules are mobile at as low temperature values as 190 K. Then it is important to understand the dynamical behavior of first hydration layer of the (101) anatase surface. As a first approach to this problem, density functional calculations are used to investigate water diffusion on the (101) anatase TiO2 surface by sampling the potential energy surface of water molecules of the first hydration layer thus calculating the water molecule migration energy along some relevant diffusion paths on the (101) surface. The measured activation energy of water migration seems in contrast with the observed surface mobility of the water molecules that, as a consequence could be explained invoking a strong role of the entropic term in the context of the transition state theory.

  11. Distribution of trematodes in snails in ponds at integrated small-scale aquaculture farms.

    PubMed

    Boerlage, Annette S; Graat, Elisabeth A M; Verreth, Johan A; de Jong, Mart C M

    2013-03-01

    In integrated small-scale aquaculture farming, animal and human excreta maybe used as fish feed and pond fertilizer, thereby enhancing transmission of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) from final hosts, like humans, pigs and chickens, to snails. Areas within a pond could vary in trematode egg-load due to the immediate bordering land, and this might provide implications for control of these trematodes or sampling in field studies measuring FZT prevalence in snails. We therefore estimated the effect of bordering land use on prevalence and FZT burden in snails in different areas within small-scale aquaculture ponds. Nine sampling areas within a pond were assigned in six ponds. For each sampling area, about 120 Melanoides tuberculata snails were collected. Based on land use bordering a sampling area, these were categorized in 5 risk-categories: low-risk (road, rice planted in pond, agriculture, or middle of pond), human access point to pond, livestock sty (pigs or poultry), both human access point and livestock sty, and water connection to canal. In total, 5392 snails were collected. Percentages of snails with parapleurolophocercous cercariae varied between 6% in areas categorized as low-risk and areas with livestock sty only to 15% in areas with both human access point and livestock sty; only this 15% was significantly different from the prevalence in the low-risk category. Percentages of snails with xiphidio cercariae did not differ between risk-categories and varied between 5% and 10%. Mean snail size was 15.2mm, and was significantly associated with both the probability of infection as well as parasite burden. Very small differences in parasite burden were found at different land use areas; the maximum difference was about 11 cercariae. This study demonstrated only small differences between areas surrounding a pond on risk of snails to be infected with fish-borne trematodes within different pond areas. In field studies on FZTs in M. tuberculata snails in ponds

  12. The environmental effects of trace elements concentration in sea snails using atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Amri, F. A.

    2003-05-01

    Water pollution bas increased in heavy industrialised areas. Most industrial water wastes end up in the sea. Monitoring the elemental composition in marine organisms, such as snails, provides the essential elements in living organisms and through the food chain to man. 50 samples of each of two kinds of snails have been collected from the west coast of Libya. Samples were digeste with nitric acid and the concentration of Copper, Iron, Magnesium and Zinc were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The results shows that Mg has the highest value while the Copper has the lowest in both kind of snaiis. A pattern of the trace elements concentration was investigated regarding the size and kind of snails.

  13. A siphon gage for monitoring surface-water levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCobb, T.D.; LeBlanc, D.R.; Socolow, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    A device that uses a siphon tube to establish a hydraulic connection between the bottom of an onshore standpipe and a point at the bottom of a water body was designed and tested for monitoring surface-water levels. Water is added to the standpipe to a level sufficient to drive a complete slug of water through the siphoning tube and to flush all air out of the system. The water levels in the standpipe and the water body equilibrate and provide a measurable static water surface in the standpipe. The siphon gage was designed to allow quick and accurate year-round measurements with minimal maintenance. Currently available devices for monitoring surface-water levels commonly involve time-consuming and costly installation and surveying, and the movement of reference points and the presence of ice cover in cold regions cause discontinuity and inaccuracy in the data collected. Installation and field testing of a siphon gage using 0.75-in-diameter polyethylene tubing at Ashumet Pond in Falmouth, Massachusetts, demonstrated that the siphon gage can provide long-term data with a field effort and accuracy equivalent to measurement of ground-water levels at an observation well.A device that uses a siphon tube to establish a hydraulic connection between the bottom of an onshore standpipe and a point at the bottom of a water body was designed and tested for monitoring surface-water levels. Water is added to the standpipe to a level sufficient to drive a complete slug of water through the siphoning tube and to flush all air out of the system. The water levels in the standpipe and the water body equilibrate and provide a measurable static water surface in the standpipe. The siphon gage was designed to allow quick and accurate year-round measurements with minimal maintenance. Currently available devices for monitoring surface-water levels commonly involve time-consuming and costly installation and surveying, and the movement of reference points and the presence of ice cover in cold

  14. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designs and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2010 water year (October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2010), data were collected at 75 stations-72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations, and 1 spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 72 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  15. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designs and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2009 water year (October 1, 2008, through September 30, 2009), data were collected at 75 stations-69 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations, 1 spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, and 3 stations sampled in cooperation with the Elk River Watershed Improvement Association. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 72 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and seven-day low flow is presented.

  16. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2011 water year (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011), data were collected at 75 stations—72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations, and 1 spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 72 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  17. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2015-12-18

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2014 water year (October 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014), data were collected at 74 stations—72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Assessment Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, Escherichia coli bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 71 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and 7-day low flow is presented.

  18. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.; Heimann, David C.

    2016-11-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams and springs throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During water year 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015), data were collected at 74 stations—72 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations and 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Assessment Network stations. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, Escherichia coli bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 71 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak streamflows, monthly mean streamflows, and 7-day low flows is presented.

  19. Role of water in polymer surface modification using organosilanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thallapalle, Pradeep Kumar; Zhang Newby, Bi-Min

    2002-03-01

    In general, polymers exhibit excellent bulk properties but may not possess specific surface properties for successful applications in biomaterials and nanotechnology. Surface modification of polymers with the self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of organosilanes - ‘Silanization’ - is an attractive approach to alter surface properties without altering the polymer’s desired bulk properties. However, a pretreatment such as exposure to UV/O or plasma is normally required to generate active surface groups prior to silanization. These pretreatments cause undesirable surface changes such as severe surface roughening and excessive surface damage. Recent studies in silanization suggest that the presence of water or OH groups on the surface is essential to form SAMs. In this study we investigated the importance of surface water layer and OH groups in the formation of SAMs for a variety of polymers. The pre and post-modified polymers were examined using fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning probe microscopy and contact angle measurements. The results show that organosilanes can be grafted to a polymer surface as long as a water layer can be physisorbed to the surface or the polymer itself contains OH groups. However the monolayers formed are less organized compared to those formed on silicon wafers due to the amorphous nature of the polymers.

  20. ICESat-derived inland water surface spot heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Loughlin, Fiachra E.; Neal, Jeffrey; Yamazaki, Dai; Bates, Paul D.

    2016-04-01

    Accurate measurement of water surface height is key to many fields in hydrology and limnology. Satellite radar and laser altimetry have been shown to be useful means of obtaining such data where no ground gauging stations exist, and the accuracy of different satellite instruments is now reasonably well understood. Past validation studies have shown water surface height data from the ICESat instrument to have the highest vertical accuracy (mean absolute errors of ˜10 cm for ICESat, compared, for example, with ˜28 cm from Envisat), yet no freely available source of processed ICESat data currently exists for inland water bodies. Here we present a database of processed and quality checked ICESat-derived inland water surface heights (IWSH) for water bodies greater than 3 arc sec (˜92 m at the equator) in width. Four automated methods for removing spurious observations or outliers were investigated, along with the impact of using different water masks. We find that the best performing method ensures that observations used are completely surrounded by water in the SRTM Water Body data. Using this method for removing spurious observations, we estimate transect-averaged water surface heights at 587,292 unique locations from 2003 to 2009, with the number of locations proportional to the size of the river.

  1. Nanostructured Anti-Reflecting and Water-Repellent Surface Coatings

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-11-23

    A nanotechnology-based surface-texturing method developed at Brookhaven Lab’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials imparts perfect anti-reflection and robust water-repellency to silicon, glass, and some plastics.

  2. Nanostructured Anti-Reflecting and Water-Repellent Surface Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    2016-11-08

    A nanotechnology-based surface-texturing method developed at Brookhaven Lab’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials imparts perfect anti-reflection and robust water-repellency to silicon, glass, and some plastics.

  3. Shallow Water Propagation and Surface Reverberation Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    original goals have been augmented in 2013 to study ambient noise from glaciers in high latitude regions. OBJECTIVES Objectives for 2013 The overall...to deduce the form of surfaces from scattered sound and (2) to measure and analyze the underwater ambient noise marine terminating glaciers in high...particularly those that contain the terminus of one or more glaciers . The program objective was to measure the directionality of underwater ambient

  4. Shallow Water Propagation and Surface Reverberation Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    compare the results with experiment. This work will be used to help interpret field data of bistatic scattering from sea ice cover and calibrate...approximate analytical and numerical acoustic models used to compute bistatic scattering. The clouds of bubbles entrained at the sea surface by breaking...ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 7 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified

  5. Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed

  6. The biological impact of landfill leachate on nearby surface water

    SciTech Connect

    Geis, S.W.

    1994-12-31

    Five landfill sites were evaluated for their potential to adversely impact the biotic community of surface waters. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity tests were used to determine the toxicity of water samples collected from landfill monitoring wells and the nearest surface water. Four of the five landfill sites exhibited acute or chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, or Pimephales promelas. Toxicity identification procedures performed on water samples revealed toxic responses to metals and one toxic response to organic compounds. Surface water toxicity at an industrial landfill is most likely due to zinc from a tire production facility. Iron and a surfactant were determined to be the probable causes for toxicity at two municipal solid waste landfills.

  7. Water evaporation from substrate tooth surface during dentin treatments.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Mizuho; Itoh, Kazuo; Gokan, Yuka; Nagai, Yoshitaka; Tani, Chihiro; Hisamitsu, Hisashi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the quantity of water evaporation from tooth surfaces. The amount of water evaporation was measured using Multi probe adapter MPA5 and Tewameter TM300 (Courage+Khazaka Electric GmbH, Köln, Germany) after acid etching and GM priming of enamel; and after EDTA conditioning and GM priming of dentin. The results indicated that the amount of water evaporation from the enamel surface was significantly less than that from the dentin. Acid etching did not affect the water evaporation from enamel, though GM priming significantly decreased the evaporation (83.48 ± 15.14% of that before priming). The evaporation from dentin was significantly increased by EDTA conditioning (131.38 ± 42.08% of that before conditioning) and significantly reduced by GM priming (80.26 ± 7.43% of that before priming). It was concluded that dentin priming reduced water evaporation from the dentin surface.

  8. Surface water connectivity dynamics of a large scale extreme flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigg, Mark A.; Michaelides, Katerina; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Bates, Paul D.

    2013-11-01

    Uses the MODIS surface water product observations of the 2011 Bangkok flood.A data gap filling method is developed to better preserve the dynamics of the event.We quantify surface water connectivity geostatistically to give new flood insights.There is a clear structure to the connectivity of the event through time and space.Changes and thresholds in the connectivity are linked to major flood mechanisms.

  9. Habitat characteristics for different freshwater snail species as determined biologically through macroinvertebrate information.

    PubMed

    El-Khayat, Hanaa M M; Mahmoud, Kadria M A; Mostafa, Bayomy B; Tantawy, Ahmad A; El-Deeb, Fatma A; Ragb, Fawzy M; Ismail, Nahed M; El-Said, Kalil M; Taleb, Hoda M Abu

    2011-12-01

    Macro-invertebrates including freshwater snails collected from 643 sites over 8 successive seasons among the River Nile, branches, main canals and certain drains in eight Egyptian Governorates. Thirteen snail species and one bivalve species were identified. The most distributed were Lanistus carinatus and Physa acuta while the most abundant were Cleopatra bulimoides and Physa acuta during the whole study. The sites that harbored each snail species in all the examined water-courses were grouped seasonally and their biological assessment was determined by their minimum and maximum total point similarity percentage to that of the corresponded reference site and mean of the total points. Habitats for most snail species attained minimum total point's similarity percentage less than 21% (very poor habitat) during autumn and winter then spring while during summer very poor habitat was harbored by only few snail species. P. acuta was the only survived snails in habitat which attained 0 as a minimum total point's similarity percentage during two seasons and L. carinatus and Succinea cleopatra during one season. With respect to medically important snails very poor sites constituted 23% of Biomphalaria alexandrina sites, 14% of Lymnaea natalensis and 9.4% of Bulinus truncatus sites. The studied macroinvertebrate matrices, total number of organisms, taxa richness, the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) index, ratio of EPT index to chironomidae, ratio of scraper to filtering collector, contribution of dominant macroinvertebrate major group, comparison revealed descending tolerances from B. alexanrina followed by L. natalensis then B. truncates, but Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) showed the same tolerance to organic pollution.

  10. Quality of Surface Water in Missouri, Water Year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otero-Benitez, William; Davis, Jerri V.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2008 water year (October 1, 2007, through September 30, 2008), data were collected at 67 stations, including two U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations and one spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and selected pesticide data summaries are presented for 64 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and seven-day low flow is presented.

  11. Formation and transport of deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine in surface water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Meyer, M.T.; Mills, M.S.; Zimmerman, L.R.; Perry, C.A.; Goolsby, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Field disappearance studies and a regional study of nine rivers in the Midwest Corn Belt show that deethylatrazine (DEA; 2-amino-4-chloro-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA; 2-amino-4-chloro-6-ethylaminos-triazine) occur frequently in surface water that has received runoff from two parent triazine herbicides, atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) and cyanazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-methylpropionitrileamino-s-triazine). The concentration of DEA and DIA in surface water varies with the hydrologic conditions of the basin and the timing of runoff, with maximum concentrations reaching 5 ??g/L (DEA + DIA). Early rainfall followed by a dry summer will result in an early peak concentration of metabolites in surface water. A wet summer will delay the maximum concentrations of metabolites and increase their runoff into surface water, occasionally resulting in a slight separation of the parent atrazine maximum concentrations from the metabolite maximum concentrations, giving a "second flush?? of triazine metabolites to surface water. Replicated field dissipation studies of atrazine and cyanazine indicate that DIA/DEA ratios will vary from 0.4 ?? 0.1 when atrazine is the major triazine present to 0.6 ?? 0.1 when significant amounts of cyanazine are present. A comparison of transport time of DEA and DIA from field plots to their appearance in surface water indicates that storage and dilution are occurring in the alluvial aquifers of the basin.

  12. Chlorine stress mediates microbial surface attachment in drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Le, Yang; Jin, Juliang; Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Guowei

    2015-03-01

    Microbial attachment to drinking water pipe surfaces facilitates pathogen survival and deteriorates disinfection performance, directly threatening the safety of drinking water. Notwithstanding that the formation of biofilm has been studied for decades, the underlying mechanisms for the origins of microbial surface attachment in biofilm development in drinking water pipelines remain largely elusive. We combined experimental and mathematical methods to investigate the role of environmental stress-mediated cell motility on microbial surface attachment in chlorination-stressed drinking water distribution systems. Results show that at low levels of disinfectant (0.0-1.0 mg/L), the presence of chlorine promotes initiation of microbial surface attachment, while higher amounts of disinfectant (>1.0 mg/L) inhibit microbial attachment. The proposed mathematical model further demonstrates that chlorination stress (0.0-5.0 mg/L)-mediated microbial cell motility regulates the frequency of cell-wall collision and thereby controls initial microbial surface attachment. The results reveal that transport processes and decay patterns of chlorine in drinking water pipelines regulate microbial cell motility and, thus, control initial surface cell attachment. It provides a mechanistic understanding of microbial attachment shaped by environmental disinfection stress and leads to new insights into microbial safety protocols in water distribution systems.

  13. Occurrence of deeethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine in surface and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, E.M.; Goolsby, D.A.

    1996-10-01

    Field-disappearance studies and a regional study of nine rivers in the Midwest show that deethylatrazine (DEA) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA) occur frequently in surface water that has received runoff from two parent triazine herbicides, atrazine and cyanazine. The concentration of DEA and DIA in surface water varies with the hydrologic conditions of the basin and the timing of runoff, with maximum concentrations reaching 5 mg/L (DEA + DIA). Early rainfall followed by a dry summer will result in an early peak concentration of metabolites in surface water. A wet summer will delay the maximum concentrations of metabolites and increase their runoff into surface water, occasionally resulting in a slight separation of the parent atrazine maximum concentrations from the metabolite maximum concentrations giving a {open_quotes}second flush{close_quotes} of triazine metabolites to surface water. Replicated field dissipation studies of atrazine and cyanazine indicate that DIA/DEA ratios will vary from 0.4{plus_minus}0.1 when atrazine is the major triazine present to 0.6{plus_minus}0.1 when significant amounts of cyanazine are present. A comparison of transport time of DEA and DIA from field plots to their appearance in surface water indicates that storage and dilution are occurring in the alluvial aquifers of the basin.

  14. Molecular Evidence of Trichobilharzia Species (Digenea: Schistosomatidae) in the Snails of Lymnaea auricularia from Urmia Suburb, North West Iran

    PubMed Central

    YAKHCHALI, Mohammad; HOSSEINPANAHI, Asaad; MALEKZADEH-VIAYEH, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study was carried out to detect the infection of larval stages of Trichobilharzia species in the snail Lymnaea auricularia in northwestern Iran based on DNA analysis. Methods: A total number of 320 snails of L. auricularia were sampled from four water-bodies located in the suburb of Urmia City, North West Iran, during May to November 2011. The snails were first microscopically inspected for the infection with larval stages of trematodes. Genomic DNA was extracted from the snails and PCR was performed to amplify a fragment of the ribosomal DNA of Trichobilharzia species in the infected snails. Results: Microscopic examinations indicated that 11.25% (36 out of 320) of the snails were infected with larval stages of trematodes, while the PCR patterns showed a much higher infection rate (31.25%, 100/320). According to the PCR, the infections were caused by the larval stages of T. szidati (21.56%, 69/320) and T. franki (9.69%, 31/320) or both of them (8.44%, 27/320). The infected snails were observed in three out of the four studied sites. The highest infection rate in a single site was 50% (25/50). Only 7.81% (25 out of 320) of the infected snails were from the plain areas, while the remaining was from high altitudes. Conclusion: Results of this study contribute the utility of the employed technique for quick and accurate detection of the infection with trichobilharzian species in their intermediate host snails, which may have potential zoonotic role in the region. PMID:28127334

  15. Freshwater molluscs as indicators of bioavailability and toxicity of metals in surface-water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.F.; Collins, J.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Freshwater molluscs--snails and bivalves--have been used frequently as bioindicator organisms. With increasing needs for research on contaminant effects in freshwater ecosystems, this kind of biomonitoring is likely to develop further in the future. Molluscs can be used effectively for studies of both organic and inorganic contaminants; this review focuses on studies involving bioaccumulation and toxicity of metals. Two important advantages of snails and bivalves over most other freshwater organisms for biomonitoring research are their large size and limited mobility. In addition, they are abundant in many types of freshwater environments and are relatively easy to collect and identify. At metal concentrations that are within ranges common to natural waters, they are generally effective bioaccumulators of metals. Biomonitoring studies with freshwater molluscs have covered a wide diversity of species, metals, and environments. The principal generalization that can be drawn from this research is that bioaccumulation and toxicity are extremely situation dependent; hence, it is difficult to extrapolate results from any particular study to other situations where the biological species or environmental conditions are different. Even within one species, individual characteristics such as size, life stage, sex, and genotype can have significant effects on responses to contaminants. The bioavailability of the metal is highly variable and depends on pH, presence of organic ligands, water hardness, and numerous other controlling factors. Despite this variability, past studies provide some general principles that can facilitate planning of research with freshwater snails and bivalves as metal bioindicators. These principles may also be useful in understanding and managing freshwater ecosystems.

  16. Schistosomes and snails: a molecular encounter

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Matty; Arican-Goktas, Halime D.; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn; Odoemelam, Edwin C.; Miller, André N.; Bridger, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Biomphalaria glabrata snails play an integral role in the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent for human schistosomiasis in the Western hemisphere. For the past two decades, tremendous advances have been made in research aimed at elucidating the molecular basis of the snail/parasite interaction. The growing concern that there is no vaccine to prevent schistosomiasis and only one effective drug in existence provides the impetus to develop new control strategies based on eliminating schistosomes at the snail-stage of the life cycle. To elucidate why a given snail is not always compatible to each and every schistosome it encounters, B. glabrata that are either resistant or susceptible to a given strain of S. mansoni have been employed to track molecular mechanisms governing the snail/schistosome relationship. With such snails, genetic markers for resistance and susceptibility were identified. Additionally, differential gene expression studies have led to the identification of genes that underlie these phenotypes. Lately, the role of schistosomes in mediating non-random relocation of gene loci has been identified for the first time, making B. glabrata a model organism where chromatin regulation by changes in nuclear architecture, known as spatial epigenetics, orchestrated by a major human parasite can now be investigated. This review will highlight the progress that has been made in using molecular approaches to describe snail/schistosome compatibility issues. Uncovering the signaling networks triggered by schistosomes that provide the impulse to turn genes on and off in the snail host, thereby controlling the outcome of infection, could also yield new insights into anti-parasite mechanism(s) that operate in the human host as well. PMID:25101114

  17. Langmuir circulation inhibits near-surface water turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    In the surface ocean, breaking waves are a major source of air bubbles and turbulent kinetic energy. During the presence of a consistent surface wind, these wave-generated bubbles, along with other surface material like seaweed or foam, can be drawn into long rows along the surface. Driving this organization is Langmuir circulation, a phenomenon in which the wind and waves cause surface waters to rotate helically, moving like a wire wrapped around a pole in the windward direction. These spiral currents oscillate between clockwise and counterclockwise rotations, such that in some places the surface waters are pushed together and in others they are pulled apart. Researchers have previously found that at sites of convergence the bubbles produced by breaking waves are pushed to depths of 15 meters or more, with important implications for air-sea gas mixing and other processes.

  18. Glutinous Water. Protecting Vertical and Overhead Surfaces from Fire Spread

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-28

    DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words ) Most of the water used in firefighting is not only...Naval Research Laboratory AD-A277 280 Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6180--94-7431 DTIC S ELECTE MAR 24 19941 Glutinous Water F Protecting Vertical...TYPE AND DATES COVERED February 28, 1994 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Glutinous Water Protecting Vertical and Overhead Surfaces From Fire

  19. An Ontology Design Pattern for Surface Water Features

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Gaurav; Mark, David; Kolas, Dave; Varanka, Dalia; Romero, Boleslo E; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Usery, Lynn; Liebermann, Joshua; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities can be found due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology. It can then be used to systematically incor-porate concepts that are specific to a culture, language, or scientific domain. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this on-tology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is imple-mented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. A discussion about why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, es-pecially the previously developed Surface Network pattern is also provided. Fi-nally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through a few queries and annotated geospatial datasets.

  20. Martian surface/near-surface water inventory: Sources, sinks, and changes with time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, M. H.; Head, J. W.

    2015-02-01

    Today, a 34 m global equivalent water layer (GEL) lies in the Martian polar-layered deposits and shallow ground ice. During the Amazonian, 3 m was outgassed, and 31 m was lost to space and to the surface, leaving 62 m at the end of Hesperian. During the Hesperian, volcanic outgassing added 5 m, 7 m was lost, and 40 m GEL of groundwater was added to form outflow channels, leaving 24 m carryover of surface water from the Noachian into the Hesperian. The Hesperian budget is incompatible with a northern ocean during this era. These figures are for near-surface water; substantial amounts of water may have existed as deep ground ice and groundwater. Our estimate of approximately 24 m near-surface water in the Late Noachian is insufficient to support an ocean at that time also and favors episodic melting of an icy highlands to produce the fluvial and lacustrine features.

  1. Rapid surface-water volume estimations in beaver ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karran, Daniel J.; Westbrook, Cherie J.; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Johnston, Carol A.; Bedard-Haughn, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Beaver ponds are surface-water features that are transient through space and time. Such qualities complicate the inclusion of beaver ponds in local and regional water balances, and in hydrological models, as reliable estimates of surface-water storage are difficult to acquire without time- and labour-intensive topographic surveys. A simpler approach to overcome this challenge is needed, given the abundance of the beaver ponds in North America, Eurasia, and southern South America. We investigated whether simple morphometric characteristics derived from readily available aerial imagery or quickly measured field attributes of beaver ponds can be used to approximate surface-water storage among the range of environmental settings in which beaver ponds are found. Studied were a total of 40 beaver ponds from four different sites in North and South America. The simplified volume-area-depth (V-A-h) approach, originally developed for prairie potholes, was tested. With only two measurements of pond depth and corresponding surface area, this method estimated surface-water storage in beaver ponds within 5 % on average. Beaver pond morphometry was characterized by a median basin coefficient of 0.91, and dam length and pond surface area were strongly correlated with beaver pond storage capacity, regardless of geographic setting. These attributes provide a means for coarsely estimating surface-water storage capacity in beaver ponds. Overall, this research demonstrates that reliable estimates of surface-water storage in beaver ponds only requires simple measurements derived from aerial imagery and/or brief visits to the field. Future research efforts should be directed at incorporating these simple methods into both broader beaver-related tools and catchment-scale hydrological models.

  2. Metropolitan Spokane Region Water Resources Study. Appendix A. Surface Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    Plain Delineation and , 410.2-1 to 410.2-68 307 "Inventory of Water Quality Data and Identification of Data Gaps 307-1 to 307-104 A detailed index for...absence of a gage between the Hangman CieeK and Little Spokane confluence does not pose a serious data gap since Hangman Creek is gaged near the...a significa.t data gap for two reasons. The Little Spokane gage at Dartford, USGS number 12-4310-00, is 10.8 miles upstream from the confluence and

  3. Probing the water on chemically heterogeneous surface: interfacial-structural analysis for surface charge distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sucheol; Willard, Adam

    We introduce the novel method for predicting the charge distribution of chemically heterogeneous surface, but reconstructed from the perspective of the interfacial water molecules. Our approach is to analyze the response of water to a disordered surface and infer from that response the heterogeneous distribution of surface charge. We accomplish this using a framework that is based on a probabilistic description of water's interfacial molecular structure and maximum likelihood estimation. This framework allows to deduce the apparent charge that is most congruently represented by the set of water configurations over the particular region of a surface. We demonstrate that the estimated charge distribution is consistent to the actual distribution for a static model substrate and hence that our method can be applied to investigate a dynamic fluctuating substrate such as the surface of a hydrated protein. This novel technique provides the useful information that can reflect the influence of fluctuations in the structure of biomolecule.

  4. Integrated Water Flow Model (IWFM), A Tool For Numerically Simulating Linked Groundwater, Surface Water And Land-Surface Hydrologic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogrul, E. C.; Brush, C. F.; Kadir, T. N.

    2006-12-01

    The Integrated Water Flow Model (IWFM) is a comprehensive input-driven application for simulating groundwater flow, surface water flow and land-surface hydrologic processes, and interactions between these processes, developed by the California Department of Water Resources (DWR). IWFM couples a 3-D finite element groundwater flow process and 1-D land surface, lake, stream flow and vertical unsaturated-zone flow processes which are solved simultaneously at each time step. The groundwater flow system is simulated as a multilayer aquifer system with a mixture of confined and unconfined aquifers separated by semiconfining layers. The groundwater flow process can simulate changing aquifer conditions (confined to unconfined and vice versa), subsidence, tile drains, injection wells and pumping wells. The land surface process calculates elemental water budgets for agricultural, urban, riparian and native vegetation classes. Crop water demands are dynamically calculated using distributed soil properties, land use and crop data, and precipitation and evapotranspiration rates. The crop mix can also be automatically modified as a function of pumping lift using logit functions. Surface water diversions and groundwater pumping can each be specified, or can be automatically adjusted at run time to balance water supply with water demand. The land-surface process also routes runoff to streams and deep percolation to the unsaturated zone. Surface water networks are specified as a series of stream nodes (coincident with groundwater nodes) with specified bed elevation, conductance and stage-flow relationships. Stream nodes are linked to form stream reaches. Stream inflows at the model boundary, surface water diversion locations, and one or more surface water deliveries per location are specified. IWFM routes stream flows through the network, calculating groundwater-surface water interactions, accumulating inflows from runoff, and allocating available stream flows to meet specified or

  5. Methamphetamine enhances memory of operantly conditioned respiratory behavior in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Colin D; Houmes, Stephen W; Wyrick, Katherine L; Kammerzell, Samuel M; Lukowiak, Ken; Sorg, Barbara A

    2010-06-15

    Amphetamines have been used as cognitive enhancers to promote learning and memory. Amphetamines are also drugs of abuse that may promote the initiation of strong memories that ultimately lead to addiction. To understand how methamphetamine (Meth) may be augmenting learning and memory, we chose a relatively simple system, the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. We studied the effects of Meth exposure on the long-term memory (LTM), extinction and reinstatement of operantly conditioned aerial respiratory behavior in Lymnaea. We first determined doses of Meth that would acutely alter respiratory behavior. Next, we measured the impact of training snails in Meth solution or water (control group) using a training procedure that produces LTM (>6 h) in control conditions. Meth exposure impaired the expression of LTM 21 h after two training sessions, but this appeared to be a context-dependent effect only. However, snails exposed to 3.3 mumol l(-1) Meth during training had a decreased rate of extinction of the operantly conditioned memory. We then tested whether this decreased ability of snails to extinguish memory was due to enhanced LTM or impaired extinction of that memory. Snails were operantly conditioned in water and exposed to Meth 16 h after their last trial but 4-5 h prior to extinction. Meth produced an increase rather than a decrease in extinction rate. Thus, Meth impaired extinction only when snails were exposed to Meth during training. Last, we tested the effect of Meth on the ability to form LTM using a single training procedure that is suboptimal for LTM formation. Control snails did not demonstrate LTM, as expected, but pre-exposure of snails to 3.3 micromol l(-1) Meth 24 h prior to the single training session produced LTM 24 h later, indicating that Meth pre-exposure primed snails for LTM formation. Taken together, our studies suggest that LTM is strengthened by Meth such that extinction training is less effective. Lymnaea provides a simple and useful model

  6. Water transport mechanism through open capillaries analyzed by direct surface modifications on biological surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Daisuke; Horiguchi, Hiroko; Hirai, Yuji; Yabu, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Ijiro, Kuniharu; Tsujii, Kaoru; Shimozawa, Tateo; Hariyama, Takahiko; Shimomura, Masatsugu

    2013-10-01

    Some small animals only use water transport mechanisms passively driven by surface energies. However, little is known about passive water transport mechanisms because it is difficult to measure the wettability of microstructures in small areas and determine the chemistry of biological surfaces. Herein, we developed to directly analyse the structural effects of wettability of chemically modified biological surfaces by using a nanoliter volume water droplet and a hi-speed video system. The wharf roach Ligia exotica transports water only by using open capillaries in its legs containing hair- and paddle-like microstructures. The structural effects of legs chemically modified with a self-assembled monolayer were analysed, so that the wharf roach has a smart water transport system passively driven by differences of wettability between the microstructures. We anticipate that this passive water transport mechanism may inspire novel biomimetic fluid manipulations with or without a gravitational field.

  7. Water transport mechanism through open capillaries analyzed by direct surface modifications on biological surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Daisuke; Horiguchi, Hiroko; Hirai, Yuji; Yabu, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Ijiro, Kuniharu; Tsujii, Kaoru; Shimozawa, Tateo; Hariyama, Takahiko; Shimomura, Masatsugu

    2013-10-23

    Some small animals only use water transport mechanisms passively driven by surface energies. However, little is known about passive water transport mechanisms because it is difficult to measure the wettability of microstructures in small areas and determine the chemistry of biological surfaces. Herein, we developed to directly analyse the structural effects of wettability of chemically modified biological surfaces by using a nanoliter volume water droplet and a hi-speed video system. The wharf roach Ligia exotica transports water only by using open capillaries in its legs containing hair- and paddle-like microstructures. The structural effects of legs chemically modified with a self-assembled monolayer were analysed, so that the wharf roach has a smart water transport system passively driven by differences of wettability between the microstructures. We anticipate that this passive water transport mechanism may inspire novel biomimetic fluid manipulations with or without a gravitational field.

  8. Experimental Observation of Dark Solitons on Water Surface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    Experimental observation of dark solitons on water surface A. Chabchoub1,∗, O. Kimmoun2, H. Branger3, N. Hoffmann1, D. Proment4, M. Onorato4,5, and N...observation of dark solitons on the water surface. It takes the form of an amplitude drop of the carrier wave which does not change shape in propagation...The shape and width of the soliton depend on the water depth, carrier frequency and the amplitude of the background wave. The experimental data

  9. Asphaltene surface activity at oil/water interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, E.Y.; Shields, M.B.

    1995-11-01

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) dynamic surface tension (DST), dynamic interfacial tension (DIFT), and zero shear viscosity were used to study the surface activity of Ratawi asphaltenes in organic solvents, in the asphaltene/water/toluene emulsions and at the toluene/aqueous solution interfaces. In organic solvents, the kinetic process of micellization and the micellar structure are characterized. Their dependence on asphaltene concentration was investigated. The emulsion droplet structure and their capability in water uptake was tested. Also, the enhancement of surface activity of asphaltenes and its potential applications are briefly discussed.

  10. Estimation of surface runoff and water-covered area during filling of surface microrelief depressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.

    2000-05-01

    During the filling of surface microrelief depressions the precipitation excess (precipitation minus infiltration and interception) is divided between surface storage and runoff, i.e. runoff starts before the surface depressions are filled. Information on the division of precipitation excess is needed for modelling surface runoff during the filling of surface depressions. Furthermore, information on the surface of the area covered with water is needed for calculating infiltration of water stored in soil surface depressions. Thirty-two soil surface microreliefs were determined in Danish erosion study plots. The slope was c. 10% for all plots. Data were treated initially by removing the slope, after which 20 artificial slopes (1-20%) were introduced producing 640 new data sets. Runoff during filling of the microrelief storage was calculated for each of the 640 data sets using a model developed for calculating surface storage and runoff from grid elevation measurements. Runoff started immediately after the first addition of water for all data sets. On a field scale, however, runoff has to travel some distance as overland flow and storage in smaller and larger depressions below the runoff initiation point must be taken into consideration. The runoff increases by intermittent steps. Whenever a depression starts to overflow to the border of the plot, the runoff jumps accordingly. In spite of the jumps, the distribution between surface storage and runoff was closely related to the quotient between precipitation excess and depression storage capacity. Surface area covered with water was exponentially related to the amount of water stored in surface depressions. Models for calculating surface storage and runoff from grid elevation measurements are cumbersome and require time-consuming measurements of the soil surface microrelief. Therefore, estimation from roughness indices requiring fewer measurements is desirable. New improved equations for such estimations are suggested.

  11. The Proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Alsdorf, Douglas; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Morrow, Rosemary; Mognard, Nelly; Vaze, Parag; Lafon, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    A new space mission concept called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) is being developed jointly by a collaborative effort of the international oceanographic and hydrological communities for making high-resolution measurement of the water elevation of both the ocean and land surface water to answer the questions about the oceanic submesoscale processes and the storage and discharge of land surface water. The key instrument payload would be a Ka-band radar interferometer capable of making high-resolution wide-swath altimetry measurement. This paper describes the proposed science objectives and requirements as well as the measurement approach of SWOT, which is baselined to be launched in 2019. SWOT would demonstrate this new approach to advancing both oceanography and land hydrology and set a standard for future altimetry missions.

  12. Thermal surface signatures of ship propeller wakes in stratified waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voropayev, S. I.; Nath, C.; Fernando, H. J. S.

    2012-11-01

    When a ship moves in temperature stratified water, e.g., in the ocean diurnal thermocline, the propeller(s) as well as the turbulent boundary layer of the hull mix the surface water with underlying colder fluid. As a result, when observed from above, a temperature "wake signature" of ˜1-2 °C may be detected at the water surface. To quantify this phenomenon, theoretical modeling and physical experiments were conducted. The dominant processes responsible for thermal wake generation were identified and parameterized. Most important similarity parameters were derived and estimates for wake signature contrast were made. To verify model predictions, scaled experiments were conducted, with the water surface temperature measured using a sensitive infrared camera. Comparison of laboratory measurements with model estimates has shown satisfactory agreement, both qualitative and quantitatively. Estimates for ocean ship-wake scenarios are also given, which are supported by available field observations.

  13. Circumnutation on the water surface: female flowers of Vallisneria

    PubMed Central

    Kosuge, Keiko; Iida, Satoko; Katou, Kiyoshi; Mimura, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Circumnutation, the helical movement of growing organ tips, is ubiquitous in land plants. The mechanisms underlying circumnutation have been debated since Darwin's time. Experiments in space and mutant analyses have revealed that internal oscillatory (tropism-independent) movement and gravitropic response are involved in circumnutation. Female flower buds of tape grass (Vallisneria asiatica var. biwaensis) circumnutate on the water surface. Our observations and experiments with an artificial model indicated that gravitropism is barely involved in circumnutation. Instead, we show that helical intercalary growth at the base of peduncle plays the primary role in all movements in Vallisneria. This growth pattern produces torsional bud rotation, and gravity and buoyancy forces have a physical effect on the direction of peduncle elongation, resulting in bud circumnutation on the water surface. In contrast to other water-pollinated hydrophilous plants, circumnutation in Vallisneria enables female flowers to actively collect male flowers from a larger surface area of water. PMID:23355948

  14. Experimental water droplet impingement data on modern aircraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadakis, Michael; Breer, Marlin D.; Craig, Neil C.; Bidwell, Colin S.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental method has been developed to determine the water droplet impingement characteristics on two- and three-dimensional aircraft surfaces. The experimental water droplet impingement data are used to validate particle trajectory analysis codes that are used in aircraft icing analyses and engine inlet particle separator analyses. The aircraft surface is covered with thin strips of blotter paper in areas of interest. The surface is then exposed to an airstream that contains a dyed-water spray cloud. The water droplet impingement data are extracted from the dyed blotter paper strips by measuring the optical reflectance of each strip with an automated reflectometer. Preliminary experimental and analytical impingement efficiency data are presented for a NLF(1)-0414F airfoil, s swept MS(1)-0317 airfoil, a swept NACA 0012 wingtip and for a Boeing 737-300 engine inlet model.

  15. Thin water film formation on metal oxide crystal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Katz, Jordan E; Rude, Bruce; Glover, T E; Hertlein, Marcus P; Kurz, Charles; Zhang, Xiaoyi

    2012-10-09

    Reactions taking place at hydrated metal oxide surfaces are of considerable environmental and technological importance. Surface-sensitive X-ray methods can provide structural and chemical information on stable interfacial species, but it is challenging to perform in situ studies of reaction kinetics in the presence of water. We have implemented a new approach to creating a micrometer-scale water film on a metal oxide surface by combining liquid and gas jets on a spinning crystal. The water films are stable indefinitely and sufficiently thin to allow grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity and spectroscopy measurements. The approach will enable studies of a wide range of surface reactions and is compatible with interfacial optical-pump/X-ray-probe studies.

  16. Hydrodynamic interaction between rigid surfaces planing on water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Ghazi; Matveev, Konstantin

    2016-11-01

    This study addresses hydrodynamic interaction of multi-surface planing hulls in the linearized, inviscid, steady flow approximation. A potential-flow-based hydrodynamic sources are distributed on the water surface to model water flow around three-dimensional hulls at finite Froude numbers. The pressure distribution on the hull surfaces are calculated as a part of the solution, and then the lift force and center of pressure are determined. For validation, numerical results are compared with an available analytical solution, experimental results, and empirical correlation equations. Parametric calculations are carried out for different hull designs in variable speed regimes, hull aspect ratios, deadrise angles and hull spacings. Results are presented for the lift coefficient, drag components, lift-drag ratio, center of pressure, and some illustrations are given for the water surface elevations. Obtained results can assist naval architects in improving design of high speed marine vehicles.

  17. Specialized insulin is used for chemical warfare by fish-hunting cone snails.

    PubMed

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Gajewiak, Joanna; Karanth, Santhosh; Robinson, Samuel D; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Douglass, Adam D; Schlegel, Amnon; Imperial, Julita S; Watkins, Maren; Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K; Yandell, Mark; Li, Qing; Purcell, Anthony W; Norton, Raymond S; Ellgaard, Lars; Olivera, Baldomero M

    2015-02-10

    More than 100 species of venomous cone snails (genus Conus) are highly effective predators of fish. The vast majority of venom components identified and functionally characterized to date are neurotoxins specifically targeted to receptors, ion channels, and transporters in the nervous system of prey, predators, or competitors. Here we describe a venom component targeting energy metabolism, a radically different mechanism. Two fish-hunting cone snails, Conus geographus and Conus tulipa, have evolved specialized insulins that are expressed as major components of their venoms. These insulins are distinctive in having much greater similarity to fish insulins than to the molluscan hormone and are unique in that posttranslational modifications characteristic of conotoxins (hydroxyproline, γ-carboxyglutamate) are present. When injected into fish, the venom insulin elicits hypoglycemic shock, a condition characterized by dangerously low blood glucose. Our evidence suggests that insulin is specifically used as a weapon for prey capture by a subset of fish-hunting cone snails that use a net strategy to capture prey. Insulin appears to be a component of the nirvana cabal, a toxin combination in these venoms that is released into the water to disorient schools of small fish, making them easier to engulf with the snail's distended false mouth, which functions as a net. If an entire school of fish simultaneously experiences hypoglycemic shock, this should directly facilitate capture by the predatory snail.

  18. Heat shock proteins and survival strategies in congeneric land snails (Sphincterochila) from different habitats.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Tal; Heller, Joseph; Goldenberg, Shoshana; Arad, Zeev

    2012-09-01

    Polmunate land snails are subject to stress conditions in their terrestrial habitat, and depend on a range of behavioural, physiological and biochemical adaptations for coping with problems of maintaining water, ionic and thermal balance. The involvement of the heat shock protein (HSP) machinery in land snails was demonstrated following short-term experimental aestivation and heat stress, suggesting that land snails use HSPs as part of their survival strategy. As climatic variation was found to be associated with HSP expression, we tested whether adaptation of land snails to different habitats affects HSP expression in two closely related Sphincterochila snail species, a desert species Sphincterochila zonata and a Mediterranean-type species Sphincterochila cariosa. Our study suggests that Sphincterochila species use HSPs as part of their survival strategy following desiccation and heat stress, and as part of the natural annual cycle of activity and aestivation. Our studies also indicate that adaptation to different habitats results in the development of distinct strategies of HSP expression in response to stress, namely the reduced expression of HSPs in the desert-inhabiting species. We suggest that these different strategies reflect the difference in heat and aridity encountered in the natural habitats, and that the desert species S. zonata relies on mechanisms and adaptations other than HSP induction thus avoiding the fitness consequences of continuous HSP upregulation.

  19. Behavioural responses of the snail Lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates in snail-attractant pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Farindra; Singh, D. K.

    Snail control is one of the most important tools in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. In order to attain this objective, the method of bait formulation in order to contain an attractant and a molluscicide is an expedient approach to lure the target snail population to the molluscicide. This study identifies certain carbohydrates, namely sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose and starch, for preparing such baits. These were tested on Lymnaea acuminata, an intermediate host of the digenean trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The behavioural responses of snails to these carbohydrates were examined. Significant variations in behavioural responses were observed in the snail even when the five carbohydrates were used in low concentrations in snail-attractant pellets. Starch emerged as the strongest attractant for Lymnaea acuminata, followed by maltose.

  20. Surface tension isotherms of the dioxane-acetone-water and glycerol-ethanol-water ternary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhambulatov, R. S.; Dadashev, R. Kh.; Elimkhanov, D. Z.; Dadashev, I. N.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the experimental and theoretical studies of the concentration dependence of surface tension of aqueous solutions of the 1,4-dioxane-acetone-water and glycerol-ethanol-water ternary systems were given. The studies were performed by the hanging-drop method on a DSA100 tensiometer. The maximum error of surface tension was 1%. The theoretical models for calculating the surface tension of the ternary systems of organic solutions were analyzed.

  1. Supplementary report on surface-water and ground-water surveys, Nueces River Basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broadhurst, W.L.; Ellsworth, C.E.

    1950-01-01

    A report on the ground-water and surface-water surveys of the Nueces River Basin was included in a report by the Bureau of Reclamation, entitled "Comprehensive plan for water-resources development of the Nueces River Basin project planning report number 5-14.04-3, February 1946".

  2. DETECTION OF A GROUND-WATER/SURFACE-WATER INTERFACE WITH DIRECT-PUSH EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A ground-water/surface-water interface (GSI) was documented at the Thermo Chem CERCLA Site in Muskegon, MI via direct-push (DP) sampling. At that time, contaminated ground water flowed from the upland area of the site into the Black Creek floodplain. DP rods equipped with a 1.5...

  3. ARSENIC SORUCE IDENTIFICATION AT THE GROUND WATER-SURFACE WATER INTERACTION ZONE AT A CONTAMINATED SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the challenges in assessing the current impact of the discharge of arsenic contaminated ground water into a surface water body is differentiating the arsenic ground-water flux versus dissolution of in-place contaminated sediments. A field investigation has been carried ou...

  4. 77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of public..., concerning information that may inform the regulatory review of the uncovered finished water...

  5. Hydrochemical characteristics and water quality assessment of surface water and groundwater in Songnen plain, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Yinghua; Han, Dongmei; Tang, Changyuan; Yu, Yilei; Ma, Ying

    2012-05-15

    Water quality is the critical factor that influence on human health and quantity and quality of grain production in semi-humid and semi-arid area. Songnen plain is one of the grain bases in China, as well as one of the three major distribution regions of soda saline-alkali soil in the world. To assess the water quality, surface water and groundwater were sampled and analyzed by fuzzy membership analysis and multivariate statistics. The surface water were gather into class I, IV and V, while groundwater were grouped as class I, II, III and V by fuzzy membership analysis. The water samples were grouped into four categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagrams of USDA. Most water samples distributed in category C1-S1, C2-S2 and C3-S3. Three groups were generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. Four principal components were extracted from principal component analysis. The indicators to water quality assessment were Na, HCO(3), NO(3), Fe, Mn and EC from principal component analysis. We conclude that surface water and shallow groundwater are suitable for irrigation, the reservoir and deep groundwater in upstream are the resources for drinking. The water for drinking should remove of the naturally occurring ions of Fe and Mn. The control of sodium and salinity hazard is required for irrigation. The integrated management of surface water and groundwater for drinking and irrigation is to solve the water issues.

  6. Snail shells as larval habitat of Limatus durhamii (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Yungas of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mangudo, Carolina; Campos, Raúl E; Rossi, Gustavo C; Gleiser, Raquel M

    2017-03-01

    The shells of dead snails collect water from rainfalls producing aquatic microenvironments called gastrotelmata. These habitats are small and hold simple detritus based on animal communities, being rotifers and culicids the most studied. Although a high diversity of aquatic microhabitats has been reported as larval habitats of mosquitoes in Argentina, the shell of snails has not been investigated yet. We report the shells of three species of native Megalobulimus genus as larval habitats of a neotropical mosquito and suspected vector of bunyaviruses, Limatus durhamii, and describe these microhabitats in the Yungas forest of Argentina.

  7. Snail control in urban sites in Brazil with slow-release hexabutyldistannoxane and pentachlorophenol*

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, J. V.; Da Silva, C. S. Monteiro; Bulhões, M. S.; Leme, L. A. Paes; Netto, J. A. Da Silva; Gilbert, B.

    1976-01-01

    Slow release formulations of hexabutyldistannoxane (TBTO) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were tested for the control of Biomphalaria tenagophila in 52 urban sites in Rio de Janeiro. TBTO acted faster and lasted longer than PCP and at 15 g/m2 it eliminated snails from 76% of the treated sites for 1 year. Water pollution and rate of flow had no significant influence on the molluscicidal properties of either compound, but alkalinity lowered the activity of TBTO. Failure to control snail populations was due mainly to human interference and to the non-treatment of adjacent breeding sites that were temporarily dry and therefore overlooked. PMID:1088356

  8. Experimental Values of the Surface Tension of Supercooled Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, P. T.

    1951-01-01

    The results of surface-tension measurements for supercooled water are presented. A total of 702 individual measurements of surface tension of triple-distilled water were made in the temperature range, 27 to -22.2 C, with 404 of these measurements at temperatures below 0 C. The increase in magnitude of surface tension with decreasing temperature, as indicated by measurements above 0 C, continues to -22.2 C. The inflection point in the surface-tension - temperature relation in the vicinity of 0 C, as indicated by the International Critical Table values for temperatures down to -8 C, is substantiated by the measurements in the temperature range, 0 to -22.2 C. The surface tension increases at approximately a linear rate from a value of 76.96+/-0.06 dynes per centimeter at -8 C to 79.67+/-0.06 dynes per centimeter at -22.2 C.

  9. Salinity adaptation of the invasive New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) in the Columbia River estuary (Pacific Northwest, USA): Physiological and molecular studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoy, Marshal; Boese, Bruce L.; Taylor, Louise; Reusser, Deborah; Rodriguez, Rusty

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine salinity stress tolerances of two populations of the invasive species New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, one population from a high salinity environment in the Columbia River estuary and the other from a fresh water lake. In 1996, New Zealand mud snails were discovered in the tidal reaches of the Columbia River estuary that is routinely exposed to salinity at near full seawater concentrations. In contrast, in their native habitat and throughout its spread in the western US, New Zealand mud snails are found only in fresh water ecosystems. Our aim was to determine whether the Columbia River snails have become salt water adapted. Using a modification of the standard amphipod sediment toxicity test, salinity tolerance was tested using a range of concentrations up to undiluted seawater, and the snails were sampled for mortality at daily time points. Our results show that the Columbia River snails were more tolerant of acute salinity stress with the LC50 values averaging 38 and 22 Practical Salinity Units for the Columbia River and freshwater snails, respectively. DNA sequence analysis and morphological comparisons of individuals representing each population indicate that they were all P. antipodarum. These results suggest that this species is salt water adaptable and in addition, this investigation helps elucidate the potential of this aquatic invasive organism to adapt to adverse environmental conditions.

  10. Influence of surface structure and chemistry on water droplet splashing.

    PubMed

    Koch, Kerstin; Grichnik, Roland

    2016-08-06

    Water droplet splashing and aerosolization play a role in human hygiene and health systems as well as in crop culturing. Prevention or reduction of splashing can prevent transmission of diseases between animals and plants and keep technical systems such as pipe or bottling systems free of contamination. This study demonstrates to what extent the surface chemistry and structures influence the water droplet splashing behaviour. Smooth surfaces and structured replicas of Calathea zebrina (Sims) Lindl. leaves were produced. Modification of their wettability was done by coating with hydrophobizing and hydrophilizing agents. Their wetting was characterized by contact angle measurement and splashing behaviour was observed with a high-speed video camera. Hydrophobic and superhydrophilic surfaces generally showed fewer tendencies to splash than hydrophobic ones. Structuring amplified the underlying behaviour of the surface chemistries, increasing hydrophobic surfaces' tendency to splash and decreasing splash on hydrophilic surfaces by quickly transporting water off the impact point by capillary forces. The non-porous surface structures found in C. zebrina could easily be applied to technical products such as plastic foils or mats and coated with hydrophilizing agents to suppress splash in areas of increased hygiene requirements or wherever pooling of liquids is not desirable.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'.

  11. Solitary Water Waves of Large Amplitude Generated by Surface Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Miles H.

    2015-11-01

    We consider exact nonlinear solitary water waves on a shear flow with an arbitrary distribution of vorticity. Ignoring surface tension, we impose a non-constant pressure on the free surface. Starting from a uniform shear flow with a flat free surface and a supercritical wave speed, we vary the surface pressure and use a continuation argument to construct a global connected set of symmetric solitary waves. This set includes waves of depression whose profiles increase monotonically from a central trough where the surface pressure is at its lowest, as well as waves of elevation whose profiles decrease monotonically from a central crest where the surface pressure is at its highest. There may also be two waves in this connected set with identical surface pressure, only one of which is a wave of depression.

  12. Origin of subdiffusion of water molecules on cell membrane surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Eiji; Akimoto, Takuma; Yasui, Masato; Yasuoka, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Water molecules play an important role in providing unique environments for biological reactions on cell membranes. It is widely believed that water molecules form bridges that connect lipid molecules and stabilize cell membranes. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we show that translational and rotational diffusion of water molecules on lipid membrane surfaces exhibit subdiffusion and aging. Moreover, we provide evidence that both divergent mean trapping time (continuous-time random walk) and long-correlated noise (fractional Brownian motion) contribute to this subdiffusion. These results suggest that subdiffusion on cell membranes causes the water retardation, an enhancement of cell membrane stability, and a higher reaction efficiency. PMID:24739933

  13. Foulant characteristics comparison in recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water and surface water in power plant.

    PubMed

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

  14. Foulant Characteristics Comparison in Recycling Cooling Water System Makeup by Municipal Reclaimed Water and Surface Water in Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water. PMID:25893132

  15. Scratching the surface of the water dication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Huis, Timothy J.; Wesolowski, Steven S.; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Schaefer, Henry F.

    1999-06-01

    The X˜ 3Σg-, ã 1Δg, and b˜ 1Σg+ states of the water dication, H2O2+, have been investigated using several high-level ab initio methods and a range of basis sets. With Dunning's augmented correlation consistent polarized valence quadruple-ζ (aug-cc-pVQZ) basis set at the complete active space self-consistent field second-order configuration interaction (CAS-SOCI) level, it is confirmed that the ground and first two excited states of H2O2+ are all of D∞h symmetry, in violation of Walsh's rules for 6 valence electron AH2 systems. The singlet-triplet splitting (X˜ 3Σg-—ã 1Δg) is predicted to be 53.6 kcal/mol (2.32 eV, 18 700 cm-1), while the X˜ 3Σg-—b˜ 1Σg+ separation is predicted to be 91.1 kcal/mol (3.95 eV, 31 900 cm-1). The vertical double ionization potentials (IPs) from X˜ 1A1 H2O to the X˜ 3B1, 1 1A1, b˜ 1B1, and 2 1A1 states of H2O2+ are predicted within the cc-pVQZ basis to be 40.1, 41.2, 42.6, and 46.1 eV, respectively, in good agreement with recent double-charge-transfer spectroscopic results. The corresponding adiabatic double IPs are 37.0, 39.3, and 41.0 eV to the X˜ 3Σg-, ã 1Δg, and b˜ 1Σg+ states of H2O2+, respectively. The activation barrier to fragmentation of H2O2+ (X˜ 3Σg- H2O2+→3Σ- OH++H+) at the cc-pVQZ CAS-SOCI level is predicted to be 2.1 kcal/mol (0.10 eV, 738 cm-1), and the reaction is exothermic by 126.4 kcal/mol (5.48 eV, 44 210 cm-1), providing a challenge for direct experimental detection of this elusive molecule.

  16. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Surface Water Protection: A Watershed Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Coty, J

    2009-03-16

    This surface water protection plan (plan) provides an overview of the management efforts implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that support a watershed approach to protect surface water. This plan fulfills a requirement in the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A to demonstrate a watershed approach for surface water protection that protects the environment and public health. This plan describes the use of a watershed approach within which the Laboratory's current surface water management and protections efforts have been structured and coordinated. With more than 800 million acres of land in the U.S. under federal management and stewardship, a unified approach across agencies provides enhanced resource protection and cost-effectiveness. The DOE adopted, along with other federal agencies, the Unified Federal Policy for a Watershed Approach to Federal Land and Resource Management (UFP) with a goal to protect water quality and aquatic ecosystems on federal lands. This policy intends to prevent and/or reduce water pollution from federal activities while fostering a cost-effective watershed approach to federal land and resource management. The UFP also intends to enhance the implementation of existing laws (e.g., the Clean Water Act [CWA] and National Environmental Policy Act [NEPA]) and regulations. In addition, this provides an opportunity for the federal government to serve as a model for water quality stewardship using a watershed approach for federal land and resource activities that potentially impact surface water and its uses. As a federal land manager, the Laboratory is responsible for a small but important part of those 800 million acres of land. Diverse land uses are required to support the Laboratory's mission and provide an appropriate work environment for its staff. The Laboratory comprises two sites: its main site in Livermore, California, and the Experimental Test Site (Site 300), near Tracy, California. The main site is largely

  17. Model for outgassing of water from metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Minxu; Dylla, Fred

    1993-06-01

    Numerous measurements of outgassing from metal surfaces show that the outgassing obeys a power law of the form Q=Q{sub 10}t{sup -alpha}, where alpha is typically near unity. For unbaked systems, outgassing is dominated by water. This work demonstrates that alpha is a function of the water vapor exposure during venting of the system, and the physical properties of the passivation oxide layer on the surface. An analytic expression for the outgassing rate is derived based on the assumption that the rate of water diffusing through the passivation oxide layer to the surface governs the rate of its release into the vacuum. The source distribution function for the desorbing water is assumed to be a combination of a Gaussian distribution centered at the interior surface driven by atmospheric exposure, and a uniform concentration throughout the bulk. We have measured the outgassing rate from a clean stainless-steel (type 304) chamber as a function of water exposure to the chamber surface from <1 to 600 monolayers. The measured outgassing rate data show that alpha tends to 0.5 for low H{sub 2}O exposures and tends to 1.5 for high H{sub 2}O exposures as predicted by the model.

  18. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    SciTech Connect

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R. Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H.; Akiyama, M.; Lukeš, P.

    2014-09-28

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H₂O₂ and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  19. The significant surface-water connectivity of "geographically isolated wetlands"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Mushet, David M.; Alexander, Laurie C.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Richter, Stephen; Walls, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the current literature, coupled with our collective research expertise, on surface-water connectivity of wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” (sensu Tiner Wetlands 23:494–516, 2003a) to critically assess the scientific foundation of grouping wetlands based on the singular condition of being surrounded by uplands. The most recent research on wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” shows the difficulties in grouping an ecological resource that does not reliably indicate lack of surface water connectivity in order to meet legal, regulatory, or scientific needs. Additionally, the practice of identifying “geographically isolated wetlands” based on distance from a stream can result in gross overestimates of the number of wetlands lacking ecologically important surface-water connections. Our findings do not support use of the overly simplistic label of “geographically isolated wetlands”. Wetlands surrounded by uplands vary in function and surface-water connections based on wetland landscape setting, context, climate, and geographic region and should be evaluated as such. We found that the “geographically isolated” grouping does not reflect our understanding of the hydrologic variability of these wetlands and hence does not benefit conservation of the Nation’s diverse wetland resources. Therefore, we strongly discourage use of categorizations that provide overly simplistic views of surface-water connectivity of wetlands fully embedded in upland landscapes.

  20. The utility of surface temperature measurements for the remote sensing of surface soil water status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Reginato, R. J.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments carried out on an Avondale loam soil indicated that the thermal inertia concept of soil water content detection is reasonably sound. The volumetric water contents of surface soil layers between 2 and 4 cm thick were found to be linear functions of the amplitude of the diurnal surface soil temperature wave for clear day-night periods. They were also found to be linear functions of the daily maximum value of the surface soil-air-temperature differential. Tests on three additional soils ranging from sandy loam to clay indicated that the relations determined for Avondale loam could not be accurately applied to these other soil types. When the moisture characteristic curves of each soil were used to transform water contents into pressure potentials, however, it was found that soil water pressure potential could be determined without prior knowledge of soil type, and thus its value as a potential soil water status survey tool was significantly enhanced.

  1. Impact of Water Recovery from Wastes on the Lunar Surface Mission Water Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John Andrew; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Pace, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Future extended lunar surface missions will require extensive recovery of resources to reduce mission costs and enable self-sufficiency. Water is of particular importance due to its potential use for human consumption and hygiene, general cleaning, clothes washing, radiation shielding, cooling for extravehicular activity suits, and oxygen and hydrogen production. Various water sources are inherently present or are generated in lunar surface missions, and subject to recovery. They include: initial water stores, water contained in food, human and other solid wastes, wastewaters and associated brines, ISRU water, and scavenging from residual propellant in landers. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the contribution of water recovery from life support wastes on the overall water balance for lunar surface missions. Water in human wastes, metabolic activity and survival needs are well characterized and dependable figures are available. A detailed life support waste model was developed that summarizes the composition of life support wastes and their water content. Waste processing technologies were reviewed for their potential to recover that water. The recoverable water in waste is a significant contribution to the overall water balance. The value of this contribution is discussed in the context of the other major sources and loses of water. Combined with other analyses these results provide guidance for research and technology development and down-selection.

  2. Recent changes in surface water extent over the Northern latitudes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, F.; Prigent, C.; Rossow, W. B.

    2009-04-01

    All climate scenarios agree on the high sensitivity of the northern regions to global change, with a stronger warming at these latitudes than globally. Continued warming will likely have profound consequences for many continental systems throughout the region. In particular, an increase in air temperature is expected to intensify the Arctic hydrological cycle. As a key parameter of the global biogeochemical and hydrological cycles, terrestrial surface waters (rivers, lakes, man-made reservoirs, wetlands and episodically inundation) are of a particular importance because they interact directly with the ocean and atmosphere. Using a multi-satellite method, including passive microwave land surface emissivities, along with active microwave, visible and near infrared observations developed to estimate inundated area at global scale, we present here the recent changes observed in surface water extent in Northern latitudes over the period 1993-2004. Over these regions, results show a decline in surface water extent with large geographical contrasts between Eurasia and America, between the different large river basins and between the regions underlain or not by permafrost. For six major basins located in Eurasia and North America, we analyze theses changes in comparison with precipitation, temperature and in-situ river discharge variations. The Yenissey and the Lena river basins, which are largely underlain by permafrost, show the largest changes in surface water extent especially in July/August with a decline of about 1-2% per year. Our results support the idea that more deeply thawed permafrost, due to temperature increase in the Boreal regions, would promote increased soil infiltration and a possible shift of water storage from the surface/near surface to the subsurface. The implications of these results in term of energy, biochemical and water cycles will be discussed.

  3. Surface water pesticide modelling for decision support in drinking water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmet, Nele; Dams, Jef; Bronders, Jan; Peleman, Gisèle; Verdickt, Liesbeth

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of pesticides and other contaminants in river systems may compromise the use of surface water for drinking water production. To reduce the cost of removal of pesticides from the raw water, drinking water companies can: search for other raw water sources, invest in water storage capacity to overcome periods with high pesticide concentrations (often related to the application period), or impose measures to reduce the emission of pesticides to surface water (i.e. sustainable application strategies or use restrictions). To select the most appropriate water management options, the costs and effects of the aforementioned actions need to be evaluated. This evaluation requires knowledge on the concentrations and loads of pesticides at the point of drinking water abstraction, as well as insight in the contribution and the temporal variability of different sources or subbasins. In such a case, a modelling approach can assist in generating measurement-based datasets and to compare different scenarios for water management. We illustrate how a modelling approach can provide decision support for water management related to drinking water abstraction from surface water in a catchment that suffers from elevated pesticide concentrations. The study area is a water production center (WPC) located in northwestern Belgium. The WPC abstracts raw water from the river IJzer or from a natural pond and its connected streams. The available quantities as well as the quality of the water vary throughout the year. The WPC uses a reservoir of 3 million m³ to capture and store raw water to overcome periods with limited water availability and/or poor water quality. However, the pressure on water increases and in the future this buffering capacity might be no longer sufficient to fulfill the drinking water production demand. A surface water quality model for the area is set up using InfoWorks RS. The model is applied to obtain insight in the concentrations and loads at the different

  4. Hydrogeology and ground-water/surface water interactions in the Des Moines River valley, southwestern Minnesota, 1997-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowdery, Timothy K.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term withdrawals of water for public supplies may cause a net decrease in ground-water discharge to surface water. Water that does not evaporate, or that is not exported, is discharged to the Des Moines River but with changed water quality. Because ground-water and surface-water qualities in the study area are similar, the ground-water discharge probably has little effect on river water quality.

  5. Hydroeconomic optimization of integrated water management and transfers under stochastic surface water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tingju; Marques, Guilherme Fernandes; Lund, Jay R.

    2015-05-01

    Efficient reallocation and conjunctive operation of existing water supplies is gaining importance as demands grow, competitions among users intensify, and new supplies become more costly. This paper analyzes the roles and benefits of conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater and market-based water transfers in an integrated regional water system where agricultural and urban water users coordinate supply and demand management based on supply reliability and economic values of water. Agricultural users optimize land and water use for annual and perennial crops to maximize farm income, while urban users choose short-term and long-term water conservation actions to maintain reliability and minimize costs. The temporal order of these decisions is represented in a two-stage optimization that maximizes the net expected benefits of crop production, urban conservation and water management including conjunctive use and water transfers. Long-term decisions are in the first stage and short-term decisions are in a second stage based on probabilities of water availability events. Analytical and numerical analyses are made. Results show that conjunctive use and water transfers can substantially stabilize farmer's income and reduce system costs by reducing expensive urban water conservation or construction. Water transfers can equalize marginal values of water across users, while conjunctive use minimizes water marginal value differences in time. Model results are useful for exploring the integration of different water demands and supplies through water transfers, conjunctive use, and conservation, providing valuable insights for improving system management.

  6. Spatial development of the wind-driven water surface flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemin, Rémi; Caulliez, Guillemette

    2015-04-01

    The water velocity field induced by wind and waves beneath an air-water interface is investigated experimentally versus fetch in the large Marseille-Luminy wind wave tank. Measurements of the vertical velocity profiles inside the subsurface shear layer were performed by a three-component Nortek acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The surface drift current was also derived from visualizations of small floating drifters recorded by a video camera looking vertically from above the water surface. Surface wave height and slopes were determined simultaneously by means of capacitance gauges and a single-point laser slope system located in the immediate vicinity of the profiler. Observations were made at steady low to moderate wind speeds and various fetches ranging between 1 and 15 meters. This study first corroborates that the thin subsurface water boundary layer forced by wind at the leading edge of the water sheet is laminar. The surface drift current velocity indeed increases gradually with fetch, following a 1/3 power law characteristic of an accelerated flat-plate laminar boundary layer. The laminar-turbulent transition manifests itself by a sudden decrease in the water surface flow velocity and a rapid deepening of the boundary layer due to the development of large-scale longitudinal vortices. Further downstream, when characteristic capillary-gravity wind waves develop at the surface, the water flow velocity increases again rapidly within a sublayer of typically 4 mm depth. This phenomenon is explained by the occurrence of an intense momentum flux from waves to the mean flow due to the dissipation of parasitic capillaries generated ahead of the dominant wave crests. This phenomenon also sustains significant small-scale turbulent motions within the whole boundary layer. However, when gravity-capillary waves of length longer than 10 cm then grow at the water surface, the mean flow velocity field decreases drastically over the whole boundary layer thickness. At the same

  7. Octanol Water Partition Coefficients of Surface and Ground Water Contaminants Found at Military Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    and salt solutions. In Draft. 17. Wasik, S.P. 1978. Partition of Organoelements in Octanol/ Water /Air Systems. A.C.S. Syrnp. Ser. Organometallics and...relationship between N-octanol/ water partition coefficient and bloaccunulation of organic chemicals by Alga Chlorella . Chemosphere 13(2):269-284. 24...A D TECHNICAL REPORT 88-10 OCTANO. WATER PARTITION COEFFICIENTS OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATER CONTAMINANTS FOUND AT MILITARY INSTALLATIONS (0 MICHAEL A

  8. Reproduction and demography of the Florida Everglade (Snail) Kite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Beissinger, S.R.; Chandler, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    An 18-year study of reproduction and survival of the Florida Everglade (Snail) Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) has revealed the following: extremely poor nesting success (only 13.6% of nests found at the nest-building stage successful); extremely long breeding seasons (some reproductive activity in almost all months in good years); frequent multiple brooding and frequent multiple brooding and frequent renesting after failure; low egg hatchability (81%); high failure rates due to nest collapse, desertion, and predation; extremely high survival of juveniles and adults under good water conditions; and high vulnerability to drought due to near total dependency on a single species of drought-sensitive snail for food. Despite low nesting success, the species has increased rapidly under good conditions, mainly because of multiple nesting attempts within long breeding seasons and high survival rates of free-flying birds. Nesting success varied significantly between regions and nest substrates, but not as a function of seasons or solitary vs. colonial nesting. While nesting success was reduced in low water years, this effect was at least partly due to heavy use of poor nest substrates under such conditions. Clutch size and numbers of young per successful nest varied with regions, but not as a function of seasons or water levels. The effects of coloniality on clutch size and numbers of young were inconsistent. Significant effects of nest-substrate types on clutch size and numbers of young were apparently artifacts of substrate differences between regions.

  9. Temperature of surface waters in the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakey, James F.

    1966-01-01

    Temperature is probably the most important, but least discussed, parameter in determining water quality. The purpose of this report is to present the average or most probable temperatures of surface waters in the conterminous United States and to cite factors that affect and are affected by water temperature. Temperature is related, usually directly, to all the chemical, physical, and biological properties of water. The ability of water to dissolve or precipitate materials is temperature dependent, the ability of water to transport or deposit suspended material is temperature dependent, and the aquatic life of a lake or stream may thrive or die because of the water temperature.Everyone is concerned, though often unknowingly, about water temperature. The amount and type of treatment necessary for a municipal supply are temperature dependent; therefore it affects the consumer cost. Temperature determines the volume of cooling water needed for industrial processes and steampower generation. Conservation and recreation practices are affected by water temperature, and the farmers' irrigation practices and livestock production may be affected by the water temperature.

  10. Infiltration of pesticides in surface water into nearby drinking water supply wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaguerra, F.; Albrechtsen, H.; Binning, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Drinking water wells are often placed near streams because streams often overly permeable sediments and the water table is near the surface in valleys, and so pumping costs are reduced. The lowering of the water table by pumping wells can reverse the natural flow from the groundwater to the stream, inducing infiltration of surface water to groundwater and consequently to the drinking water well. Many attenuation processes can take place in the riparian zone, mainly due to mixing, biodegradation and sorption. However, if the water travel time from the surface water to the pumping well is too short, or if the compounds are poorly degradable, contaminants can reach the drinking water well at high concentrations, jeopardizing drinking water quality. Here we developed a reactive transport model to evaluate the risk of contamination of drinking water wells by surface water pollution. The model was validated using data of a tracer experiment in a riparian zone. Three compounds were considered: an older pesticide MCPP (Mecoprop) which is mobile and persistent, glyphosate (Roundup), a new biodegradable and strongly sorbed pesticide, and its degradation product AMPA. Global sensitivity analysis using the method of Morris was employed to identify the dominant model parameters. Results showed that the presence of an aquitard and its characteristics (degree of fracturing and thickness), pollutant properties and well depth are the crucial factors affecting the risk of drinking water well contamination from surface water. Global sensitivity analysis results were compared with rank correlation statistics between pesticide concentrations and geological parameters derived from a comprehensive database of Danish drinking water wells. Aquitard thickness and well depth are the most critical parameters in both the model and observed data.

  11. Return of naturally sourced Pb to Atlantic surface waters

    PubMed Central

    Bridgestock, Luke; van de Flierdt, Tina; Rehkämper, Mark; Paul, Maxence; Middag, Rob; Milne, Angela; Lohan, Maeve C.; Baker, Alex R.; Chance, Rosie; Khondoker, Roulin; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Achterberg, Eric P.; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic emissions completely overwhelmed natural marine lead (Pb) sources during the past century, predominantly due to leaded petrol usage. Here, based on Pb isotope measurements, we reassess the importance of natural and anthropogenic Pb sources to the tropical North Atlantic following the nearly complete global cessation of leaded petrol use. Significant proportions of up to 30–50% of natural Pb, derived from mineral dust, are observed in Atlantic surface waters, reflecting the success of the global effort to reduce anthropogenic Pb emissions. The observation of mineral dust derived Pb in surface waters is governed by the elevated atmospheric mineral dust concentration of the North African dust plume and the dominance of dry deposition for the atmospheric aerosol flux to surface waters. Given these specific regional conditions, emissions from anthropogenic activities will remain the dominant global marine Pb source, even in the absence of leaded petrol combustion. PMID:27678297

  12. In situ bioremediation of surface waters by periphytons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yonghong; Xia, Lizhong; Yu, Zhiqiang; Shabbir, Sadaf; Kerr, Philip G

    2014-01-01

    Environmentally benign and sustainable biomeasures have become attractive options for the in situ remediation of polluted surface waters. In this paper, we review the current state of reported experiments utilizing naturally occurring periphyton. These are microbial communities consisting of heterotrophic and photoautotrophic microorganisms that are reportedly capable of remediating surface waters which suffer from pollution due to a variety of contaminants. In our review, we focus on four aspects of bioremediation: multiple contaminant removal, the processes involved in contaminant removal, successful cell immobilization technologies and finally, the consideration of safety in aquaculture. It has been noted that recent developments in immobilization technologies offer a fresh approach facilitating the application of periphyton. The use of periphyton biofilm overcomes several disadvantages of single species microbial aggregates. The inclusion of periphyton, as a stable micro-ecosystem, is a promising in situ strategy to restore decimated surface water ecosystems.

  13. Return of naturally sourced Pb to Atlantic surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgestock, Luke; van de Flierdt, Tina; Rehkämper, Mark; Paul, Maxence; Middag, Rob; Milne, Angela; Lohan, Maeve C.; Baker, Alex R.; Chance, Rosie; Khondoker, Roulin; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Achterberg, Eric P.; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2016-09-01

    Anthropogenic emissions completely overwhelmed natural marine lead (Pb) sources during the past century, predominantly due to leaded petrol usage. Here, based on Pb isotope measurements, we reassess the importance of natural and anthropogenic Pb sources to the tropical North Atlantic following the nearly complete global cessation of leaded petrol use. Significant proportions of up to 30-50% of natural Pb, derived from mineral dust, are observed in Atlantic surface waters, reflecting the success of the global effort to reduce anthropogenic Pb emissions. The observation of mineral dust derived Pb in surface waters is governed by the elevated atmospheric mineral dust concentration of the North African dust plume and the dominance of dry deposition for the atmospheric aerosol flux to surface waters. Given these specific regional conditions, emissions from anthropogenic activities will remain the dominant global marine Pb source, even in the absence of leaded petrol combustion.

  14. Occurrence of illicit drugs in surface waters in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaiyang; Du, Peng; Xu, Zeqiong; Gao, Tingting; Li, Xiqing

    2016-06-01

    Illicit drugs have been recognized as a group of emerging contaminants. In this work, occurrence of common illicit drugs and their metabolites in Chinese surface waters was examined by collecting samples from 49 lakes and 4 major rivers across the country. Among the drugs examined, methamphetamine and ketamine were detected with highest frequencies and concentration levels, consistent with the fact that these are primary drugs of abuse in China. Detection frequencies and concentrations of other drugs were much lower than in European lakes and rivers reported in the literature. In most Chinese surface waters methamphetamine and ketamine were detected at concentrations of several ng L(-1) or less, but in some southern lakes and rivers, these two drugs were detected at much higher concentrations (up to several tens ng L(-1)). Greater occurrence of methamphetamine and ketamine in southern surface waters was attributed to greater abuse and more clandestine production of the two drugs in southern China.

  15. [The interplay between schistosome and its snail host: a review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Dai, Jian-Rong

    2012-12-01

    As the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, the control of Oncomelania snails serves as a major part in schistosomiasis control. This review mainly demonstrates the following aspects: the invasion of schistosome miracidium into snails, the mechanism of resistance to miracidia, and the factors influencing this process. With a view to explore the methods of interrupting every phase during miracidium infection, this article focuses on the possibility for safeguarding human health through protecting snails, namely, achieving snails harmlessness.

  16. The Snail-Induced Sulfonation Pathway in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    1 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0494 TITLE: The Snail -Induced Sulfonation...REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 July 2012 - 30 June 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0494 The Snail -induced...support: 1. Further characterization of Tetracycline inducible WT Snail and mutant Snail vectors and cell lines. 2. Demonstration that the PAPSS2

  17. Salty glycerol versus salty water surface organization: bromide and iodide surface propensities.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zishuai; Hua, Wei; Verreault, Dominique; Allen, Heather C

    2013-07-25

    Salty NaBr and NaI glycerol solution interfaces are examined in the OH stretching region using broadband vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are used to further understand the VSFG spectroscopic signature. The VSFG spectra of salty glycerol solutions reveal that bromide and iodide anions perturb the interfacial glycerol organization in a manner similar as that found in aqueous halide salt solutions, thus confirming the presence of bromide and iodide anions at the glycerol surface. Surface tension measurements are consistent with the surface propensity suggested by the VSFG data and also show that the surface excess increases with increasing salt concentration, similar to that of water. In addition, iodide is shown to have more surface prevalence than bromide, as has also been determined from aqueous solutions. These results suggest that glycerol behaves similarly to water with respect to surface activity and solvation of halide anions at its air/liquid interface.

  18. Improved simulation of groundwater - surface water interaction in catchment models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    teklesadik, aklilu; van Griensven, Ann; Anibas, Christian; Huysmans, Marijke

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater storage can have a significant contribution to stream flow, therefore a thorough understanding of the groundwater surface water interaction is of prime important when doing catchment modeling. The aim of this study is to improve the simulation of groundwater - surface water interaction in a catchment model of the upper Zenne River basin located in Belgium. To achieve this objective we used the "Groundwater-Surface water Flow" (GSFLOW) modeling software, which is an integration of the surface water modeling tool "Precipitation and Runoff Modeling system" (PRMS) and the groundwater modeling tool MODFLOW. For this case study, the PRMS model and MODFLOW model were built and calibrated independently. The PRMS upper Zenne River basin model is divided into 84 hydrological response units (HRUs) and is calibrated with flow data at the Tubize gauging station. The spatial discretization of the MODFLOW upper Zenne groundwater flow model consists of 100m grids. Natural groundwater divides and the Brussels-Charleroi canal are used as boundary conditions for the MODFLOW model. The model is calibrated using piezometric data. The GSFLOW results were evaluated against a SWAT model application and field observations of groundwater-surface water interactions along a cross section of the Zenne River and riparian zone. The field observations confirm that there is no exchange of groundwater beyond the Brussel-Charleroi canal and that the interaction at the river bed is relatively low. The results show that there is a significant difference in the groundwater simulations when using GSFLOW versus SWAT. This indicates that the groundwater component representation in the SWAT model could be improved and that a more realistic implementation of the interactions between groundwater and surface water is advisable. This could be achieved by integrating SWAT and MODFLOW.

  19. The effect of surface water and wetting on gecko adhesion.

    PubMed

    Stark, Alyssa Y; Sullivan, Timothy W; Niewiarowski, Peter H

    2012-09-01

    Despite profound interest in the mechanics and performance of the gecko adhesive system, relatively few studies have focused on performance under conditions that are ecologically relevant to the natural habitats of geckos. Because geckos are likely to encounter surfaces that are wet, we used shear force adhesion measurements to examine the effect of surface water and toe pad wetting on the whole-animal performance of a tropical-dwelling gecko (Gekko gecko). To test the effect of surface wetting, we measured the shear adhesive force of geckos on three substrate conditions: dry glass, glass misted with water droplets and glass fully submerged in water. We also investigated the effect of wetting on the adhesive toe pad by soaking the toe pads prior to testing. Finally, we tested for repeatability of the adhesive system in each wetting condition by measuring shear adhesion after each step a gecko made under treatment conditions. Wetted toe pads had significantly lower shear adhesive force in all treatments (0.86 ± 0.09 N) than the control (17.96 ± 3.42 N), as did full immersion in water (0.44 ± 0.03 N). Treatments with droplets of water distributed across the surface were more variable and did not differ from treatments where the surface was dry (4.72 ± 1.59 N misted glass; 9.76 ± 2.81 N dry glass), except after the gecko took multiple steps. These findings suggest that surface water and the wetting of a gecko's adhesive toe pads may have significant consequences for the ecology and behavior of geckos living in tropical environments.

  20. Molecular dynamics studies of water deposition on hematite surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvamme, Bjørn; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Haynes, Martin

    2012-12-01

    The interest in carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery is increasing proportional to the decrease in naturally driven oil production and also due to the increasing demand for reduced emission of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Transport of carbon dioxide in offshore pipelines involves high pressure and low temperatures which may lead to the formation of hydrate between residual water dissolved in carbon dioxide. The critical question is whether the water at some condition of temperature and pressure will drop out as liquid droplets or as water adsorbed on the surfaces of the pipeline and then subsequently form hydrates heterogeneously. In this work we have used the 6-311G basis set with B3LYP to estimate the charge distribution of different sizes of hematite crystals. The obtained surface charge distribution were kept unchanged while the inner charge distribution where scaled so as to result in an overall neutral crystal. These rust particles were embedded in water and chemical potential for adsorbed water molecules were estimated through thermodynamic integration and compared to similar estimates for same size water cluster. Estimated values of water chemical potentials indicate that it is thermodynamically favorable for water to adsorb on hematite, and that evaluation of potential carbon dioxide hydrate formation conditions and kinetics should be based this sequence of processes.

  1. Microcystins in potable surface waters: toxic effects and removal strategies.

    PubMed

    Roegner, Amber F; Brena, Beatriz; González-Sapienza, Gualberto; Puschner, Birgit

    2014-05-01

    In freshwater, harmful cyanobacterial blooms threaten to increase with global climate change and eutrophication of surface waters. In addition to the burden and necessity of removal of algal material during water treatment processes, bloom-forming cyanobacteria can produce a class of remarkably stable toxins, microcystins, difficult to remove from drinking water sources. A number of animal intoxications over the past 20 years have served as sentinels for widespread risk presented by microcystins. Cyanobacterial blooms have the potential to threaten severely both public health and the regional economy of affected communities, particularly those with limited infrastructure or resources. Our main objectives were to assess whether existing water treatment infrastructure provides sufficient protection against microcystin exposure, identify available options feasible to implement in resource-limited communities in bloom scenarios and to identify strategies for improved solutions. Finally, interventions at the watershed level aimed at bloom prevention and risk reduction for entry into potable water sources were outlined. We evaluated primary studies, reviews and reports for treatment options for microcystins in surface waters, potable water sources and treatment plants. Because of the difficulty of removal of microcystins, prevention is ideal; once in the public water supply, the coarse removal of cyanobacterial cells combined with secondary carbon filtration of dissolved toxins currently provides the greatest potential for protection of public health. Options for point of use filtration must be optimized to provide affordable and adequate protection for affected communities.

  2. Zirconium fluoride glass - Surface crystals formed by reaction with water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doremus, R. H.; Bansal, N. P.; Bradner, T.; Murphy, D.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrated surfaces of a zirconium barium fluoride glass, which has potential for application in optical fibers and other optical elements, were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline zirconium fluoride was identified by analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns of the surface crystals and found to be the main constituent of the surface material. It was also found that hydrated zirconium fluorides form only in highly acidic fluoride solutions. It is possible that the zirconium fluoride crystals form directly on the glass surface as a result of its depletion of other ions. The solubility of zirconium fluoride is suggested to be probably much lower than that of barium fluoride (0.16 g/100 cu cm at 18 C). Dissolution was determined to be the predominant process in the initial stages of the reaction of the glass with water. Penetration of water into the glass has little effect.

  3. Heterogeneous Nucleation of Naphthalene Vapor on Water Surface

    PubMed

    Smolík; Schwarz

    1997-01-15

    The evaporation of a water drop into a ternary gaseous mixture of air, steam, and naphthalene vapor was investigated. The experimental results were compared with a theoretical prediction based on a numerical solution of coupled boundary layer equations for heat and mass transfer from a drop moving in ternary gas. In the experiments the naphthalene vapor condensed on the water drop as a supercooled liquid even at temperatures far below the melting point of naphthalene. The condensation on drop surface is discussed in terms of classical theory of heterogeneous nucleation on smooth surfaces.

  4. Characteristics of pulse corona discharge over water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Tomio; Arao, Yasushi; Rea, Massimo

    2008-12-01

    Production of ozone and OH radical is required to advance the plasma chemical reactions in the NOx removal processes for combustion gas treatment. The corona discharge to the water surface is expected to induce the good conditions for the proceeding of the NO oxidation and the NO2 dissolution removal into water. In order to get the fundamental data of the corona discharge over the water surface, the positive and negative V-I characteristics and the ozone production were measured with the multi needle and the saw-edge type of the discharge electrodes. The pulse corona characteristics were also measured with some different waveforms of the applied pulse voltage. The experiments were carried out under the atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Both the DC and the pulse corona to the water surface showed a stable and almost the same V-I characteristics as to plate electrodes though the surface of water was waved by corona wind. The positive streamer corona showed more ozone production than the negative one both in the DC and in the pulse corona.

  5. Aluminum in acidic surface waters: chemistry, transport, and effects.

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, C T

    1985-01-01

    Ecologically significant concentrations of Al have been reported in surface waters draining "acid-sensitive" watersheds that are receiving elevated inputs of acidic deposition. It has been hypothesized that mineral acids from atmospheric deposition have remobilized Al previously precipitated within the soil during soil development. This Al is then thought to be transported to adjacent surface waters. Dissolved mononuclear Al occurs as aquo Al, as well as OH-, F-, SO4(2-), and organic complexes. Although past investigations have often ignored non-hydroxide complexes of Al, it appears that organic and F complexes are the predominant forms of Al in dilute (low ionic strength) acidic surface waters. The concentration of inorganic forms of Al increases exponentially with decreases in solution pH. This response is similar to the theoretical pH dependent solubility of Al mineral phases. The concentration of organic forms of Al, however, is strongly correlated with variations in organic carbon concentration of surface waters rather than pH. Elevated concentrations of Al in dilute acidic waters are of interest because: Al is an important pH buffer; Al may influence the cycling of important elements like P, organic carbon, and trace metals; and Al is potentially toxic to aquatic organisms. An understanding of the aqueous speciation of Al is essential for an evaluation of these processes. PMID:3935428

  6. Pesticides in surface waters: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Steven J.; Capel, Paul D.; Majewski, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Pesticde use in agriculture and non-agriculture settings has increased dramatically over the last several decades. Concern about adverse effects on the environment and human health has spurred an enormous amount of research into their environmental behavior and fate. Pesticides in Surface Waters presents a comprehensive summary of this research. This book evaluates published studies that focus on measuring pesticide concentration. The studies chosen include peer reviewed scientific literature, government reports, laboratory studies, and those using microcosms and artificial streams and ponds. The authors used this information to develop their overview of pesticide contamination of surface waters. The exhaustive compilation of data along with the fundamental science make this book essential for those involved in pesticide use, environmental protection, water quality, and human or ecological risk assessment. Pesticides in Surface Waters covers the results of actual studies, sources of pesticides to surface water, fate and transport, and environmental significance. Hundreds of data-packed tables, maps, charts, and drawings illustrate the key points, making research and application easy and cost effective.

  7. Energy Landscape of Water and Ethanol on Silica Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-06-26

    Fundamental understanding of small molecule–silica surface interactions at their interfaces is essential for the scientific, technological, and medical communities. We report direct enthalpy of adsorption (Δhads) measurements for ethanol and water vapor on porous silica glass (CPG-10), in both hydroxylated and dehydroxylated (hydrophobic) forms. Results suggest a spectrum of energetics as a function of coverage, stepwise for ethanol but continuous for water. The zero-coverage enthalpy of adsorption for hydroxylated silica shows the most exothermic enthalpies for both water (-72.7 ± 3.1 kJ/mol water) and ethanol (-78.0 ± 1.9 kJ/mol ethanol). The water adsorption enthalpy becomes less exothermic gradually until reaching its only plateau (-20.7 ± 2.2 kJ/mol water) reflecting water clustering on a largely hydrophobic surface, while the enthalpy of ethanol adsorption profile presents two well separated plateaus, corresponding to strong chemisorption of ethanol on adsorbate-free silica surface (-66.4 ± 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol), and weak physisorption of ethanol on ethanol covered silica (-4.0 ± 1.6 kJ/mol ethanol). On the other hand, dehydroxylation leads to missing water–silica interactions, whereas the number of ethanol binding sites is not impacted. The isotherms and partial molar properties of adsorption suggest that water may only bind strongly onto the silanols (which are a minor species on silica glass), whereas ethanol can interact strongly with both silanols and the hydrophobic areas of the silica surface.

  8. Energy Landscape of Water and Ethanol on Silica Surfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Di; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Hui; ...

    2015-06-26

    Fundamental understanding of small molecule–silica surface interactions at their interfaces is essential for the scientific, technological, and medical communities. We report direct enthalpy of adsorption (Δhads) measurements for ethanol and water vapor on porous silica glass (CPG-10), in both hydroxylated and dehydroxylated (hydrophobic) forms. Results suggest a spectrum of energetics as a function of coverage, stepwise for ethanol but continuous for water. The zero-coverage enthalpy of adsorption for hydroxylated silica shows the most exothermic enthalpies for both water (-72.7 ± 3.1 kJ/mol water) and ethanol (-78.0 ± 1.9 kJ/mol ethanol). The water adsorption enthalpy becomes less exothermic gradually until reachingmore » its only plateau (-20.7 ± 2.2 kJ/mol water) reflecting water clustering on a largely hydrophobic surface, while the enthalpy of ethanol adsorption profile presents two well separated plateaus, corresponding to strong chemisorption of ethanol on adsorbate-free silica surface (-66.4 ± 4.8 kJ/mol ethanol), and weak physisorption of ethanol on ethanol covered silica (-4.0 ± 1.6 kJ/mol ethanol). On the other hand, dehydroxylation leads to missing water–silica interactions, whereas the number of ethanol binding sites is not impacted. The isotherms and partial molar properties of adsorption suggest that water may only bind strongly onto the silanols (which are a minor species on silica glass), whereas ethanol can interact strongly with both silanols and the hydrophobic areas of the silica surface.« less

  9. Computer programs for modeling flow and water quality of surface water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorens, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A selection of available computer programs for modeling flow and water quality in surface water systems is described. The models include programs developed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Division hydrologic research activities and others developed by other agencies, universities, and consulting firms. Each model description includes a statement of program use; data requirements; computer costs; availability of documentation and reference material; and a contact person for additional information. The report is intended to assist the researcher by presenting a very brief description of the surface-water models which are readily available for project use. (USGS)

  10. methodology to classify groundwater/surface water interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, B.; Christensen, S.; Kronvang, B.; Langhoff, J. H.; Dahl, M.; Hoffmann, C. C.; Andersen, H. E.; Rasmussen, K. R.; Refsgaard, J. C.

    2003-04-01

    Introductory work on implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive has outlined criteria for classification of the physical-chemical status of groundwater and surface water bodies, recognizing that the quantitative and qualitative status of ground water may have an impact on the quantitative, qualitative and ecological status of surface waters if the two bodies interact. In Denmark the implementation of the Directive has started with classifying separately the status of ground water and the status of streams. This is done within each of many districts supposed to be responsible for the future’s water supply. Within each district the next step is to define to what extent ground water has (and is expected to have in the future) impact on the streams, and vice versa. This has motivated the present work on developing a methodology to classify how ground water interacts with surface waters in Danish stream valleys. The classification has got the acronym GOI-type, which is identical with the English term GSI-class (Groundwater/Surface water Interaction classification). To make the methodology operational the classification is made mainly on basis of already available information (from maps, data bases and previous investigations), and it is made in steps going from regional scale (hundreds of kilometers) over catchment scale (tens of kilometers) to the stream valley scale (hundreds of meters). On the regional scale it is classified whether the geological environment controlling water flow and solute transport is dominated by bedrock or sedimentary rock since the physical and chemical processes are very different in these two environments. On catchment scale the classification differentiates between various landscape types because the landscape creating processes have resulted in different geologic and geomorphologic environments from which for example a model of permeable and semi-permeable layers controlling groundwater recharge and flow can be produced

  11. Hydrodynamic boundary condition of water on hydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schaeffel, David; Yordanov, Stoyan; Schmelzeisen, Marcus; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kappl, Michael; Schmitz, Roman; Dünweg, Burkhard; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Koynov, Kaloian

    2013-05-01

    By combining total internal reflection fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy with Brownian dynamics simulations, we were able to measure the hydrodynamic boundary condition of water flowing over a smooth solid surface with exceptional accuracy. We analyzed the flow of aqueous electrolytes over glass coated with a layer of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (advancing contact angle Θ = 108°) or perfluorosilane (Θ = 113°). Within an error of better than 10 nm the slip length was indistinguishable from zero on all surfaces.

  12. Simulations of glass surfaces structure, water adsorption, and bond rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofalini, Stephen H.

    1990-12-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of the structure of silica glass surfaces formed in a perfect vacuum as well as in the presence of a water vapor show the type, location, and concentration of specific features formed in the surface. A bond rupture mechanism which causes silanol formation far removed from the original reaction site is observed. The 3-membered ring is proposed as a site for H adsorption in the glass.

  13. Reconstruction of surfaces from mixed hydrocarbon and PEG components in water: responsive surfaces aid fouling release.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngjin; Sundaram, Harihara S; Finlay, John A; Dimitriou, Michael D; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Kramer, Edward J; Ober, Christopher K

    2012-06-11

    Coatings derived from surface active block copolymers (SABCs) having a combination of hydrophobic aliphatic (linear hydrocarbon or propylene oxide-derived groups) and hydrophilic poly(ethlyene glycol) (PEG) side chains have been developed. The coatings demonstrate superior performance against protein adsorption as well as resistance to biofouling, providing an alternative to coatings containing fluorinated side chains as the hydrophobe, thus reducing the potential environmental impact. The surfaces were examined using dynamic water contact angle, captive air-bubble contact angle, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. The PS(8K)-b-P(E/B)(25K)-b-PI(10K) triblock copolymer precursor (K3) initially dominated the dry surface. In contrast to previous studies with mixed fluorinated/PEG surfaces, these new materials displayed significant surface changes after exposure to water that allowed fouling resistant behavior. PEG groups buried several nanometers below the surface in the dry state were able to occupy the coating surface after placement in water. The resulting surface exhibits a very low contact angle and good antifouling properties that are very different from those of K3. The surfaces are strongly resistant to protein adsorption using bovine serum albumin as a standard protein challenge. Biofouling assays with sporelings of the green alga Ulva and cells of the diatom Navicula showed the level of adhesion was significantly reduced relative to that of a PDMS standard and that of the triblock copolymer precursor of the SABCs.

  14. Estimation of water surface elevations for the Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palaseanu, Monica; Pearlstine, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level monitoring gages and modeling methods that provides scientists and managers with current (2000–present) online water surface and water depth information for the freshwater domain of the Greater Everglades. This integrated system presents data on a 400-m square grid to assist in (1) large-scale field operations; (2) integration of hydrologic and ecologic responses; (3) supporting biological and ecological assessment of the implementation of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP); and (4) assessing trophic-level responses to hydrodynamic changes in the Everglades.This paper investigates the radial basis function multiquadric method of interpolation to obtain a continuous freshwater surface across the entire Everglades using radio-transmitted data from a network of water-level gages managed by the US Geological Survey (USGS), the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), and the Everglades National Park (ENP). Since the hydrological connection is interrupted by canals and levees across the study area, boundary conditions were simulated by linearly interpolating along those features and integrating the results together with the data from marsh stations to obtain a continuous water surface through multiquadric interpolation. The absolute cross-validation errors greater than 5 cm correlate well with the local outliers and the minimum distance between the closest stations within 2000-m radius, but seem to be independent of vegetation or season.

  15. Estimation of water surface elevations for the Everglades, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaseanu, Monica; Pearlstine, Leonard

    2008-07-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level monitoring gages and modeling methods that provides scientists and managers with current (2000-present) online water surface and water depth information for the freshwater domain of the Greater Everglades. This integrated system presents data on a 400-m square grid to assist in (1) large-scale field operations; (2) integration of hydrologic and ecologic responses; (3) supporting biological and ecological assessment of the implementation of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP); and (4) assessing trophic-level responses to hydrodynamic changes in the Everglades. This paper investigates the radial basis function multiquadric method of interpolation to obtain a continuous freshwater surface across the entire Everglades using radio-transmitted data from a network of water-level gages managed by the US Geological Survey (USGS), the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), and the Everglades National Park (ENP). Since the hydrological connection is interrupted by canals and levees across the study area, boundary conditions were simulated by linearly interpolating along those features and integrating the results together with the data from marsh stations to obtain a continuous water surface through multiquadric interpolation. The absolute cross-validation errors greater than 5 cm correlate well with the local outliers and the minimum distance between the closest stations within 2000-m radius, but seem to be independent of vegetation or season.

  16. Water Surface Ripples Generated by the Turbulent Boundary Layer of a Surface-Piercing Moving Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washuta, N.; Masnadi, N.; Duncan, J. H.

    2014-11-01

    Free surface ripples created by subsurface turbulence along a surface-piercing moving wall are studied experimentally. In this experiment, a meter-wide stainless steel belt travels horizontally in a loop around two rollers with vertically oriented axes, which are separated by 7.5 meters. One of the two 7.5-m-long belt sections between the rollers is in contact with the water in a large open-surface water tank and the water level is adjusted so that the top of the belt pierces the water free surface. The belt is launched from rest with a 3 g acceleration in order to quickly reach a steady state velocity. This belt motion creates a temporally evolving boundary layer analogous to the spatially evolving boundary layer created along the side of a ship hull moving at the belt velocity, with a length equivalent to the length of belt that has passed the measurement region. The water surface ripples generated by the subsurface turbulence are measured in a plane normal to the belt using a cinematic LIF technique. It is found that the overall RMS surface fluctuations increase linearly with belt speed and that the spatial distributions of the fluctuations show a sharp increase near the wall. The support of the Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.

  17. Surface-Water and Ground-Water Resources of Kendall County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Mills, Patrick C.; Hogan, Jennifer L.; Arnold, Terri L.

    2005-01-01

    Water-supply needs in Kendall County, in northern Illinois, are met exclusively from ground water derived from glacial drift aquifers and bedrock aquifers open to Silurian, Ordovician, and Cambrian System units. As a result of population growth in Kendall County and the surrounding area, water use has increased from about 1.2 million gallons per day in 1957 to more than 5 million gallons per day in 2000. The purpose of this report is to characterize the surface-water and ground-water resources of Kendall County. The report presents a compilation of available information on geology, surface-water and ground-water hydrology, water quality, and water use. The Fox River is the primary surface-water body in Kendall County and is used for both wastewater disposal and as a drinking-water supply upstream of the county. Water from the Fox River requires pretreatment for use as drinking water, but the river is a potentially viable additional source of water for the county. Glacial drift aquifers capable of yielding sufficient water for municipal supply are expected to be present in northern Kendall County, along the Fox River, and in the Newark Valley and its tributaries. Glacial drift aquifers capable of yielding sufficient water for residential supply are present in most of the county, with the exception of the southeastern portion. Volatile organic compounds and select trace metals and pesticides have been detected at low concentrations in glacial drift aquifers near waste-disposal sites. Agricultural-related constituents have been detected infrequently in glacial drift aquifers near agricultural areas. However, on the basis of the available data, widespread, consistent problems with water quality are not apparent in these aquifers. These aquifers are a viable source for additional water supply, but would require further characterization prior to full development. The shallow bedrock aquifer is composed of the sandstone units of the Ancell Group, the Prairie du Chien

  18. Groundwater - surface water interactions in the Ayeyarwady river delta, Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyaoka, K.; Haruyama, S.; Kuzuha, Y.; Kay, T.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater is widely used as a water resource in the Ayeyarwady River delta. But, Groundwater has some chemical problem in part of the area. To use safety groundwater for health, it is important to make clear the actual conditions of physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater in this delta. Besides, Ayeyarwady River delta has remarkable wet and dry season. Surface water - groundwater interaction is also different in each season, and it is concerned that physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater is affected by the flood and high waves through cyclone or monsoon. So, it is necessary to research a good aquifer distribution for sustainable groundwater resource supply. The purposes of this study are evaluate to seasonal change of groundwater - surface water interactions, and to investigate the more safety aquifer to reduce the healthy risk. Water samples are collected at 49 measurement points of river and groundwater, and are analyzed dissolved major ions and oxygen and hydro-stable isotope compositions. There are some groundwater flow systems and these water qualities are different in each depth. These showed that physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater are closely related to climatological, geomorphogical, geological and land use conditions. At the upper Alluvium, groundwater quality changes to lower concentration in wet season, so Ayeyarwady River water is main recharge water at this layer in the wet season. Besides, in the dry season, water quality is high concentration by artificial activities. Shallower groundwater is affected by land surface conditions such as the river water and land use in this layer. At lower Alluvium, Arakan and Pegu mountains are main recharge area of good water quality aquifers. Oxygen18 value showed a little affected by river water infiltration in the wet season, but keep stable good water quality through the both seasons. In the wet season, the same groundwater exists and water quality changes through

  19. The snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum grows faster and is more active in the shade, independent of food quality.

    PubMed

    Liess, A; Lange, K

    2011-09-01

    Ecological stoichiometry has advanced food web ecology by emphasising the importance of food quality over food quantity for herbivores. Here, we focus on the effects of abiotic factors such as nutrients and light (known to influence food quality) on grazer growth rates. As model organism we used the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum that is native to New Zealand but invasive elsewhere. In a stream channel experiment in New Zealand, we manipulated light (two levels) and nutrients (four levels) to achieve a range of primary producer carbon: nutrient ratios and added mudsnails (3 densities + ungrazed control) to 128 periphyton covered stream channels in a 2 × 4 × 4 full factorial design. We measured snail growth rate and activity, food quality and nutritional imbalance, to test the predictions that (1) less light and more nutrients increase periphyton food quality and thus snail growth rates, and (2) less crowding leads to higher food availability and thus higher snail growth rates. We found that snail growth rates were higher under low light than under high light intensities and this difference increased with increasing nutrient addition. These changes in growth rate were not mediated by food quality in terms of periphyton nutrient ratios. Furthermore, experimental treatments strongly affected snail behaviour. Snails grazed more actively in the low light treatments, and thus it is more likely that snail growth rates were directly affected by light levels, maybe as a result of innate predator avoidance behaviour or as a reaction to high UV intensities. We conclude that in our stream channels snail growth rate was limited by factors other than food quality and quantity such as UV exposure, algal defences or the relatively low ambient water temperature.

  20. Wormsphere Rover Pattern for Discovering Underground Water on Mars Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangi, A.

    Undoubtedly, access to Mars' subsurface liquid water can make abundance of future proposition plausible. In order to access this invaluable source, all of the Martian surface ought to be explored by special super active researchers. Wormsphere Rover, which, as an immense ball, could carry 20 kg radar equipment to detect subsurface water, would be able to move on Mars by the force of continuous, gale-force winds. Moreover, equipped with a certain wormlike kinetic system, this rover is capable of having controllable motion in requisite circumstances, and of exploring underground water in various regions. This vehicle displays a high degree of efficiency for extended exploration in the long term.

  1. Diffuse pollution of surface water by pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Derksen, J G M; Rijs, G B J; Jongbloed, R H

    2004-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products for humans or animals, as well as their related metabolites (degradation products) end up in the aquatic environment after use. Recent investigations from abroad show that low concentrations of pharmaceuticals are detectable in municipal waste water, surface water, groundwater and even drinking water. Little is known about the effects, and with that the risk, of long term exposure to low concentrations of pharmaceuticals for aquatic organisms. On the basis of the current knowledge, further attention to map the presence and effects of pharmaceutical residues on aquatic organisms is justified. To map the Dutch situation, recently a monitoring program has started.

  2. Radiolysis Concerns for Water Shielding in Fission Surface Power Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Anghaie, Samim

    2008-01-21

    This paper presents an overview of radiolysis concerns with regard to water shields for fission surface power. A review of the radiolysis process is presented and key parameters and trends are identified. From this understanding of the radiolytic decomposition of water, shield pressurization and corrosion are identified as the primary concerns. Existing experimental and modeling data addressing concerns are summarized. It was found that radiolysis of pure water in a closed volume results in minimal, if any net decomposition, and therefore reduces the potential for shield pressurization and corrosion.

  3. Effects of Surface-Water Diversions on Habitat Availability for Native Macrofauna, Northeast Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Wolff, Reuben H.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of surface-water diversions on habitat availability for native stream fauna (fish, shrimp, and snails) are described for 21 streams in northeast Maui, Hawaii. Five streams (Waikamoi, Honomanu, Wailuanui, Kopiliula, and Hanawi Streams) were chosen as representative streams for intensive study. On each of the five streams, three representative reaches were selected: (1) immediately upstream of major surface-water diversions, (2) midway to the coast, and (3) near the coast. This study focused on five amphidromous native aquatic species (alamoo, nopili, nakea, opae, and hihiwai) that are abundant in the study area. The Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM) System, which incorporates hydrology, stream morphology and microhabitat preferences to explore relations between streamflow and habitat availability, was used to simulate habitat/discharge relations for various species and life stages, and to provide quantitative habitat comparisons at different streamflows of interest. Hydrologic data, collected over a range of low-flow discharges, were used to calibrate hydraulic models of selected transects across the streams. The models were then used to predict water depth and velocity (expressed as a Froude number) over a range of discharges up to estimates of natural median streamflow. The biological importance of the stream hydraulic attributes was then assessed with the statistically derived suitability criteria for each native species and life stage that were developed as part of this study to produce a relation between discharge and habitat availability. The final output was expressed as a weighted habitat area of streambed for a representative stream reach. PHABSIM model results are presented to show the area of estimated usable bed habitat over a range of streamflows relative to natural conditions. In general, the models show a continuous decrease in habitat for all modeled species as streamflow is decreased from natural conditions. The PHABSIM modeling results

  4. Distribution of tritium in precipitation and surface water in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Patrick A.; Visser, Ate; Moran, Jean E.; Esser, Brad K.

    2016-03-01

    The tritium concentration in the surface hydrosphere throughout California was characterized to examine the reasons for spatial variability and to enhance the applicability of tritium in hydrological investigations. Eighteen precipitation samples were analyzed and 148 samples were collected from surface waters across California in the Summer and Fall of 2013, with repeat samples from some locations collected in Winter and Spring of 2014 to examine seasonal variation. The concentration of tritium in present day precipitation varied from 4.0 pCi/L near the California coast to 17.8 pCi/L in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Concentrations in precipitation increase in spring due to the 'Spring Leak' phenomenon. The average coastal concentration (6.3 ± 1.2 pCi/L) in precipitation matches estimated pre-nuclear levels. Surface water samples show a trend of increasing tritium with inland distance. Superimposed on that trend, elevated tritium concentrations are found in the San Francisco Bay area compared to other coastal areas, resulting from municipal water imported from inland mountain sources and local anthropogenic sources. Tritium concentrations in most surface waters decreased between Summer/Fall 2013 and Winter/Spring 2014 likely due to an increased groundwater signal as a result of drought conditions in 2014. A relationship between tritium and electrical conductivity in surface water was found to be indicative of water provenance and anthropogenic influences such as agricultural runoff. Despite low initial concentrations in precipitation, tritium continues to be a valuable tracer in a post nuclear bomb pulse world.

  5. Water and Carbon Dioxide Adsorption at Olivine Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2013-11-14

    Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to simulate water and carbon dioxide adsorption at the (010) surface of five olivine minerals, namely, forsterite (Mg2SiO4), calcio-olivine (Ca2SiO4), tephroite (Mn2SiO4), fayalite (Fe2SiO4), and Co-olivine (Co2SiO4). Adsorption energies per water molecule obtained from energy minimizations varied from -78 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -128 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine at sub-monolayer coverage and became less exothermic as coverage increased. In contrast, carbon dioxide adsorption energies at sub-monolayer coverage ranged from -20 kJ mol-1 for fayalite to -59 kJ mol-1 for calcio-olivine. Therefore, the DFT calculations show a strong driving force for carbon dioxide displacement by water at the surface of all olivine minerals in a competitive adsorption scenario. Additionally, adsorption energies for both water and carbon dioxide were found to be more exothermic for the alkaline-earth (AE) olivines than for the transition-metal (TM) olivines and to not correlate with the solvation enthalpies of the corresponding divalent cations. However, a correlation was obtained with the charge of the surface divalent cation indicating that the more ionic character of the AE cations in the olivine structure relative to the TM cations leads to greater interactions with adsorbed water and carbon dioxide molecules at the surface and thus more exothermic adsorption energies for the AE olivines. For calcio-olivine, which exhibits the highest divalent cation charge of the five olivines, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations showed that this effect leads both water and carbon dioxide to react with the surface and form hydroxyl groups and a carbonate-like species, respectively.

  6. DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC WASTEWATER CONTAMINANTS BETWEEN WATER AND SEDIMENT IN SURFACE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace concentrations of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants have been determined in the surface waters of Europe and the United States. A preliminary report of substantially higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals in sediment suggests that bottom sediment ...

  7. Theoretical Study of Sodium-Water Surface Reaction Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Shin; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kenro

    Computational study of the sodium-water reaction at the gas (water) - liquid (sodium) interface has been carried out using the ab initio (first-principle) method. A possible reaction channel has been identified for the stepwise OH bond dissociations of a single water molecule. The energetics including the binding energy of a water molecule on the sodium surface, the activation energies of the bond cleavages, and the reaction energies, have been evaluated, and the rate constants of the first and second OH bond-breakings have been compared. It was found that the estimated rate constant of the former was much larger than the latter. The results are the basis for constructing the chemical reaction model used in a multi-dimensional sodium-water reaction code, SERAPHIM, being developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) toward the safety assessment of the steam generator (SG) in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR).

  8. Eosinophilic meningitis risk associated with raw Ampullarium canaliculatus snails consumption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiun-Jye; Chung, Li-Yu; Lin, Rong-Jyh; Lee, June-Der; Lin, Chaio-Wen; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2011-05-01

    In Taiwan, Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection has been reported in foreign laborers who had consumed raw Ampullarium canaliculatus snails. This study analyzed three foreign laborers who had contracted enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-confirmed A cantonensis infection while working in Taiwan. All three workers had consumed either roasted snails or raw snails flavored with seasoning while drinking wine. This study investigated possible risk factors for A cantonensis, including naturally occurring A cantonensis in A canaliculatus snails, viability of third-stage A cantonensis larvae in raw seasoned snails and in roasted snails, infectivity of larvae, and effects of alcohol while consuming snails. Positive infection rates in snails from five different irrigation canals in south Taiwan ranged from 12.3% to 29.4% and the average number of motile larvae per infected snail ranged from 36 to 65. The number of motile and coiled larvae in snail meat after 120 minutes seasoning was 93 (27.7%) and 233 (69.3%), respectively. After 20 minutes of roasting, most larvae in the snail meat were dead. The infectivities of motile and coiled larvae from snail meat after 60 minutes seasoning were 53.2% and 33.2%, respectively, and those from snail meat after 5 minutes roasting were 33.2% and 7.0%, respectively. Eating Taiwan A canaliculatus snails raw is extremely risky given their high infection rates and infection intensities. Even after 120 minutes seasoning or after 20 minutes roasting, snail meat should be considered unsafe for human consumption. Finally, experimental rodent studies indicated that consuming alcohol while ingesting larvae does not significantly reduced infectivity.

  9. Biompha-LAMP: A New Rapid Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Detecting Schistosoma mansoni in Biomphalaria glabrata Snail Host

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Goenaga, Juan; López-Abán, Julio; Vicente, Belén; Muro, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis remains one of the most common endemic parasitic diseases affecting over 230 million people worlwide. Schistosoma mansoni is the main species causing intestinal and hepatic schistosomiasis and the fresh water pulmonate snails of the genus Biomphalaria are best known for their role as intermediate hosts of the parasite. The development of new molecular monitoring assays for large-scale screening of snails from transmission sites to detect the presence of schistosomes is an important point to consider for snail control interventions related to schistosomiasis elimination. Our work was focussed on developing and evaluating a new LAMP assay combined with a simple DNA extraction method to detect S. mansoni in experimentally infected snails as a diagnostic tool for field conditions. Methodology/Principal findings A LAMP assay using a set of six primers targeting a sequence of S. mansoni ribosomal intergenic spacer 28S-18S rRNA was designed. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was 0.1 fg of S. mansoni DNA at 63°C for 50 minutes. LAMP was evaluated by examining S. mansoni DNA in B. glabrata snails experimentally exposed to miracidia at different times post-exposure: early prepatent period (before cercarial shedding), light infections (snails exposed to a low number of miracidia) and detection of infected snails in pooled samples (within a group of uninfected snails). DNA for LAMP assays was obtained by using a commercial DNA extraction kit or a simple heat NaOH extraction method. We detected S. mansoni DNA in all groups of snails by using no complicated requirement procedure for DNA obtaining. Conclusions/Significance Our LAMP assay, named Biompha-LAMP, is specific, sensitive, rapid and potentially adaptable as a cost-effective method for screening of intermediate hosts infected with S. mansoni in both individual snails and pooled samples. The assay could be suitable for large-scale field surveys for schistosomes control campaigns in endemic

  10. Geochemical characterization of surface water and spring water in SE Kashmir Valley, western Himalaya: Implications to water-rock interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeelani, Gh; Bhat, Nadeem A.; Shivanna, K.; Bhat, M. Y.

    2011-10-01

    Water samples from precipitation, glacier melt, snow melt, glacial lake, streams and karst springs were collected across SE of Kashmir Valley, to understand the hydrogeochemical processes governing the evolution of the water in a natural and non-industrial area of western Himalayas. The time series data on solute chemistry suggest that the hydrochemical processes controlling the chemistry of spring waters is more complex than the surface water. This is attributed to more time available for infiltrating water to interact with the diverse host lithology. Total dissolved solids (TDS), in general, increases with decrease in altitude. However, high TDS of some streams at higher altitudes and low TDS of some springs at lower altitudes indicated contribution of high TDS waters from glacial lakes and low TDS waters from streams, respectively. The results show that some karst springs are recharged by surface water; Achabalnag by the Bringi stream and Andernag and Martandnag by the Liddar stream. Calcite dissolution, dedolomitization and silicate weathering were found to be the main processes controlling the chemistry of the spring waters and calcite dissolution as the dominant process in controlling the chemistry of the surface waters. The spring waters were undersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite in most of the seasons except in November, which is attributed to the replenishment of the CO2 by recharging waters during most of the seasons.

  11. Thin Water and Ice Films at Mineral Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    Mineral-water and ice interactions play important roles in atmospheric cloud formation. They also affect soil biogeochemistry as well as outer-space processes. In this study, thin water and ice films formed on minerals of varied bulk and surface structure, shape, size and surface roughness were probed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and by Dynamic Vapor Adsorption (DVA). Measurements on several types of iron (oxyhydr)oxides, phyllosilicates, orthosilicates, tectosilicates as well as Arizona Test Dust (ATD) and Icelandic volcanic ash constrained our understanding of the molecular-level nature of mineral surface-water and ice interactions. DVA experiments showed that particle size is the key feature controlling water loadings at 25 ° C. Under this condition, nano-sized particles stabilized the equivalence of no more than ˜6 monolayers of water at the near saturation of water vapor while sub-micron sized particles stabilized several thousand layers. This result can be explained by the greater ability of larger sized particles at driving water condensation reactions. Cryogenic FTIR measurements at -10 and -50 ° C revealed that most minerals acquired the thin ice films with similar hydrogen bonding environments as those formed at room temperature.[1,2] These thin ice films have weaker hydrogen bond environments than hexagonal ice (νOH ≈ 3130 cm-1), a result seen by FTIR through predominant O-H stretching modes at νOH ≈ 3408-3425 cm-1. The water bending region (˜1630 cm-1) also reveals that most thin ice films are rather supercooled forms of water. Only the materials with greatest levels of heterogeneity, namely ATD and volcanic ash, stabilized solid forms of water reminiscent to hexagonal ice. This work thus constrains further our understanding of how interfacial ice is stabilized at mineral surfaces, and opens possibilities for future studies focused on atmospheric gas uptake on mineral- water and ice admixtures. [1] Song, X. and Boily, J

  12. Recovery of condensate water quality in power generator's surface condenser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, Lilik Adib

    2017-03-01

    In PT Badak NGL Plant, steam turbines are used to drive major power generators, compressors, and pumps. Steam exiting the turbines is condensed in surface condensers to be returned to boilers. Therefore, surface condenser performance and quality of condensate water are very important. One of the recent problem was caused by the leak of a surface condenser of Steam Turbine Power Generator. Thesteam turbine was overhauled, leaving the surface condenser idle and exposed to air for more than 1.5 years. Sea water ingress due to tube leaks worsens the corrosionof the condenser shell. The combination of mineral scale and corrosion product resulting high conductivity condensate at outlet condenser when we restarted up, beyond the acceptable limit. After assessing several options, chemical cleaning was the best way to overcome the problem according to condenser configuration. An 8 hour circulation of 5%wt citric acid had succeed reducing water conductivity from 50 μmhos/cm to below 5 μmhos/cm. The condensate water, then meets the required quality, i.e. pH 8.3 - 9.0; conductivity ≤ 5 μmhos/cm, therefore the power generator can be operated normally without any concern until now.

  13. Shale gas development impacts on surface water quality in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Sheila M.; Muehlenbachs, Lucija A.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Chu, Ziyan; Krupnick, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Concern has been raised in the scientific literature about the environmental implications of extracting natural gas from deep shale formations, and published studies suggest that shale gas development may affect local groundwater quality. The potential for surface water quality degradation has been discussed in prior work, although no empirical analysis of this issue has been published. The potential for large-scale surface water quality degradation has affected regulatory approaches to shale gas development in some US states, despite the dearth of evidence. This paper conducts a large-scale examination of the extent to which shale gas development activities affect surface water quality. Focusing on the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania, we estimate the effect of shale gas wells and the release of treated shale gas waste by permitted treatment facilities on observed downstream concentrations of chloride (Cl−) and total suspended solids (TSS), controlling for other factors. Results suggest that (i) the treatment of shale gas waste by treatment plants in a watershed raises downstream Cl− concentrations but not TSS concentrations, and (ii) the presence of shale gas wells in a watershed raises downstream TSS concentrations but not Cl− concentrations. These results can inform future voluntary measures taken by shale gas operators and policy approaches taken by regulators to protect surface water quality as the scale of this economically important activity increases. PMID:23479604

  14. Uranium in US surface, ground, and domestic waters. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Reynolds, S.; Owen, P.T.; Ross, R.H.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1981-04-01

    The report Uranium in US Surface, Ground, and Domestic Waters comprises four volumes. Volumes 2, 3, and 4 contain data characterizing the location, sampling date, type, use, and uranium conentrations of 89,994 individual samples presented in tabular form. The tabular data in volumes 2, 3, and 4 are summarized in volume 1 in narrative form and with maps and histograms.

  15. CONTROLLING STORM WATER RUNOFF WITH TRADABLE CREDITS FOR IMPERVIOUS SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Storm water flow off impervious surface in a watershed can lead to stream degradation, habitat alteration, low base flows and toxic leading. We show that a properly designed tradable runoff credit (TRC) system creates economic incentives for landowners to employ best management p...

  16. PARTITION COEFFICIENTS FOR METALS IN SURFACE WATER, SOIL, AND WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents metal partition coefficients for the surface water pathway and for the source model used in the Multimedia, Multi-pathway, Multi-receptor Exposure and Risk Assessment (3MRA) technology under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Partition ...

  17. PHOTOREACTIONS IN SURFACE WATERS AND THEIR ROLE IN BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past decade significant interest has developed in the influence of photochemical reactions on biogeochemical cycles in surface waters of lakes and the sea. A major portion of recent research on these photoreactions has focused on the colored component of dissolved org...

  18. Simulating the fate and transport of nanomaterials in surface waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The unique properties of nanomaterials have resulted in their increased production. However, it is unclear how nanomaterials will move and react once released to the environment One approach for addressing possible exposure of nanomaterials in surface waters is by using numerical...

  19. Biphilic Surfaces for Enhanced Water Collection from Humid Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkoski, Jason; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Luedeman, William

    Surface wettability plays an important role in water recovery, distillation, dehumidification, and heat transfer. The efficiency of each process depends on the rate of droplet nucleation, droplet growth, and mass transfer. Unfortunately, hydrophilic surfaces are good at nucleation but poor at shedding. Hydrophobic surfaces are the reverse. Many plants and animals overcome this tradeoff through biphilic surfaces with patterned wettability. For example, the Stenocara beetle uses hydrophilic patches on a superhydrophobic background to collect fog from air. Cribellate spiders similarly collect fog on their webs through periodic spindle-knot structures. In this study, we investigate the effects of wettability patterns on the rate of water collection from humid air. The steady state rate of water collection per unit area is measured as a function of undercooling, angle of inclination, water contact angle, hydrophilic patch size, patch spacing, area fraction, and patch height relative to the hydrophobic background. We then model each pattern by comparing the potential and kinetic energy of a droplet as it rolls downwards at a fixed angle. The results indicate that the design rules for collecting fog differ from those for condensation from humid air. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Office of Naval Research for financial support through Grant Number N00014-15-1-2107.

  20. Shale gas development impacts on surface water quality in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Sheila M; Muehlenbachs, Lucija A; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Chu, Ziyan; Krupnick, Alan J

    2013-03-26

    Concern has been raised in the scientific literature about the environmental implications of extracting natural gas from deep shale formations, and published studies suggest that shale gas development may affect local groundwater quality. The potential for surface water quality degradation has been discussed in prior work, although no empirical analysis of this issue has been published. The potential for large-scale surface water quality degradation has affected regulatory approaches to shale gas development in some US states, despite the dearth of evidence. This paper conducts a large-scale examination of the extent to which shale gas development activities affect surface water quality. Focusing on the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania, we estimate the effect of shale gas wells and the release of treated shale gas waste by permitted treatment facilities on observed downstream concentrations of chloride (Cl(-)) and total suspended solids (TSS), controlling for other factors. Results suggest that (i) the treatment of shale gas waste by treatment plants in a watershed raises downstream Cl(-) concentrations but not TSS concentrations, and (ii) the presence of shale gas wells in a watershed raises downstream TSS concentrations but not Cl(-) concentrations. These results can inform future voluntary measures taken by shale gas operators and policy approaches taken by regulators to protect surface water quality as the scale of this economically important activity increases.

  1. Roles of surface water areas for water and solute cycle in Hanoi city, Viet Nam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Kuroda, Keisuke; Do Thuan, An; Tran Thi Viet, Nga; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2013-04-01

    Hanoi city, the capital of Viet Nam, has developed beside the Red river. Recent rapid urbanization of this city has reduced a large number of natural water areas such as lakes, ponds and canals not only in the central area but the suburban area. Contrary, the urbanization has increased artificial water areas such as pond for fish cultivation and landscaping. On the other hand, the urbanization has induced the inflow of waste water from households and various kinds of factories to these water areas because of delay of sewerage system development. Inflow of the waste water has induced eutrophication and pollution of these water areas. Also, there is a possibility of groundwater pollution by infiltration of polluted surface water. However, the role of these water areas for water cycle and solute transport is not clarified. Therefore, this study focuses on the interaction between surface water areas and groundwater in Hanoi city to evaluate appropriate land development and groundwater resource management. We are carrying out three approaches: a) understanding of geochemical characteristics of surface water and groundwater, b) monitoring of water levels of pond and groundwater, c) sampling of soil and pond sediment. Correlation between d18O and dD of precipitation (after GNIP), the Red River (after GNIR) and the water samples of this study showed that the groundwater is composed of precipitation, the Red River and surface water that has evaporation process. Contribution of the surface water with evaporation process was widely found in the study area. As for groundwater monitoring, the Holocene aquifers at two sites were in unconfined condition in dry season and the groundwater levels in the aquifer continued to increase through rainy season. The results of isotopic analysis and groundwater level monitoring showed that the surface water areas are one of the major groundwater sources. On the other hand, concentrations of dissolved Arsenic (filtered by 0.45um) in the pore

  2. Surface water-groundwater connectivity in deltaic distributary channel networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Audrey H.; Edmonds, Douglas A.; Knights, Deon

    2015-12-01

    Delta distributary channel networks increase river water contact with sediments and provide the final opportunity to process nutrients and other solutes before river water discharges to the ocean. In order to understand surface water-groundwater interactions at the scale of the distributary channel network, we created three numerical deltas that ranged in composition from silt to sand using Delft3D, a morphodynamic flow and sediment transport model. We then linked models of mean annual river discharge to steady groundwater flow in MODFLOW. Under mean annual discharge, exchange rates through the numerical deltas are enhanced relative to a single-threaded river. We calculate that exchange rates across a <10 km2 network are equivalent to exchange through ~10-100 km of single-threaded river channel. Exchange rates are greatest in the coarse-grained delta due to its permeability and morphology. Groundwater residence times range from hours to centuries and have fractal tails. Deltas are vanishing due to relative sea level rise. River diversion projects aimed at creating new deltaic land should also aim to restore surface water-groundwater connectivity, which is critical for biogeochemical processing in wetlands. We recommend designing diversions to capture more sand and thus maximize surface water-groundwater connectivity.

  3. Excess densities and equimolar surfaces for spherical cavities in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floris, Franca Maria

    2007-02-01

    For hard spheres with a radius up to 10Å in TIP4P water under ambient conditions, the author studies how the excess number of molecules at the accessible surface depends on the radius of the cavity. Simulation results derived from excess volumes are discussed in terms of radial distribution functions (rdfs), which compare well with extended simple point charge and theoretical rdfs from the literature. The excess number of molecules at the accessible surface inserted in the expression which refers to an arbitrary dividing surface enables one to find the position of the equimolar surface. The surface tension corresponding to this dividing surface was obtained from values of the free energy of cavity formation. For radii in the range of the simulation data, its behavior with curvature is quite different from that usually shown in the literature. A model, which describes how the excess number of molecules at the accessible surface changes with the radius, is discussed in the large length limit by examining consistent rdfs described by a simple analytical form. The inclusion in the model of a logarithmic term has also been considered. Comparison with theoretical results from the literature shows a good agreement for a cavity with a radius of 20Å. For a radius of 100Å and beyond, the model predicts instead sharper density profiles. Such differences have a poor effect on the surface tension at the equimolar surface.

  4. Rate law analysis of water oxidation on a hematite surface.

    PubMed

    Le Formal, Florian; Pastor, Ernest; Tilley, S David; Mesa, Camilo A; Pendlebury, Stephanie R; Grätzel, Michael; Durrant, James R

    2015-05-27

    Water oxidation is a key chemical reaction, central to both biological photosynthesis and artificial solar fuel synthesis strategies. Despite recent progress on the structure of the natural catalytic site, and on inorganic catalyst function, determining the mechanistic details of this multiredox reaction remains a significant challenge. We report herein a rate law analysis of the order of water oxidation as a function of surface hole density on a hematite photoanode employing photoinduced absorption spectroscopy. Our study reveals a transition from a slow, first order reaction at low accumulated hole density to a faster, third order mechanism once the surface hole density is sufficient to enable the oxidation of nearest neighbor metal atoms. This study thus provides direct evidence for the multihole catalysis of water oxidation by hematite, and demonstrates the hole accumulation level required to achieve this, leading to key insights both for reaction mechanism and strategies to enhance function.

  5. Rate Law Analysis of Water Oxidation on a Hematite Surface

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Water oxidation is a key chemical reaction, central to both biological photosynthesis and artificial solar fuel synthesis strategies. Despite recent progress on the structure of the natural catalytic site, and on inorganic catalyst function, determining the mechanistic details of this multiredox reaction remains a significant challenge. We report herein a rate law analysis of the order of water oxidation as a function of surface hole density on a hematite photoanode employing photoinduced absorption spectroscopy. Our study reveals a transition from a slow, first order reaction at low accumulated hole density to a faster, third order mechanism once the surface hole density is sufficient to enable the oxidation of nearest neighbor metal atoms. This study thus provides direct evidence for the multihole catalysis of water oxidation by hematite, and demonstrates the hole accumulation level required to achieve this, leading to key insights both for reaction mechanism and strategies to enhance function. PMID:25936408

  6. Water-Mediated Proton Hopping on an Iron Oxide Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Merte, L. R.; Peng, Guowen; Bechstein, Ralf; Rieboldt, Felix; Farberow, Carrie A.; Grabow, Lars C.; Kudernatsch, Wilhelmine; Wendt, Stefen; Laegsgaard, E.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Besenbacher, Fleming

    2012-05-18

    The diffusion of hydrogen atoms across solid oxide surfaces is often assumed to be accelerated by the presence of water molecules. Here we present a high-resolution, high-speed scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study of the diffusion of H atoms on an FeO thin film. STM movies directly reveal a water-mediated hydrogen diffusion mechanism on the oxide surface at temperatures between 100 and 300 kelvin. Density functional theory calculations and isotope-exchange experiments confirm the STM observations, and a proton-transfer mechanism that proceeds via an H3O+-like transition state is revealed. This mechanism differs from that observed previously for rutile TiO2(110), where water dissociation is a key step in proton diffusion.

  7. Membranes with Surface-Enhanced Antifouling Properties for Water Purification

    PubMed Central

    Shahkaramipour, Nima; Tran, Thien N.; Ramanan, Sankara; Lin, Haiqing

    2017-01-01

    Membrane technology has emerged as an attractive approach for water purification, while mitigation of fouling is key to lower membrane operating costs. This article reviews various materials with antifouling properties that can be coated or grafted onto the membrane surface to improve the antifouling properties of the membranes and thus, retain high water permeance. These materials can be separated into three categories, hydrophilic materials, such as poly(ethylene glycol), polydopamine and zwitterions, hydrophobic materials, such as fluoropolymers, and amphiphilic materials. The states of water in these materials and the mechanisms for the antifouling properties are discussed. The corresponding approaches to coat or graft these materials on the membrane surface are reviewed, and the materials with promising performance are highlighted. PMID:28273869

  8. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the Sargasso sea atmosphere and surface water.

    PubMed

    Bidleman, T F; Olney, C E

    1974-02-08

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), DDT, and chlordane concentrations were measured in air sampled from a tower on the south shore of Bermuda and in Sargasso Sea surface water approximately 80 to 320 kilometers south of Bermuda. The atmospheric chlorinated hydrocarbons appeared to be gaseous, and the DDT concentration was two orders of magnitude higher than previously reported particulate values. The PCB and DDT were enriched in the surface microlayer (150 micrometers) relative to their concentrations in water at a depth of 30 centimeters. Atmospheric residence times for PCB and DDT of 40 to 50 days, calculated from the concentrations in the air and water, are 20 times shorter than values previously estimated for DDT from rainfall and DDT production data.

  9. Perfluoroalkyl substances in the Maltese environment - (I) surface water and rain water.

    PubMed

    Sammut, G; Sinagra, E; Helmus, R; de Voogt, P

    2017-07-01

    The presence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in rain water on the Maltese Islands is reported here for the first time and an extensive survey of these substances in surface water also reported. The Maltese archipelago lies at the centre of the Mediterranean Sea and consists of three main inhabited islands: Malta, Gozo and Comino. Surface water was collected from 41 valleys during the months of February and March 2015 at the peak of the wet season. Rain water was collected during the months of December 2014, February, August, September and October 2015. PFASs were extracted from the water samples using solid phase extraction and the extracts were then analysed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem (UPLC-MS/MS). All surface and rain water samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS. PFOS (surface waters respectively. The ΣPFAS concentrations in rain water ranged between 0.38ng/L (1st October 2015) and 6ng/L (21st February 2015). The Maltese archipelago is surrounded by sea and disconnected from any other mainland; therefore the results confirm that remote environments can become contaminated by PFASs from rain events depending on wind prevailing trajectories.

  10. Survey of the Mutagenicity of Surface Water, Sediments, and Drinking Water from the Penobscot Indian Nation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Survey of the Mutagenicity of Surface Water, Sediments, andDrinking Water from the Penobscot Indian NationSarah H. Warren, Larry D. Claxton,1, Thomas J. Hughes,*, Adam Swank,Janet Diliberto, Valerie Marshall, Daniel H. Kusnierz, Robert Hillger, David M. DeMariniNational Health a...

  11. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2006 Water Year

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. Romero, D. Ortiz, G. Kuyumjian

    2007-08-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 44 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs--two that flow into Canon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon--and peak flow data for 44 stations.

  12. Surface water data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 2009 water year

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, David; McCullough, Betsy

    2010-05-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 73 stream-gage stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs— two that flow into Cañon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon.

  13. Generation of vortices by gravity waves on a water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, S. V.; Aliev, S. A.; Levchenko, A. A.; Khramov, D. A.

    2016-11-01

    The generation of a vortex motion on a water surface by gravity waves at frequencies of 3 and 4 Hz and wavelengths of 17 and 9.7 cm, respectively, has been studied experimentally. It has been shown that the results can be described by a model of the formation of a vorticity by nonlinear waves. It has been shown for the first time that the vorticity amplitude on a water surface depends on the phase difference between the waves propagating at an angle of 90° with respect to each other and with a period of 360°. A quadratic dependence of the surface vorticity amplitude on the angular amplitude of the waves has been observed. Transfer of the energy of the vortex motion from the pumping region to a larger scale has been discovered.

  14. Surface Chemistry and Water Dispersability of Carbon Black Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Burchell, Timothy D

    2006-01-01

    Formulation of water-stable carbon black dispersions is a double-sided task, which requires selection of a proper dispersing agents and matching it with the properties of a specific carbon black. Among other properties that affect water dispersability of carbon blacks (particle size, surface area, and aggregate structure), surface chemistry plays a prime-order role. We have characterized physical and chemical properties of several carbon black materials, and correlated them with the stability of dispersions formed with ionic and non-ionic surfactants. In particular, chemical characterization of surface functional groups on carbon blacks based on potentiometric titration measurements (pKa spectra) provided a comprehensive picture of pH effects on dispersion stability. The results obtained were complemented by information from physical characterization methods, such as XPS and FTIR. The selection of a suitable dispersing agent able to withstand large pH variations will be discussed.

  15. Cholesterol enhances surface water diffusion of phospholipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Kausik, Ravinath; Han, Songi; Olijve, Luuk L. C.

    2014-12-14

    Elucidating the physical effect of cholesterol (Chol) on biological membranes is necessary towards rationalizing their structural and functional role in cell membranes. One of the debated questions is the role of hydration water in Chol-embedding lipid membranes, for which only little direct experimental data are available. Here, we study the hydration dynamics in a series of Chol-rich and depleted bilayer systems using an approach termed {sup 1}H Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP) NMR relaxometry that enables the sensitive and selective determination of water diffusion within 5–10 Å of a nitroxide-based spin label, positioned off the surface of the polar headgroups or within the nonpolar core of lipid membranes. The Chol-rich membrane systems were prepared from mixtures of Chol, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and/or dioctadecyl phosphatidylcholine lipid that are known to form liquid-ordered, raft-like, domains. Our data reveal that the translational diffusion of local water on the surface and within the hydrocarbon volume of the bilayer is significantly altered, but in opposite directions: accelerated on the membrane surface and dramatically slowed in the bilayer interior with increasing Chol content. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) lineshape analysis shows looser packing of lipid headgroups and concurrently tighter packing in the bilayer core with increasing Chol content, with the effects peaking at lipid compositions reported to form lipid rafts. The complementary capability of ODNP and EPR to site-specifically probe the hydration dynamics and lipid ordering in lipid membrane systems extends the current understanding of how Chol may regulate biological processes. One possible role of Chol is the facilitation of interactions between biological constituents and the lipid membrane through the weakening or disruption of strong hydrogen-bond networks of the surface hydration layers that otherwise exert stronger repulsive forces, as reflected in

  16. Cholesterol enhances surface water diffusion of phospholipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Olijve, Luuk L. C.; Kausik, Ravinath; Han, Songi

    2014-12-01

    Elucidating the physical effect of cholesterol (Chol) on biological membranes is necessary towards rationalizing their structural and functional role in cell membranes. One of the debated questions is the role of hydration water in Chol-embedding lipid membranes, for which only little direct experimental data are available. Here, we study the hydration dynamics in a series of Chol-rich and depleted bilayer systems using an approach termed 1H Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP) NMR relaxometry that enables the sensitive and selective determination of water diffusion within 5-10 Å of a nitroxide-based spin label, positioned off the surface of the polar headgroups or within the nonpolar core of lipid membranes. The Chol-rich membrane systems were prepared from mixtures of Chol, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and/or dioctadecyl phosphatidylcholine lipid that are known to form liquid-ordered, raft-like, domains. Our data reveal that the translational diffusion of local water on the surface and within the hydrocarbon volume of the bilayer is significantly altered, but in opposite directions: accelerated on the membrane surface and dramatically slowed in the bilayer interior with increasing Chol content. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) lineshape analysis shows looser packing of lipid headgroups and concurrently tighter packing in the bilayer core with increasing Chol content, with the effects peaking at lipid compositions reported to form lipid rafts. The complementary capability of ODNP and EPR to site-specifically probe the hydration dynamics and lipid ordering in lipid membrane systems extends the current understanding of how Chol may regulate biological processes. One possible role of Chol is the facilitation of interactions between biological constituents and the lipid membrane through the weakening or disruption of strong hydrogen-bond networks of the surface hydration layers that otherwise exert stronger repulsive forces, as reflected in faster

  17. Precise determination of water exchanges on a mineral surface

    SciTech Connect

    Stack, Andrew G.; Borreguero, Jose M.; Prisk, Timothy R.; Mamontov, Eugene; Wang, Hsiu-Wen

    2016-10-03

    Solvent exchanges on solid surfaces and dissolved ions are a fundamental property important for understanding chemical reactions, but the rates of fast exchanges are poorly constrained. In this paper, we probed the diffusional motions of water adsorbed onto nanoparticles of the mineral barite (BaSO4) using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and classical molecular dynamics (MD) to reveal the complex dynamics of water exchange along mineral surfaces. QENS data as a function of temperature and momentum transfer (Q) were fit using scattering functions derived from MD trajectories. The simulations reproduce the dynamics measured in the experiments at ambient temperatures, but as temperature is lowered the simulations overestimate slower motions. Decomposition of the MD-computed QENS intensity into contributions from adsorbed and unbound water shows that the majority of the signal arises from adsorbed species, although the dynamics of unbound water cannot be dismissed. The mean residence times of water on each of the four surface sites present on the barite {001} were calculated using MD: at room temperature the low barium site is 194 ps, whereas the high barium site contains two distributions of motions at 84 and 2.5 ps. These contrast to 13 ps residence time on both sulfate sites, with an additional surface diffusion exchange of 66 ps. Surface exchanges are similar to those of the aqueous ions calculated using the same force field: Baaq2+ is 208 ps and SO4aq2- is 5.8 ps. Finally, this work demonstrates how MD can be a reliable method to deconvolute solvent exchange reactions when quantitatively validated by QENS measurements.

  18. Micro-Satellite Constellation for Global Surface Water Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apperson, A. T.; Vanderbilt, V. C.

    2011-12-01

    Alsdorf et al. [1] have proposed a Ka band interferometric radar system for global monitoring of surface waters from space. We explore the feasibility of a constellation of micro-satellites with optical sensors measuring the sun's specular reflection by surface waters. Our approach, which is complementary to that of Alsdorf et al., would provide weekly global coverage with a 10m ground spatial resolution if a six micro-satellite constellation used a 0.7° ground swath width and the ADEOS 1 orbital parameters. Optical sensing has three main obstacles; smoke, clouds and canopy structures. The sun's specular reflection provides a signal strength that, from observations, penetrates aerosols with an optical depth approaching 1.0 and provides detection down to perhaps 1/32 of a pixel, which would potentially allow detection of surface waters under many plant canopies. Our system would provide data to help answer Alsdorf's question, "What is the spatial and temporal variability in terrestrial surface water storage, and how can we predict these variations more accurately?" [1] In addition, modifying the arrangement of the satellites in the constellation could potentially provide data on the canopy structure. Including an additional instrument could provide estimates on atmospheric column methane and other estimates of other atmospheric trace gases concentration. [2] [1] D. E. Alsdorf, E. Rodríguez, and D. P. Lettenmaier, "Measuring surface water from space," Rev. Geophys, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 1-24, 2007. [2] North F. Larsen and Knut Stamnes, "Methane detection from space: use of sunglint", Opt. Eng. 45, 016202 (Feb 01, 2006); doi:10.1117/1.2150835

  19. Precise determination of water exchanges on a mineral surface

    DOE PAGES

    Stack, Andrew G.; Borreguero, Jose M.; Prisk, Timothy R.; ...

    2016-10-03

    Solvent exchanges on solid surfaces and dissolved ions are a fundamental property important for understanding chemical reactions, but the rates of fast exchanges are poorly constrained. In this paper, we probed the diffusional motions of water adsorbed onto nanoparticles of the mineral barite (BaSO4) using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and classical molecular dynamics (MD) to reveal the complex dynamics of water exchange along mineral surfaces. QENS data as a function of temperature and momentum transfer (Q) were fit using scattering functions derived from MD trajectories. The simulations reproduce the dynamics measured in the experiments at ambient temperatures, but as temperaturemore » is lowered the simulations overestimate slower motions. Decomposition of the MD-computed QENS intensity into contributions from adsorbed and unbound water shows that the majority of the signal arises from adsorbed species, although the dynamics of unbound water cannot be dismissed. The mean residence times of water on each of the four surface sites present on the barite {001} were calculated using MD: at room temperature the low barium site is 194 ps, whereas the high barium site contains two distributions of motions at 84 and 2.5 ps. These contrast to 13 ps residence time on both sulfate sites, with an additional surface diffusion exchange of 66 ps. Surface exchanges are similar to those of the aqueous ions calculated using the same force field: Baaq2+ is 208 ps and SO4aq2- is 5.8 ps. Finally, this work demonstrates how MD can be a reliable method to deconvolute solvent exchange reactions when quantitatively validated by QENS measurements.« less

  20. Evaluation of ATP measurements to detect microbial ingress by wastewater and surface water in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vang, Óluva K; Corfitzen, Charlotte B; Smith, Christian; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-11-01

    Fast and reliable methods are required for monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was investigated as a potential real-time parameter for detecting microbial ingress in drinking water contaminated with wastewater or surface water. To investigate the ability of the ATP assay in detecting different contamination types, the contaminant was diluted with non-chlorinated drinking water. Wastewater, diluted at 10(4) in drinking water, was detected with the ATP assay, as well as 10(2) to 10(3) times diluted surface water. To improve the performance of the ATP assay in detecting microbial ingress in drinking water, different approaches were investigated, i.e. quantifying microbial ATP or applying reagents of different sensitivities to reduce measurement variations; however, none of these approaches contributed significantly in this respect. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, the ATP assay could detect wastewater and surface water in drinking water to a higher degree than total direct counts (TDCs), while both heterotrophic plate counts (HPC 22 °C and HPC 37 °C) and Colilert-18 (Escherichia coli and coliforms) were more sensitive than the ATP measurements, though with much longer response times. Continuous sampling combined with ATP measurements displays definite monitoring potential for microbial drinking water quality, since microbial ingress in drinking water can be detected in real-time with ATP measurements. The ability of the ATP assay to detect microbial ingress is influenced by both the ATP load from the contaminant itself and the ATP concentration in the specific drinking water. Consequently, a low ATP concentration of the specific drinking water facilitates a better detection of a potential contamination of the water supply with the ATP assay.

  1. Surface water data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 1995 water year. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Barks, R.; Shaull, D.A.; Alexander, M.R.; Reynolds, R.P.

    1996-08-01

    The principle investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 15 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The United States Department of Interior Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, operates two of the stations under a subcontract; these are identified in the station manuscripts. Included in this report are data from one seepage run conducted in Los Alamos Canyon during the 1995 water year.

  2. How water meets a hydrophobic surface: Reluctantly and with flucuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poynor Torigoe, Adele Nichole

    By definition hydrophobic substances hate water. Water placed on a hydrophobic surface will form a drop in order to minimize its contact area. What happens when water is forced into contact with a hydrophobic surface? One theory is that an ultra-thin low density region forms near the surface. This depleted region would have implications in such diverse areas as colloidal self-assembly, and the boundary conditions of fluid flow. However, the literature still remains divided as to whether or not such a depleted region exists. To investigate the existence of this layer, we have employed three surface-sensitive techniques, time-resolved phase-modulated ellipsometry, surface plasmon resonance, and X-ray reflectivity. Both ellipsometry and X-ray reflectivity provide strong evidence for the low-density layer and illuminate unexpected temporal behavior. Using all three techniques, we found surprising fluctuations at the interface with a non-Gaussian distribution and a single characteristic time on the order of tenths of seconds. This information supports the idea that the boundary fluctuates with something akin to capillary waves. We have also investigated the dependence of the static and dynamic properties of the hydrophobic/water interface on variables such as temperature, contact angle, pH, dissolved gasses, and sample quality, among others, in a hope to discover the root of the controversy in the literature. We found that the depletion layer is highly dependent on temperature, contact angle and sample quality. This dependence might explain some of the discrepancies in the literature as different groups often use hydrophobic surfaces with different properties.

  3. Hydraulic exchange between a coral reef and surface sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Tribble, G.W.; Sansone, F.J.; Li, Yuan-Hui

    1992-10-01

    Hydraulic exchange between overlying sea water and the internal structure of a patch reef in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, was studied with an array of wells, 1, 2, and 4 m deep. Two natural chemical tracers, radon, and salinity, were used to calculate the exchange rate between surface sea water and reef interstitial waters. Dissolved radon concentrations are substantially higher in interstitial waters than is surface water. The degree of radon enrichment is quantitatively related to the time elapsed since interstitial water had equilibrated with the atmosphere. Residence time estimates are 1-40 days, with deeper wells having slower exchange. The average residence time for 1-m-deep wells was 2.1 days. A rainstorm-induced dilution of the salinity of Kaneohe Bay provides the second tracer. Samples of surface and reef interstitial waters following this salinity perturbation are used to calculate an average residence time of 2.6 days at a depth of 1 m and 42 days at a depth of 2 m. Three types of physical forces thought to cause exchange between surface and interstitial water are considered by measurement of the forcing functions and reef permeability. Hydraulic conductivities are about 50 m/d, with lower values near the seaward side of the reef. Most exchange seems to be caused by high-frequency, wave-driven oscillatory pumping and by unidirectional hydraulic head gradients (of uncertain origin) that are stable for at least 3-4 days. Wave-driven mixing is probably more important shallower in the reef, whereas head-driven flow may dominate deeper in the reef. Tidal pumping does not seem to contribute to exchange. All methods indicate that exchange in the upper part of Checker Reef is primarily through vertical exchange. The best estimate for the residence time of water at a depth of 1 m is 2 days. Water at depths of 204 m probably has a residence time of weeks to months. 49 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Sea, ice and surface water circulation, Alaskan Continental Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, F. F. (Principal Investigator); Sharma, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two cruises were conducted in Cook Inlet to obtain ground truth. Forty-seven stations during 22-23 August and 68 stations during 25-29 September 1972 were occupied and temperature, salinity, percent light transmission, and suspended load of surface waters obtained. Similar data at various depths was also obtained at selected stations. Cook Inlet is an estuary with complex mixing of river discharges and ocean water. The Upper Cook Inlet shows a gradual and systematic decrease in salinity, however, west of Kenai the mixing of waters is complex. The sediments in suspension originating at the head of the inlet generally settle out east of Kenai and Drift River. Sediment load in suspension decreased gradually from 1700 mg/1 near Anchorage to about 50 mg/1 in the Narrows. In the Lower Cook Inlet the suspended load varied between 1-10 mg/1. Surface waters with sediments in suspension and ocean water with relatively lower sediment concentration are clearly discernible in ERTS-1 images obtained during September 18, 1972 pass over Cook Inlet. The movement and mixing of these waters can also be delineated in the images.

  5. Optimizing Nanopore Surface Properties for High-Efficiency Water Desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen-Tanugi, David; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2011-03-01

    As water resources worldwide become rapidly scarcer, it is becoming increasingly important to devise new techniques to obtain clean water from seawater. At present, water purification technologies are limited by costly energy requirements relative to the theoretical thermodynamic limit and by insufficient understanding of the physical processes underlying ion filtration and fluid transport at the molecular scale. New advances in computational materials science offer a promising way to deepen our understanding of these physical phenomena. In this presentation, we describe a new approach for high-efficiency water desalination based on surface-engineered porous materials. This approach is especially relevant for promising technologies such as nanofiltration and membrane distillation, which offers promising advantages over traditional desalination technologies using mesoporous membranes that are only permeable to pure water vapor. More accurate molecular modeling of mesoporous and nanoporous materials represents a key step towards efficient large-scale treatment of seawater. Results regarding the effect of pore properties (surface texture, morphology, density, tortuosity) on desired performance characteristics such as ion selectivity, maximal water flux and energy requirements will be presented.

  6. The Dual Protection of a Micro Land Snail against a Micro Predatory Snail

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Shinichiro; Chiba, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Defense against a single predatory attack strategy may best be achieved not by a single trait but by a combination of different traits. We tested this hypothesis experimentally by examining the unique shell traits (the protruded aperture and the denticles within the aperture) of the micro land snail Bensonella plicidens. We artificially altered shell characteristics by removing the denticles and/or cutting the protruded aperture. These snails were offered to the carnivorous micro land snail Indoennea bicolor, which preys on the snails by gaining entry to their shell. B. plicidens exhibited the best defence when both of the traits studied were present; the defensive ability of B. plicidens decreased if either trait was removed and was further reduced if both traits were removed. These results suggest that a combination of different traits provides more effective defence against attack by the predator than either single trait by itself. PMID:23326582

  7. Surface water and groundwater interactions in coastal wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Xin, Pei; Shen, Chengji

    2014-05-01

    Salt marshes are an important wetland system in the upper intertidal zone, interfacing the land and coastal water. Dominated by salt-tolerant plants, these wetlands provide essential eco-environmental services for maintaining coastal biodiversity. They also act as sediment traps and help stabilize the coastline. While they play an active role in moderating greenhouse gas emissions, these wetlands have become increasingly vulnerable to the impact of global climate change. Salt marshes are a complex hydrological system characterized by strong, dynamic interactions between surface water and groundwater, which underpin the wetland's eco-functionality. Bordered with coastal water, the marsh system undergoes cycles of inundation and exposure driven by the tide. This leads to dynamic, complex pore-water flow and solute transport in the marsh soil. Pore-water circulations occur at different spatial and temporal scales with strong link to the marsh topography. These circulations control solute transport between the marsh soil and the tidal creek, and ultimately affect the overall nutrient exchange between the marsh and coastal water. The pore-water flows also dictate the soil aeration conditions, which in turn affect marsh plant growth. This talk presents results and findings from recent numerical and experimental studies, focusing on the pore-water flow behaviour in the marsh soil under the influence of tides and density-gradients.

  8. Preliminary investigation of radon concentration in surface water and drinking water in Shenzhen City, South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Wang, Nanping; Li, Shijun

    2015-11-01

    A radon survey in surface water and drinking water was conducted using a portable degassing system associated with an ionisation chamber AlphaGUARD (PQ2000) for understanding levels of dissolved radon ((222)Rn) concentration in different types of water sources and risk assessment of radon in drinking water in Shenzhen City (SC) with a population of 10 628 900 in 2013, Guangdong Province of China. The measurements show that arithmetic means ± standard deviations of radon ((222)Rn) concentration are 52.05 ± 6.64, 0.29 ± 0.26, 0.15 ± 0.23 and 0.37 ± 0.42 kBq m(-3) in spring water, surface water, large and small public water supplies, respectively. Only radon concentrations of two water samples collected in mountainous areas are more than 11.10 kBq m(-3), exceeding the limit of radon concentration in drinking water stipulated by the national standard of China (GB5749-2006). The annual effective doses due to radon in drinking water were also calculated. The investigation suggests that there are no risks caused by radon in the drinking water in SC.

  9. Understanding Surface water Ground water Interactions in Arkansas-Red River Basin using Coupled Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, C.; Mohanty, B. P.

    2006-12-01

    Subsurface water exists primarily as groundwater and also in small quantity as soil water in the unsaturated zone. This soil water plays a vital role in the hydrologic cycle by supporting plant growth, regulating the amount of water lost to evapo-transpiration and affecting the surface water groundwater interaction to a certain extent. As such, the interaction between surface water and groundwater is complex and little understood. This study aims at investigating the surface water groundwater interaction in the Arkansas-Red river basin, using a coupled modeling platform. For this purpose, an ecohydrological model (SWAP) has been coupled with the groundwater model (MODFLOW). Inputs to this coupled model are collected from NEXRAD precipitation data at a resolution of ~4 km, meteorological forcings from Oklahoma mesonet and NCDC sites, STATSGO soil property data, LAI (Leaf Area Index) data from MODIS at a resolution of ~1 km, and DEM (Digital Elevation Model). For numerical modeling, a spatial resolution of ~1 km and a temporal resolution of one day is used. The modeled base flow and total groundwater storage change would be tested using ground water table observation data. The modeled ground water storage is further improved using GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellite data at a resolution of ~400 km, with the help of appropriate data assimilation technique.

  10. Characterization of gelatin/chitosan scaffold blended with aloe vera and snail mucus for biomedical purpose.

    PubMed

    López Angulo, Daniel Enrique; do Amaral Sobral, Paulo José

    2016-11-01

    Biologically active scaffolds used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been generating promising results in skin replacement. The present study aims to test the hypothesis that the incorporation of Aloe vera and snail mucus into scaffolds based on gelatin and chitosan could improve their structure, composition and biodegradability, with a potential effect on bioactivity. Homogeneous pore diameter as well as pore walls in the composite scaffold could be seen in the SEM image. The pores in the scaffolds were interconnected and their sizes ranged from 93 to 296μm. The addition of Aloe vera and snail mucus enlarged the mean pore size with increased porosity and caused changes in the pore architecture. The FTIR analysis has shown good affinity and interaction between the matrix and the Aloe, which may decrease water-binding sites, so this fact hindered the water absorption capacity of the material. The mechanical properties could explain the highest swelling capacity of the snail scaffold, because the high percentage of elongation could facilitate the entry of liquid in it, generating a matrix with plenty of fluid retention. The real innovation in the present work could be the use of these substances (Aloe and snail mucus) for tissue engineering.

  11. Modeling snail breeding in a bioregenerative life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, V. S.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Kolmakova, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    The discrete-time model of snail breeding consists of two sequentially linked submodels: "Stoichiometry" and "Population". In both submodels, a snail population is split up into twelve age groups within one year of age. The first submodel is used to simulate the metabolism of a single snail in each age group via the stoichiometric equation; the second submodel is used to optimize the age structure and the size of the snail population. Daily intake of snail meat by crewmen is a guideline which specifies the population productivity. The mass exchange of the snail unit inhabited by land snails of Achatina fulica is given as an outcome of step-by-step modeling. All simulations are performed using Solver Add-In of Excel 2007.

  12. Observation of dynamic water microadsorption on Au surface

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaokang Gupta, Gaurav; Gao, Weixiang; Tran, Van; Nguyen, Bang; McCormick, Eric; Cui, Yongjie; Yang, Yinbao; Hall, Craig; Isom, Harold

    2014-05-15

    Experimental and theoretical research on water wettability, adsorption, and condensation on solid surfaces has been ongoing for many decades because of the availability of new materials, new detection and measurement techniques, novel applications, and different scales of dimensions. Au is a metal of special interest because it is chemically inert, has a high surface energy, is highly conductive, and has a relatively high melting point. It has wide applications in semiconductor integrated circuitry, microelectromechanical systems, microfluidics, biochips, jewelry, coinage, and even dental restoration. Therefore, its surface condition, wettability, wear resistance, lubrication, and friction attract a lot of attention from both scientists and engineers. In this paper, the authors experimentally investigated Au{sub 2}O{sub 3} growth, wettability, roughness, and adsorption utilizing atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, reflectance spectrometry, and contact angle measurement. Samples were made using a GaAs substrate. Utilizing a super-hydrophilic Au surface and the proper surface conditions of the surrounding GaAs, dynamic microadsorption of water on the Au surface was observed in a clean room environment. The Au surface area can be as small as 12 μm{sup 2}. The adsorbed water was collected by the GaAs groove structure and then redistributed around the structure. A model was developed to qualitatively describe the dynamic microadsorption process. The effective adsorption rate was estimated by modeling and experimental data. Devices for moisture collection and a liquid channel can be made by properly arranging the wettabilities or contact angles of different materials. These novel devices will be very useful in microfluid applications or biochips.

  13. Experimental Study of Water Droplet Vaporization on Nanostructured Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Jorge, Jr.

    This dissertation summarizes results of an experimental exploration of heat transfer during vaporization of a water droplet deposited on a nanostructured surface at a temperature approaching and exceeding the Leidenfrost point for the surface and at lower surface temperatures 10-40 degrees C above the saturated temperature of the water droplet at approximately 101 kPa. The results of these experiments were compared to those performed on bare smooth copper and aluminum surfaces in this and other studies. The nanostructured surfaces were composed of a vast array of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals grown by hydrothermal synthesis on a smooth copper substrate having an average surface roughness of approximately 0.06 micrometer. Various nanostructured surface array geometries were produced on the copper substrate by performing the hydrothermal synthesis for 4, 10 and 24 hours. The individual nanostructures were randomly-oriented and, depending on hydrothermal synthesis time, had a mean diameter of about 500-700 nm, a mean length of 1.7-3.3 micrometers,and porosities of approximately 0.04-0.58. Surface wetting was characterized by macroscopic measurements of contact angle based on the droplet profile and calculations based on measurements of liquid film spread area. Scanning electron microscope imaging was used to document the nanoscale features of the surface before and after the experiments. The nanostructured surfaces grown by hydrothermal synthesis for 4 and 24 hours exhibited contact angles of approximately 10, whereas the surfaces grown for 10 hours were superhydrophilic, exhibiting contact angles typically less than 3 degrees. In single droplet deposition experiments at 101 kPa, a high-speed video camera was used to document the droplet-surface interaction. Distilled and degassed water droplets ranging in size from 2.5-4.0 mm were deposited onto the surface from heights ranging from approximately 0.2-8.1 cm, such that Weber numbers spanned a range of approximately 0

  14. Investigating surface water-well interaction using stable isotope ratios of water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, R.J.; Coplen, T.B.; Haas, N.L.; Saad, D.A.; Borchardt, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Because surface water can be a source of undesirable water quality in a drinking water well, an understanding of the amount of surface water and its travel time to the well is needed to assess a well's vulnerability. Stable isotope ratios of oxygen in river water at the City of La Crosse, Wisconsin, show peak-to-peak seasonal variation greater than 4??? in 2001 and 2002. This seasonal signal was identified in 7 of 13 city municipal wells, indicating that these 7 wells have appreciable surface water contributions and are potentially vulnerable to contaminants in the surface water. When looking at wells with more than 6 sampling events, a larger variation in ??18O compositions correlated with a larger fraction of surface water, suggesting that samples collected for oxygen isotopic composition over time may be useful for identifying the vulnerability to surface water influence even if a local meteoric water line is not available. A time series of ??18O from one of the municipal wells and from a piezometer located between the river and the municipal well showed that the travel time of flood water to the municipal well was approximately 2 months; non-flood arrival times were on the order of 9 months. Four independent methods were also used to assess time of travel. Three methods (groundwater temperature arrival times at the intermediate piezometer, virus-culture results, and particle tracking using a numerical groundwater-flow model) yielded flood and non-flood travel times of less than 1 year for this site. Age dating of one groundwater sample using 3H-3He methods estimated an age longer than 1 year, but was likely confounded by deviations from piston flow as noted by others. Chlorofluorocarbons and SF6 analyses were not useful at this site due to degradation and contamination, respectively. This work illustrates the utility of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of water to determine the contribution and travel time of surface water in groundwater, and

  15. Assessing metaldehyde concentrations in surface water catchments and implications for drinking water abstraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, Alemayehu; Shucksmith, James; Smith, Andrea; Cherry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Metaldehyde is an active ingredient in agricultural pesticides such as slug pellets, which are heavily applied to UK farmland during the autumn application season. There is current concern that existing drinking water treatment processes may be inadequate in reducing potentially high levels of metaldehyde in surface waters to below the UK drinking water quality regulation limit of 0.1 µg/l. In addition, current water quality monitoring methods can miss short term fluctuations in metaldehyde concentration caused by rainfall driven runoff, hampering prediction of the potential risk of exposure. Datasets describing levels, fate and transport of metaldehyde in river catchments are currently very scarce. This work presents results from an ongoing study to quantify the presence of metaldehyde in surface waters within a UK catchment used for drinking water abstraction. High resolution water quality data from auto-samplers installed in rivers are coupled with radar rainfall, catchment characteristics and land use data to i) understand which hydro-meteorological characteristics of the catchment trigger the peak migration of metaldehyde to surface waters; ii) assess the relationship between measured metaldehyde levels and catchment characteristics such as land use, topographic index, proximity to water bodies and runoff generation area; iii) describe the current risks to drinking water supply and discuss mitigation options based on modelling and real-time control of water abstraction. Identifying the correlation between catchment attributes and metaldehyde generation will help in the development of effective catchment management strategies, which can help to significantly reduce the amount of metaldehyde finding its way into river water. Furthermore, the effectiveness of current water quality monitoring strategy in accurately quantifying the generation of metaldehyde from the catchment and its ability to benefit the development of effective catchment management practices

  16. Surface-enhanced Raman for monitoring toxins in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Kevin M.; Sylvia, James M.; Clauson, Susan L.; Bertone, Jane F.; Christesen, Steven D.

    2004-02-01

    Protection of the drinking water supply from a terrorist attack is of critical importance. Since the water supply is vast, contamination prevention is difficult. Therefore, rapid detection of contaminants, whether a military chemical/biological threat, a hazardous chemical spill, naturally occurring toxins, or bacterial build-up is a priority. The development of rapid environmentally portable and stable monitors that allow continuous monitoring of the water supply is ideal. EIC Laboratories has been developing Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) to detect chemical agents, toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), viruses, cyanotoxins and bacterial agents. SERS is an ideal technique for the Joint Service Agent Water Monitor (JSAWM). SERS uses the enhanced Raman signals observed when an analyte adsorbs to a roughened metal substrate to enable trace detection. Proper development of the metal substrate will optimize the sensitivity and selectivity towards the analytes of interest.

  17. Evaluation of the Surface-Water Quantity, Surface-Water Quality, and Rainfall Data-Collection Programs in Hawaii, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, Richard A.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the results of an evaluation of the surface-water quantity, surface-water quality, and rainfall data-collection programs in Hawaii. Fourteen specific issues and related goals were identified for the surface-water quantity program and a geographic information systems (GIS) data base was developed summarizing information for all surface-water stream gages that have been operated in Hawaii by the U.S. Geological Survey. Changes in status, which for some gages includes discontinuing operation, need to be considered at 42 sites where data are currently collected. The current surface-water quantity data base was determined to be adequate to address only two of the 14 specific issues and related goals. Alternatives were identified to address the areas where future issues and goals could not be adequately addressed. Options include new and expanded data collection, use of regional regression analyses, hydrologic and hydraulic modeling, and analysis and publication of existing data. A total of 47 streams were identified where additional stream-gaging stations are needed. Evaluation of the surface-water quality program was limited to a description of the U.S. Geological Survey's historical and existing programs and available analyses of data. Limitations of the program are described which primarily included lack of data regarding suspended sediment, land-use effects, quality of stream discharge to oceans, background water quality and nonpoint sources of contamination. Evaluation of the rainfall data program indicated that identified future goals could be discussed as either regional, systems related, current needs, forecasting, water quality, or trend analysis related. To address these goals, data from about 2,000 rain gages, 528 of which are active, are available. Data were found to only partially meet identified goals. Alternatives discussed to address the limitations include the need for more recording gages, primarily in areas of high rainfall

  18. Droplet impinging behavior on surfaces: Part II - Water on aluminium and cast iron surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangavi, S.; Balaji, S.; Mithran, N.; Venkatesan, M.

    2016-09-01

    Droplet cooling of metal surfaces is an important area of research in industrial applications such as material quenching, nozzle spraying, etc. Fluids (water) act as an excellent agent in heat transfer to remove excess heat in various processes by convection and conduction. Such cooling process varies the material properties. The bubbles formed during droplet impinging on the surface act as heat sink and causes variation of height and spreading radius of the droplet with increase in temperature. In the present work, an experimental study of the droplet impinging behavior on Aluminium and Cast iron surfaces is reported. The water droplets are made to fall on the surface of the specimens from a specific height, which also influences the spreading radius. The effect of temperature on droplet height and droplet spreading radius is detailed.

  19. Ionization dynamics of water dimer on ice surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2016-05-01

    The solid surface provides an effective two-dimensional reaction field because the surface increases the encounter probability of bi-molecular collision reactions. Also, the solid surface stabilizes a reaction intermediate because the excess energy generated by the reaction dissipates into the bath modes of surface. The ice surface in the universe is one of the two dimensional reaction fields. However, it is still unknown how the ice surface affects to the reaction mechanism. In the present study, to elucidate the specific property of the ice surface reaction, ionization dynamics of water dimer adsorbed on the ice surface was theoretically investigated by means of direct ab-initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) method combined with ONIOM (our own n-layered integrated molecular orbital and molecular mechanics) technique, and the result was compared with that of gas phase reaction. It was found that a proton is transferred from H2O+ to H2O within the dimer and the intermediate complex H3O+(OH) is formed in both cases. However, the dynamic features were different from each other. The reaction rate of the proton transfer on the ice surface was three times faster than that in the gas phase. The intermediate complex H3O+(OH) was easily dissociated to H3O+ and OH radical on the ice surface, and the lifetime of the complex was significantly shorter than that of gas phase (100 fs vs. infinite). The reason why the ice surface accelerates the reaction was discussed in the present study.

  20. Snail promotes an invasive phenotype in lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Snail is a transcriptional factor which is known to influence the epitheliomesenchymal transition (EMT) by regulating adhesion proteins such as E-cadherin and claudins as well as matrix metalloproteases (MMP). Methods To evaluate the functional importance of snail, a transciptional factor involved in EMT in lung tumors, we investigated its expression in a large set of lung carcinomas by immunohistochemistry. Expression of snail and effects of snail knockdown was studied in cell lines. Results Nuclear snail expression was seen in 21% of cases this being strongest in small cell lung carcinomas (SCLC). There was significantly greater snail expression in SCLC compared to squamous cell or adenocarcinoma. Positive snail expression was associated with poor survival in the whole material and separately in squamous cell and adenocarcinomas. In Cox regression analysis, snail expression showed an independent prognostic value in all of these groups. In several cell lines knockdown of snail reduced invasion in both matrigel assay and in the myoma tissue model for invasion. The influence of snail knockdown on claudin expression was cell type specific. Snail knockdown in these cell lines modified the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 but did not influence the activation of these MMPs to any significant degree. Conclusions The results show that snail plays an important role in the invasive characteristics of lung carcinoma influencing the survival of the patients. Snail knockdown might thus be one option for targeted molecular therapy in lung cancer. Snail knockdown influenced the expression of claudins individually in a cell-line dependent manner but did not influence MMP expressions or activations to any significant degree. PMID:23157169

  1. Pesticide monitoring in surface water and groundwater using passive samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodes, V.; Grabic, R.

    2009-04-01

    Passive samplers as screening devices have been used within a czech national water quality monitoring network since 2002 (SPMD and DGT samplers for non polar substances and metals). The passive sampler monitoring of surface water was extended to polar substances, in 2005. Pesticide and pharmaceutical POCIS samplers have been exposed in surface water at 21 locations and analysed for polar pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Pesticide POCIS samplers in groundwater were exposed at 5 locations and analysed for polar pesticides. The following active substances of plant protection products were analyzed in surface water and groundwater using LC/MS/MS: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, Acetochlor, Alachlor, Atrazine, Atrazine_desethyl, Azoxystrobin, Bentazone, Bromacil, Bromoxynil, Carbofuran, Clopyralid, Cyanazin, Desmetryn, Diazinon, Dicamba, Dichlobenil, Dichlorprop, Dimethoat, Diuron, Ethofumesate, Fenarimol, Fenhexamid, Fipronil, Fluazifop-p-butyl, Hexazinone, Chlorbromuron, Chlorotoluron, Imazethapyr, Isoproturon, Kresoxim-methyl, Linuron, MCPA, MCPP, Metalaxyl, Metamitron, Methabenzthiazuron, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Metobromuron, Metolachlor, Metoxuron, Metribuzin, Monolinuron, Nicosulfuron, Phorate, Phosalone, Phosphamidon, Prometryn, Propiconazole, Propyzamide, Pyridate, Rimsulfuron, Simazine, Tebuconazole, Terbuthylazine, Terbutryn, Thifensulfuron-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl and Tri-allate. The POCIS samplers performed very well being able to provide better picture than grab samples. The results show that polar pesticides and also perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals as well occur in hydrosphere of the Czech republic. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of grant No. 2B06095 by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

  2. Mitigation of acid deposition: Liming of surface waters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoshesky, J.; Price, R.; DeMuro, J.

    1989-05-01

    In recent years acid deposition has become a serious concern internationally. Scientific literature has documented the acidification of numerous lakes and streams in North America and Scandinavia resulting in the depletion or total loss of fisheries and other aquatic biota. Liming represents the only common corrective practice aimed specifically at remediating an affected acid receptor. This report reviews a range of liming technologies and liming materials, as well as the effect of surface-water liming on water quality and aquatic biota. As background to the liming discussion, the hydrologic cycle and the factors that make surface waters sensitive to acid deposition are also discussed. Finally, a brief review of some of the liming projects that have been conducted, or are currently in operation is presented, giving special emphasis to mitigation efforts in Maryland. Liming has been effectively used to counteract surface-water acidification in parts of Scandinavia, Canada, and the U.S. To date, liming has generally been shown to improve physical and chemical conditions and enhance the biological recovery of aquatic ecosystems affected by acidification.

  3. Reduction of water surface tension significantly impacts gecko adhesion underwater.

    PubMed

    Stark, Alyssa Y; McClung, Brandon; Niewiarowski, Peter H; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The gecko adhesive system is dependent on weak van der Waals interactions that are multiplied across thousands of fine hair-like structures (setae) on geckos' toe pads. Due to the requirements of van der Waals forces, we expect that any interruption between the setae and substrate, such as a water layer, will compromise adhesion. Our recent results suggest, however, that the air layer (plastron) surrounding the superhydrophobic toe pads aid in expelling water at the contact interface and create strong shear adhesion in water when in contact with hydrophobic surfaces. To test the function of the air plastron, we reduced the surface tension of water using two surfactants, a charged anionic surfactant and a neutral nonionic surfactant. We tested geckos on three substrates: hydrophilic glass and two hydrophobic surfaces, glass with a octadecyl trichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer (OTS-SAM) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). We found that the anionic surfactant inhibited the formation of the air plastron layer and significantly reduced shear adhesion to all three substrates. Interestingly, the air plastron was more stable in the nonionic surfactant treatments than the anionic surfactant treatments and we found that geckos adhered better in the nonionic surfactant than in the anionic surfactant on OTS-SAM and PTFE but not on glass. Our results have implications for the evolution of a superhydrophobic toe pad and highlight some of the challenges faced in designing synthetic adhesives that mimic geckos' toes.

  4. Acidic deposition--ecological effects on surface waters

    SciTech Connect

    Harter, P.

    1989-01-01

    The acidification of soft water aquatic ecosystems, with consequent damage to the flora and fauna, is considered in this report. The evidence that environmental effects are ocurring is examined to see if a trend of increasing acidification can be related to changes in atmospheric deposition of sulphates and nitrates. Possible causes of change are considered, to clarify the contributions of variations in human activities and natural factors. It is concluded that acidic deposition, originating partly from emissions of sulphur and nitrogen compounds arising from man-made sources including combustion of fossil fuels, is causing acidification of surface waters in some areas of Europe and North America. There is proof that acidification of surface waters (to less than pH 6) is deleterious to many of the organisms whose habitat it forms. Acidified surface waters in some of the impacted areas are showing signs of recovery, where emissions of sulphur and nitrogen compounds from human activities are decreasing. There is some evidence that reversibility of acidification has started to occur, in some instances, about a decade after emissions were reduced. 219 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Analysis of water microdroplet condensation on silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Takuya; Fujimoto, Kenya; Yoshimoto, Yuta; Mogi, Katsuo; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Sugii, Yasuhiko; Takagi, Shu; Univ. of Tokyo Team; Tokyo Inst. of Tech. Team

    2016-11-01

    We observed the condensation process of water microdroplets on flat silicon (100) surfaces by means of the sequential visualization of the droplets using an environmental scanning electron microscope. As previously reported for nanostructured surfaces, the condensation process of water microdroplets on the flat silicon surfaces also exhibits two modes: the constant base (CB) area mode and the constant contact angle (CCA) mode. In the CB mode, the contact angle increases with time while the base diameter is constant. Subsequently, in the CCA mode, the base diameter increases with time while the contact angle remains constant. The dropwise condensation model regulated by subcooling temperature does not reproduce the experimental results. Because the subcooling temperature is not constant in the case of a slow condensation rate, this model is not applicable to the condensation of the long time scale ( several tens of minutes). The contact angle of water microdroplets ( several μm) tended to be smaller than the macro contact angle. Two hypotheses are proposed as the cause of small contact angles: electrowetting and the coalescence of sub- μm water droplets.

  6. Home-built Surface Plasmon Resonance Apparatus for Studying Interactions Between Water and a Hydrophobic Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNany, Dylan; Brown, Erin; Petersen, Shannon; Poynor, Adele

    2014-03-01

    Water acts in many anomalous ways, especially when near a hydrophobic surface. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR), a quantum optical method is used to study these unusual effects. Through the use of SPR, studies of the depletion layer (a very thin low-density layer, only a few nanometers thick) can be conducted. Employing a home-built SPR device, along with a monolayer coated gold slide, studies are conducted using a variety of differing dielectrics (water, air, methanol). Modifications of the SPR apparatus allow us to find the assumed thickness of the depleted region.

  7. The Character of the Solar Wind, Surface Interactions, and Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the key characteristics of the proton-rich solar wind and describe how it may interact with the lunar surface. We suggest that solar wind can be both a source and loss of water/OH related volatiles, and review models showing both possibilities. Energy from the Sun in the form of radiation and solar wind plasma are in constant interaction with the lunar surface. As such, there is a solar-lunar energy connection, where solar energy and matter are continually bombarding the lunar surface, acting at the largest scale to erode the surface at 0.2 Angstroms per year via ion sputtering [1]. Figure 1 illustrates this dynamically Sun-Moon system.

  8. Determination of antibiotic residues in manure, soil, and surface waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christian, T.; Schneider, R.J.; Farber, H.A.; Skutlarek, D.; Meyer, M.T.; Goldbach, H.E.

    2003-01-01

    In the last years more and more often detections of antimicrobially active compounds ("antibiotics") in surface waters have been reported. As a possible input pathway in most cases municipal sewage has been discussed. But as an input from the realm of agriculture is conceivable as well, in this study it should be investigated if an input can occur via the pathway application of liquid manure on fields with the subsequent mechanisms surface run-off/interflow, leaching, and drift. For this purpose a series of surface waters, soils, and liquid manures from North Rhine-Westphalia (Northwestern Germany) were sampled and analyzed for up to 29 compounds by HPLC-MS/MS. In each of the surface waters antibiotics could be detected. The highest concentrations were found in samples from spring (300 ng/L of erythromycin). Some of the substances detected (e.g., tylosin), as well as characteristics in the landscape suggest an input from agriculture in some particular cases. In the investigation of different liquid manure samples by a fast immunoassay method sulfadimidine could be detected in the range of 1...2 mg/kg. Soil that had been fertilized with this liquid manure showed a content of sulfadimidine extractable by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of 15 ??g/kg dry weight even 7 months after the application. This indicates the high stability of some antibiotics in manure and soil.

  9. Nonlinear Acoustics at the Air-Water Free Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pree, Seth; Naranjo, Brian; Putterman, Seth

    2016-11-01

    According to linear acoustics, airborne sound incident on a water surface transmits only a tenth of a percent of its energy. This difficulty of transmitting energy across the water surface limits the feasibility of standoff ultrasound imaging. We propose to overcome this long standing problem by developing new methods of coupling into the medium at standoff. In particular, we believe that the acoustic nonlinearity of both the air and the medium may yield a range of effects in the vicinity of the surface permitting an efficient transmission of ultrasound from the air into the medium. The recent commercial availability of parametric speakers that deliver modulated 100kHz ultrasound at 135dB to nonlinearly generate music at 95dB provides an interesting platform with which to revisit the transmission of sound across acoustic impedance mismatches. We show results of experimental studies of the behavior of the air-water free surface when subjected to large amplitude acoustic pressures from the air. This work was supported by the ARO STIR program.

  10. Physiology of the invasive apple snail Pomacea maculata: tolerance to low temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deaton, Lewis E.; Schmidt, William; Leblanc, Brody; Carter, Jacoby; Mueck, Kristy; Merino, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Apple snails of the genus Pomacea native to South America have invaded and become established in Europe, Asia, and the United States. Both the channeled apple snail Pomacea canaliculata and the island apple snail Pomacea maculata have been reported in the United States. The two species are difficult to distinguish using morphological characters, leading to uncertainty about the identity of the animals from populations in the United States. Because the snails are subtropical, their tolerance of low temperatures is a critical factor in limiting the spread of the animals from present localities along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico to more northern areas. The tolerance of P. maculata collected in Louisiana to temperatures as low as 0°C was examined. There was no mortality among animals maintained in water at temperatures of 20°C or 15°C for 10 days. Survival of animals during a 10-day exposure to water at temperatures 10°C and 5°C was 50%. The LD50 for a 10-day exposure was 7°C. Snails did not survive more than 5 days in liquid water at 0°C. Ammonia excretion by animals in temperatures of 20°C and 15°C was comparable to values reported for freshwater gastropods; at very low temperatures, excretion of ammonia was decreased. There was no difference in the mean values of the osmolality of the hemolymph of animals exposed to 20°C, 15°C and 10°C for 10 days. Sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 identified the animals in the Louisiana population used in this study as P. maculata.

  11. Factors influencing counts in an annual survey of Snail Kites in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennetts, R.E.; Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.; Sykes, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    Snail Kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis) in Florida were monitored between 1969 and 1994 using a quasi-systematic annual survey. We analyzed data from the annual Snail Kite survey using a generalized linear model where counts were regarded as over-dispersed Poisson random variables. This approach allowed us to investigate covariates that might have obscured temporal patterns of population change or induced spurious patterns in count data by influencing detection rates. We selected a model that distinguished effects related to these covariates from other temporal effects, allowing us to identify patterns of population change in count data. Snail Kite counts were influenced by observer differences, site effects, effort, and water levels. Because there was no temporal overlap of the primary observers who collected count data, patterns of change could be estimated within time intervals covered by an observer, but not for the intervals among observers. Modeled population change was quite different from the change in counts, suggesting that analyses based on unadjusted counts do not accurately model Snail Kite population change. Results from this analysis were consistent with previous reports of an association between water levels and counts, although further work is needed to determine whether water levels affect actual population size as well as detection rates of Snail Kites. Although the effects of variation in detection rates can sometimes be mitigated by including controls for factors related to detection rates, it is often difficult to distinguish factors wholly related to detection rates from factors related to population size. For factors related to both, count survey data cannot be adequately analyzed without explicit estimation of detection rates, using procedures such as capture-recapture.

  12. Sensors and OBIA synergy for operational monitoring of surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Eric; Thenard, Lucas

    2010-05-01

    This contribution will focus on combining Object Based Image Analysis (i.e. OBIA with e-Cognition 8) and recent sensors (i.e. Spot 5 XS, Pan and ALOS Prism, Avnir2, Palsar) to address the technical feasibility for an operational monitoring of surface water. Three cases of river meandering (India), flood mapping (Nepal) and dam's seasonal water level monitoring (Morocco) using recent sensors will present various application of surface water monitoring. The operational aspect will be demonstrated either by sensor properties (i.e. spatial resolution and bandwidth), data acquisition properties (i.e. multi sensor, return period and near real-time acquisition) but also with OBIA algorithms (i.e. fusion of multi sensors / multi resolution data and batch processes). In the first case of river meandering (India) we will address multi sensor and multi date satellite acquisition to monitor the river bed mobility within a floodplain using an ALOS dataset. It will demonstrate the possibility of an operational monitoring system that helps the geomorphologist in the analysis of fluvial dynamic and sediment budget for high energy rivers. In the second case of flood mapping (Nepal) we will address near real time Palsar data acquisition at high spatial resolution to monitor and to map a flood extension. This ALOS sensor takes benefit both from SAR and L band properties (i.e. atmospheric transparency, day/night acquisition, low sensibility to surface wind). It's a real achievement compared to optical imagery or even other high resolution SAR properties (i.e. acquisition swath, bandwidth and data price). These advantages meet the operational needs set by crisis management of hydrological disasters but also for the implementation of flood risk management plans. The last case of dam surface water monitoring (Morocco) will address an important issue of water resource management in countries affected by water scarcity. In such countries water users have to cope with over exploitation

  13. Near-field Oblique Remote Sensing of Stream Water-surface Elevation, Slope, and Surface Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minear, J. T.; Kinzel, P. J.; Nelson, J. M.; McDonald, R.; Wright, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    A major challenge for estimating discharges during flood events or in steep channels is the difficulty and hazard inherent in obtaining in-stream measurements. One possible solution is to use near-field remote sensing to obtain simultaneous water-surface elevations, slope, and surface velocities. In this test case, we utilized Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) to remotely measure water-surface elevations and slope in combination with surface velocities estimated from particle image velocimetry (PIV) obtained by video-camera and/or infrared camera. We tested this method at several sites in New Mexico and Colorado using independent validation data consisting of in-channel measurements from survey-grade GPS and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) instruments. Preliminary results indicate that for relatively turbid or steep streams, TLS collects tens of thousands of water-surface elevations and slopes in minutes, much faster than conventional means and at relatively high precision, at least as good as continuous survey-grade GPS measurements. Estimated surface velocities from this technique are within 15% of measured velocity magnitudes and within 10 degrees from the measured velocity direction (using extrapolation from the shallowest bin of the ADCP measurements). Accurately aligning the PIV results into Cartesian coordinates appears to be one of the main sources of error, primarily due to the sensitivity at these shallow oblique look angles and the low numbers of stationary objects for rectification. Combining remotely-sensed water-surface elevations, slope, and surface velocities produces simultaneous velocity measurements from a large number of locations in the channel and is more spatially extensive than traditional velocity measurements. These factors make this technique useful for improving estimates of flow measurements during flood flows and in steep channels while also decreasing the difficulty and hazard associated with making measurements in these

  14. Adsorption of ethanol and water on calcite: dependence on surface geometry and effect on surface behavior.

    PubMed

    Keller, K S; Olsson, M H M; Yang, M; Stipp, S L S

    2015-04-07

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to explore adsorption on calcite, from a 1:1 mixture of ethanol and water, on planar {10.4} and stepped, i.e. vicinal, surfaces. Varying the surface geometry resulted in different adsorption patterns, which would directly influence the ability of ethanol to control calcite crystal growth, dissolution, and adsorption/desorption of other ions and molecules. Ethanol forms a well-ordered adsorbed layer on planar faces and on larger terraces, such as between steps and defects, providing little chance for water, with its weaker attachment, to displace it. However, on surfaces with steps, adsorption affinity depends on the length of the terraces between the steps. Long terraces allow ethanol to form a well-ordered, hydrophobic layer, but when step density is high, ethanol adsorption is less ordered, allowing water to associate at and near the steps and even displacing pre-existing ethanol. Water adsorbed at steps forms mass transport pathways between the bulk solution and the solid surface. Our simulations confirm the growth inhibiting properties of ethanol, also explaining how certain crystal faces are more stabilized because of their surface geometry. The -O(H) functional group on ethanol forms tight bonds with calcite; the nonpolar, -CH3 ends, which point away from the surface, create a hydrophobic layer that changes surface charge, thus wettability, and partly protects calcite from precipitation and dissolution. These tricks could easily be adopted by biomineralizing organisms, allowing them to turn on and off crystal growth. They undoubtedly also play a role in the wetting properties of mineral surfaces in commercial CaCO3 manufacture, oil production, and contamination remediation.

  15. Three-dimensional topographies of water surface dimples formed by superhydrophobic water strider legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, W.; Zheng, Y. L.; Lu, H. Y.; Zhang, X. J.; Tian, Y.

    2016-10-01

    A water strider has a remarkable capability to stand and walk freely on water. Supporting forces of a water strider and a bionic robot have been calculated from the side view of pressed depth of legs to reconstruct the water surface dimples. However, in situ measurements of the multiple leg forces and significantly small leg/water contact dimples have not been realized yet. In this study, a shadow method was proposed to reconstruct the in situ three-dimensional topographies of leg/water contact dimples and their corresponding supporting forces. Results indicated that the supporting forces were affected by the depth, width, and length of the dimple, and that the maximum dimple depth was not proportional to the supporting forces. The shadow method also has advantages in disclosing tiny supporting force of legs in their subtle actions. These results are helpful for understanding the locomotion principles of water-walking insects and the design of biomimetic aquatic devices.

  16. Novel pharmacological targets from Indian cone snails.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, M Santhana; Manikandan, S

    2011-02-01

    The oceans are a source of combinatorial library of unique natural products, 'not found in the terrestrial environment'. Marine invertebrates such as sponges, molluscs, bryozoans, tunicates (Urochordata) and their associated microorganisms are the major representatives of promising bioactive compounds. Among these, the predatory molluscan cone snails have evolved with highly structured small and complex array of peptides (more than 50,000) linked to their prey capture and defence. These peptides have become a valuable source of neuro pharmacological targets as many of them selectively modulate ion channels and transporters. A group of scientists from United States, Europe, Australia, Israel and China have been characterized drugs for neuropathic pain and pharmacological targets from the peptides of a few cone snail species. Several are now in Clinical and preclinical development. Less than 1% of the cono peptides are pharmacologically characterized. India has a diversity of 20-30% of total cone snail species distributed worldwide. A group of Indian Scientists have made promising drug discovery programs from Conus peptides. This review will focus on the Conus peptides from Indian cone snails species, their neuro pharmacological targets and future directions.

  17. Vector snail control in Qalyub, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    van der Schalie, Henry

    1958-01-01

    The author describes a pilot study in vector snail control carried out in 1953-54 by the Bilharziasis Control Project in Qalyub, Egypt. After giving a brief description of the site chosen for the Project—an area of some 5000 acres (2000 hectares) under perennial irrigation—he presents a detailed account of the various snail surveys of the irrigation canals and drains and of the molluscicidal treatment of infested channels. He points out that despite the thoroughness of the surveying and treatment the snails were not completely eliminated from the area and stresses that the high cost of the molluscicide used (copper sulfate) would prohibit its widespread and continual use. He considers, however, that pending the perfection of such long-term bilharziasis control measures as improved sanitation, better treatment facilities, and health education of the public, snail control is of the first importance and determined efforts should be made to find more efficient and cheaper methods of effecting it. PMID:13585074

  18. Mate desertion in the snail kite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beissinger, S.R.; Snyder, N.F.R.

    1988-01-01

    Mate desertion during the breeding cycle was documented at 28 of 36 (78%) snail kite, Rostrhamus sociabilis nests in Florida between 1979 and 1983. Offspring mortality occurred at only one deserted nest, however. Parents that were deserted by their mates continued to care for their young until independence (3?5 additional weeks) and provided snails at a rate similar to that of both parents combined before desertion. Males and females deserted with nearly equal frequency, except in 1982 when more females deserted. No desertion occurred during drought years, whereas desertion occurred at nearly every nest during favourable conditions. The occurrence of mate desertion was generally related to indirect measures of snail abundance: foraging range, snail delivery rates to the young and growth rates. Small broods were deserted more frequently by females than by males and tended to be deserted earlier than large ones. After desertion, deserters had the opportunity to re-mate and nest again since breeding seasons were commonly lengthy, but whether they did so was impossible to determine conclusively in most cases. The deserted bird sometimes incurred increased energetic costs and lost breeding opportunities during periods of monoparental care.

  19. The need for satellite based observations of global surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettenmaier, D.; Alsdorf, D.; Vörösmarty, C.; Birkett, C.

    2003-04-01

    River discharge as well as lake and wetland storage of water are critical elements of land surface hydrology, yet they are poorly observed globally and the prospects for improvement from in-situ networks are bleak. Considering this, our NASA Surface Water working group is focused on the following science and applications questions: (1) What are the observational and data assimilation requirements for measuring natural and manmade surface storage and river discharge that will allow us to (a) understand the land surface branch of the global hydrologic cycle, (b) predict the consequences of global change, and (c) make assessments for water resources management? (2) What are the roles of wetlands, lakes, and rivers (a) as regulators of biogeochemical and constituent cycles (e.g., carbon, nutrients, and sediments) and (b) in creating or ameliorating water-related hazards of relevance to society? Global models of weather and climate could be constrained spatially and temporally by stream discharge and surface storage measurements. Yet this constraint is rarely applied, despite weather and climate modeling results showing that predicted precipitation is often inconsistent with observed discharge. Thus, as satellite missions are developed for global observations of critical hydrologic parameters such as soil moisture (i.e., HYDROS) and precipitation (i.e., GPM), the lack of concomitant measurements of runoff and surface water storage at compatible spatial and temporal scales may well result in inconsistent parameterizations of global hydrologic, weather, and climate models. Although off-river-channel environments, such as wetlands, floodplains, and anabranches (e.g., braided channels) are increasingly recognized for their important roles in delaying continental runoff, in biogeochemical cycling of waterborne constituents, and in trace gas exchange with the atmosphere, these environments are not gauged because flow is diffusive (non-channelized). Rather than fixed station

  20. Evaluation of Human Enteric Viruses in Surface Water and Drinking Water Resources in Southern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Kristen E.; Opryszko, Melissa C.; Schissler, James T.; Guo, Yayi; Schwab, Kellogg J.

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 884 million people worldwide do not have access to an improved drinking water source, and the microbial quality of these sources is often unknown. In this study, a combined tangential flow, hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF), and real-time PCR method was applied to large volume (100 L) groundwater (N = 4), surface water (N = 9), and finished (i.e., receiving treatment) drinking water (N = 6) samples for the evaluation of human enteric viruses and bacterial indicators. Human enteric viruses including norovirus GI and GII, adenovirus, and polyomavirus were detected in five different samples including one groundwater, three surface water, and one drinking water sample. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli assessed for each sample before and after UF revealed a lack of correlation between bacterial indicators and the presence of human enteric viruses. PMID:21212196

  1. A "First Principles" Potential Energy Surface for Liquid Water from VRT Spectroscopy of Water Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, N; Leforestier, C; Saykally, R J

    2004-05-25

    We present results of gas phase cluster and liquid water simulations from the recently determined VRT(ASP-W)III water dimer potential energy surface. VRT(ASP-W)III is shown to not only be a model of high ''spectroscopic'' accuracy for the water dimer, but also makes accurate predictions of vibrational ground-state properties for clusters up through the hexamer. Results of ambient liquid water simulations from VRT(ASP-W)III are compared to those from ab initio Molecular Dynamics, other potentials of ''spectroscopic'' accuracy, and to experiment. The results herein represent the first time that a ''spectroscopic'' potential surface is able to correctly model condensed phase properties of water.

  2. Evaluation of human enteric viruses in surface water and drinking water resources in southern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Kristen E; Opryszko, Melissa C; Schissler, James T; Guo, Yayi; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 884 million people worldwide do not have access to an improved drinking water source, and the microbial quality of these sources is often unknown. In this study, a combined tangential flow, hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF), and real-time PCR method was applied to large volume (100 L) groundwater (N = 4), surface water (N = 9), and finished (i.e., receiving treatment) drinking water (N = 6) samples for the evaluation of human enteric viruses and bacterial indicators. Human enteric viruses including norovirus GI and GII, adenovirus, and polyomavirus were detected in five different samples including one groundwater, three surface water, and one drinking water sample. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli assessed for each sample before and after UF revealed a lack of correlation between bacterial indicators and the presence of human enteric viruses.

  3. Global analysis of urban surface water supply vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padowski, Julie C.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2014-10-01

    This study presents a global analysis of urban water supply vulnerability in 71 surface-water supplied cities, with populations exceeding 750 000 and lacking source water diversity. Vulnerability represents the failure of an urban supply-basin to simultaneously meet demands from human, environmental and agricultural users. We assess a baseline (2010) condition and a future scenario (2040) that considers increased demand from urban population growth and projected agricultural demand. We do not account for climate change, which can potentially exacerbate or reduce urban supply vulnerability. In 2010, 35% of large cities are vulnerable as they compete with agricultural users. By 2040, without additional measures 45% of cities are vulnerable due to increased agricultural and urban demands. Of the vulnerable cities in 2040, the majority are river-supplied with mean flows so low (1200 liters per person per day, l/p/d) that the cities experience ‘chronic water scarcity’ (1370 l/p/d). Reservoirs supply the majority of cities facing individual future threats, revealing that constructed storage potentially provides tenuous water security. In 2040, of the 32 vulnerable cities, 14 would reduce their vulnerability via reallocating water by reducing environmental flows, and 16 would similarly benefit by transferring water from irrigated agriculture. Approximately half remain vulnerable under either potential remedy.

  4. Storm water contamination and its effect on the quality of urban surface waters.

    PubMed

    Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Chudzińska, Maria; Szpakowska, Barbara; Świerk, Dariusz; Gołdyn, Ryszard; Dondajewska, Renata

    2014-10-01

    We studied the effect of storm water drained by the sewerage system and discharged into a river and a small reservoir, on the example of five catchments located within the boundaries of the city of Poznań (Poland). These catchments differed both in terms of their surface area and land use (single- and multi-family housing, industrial areas). The aim of the analyses was to explain to what extent pollutants found in storm water runoff from the studied catchments affected the quality of surface waters and whether it threatened the aquatic organisms. Only some of the 14 studied variables and 22 chemical elements were important for the water quality of the river, i.e., pH, TSS, rain intensity, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, organic matter content, Al, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Cd, Ni, Se, and Tl. The most serious threat to biota in the receiver came from the copper contamination of storm water runoff. Of all samples below the sewerage outflow, 74% exceeded the mean acute value for Daphnia species. Some of them exceeded safe concentrations for other aquatic organisms. Only the outlet from the industrial area with the highest impervious surface had a substantial influence on the water quality of the river. A reservoir situated in the river course had an important influence on the elimination of storm water pollution, despite the very short residence time of its water.

  5. Contamination of surface, ground, and drinking water from pharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Fick, Jerker; Söderström, Hanna; Lindberg, Richard H; Phan, Chau; Tysklind, Mats; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2009-12-01

    Low levels of pharmaceuticals are detected in surface, ground, and drinking water worldwide. Usage and incorrect disposal have been considered the major environmental sources of these microcontaminants. Recent publications, however, suggest that wastewater from drug production can potentially be a source of much higher concentrations in certain locations. The present study investigated the environmental fate of active pharmaceutical ingredients in a major production area for the global bulk drug market. Water samples were taken from a common effluent treatment plant near Hyderabad, India, which receives process water from approximately 90 bulk drug manufacturers. Surface water was analyzed from the recipient stream and from two lakes that are not contaminated by the treatment plant. Water samples were also taken from wells in six nearby villages. The samples were analyzed for the presence of 12 pharmaceuticals with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All wells were determined to be contaminated with drugs. Ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, cetirizine, terbinafine, and citalopram were detected at more than 1 microg/L in several wells. Very high concentrations of ciprofloxacin (14 mg/L) and cetirizine (2.1 mg/L) were found in the effluent of the treatment plant, together with high concentrations of seven additional pharmaceuticals. Very high concentrations of ciprofloxacin (up to 6.5 mg/L), cetirizine (up to 1.2 mg/L), norfloxacin (up to 0.52 mg/L), and enoxacin (up to 0.16 mg/L) were also detected in the two lakes, which clearly shows that the investigated area has additional environmental sources of insufficiently treated industrial waste. Thus, insufficient wastewater management in one of the world's largest centers for bulk drug production leads to unprecedented drug contamination of surface, ground, and drinking water. This raises serious concerns regarding the development of antibiotic resistance, and it creates a major challenge for producers and regulatory

  6. Disconnected surface water and groundwater: from theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Philip; Cook, Peter G; Simmons, Craig T

    2011-01-01

    When describing the hydraulic relationship between rivers and aquifers, the term disconnected is frequently misunderstood or used in an incorrect way. The problem is compounded by the fact that there is no definitive literature on the topic of disconnected surface water and groundwater. We aim at closing this gap and begin the discussion with a short introduction to the historical background of the terminology. Even though a conceptual illustration of a disconnected system was published by Meinzer (1923), it is only within the last few years that the underlying physics of the disconnection process has been described. The importance of disconnected systems, however, is not widely appreciated. Although rarely explicitly stated, many approaches for predicting the impacts of groundwater development on surface water resources assume full connection. Furthermore, management policies often suggest that surface water and groundwater should only be managed jointly if they are connected. However, although lowering the water table beneath a disconnected section of a river will not change the infiltration rate at that point, it can increase the length of stream that is disconnected. Because knowing the state of connection is of fundamental importance for sustainable water management, robust field methods that allow the identification of the state of connection are required. Currently, disconnection is identified by showing that the infiltration rate from a stream to an underlying aquifer is independent of the water table position or by identifying an unsaturated zone under the stream. More field studies are required to develop better methods for the identification of disconnection and to quantify the implications of heterogeneity and clogging processes in the streambed on disconnection.

  7. Surface Water Quality Trends from EPA's LTM Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, C.; Lynch, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Surface water chemistry provides direct indicators of the potential effects of anthropogenic impacts, such as acid deposition and climate change, on the overall health of aquatic ecosystems. Long-term surface water monitoring networks provide a host of environmental data that can be used, in conjunction with other networks, to assess how water bodies respond to stressors and if they are potentially at risk (e.g., receiving pollutant deposition beyond its critical load). Two EPA-administered monitoring programs provide information on the effects of acidic deposition on headwater aquatic systems: the Long Term Monitoring (LTM) program and the Temporally Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) program, designed to track the effectiveness of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) in reducing the acidity of surface waters in acid sensitive ecoregions of the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic. Here we present regional variability of long term trends in surface water quality in response to substantial reductions in atmospheric deposition. Water quality trends at acid sensitive LTM sites exhibit decreasing concentrations of sulfate at 100% of monitored sites in the Adirondack Mountains and New England, 80% of Northern Appalachian Plateau sites, and yet only 15% of sites in the Ridge and Blue Ridge Provinces over the 1990-2011 period of record. Across all regions, most LTM sites exhibited constant or only slightly declining nitrate concentrations over the same time period. Acid Neutralizing Capacity (ANC) levels improved at 68% and 45% of LTM sites in the Adirondacks and Northern Appalachian Plateau, respectively, but few sites showed increases in New England or the Ridge and Blue Ridge Provinces due to lagging improvements in base cation concentration. The ANC of northeastern TIME lakes was also evaluated from 1991 to 1994 and 2008 to 2011. The percentage of lakes with ANC values below 50 μeq/L, lakes of acute or elevated concern, dropped by about 7%, indicating improvement

  8. Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    1981-04-01

    The study objective of "The Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters" is to synthesize and test radionuclide transport models capable of realistically assessing radionuclide transport in various types of surface water bodies by including the sediment-radionuclide interactions. These interactions include radionuclide adsorption by sediment; desorption from sediment into water; and transport, deposition, and resuspension of sorbed radionuclides controlled by the sediment movements. During FY-1979, the modification of sediment and contaminant (radionuclide) transport model, FETRA, was completed to make it applicable to coastal waters. The model is an unsteady, two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral) model that consists of three submodels (for sediment, dissolved-contaminant, and particulate-contaminant transport), coupled to include the sediment-contaminant interactions. In estuaries, flow phenomena and consequent sediment and radionuclide migration are often three-dimensional in nature mainly because of nonuniform channel cross-sections, salinity intrusion, and lateral-flow circulation. Thus, an unsteady, three-dimensional radionuclide transport model for estuaries is also being synthesized by combining and modifying a PNL unsteady hydrothermal model and FETRA. These two radionuclide transport models for coastal waters and estuaries will be applied to actual sites to examine the validity of the codes.

  9. Water-soluble sacrificial layers for surface micromachining.

    PubMed

    Linder, Vincent; Gates, Byron D; Ryan, Declan; Parviz, Babak A; Whitesides, George M

    2005-07-01

    This manuscript describes the use of water-soluble polymers for use as sacrificial layers in surface micromachining. Water-soluble polymers have two attractive characteristics for this application: 1) They can be deposited conveniently by spin-coating, and the solvent removed at a low temperature (95-150 degrees C), and 2) the resulting layer can be dissolved in water; no corrosive reagents or organic solvents are required. This technique is therefore compatible with a number of fragile materials, such as organic polymers, metal oxides and metals-materials that might be damaged during typical surface micromachining processes. The carboxylic acid groups of one polymer-poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-can be transformed by reversible ion-exchange from water-soluble (Na+ counterion) to water-insoluble (Ca2+ counterion) forms. The use of PAA and dextran polymers as sacrificial materials is a useful technique for the fabrication of microstructures: Examples include metallic structures formed by the electrodeposition of nickel, and freestanding, polymeric structures formed by photolithography.

  10. The impact of land use on microbial surface water pollution.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Christiane; Rechenburg, Andrea; Rind, Esther; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Our knowledge relating to water contamination from point and diffuse sources has increased in recent years and there have been many studies undertaken focusing on effluent from sewage plants or combined sewer overflows. However, there is still only a limited amount of microbial data on non-point sources leading to diffuse pollution of surface waters. In this study, the concentrations of several indicator micro-organisms and pathogens in the upper reaches of a river system were examined over a period of 16 months. In addition to bacteria, diffuse pollution caused by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. was analysed. A single land use type predestined to cause high concentrations of all microbial parameters could not be identified. The influence of different land use types varies between microbial species. The microbial concentration in river water cannot be explained by stable non-point effluent concentrations from different land use types. There is variation in the ranking of the potential of different land use types resulting in surface water contamination with regard to minimum, median and maximum effects. These differences between median and maximum impact indicate that small-scale events like spreading manure substantially influence the general contamination potential of a land use type and may cause increasing micro-organism concentrations in the river water by mobilisation during the next rainfall event.

  11. Input dynamics of pesticide transformation products into surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Susanne; Singer, Heinz; Hollender, Juliane; Schwarzenbach, René P.; Fenner, Kathrin

    2010-05-01

    Some pesticide transformation products have been observed to occur in higher concentrations and more frequently than the parent active pesticide in surface water and groundwater. These products are often more mobile and sometimes more stable than the parent pesticide. If they also represent the major product into which the parent substance is transformed, these transformation products may dominate observed pesticide occurrences in surface water and groundwater. Their potential contribution to the overall risk to the aquatic environment caused by the use of the parent pesticide should therefore not be neglected in chemical risk and water quality assessments. The same is true for transformation products of other compound classes that might reach the soil environment, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals. However, the fate and input pathways of transformation products of soil-applied chemicals into surface water are not yet well understood, which largely prevents their appropriate inclusion into chemical risk and water quality assessments. Here, we studied whether prioritization methods based on available environmental fate data from pesticide registration dossiers in combination with basic fate models could help identify transformation products which can be found in relevant concentrations in surface and groundwater and which should therefore be included into monitoring programs. A three-box steady state model containing air, soil, and surface water compartments was used to predict relative inputs of pesticide transformation products into surface waters based on their physico-chemical and environmental fate properties. The model predictions were compared to monitoring data from a small Swiss river located in an intensely agricultural catchment (90 km2) which was flow-proportionally sampled from May to October 2008 and screened for 74 pesticides as well as 50 corresponding transformation products. Sampling mainly occurred during high discharge, but additional samples

  12. Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions in the Central Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krest, James M.; Choi, Jungyill; Nemeth, Eric A.; Krupa, Steven L.

    2004-01-01

    Recharge and discharge are hydrological processes that cause Everglades surface water to be exchanged for subsurface water in the peat soil and the underlying sand and limestone aquifer. These interactions are thought to be important to water budgets, water quality, and ecology in the Everglades. Nonetheless, relatively few studies of surface water and ground water interactions have been conducted in the Everglades, especially in its vast interior areas. This report is a product of a cooperative investigation conducted by the USGS and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) aimed at developing and testing techniques that would provide reliable estimates of recharge and discharge in interior areas of WCA-2A (Water Conservation Area 2A) and several other sites in the central Everglades. The new techniques quantified flow from surface water to the subsurface (recharge) and the opposite (discharge) using (1) Darcy-flux calculations based on measured vertical gradients in hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity of peat; (2) modeling transport through peat and decay of the naturally occurring isotopes 224Ra and 223Ra (with half-lives of 4 and 11 days, respectively); and (3) modeling transport and decay of naturally occurring and 'bomb-pulse' tritium (half-life of 12.4 years) in ground water. Advantages and disadvantages of each method for quantifying recharge and discharge were compared. In addition, spatial and temporal variability of recharge and discharge were evaluated and controlling factors identified. A final goal was to develop appropriately simplified (that is, time averaged) expressions of the results that will be useful in addressing a broad range of hydrological and ecological problems in the Everglades. Results were compared with existing information about water budgets from the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), a principal tool used by the South Florida Water Management District to plan many of the hydrological aspects of the

  13. Dynamics of microdroplets over the surface of hot water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeki, Takahiro; Ohata, Masahiko; Nakanishi, Hiizu; Ichikawa, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    When drinking a cup of coffee under the morning sunshine, you may notice white membranes of steam floating on the surface of the hot water. They stay notably close to the surface and appear to almost stick to it. Although the membranes whiffle because of the air flow of rising steam, peculiarly fast splitting events occasionally occur. They resemble cracking to open slits approximately 1 mm wide in the membranes, and leave curious patterns. We studied this phenomenon using a microscope with a high-speed video camera and found intriguing details: i) the white membranes consist of fairly monodispersed small droplets of the order of 10 μm ii) they levitate above the water surface by 10 ~ 100 μm iii) the splitting events are a collective disappearance of the droplets, which propagates as a wave front of the surface wave with a speed of 1 ~ 2 m/s and iv) these events are triggered by a surface disturbance, which results from the disappearance of a single droplet.

  14. Soil Moisture: The Hydrologic Interface Between Surface and Ground Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engman, Edwin T.

    1997-01-01

    A hypothesis is presented that many hydrologic processes display a unique signature that is detectable with microwave remote sensing. These signatures are in the form of the spatial and temporal distributions of surface soil moisture. The specific hydrologic processes that may be detected include groundwater recharge and discharge zones, storm runoff contributing areas, regions of potential and less than potential evapotranspiration (ET), and information about the hydrologic properties of soils. In basin and hillslope hydrology, soil moisture is the interface between surface and ground waters.

  15. Water resources data Maryland, Delaware, and Washington, D.C.,water year 2005, Volume 1. Surface-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saffer, Richard W.; Pentz, Robert H.; Tallman, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2005 water year for Maryland, Delaware, and Washington, D.C. consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs. This volume (Volume 1. Surface-Water Data) contains records for water discharge at 145 gaging stations; stage and contents of 1 reservoir; stage only for 2 tidal gaging station; and water quality at 19 gaging stations. Also included are stage only for 11 tidal crest-stage partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State, local, and Federal agencies in Maryland, Delaware, and Washington, D.C.

  16. Shallow Alluvial Aquifer Ground Water System and Surface Water/Ground Water Interaction, Boulder Creek, Boulder, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babcock, K. P.; Ge, S.; Crifasi, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Water chemistry in Boulder Creek, Colorado, shows significant variation as the Creek flows through the City of Boulder [Barber et al., 2006]. This variation is partially due to ground water inputs, which are not quantitatively understood. The purpose of this study is (1) to understand ground water movement in a shallow alluvial aquifer system and (2) to assess surface water/ground water interaction. The study area, encompassing an area of 1 mi2, is located at the Sawhill and Walden Ponds area in Boulder. This area was reclaimed by the City of Boulder and Boulder County after gravel mining operations ceased in the 1970's. Consequently, ground water has filled in the numerous gravel pits allowing riparian vegetation regrowth and replanting. An integrated approach is used to examine the shallow ground water and surface water of the study area through field measurements, water table mapping, graphical data analysis, and numerical modeling. Collected field data suggest that lateral heterogeneity exists throughout the unconsolidated sediment. Alluvial hydraulic conductivities range from 1 to 24 ft/day and flow rates range from 0.01 to 2 ft/day. Preliminary data analysis suggests that ground water movement parallels surface topography and does not noticeably vary with season. Recharge via infiltrating precipitation is dependent on evapotranspiration (ET) demands and is influenced by preferential flow paths. During the growing season when ET demand exceeds precipitation rates, there is little recharge; however recharge occurs during cooler months when ET demand is insignificant. Preliminary data suggest that the Boulder Creek is gaining ground water as it traverses the study area. Stream flow influences the water table for distances up to 400 feet. The influence of stream flow is reflected in the zones relatively low total dissolved solids concentration. A modeling study is being conducted to synthesize aquifer test data, ground water levels, and stream flow data. The

  17. Allying with armored snails: the complete genome of gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Satoshi; Shimamura, Shigeru; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Yohey; Murakami, Shun-ichi; Watanabe, Tamaki; Fujiyoshi, So; Mino, Sayaka; Sawabe, Tomoo; Maeda, Takahiro; Makita, Hiroko; Nemoto, Suguru; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro; Watanabe, Hiromi; Watsuji, Tomo-o; Takai, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Deep-sea vents harbor dense populations of various animals that have their specific symbiotic bacteria. Scaly-foot gastropods, which are snails with mineralized scales covering the sides of its foot, have a gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont in their enlarged esophageal glands and diverse epibionts on the surface of their scales. In this study, we report the complete genome sequencing of gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont. The endosymbiont genome displays features consistent with ongoing genome reduction such as large proportions of pseudogenes and insertion elements. The genome encodes functions commonly found in deep-sea vent chemoautotrophs such as sulfur oxidation and carbon fixation. Stable carbon isotope (13C)-labeling experiments confirmed the endosymbiont chemoautotrophy. The genome also includes an intact hydrogenase gene cluster that potentially has been horizontally transferred from phylogenetically distant bacteria. Notable findings include the presence and transcription of genes for flagellar assembly, through which proteins are potentially exported from bacterium to the host. Symbionts of snail individuals exhibited extreme genetic homogeneity, showing only two synonymous changes in 19 different genes (13 810 positions in total) determined for 32 individual gastropods collected from a single colony at one time. The extremely low genetic individuality in endosymbionts probably reflects that the stringent symbiont selection by host prevents the random genetic drift in the small population of horizontally transmitted symbiont. This study is the first complete genome analysis of gastropod endosymbiont and offers an opportunity to study genome evolution in a recently evolved endosymbiont. PMID:23924784

  18. Multiple sources of boron in urban surface waters and groundwaters.

    PubMed

    Hasenmueller, Elizabeth A; Criss, Robert E

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies attribute abnormal boron (B) levels in streams and groundwaters to wastewater and fertilizer inputs. This study shows that municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation contributes substantial non-point loads of B and other chemicals (S-species, Li, and Cu) to surface waters and shallow groundwaters in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. Background levels and potential B sources were characterized by analysis of lawn and street runoff, streams, rivers, springs, local rainfall, wastewater influent and effluent, and fertilizers. Urban surface waters and groundwaters are highly enriched in B (to 250μg/L) compared to background levels found in rain and pristine, carbonate-hosted streams and springs (<25μg/L), but have similar concentrations (150 to 259μg/L) compared to municipal drinking waters derived from the Missouri River. Other data including B/SO4(2-)-S and B/Li ratios confirm major contributions from this source. Moreover, sequential samples of runoff collected during storms show that B concentrations decrease with increased discharge, proving that elevated B levels are not primarily derived from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) during flooding. Instead, non-point source B exhibits complex behavior depending on land use. In urban settings B is rapidly mobilized from lawns during "first flush" events, likely representing surficial salt residues from drinking water used to irrigate lawns, and is also associated with the baseflow fraction, likely derived from the shallow groundwater reservoir that over time accumulates B from drinking water that percolates into the subsurface. The opposite occurs in small rural watersheds, where B is leached from soils by recent rainfall and covaries with the event water fraction.

  19. Sulfide in surface waters of the western Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, Gregory A.; Krahforst, Christian F.

    1988-11-01

    Using newly developed techniques, some preliminary data on hydrogen sulfide in surface waters of the western Atlantic have been obtained. Concentrations of total sulfide range from <0.1 to 1.1 nmol/L, and vary on a diel basis. At these concentrations, sulfide may affect the cycling of several trace metals via the formation of stable complexes. Production of sulfide in oxygenated seawater may occur through the hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide or by sulfate reduction within macroscopic particles in the water column. Removal mechanisms can include oxidation, complexation with particulate trace metals, and metal sulfide precipitation. However, the temporal and spatial distributions suggest a complex set of processes governing the behavior of sulfide in the surface ocean.

  20. Surface Tension Mediated Under-Water Adhesion of Rigid Spheres on Soft, Charged Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Das, Siddhartha

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the phenomenon of surface-tension-mediated under-water adhesion is necessary for studying a plethora of physiological and technical phenomena, such as the uptake of bacteria or nanoparticle by cells, attachment of virus on bacterial surfaces, biofouling on large ocean vessels and marine devices, etc. This adhesion phenomenon becomes highly non-trivial in case the soft surface where the adhesion occurs is also charged. Here we propose a theory for analyzing such an under-water adhesion of a rigid sphere on a soft, charged surface, represented by a grafted polyelectrolyte layer (PEL). We develop a model based on the minimization of free energy that, in addition to considering the elastic and the surface-tension-mediated adhesion energies, also accounts for the PEL electric double layer (EDL) induced electrostatic energies. We show that in the presence of surface charges, adhesion gets enhanced. This can be explained by the fact that the increase in the elastic energy is better balanced by the lowering of the EDL energy associated with the adhesion process. The entire behaviour is further dictated by the surface tension components that govern the adhesion energy.

  1. Integrating remotely sensed surface water extent into continental scale hydrology.

    PubMed

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Wanders, Niko; Burek, Peter; Salamon, Peter; de Roo, Ad

    2016-12-01

    In hydrological forecasting, data assimilation techniques are employed to improve estimates of initial conditions to update incorrect model states with observational data. However, the limited availability of continuous and up-to-date ground streamflow data is one of the main constraints for large-scale flood forecasting models. This is the first study that assess the impact of assimilating daily remotely sensed surface water extent at a 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution derived from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) into a global rainfall-runoff including large ungauged areas at the continental spatial scale in Africa and South America. Surface water extent is observed using a range of passive microwave remote sensors. The methodology uses the brightness temperature as water bodies have a lower emissivity. In a time series, the satellite signal is expected to vary with changes in water surface, and anomalies can be correlated with flood events. The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is a Monte-Carlo implementation of data assimilation and used here by applying random sampling perturbations to the precipitation inputs to account for uncertainty obtaining ensemble streamflow simulations from the LISFLOOD model. Results of the updated streamflow simulation are compared to baseline simulations, without assimilation of the satellite-derived surface water extent. Validation is done in over 100 in situ river gauges using daily streamflow observations in the African and South American continent over a one year period. Some of the more commonly used metrics in hydrology were calculated: KGE', NSE, PBIAS%, R(2), RMSE, and VE. Results show that, for example, NSE score improved on 61 out of 101 stations obtaining significant improvements in both the timing and volume of the flow peaks. Whereas the validation at gauges located in lowland jungle obtained poorest performance mainly due to the closed forest influence on the satellite signal retrieval. The conclusion is that

  2. Integrating remotely sensed surface water extent into continental scale hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Wanders, Niko; Burek, Peter; Salamon, Peter; de Roo, Ad

    2016-12-01

    In hydrological forecasting, data assimilation techniques are employed to improve estimates of initial conditions to update incorrect model states with observational data. However, the limited availability of continuous and up-to-date ground streamflow data is one of the main constraints for large-scale flood forecasting models. This is the first study that assess the impact of assimilating daily remotely sensed surface water extent at a 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution derived from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) into a global rainfall-runoff including large ungauged areas at the continental spatial scale in Africa and South America. Surface water extent is observed using a range of passive microwave remote sensors. The methodology uses the brightness temperature as water bodies have a lower emissivity. In a time series, the satellite signal is expected to vary with changes in water surface, and anomalies can be correlated with flood events. The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is a Monte-Carlo implementation of data assimilation and used here by applying random sampling perturbations to the precipitation inputs to account for uncertainty obtaining ensemble streamflow simulations from the LISFLOOD model. Results of the updated streamflow simulation are compared to baseline simulations, without assimilation of the satellite-derived surface water extent. Validation is done in over 100 in situ river gauges using daily streamflow observations in the African and South American continent over a one year period. Some of the more commonly used metrics in hydrology were calculated: KGE', NSE, PBIAS%, R2, RMSE, and VE. Results show that, for example, NSE score improved on 61 out of 101 stations obtaining significant improvements in both the timing and volume of the flow peaks. Whereas the validation at gauges located in lowland jungle obtained poorest performance mainly due to the closed forest influence on the satellite signal retrieval. The conclusion is that

  3. Impact of river restoration on groundwater - surface water - interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, Anne-Marie; Schirmer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Since the end of the 19th century, flood protection was increasingly based on the construction of impermeable dams and side walls (BWG, 2003). In spite of providing flood protection, these measures also limited the connectivity between the river and the land, restricted the area available for flooding, and hampered the natural flow dynamics of the river. Apart from the debilitating effect on riverine ecosystems due to loss of habitats, these measures also limited bank filtration, inhibited the infiltration of storm water, and affected groundwater-surface water-interactions. This in turn had a profound effect on ecosystem health, as a lack of groundwater-surface water interactions led to decreased cycling of pollutants and nutrients in the hyporheic zone and limited the moderation of the water temperature (EA, 2009). In recent decades, it has become apparent that further damages to riverine ecosystems must be prohibited, as the damages to ecology, economy and society surmount any benefits gained from exploiting them. Nowadays, the restoration of rivers is a globally accepted means to restore ecosystem functioning, protect water resources and amend flood protection (Andrea et al., 2012; Palmer et al., 2005; Wortley et al., 2013). In spite of huge efforts regarding the restoration of rivers over the last 30 years, the question of its effectiveness remains, as river restorations often reconstruct a naturally looking rather than a naturally functioning stream (EA, 2009). We therefore focussed our research on the effectiveness of river restorations, represented by the groundwater-surface water-interactions. Given a sufficiently high groundwater level, a lack of groundwater-surface water-interactions after restoration may indicate that the vertical connectivity in the stream was not fully restored. In order to investigate groundwater-surface water-interactions we determined the thermal signature on the stream bed and in +/- 40 cm depth by using Distributed Temperature

  4. Reactivity of Tc at the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachara, J. M.; Fredrickson, J.; McKinley, J.

    2014-12-01

    Technetium-99 (t1/2 =211,000y) is environmentally mobile as the pertechnetate oxyanion [99Tc(VII)O4-(aq)]. Tc(VII) may react to less soluble Tc(IV) at intermediate redox potentials (Eo = -0.36 V) through heterogeneous reduction with solid-phase biogenic reaction products. 99Tc is forecast to migrate through groundwater to the Columbia River at the U.S. DOE Hanford site in Washington State. Discharge to surface water will occur through a groundwater-surface water interaction zone with complex hydrogeology and biogeochemistry that is stimulated by the overlapping nutrient regimes of groundwater and surface water. The reactivity of pertechnetate in reduced sediments from this zone was investigated to determine effects of biogenic ferrous-Fe and sulfide-S on Tc(VII) reduction rate; and the resulting speciation, mineral association, and physical location of Tc(IV). 99Tc(VII) was reduced to near detection (<10-9 Mol/L) over periods of days to months. Tc(VII) reduction rate was first order in [Tc(VII)]aq and sediment mass, but correlations with specific biogenic reductant concentrations [(Fe(II), ferrous mono-sulfide] were not found. Tc(IV) was isolated to fine-grained aggregates (0.1 to 0.5 mm) of "mud", consisting of primary mineral material embedded within a phyllosilicate or clay matrix. EXAFS revealed that product Tc(IV) existed as combinations of a Tc(IV)O2-like phase ,Tc(IV)-Fe surface clusters, and/or TcSx. Ferrous mono-sulfide was implicated as a more selective reductant. Migration of Tc(VII) through the interaction zone will be controlled by water residence time and the density and spatial distribution of fine-grained aggregates that host reductive biogeochemical processes in otherwise coarse-textured, partially oxygenated sediments.

  5. Surface water risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teklu, Berhan M; Adriaanse, Paulien I; Ter Horst, Mechteld M S; Deneer, John W; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Scenarios for future use in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia were designed for 3 separate Ethiopian locations, which are aimed to be protective for the whole of Ethiopia. The scenarios estimate concentrations in surface water resulting from agricultural use of pesticides for a small stream and for two types of small ponds. Seven selected pesticides were selected since they were estimated to bear the highest risk to humans on the basis of volume of use, application rate and acute and chronic human toxicity, assuming exposure as a result of the consumption of surface water. Potential ecotoxicological risks were not considered as a selection criterion at this stage. Estimates of exposure concentrations in surface water were established using modelling software also applied in the EU registration procedure (PRZM and TOXSWA). Input variables included physico-chemical properties, and data such as crop calendars, irrigation schedules, meteorological information and detailed application data which were specifically tailored to the Ethiopian situation. The results indicate that for all the pesticides investigated the acute human risk resulting from the consumption of surface water is low to negligible, whereas agricultural use of chlorothalonil, deltamethrin, endosulfan and malathion in some crops may result in medium to high risk to aquatic species. The predicted environmental concentration estimates are based on procedures similar to procedures used at the EU level and in the USA. Addition of aquatic macrophytes as an ecotoxicological endpoint may constitute a welcome future addition to the risk assessment procedure. Implementation of the methods used for risk characterization constitutes a good step forward in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia.

  6. High Surface Area Inorganic Membrane for Water Removal

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to demonstrate the fabrication and performance advantages of minichannel planar membrane modules made of porous metallic supports of surface area packing density one order of magnitude higher than the conventional membrane tube. The new, transformational, ceramic/metallic, hybrid membrane technology will be used for water/ethanol separations and reduce energy consumption by >20% over distillation and adsorption.

  7. Utilizing an Automated Home-Built Surface Plasmon Resonance Apparatus to Investigate How Water Interacts with a Hydrophobic Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poynor, Adele

    2011-03-01

    By definition hydrophobic substances hate water. Water placed on a hydrophobic surface will form a drop in order to minimize its contact area. What happens when water is forced into contact with a hydrophobic surface? One theory is that an ultra-thin low- density region forms near the surface. We have employed an automated home-built Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) apparatus to investigate this boundary.

  8. Digenean trematode infections of native freshwater snails and invasive Potamopyrgus antipodarum in the Grand Teton National Park/John D. Rockefeller Memorial Parkway Area.

    PubMed

    Adema, C M; Lun, C-M; Hanelt, B; Seville, R S

    2009-02-01

    Outside its native range, the invasive New Zealand mud snail (NZMS), Potamopyrgus antipodarum, is rarely reported to harbor parasites. To test this observation, 7 sites along the Snake River and Polecat Creek in the Grand Teton National Park/John D Rockefeller Memorial Parkway area (Wyoming) were surveyed for native aquatic snails, NZMS, and associated digenean trematodes, in July 2005. At 6 sites, native snails harbored patent digenean infections; within 2 hr, < or =10% of lymnaeid snails shed furcocercariae or xiphidiocercariae, and < or =42% of physid snails released furcocercariae or echinostome cercariae. Partial 18S rDNA sequences were recovered from several furcocercariae. Potamopyrgus antipodarum was present at, and collected from, 5 sites. Polymerase chain reaction assays targeting digenean rDNA sequences in DNA extracted from pools of 150 NZMS snails did not detect parasites. The examination of 960 NZMS by overnight shedding yielded 1 occurrence of (surface-encysted) metacercariae of an unclassified notocotylid (based on 18S and 28S rDNA sequences). The dissection of 150 ethanol-fixed NZMS (30/site) revealed 2 types of digenean metacercariae encysted in tissues of 5 snails from Polecat Creek. Thus, invasive NZMS may serve as first and second intermediate host for digenean parasites.

  9. Hot water surface pasteurization for inactivating Salmonella on surfaces of mature green tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of salmonellosis have been associated with the consumption of tomatoes contaminated with Salmonella. Commercial washing processes for tomatoes are limited in their ability to inactivate and/or remove this human pathogen. Our objective was to develop a hot water surface pasteurization pro...

  10. Simulating piecewise-linear surface water and ground water interactions with MODFLOW.

    PubMed

    Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan

    2009-01-01

    The standard MODFLOW packages offer limited capabilities to model piecewise-linear boundary conditions to describe ground water-surface water interaction. Specifically, MODFLOW is incapable of representing a Cauchy-type boundary with different resistances for discharge or recharge conditions. Such a more sophisticated Cauchy boundary condition is needed to properly represent surface waters alternatively losing water through the bottom (high resistance) or gaining water mostly near the water surface (low resistance). One solution would be to create a new package for MODFLOW to accomplish this. However, it is also possible to combine multiple instances of standard packages in a single cell to the same effect. In this specific example, the general head boundary package is combined with the drain package to arrive at the desired piecewise-linear behavior. In doing so, the standard USGS MODFLOW version can be used without any modifications at the expense of a minor increase in preprocessing and postprocessing and computational effort. The extra preprocessing for creating the input and extra postprocessing to determine the water balance in terms of the physical entities from the MODFLOW cell fluxes per package can be taken care of by a user interface.

  11. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, Tessa C; Van Staalduinen, Marja A; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1). For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1) (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  12. Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid

    PubMed Central

    Van Dijk, Tessa C.; Van Staalduinen, Marja A.; Van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2013-01-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001) between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051). However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l−1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l−1 (MTR) seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified. PMID:23650513

  13. Evaporation kinetics of sessile water droplets on micropillared superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Leeladhar, Rajesh; Kang, Yong Tae; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2013-05-21

    Evaporation modes and kinetics of sessile droplets of water on micropillared superhydrophobic surfaces are experimentally investigated. The results show that a constant contact radius (CCR) mode and a constant contact angle (CCA) mode are two dominating evaporation modes during droplet evaporation on the superhydrophobic surfaces. With the decrease in the solid fraction of the superhydrophobic surfaces, the duration of a CCR mode is reduced and that of a CCA mode is increased. Compared to Rowan's kinetic model, which is based on the vapor diffusion across the droplet boundary, the change in a contact angle in a CCR (pinned) mode shows a remarkable deviation, decreasing at a slower rate on the superhydrophobic surfaces with less-solid fractions. In a CCA (receding) mode, the change in a contact radius agrees well with the theoretical expectation, and the receding speed is slower on the superhydrophobic surfaces with lower solid fractions. The discrepancy between experimental results and Rowan's model is attributed to the initial large contact angle of a droplet on superhydrophobic surfaces. The droplet geometry with a large contact angle results in a narrow wedge region of air along the contact boundary, where the liquid-vapor diffusion is significantly restricted. Such an effect becomes minor as the evaporation proceeds with the decrease in a contact angle. In both the CCR and CCA modes, the evaporative mass transfer shows the linear relationship between mass(2/3) and evaporation time. However, the evaporation rate is slower on the superhydrophobic surfaces, which is more significant on the surfaces with lower solid fractions. As a result, the superhydrophobic surfaces slow down the drying process of a sessile droplet on them.

  14. Organic polar pollutants in surface waters of inland seas.

    PubMed

    Orlikowska, Anna; Fisch, Kathrin; Schulz-Bull, Detlef E

    2015-12-30

    Available data about contamination by polar substances are mostly reported for rivers and near-shore waters and only limited studies exists about their occurrence in marine waters. We present concentrations and distribution of several polar pesticides and UV-filters in surface waters of three inland seas, the Baltic, Black and Mediterranean Sea. Many of the investigated compounds were below detection limits, however, those found in off-shore waters raise a concern about their persistence and possible adverse effect on the ecosystem. Despite a longstanding EU-wide ban we were able to detect atrazine in the Mediterranean and the Baltic Sea. Concentrations in the Black Sea were substantially higher. Runoff from agricultural and urban areas was the main transport route to marine ecosystems for investigated compounds, though irgarol in Mediterranean waters was attributed to intense maritime traffic. 2-Phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid was the only UV-filter detected in marine waters, while benzophenone-4 was observed in the estuaries. Occurrence of UV-filters was seasonal.

  15. ERTS imagery applied to Alaskan coastal problems. [surface water circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, F. F.; Sharma, G. D.; Burbank, D. C.; Burns, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Along the Alaska coast, surface water circulation is relatively easy to study with ERTS imagery. Highly turbid river water, sea ice, and fluvial ice have proven to be excellent tracers of the surface waters. Sea truth studies in the Gulf of Alaska, Cook Inlet, Bristol Bay, and the Bering Strait area have established the reliability of these tracers. ERTS imagery in the MSS 4 and 5 bands is particularly useful for observing lower concentrations of suspended sediment, while MSS 6 data is best for the most con