Shallow water sound propagation with surface waves.
Tindle, Chris T; Deane, Grant B
2005-05-01
The theory of wavefront modeling in underwater acoustics is extended to allow rapid range dependence of the boundaries such as occurs in shallow water with surface waves. The theory allows for multiple reflections at surface and bottom as well as focusing and defocusing due to reflection from surface waves. The phase and amplitude of the field are calculated directly and used to model pulse propagation in the time domain. Pulse waveforms are obtained directly for all wavefront arrivals including both insonified and shadow regions near caustics. Calculated waveforms agree well with a reference solution and data obtained in a near-shore shallow water experiment with surface waves over a sloping bottom.
Surface acoustic wave propagation in graphene film
Roshchupkin, Dmitry Plotitcyna, Olga; Matveev, Viktor; Kononenko, Oleg; Emelin, Evgenii; Irzhak, Dmitry; Ortega, Luc; Zizak, Ivo; Erko, Alexei; Tynyshtykbayev, Kurbangali; Insepov, Zinetula
2015-09-14
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in a graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals was studied at the BESSY II synchrotron radiation source. Talbot effect enabled the visualization of the SAW propagation on the crystal surface with the graphene film in a real time mode, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction permitted the determination of the SAW amplitude in the graphene/piezoelectric crystal system. The influence of the SAW on the electrical properties of the graphene film was examined. It was shown that the changing of the SAW amplitude enables controlling the magnitude and direction of current in graphene film on the surface of piezoelectric crystals.
Mechanical surface waves accompany action potential propagation.
El Hady, Ahmed; Machta, Benjamin B
2015-01-01
Many diverse studies have shown that a mechanical displacement of the axonal membrane accompanies the electrical pulse defining the action potential (AP). We present a model for these mechanical displacements as arising from the driving of surface wave modes in which potential energy is stored in elastic properties of the neuronal membrane and cytoskeleton while kinetic energy is carried by the axoplasmic fluid. In our model, these surface waves are driven by the travelling wave of electrical depolarization characterizing the AP, altering compressive electrostatic forces across the membrane. This driving leads to co-propagating mechanical displacements, which we term Action Waves (AWs). Our model allows us to estimate the shape of the AW that accompanies any travelling wave of voltage, making predictions that are in agreement with results from several experimental systems. Our model can serve as a framework for understanding the physical origins and possible functional roles of these AWs. PMID:25819404
Mechanical surface waves accompany action potential propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Hady, Ahmed; Machta, Benjamin B.
2015-03-01
Many diverse studies have shown that a mechanical displacement of the axonal membrane accompanies the electrical pulse defining the action potential (AP). We present a model for these mechanical displacements as arising from the driving of surface wave modes in which potential energy is stored in elastic properties of the neuronal membrane and cytoskeleton while kinetic energy is carried by the axoplasmic fluid. In our model, these surface waves are driven by the travelling wave of electrical depolarization characterizing the AP, altering compressive electrostatic forces across the membrane. This driving leads to co-propagating mechanical displacements, which we term Action Waves (AWs). Our model allows us to estimate the shape of the AW that accompanies any travelling wave of voltage, making predictions that are in agreement with results from several experimental systems. Our model can serve as a framework for understanding the physical origins and possible functional roles of these AWs.
Surface waves propagating on a turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gutiérrez, Pablo; AumaÃ®tre, Sébastien
2016-02-01
We study the propagation of monochromatic surface waves on a turbulent flow of liquid metal, when the waves are much less energetic than the background flow. Electromagnetic forcing drives quasi-two-dimensional turbulence with strong vertical vorticity. To isolate the surface-wave field, we remove the surface deformation induced by the background turbulent flow using coherent-phase averaging at the wave frequency. We observe a significant increase in wavelength, when the latter is smaller than the forcing length scale. This phenomenon has not been reported before and can be explained by multiple random wave deflections induced by the turbulent velocity gradients. The shift in wavelength thus provides an estimate of the fluctuations in deflection angle. Local measurements of the wave frequency far from the wavemaker do not reveal such systematic behavior, although a small shift is visible. Finally, we quantify the damping enhancement induced by the turbulent flow and compare it to the existing theoretical predictions. Most of them suggest that the damping increases as the square of the Froude number, whereas our experimental data show a linear increase with the Froude number. We interpret this linear relationship as a balance between the time for a wave to cross a turbulent structure and the turbulent mixing time. The larger the ratio of these two times, the more energy is extracted from the wave. We conclude with possible mechanisms for energy exchange.
Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor
Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.
2010-03-16
Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.
Propagating and Localized Surface Waves in Metamaterial Stacks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Ruwen; Bao, Yongjun; Tang, Zhaohui; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Zhijian; Sun, Weihua; Wu, Xin; Wang, Mu
2009-03-01
We demonstrate the interference effect between propagating and localized surface modes of electromagnetic wave in metamaterial stacks, which leads to a transmission extremum. When radiation is incident on a metal surface perforated with an array of ring-shaped subwavelength apertures, the phase difference between the propagating surface Bloch wave and the localized surface wave can be tailored by the geometrical parameters of the array so as to affect the shape of the transmission spectrum. Above the resonant frequency of the aperture, interference between the surface waves leads to a minimum in the transmission spectrum, whereas below it, the interference leads to a maximum. While in multiple metamaterial stacks with hole arrays, the coupling of surface electromagnetic wave yields a new resonant mode with increasing quality factor of the transmission peak. We suggest that these features provide flexibility in engineering surface wave-based all-optical devices. Reference: Y. J. Bao, R. W. Peng, D. J. Shu, Mu Wang, X. Lu, J. Shao, W. Lu,and N. B. Ming, Phys. Rev. Lett. (2008) 101, 087401.
Observations of acoustic surface waves in outdoor sound propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albert, Donald G.
2003-05-01
Acoustic surface waves have been detected propagating outdoors under natural conditions. Two critical experimental conditions were employed to ensure the conclusive detection of these waves. First, acoustic pulses rather than a continuous wave source allowed an examination of the waveform shape and avoided the masking of wave arrivals. Second, a snow cover provided favorable ground impedance conditions for surface waves to exist. The acoustic pulses were generated by blank pistol shots fired 1 m above the snow. The resultant waveforms were measured using a vertical array of six microphones located 60 m away from the source at heights between 0.1 and 4.75 m. A strong, low frequency ``tail'' following the initial arrival was recorded near the snow surface. This tail, and its exponential decay with height (z) above the surface (~e-αz), are diagnostic features of surface waves. The measured attenuation coefficient α was 0.28 m-1. The identification of the surface wave is confirmed by comparing the measured waveforms with waveforms predicted by the theoretical evaluation of the explicit surface wave pole term using residue theory.
Surface wave propagation in non-ideal plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandey, B. P.; Dwivedi, C. B.
2015-03-01
The properties of surface waves in a partially ionized, compressible magnetized plasma slab are investigated in this work. The waves are affected by the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects which causes finite drift of the magnetic field in the medium. When the magnetic field drift is ignored, the characteristics of the wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma fluid is similar to the fully ionized ideal MHD except now the propagation properties depend on the fractional ionization as well as on the compressibility of the medium. The phase velocity of the sausage and kink waves increases marginally (by a few per cent) due to the compressibility of the medium in both ideal as well as Hall-diffusion-dominated regimes. However, unlike ideal regime, only waves below certain cut-off frequency can propagate in the medium in Hall dominated regime. This cut-off for a thin slab has a weak dependence on the plasma beta whereas for thick slab no such dependence exists. More importantly, since the cut-off is introduced by the Hall diffusion, the fractional ionization of the medium is more important than the plasma compressibility in determining such a cut-off. Therefore, for both compressible as well incompressible medium, the surface modes of shorter wavelength are permitted with increasing ionization in the medium. We discuss the relevance of these results in the context of solar photosphere-chromosphere.
Modeling anomalous surface - wave propagation across the Southern Caspian basin
Priestly, K.F.; Patton, H.J.; Schultz, C.A.
1998-01-09
The crust of the south Caspian basin consists of 15-25 km of low velocity, highly attenuating sediment overlying high velocity crystalline crust. The Moho depth beneath the basin is about 30 km as compared to about 50 km in the surrounding region. Preliminary modeling of the phase velocity curves shows that this thick sediments of the south Caspian basin are also under-lain by a 30-35 km thick crystalline crust and not by typical oceanic crust. This analysis also suggest that if the effect of the over-pressuring of the sediments is to reduce Poissons` ratio, the over-pressured sediments observed to approximately 5 km do not persist to great depths. It has been shown since 1960`s that the south Caspian basin blocks the regional phase Lg. Intermediate frequency (0.02-0.04 Hz) fundamental mode Raleigh waves propagating across the basin are also severely attenuated, but the low frequency surface waves are largely unaffected. This attenuation is observed along the both east-to-west and west-to-east great circle paths across the basin, and therefore it cannot be related to a seismograph site effect. We have modeled the response of surface waves in an idealized rendition of the south Caspian basin model using a hybrid normal mode / 2-D finite difference approach. To gain insight into the features of the basin which cause the anomalous surface wave propagation, we have varied parameters of the basin model and computed synthetic record sections to compare with the observed seismograms. We varied the amount of mantel up-warp, the shape of the boundaries, the thickness and shear wave Q of the sediments and mantle, and the depth of the water layer. Of these parameters, the intermediate frequency surface waves are most severely affected by the sediments thickness and shear wave attenuation. fundamental mode Raleigh wave phase velocities measure for paths crossing the basin are extremely low.
Surface Wave Propagation on a Laterally Heterogeneous Earth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tromp, Jeroen
1992-01-01
Love and Rayleigh waves propagating on the surface of the Earth exhibit path, phase and amplitude anomalies as a result of the lateral heterogeneity of the mantle. In the JWKB approximation, these anomalies can be determined by tracing surface wave trajectories, and calculating phase and amplitude anomalies along them. A time- or frequency -domain JWKB analysis yields local eigenfunctions, local dispersion relations, and conservation laws for the surface wave energy. The local dispersion relations determine the surface wave trajectories, and the energy equations determine the surface wave amplitudes. On an anisotrophic Earth model the local dispersion relation and the local vertical eigenfunctions depend explicitly on the direction of the local wavevector. Apart from the usual dynamical phase, which is the integral of the local wavevector along a raypath, there is an additional variation is phase. This additional phase, which is an analogue of the Berry phase in adiabatic quantum mechanics, vanishes in a waveguide with a local vertical two-fold symmetry axis or a local horizontal mirror plane. JWKB theory breaks down in the vicinity of caustics, where neighboring rays merge and the surface wave amplitude diverges. Based upon a potential representation of the surface wave field, a uniformly valid Maslov theory can be obtained. Surface wave trajectories are determined by a system of four ordinary differential equations which define a three-dimensional manifold in four-dimensional phase space (theta,phi,k_theta,k _phi), where theta is colatitude, phi is longitude, and k_theta and k _phi are the covariant components of the wavevector. There are no caustics in phase space; it is only when the rays in phase space are projected onto configuration space (theta,phi), the mixed spaces (k_theta,phi ) and (theta,k_phi), or onto momentum space (k_theta,k _phi), that caustics occur. The essential strategy is to employ a mixed or momentum space representation of the wavefield in
Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves.
Sun, Shulin; He, Qiong; Xiao, Shiyi; Xu, Qin; Li, Xin; Zhou, Lei
2012-05-01
The arbitrary control of electromagnetic waves is a key aim of photonic research. Although, for example, the control of freely propagating waves (PWs) and surface waves (SWs) has separately become possible using transformation optics and metamaterials, a bridge linking both propagation types has not yet been found. Such a device has particular relevance given the many schemes of controlling electromagnetic waves at surfaces and interfaces, leading to trapped rainbows, lensing, beam bending, deflection, and even anomalous reflection/refraction. Here, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that a specific gradient-index meta-surface can convert a PW to a SW with nearly 100% efficiency. Distinct from conventional devices such as prism or grating couplers, the momentum mismatch between PW and SW is compensated by the reflection-phase gradient of the meta-surface, and a nearly perfect PW-SW conversion can happen for any incidence angle larger than a critical value. Experiments in the microwave region, including both far-field and near-field characterizations, are in excellent agreement with full-wave simulations. Our findings may pave the way for many applications, including high-efficiency surface plasmon couplers, anti-reflection surfaces, light absorbers, and so on. PMID:22466746
Unidirectional propagation of magnetostatic surface spin waves at a magnetic film surface
Wong, Kin L.; Bao, Mingqiang E-mail: caross@mit.edu; Lin, Yen-Ting; Wang, Kang L.; Bi, Lei; Wen, Qiye; Zhang, Huaiwu; Chatelon, Jean Pierre; Ross, C. A. E-mail: caross@mit.edu
2014-12-08
An analytical expression for the amplitudes of magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSWs) propagating in opposite directions at a magnetic film surface is presented. This shows that for a given magnetic field H, it is forbidden for an independent MSSW to propagate along the direction of −H{sup →}×n{sup →}, where n{sup →} is the surface normal. This unidirectional propagation property is confirmed by experiments with both permalloy and yttrium iron garnet films of different film thicknesses, and has implications in the design of spin-wave devices such as isolators and spin-wave diodes.
On the propagation of plane waves above an impedance surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhong, F. H.; Vanmoorhem, W. K.
1990-01-01
The propagation of grazing incidence plane waves along a finite impedance boundary is investigated. A solution of the semi-infinite problem, where a harmonic motion, parallel to the boundary, is imposed along a line perpendicular to the boundary, is obtained. This solution consists of quasiplane waves, waves moving parallel to the boundary with amplitude and phase variations perpendicular to the boundary. Several approximations to the full solution are considered.
Effect of near-surface topography on high-frequency Rayleigh-wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Limin; Xu, Yixian; Xia, Jianghai; Luo, Yinhe
2015-05-01
Rayleigh waves, which are formed due to interference of P- and Sv-waves near the free surface, propagate along the free surface and vanish exponentially in the vertical direction. Their propagation is strongly influenced by surface topography. Due to the high resolution and precision requirements of near-surface investigations, the high-frequency Rayleigh waves are usually used for near-surface structural detecting. Although there are some numerical studies on high-frequency Rayleigh-wave propagation on topographic free surface, detailed analysis of characters of high-frequency Rayleigh-wave propagation on topographic free surface remains untouched. Hence, research of propagation of Rayleigh waves on complex topographic surface becomes critical for Rayleigh-wave methods in near-surface applications. To study the propagation of high-frequency Rayleigh waves on topographic free surface, two main topographic models are designed in this study. One of the models contains a depressed topographic surface, and another contains an uplifted topographic surface. We numerically simulate the propagation of high-frequency Rayleigh waves on these two topographic surfaces by finite-difference method. Soon afterwards, we analyze the propagation character of high-frequency Rayleigh waves on such topographic models, and compare the variations on its energy and frequency before and after passing the topographic region. At last, we discuss the relationship between the variations and topographical steepness of each model. Our numerical results indicate that influence of depressed topography for high-frequency Rayleigh waves is more distinct than influence of uplifted topography. Rayleigh waves produce new scattering body waves during passing the depressed topography with reduction of amplitude and loss of high-frequency components. Moreover, the steeper the depressed topography is, the more energy of Rayleigh waves is lost. The uplifted topography with gentle slope produces similar
Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation
Fisher, E.S.
1980-05-09
An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.
Single crystal metal wedges for surface acoustic wave propagation
Fisher, Edward S.
1982-01-01
An ultrasonic testing device has been developed to evaluate flaws and inhomogeneities in the near-surface region of a test material. A metal single crystal wedge is used to generate high frequency Rayleigh surface waves in the test material surface by conversion of a slow velocity, bulk acoustic mode in the wedge into a Rayleigh wave at the metal-wedge test material interface. Particular classes of metals have been found to provide the bulk acoustic modes necessary for production of a surface wave with extremely high frequency and angular collimation. The high frequency allows flaws and inhomogeneities to be examined with greater resolution. The high degree of angular collimation for the outgoing ultrasonic beam permits precision angular location of flaws and inhomogeneities in the test material surface.
Wave propagation in photonic crystals and metamaterials: Surface waves, nonlinearity and chirality
Wang, Bingnan
2009-01-01
Photonic crystals and metamaterials, both composed of artificial structures, are two interesting areas in electromagnetism and optics. New phenomena in photonic crystals and metamaterials are being discovered, including some not found in natural materials. This thesis presents my research work in the two areas. Photonic crystals are periodically arranged artificial structures, mostly made from dielectric materials, with period on the same order of the wavelength of the working electromagnetic wave. The wave propagation in photonic crystals is determined by the Bragg scattering of the periodic structure. Photonic band-gaps can be present for a properly designed photonic crystal. Electromagnetic waves with frequency within the range of the band-gap are suppressed from propagating in the photonic crystal. With surface defects, a photonic crystal could support surface modes that are localized on the surface of the crystal, with mode frequencies within the band-gap. With line defects, a photonic crystal could allow the propagation of electromagnetic waves along the channels. The study of surface modes and waveguiding properties of a 2D photonic crystal will be presented in Chapter 1. Metamaterials are generally composed of artificial structures with sizes one order smaller than the wavelength and can be approximated as effective media. Effective macroscopic parameters such as electric permittivity ϵ, magnetic permeability μ are used to characterize the wave propagation in metamaterials. The fundamental structures of the metamaterials affect strongly their macroscopic properties. By designing the fundamental structures of the metamaterials, the effective parameters can be tuned and different electromagnetic properties can be achieved. One important aspect of metamaterial research is to get artificial magnetism. Metallic split-ring resonators (SRRs) and variants are widely used to build magnetic metamaterials with effective μ < 1 or even μ < 0. Varactor based
Geometric effects of global lateral heterogeneity on long-period surface wave propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lay, T.; Kanamori, H.
1985-01-01
The present investigation has the objective to document examples of anomalous long-period surface wave amplitude behavior and to provide a preliminary appraisal of the effects of global lateral heterogeneity on surface wave propagation from a ray theory perspective. Attention is given to remarkable long-period surface wave anomalies described in literature, an equidistance azimuthal plot centered on the Iranian source region, Rayleigh wave and Love wave spectra for the 256-s period arrivals for the Tabas earthquake, constrained moment tensor and fault model inversion solutions ofr Iranian earthquakes, aspects of surface wave ray tracing, and a table of Rayleigh wave amplitude anomalies for Iranian earthquakes. Surface wave ray-tracing calculations for models of global phase velocity variations proposed by Nakanishi and Anderson (1984) are found to show that large-amplitude anomalies will be observed for Love and Rayleigh waves with periods of 100-250 s.
Siemens, M.; Li, Q.; Murnane, M.; Kapteyn, H.; Yang, R.; Anderson, E.; Nelson, K.
2009-03-02
We study ultrahigh frequency surface acoustic wave propagation in nickel-on-sapphire nanostructures. The use of ultrafast, coherent, extreme ultraviolet beams allows us to extend optical measurements of propagation dynamics of surface acoustic waves to frequencies of nearly 50 GHz, corresponding to wavelengths as short as 125 nm. We repeat the measurement on a sequence of nanostructured samples to observe surface acoustic wave dispersion in a nanostructure series for the first time. These measurements are critical for accurate characterization of thin films using this technique.
Visualization of terahertz surface waves propagation on metal foils
Wang, Xinke; Wang, Sen; Sun, Wenfeng; Feng, Shengfei; Han, Peng; Yan, Haitao; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan
2016-01-01
Exploitation of surface plasmonic devices (SPDs) in the terahertz (THz) band is always beneficial for broadening the application potential of THz technologies. To clarify features of SPDs, a practical characterization means is essential for accurately observing the complex field distribution of a THz surface wave (TSW). Here, a THz digital holographic imaging system is employed to coherently exhibit temporal variations and spectral properties of TSWs activated by a rectangular or semicircular slit structure on metal foils. Advantages of the imaging system are comprehensively elucidated, including the exclusive measurement of TSWs and fall-off of the time consumption. Numerical simulations of experimental procedures further verify the imaging measurement accuracy. It can be anticipated that this imaging system will provide a versatile tool for analyzing the performance and principle of SPDs. PMID:26729652
Surface wave propagation in an ideal Hall-magnetohydrodynamic plasma jet in flowing environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sikka, Himanshu; Kumar, Nagendra; Zhelyazkov, Ivan
2004-11-01
The behavior of the Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (Hall-MHD) sausage and kink waves is studied in the presence of steady flow. The influence of the flow both inside and outside the plasma slab is taken into account. The plasma in the environment is considered to be cold and moves with the different flow velocity outside the slab. In the limit of parallel propagation, dispersion relation is derived to discuss the propagation of both the modes. Numerical results for the propagation characteristics are obtained for different Alfvénic Mach number ratios inside and outside the slab. It is found that the dispersion curves for both surface modes, namely, the sausage and kink ones in cold plasma show complexities in their behavior in terms of multivalued portions of the curves. These multivalued portions correspond to the different normalized phase velocities for the same value of Alfvénic Mach number. In contrast to the conventional MHD surface waves which are assumed to be pure surface waves or pseudosurface waves, surface waves are obtained which are bulk waves for very small dimensionless wave numbers, then turn to leaky waves and finally transform to pure surface waves for values of dimensionless wave number greater than one.
Surface Current Density Mapping for Identification of Gastric Slow Wave Propagation
Bradshaw, L. A.; Cheng, L. K.; Richards, W. O.; Pullan, A. J.
2009-01-01
The magnetogastrogram records clinically relevant parameters of the electrical slow wave of the stomach noninvasively. Besides slow wave frequency, gastric slow wave propagation velocity is a potentially useful clinical indicator of the state of health of gastric tissue, but it is a difficult parameter to determine from noninvasive bioelectric or biomagnetic measurements. We present a method for computing the surface current density (SCD) from multichannel magnetogastrogram recordings that allows computation of the propagation velocity of the gastric slow wave. A moving dipole source model with hypothetical as well as realistic biomagnetometer parameters demonstrates that while a relatively sparse array of magnetometer sensors is sufficient to compute a single average propagation velocity, more detailed information about spatial variations in propagation velocity requires higher density magnetometer arrays. Finally, the method is validated with simultaneous MGG and serosal EMG measurements in a porcine subject. PMID:19403355
Propagation of surface waves on a semi-bounded quantum magnetized collisional plasma
Niknam, A. R.; Taheri Boroujeni, S.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M.
2013-12-15
The propagation of surface waves on a semi-bounded quantum plasma in the presence of the external magnetic field and collisional effects is investigated by using quantum magnetohydrodynamics model. A general analytical expression for the dispersion relation of surface waves is obtained by considering the boundary conditions. It is shown that, in some special cases, the obtained dispersion relation reduces to the results reported in previous works. It is also indicated that the quantum, external magnetic field and collisional effects can facilitate the propagation of surface waves on a semi-bounded plasma. In addition, it is found that the growth rate of the surface wave instability is enhanced by increasing the collision frequency and plasmonic parameter.
Analysis of surface wave propagation in a grounded dielectric slab covered by a resistive sheet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shively, David G.
1992-01-01
Both parallel and perpendicular polarized surface waves are known to propagate on lossless and lossy grounded dielectric slabs. Surface wave propagation on a grounded dielectric slab covered with a resistive sheet is considered. Both parallel and perpendicular polarizations are examined. Transcendental equations are derived for each polarization and are solved using iterative techniques. Attenuation and phase velocity are shown for representative geometries. The results are applicable to both a grounded slab with a resistive sheet and an ungrounded slab covered on each side with a resistive sheet.
Luo, Si; Yang, Hangbo; Yang, Yuanqing; Zhao, Ding; Chen, Xingxing; Qiu, Min; Li, Qiang
2015-01-01
Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagating at metal nanostructures play an important role in breaking the diffraction limit. Chemically synthesized single-crystalline metal nanoplates with atomically flat surfaces provide favorable features compared with traditional polycrystalline metal films. The excitation and propagation of leaky SPPs on micrometer sized (10–20 μm) and thin (30 nm) gold nanoplates are investigated utilizing leakage radiation microscopy. By varying polarization and excitation positions of incident light on apexes of nanoplates, wave-vector (including propagation constant and propagation direction) distributions of leaky SPPs in Fourier planes can be controlled, indicating tunable SPP propagation. These results hold promise for potential development of chemically synthesized single-crystalline metal nanoplates as plasmonic platforms in future applications. PMID:26302955
Hung, Yu-Ju; Lin, I-Sheng
2016-07-11
This paper reports a novel approach to the direct observation of Bloch surface waves, wherein a layer of fluorescent material is deposited directly on the surface of a semi-infinite periodic layered cell. A set of surface nano-gratings is used to couple pumping light to Bloch surface waves, while the sample is rotated until the pumping light meets the quasi-phase matching conditions. This study investigated the directional propagation of waves on stripe and circular one-dimensional grating structures by analyzing the dispersion relationship of the first two eigen modes. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed scheme in visualizing Bloch surface waves, which could be extended to a variety of other devices. PMID:27410869
Numerical Simulation of Stoneley Surface Wave Propagating Along Elastic-Elastic Interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korneev, V. A.; Zuev, M. A.; Petrov, P.; Magomedov, M.
2014-12-01
There are seven waves in dynamic theory of elasticity that are named after their discoverers. In 1885, Lord Rayleigh had published a paper where he described a wave capable to propagate along a free surface of an elastic half-space. In 1911, Love had considered a pure shear motion for a model of an elastic layer, bounded by an elastic halfspace. In 1917, Lamb had discovered symmetric and asymmetric waves propagating in an isolated elastic plate. Stoneley (1924) had found that a surface wave can propagate along an interface between two elastic halfspaces for some parameter combinations, and then Scholte had shown in 1942, that in a model where one of the halfspaces is fluid, the surface wave can exist for any parameters. The sixth wave is named after Biot (1956), and it describes a slow diffusive wave in a fluid-saturated poroelastic media. Finally, in 1962 Krauklis had found a dispersive fluid wave in a system of a fluid layer bounded by two elastic halfspaces. Remarkably, all but one of the named waves were found and predicted theoretically as the results of mathematical and physical approaches in Nature exploration to be later confirmed in experiments and used in various scientific and practical applications. The only wave, which was not observed neither numerically nor experimentally until now is Stoneley wave. A likely reason for that is in rather restricted combinations of material parameters for this wave to exist. Indeed, the ratio R of shear velocities a model must be inside of the interval (0.8742 - 1). The ratio of the Stoneley wave velocity to the largest share wave velocity must be in the interval (0.8742 - R). To fill the gap, we performed 2D finite-difference simulation for a model consisting of polysterene (with velocities Vp1=2.350 m/s, Vs1=1190. m/s, and density Rho1= 1.06 g/m3) and gold (with velocities Vp2=3.240 m/s, Vs2=1200. m/s, and density Rho2= 19.7 g/m3). A corresponded root of a dispersion equation was found with a help of original
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolínský, Petr; Fuchs, Florian; Gröschl, Gidera; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray Working Group
2016-04-01
We utilize array beamforming techniques to investigate deterministic surface waves from regional and teleseismic earthquakes. Because the signal is well recognized and the fundamental mode for both Love and Rayleigh waves is separated before the beamforming, instead of searching for energy of all possible signals, we identify the frequency dependence of surface wave phase velocity and the true backazimuths of propagation. Using the dense AlpArray seismic broadband network distributed in the greater Alpine region across Europe with interstation distances around 40 km, we consider each station as a centre of an array of neighboring 5 to 6 stations. This allows us to calculate the local phase velocity dispersion curves for individual regions with diameter of approximately 80 - 100 km. By the beamforming, phase velocities are corrected for the true propagation backazimuth, which is slightly frequency dependent for each event. We invert the dispersion curves for S and P wave velocity distribution with depth. Measuring the phase velocity from different events distributed around the world, azimuthal dependence of the phase velocity is estimated and thus anisotropy constrained for particular depths. Beamforming of the signals in the time window sliding along the coda after the fundamental mode allows us to detect deterministic late surface-wave signals coming from certain directions dissimilar from the direct fundamental mode backazimuths for some of the events - these can be considered as surface wave reflections from lateral heterogeneities and vertical boundaries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradi, Afshin
2016-04-01
In a recent article [Niknam et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 122106 (2013)], Niknam et al. investigated the propagation of TM surface waves on a semi-bounded quantum magnetized collisional plasma in the Faraday configuration (in this case, the magnetic field is parallel to the both of the plasma surface and direction of propagation). Here, we present a fresh look at the problem and show that TM surface waves cannot propagate on surface of the present system. We find in the Faraday configuration the surface waves acquire both TM and TE components due to the cyclotron motion of electrons. Therefore, the main result of the work by Niknam et al. is incorrect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hill, Katherine L.; Robinson, Ian S.; Cipollini, Paolo
2000-09-01
This paper examines the characteristics of planetary wave signatures that have been found in the Along Track Scanning Radiometer averaged sea surface temperature (ASST) record for 1991-1996. Longitude-time plots for every latitude between 5° and 50°, north and south, reveal westward propagating wave-like patterns at many locations, whose speed decreases with latitude like baroclinic Rossby waves. A two-dimensional Radon transform method is used to measure the wave speed and its variation with location and time, which broadly matches the Rossby wave speeds predicted by the most recent theory and those measured by TOPEX altimetry, although there are some discrepancies. At low latitudes the thermally detected speeds are slower than expected, a possible consequence of sampling limitations. Wave signatures are clearest between 25° and 40°S, where the meridional temperature gradient is strongest. Here observed speeds are 20-30% greater than theoretical predictions. Planetary wave speed varies considerably with longitude. In general, it increases toward the west of ocean basins, and distinct differences between ocean basins are evident. The propagation characteristics of the waves appear to change abruptly at locations consistent with latitudinal variations in seafloor bathymetry, particularly midocean ridges. In addition, eastward propagating signatures are found in the Southern Ocean. The results demonstrate the value of the ASST data set as a tool for studying basin-scale wave processes as a complement to the use of altimetry. By observing the thermal signature of Rossby waves the method has the potential to clarify their influence on air-sea interaction processes and to contribute to climate modeling studies.
Ciliary metachronal wave propagation on the compliant surface of Paramecium cells.
Narematsu, Naoki; Quek, Raymond; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Iwadate, Yoshiaki
2015-12-01
Ciliary movements in protozoa exhibit metachronal wave-like coordination, in which a constant phase difference is maintained between adjacent cilia. It is at present generally thought that metachronal waves require hydrodynamic coupling between adjacent cilia and the extracellular fluid. To test this hypothesis, we aspirated a Paramecium cell using a micropipette which completely sealed the surface of the cell such that no fluid could pass through the micropipette. Thus, the anterior and the posterior regions of the cell were hydrodynamically decoupled. Nevertheless, we still observed that metachronal waves continued to propagate from the anterior to the posterior ends of the cell, suggesting that in addition to hydrodynamic coupling, there are other mechanisms that can also transmit the metachronal waves. Such transmission was also observed in computational modeling where the fluid was fully decoupled between two partitions of a beating ciliary array. We also imposed cyclic stretching on the surface of live Paramecium cells and found that metachronal waves persisted in the presence of cyclic stretching. This demonstrated that, in addition to hydrodynamic coupling, a compliant substrate can also play a critical role in mediating the propagation of metachronal waves. PMID:26616106
Ciliary metachronal wave propagation on the compliant surface of Paramecium cells.
Narematsu, Naoki; Quek, Raymond; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Iwadate, Yoshiaki
2015-12-01
Ciliary movements in protozoa exhibit metachronal wave-like coordination, in which a constant phase difference is maintained between adjacent cilia. It is at present generally thought that metachronal waves require hydrodynamic coupling between adjacent cilia and the extracellular fluid. To test this hypothesis, we aspirated a Paramecium cell using a micropipette which completely sealed the surface of the cell such that no fluid could pass through the micropipette. Thus, the anterior and the posterior regions of the cell were hydrodynamically decoupled. Nevertheless, we still observed that metachronal waves continued to propagate from the anterior to the posterior ends of the cell, suggesting that in addition to hydrodynamic coupling, there are other mechanisms that can also transmit the metachronal waves. Such transmission was also observed in computational modeling where the fluid was fully decoupled between two partitions of a beating ciliary array. We also imposed cyclic stretching on the surface of live Paramecium cells and found that metachronal waves persisted in the presence of cyclic stretching. This demonstrated that, in addition to hydrodynamic coupling, a compliant substrate can also play a critical role in mediating the propagation of metachronal waves.
Lg-wave simulation in heterogeneous crusts with surface topography using screen propagators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xian-Yun; Wu, Ru-Shan
2001-09-01
We develop a numerical simulation method that can efficiently model the combined effects of large-scale structural variations and small-scale heterogeneities (e.g. random media) on Lg-wave propagation at far regional distances. The approach is based on the generalized screen propagator (GSP) method, which has previously been used to simulate SH Lg waves in complex crustal waveguides. In this paper, we extend the GSP method to treat complex crustal models with irregular or rough topography by incorporating surface flattening transformation into the method. The transformation converts surface perturbations into modified volume perturbations. In this way the range-dependent boundary condition becomes a stress release boundary condition on a flat surface in the new coordinate system where the half-space GSP can be applied. To demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the extended GSP method, synthetic seismograms are generated for various crustal waveguides, including uniform crusts, a Gaussian hill half-space, and crustal models with mild and moderately rough surfaces. The results are compared with those generated by the exact boundary element method. It is shown that the screen method is efficient for modelling the effect of surface topography on Lg waves. The comparison of synthetic seismograms generated by the screen method and the traditional parabolic equation method shows that the screen method can handle wider-angle waves as well as rougher topography than the parabolic equation method. Finally, we apply the method to complex crustal waveguides with both small-scale heterogeneities (random media) and random rough surfaces for Lg propagation to far regional distances. The influence of random heterogeneities and rough surfaces on Lg attenuation is significant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavlis, Gary L.; Mahdi, Hanan
1996-04-01
We studied the propagation of Rayleigh waves at regional distances in central Asia using a combination of array processing techniques and surface wave analysis. We present results from the detailed analysis of three representative events recorded by a 10-station, broadband network that has been running in the central Asian country of Kyrgyzstan since 1991: an Ms = 5.1 event near Ashkhabad, Turkmenistan; an Ms = 5.8 event in south central Tibet; and the October 7, 1994, nuclear explosion at Lop Nor. We find there is a remarkable difference in the propagation characteristics of surface waves along these three paths. The path from the event in Turkmenistan is simple and is well approximated by propagation through a laterally homogeneous medium. Array processing shows the entire Rayleigh wave train stacks coherently and arrives from an azimuth close to that predicted by a great circle path. Furthermore, estimates of dispersion curves and fundamental mode signals determined for individual stations show little variation across the array. The Tibet and Lop Nor paths are completely different. We find strong evidence for complicated multipathing and scattering effects along both of these paths. We observe a three-stage pattern in the Tibet case: (1) the early, lowest-frequency part of the Rayleigh wave packet arrives as a coherent signal from close to the great circle path azimuth; (2) this is overpowered in the period range around 20 s by a strong multipath signal that propagates across the array from a much more southerly azimuth; and (3) periods below 20 s rapidly become incoherent, and the signal does not have a well-defined direction of propagation. The Lop Nor path shows similar complexity. On this path there is little dispersion for measurable periods greater than 10 s, so the low-frequency energy arrives in an Airy phase. The Airy phase stacks somewhat coherently (it stacks, but significant power is lost in the best beam), and slowness analysis shows it arrives from
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wenjuan; Zhu, Guiqiang; Sun, Liguo; Lin, Fujiang
2015-01-01
Corrugated metal surface with underlayer metal as ground is designed as spoof surface plasmons polaritons (SSPPs) structure in microwave frequencies. Efficient conversion from guided wave to SSPP is required for energy feeding into and signal extracting from such plasmonic structure. In this paper, first a high efficient transition design is presented by using gradient corrugated strip with underlayer metal as ground and by using the impedance matching theory. The SSPP wave is highly confined within the teeth part of the corrugated surface. By using this characteristic, then the simple wire-based metamaterial is added below the strip to manipulate the SSPP wave within the propagating band. Two aforementioned devices are designed and fabricated. The simulated and measured results on the scattering coefficients demonstrate the excellent conversion and excellent manipulating of SSPP transmitting. Such results have very important value to develop advanced plasmonic integrated circuits in the microwave frequencies.
Guided wave propagation in metallic and resin plates loaded with water on single surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, Takahiro; Inoue, Daisuke
2016-02-01
Our previous papers reported dispersion curves for leaky Lamb waves in a water-loaded plate and wave structures for several typical modes including quasi-Scholte waves [1,2]. The calculations were carried out with a semi-analytical finite element (SAFE) method developed for leaky Lamb waves. This study presents SAFE calculations for transient guided waves including time-domain waveforms and animations of wave propagation in metallic and resin water-loaded plates. The results show that non-dispersive and non-attenuated waves propagating along the interface between the fluid and the plate are expected for effective non-destructive evaluation of such fluid-loaded plates as storage tanks and transportation pipes. We calculated transient waves in both steel and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plates loaded with water on a single side and input dynamic loading from a point source on the other water-free surface as typical examples of metallic and resin plates. For a steel plate, there exists a non-dispersive and non-attenuated mode, called the quasi-Scholte wave, having an almost identical phase velocity to that of water. The quasi-Scholte wave has superior generation efficiency in the low frequency range due to its broad energy distribution across the plate, whereas it is localized near the plate-water interface at higher frequencies. This means that it has superior detectability of inner defects. For a PVC plate, plural non-attenuated modes exist. One of the non-attenuated modes similar to the A0 mode of the Lamb wave in the form of a group velocity dispersion curve is promising for the non-destructive evaluation of the PVC plate because it provides prominent characteristics of generation efficiency and low dispersion.
Effects of dissipation on propagation of surface electromagnetic and acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagaraj, Nagaraj
With the recent emergence of the field of metamaterials, the study of subwavelength propagation of plane waves and the dissipation of their energy either in the form of Joule losses in the case of electomagnetic waves or in the form of viscous dissipation in the case of acoustic waves in different interfaced media assumes great importance. With this motivation, I have worked on problems in two different areas, viz., plasmonics and surface acoustics. The first part (chapters 2 & 3) of the dissertation deals with the emerging field of plasmonics. Researchers have come up with various designs in an effort to fabricate efficient plasmonic waveguides capable of guiding plasmonic signals. However, the inherent dissipation in the form of Joule losses limits efficient usage of surface plasmon signal. A dielectric-metal-dielectric planar structure is one of the most practical plasmonic structures that can serve as an efficient waveguide to guide electromagnetic waves along the metal-dielectric boundary. I present here a theoretical study of propagation of surface plasmons along a symmetric dielectric-metal-dielectric structure and show how proper orientation of the optical axis of the anisotropic substrate enhances the propagation length. An equation for propagation length is derived in a wide range of frequencies. I also show how the frequency of coupled surface plasmons can be modulated by changing the thickness of the metal film. I propose a Kronig-Penny model for the plasmonic crystal, which in the long wavelength limit, may serve as a homogeneous dielectric substrate with high anisotropy which do not exist for natural optical crystals. In the second part (chapters 4 & 5) of the dissertation, I discuss an interesting effect of extraordinary absorption of acoustic energy due to resonant excitation of Rayleigh waves in a narrow water channel clad between two metal plates. Starting from the elastic properties of the metal plates, I derive a dispersion equation that gives
Propagation of detonation wave in hydrogen-air mixture in channels with sound-absorbing surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bivol, G. Yu.; Golovastov, S. V.; Golub, V. V.
2015-12-01
The possibility of using sound-absorbing surfaces for attenuating the intensity of detonation waves propagating in hydrogen-air mixtures has been experimentally studied in a cylindrical detonation tube open at one end, with an explosive initiated by spark discharge at the closed end. Sound-absorbing elements were made of an acoustic-grade foamed rubber with density of 0.035 g/cm3 containing open pores with an average diameter of 0.5 mm. The degree of attenuation of the detonation wave front velocity was determined as dependent on the volume fraction of hydrogen in the gas mixture.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thoma, Carsten Hilmar
1997-12-01
The coupling of stress and strain fields to electric fields present in anisotropic piezoelectric crystals makes them ideal for use as electromechanical transducers in a wide variety of applications. In recent years such crystals have been utilized to produce surface acoustic wave devices for signal processing applications, in which an applied metallic grating both transmits and receives, through the piezoelectric effect, electromechanical surface waves. The design of such interdigital transducers requires an accurate knowledge of wave propagation and reflection. The presence of the metal grating in addition to its ideal transduction function, by means of electrical and mechanical loading, also introduces a velocity shift as well as reflection into substrate surface waves. We seek to obtain a consistent formulation of the wave behavior due to the electrical and mechanical loading of the substrate crystal by the metallic grating. A perturbative solution up to second order in h//lambda is developed, where h is the maximum grating height and λ the acoustic wavelength. For the operating frequencies and physical parameters of modern surface acoustic wave devices such an analysis will provide an adequate description of device behavior in many cases, thereby circumventing the need for more computationally laborious methods. Numerical calculations are presented and compared with available experimental data.
Phase-Sensitive Near Field Investigation of Bloch Surface Wave Propagation in Curved Waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, X.; Barakat, E.; Yu, L.; Sun, L.; Wang, J.; Tan, Q.; Herzig, H. P.
2014-10-01
Bloch surface waves (BSWs) are electromagnetic surface waves excited in the band gap of a one dimensional dielectric photonic crystal. They are confined at the interface of two media. Due to the use of dielectric material, the losses are very low, which allows the propagation of BSWs over long distances. Another advantage is the possibility of operating within a broad range of wavelengths. In this paper, we study and demonstrate the propagation of light in ultra-thin curved polymer waveguides having different radii fabricated on a BSWs sustaining multilayer. A phase-sensitive multi-parameter near-field optical measurement system (MH-SNOM), which combines heterodyne interferometry and SNOM, is used for the experimental characterization. Propagating properties, bending loss, mode conversion and admixture are investigated. We experimentally show that when light goes through the curved part of the waveguide, energy can be converted into different modes. The superposition and interference of different modes lead to a periodically alternating bright and dark beat phenomenon along the propagation direction. Experimental optical phase and amplitude distributions in the curved waveguide show a very good agreement with simulation results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groenenboom, P. H. L.
The phenomenon of wave propagation is encountered frequently in a variety of engineering disciplines. It has been realized that for a growing number of problems the solution can only be obtained by discretization of the boundary. Advantages of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) over domain-type methods are related to the reduction of the number of space dimensions and of the modelling effort. It is demonstrated how the BEM can be applied to wave propagation phenomena by establishing the fundamental relationships. A numerical solution procedure is also suggested. In connection with a discussion of the retarded potential formulation, it is shown how the wave propagation problem can be cast into a Boundary Integral Formulation (BIF). The wave propagation problem in the BIF can be solved by time-successive evaluation of the boundary integrals. The example of pressure wave propagation following a sodium-water reaction in a Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactor steam generator is discussed.
Kong, Zhi; Wei, Peijun; Jiao, Fengyu
2016-07-01
The effective propagation constants of elastic waves in an inhomogeneous medium with randomly distributed parallel cylindrical nanofibers are studied. First, the surface energy theory proposed by Huang and Wang (Handbook of Micromechanics and Nanomechanics, 2013) is used to derive the nontraditional boundary conditions on the surfaces of the nanoholes and the interfaces between the nanofibers and the host. Then, the scattering matrix of individual scatterer (cylindrical hole or nanofiber) is derived from the nontraditional boundary condition. The total wave field is obtained by considering the multiple scattering processes among the dispersive scatterers. The configuration average of the total wave field results in the coherent waves or the averaged waves. By using the corrected Linton-Martin formula, the effective propagation constants (effective speed and effective attenuation) of the coherent waves are estimated. The in-plane waves (P and SV waves) and the anti-plane waves (SH wave) are considered, respectively, and the numerical results are shown graphically. Apart from the effects of surface elasticity, the effects of inertia of surface/interface and the effects of residual surface tension (which are often ignored in the previous literature) are also considered. Moreover, the influences of the nonsymmetric parts of in-plane surface stress and the out-of-plane parts of the surface stress are both discussed first based on the numerical examples. These investigations show the underestimation and overestimation of effective propagation constants caused by various simplifications.
Kong, Zhi; Wei, Peijun; Jiao, Fengyu
2016-07-01
The effective propagation constants of elastic waves in an inhomogeneous medium with randomly distributed parallel cylindrical nanofibers are studied. First, the surface energy theory proposed by Huang and Wang (Handbook of Micromechanics and Nanomechanics, 2013) is used to derive the nontraditional boundary conditions on the surfaces of the nanoholes and the interfaces between the nanofibers and the host. Then, the scattering matrix of individual scatterer (cylindrical hole or nanofiber) is derived from the nontraditional boundary condition. The total wave field is obtained by considering the multiple scattering processes among the dispersive scatterers. The configuration average of the total wave field results in the coherent waves or the averaged waves. By using the corrected Linton-Martin formula, the effective propagation constants (effective speed and effective attenuation) of the coherent waves are estimated. The in-plane waves (P and SV waves) and the anti-plane waves (SH wave) are considered, respectively, and the numerical results are shown graphically. Apart from the effects of surface elasticity, the effects of inertia of surface/interface and the effects of residual surface tension (which are often ignored in the previous literature) are also considered. Moreover, the influences of the nonsymmetric parts of in-plane surface stress and the out-of-plane parts of the surface stress are both discussed first based on the numerical examples. These investigations show the underestimation and overestimation of effective propagation constants caused by various simplifications. PMID:27475172
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Huiqing; Xie, Lian
2009-06-01
The effects of wave-current interactions on ocean surface waves induced by Hurricane Hugo in and around the Charleston Harbor and its adjacent coastal waters are examined by using a three-dimensional (3D) wave-current coupled modeling system. The 3D storm surge modeling component of the coupled system is based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM), the wave modeling component is based on the third generation wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the inundation model is adopted from [Xie, L., Pietrafesa, L. J., Peng, M., 2004. Incorporation of a mass-conserving inundation scheme into a three-dimensional storm surge model. J. Coastal Res., 20, 1209-1223]. The results indicate that the change of water level associated with the storm surge is the primary cause for wave height changes due to wave-surge interaction. Meanwhile, waves propagating on top of surge cause a feedback effect on the surge height by modulating the surface wind stress and bottom stress. This effect is significant in shallow coastal waters, but relatively small in offshore deep waters. The influence of wave-current interaction on wave propagation is relatively insignificant, since waves generally propagate in the direction of the surface currents driven by winds. Wave-current interactions also affect the surface waves as a result of inundation and drying induced by the storm. Waves break as waters retreat in regions of drying, whereas waves are generated in flooded regions where no waves would have occurred without the flood water.
Propagation characteristics of the magnetostatic surface wave in the YBCO-YIG film-layered structure
Tsutsumi, M.; Fukusako, T.; Yoshida, S.
1996-08-01
Propagation characteristics of the magnetostatic surface wave (MSSW) in a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} (YBCO)-yttrium iron garnet (YIG) multilayered structure are investigated. Effects of the superconductor on the MSSW are discussed with regard to the dispersion characteristics of both the phase and attenuation constants as a function of the air gap between YIG and YBCO, taking into consideration the magnetic line-width of the YIG film. It was found that the nonreciprocity of MSSW is enhanced significantly by the superconductivity and depends on the magnetic line-width of the YIG film. To examine the effect of a YBCO on the MSSW propagation, experiments are carried out using a commercially available YIG film. Magnetic losses at low temperature are briefly discussed with experimentally observed nonreciprocity.
Cescon, Corrado; Madeleine, Pascal; Farina, Dario
2008-09-01
Multi-channel surface mechanomyographic (MMG) signals generated by individual motor units were analyzed to investigate whether the surface mechanical waves induced by fiber contraction propagate over the skin surface. The MMG signals were recorded from the tibialis anterior muscle of ten healthy subjects with 13 uniaxial accelerometers, located both along and transverse to the fiber direction. Intramuscular electromyographic signals served to identify individual motor units whose action potentials were used to trigger the averaging of the MMG signals. The spike-triggered averaged MMG had similar characteristics in locations along the longitudinal direction; however, its amplitude decreased along the transverse direction. Moreover, the time-to-positive peak increased along the transverse direction, indicating a transverse wave propagation with a velocity of 2.4 +/- 1.1 m/s in the linear direction. The results support the hypothesis that the MMG signal mainly originates from muscle fiber displacement underlining a bending mode due to contraction and provide the basis for interpreting the interference MMG in relation to motor unit activity.
McCandless, Kathleen; Petersson, Anders; Nilsson, Stefan; Sjogreen, Bjorn
2007-01-08
WPP is a massively parallel, 3D, C++, finite-difference elastodynamic wave propagation code. Typical applications for wave propagation with WPP include: evaluation of seismic event scenarios and damage from earthquakes, non-destructive evaluation of materials, underground facility detection, oil and gas exploration, predicting the electro-magnetic fields in accelerators, and acoustic noise generation. For more information, see Users Manual [1].
Marine Atmospheric Surface Layer and Its Application to Electromagnetic Wave Propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Q.
2015-12-01
An important application of the atmospheric surface layer research is to characterize the near surface vertical gradients in temperature and humidity in order to predict radar and radio communication conditions in the environment. In this presentation, we will give an overview of a new research initiative funded under the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Multi-University Research Initiative (MURI): the Coupled Air-Sea Processes and EM Ducting Research (CASPER). The objective is to fully characterize the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) as an electromagnetic (EM) propagation environment with the emphasis of spatial and temporal heterogeneities and surface wave/swell effects, both of which contravene the underlying assumptions of Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) used in coupled environmental forecast models. Furthermore, coastal variability in the inversion atop the MABL presents a challenge to forecast models and also causes practical issues in EM prediction models. These issues are the target of investigation of CASPER. CASPER measurement component includes two major field campaigns: CASPER-East (2015 Duck, NC) and CASPER-West (2018 southern California). This presentation will show the extensive measurements to be made during the CASPER -East field campaign with the focus on the marine atmospheric surface layer measurements with two research vessels, two research aircraft, surface flux buoy, wave gliders, ocean gliders, tethered balloons, and rawinsondes. Unlike previous research on the marine surface layer with the focus on surface fluxes and surface flux parameterization, CASPER field campaigns also emphasize of the surface layer profiles and the validation of the surface layer flux-profile relationship originally derived over land surfaces. Results from CASPER pilot experiment and preliminary results from CASPER-East field campaign will be discussed.
Ginzburg, N. S.; Malkin, A. M.; Zheleznov, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.
2013-06-15
By using a quasi-optical approach, we study propagation of evanescent waves along a periodically corrugated surface and their excitation by relativistic electron beams. Under assumption of a shallow (in the scale of period) corrugation, the dispersion equation for normal waves is derived and two particular cases are studied. In the first case, the wave frequency is far from the Bragg resonance; therefore, the evanescent wave propagation can be described by using the impedance approximation with deceleration of the zeroth spatial harmonic. The second case takes place at the frequencies close to the Bragg resonance. There, the field can be represented as two counter-propagating quasi-optical wave beams, which are coupled on the corrugated surface and form an evanescent normal wave. With regard to the interaction with an electron beam, the first case corresponds to the convective instability that can be used for amplification of radiation, while the second case corresponds to the absolute instability used in surface-wave oscillators. This paper is focused on studying main features of amplifier schemes, such as the increments, electron efficiency, and formation of a self-consistent spatial structure of the radiated field. For practical applications, the feasibility of realization of relativistic surface-wave amplifiers in the submillimeter wavelength range is estimated.
Seismic wave propagation in a very permeable water-saturated surface layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
GéLi, Louis; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Schmitts, Denis P.
1987-07-01
According to Biot's (1956a, b) model, the presence of water plays an important role in the propagation of seismic waves in at least three different ways: (1) in an infinite medium, water saturation induces an attenuation that can be accounted for by a complex formulation of wave velocities, as in viscoelastic media; (2) at the boundaries of the saturated medium, pore pressure and water flux determine specific continuity conditions; and (3) there is a second compressional wave, called the P2 wave. In this paper, we discuss the latter two effects. Biot's model is presented first, with homogenization theory used to provide the numerical values of the different coefficients used in the model. In an infinite medium, the model is of practical interest when the frequency ƒ is about the same order of magnitude as a characteristic frequency noted ƒc, which depends on the properties of the constituents. This limits the application of Biot's model to a few particular fields in geophysics. In a layered medium, Biot's model has a wider scope in that it provides a tool for modeling fluid-solid interaction at the boundaries of the saturated medium. This is illustrated in our paper for the case of a very permeable water-saturated surface layer over an elastic half-space. Two examples are given; in the first example (rigid sands) we discuss the physics of the strongly attenuated P2 wave predicted by Biot, the amplitude of which becomes significant when the ƒ/ƒc ratio is about equal to or greater than 0.1. In the second example (soft unconsolidated sediments) the P2 wave is negligible, but the calculation of the complete wave field is required when the ƒ/ƒc ratio is about 0.01. There is no adequate equivalent single phase model that gives a correct estimation of the amplitude of the ground motion. In this case, we argue that the P2 wave is not important in itself, but Biot's model allows the description of the fluid-solid interaction at the water table; continuity of effective
Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S; Bhethanabotla, Venkat R
2009-03-01
We develop a 3-D finite element model of a focused surface acoustic wave (F-SAW) device based on LiNbO(3) to analyze the wave generation and propagation characteristics for devices operating at MHz frequencies with varying applied input voltages. We compare the F-SAW device to a conventional SAW device with similar substrate dimensions and transducer finger periodicity. SAW devices with concentrically shaped focused interdigital transducer fingers (F-IDTs) are found to excite waves with high intensity and high beam-width compression ratio, confined to a small localized area. F-SAW devices are more sensitive to amplitude variations at regions close to the focal point than conventional SAW devices having uniform IDT configuration. We compute F-SAW induced streaming forces and velocity fields by applying a successive approximation technique to the Navier-Stokes equation (Nyborg's theory). The maximum streaming force obtained at the focal point varies as the square of the applied input voltage. Computed streaming velocities at the focal point in F-SAW devices are at least an order of magnitude higher than those in conventional SAW devices. Simulated frequency response indicates higher insertion losses in F-SAW devices than in conventional devices, reflecting their greater utility as actuators than as sensors. Our simulation findings suggest that F-SAW devices can be utilized effectively for actuation in microfluidic applications involving diffusion limited transport processes. PMID:19411221
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrand, Adrien; Darmon, Michel; Chatillon, Sylvain; Deschamps, Marc
2014-04-01
The Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) technique is a classical ultrasonic method used in ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation, which allows a precise positioning and a quantitative size evaluation of cracks in the inspected material. Among the typical phenomena arising in the current TOFD inspection, the so-called "head wave" is the first contribution reaching the receiver. The head wave propagation on a planar interface is well known and identified as a critical refraction taking place on the material surface. On irregular surfaces, it has been shown that the head wave results from the melting of surface and bulk waves mechanisms and that surface irregularities are responsible for numerous diffractions of the incident head wave. To simulate such behaviour, a model has been developed using a ray tracing technique based on time of flight minimization (generalized Fermat's principle). It enables the calculation of the ray path and the corresponding time of flight of all waves propagating in the material, including the head wave. To obtain a complete propagation model for these waves (both trajectory and amplitude), the integration of Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) models is currently performed by coupling them with the ray-based approach discussed above.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manning, Robert M.
2008-01-01
Long-range, over-the-horizon (transhorizon) radio wave propagation is considered for the case of the Moon. In the event that relay satellites are not available or otherwise unwarranted for use, transhorizon communication provides for a contingency or backup option for non line-of-sight lunar surface exploration scenarios. Two potential low-frequency propagation mechanisms characteristic of the lunar landscape are the lunar regolith and the photoelectron induced plasma exosphere enveloping the Moon. Although it was hoped that the regolith would provide for a spherical waveguide which could support a trapped surface wave phenomena, it is found that, in most cases, the regolith is deleterious to long range radio wave propagation. However, the presence of the plasma of the lunar exosphere supports wave propagation and, in fact, surpasses the attenuation of the regolith. Given the models of the regolith and exosphere adopted here, it is recommended that a frequency of 1 MHz be considered for low rate data transmission along the lunar surface. It is also recommended that further research be done to capture the descriptive physics of the regolith and the exospheric plasma so that a more complete model can be obtained. This comprehensive theoretical study is based entirely on first principles and the mathematical techniques needed are developed as required; it is self-contained and should not require the use of outside resources for its understanding.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Mingyu; Qu, Yongwei; Lu, Ye; Ye, Lin; Zhou, Limin; Su, Zhongqing
2012-04-01
An experimental study is reported in this paper demonstrating monitoring of surface-fatigue crack propagation in a welded steel angle structure using Lamb waves generated by an active piezoceramic transducer (PZT) network which was freely surface-mounted for each PZT transducer to serve as either actuator or sensor. The fatigue crack was initiated and propagated in welding zone of a steel angle structure by three-point bending fatigue tests. Instead of directly comparing changes between a series of specific signal segments such as S0 and A0 wave modes scattered from fatigue crack tips, a variety of signal statistical parameters representing five different structural status obtained from marginal spectrum in Hilbert-huang transform (HHT), indicating energy progressive distribution along time period in the frequency domain including all wave modes of one wave signal were employed to classify and distinguish different structural conditions due to fatigue crack initiation and propagation with the combination of using principal component analysis (PCA). Results show that PCA based on marginal spectrum is effective and sensitive for monitoring the growth of fatigue crack although the received signals are extremely complicated due to wave scattered from weld, multi-boundaries, notch and fatigue crack. More importantly, this method indicates good potential for identification of integrity status of complicated structures which cause uncertain wave patterns and ambiguous sensor network arrangement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Mingyu; Qu, Yongwei; Lu, Ye; Ye, Lin; Zhou, Limin; Su, Zhongqing
2011-11-01
An experimental study is reported in this paper demonstrating monitoring of surface-fatigue crack propagation in a welded steel angle structure using Lamb waves generated by an active piezoceramic transducer (PZT) network which was freely surface-mounted for each PZT transducer to serve as either actuator or sensor. The fatigue crack was initiated and propagated in welding zone of a steel angle structure by three-point bending fatigue tests. Instead of directly comparing changes between a series of specific signal segments such as S0 and A0 wave modes scattered from fatigue crack tips, a variety of signal statistical parameters representing five different structural status obtained from marginal spectrum in Hilbert-huang transform (HHT), indicating energy progressive distribution along time period in the frequency domain including all wave modes of one wave signal were employed to classify and distinguish different structural conditions due to fatigue crack initiation and propagation with the combination of using principal component analysis (PCA). Results show that PCA based on marginal spectrum is effective and sensitive for monitoring the growth of fatigue crack although the received signals are extremely complicated due to wave scattered from weld, multi-boundaries, notch and fatigue crack. More importantly, this method indicates good potential for identification of integrity status of complicated structures which cause uncertain wave patterns and ambiguous sensor network arrangement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glushkov, Evgeny; Glushkova, Natalia; Lammering, Rolf; Eremin, Artem; Neumann, Mirko N.
2011-01-01
Experimental and theoretical investigations of Lamb wave excitation and sensing using piezo patch transducers and the laser vibrometer technique have been performed, aiming at the development of adequate mathematical and computer models for the interpretation of sensing data and for the choice of optimal parameters for structural health monitoring. The proposed models are validated by experimental results. Furthermore, a methodology is presented which allows for the determination of central frequencies at which maximal values of the structural response spectrum can be expected in the case of wave propagation monitoring with laser vibrometry.
Propagation of a fluidization - combustion wave
Pron, G.P.; Gusachenko, L.K.; Zarko, V.E.
1994-05-01
A fluidization-combustion wave propagating through a fixed and initially cool bed was created by igniting coal at the top surface of the bed. The proposed physical interpretation of the phenomenon is in qualitative agreement with the experimental dependences of the characteristics of the process on determining parameters. A kindling regime with forced wave propagation is suggested.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kowalewski, Markus; Mukamel, Shaul
2015-07-01
Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) signals that monitor the excited state conical intersections dynamics of acrolein are simulated. An effective time dependent Hamiltonian for two C—H vibrational marker bands is constructed on the fly using a local mode expansion combined with a semi-classical surface hopping simulation protocol. The signals are obtained by a direct forward and backward propagation of the vibrational wave function on a numerical grid. Earlier work is extended to fully incorporate the anharmonicities and intermode couplings.
Kowalewski, Markus Mukamel, Shaul
2015-07-28
Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (FSRS) signals that monitor the excited state conical intersections dynamics of acrolein are simulated. An effective time dependent Hamiltonian for two C—H vibrational marker bands is constructed on the fly using a local mode expansion combined with a semi-classical surface hopping simulation protocol. The signals are obtained by a direct forward and backward propagation of the vibrational wave function on a numerical grid. Earlier work is extended to fully incorporate the anharmonicities and intermode couplings.
Propagation of waves along an impedance boundary
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wenzel, A. R.
1974-01-01
A theoretical analysis of the scalar wave field due to a point source above a plane impedance boundary is presented. A surface wave is found to be an essential component of the total wave field. It is shown that, as a result of ducting of energy by the surface wave, the amplitude of the total wave near the boundary can be greater than it would be if the boundary were perfectly reflecting. Asymptotic results, valid near the boundary, are obtained both for the case of finite impedance (the soft-boundary case) and for the limiting case in which the impedance becomes infinite (the hard-boundary case). In the latter, the wave amplitude in the farfield decreases essentially inversely as the horizontal propagation distance; in the former (if the surface-wave term is neglected), it decreases inversely as the square of the horizontal propagation distance.
Fundamentals of Seismic Wave Propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapman, Chris
2004-08-01
Presenting a comprehensive introduction to the propagation of high-frequency body-waves in elastodynamics, this volume develops the theory of seismic wave propagation in acoustic, elastic and anisotropic media to allow seismic waves to be modelled in complex, realistic three-dimensional Earth models. The book is a text for graduate courses in theoretical seismology, and a reference for all academic and industrial seismologists using numerical modelling methods. Exercises and suggestions for further reading are included in each chapter.
Liu, Jinxi; Wang, Yanhong; Wang, Baolin
2010-08-01
We investigate the dispersive behavior of shear horizontal (SH) surface waves propagating in a layered structure consisting of a piezoelectric layer and an elastic half-space, in which the top and bottom of the layer are electrically shorted. The interface between the layer and the half-space is assumed to be imperfect bonding. The degree of imperfection of the interface is described by the so-called shear-lag model. The dispersion equations are expressed in an explicit closed form. The phase velocities are calculated to show the influences of the interfacial imperfection and the material properties of piezoelectric layers on the dispersive characteristics. PMID:20679017
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Meng; Wang, Bin; Sun, Xin; Li, Haoyu; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Yunxia; Huang, Senpeng; Xu, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Yufang; Zhang, Cunzhou
2016-10-01
We investigated the optical property of periodic inverted pyramidal microcavities and observed large area field enhancement outside a cavity when the incident wavelength and structure parameters match certain relations. The mechanism of this phenomenon has been studied. Propagating surface plasmons and the standing wave effect both contribute to the field enhancement outside the cavity. The relations between the incident wavelength and structure parameters have been clarified. Based on the relations, one can control the field enhancement outside the cavity for a specific laser wavelength.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lotfy, Kh.; Salem, Al. M.; Al-Sayed, A.
2015-05-01
The objective of this paper is to investigate the surface waves in fiber-reinforced anisotropic elastic medium subjected to magnetic and thermal fields. We introduce the coupled theory (CD), Lord-Shulman (LS) theory and Green-Lindsay (GL) theory to study the influence of magnetic field on 2D problem of a fiber-reinforced thermoelastic. The analytical expressions for displacement components and force stress are obtained in the physical domain by using the harmonic vibrations. The wave velocity equations have been obtained in different cases. Numerical results for the temperature, displacement, and thermal stress components are given and illustrated graphically in the presence and absence of the magnetic field of the material medium. A comparison is also made between the three theories in the case of presence and absence of fiber-reinforced parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fourez, S.; Jenot, F.; Ouaftouh, M.; Duquennoy, M.; Ourak, M.
2012-08-01
In the first part of this paper, laser ultrasonics has been performed in an original way to evaluate the thickness of a gold thin film deposited on a silicon substrate. To this end, the influence of the film thickness and the elastic parameters of both materials on the first Rayleigh mode propagation has been theoretically studied. Then, using simultaneously the head wave and the Rayleigh wave propagating on the substrate, its elastic parameters were determined. These parameters allowed us to deduce the film thickness by matching the experimental group velocity dispersion curve with the theoretical one in a frequency range up to 25 MHz. In the second part, the effect of a void, consisting of a circular area without layer, on the first Rayleigh mode propagation has been investigated. The experimental results show clearly time of flight shifts proportionally to the size of the area and depending on the considered frequency component. A good agreement was obtained with finite-element modeling. This effect could be the basis for a frequency-selective surface acoustic lens.
Light propagation in local and linear media: Fresnel-Kummer wave surfaces with 16 singular points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Favaro, Alberto; Hehl, Friedrich W.
2016-01-01
It is known that the Fresnel wave surfaces of transparent biaxial media have four singular points, located on two special directions. We show that, in more general media, the number of singularities can exceed 4. In fact, a highly symmetric linear material is proposed whose Fresnel surface exhibits 16 singular points. Because for every linear material the dispersion equation is quartic, we conclude that 16 is the maximum number of isolated singularities. The identity of Fresnel and Kummer surfaces, which holds true for media with a certain symmetry (zero skewon piece), provides an elegant interpretation of the results. We describe a metamaterial realization for our linear medium with 16 singular points. It is found that an appropriate combination of metal bars, split-ring resonators, and magnetized particles can generate the correct permittivity, permeability, and magnetoelectric moduli. Lastly, we discuss the arrangement of the singularities in terms of Kummer's 166 configuration of points and planes. An investigation parallel to ours, but in linear elasticity, is suggested for future research.
Faraday Pilot-Waves: Generation and Propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galeano-Rios, Carlos; Milewski, Paul; Nachbin, André; Bush, John
2015-11-01
We examine the dynamics of drops bouncing on a fluid bath subjected to vertical vibration. We solve a system of linear PDEs to compute the surface wave generation and propagation. Waves are triggered at each bounce, giving rise to the Faraday pilot-wave field. The model captures several of the behaviors observed in the laboratory, including transitions between a variety of bouncing and walking states, the Doppler effect, and droplet-droplet interactions. Thanks to the NSF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Cong; Friederich, Wolfgang
2016-04-01
Realistic shallow seismic wave propagation simulation is an important tool for studying induced seismicity (e.g., during geothermal energy development). However over a long time, there is a significant problem which constrains computational seismologists from performing a successful simulation conveniently: pre-processing. Conventional pre-processing has often turned out to be inefficient and unrobust because of the miscellaneous operations, considerable complexity and insufficiency of available tools. An integrated web-based platform for shallow seismic wave propagation simulation has been built. It is aiming at providing a user-friendly pre-processing solution, and cloud-based simulation abilities. The main features of the platform for the user include: revised digital elevation model (DEM) retrieving and processing mechanism; generation of multi-layered 3D shallow Earth model geometry (the computational domain) with user specified surface topography based on the DEM; visualization of the geometry before the simulation; a pipeline from geometry to fully customizable hexahedral element mesh generation; customization and running the simulation on our HPC; post-processing and retrieval of the results over cloud. Regarding the computational aspect, currently the widely accepted specfem3D is chosen as the computational package; packages using different types of elements can be integrated as well in the future. According to our trial simulation experiments, this web-based platform has produced accurate waveforms while significantly simplifying and enhancing the pre-processing and improving the simulation success rate.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Yoonkee; Hunt, William D.; Hickernell, Frederick S.; Higgins, Robert J.; Jen, Cheng-Kuei
1995-01-01
A potential application for piezoelectric films on GaAs substrates is the monolithic integration of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with GaAs electronics. Knowledge of the SAW properties of the layered structure is critical for the optimum and accurate design of such devices. The acoustic properties of ZnO films sputtered on {001}-cut <110> -propagating GaAs substrates are investigated in this article, including SAW Velocity effective piezoelectric coupling constant, propagation loss. diffraction, velocity surface, and reflectivity of shorted and open metallic gratings. The measurements of these essential SAW properties for the frequency range between 180 and 360 MHz have been performed using a knife-edge laser probe for film thicknesses over the range of 1.6-4 micron and with films or different grain sizes. The high quality of dc triode sputtered films was observed as evidenced by high K(exp 2) and low attenuation. The measurements of the velocity surface, which directly affects the SAW diffraction, on the bare and metalized ZnO on SiO2, or Si3N4 on {001}-cut GaAs samples are reported using two different techniques: 1) knife-edge laser probe, 2) line-focus-beam scanning acoustic microscope. It was found that near the <110> propagation direction, the focusing SAW property of the bare GaAs changes into a nonfocusing one for the layered structure, but a reversed phenomenon exists near the <100> direction. Furthermore, to some extent the diffraction of the substrate can be controlled with the film thickness. The reflectivity of shorted and open gratings are also analyzed and measured. Zero reflectivity is observed for a shorted grating. There is good agreement between the measured data and theoretical values.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altshuler, Gennady; Manor, Ofer
2016-07-01
We use both theory and experiment to study the response of thin and free films of a partially wetting liquid to a MHz vibration, propagating in the solid substrate in the form of a Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW). We generalise the previous theory for the response of a thin fully wetting liquid film to a SAW by including the presence of a small but finite three phase contact angle between the liquid and the solid. The SAW in the solid invokes a convective drift of mass in the liquid and leaks sound waves. The dynamics of a film that is too thin to support the accumulation of the sound wave leakage is governed by a balance between the drift and capillary stress alone. We use theory to demonstrate that a partially wetting liquid film, supporting a weak capillary stress, will spread along the path of the SAW. A partially wetting film, supporting an appreciable capillary stress, will however undergo a concurrent dynamic wetting and dewetting at the front and the rear, respectively, such that the film will displace, rather than spread, along the path of the SAW. The result of the theory for a weak capillary stress is in agreement with the previous experimental and theoretical studies on the response of thin silicon oil films to a propagating SAW. No corresponding previous results exist for the case of an appreciable capillary stress. We thus complement the large capillary limit of our theory by undertaking an experimental procedure where we explore the response of films of water and a surfactant solutions to a MHz SAW, which is found to be in qualitative agreement with the theory at this limit.
Reconstruction of nonlinear wave propagation
Fleischer, Jason W; Barsi, Christopher; Wan, Wenjie
2013-04-23
Disclosed are systems and methods for characterizing a nonlinear propagation environment by numerically propagating a measured output waveform resulting from a known input waveform. The numerical propagation reconstructs the input waveform, and in the process, the nonlinear environment is characterized. In certain embodiments, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment facilitates determination of an unknown input based on a measured output. Similarly, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment also facilitates formation of a desired output based on a configurable input. In both situations, the input thus characterized and the output thus obtained include features that would normally be lost in linear propagations. Such features can include evanescent waves and peripheral waves, such that an image thus obtained are inherently wide-angle, farfield form of microscopy.
Transhorizon propagation of decameter waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalinin, Yu. K.; Shchelkalin, A. V.
2013-04-01
Solutions to the problem of the point source field in a spherically layered medium are analyzed. For a three-layer waveguide model, a solution in the form of the Watson integral was used. A consideration of the singularities in the plane of the integration variable made it possible to represent the integral as a superposition of three waves. Two of them are connected with the interaction of the primary spherical wave with the lower convex and upper concave interfaces. The third wave is connected with the alternate action with both interfaces. The fourth wave is caused by the interaction between the primary wave and random inhomogeneities of the external medium (the ionosphere). Here, simulation was carried out based on Green equations. The considered unique data of flight measurements of the point source field strength indicate the efficiency of simulating the transhorizon propagation of decameter waves based on the superposition of all four aforesaid wave packets.
Seismic wave propagation modeling
Jones, E.M.; Olsen, K.B.
1998-12-31
This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A hybrid, finite-difference technique was developed for modeling nonlinear soil amplification from three-dimensional, finite-fault radiation patters for earthquakes in arbitrary earth models. The method was applied to the 17 January 1994 Northridge earthquake. Particle velocities were computed on a plane at 5-km depth, immediately above the causative fault. Time-series of the strike-perpendicular, lateral velocities then were propagated vertically in a soil column typical of the San Fernando Valley. Suitable material models were adapted from a suite used to model ground motions at the US Nevada Test Site. The effects of nonlinearity reduced relative spectral amplitudes by about 40% at frequencies above 1.5 Hz but only by 10% at lower frequencies. Runs made with source-depth amplitudes increased by a factor of two showed relative amplitudes above 1.5 Hz reduced by a total of 70% above 1.5 Hz and 20% at lower frequencies. Runs made with elastic-plastic material models showed similar behavior to runs made with Masing-Rule models.
Wave propagation in solids and fluids
Davis, J. L.
1988-01-01
The fundamental principles of mathematical analysis for wave phenomena in gases, solids, and liquids are presented in an introduction for scientists and engineers. Chapters are devoted to oscillatory phenomena, the physics of wave propagation, partial differential equations for wave propagation, transverse vibration of strings, water waves, and sound waves. Consideration is given to the dynamics of viscous and inviscid fluids, wave propagation in elastic media, and variational methods in wave phenomena. 41 refs.
Chen, Jing Zhang, Qiaozhen; Han, Tao; Zhou, Liu; Tang, Gongbin; Liu, Boquan; Ji, Xiaojun
2015-08-15
The surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagating characteristics of Y-cut nano LiNbO{sub 3} (LN) film on SiO{sub 2}/LN substrate have been theoretically calculated. The simulated results showed a shear horizontal (SH) SAW with enhanced electromechanical coupling factor K{sup 2} owing to a dimensional effect of the nanoscale LN film. However, a Rayleigh SAW and two other resonances related to thickness vibrations caused spurious responses for wideband SAW devices. These spurious waves could be fully suppressed by properly controlling structural parameters including the electrode layer height, thickness, and the Euler angle (θ) of the LN thin film. Finally, a pure SH SAW was obtained with a wide θ range, from 0° to 5° and 165° to 180°. The largest K{sup 2} achieved for the pure SH SAW was about 35.1%. The calculated results demonstrate the promising application of nano LN film to the realization of ultra-wideband SAW devices.
Effect of surface deposits on electromagnetic waves propagating in uniform ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, Kenneth J.
1990-01-01
A finite-element Galerkin formulation was used to study the effect of material surface deposits on the reflective characteristics of straight uniform ducts with PEC (perfectly electric conducting) walls. Over a wide frequency range, the effect of both single and multiple surface deposits on the duct reflection coefficient were examined. The power reflection coefficient was found to be significantly increased by the addition of deposits on the wall.
Solitary wave propagation influenced by submerged breakwater
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jin; Zuo, Qi-hua; Wang, Deng-ting; Shukrieva, Shirin
2013-10-01
The form of Boussinesq equation derived by Nwogu (1993) using velocity at an arbitrary distance and surface elevation as variables is used to simulate wave surface elevation changes. In the numerical experiment, water depth was divided into five layers with six layer interfaces to simulate velocity at each layer interface. Besides, a physical experiment was carried out to validate numerical model and study solitary wave propagation. "Water column collapsing" method (WCCM) was used to generate solitary wave. A series of wave gauges around an impervious breakwater were set-up in the flume to measure the solitary wave shoaling, run-up, and breaking processes. The results show that the measured data and simulated data are in good agreement. Moreover, simulated and measured surface elevations were analyzed by the wavelet transform method. It shows that different wave frequencies stratified in the wavelet amplitude spectrum. Finally, horizontal and vertical velocities of each layer interface were analyzed in the process of solitary wave propagation through submerged breakwater.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grzeszkowski, Mateusz; Prager, Jens
2012-05-01
This paper presents an automated system for the evaluation and visualization of structural vibrations on the surface of solid materials in an ultrasonic frequency range using a single head laser Doppler vibrometer. For this method, the vibrometer performs a continuous scan of the surface driven by a two-axes robotic system. Scan and measurement parameters can be adapted to the requirements of geometry, frequency and resolution. Data processing techniques are employed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and minimize the effect of inconvenient laser beam reflections caused by speckles.
Non-Hermitian quantum mechanics: wave packet propagation on autoionizing potential energy surfaces.
Moiseyev, N; Scheit, S; Cederbaum, L S
2004-07-01
The correspondence between the time-dependent and time-independent molecular dynamic formalisms is shown for autoionizing processes. We demonstrate that the definition of the inner product in non-Hermitian quantum mechanics plays a key role in the proof. When the final state of the process is dissociative, it is technically favorable to introduce a complex absorbing potential into the calculations. The conditions which this potential should fulfill are briefly discussed. An illustrative numerical example is presented involving three potential energy surfaces. PMID:15260598
Mhatre, Sameer; Zigelman, Anna; Abezgauz, Ludmila; Manor, Ofer
2016-09-20
We study the influence of a megahertz Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW), propagating in a solid substrate, on the pattern deposition of a solute mass off an evaporating solution. An experimental procedure, where a film of a solution undergoes a controlled evaporation in a chamber, shows that the SAW alters the state of the pattern deposition. Increasing the power of the SAW supports an increase in the density of the deposited patterns. Beyond threshold conditions, the deposited patterns merge and we observe the deposition of a solid film. A simplified theory suggests that the SAW deforms the geometry of the film, which is predominantly governed by the capillary stress. The deformation of the film taking place alongside with the evaporation of the solution increases the concentration near the pinned three phase contact line at the front of the film, which is closer to the source of the SAW, on the expense of the concentration at the rear. The increased concentration translates to the deposition of solute mass over an increased area near the front of the film, which explains the experimental observation.
Mhatre, Sameer; Zigelman, Anna; Abezgauz, Ludmila; Manor, Ofer
2016-09-20
We study the influence of a megahertz Rayleigh surface acoustic wave (SAW), propagating in a solid substrate, on the pattern deposition of a solute mass off an evaporating solution. An experimental procedure, where a film of a solution undergoes a controlled evaporation in a chamber, shows that the SAW alters the state of the pattern deposition. Increasing the power of the SAW supports an increase in the density of the deposited patterns. Beyond threshold conditions, the deposited patterns merge and we observe the deposition of a solid film. A simplified theory suggests that the SAW deforms the geometry of the film, which is predominantly governed by the capillary stress. The deformation of the film taking place alongside with the evaporation of the solution increases the concentration near the pinned three phase contact line at the front of the film, which is closer to the source of the SAW, on the expense of the concentration at the rear. The increased concentration translates to the deposition of solute mass over an increased area near the front of the film, which explains the experimental observation. PMID:27552064
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qian, Lirong; Li, Cuiping; Li, Mingji; Wang, Fang; Yang, Baohe
2014-11-01
Propagation characteristics of surface acoustic wave (SAW) in periodic (AlN/ZnO)N/diamond multilayer structures were theoretically investigated using effective permittivity method. The phase velocity Vp, electromechanical coupling coefficient K2, and temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) of the Sezawa mode are analyzed for different thicknesses-to-wavelength H/λ, thickness ratios of AlN to ZnO Rh, and periods of alternating ZnO and AlN layers N. Results show that, comparing with AlN/ZnO/diamond multilayer structure, the periodic (AlN/ZnO)N/diamond multilayer structure (N ≥ 2) shows excellent electromechanical coupling and temperature stable characteristics with significantly improved K2 and TCF. The largest coupling coefficient of 3.0% associated with a phase velocity of 5726 m/s and a TCF of -29.2 ppm/°C can be reached for Rh = 0.2 and N = 2. For a low TCF of -24.4 ppm/°C, a large coupling coefficient of 2.0% associated with a phase velocity of 7058 m/s can be obtained for Rh = 1.0 and N = 5. The simulated results can be used to design the low loss and good temperature stability SAW devices of gigahertz-band application.
Wave Propagation in Bimodular Geomaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuznetsova, Maria; Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Pelinovsky, Efim
2016-04-01
Observations and laboratory experiments show that fragmented or layered geomaterials have the mechanical response dependent on the sign of the load. The most adequate model accounting for this effect is the theory of bimodular (bilinear) elasticity - a hyperelastic model with different elastic moduli for tension and compression. For most of geo- and structural materials (cohesionless soils, rocks, concrete, etc.) the difference between elastic moduli is such that their modulus in compression is considerably higher than that in tension. This feature has a profound effect on oscillations [1]; however, its effect on wave propagation has not been comprehensively investigated. It is believed that incorporation of bilinear elastic constitutive equations within theory of wave dynamics will bring a deeper insight to the study of mechanical behaviour of many geomaterials. The aim of this paper is to construct a mathematical model and develop analytical methods and numerical algorithms for analysing wave propagation in bimodular materials. Geophysical and exploration applications and applications in structural engineering are envisaged. The FEM modelling of wave propagation in a 1D semi-infinite bimodular material has been performed with the use of Marlow potential [2]. In the case of the initial load expressed by a harmonic pulse loading strong dependence on the pulse sign is observed: when tension is applied before compression, the phenomenon of disappearance of negative (compressive) strains takes place. References 1. Dyskin, A., Pasternak, E., & Pelinovsky, E. (2012). Periodic motions and resonances of impact oscillators. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331(12), 2856-2873. 2. Marlow, R. S. (2008). A Second-Invariant Extension of the Marlow Model: Representing Tension and Compression Data Exactly. In ABAQUS Users' Conference.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghorbanpour Arani, A.; Roudbari, M. A.
2014-11-01
This paper investigates the electro-thermal nonlocal wave propagation of fluid-conveying single-walled Boron Nitride nanotubes (SWBNNTs) using nonlocal piezoelasticity with surface stress, initial stress and Knudsen-dependent flow velocity effect. SWBNNT is embedded in a vicsoelastic medium which is simulated as visco-Pasternak foundation. Using Euler-Bernoulli beam (EBB) model, Hamilton's principle and nonlocal piezoelasticity theory, the higher order governing equation is derived. A detailed parametric study is conducted, focusing on the combined effects of the electric parameters, viscoelastic medium, initial stress, surface stress, Knudsen number (Kn) and small scale on the wave propagation behaviour of the fluid-conveying SWBNNT. The results show that for smaller values of wave number the dispersion relation for different fluid viscosities seems to be similar. At the higher values of wave numbers, increase in the wave frequency values is remarkable due to increase in fluid viscosity. The electric field as a smart controller, surface effect, initial stress, temperature change and slip velocity effect have significant role on the wave frequency. The results of this work is hoped to be of use in design and manufacturing of smart MEMS/NEMS in advanced medical applications such as drug delivery systems with great applications in biomechanics.
Wave equations for pulse propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shore, B. W.
1987-06-01
Theoretical discussions of the propagation of pulses of laser radiation through atomic or molecular vapor rely on a number of traditional approximations for idealizing the radiation and the molecules, and for quantifying their mutual interaction by various equations of propagation (for the radiation) and excitation (for the molecules). In treating short-pulse phenomena it is essential to consider coherent excitation phenomena of the sort that is manifest in Rabi oscillations of atomic or molecular populations. Such processes are not adequately treated by rate equations for excitation nor by rate equations for radiation. As part of a more comprehensive treatment of the coupled equations that describe propagation of short pulses, this memo presents background discussion of the equations that describe the field. This memo discusses the origin, in Maxwell's equations, of the wave equation used in the description of pulse propagation. It notes the separation into lamellar and solenoidal (or longitudinal and transverse) and positive and negative frequency parts. It mentions the possibility of separating the polarization field into linear and nonlinear parts, in order to define a susceptibility or index of refraction and, from these, a phase and group velocity.
An investigation into Voigt wave propagation for optical sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mackay, Tom G.
2013-09-01
In the nonsingular case of optical propagation in a linear, homogeneous, anisotropic, dielectric material, two independent plane waves, with orthogonal polarizations and different phase speeds, can propagate in a given direction. However, in certain dissipative biaxial materials there are particular directions along which these two waves coalesce to form a single plane wave. This coalescent Voigt wave represents the singular case. Most conspicuously, the amplitude of Voigt waves are linearly dependent upon propagation direction. A porous nanostructured thin film which supports Voigt wave propagation was investigated, with a view to possible optical sensing applications. The directions along which Voigt waves propagate can be highly sensitive to the refractive index of a fluid which infiltrates this porous material. Indeed, in our theoretical studies sensitivities which compare favourably to those of surface-plasmon-polariton-based optical sensors were found.
3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code
1998-09-23
E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.
Zhang, Sijia; Gu, Bin; Zhang, Hongbin; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Pan, Rongying; Alamusi; Hu, Ning
2016-03-01
The propagation of Love waves in the structure consisting of a nanosized piezoelectric film and a semi-infinite elastic substrate is investigated in the present paper with the consideration of surface effects. In our analysis, surface effects are taken into account in terms of the surface elasticity theory and the electrically-shorted conditions are adopted on the free surface of the piezoelectric film and the interface between the film and the substrate. This work focuses on the new features in the dispersion relations of different modes due to surface effects. It is found that with the existence of surface effects, the frequency dispersion of Love waves shows the distinct dependence on the thickness and the surface constants when the film thickness reduces to nanometers. In general, phase velocities of all dispersion modes increase with the decrease of the film thickness and the increase of the surface constants. However, surface effects play different functions in the frequency dispersions of different modes, especially for the first mode dispersion. Moreover, different forms of Love waves are observed in the first mode dispersion, depending on the presence of the surface effects on the surface and the interface. PMID:26678787
Zhang, Sijia; Gu, Bin; Zhang, Hongbin; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Pan, Rongying; Alamusi; Hu, Ning
2016-03-01
The propagation of Love waves in the structure consisting of a nanosized piezoelectric film and a semi-infinite elastic substrate is investigated in the present paper with the consideration of surface effects. In our analysis, surface effects are taken into account in terms of the surface elasticity theory and the electrically-shorted conditions are adopted on the free surface of the piezoelectric film and the interface between the film and the substrate. This work focuses on the new features in the dispersion relations of different modes due to surface effects. It is found that with the existence of surface effects, the frequency dispersion of Love waves shows the distinct dependence on the thickness and the surface constants when the film thickness reduces to nanometers. In general, phase velocities of all dispersion modes increase with the decrease of the film thickness and the increase of the surface constants. However, surface effects play different functions in the frequency dispersions of different modes, especially for the first mode dispersion. Moreover, different forms of Love waves are observed in the first mode dispersion, depending on the presence of the surface effects on the surface and the interface.
Voltage modulation of propagating spin waves in Fe
Nawaoka, Kohei; Shiota, Yoichi; Miwa, Shinji; Tamura, Eiiti; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Shinjo, Teruya; Suzuki, Yoshishige
2015-05-07
The effect of a voltage application on propagating spin waves in single-crystalline 5 nm-Fe layer was investigated. Two micro-sized antennas were employed to excite and detect the propagating spin waves. The voltage effect was characterized using AC lock-in technique. As a result, the resonant field of the magnetostatic surface wave in the Fe was clearly modulated by the voltage application. The modulation is attributed to the voltage induced magnetic anisotropy change in ferromagnetic metals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Li; Wei, P. J.
2015-03-01
The propagation behaviour of Love wave in an initially stressed functionally graded magnetic-electric-elastic half-space carrying a homogeneous layer is investigated. The material parameters in the substrate are assumed to vary exponentially along the thickness direction only. The velocity equations of Love wave are derived on the electrically or magnetically open circuit and short circuit boundary conditions, based on the equations of motion of the graded magnetic-electric-elastic mate- rial with the initial stresses and the free traction boundary conditions of surface and the continuous boundary conditions of interface. The dispersive curves are obtained numerically and the influences of the initial stresses and the material gradient index on the dispersive curves are dis- cussed. The investigation provides a basis for the development of new functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic surface wave devices.
Active Wave Propagation and Sensing in Plates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghoshal, Anindya; Martin, William N.; Sundaresan, Mannur J.; Schulz, Mark J.; Ferguson, Frederick
2001-01-01
Health monitoring of aerospace structures can be done using an active interrogation approach with diagnostic Lamb waves. Piezoelectric patches are often used to generate the waves, and it is helpful to understand how these waves propagate through a structure. To give a basic understanding of the actual physical process of wave propagation, a model is developed to simulate asymmetric wave propagation in a panel and to produce a movie of the wave motion. The waves can be generated using piezoceramic patches of any size or shape. The propagation, reflection, and interference of the waves are represented in the model. Measuring the wave propagation is the second important aspect of damage detection. Continuous sensors are useful for measuring waves because of the distributed nature of the sensor and the wave. Two sensor designs are modeled, and their effectiveness in measuring acoustic waves is studied. The simulation model developed is useful to understand wave propagation and to optimize the type of sensors that might be used for health monitoring of plate-like structures.
Modeling Propagation of Shock Waves in Metals
Howard, W M; Molitoris, J D
2005-08-19
We present modeling results for the propagation of strong shock waves in metals. In particular, we use an arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE3D) code to model the propagation of strong pressure waves (P {approx} 300 to 400 kbars) generated with high explosives in contact with aluminum cylinders. The aluminum cylinders are assumed to be both flat-topped and have large-amplitude curved surfaces. We use 3D Lagrange mechanics. For the aluminum we use a rate-independent Steinberg-Guinan model, where the yield strength and shear modulus depend on pressure, density and temperature. The calculation of the melt temperature is based on the Lindermann law. At melt the yield strength and shear modulus is set to zero. The pressure is represented as a seven-term polynomial as a function of density. For the HMX-based high explosive, we use a JWL, with a program burn model that give the correct detonation velocity and C-J pressure (P {approx} 390 kbars). For the case of the large-amplitude curved surface, we discuss the evolving shock structure in terms of the early shock propagation experiments by Sakharov.
Wave propagation in magnetic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cissoko, Mahdy
1987-08-01
This paper deals within the relativistic framework with the wave propagation in magnetizable fluids, assumed to be perfect, magnetically soft, isotropic, and inhomogeneous with an arbitrary isotropic law χ=χ(T,r,||b||2) (χ,T,r,||b|| being the magnetic susceptibility, the proper temperature, the proper material density, and the strength of the magnetic field, respectively). The characteristic manifolds of the flow are determined in a very elegant and rigorous manner which avoids the extensive algebraic manipulations one usually encounters in the classical methods of characteristics. It is shown that in a magnetic medium there exists a hyperbolic region of nonsteady flows of magnetizable fluids. This implies the existence of magnetosonic waves of the same kind as in nonmagnetic fluids (χ or μ=const), that is, as in ordinary magnetohydrodynamics. However, in magnetic fluids there is the possibility of the development of instabilities similar to that which arise in nonmagnetic fluids with transverse and longitudinal pressure [M. Cissoko, Ann. Mat. Pura Appl. 111, 331 (1976)].
Manipulating Water Wave Propagation via Gradient Index Media
Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Pei; Nie, Xiaofei; Zhang, Yongqiang
2015-01-01
It is challenging to realise the perfect manipulation of water waves within a broad range of frequencies. By extending conformal transformation principles to water waves, their propagation can be controlled via gradually varying water depths, permitting the realisation of a desired refractive index profile for linear water surface waves. Wave bending, directional wave emission and wave focusing are analysed experimentally with accompanying simulations. The results demonstrate desired wave manipulations within a broad range of frequencies, confirming the accuracy and effectiveness of conformal transformation for water waves. PMID:26603312
Propagation Dynamics of Airy Water-Wave Pulses.
Fu, Shenhe; Tsur, Yuval; Zhou, Jianying; Shemer, Lev; Arie, Ady
2015-07-17
We observe the propagation dynamics of surface gravity water waves, having an Airy function envelope, in both the linear and the nonlinear regimes. In the linear regime, the shape of the envelope is preserved while propagating in an 18-m water tank, despite the inherent dispersion of the wave packet. The Airy wave function can propagate at a velocity that is slower (or faster if the Airy envelope is inverted) than the group velocity. Furthermore, the introduction of the Airy wave packet as surface water waves enables the observation of its position-dependent chirp and cubic-phase offset, predicted more than 35 years ago, for the first time. When increasing the envelope of the input Airy pulse, nonlinear effects become dominant, and are manifested by the generation of water-wave solitons. PMID:26230797
Ignatovich, V. K.
2009-01-15
It is shown that neutron surface waves do not exist. The difference between the neutron wave mechanics and the wave physics of electromagnetic and acoustic processes, which allows the existence of surface waves, is analyzed.
Pulse Wave Propagation in the Arterial Tree
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van de Vosse, Frans N.; Stergiopulos, Nikos
2011-01-01
The beating heart creates blood pressure and flow pulsations that propagate as waves through the arterial tree that are reflected at transitions in arterial geometry and elasticity. Waves carry information about the matter in which they propagate. Therefore, modeling of arterial wave propagation extends our knowledge about the functioning of the cardiovascular system and provides a means to diagnose disorders and predict the outcome of medical interventions. In this review we focus on the physical and mathematical modeling of pulse wave propagation, based on general fluid dynamical principles. In addition we present potential applications in cardiovascular research and clinical practice. Models of short- and long-term adaptation of the arterial system and methods that deal with uncertainties in personalized model parameters and boundary conditions are briefly discussed, as they are believed to be major topics for further study and will boost the significance of arterial pulse wave modeling even more.
Numerical wave propagation in ImageJ.
Piedrahita-Quintero, Pablo; Castañeda, Raul; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge
2015-07-20
An ImageJ plugin for numerical wave propagation is presented. The plugin provides ImageJ, the well-known software for image processing, with the capability of computing numerical wave propagation by the use of angular spectrum, Fresnel, and Fresnel-Bluestein algorithms. The plugin enables numerical wave propagation within the robust environment provided by the complete set of built-in tools for image processing available in ImageJ. The plugin can be used for teaching and research purposes. We illustrate its use to numerically recreate Poisson's spot and Babinet's principle, and in the numerical reconstruction of digitally recorded holograms from millimeter-sized and pure phase microscopic objects.
Making and Propagating Elastic Waves: Overview of the new wave propagation code WPP
McCandless, K P; Petersson, N A; Nilsson, S; Rodgers, A; Sjogreen, B; Blair, S C
2006-05-09
We are developing a new parallel 3D wave propagation code at LLNL called WPP (Wave Propagation Program). WPP is being designed to incorporate the latest developments in embedded boundary and mesh refinement technology for finite difference methods, as well as having an efficient portable implementation to run on the latest supercomputers at LLNL. We are currently exploring seismic wave applications, including a recent effort to compute ground motions for the 1906 Great San Francisco Earthquake. This paper will briefly describe the wave propagation problem, features of our numerical method to model it, implementation of the wave propagation code, and results from the 1906 Great San Francisco Earthquake simulation.
Asymptotic wave propagation in excitable media.
Bernus, Olivier; Vigmond, Edward
2015-07-01
Wave shape and velocity are important issues in reaction-diffusion systems, and are often the result of competition in media with heterogeneous conduction properties. Asymptotic wave front propagation at maximal conduction velocity has been previously reported in the context of anisotropic cardiac tissue, but it is unknown whether this is a universal property of excitable tissues where conduction velocity can be locally modulated by mechanisms other than anisotropy. Here, we investigate the impact of conduction heterogeneities and boundary effects on wave propagation in excitable media. Following a theoretical analysis, we find that wave-front cusps occur where local velocity is reduced and that asymptotic wave fronts propagate at the maximal translational conduction velocity. Simulations performed in different reaction-diffusion systems, including cardiac tissue, confirm our theoretical findings. We conclude that this property can be found in a wide range of reaction-diffusion systems with excitable dynamics and that asymptotic wave-front shapes can be predicted.
Seismic wave propagation in granular media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tancredi, Gonzalo; López, Francisco; Gallot, Thomas; Ginares, Alejandro; Ortega, Henry; Sanchís, Johnny; Agriela, Adrián; Weatherley, Dion
2016-10-01
Asteroids and small bodies of the Solar System are thought to be agglomerates of irregular boulders, therefore cataloged as granular media. It is a consensus that many asteroids might be considered as rubble or gravel piles.Impacts on their surface could produce seismic waves which propagate in the interior of these bodies, thus causing modifications in the internal distribution of rocks and ejections of particles and dust, resulting in a cometary-type comma.We present experimental and numerical results on the study of propagation of impact-induced seismic waves in granular media, with special focus on behavior changes by increasing compression.For the experiment, we use an acrylic box filled with granular materials such as sand, gravel and glass spheres. Pressure inside the box is controlled by a movable side wall and measured with sensors. Impacts are created on the upper face of the box through a hole, ranging from free-falling spheres to gunshots. We put high-speed cameras outside the box to record the impact as well as piezoelectic sensors and accelerometers placed at several depths in the granular material to detect the seismic wave.Numerical simulations are performed with ESyS-Particle, a software that implements the Discrete Element Method. The experimental setting is reproduced in the numerical simulations using both individual spherical particles and agglomerates of spherical particles shaped as irregular boulders, according to rock models obtained with a 3D scanner. The numerical experiments also reproduces the force loading on one of the wall to vary the pressure inside the box.We are interested in the velocity, attenuation and energy transmission of the waves. These quantities are measured in the experiments and in the simulations. We study the dependance of these three parameters with characteristics like: impact speed, properties of the target material and the pressure in the media.These results are relevant to understand the outcomes of impacts in
Radio wave propagation and acoustic sounding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singal, S. P.
Radio wave propagation of the decimetric and centimetric waves depends to a large extent on the boundary layer meteorological conditions which give rise to severe fadings, very often due to multipath propagation. Sodar is one of the inexpensive remote sensing techniques which can be employed to probe the boundary layer structure. In the paper a historical perspective has been given of the simultaneously conducted studies on radio waves and sodar at various places. The radio meteorological information needed for propagation studies has been clearly spelt out and conditions of a ray path especially in the presence of a ducting layer have been defined as giving rise to fading or signal enhancement conditions. Finally the potential of the sodar studies to obtain information about the boundary layer phenomena has been stressed, clearly spelling out the use of acoustic sounding in radio wave propagation studies.
Controls on flood and sediment wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakker, Maarten; Lane, Stuart N.; Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter
2015-04-01
The understanding of flood wave propagation - celerity and transformation - through a fluvial system is of generic importance for flood forecasting/mitigation. In association with flood wave propagation, sediment wave propagation may induce local erosion and sedimentation, which will affect infrastructure and riparian natural habitats. Through analysing flood and sediment wave propagation, we gain insight in temporal changes in transport capacity (the flood wave) and sediment availability and transport (the sediment wave) along the river channel. Heidel (1956) was amongst the first to discuss the progressive lag of sediment concentration behind the corresponding flood wave based on field measurements. Since then this type of hysteresis has been characterized in a number of studies, but these were often based on limited amount of floods and measurement sites, giving insufficient insight into associated forcing mechanisms. Here, as part of a project concerned with the hydrological and geomorphic forcing of sediment transfer processes in alpine environments, we model the downstream propagation of short duration, high frequency releases of water and sediment (purges) from a flow intake in the Borgne d'Arolla River in south-west Switzerland. A total of >50 events were measured at 1 minute time intervals using pressure transducers and turbidity probes at a number of sites along the river. We show that flood and sediment wave propagation can be well represented through simple convection diffusion models. The models are calibrated/validated to describe the set of measured waves and used to explain the observed variation in wave celerity and diffusion. In addition we explore the effects of controlling factors including initial flow depth, flood height, flood duration, bed roughness, bed slope and initial sediment concentration, on the wave propagation processes. We show that the effects of forcing mechanisms on flood and sediment wave propagation will lead to different
Supersaturation of vertically propagating internal gravity waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindzen, Richard S.
1988-01-01
The usual assumption that vertically propagating internal gravity waves will cease growing with height once their amplitudes are such as to permit convective instability anywhere within the wave is reexamined. Two factors lead to amplitude limitation: (1) wave clipping associated with convective mixing, and (2) energetic constraints associated with the rate at which the wave can supply energy to the convection. It is found that these two factors limit supersaturation to about 50 percent for waves with short horizontal wavelengths and high relative phase speeds. Usually the degree of supersaturation will be much less. These factors also lead to a gradual, rather than sudden, cessation of wave growth with height.
Longitudinal nonlinear wave propagation through soft tissue.
Valdez, M; Balachandran, B
2013-04-01
In this paper, wave propagation through soft tissue is investigated. A primary aim of this investigation is to gain a fundamental understanding of the influence of soft tissue nonlinear material properties on the propagation characteristics of stress waves generated by transient loadings. Here, for computational modeling purposes, the soft tissue is modeled as a nonlinear visco-hyperelastic material, the geometry is assumed to be one-dimensional rod geometry, and uniaxial propagation of longitudinal waves is considered. By using the linearized model, a basic understanding of the characteristics of wave propagation is developed through the dispersion relation and in terms of the propagation speed and attenuation. In addition, it is illustrated as to how the linear system can be used to predict brain tissue material parameters through the use of available experimental ultrasonic attenuation curves. Furthermore, frequency thresholds for wave propagation along internal structures, such as axons in the white matter of the brain, are obtained through the linear analysis. With the nonlinear material model, the authors analyze cases in which one of the ends of the rods is fixed and the other end is subjected to a loading. Two variants of the nonlinear model are analyzed and the associated predictions are compared with the predictions of the corresponding linear model. The numerical results illustrate that one of the imprints of the nonlinearity on the wave propagation phenomenon is the steepening of the wave front, leading to jump-like variations in the stress wave profiles. This phenomenon is a consequence of the dependence of the local wave speed on the local deformation of the material. As per the predictions of the nonlinear material model, compressive waves in the structure travel faster than tensile waves. Furthermore, it is found that wave pulses with large amplitudes and small elapsed times are attenuated over shorter spans. This feature is due to the elevated
Calibration of seismic wave propagation in Jordan
Al-Husien, A; Amrat, A; Harris, D; Mayeda, K; Nakanishi, K; Rodgers, A; Ruppert, S; Ryall, F; Skinnell, K; Yazjeen, T
1999-07-23
The Natural Resources Authority of Jordan (NRA), the USGS and LLNL have a collaborative project to improve the calibration of seismic propagation in Jordan and surrounding regions. This project serves common goals of CTBT calibration and earthquake hazard assessment in the region. These objectives include accurate location of local and regional earthquakes, calibration of magnitude scales, and the development of local and regional propagation models. In the CTBT context, better propagation models and more accurately located events in the Dead Sea rift region can serve as (potentially GT5) calibration events for generating IMS location corrections. The detection and collection of mining explosions underpins discrimination research. The principal activity of this project is the deployment of two broadband stations at Hittiyah (south Jordan) and Ruweishid (east Jordan). These stations provide additional paths in the region to constrain structure with surface wave and body wave tomography. The Ruweishid station is favorably placed to provide constraints on Arabian platform structure. Waveform modeling with long-period observations of larger earthquakes will provide constraints on 1-D velocity models of the crust and upper mantle. Data from these stations combined with phase observations from the 26 short-period stations of the Jordan National Seismic Network (JNSN) may allow the construction of a more detailed velocity model of Jordan. The Hittiyah station is an excellent source of ground truth information for the six phosphate mines of southern Jordan and Israel. Observations of mining explosions collected by this station have numerous uses: for definition of templates for screening mining explosions, as ground truth events for calibrating travel-time models, and as explosion populations in development and testing discriminants. Following previously established procedures for identifying explosions, we have identified more than 200 explosions from the first 85 days of
Atmospheric millimeter wave propagation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liebe, H. J.
1983-12-01
The neutral atmosphere is characterized for the frequency range from 1 to 300 GHz as nonturbulent propagation medium. Attenuation and propagation delay effects are predicated from meteorological data sets: pressure, temperature, humidity, suspended particle concentration, and rain rate. The physical data base of the propagation model consists of four terms: (1) resonance information for 30 water vapor and 48 oxygen absorption lines in the form of intensity coefficients and center frequency for each line; (2) a composite (oxygen, water vapor, and nitrogen) continum spectrum; (3) a hydrosol attenuation term for haze, fog, and cloud conditions; and (4) a rain attenuation model. Oxygen lines extend into the mesosphere, where they behave in a complicated manner due to the Zeeman effect.
Wave propagation into the middle atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hirota, I.
1989-01-01
Recent observations of various types of waves propagating into the middle atmosphere are reviewed. Emphasis is made on the excitation processes in the lower atmosphere and their vertical propagation through the background flow as a function of the latitude, height and season. The following subjects are discussed: (1) Vertical propagation of quasi-stationary forced Rossby waves into the winter stratosphere in connection with the sudden warming; (2) Spectral distribution and seasonal characteristics of normal mode (free) Rossby waves and the asymmetry of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres; and (3) Seasonal variation of internal gravity waves in the middle atmosphere. Further discussions are presented for future studies based on accumulated observational data during the MAP period.
Harmonic plane wave propagation in gyroelectric media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hillion, Pierre
2006-05-01
We analyse the behaviour of harmonic plane waves in unbounded gyroelectric media once the refractive index in the direction of propagation is known from the Fresnel equation. We get, for the electric and magnetic fields, analytical expressions simple enough to use in a plane wave spectrum representation of more structured electromagnetic fields in these media. We also discuss the reflection and refraction of harmonic plane waves at the boundary between an isotropic medium and a gyroelectric material.
Variational principle for nonlinear wave propagation in dissipative systems.
Dierckx, Hans; Verschelde, Henri
2016-02-01
The dynamics of many natural systems is dominated by nonlinear waves propagating through the medium. We show that in any extended system that supports nonlinear wave fronts with positive surface tension, the asymptotic wave-front dynamics can be formulated as a gradient system, even when the underlying evolution equations for the field variables cannot be written as a gradient system. The variational potential is simply given by a linear combination of the occupied volume and surface area of the wave front and changes monotonically over time. PMID:26986334
Variational principle for nonlinear wave propagation in dissipative systems.
Dierckx, Hans; Verschelde, Henri
2016-02-01
The dynamics of many natural systems is dominated by nonlinear waves propagating through the medium. We show that in any extended system that supports nonlinear wave fronts with positive surface tension, the asymptotic wave-front dynamics can be formulated as a gradient system, even when the underlying evolution equations for the field variables cannot be written as a gradient system. The variational potential is simply given by a linear combination of the occupied volume and surface area of the wave front and changes monotonically over time.
Variational principle for nonlinear wave propagation in dissipative systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dierckx, Hans; Verschelde, Henri
2016-02-01
The dynamics of many natural systems is dominated by nonlinear waves propagating through the medium. We show that in any extended system that supports nonlinear wave fronts with positive surface tension, the asymptotic wave-front dynamics can be formulated as a gradient system, even when the underlying evolution equations for the field variables cannot be written as a gradient system. The variational potential is simply given by a linear combination of the occupied volume and surface area of the wave front and changes monotonically over time.
Regional Wave Propagation in Southeastern United States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jemberie, A. L.; Langston, C. A.
2003-12-01
Broad band seismograms from the April 29, 2003, M4.6 Fort Payne, Alabama earthquake are analyzed to infer mechanisms of crustal wave propagation, crust and upper mantle velocity structure in southeastern United States, and source parameters of the event. In particular, we are interested in producing deterministic models of the distance attenuation of earthquake ground motions through computation of synthetic seismograms. The method first requires constraining the source parameters of an earthquake and then modeling the amplitude and times of broadband arrivals within the waveforms to infer appropriate layered earth models. A first look at seismograms recorded by stations outside the Mississippi Embayment (ME) show clear body phases such P, sP, Pnl, Sn and Lg. The ME signals are qualitatively different from others because they have longer durations and large surface waves. A straightforward interpretation of P wave arrival times shows a typical upper mantle velocity of 8.18 km/s. However, there is evidence of significantly higher P phase velocities at epicentral distances between 400 and 600km, that may be caused by a high velocity upper mantle anomaly; triplication of P-waves is seen in these seismograms. The arrival time differences between regional P and the depth phase sP at different stations are used to constrain the depth of the earthquake. The source depth lies between 9.5 km and 13km which is somewhat more shallow than the network location that was constrained to 15km depth. The Fort Payne earthquake is the largest earthquake to have occurred within the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone.
In-plane propagation of electromagnetic waves in planar metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Changhyun; Rhee, Joo Yull; Kim, Ki Won; Lee, YoungPak
2016-08-01
Some planar metamaterials (MMs) or subwavelength antenna/hole arrays have a considerable amount of in-plane propagation when certain conditions are met. In this paper, the in-plane propagation caused by a wave incident on a MM absorber was studied by using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. By using a FDTD simulation, we were able to observe a nonnegligible amount of in-plane propagation after the incident wave had arrived at the surface of the planar structure and gradually decreased propagation of the electromagnetic wave in the planar direction gradually decreased. We performed the FDTD simulation carefully to reproduce valid results and to verify the existence of in-plane propagation. For verification of the in-plane propagation explicitly, Poynting vectors were calculated and visualized inside the dielectric substrate between the metallic back-plate and an array of square patches. We also investigated several different structures with resonators of various shapes and found that the amount of facing edges of adjacent metallic patches critically determined the strength of the in-plane propagation. Through this study, we could establish the basis for the existence of in-plane propagation in MMs.
Propagation of polarized waves in inhomogeneous media.
Charnotskii, Mikhail
2016-07-01
A parabolic equation for electromagnetic wave propagation in a random medium is extended to include the depolarization effects in the narrow-angle, forward-scattering setting. Closed-form parabolic equations for propagation of the coherence tensor are derived under a Markov approximation model. For a general partially coherent and partially polarized beam wave, this equation can be reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations, allowing a simple numeric solution. An analytical solution exists for statistically homogeneous waves. Estimates based on the perturbation solution support the common knowledge that the depolarization at the optical frequencies is negligible for atmospheric turbulence propagation. These results indicate that the recently published theory [Opt. Lett.40, 3077 (2015)10.1364/OL.40.003077] is not valid for atmospheric turbulence. PMID:27409697
Chabchoub, A.; Kibler, B.; Finot, C.; Millot, G.; Onorato, M.; Dudley, J.M.; Babanin, A.V.
2015-10-15
The dynamics of waves in weakly nonlinear dispersive media can be described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). An important feature of the equation is that it can be derived in a number of different physical contexts; therefore, analogies between different fields, such as for example fiber optics, water waves, plasma waves and Bose–Einstein condensates, can be established. Here, we investigate the similarities between wave propagation in optical Kerr media and water waves. In particular, we discuss the modulation instability (MI) in both media. In analogy to the water wave problem, we derive for Kerr-media the Benjamin–Feir index, i.e. a nondimensional parameter related to the probability of formation of rogue waves in incoherent wave trains.
Mattei, S.; Boudreault, O.; Stafford, L.; Khare, R.; Donnelly, V. M.
2011-06-01
Phase-sensitive microwave interferometry and trace-rare-gas optical emission spectroscopy were used to measure the line-integrated electron density, n{sub e}, and electron temperature, T{sub e}, in a high-density chlorine plasma sustained in a quartz discharge tube (inner diameter = 6 mm) by an electromagnetic surface wave at 2.45 GHz. For pressures in the 0.1-1 Torr range, n{sub e} decreased nearly linearly along the tube's z-axis down to the critical density for surface wave propagation, where the plasma decayed abruptly. At lower pressures (< 50 mTorr), however, the plasma extended well beyond this critical point, after which n{sub e} decreased quasiexponentially toward the end of the plasma column. The length of this expansion region increased with decreasing pressure, going from {approx}8 cm at 5 mTorr to {approx}1 cm at 50 mTorr. T{sub e} was nearly independent of the axial position in the main plasma region and strongly decreased in the expansion region at lower pressures. The Cl{sub 2} percent dissociation, {tau}{sub D}, obtained from the calibrated Cl{sub 2} (306 nm)-to-Xe (828 nm) emission ratio, displayed behavior similar to that of n{sub e} and T{sub e}. For example, at 5 mTorr, {tau}{sub D} was close to 100% near the wave launcher and {approx}70% at 0.5 cm from the end of the plasma column.
Wave propagation in metamaterial lattice sandwich plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Xin; Wen, Jihong; Yin, Jianfei; Yu, Dianlong
2016-04-01
This paper designed a special acoustic metamaterial 3D Kagome lattice sandwich plate. Dispersion properties and vibration responses of both traditional plate and metamaterial plate are investigated based on FEA methods. The traditional plate does not have low-frequency complete bandgaps, but the metamaterial plate has low-frequency complete bandgap (at 620Hz) coming from the symmetrical local cantilever resonators. The bandgap frequency is approximate to the first-order natural frequency of the oscillator. Complex wave modes are analyzed. The dispersion curves of longitudinal waves exist in the flexural bandgap. The dispersion properties demonstrate the metamaterial design is advantageous to suppress the low-frequency flexural wave propagation in lattice sandwich plate. The flexural vibrations near the bandgap are also suppressed efficiently. The longitudinal excitation stimulates mainly longitudinal waves and lots of low-frequency flexural vibration modes are avoided. Furthermore, the free edge effects in metamaterial plate provide new method for damping optimizations. The influences of damping on vibrations of the metamaterial sandwich plate are studied. Damping has global influence on the wave propagation; stronger damping will induce more vibration attenuation. The results enlighten us damping and metamaterial design approaches can be unite in the sandwich plates to suppress the wave propagations.
Antenna Construction and Propagation of Radio Waves.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.
Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on antenna construction and propagation of radio waves is designed to provide communicators with instructions in the selection and/or construction of the proper antenna(s) for use with current field radio equipment. Introductory materials include…
Wave propagation analysis using the variance matrix.
Sharma, Richa; Ivan, J Solomon; Narayanamurthy, C S
2014-10-01
The propagation of a coherent laser wave-field through a pseudo-random phase plate is studied using the variance matrix estimated from Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor data. The uncertainty principle is used as a tool in discriminating the data obtained from the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Quantities of physical interest such as the twist parameter, and the symplectic eigenvalues, are estimated from the wavefront sensor measurements. A distance measure between two variance matrices is introduced and used to estimate the spatial asymmetry of a wave-field in the experiment. The estimated quantities are then used to compare a distorted wave-field with its undistorted counterpart. PMID:25401243
Propagation of seismic waves in tall buildings
Safak, E.
1998-01-01
A discrete-time wave propagation formulation of the seismic response of tall buildings is introduced. The building is modeled as a layered medium, similar to a layered soil medium, and is subjected to vertically propagating seismic shear waves. Soil layers and the bedrock under the foundation are incorporated in the formulation as additional layers. Seismic response is expressed in terms of the wave travel times between the layers, and the wave reflection and transmission coefficients at the layer interfaces. The equations account for the frequency-dependent filtering effects of the foundation and floor masses. The calculation of seismic response is reduced to a pair of simple finite-difference equations for each layer, which can be solved recursively starting from the bedrock. Compared to the commonly used vibration formulation, the wave propagation formulation provides several advantages, including simplified calculations, better representation of damping, ability to account for the effects of the soil layers under the foundation, and better tools for identification and damage detection from seismic records. Examples presented show the versatility of the method. ?? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wave propagation in a medium with cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adler, Pierre; Pazdniakou, Aliaksei
2016-04-01
The detection and imaging of cavities is still difficult, but it generates a lot of interest because of its potential applications. We have developed a code based on Lattice Springs and Lattice Boltzmann which can calculate wave propagation through a three dimensional composite medium. The theoretical background of these techniques will only be briefly addressed during the talk. The solid phase may have properties which are variable in space; the solid matrix may contain voids of arbitrary shapes which are filled or not with a mixture of air and water. In addition some of the voids may be empty. The surface of the ground is also arbitrary and it may be hilly. The source may be either a disturbance applied to a region of the solid phase or an overpressure applied to a particular cavity. In both cases, the disturbance and the overpressure can be arbitrary in time. Several sources can be simultaneously employed. Any region can be recorded, but a particular attention is paid to surface signals since they are the ones which are usually measured. The code is parallelized. Systematic applications of this tool have been done in order to analyse the response of a medium containing cavities to various signals. This complete parametric study has analyzed the most important parameters. The shape and the nature of the source have been addressed first; step functions of a limited or of an infinite duration have been studied and they are shown to result in simpler outputs than Ricker functions. The position of the source with respect to the ground surface has been varied. If it is deep, the reflection of the initial signal with the surface complicates the analysis of the surface measurements. The distance between the source and the cavity does not appear to be a critical parameter as long as the signal remains sufficiently large when it interacts with the cavity. Moreover, when this distance is large, the signal is transformed into a plane wave. The influence of the shape of the
Wave propagation in elastic medium with heterogeneous quadratic nonlinearity
Tang Guangxin; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Qu Jianmin
2011-06-23
This paper studies the one-dimensional wave propagation in an elastic medium with spatially non-uniform quadratic nonlinearity. Two problems are solved analytically. One is for a time-harmonic wave propagating in a half-space where the displacement is prescribed on the surface of the half-space. It is found that spatial non-uniformity of the material nonlinearity causes backscattering of the second order harmonic, which when combined with the forward propagating waves generates a standing wave in steady-state wave motion. The second problem solved is the reflection from and transmission through a layer of finite thickness embedded in an otherwise linearly elastic medium of infinite extent, where it is assumed that the layer has a spatially non-uniform quadratic nonlinearity. The results show that the transmission coefficient for the second order harmonic is proportional to the spatial average of the nonlinearity across the thickness of the layer, independent of the spatial distribution of the nonlinearity. On the other hand, the coefficient of reflection is proportional to a weighted average of the nonlinearity across the layer thickness. The weight function in this weighted average is related to the propagating phase, thus making the coefficient of reflection dependent on the spatial distribution of the nonlinearity. Finally, the paper concludes with some discussions on how to use the reflected and transmitted second harmonic waves to evaluate the variance and autocorrelation length of nonlinear parameter {beta} when the nonlinearity distribution in the layer is a stochastic process.
Speeding up tsunami wave propagation modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey
2014-05-01
Trans-oceanic wave propagation is one of the most time/CPU consuming parts of the tsunami modeling process. The so-called Method Of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) software package, developed at PMEL NOAA USA (Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA), is widely used to evaluate the tsunami parameters. However, it takes time to simulate trans-ocean wave propagation, that is up to 5 hours CPU time to "drive" the wave from Chili (epicenter) to the coast of Japan (even using a rather coarse computational mesh). Accurate wave height prediction requires fine meshes which leads to dramatic increase in time for simulation. Computation time is among the critical parameter as it takes only about 20 minutes for tsunami wave to approach the coast of Japan after earthquake at Japan trench or Sagami trench (as it was after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011). MOST solves numerically the hyperbolic system for three unknown functions, namely velocity vector and wave height (shallow water approximation). The system could be split into two independent systems by orthogonal directions (splitting method). Each system can be treated independently. This calculation scheme is well suited for SIMD architecture and GPUs as well. We performed adaptation of MOST package to GPU. Several numerical tests showed 40x performance gain for NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU vs. single core of Intel i7 processor. Results of numerical experiments were compared with other available simulation data. Calculation results, obtained at GPU, differ from the reference ones by 10^-3 cm of the wave height simulating 24 hours wave propagation. This allows us to speak about possibility to develop real-time system for evaluating tsunami danger.
Impact of mountain gravity waves on infrasound propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe
2016-04-01
Linear theory of acoustic propagation is used to analyze how mountain waves can change the characteristics of infrasound signals. The mountain wave model is based on the integration of the linear inviscid Taylor-Goldstein equation forced by a nonlinear surface boundary condition. For the acoustic propagation we solve the wave equation using the normal mode method together with the effective sound speed approximation. For large-amplitude mountain waves we use direct numerical simulations to compute the interactions between the mountain waves and the infrasound component. It is shown that the mountain waves perturb the low level waveguide, which leads to significant acoustic dispersion. The mountain waves also impact the arrival time and spread of the signals substantially and can produce a strong absorption of the wave signal. To interpret our results we follow each acoustic mode separately and show which mode is impacted and how. We also show that the phase shift between the acoustic modes over the horizontal length of the mountain wave field may yield to destructive interferences in the lee side of the mountain, resulting in a new form of infrasound absorption. The statistical relevance of those results is tested using a stochastic version of the mountain wave model and large enough sample sizes.
Gerdes, Frank; Finette, Steven
2012-10-01
A modeling and simulation study is performed in a littoral ocean waveguide subject to uncertainty in four quantities: source depth, tidal forcing, initial thermocline structure, and sediment sound speed. In this partially known shelf-break environment, tidal forcing over a density-stratified water column produces internal tides and solitary wave packets. The resulting uncertainty in the space-time oceanographic field is mapped into the sound speed distribution which, in turn, introduces uncertainty into the acoustic wave field. The latter is treated as a stochastic field whose intensity is described by a polynomial chaos expansion. The expansion coefficients are estimated through constrained multivariate linear regression, and an analysis of the chaos coefficients provides insight into the relative contribution of the uncertain acoustic and oceanographic quantities. Histograms of acoustic intensity are estimated and compared to a reference solution obtained through Latin Hypercube sampling. A sensitivity analysis is performed to illustrate the relative importance of the four contributions of incomplete information about the environment. The simulation methodology represents an end-to-end analysis approach including both oceanographic and acoustic field uncertainty where the latter is quantified using stochastic basis expansions in the form of a polynomial chaos representation.
Gerdes, Frank; Finette, Steven
2012-10-01
A modeling and simulation study is performed in a littoral ocean waveguide subject to uncertainty in four quantities: source depth, tidal forcing, initial thermocline structure, and sediment sound speed. In this partially known shelf-break environment, tidal forcing over a density-stratified water column produces internal tides and solitary wave packets. The resulting uncertainty in the space-time oceanographic field is mapped into the sound speed distribution which, in turn, introduces uncertainty into the acoustic wave field. The latter is treated as a stochastic field whose intensity is described by a polynomial chaos expansion. The expansion coefficients are estimated through constrained multivariate linear regression, and an analysis of the chaos coefficients provides insight into the relative contribution of the uncertain acoustic and oceanographic quantities. Histograms of acoustic intensity are estimated and compared to a reference solution obtained through Latin Hypercube sampling. A sensitivity analysis is performed to illustrate the relative importance of the four contributions of incomplete information about the environment. The simulation methodology represents an end-to-end analysis approach including both oceanographic and acoustic field uncertainty where the latter is quantified using stochastic basis expansions in the form of a polynomial chaos representation. PMID:23039422
Propagation characteristics of acoustic waves in snow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capelli, Achille; Kapil, Jagdish Chandra; Reiweger, Ingrid; Schweizer, Jürg; Or, Dani
2015-04-01
Acoustic emission analysis is a promising technique for monitoring snow slope stability with potential for application in early warning systems for avalanches. Current research efforts focus on identification and localization of acoustic emission features preceding snow failure and avalanches. However, our knowledge of sound propagation characteristics in snow is still limited. A review of previous studies showed that significant gaps exist and that the results of the various studies are partly contradictory. Furthermore, sound velocity and attenuation have been determined for the frequency range below 10 kHz, while recent snow failure experiments suggest that the peak frequency is in the ultrasound range between 30 kHz to 500 kHz. We therefore studied the propagation of pencil lead fracture (PLF) signals through snow in the ultrasound frequency range. This was achieved by performing laboratory experiments with columns of artificially produced snow of varying density and temperature. The attenuation constant was obtained by varying the size of the columns to eliminate possible influences of the snow-sensor coupling. The attenuation constant was measured for the entire PLF burst signal and for single frequency components. The propagation velocity was calculated from the arrival time of the acoustic signal. We then modelled the sound propagation for our experimental setup using Biot's model for wave propagation in porous media. The Model results were in good agreement with our experimental results. For the studied samples, the acoustic signals propagated as fast and slow longitudinal waves, but the main part of the energy was carried by the slow waves. The Young's modulus of our snow samples was determined from the sound velocity. This is highly relevant, as the elastic properties of snow are not well known.
Propagation of Axially Symmetric Detonation Waves
Druce, R L; Roeske, F; Souers, P C; Tarver, C M; Chow, C T S; Lee, R S; McGuire, E M; Overturf, G E; Vitello, P A
2002-06-26
We have studied the non-ideal propagation of detonation waves in LX-10 and in the insensitive explosive TATB. Explosively-driven, 5.8-mm-diameter, 0.125-mm-thick aluminum flyer plates were used to initiate 38-mm-diameter, hemispherical samples of LX-10 pressed to a density of 1.86 g/cm{sup 3} and of TATB at a density of 1.80 g/cm{sup 3}. The TATB powder was a grade called ultrafine (UFTATB), having an arithmetic mean particle diameter of about 8-10 {micro}m and a specific surface area of about 4.5 m{sup 2}/g. Using PMMA as a transducer, output pressure was measured at 5 discrete points on the booster using a Fabry-Perot velocimeter. Breakout time was measured on a line across the booster with a streak camera. Each of the experimental geometries was calculated using the Ignition and Growth Reactive Flow Model, the JWL++ Model and the Programmed Burn Model. Boosters at both ambient and cold (-20 C and -54 C) temperatures have been experimentally and computationally studied. A comparison of experimental and modeling results is presented.
Nonlinear guided wave propagation in prestressed plates.
Pau, Annamaria; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco
2015-03-01
The measurement of stress in a structure presents considerable interest in many fields of engineering. In this paper, the diagnostic potential of nonlinear elastic guided waves in a prestressed plate is investigated. To do so, an analytical model is formulated accounting for different aspects involved in the phenomenon. The fact that the initial strains can be finite is considered using the Green Lagrange strain tensor, and initial and final configurations are not merged, as it would be assumed in the infinitesimal strain theory. Moreover, an appropriate third-order expression of the strain energy of the hyperelastic body is adopted to account for the material nonlinearities. The model obtained enables to investigate both the linearized case, which gives the variation of phase and group velocity as a function of the initial stress, and the nonlinear case, involving second-harmonic generation as a function of the initial state of stress. The analysis is limited to Rayleigh-Lamb waves propagating in a plate. Three cases of initial prestress are considered, including prestress in the direction of the wave propagation, prestress orthogonal to the direction of wave propagation, and plane isotropic stress.
Wave propagation in spatially modulated tubes.
Ziepke, A; Martens, S; Engel, H
2016-09-01
We investigate wave propagation in rotationally symmetric tubes with a periodic spatial modulation of cross section. Using an asymptotic perturbation analysis, the governing quasi-two-dimensional reaction-diffusion equation can be reduced into a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion-advection equation. Assuming a weak perturbation by the advection term and using projection method, in a second step, an equation of motion for traveling waves within such tubes can be derived. Both methods predict properly the nonlinear dependence of the propagation velocity on the ratio of the modulation period of the geometry to the intrinsic width of the front, or pulse. As a main feature, we observe finite intervals of propagation failure of waves induced by the tube's modulation and derive an analytically tractable condition for their occurrence. For the highly diffusive limit, using the Fick-Jacobs approach, we show that wave velocities within modulated tubes are governed by an effective diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of a single bottleneck on the period of pulse trains. We observe period changes by integer fractions dependent on the bottleneck width and the period of the entering pulse train.
Wave propagation in spatially modulated tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziepke, A.; Martens, S.; Engel, H.
2016-09-01
We investigate wave propagation in rotationally symmetric tubes with a periodic spatial modulation of cross section. Using an asymptotic perturbation analysis, the governing quasi-two-dimensional reaction-diffusion equation can be reduced into a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion-advection equation. Assuming a weak perturbation by the advection term and using projection method, in a second step, an equation of motion for traveling waves within such tubes can be derived. Both methods predict properly the nonlinear dependence of the propagation velocity on the ratio of the modulation period of the geometry to the intrinsic width of the front, or pulse. As a main feature, we observe finite intervals of propagation failure of waves induced by the tube's modulation and derive an analytically tractable condition for their occurrence. For the highly diffusive limit, using the Fick-Jacobs approach, we show that wave velocities within modulated tubes are governed by an effective diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of a single bottleneck on the period of pulse trains. We observe period changes by integer fractions dependent on the bottleneck width and the period of the entering pulse train.
Nonlinear guided wave propagation in prestressed plates.
Pau, Annamaria; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco
2015-03-01
The measurement of stress in a structure presents considerable interest in many fields of engineering. In this paper, the diagnostic potential of nonlinear elastic guided waves in a prestressed plate is investigated. To do so, an analytical model is formulated accounting for different aspects involved in the phenomenon. The fact that the initial strains can be finite is considered using the Green Lagrange strain tensor, and initial and final configurations are not merged, as it would be assumed in the infinitesimal strain theory. Moreover, an appropriate third-order expression of the strain energy of the hyperelastic body is adopted to account for the material nonlinearities. The model obtained enables to investigate both the linearized case, which gives the variation of phase and group velocity as a function of the initial stress, and the nonlinear case, involving second-harmonic generation as a function of the initial state of stress. The analysis is limited to Rayleigh-Lamb waves propagating in a plate. Three cases of initial prestress are considered, including prestress in the direction of the wave propagation, prestress orthogonal to the direction of wave propagation, and plane isotropic stress. PMID:25786963
Wave propagation in spatially modulated tubes.
Ziepke, A; Martens, S; Engel, H
2016-09-01
We investigate wave propagation in rotationally symmetric tubes with a periodic spatial modulation of cross section. Using an asymptotic perturbation analysis, the governing quasi-two-dimensional reaction-diffusion equation can be reduced into a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion-advection equation. Assuming a weak perturbation by the advection term and using projection method, in a second step, an equation of motion for traveling waves within such tubes can be derived. Both methods predict properly the nonlinear dependence of the propagation velocity on the ratio of the modulation period of the geometry to the intrinsic width of the front, or pulse. As a main feature, we observe finite intervals of propagation failure of waves induced by the tube's modulation and derive an analytically tractable condition for their occurrence. For the highly diffusive limit, using the Fick-Jacobs approach, we show that wave velocities within modulated tubes are governed by an effective diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of a single bottleneck on the period of pulse trains. We observe period changes by integer fractions dependent on the bottleneck width and the period of the entering pulse train. PMID:27608990
Resonance absorption of propagating fast waves in a cold plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hollweg, Joseph V.
1990-01-01
Absorption of propagating waves impinging on a surface in which the plasma and magnetic field may change is investigated by examining in depth the problem of a combination of cold plasma, uniform magnetic field and a surface density which varies linearly from zero at the left end to some finite value at the right end, beyond which the density is constant. Two cases are considered: one in which the plasma is a vacuum everywhere to the left of the surface (which may correspond to coronal conditions) and one in which the plasma density jumps to a very large value to the left of the surface (which may mimic the magnetosphere with the dense region at the left corresponding to the plasmasphere). A complete discussion of the resonance absorption of propagating fast waves for the case considered by Kiveloson and Southwood (1986) is presented, emphasizing approximate analytical results whenever possible; these results are then compared with exact numerical solutions.
Lattice Boltzmann model for wave propagation.
Zhang, Jianying; Yan, Guangwu; Shi, Xiubo
2009-08-01
A lattice Boltzmann model for two-dimensional wave equation is proposed by using the higher-order moment method. The higher-order moment method is based on the solution of a series of partial differential equations obtained by using multiscale technique and Chapman-Enskog expansion. In order to obtain the lattice Boltzmann model for the wave equation with higher-order accuracy of truncation errors, we removed the second-order dissipation term and the third-order dispersion term by employing the moments up to fourth order. The reversibility in time appears owing to the absence of the second-order dissipation term and the third-order dispersion term. As numerical examples, some classical examples, such as interference, diffraction, and wave passing through a convex lens, are simulated. The numerical results show that this model can be used to simulate wave propagation.
Obliquely propagating dust-density waves
Piel, A.; Arp, O.; Klindworth, M.; Melzer, A.
2008-02-15
Self-excited dust-density waves are experimentally studied in a dusty plasma under microgravity. Two types of waves are observed: a mode inside the dust volume propagating in the direction of the ion flow and another mode propagating obliquely at the boundary between the dusty plasma and the space charge sheath. The dominance of oblique modes can be described in the frame of a fluid model. It is shown that the results fom the fluid model agree remarkably well with a kinetic electrostatic model of Rosenberg [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996)]. In the experiment, the instability is quenched by increasing the gas pressure or decreasing the dust density. The critical pressure and dust density are well described by the models.
Wave Propagation in Jointed Geologic Media
Antoun, T
2009-12-17
Predictive modeling capabilities for wave propagation in a jointed geologic media remain a modern day scientific frontier. In part this is due to a lack of comprehensive understanding of the complex physical processes associated with the transient response of geologic material, and in part it is due to numerical challenges that prohibit accurate representation of the heterogeneities that influence the material response. Constitutive models whose properties are determined from laboratory experiments on intact samples have been shown to over-predict the free field environment in large scale field experiments. Current methodologies for deriving in situ properties from laboratory measured properties are based on empirical equations derived for static geomechanical applications involving loads of lower intensity and much longer durations than those encountered in applications of interest involving wave propagation. These methodologies are not validated for dynamic applications, and they do not account for anisotropic behavior stemming from direcitonal effects associated with the orientation of joint sets in realistic geologies. Recent advances in modeling capabilities coupled with modern high performance computing platforms enable physics-based simulations of jointed geologic media with unprecedented details, offering a prospect for significant advances in the state of the art. This report provides a brief overview of these modern computational approaches, discusses their advantages and limitations, and attempts to formulate an integrated framework leading to the development of predictive modeling capabilities for wave propagation in jointed and fractured geologic materials.
Seismic Wave Propagation on the Tablet Computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emoto, K.
2015-12-01
Tablet computers widely used in recent years. The performance of the tablet computer is improving year by year. Some of them have performance comparable to the personal computer of a few years ago with respect to the calculation speed and the memory size. The convenience and the intuitive operation are the advantage of the tablet computer compared to the desktop PC. I developed the iPad application of the numerical simulation of the seismic wave propagation. The numerical simulation is based on the 2D finite difference method with the staggered-grid scheme. The number of the grid points is 512 x 384 = 196,608. The grid space is 200m in both horizontal and vertical directions. That is the calculation area is 102km x 77km. The time step is 0.01s. In order to reduce the user waiting time, the image of the wave field is drawn simultaneously with the calculation rather than playing the movie after the whole calculation. P and S wave energies are plotted on the screen every 20 steps (0.2s). There is the trade-off between the smooth simulation and the resolution of the wave field image. In the current setting, it takes about 30s to calculate the 10s wave propagation (50 times image updates). The seismogram at the receiver is displayed below of the wave field updated in real time. The default medium structure consists of 3 layers. The layer boundary is defined by 10 movable points with linear interpolation. Users can intuitively change to the arbitrary boundary shape by moving the point. Also users can easily change the source and the receiver positions. The favorite structure can be saved and loaded. For the advance simulation, users can introduce the random velocity fluctuation whose spectrum can be changed to the arbitrary shape. By using this application, everyone can simulate the seismic wave propagation without the special knowledge of the elastic wave equation. So far, the Japanese version of the application is released on the App Store. Now I am preparing the
S-Wave Normal Mode Propagation in Aluminum Cylinders
Lee, Myung W.; Waite, William F.
2010-01-01
Large amplitude waveform features have been identified in pulse-transmission shear-wave measurements through cylinders that are long relative to the acoustic wavelength. The arrival times and amplitudes of these features do not follow the predicted behavior of well-known bar waves, but instead they appear to propagate with group velocities that increase as the waveform feature's dominant frequency increases. To identify these anomalous features, the wave equation is solved in a cylindrical coordinate system using an infinitely long cylinder with a free surface boundary condition. The solution indicates that large amplitude normal-mode propagations exist. Using the high-frequency approximation of the Bessel function, an approximate dispersion relation is derived. The predicted amplitude and group velocities using the approximate dispersion relation qualitatively agree with measured values at high frequencies, but the exact dispersion relation should be used to analyze normal modes for full ranges of frequency of interest, particularly at lower frequencies.
The Propagation of Slow Wave Potentials in Pea Epicotyls.
Stahlberg, R.; Cosgrove, D. J.
1997-01-01
Slow wave potentials are considered to be electric long-distance signals specific for plants, although there are conflicting ideas about a chemical, electrical, or hydraulic mode of propagation. These ideas were tested by comparing the propagation of hydraulic and electric signals in epicotyls of pea (Pisum sativum L). A hydraulic signal in the form of a defined step increase in xylem pressure (Px) was applied to the root of intact seedlings and propagated nearly instantly through the epicotyl axis while its amplitude decreased with distance from the pressure chamber. This decremental propagation was caused by a leaky xylem and created an axial Px gradient in the epicotyl. Simultaneously along the epicotyl surface, depolarizations appeared with lag times that increased acropetally with distance from the pressure chamber from 5 s to 3 min. When measured at a constant distance, the lag times increased as the size of the applied pressure steps decreased. We conclude that the Px gradient in the epicotyl caused local depolarizations with acropetally increasing lag times, which have the appearance of an electric signal propagating with a rate of 20 to 30 mm min-1. This static description of the slow wave potentials challenges its traditional classification as a propagating electric signal. PMID:12223601
Wave propagation of functionally graded material plates in thermal environments.
Sun, Dan; Luo, Song-Nan
2011-12-01
The wave propagation of an infinite functionally graded plate in thermal environments is studied using the higher-order shear deformation plate theory. The thermal effects and temperature-dependent material properties are both taken into account. The temperature field considered is assumed to be a uniform distribution over the plate surface and varied in the thickness direction only. Material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent, and graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. Considering the effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia, the governing equations of the wave propagation in the functionally graded plate are derived by using the Hamilton's principle. The analytic dispersion relation of the functionally graded plate is obtained by solving an eigenvalue problem. Numerical examples show that the characteristics of wave propagation in the functionally graded plate are relates to the volume fraction index and thermal environment of the functionally graded plate. The influences of the volume fraction distributions and temperature on wave propagation of functionally graded plate are discussed in detail. The results carried out can be used in the ultrasonic inspection techniques and structural health monitoring.
Propagation of a constant velocity fission wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deinert, Mark
2011-10-01
The ideal nuclear fuel cycle would require no enrichment, minimize the need fresh uranium, and produce few, if any, transuranic elements. Importantly, the latter goal would be met without the reprocessing. For purely physical reasons, no reactor system or fuel cycle can meet all of these objectives. However, a traveling-wave reactor, if feasible, could come remarkably close. The concept is simple: a large cylinder of natural (or depleted) uranium is subjected to a fast neutron source at one end, the neutrons would transmute the uranium downstream and produce plutonium. If the conditions were right, a self-sustaining fission wave would form, producing yet more neutrons which would breed more plutonium and leave behind little more than short-lived fission products. Numerical studies have shown that fission waves of this type are also possible. We have derived an exact solution for the propagation velocity of a fission wave through fertile material. The results show that these waves fall into a class of traveling wave phenomena that have been encountered in other systems. The solution places a strict conditions on the shapes of the flux, diffusive, and reactive profiles that would be required for such a phenomenon to persist. The results are confirmed numerically.
Laser characterization of ultrasonic wave propagation in random media.
Scales, John A; Malcolm, Alison E
2003-04-01
Lasers can be used to excite and detect ultrasonic waves in a wide variety of materials. This allows the measurement of absolute particle motion without the mechanical disturbances of contacting transducers. In an ultrasound transmission experiment, the wave field is usually accessible only on the boundaries of a sample. Using optical methods, one can measure the surface wave field, in effect, within the scattering region. Here, we describe noncontacting (laser source and detector) measurements of ultrasonic wave propagation in randomly heterogeneous rock samples. By scanning the surface of the sample, we can directly visualize the complex dynamics of diffraction, multiple scattering, mode conversion, and whispering gallery modes. We will show measurements on rock samples that have similar elastic moduli and intrinsic attenuation, but different grain sizes, and hence, different scattering strengths. The intensity data are well fit by a radiative transfer model, and we use this fact to infer the scattering mean free path. PMID:12786520
PROPAGATION OF GRAVITY WAVES IN A CONVECTIVE LAYER
Onofri, M.; Vecchio, A.; Veltri, P.; De Masi, G.
2012-02-10
We perform numerical simulations of gravity mode propagation in a convective layer to investigate the observed association between small spatial scales and low frequencies in the photospheric velocity fields. According to the linear theory, when the fluid layer is convectively unstable, gravity modes are evanescent waves. However, in simple two-dimensional numerical settings, we find that when the equilibrium structure is modified by coherent large-scale convective motions, the waves injected at the bottom of the layer are no longer evanescent. In this situation, gravity waves can be detected at the surface of the layer. In our simplified model the injected wave's frequency remains unchanged, but its amplitude has a spatial modulation determined by the convective structure. This result may explain some analyses done with the proper orthogonal decomposition method of the solar surface velocity field even though solar convection is far more complex than the convection model considered here.
Wave propagation in negative index materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aylo, Rola
Properties of electromagnetic propagation in materials with negative permittivities and permeabilities were first studied in 1968. In such metamaterials, the electric field vector, the magnetic field vector, and the propagation vector form a left hand triad, thus the name left hand materials. Research in this area was practically non-existent, until about 10 years ago, a composite material consisting of periodic metallic rods and split-ring resonators showed left-handed properties. Because the dimension of the constituents of the metamaterial are small compared to the operating wavelength, it is possible to describe the electromagnetic properties of the composite using the concept of effective permittivity and permeability. In this dissertation, the basic properties of electromagnetic propagation through homogenous left hand materials are first studied. Many of the basic properties of left hand materials are in contrast to those in right hand materials, viz., negative refraction, perfect lensing, and the inverse Doppler effect. Dispersion relations are used to study wave propagation in negative index materials. For the first time to the best of our knowledge, we show that a reduced dispersion relation, obtained from the frequency dependence of the propagation constant by neglecting a linear frequency dependent term, obeys causality. Causality of the propagation constant enables us to use a novel and simple operator formalism approach to derive the underlying partial differential equations for baseband and envelope wave propagation. Various tools for understanding and characterizing left-handed materials are thereafter presented. The transfer matrix method is used to analyze periodic and random structures composed of positive and negative index materials. By random structures we mean randomness in layer position, index of refraction, and thickness. As an application of alternating periodic negative index and positive index structures, we propose a novel sensor using
Common omissions and misconceptions of wave propagation in turbulence: discussion.
Charnotskii, Mikhail
2012-05-01
This review paper addresses typical mistakes and omissions that involve theoretical research and modeling of optical propagation through atmospheric turbulence. We discuss the disregard of some general properties of narrow-angle propagation in refractive random media, the careless use of simplified models of turbulence, and omissions in the calculations of the second moment of the propagating wave. We also review some misconceptions regarding short-exposure imaging, propagation of polarized waves, and calculations of the scintillation index of the beam waves.
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics for water wave propagation in a channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omidvar, Pourya; Norouzi, Hossein; Zarghami, Ahad
2015-01-01
In this paper, Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is used to simulate the propagation of waves in an intermediate depth water channel. The major advantage of using SPH is that no special treatment of the free surface is required, which is advantageous for simulating highly nonlinear flows with possible wave breaking. The SPH method has an option of different formulations with their own advantages and drawbacks to be implemented. Here, we apply the classical and Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) formulation for wave propagation in a water channel. The classical SPH should come with an artificial viscosity which stabilizes the numerical algorithm and increases the accuracy. Here, we will show that the use of classical SPH with an artificial viscosity may cause the waves in the channel to decay. On the other hand, we will show that using the ALE-SPH algorithm with a Riemann solver is more stable, and in addition to producing the pressure fields with much less numerical noise, the waves propagate in the channel without dissipation.
Experimental and theoretical study of Rayleigh-Lamb wave propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, Wayne P.; Datta, Subhendu K.; Ju, T. H.
1990-01-01
Many space structures, such as the Space Station Freedom, contain critical thin-walled components. The structural integrity of thin-walled plates and shells can be monitored effectively using acoustic emission and ultrasonic testing in the Rayleigh-Lamb wave frequency range. A new PVDF piezoelectric sensor has been developed that is well suited to remote, inservice nondestructive evaluation of space structures. In the present study the new sensor was used to investigate Rayleigh-Lamb wave propagation in a plate. The experimental apparatus consisted of a glass plate (2.3 m x 25.4 mm x 5.6 mm) with PVDF sensor (3 mm diam.) mounted at various positions along its length. A steel ball impact served as a simulated acoustic emission source, producing surface waves, shear waves and longitudinal waves with dominant frequencies between 1 kHz and 200 kHz. The experimental time domain wave-forms were compared with theoretical predictions of the wave propagation in the plate. The model uses an analytical solution for the Green's function and the measured response at a single position to predict response at any other position in the plate. Close agreement was found between the experimental and theoretical results.
Undulations from amplified low frequency surface waves
Coutant, Antonin; Parentani, Renaud
2014-04-15
We study the linear scattering of gravity waves in longitudinal inhomogeneous stationary flows. When the flow becomes supercritical, it is known that counterflow propagating shallow waves are blocked and converted into deep waves. Here we show that in the zero-frequency limit, the reflected waves are amplified in such a way that the free surface develops an undulation, i.e., a zero-frequency wave of large amplitude with nodes located at specific places. This amplification involves negative energy waves and implies that flat surfaces are unstable against incoming perturbations of arbitrary small amplitude. The relation between this instability and black hole radiation (the Hawking effect) is established.
Experimental evidence of MHD surface waves
Amagishi, Y.
1986-12-01
MND surface waves of m = -1 (poloidal mode number of left-hand rotation) compressional Alfven waves in a cylindrical finite-..beta.. plasma have been observed for the first time to propagate together with shear Alfven waves. These modes also show a distinctive feature of the dispersion merging with that of shear Alfven waves at the center of a plasma column when a limiting frequency below the ion cyclotron frequencey is reached. The experimental results confirm a recent prediction concerning surface-wave properties of the first radial eigenmode of a nonaxisymmetric compressional wave in a plasma surrounded by an insulating boundary.
Counterstreaming magnetized plasmas. II. Perpendicular wave propagation
Tautz, R.C.; Schlickeiser, R.
2006-06-15
The properties of longitudinal and transverse oscillations in magnetized symmetric counterstreaming Maxwellian plasmas with equal thermal velocities for waves propagating perpendicular to the stream direction are investigated on the basis of Maxwell equations and the nonrelativistic Vlasov equation. With the constraint of vanishing particle flux in the stream direction, three distinct dispersion relations are known, which are the ordinary-wave mode, the Bernstein wave mode, and the extraordinary electromagnetic wave mode, where the latter two are only approximations. In this article, all three dispersion relations are evaluated for a counterstreaming Maxwellian distribution function in terms of the hypergeometric function {sub 2}F{sub 2}. The growth rates for the ordinary-wave mode are compared to earlier results by Bornatici and Lee [Phys. Fluids 13, 3007 (1970)], who derived approximate results, whereas in this article the exact dispersion relation is solved numerically. The original results are therefore improved and show differences of up to 21% to the results obtained in this article.
Wave envelopes method for description of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation.
Wójcik, J; Nowicki, A; Lewin, P A; Bloomfield, P E; Kujawska, T; Filipczyński, L
2006-07-01
A novel, free from paraxial approximation and computationally efficient numerical algorithm capable of predicting 4D acoustic fields in lossy and nonlinear media from arbitrary shaped sources (relevant to probes used in medical ultrasonic imaging and therapeutic systems) is described. The new WE (wave envelopes) approach to nonlinear propagation modeling is based on the solution of the second order nonlinear differential wave equation reported in [J. Wójcik, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104 (1998) 2654-2663; V.P. Kuznetsov, Akust. Zh. 16 (1970) 548-553]. An incremental stepping scheme allows for forward wave propagation. The operator-splitting method accounts independently for the effects of full diffraction, absorption and nonlinear interactions of harmonics. The WE method represents the propagating pulsed acoustic wave as a superposition of wavelet-like sinusoidal pulses with carrier frequencies being the harmonics of the boundary tone burst disturbance. The model is valid for lossy media, arbitrarily shaped plane and focused sources, accounts for the effects of diffraction and can be applied to continuous as well as to pulsed waves. Depending on the source geometry, level of nonlinearity and frequency bandwidth, in comparison with the conventional approach the Time-Averaged Wave Envelopes (TAWE) method shortens computational time of the full 4D nonlinear field calculation by at least an order of magnitude; thus, predictions of nonlinear beam propagation from complex sources (such as phased arrays) can be available within 30-60 min using only a standard PC. The approximate ratio between the computational time costs obtained by using the TAWE method and the conventional approach in calculations of the nonlinear interactions is proportional to 1/N2, and in memory consumption to 1/N where N is the average bandwidth of the individual wavelets. Numerical computations comparing the spatial field distributions obtained by using both the TAWE method and the conventional approach
Wave envelopes method for description of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation.
Wójcik, J; Nowicki, A; Lewin, P A; Bloomfield, P E; Kujawska, T; Filipczyński, L
2006-07-01
A novel, free from paraxial approximation and computationally efficient numerical algorithm capable of predicting 4D acoustic fields in lossy and nonlinear media from arbitrary shaped sources (relevant to probes used in medical ultrasonic imaging and therapeutic systems) is described. The new WE (wave envelopes) approach to nonlinear propagation modeling is based on the solution of the second order nonlinear differential wave equation reported in [J. Wójcik, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104 (1998) 2654-2663; V.P. Kuznetsov, Akust. Zh. 16 (1970) 548-553]. An incremental stepping scheme allows for forward wave propagation. The operator-splitting method accounts independently for the effects of full diffraction, absorption and nonlinear interactions of harmonics. The WE method represents the propagating pulsed acoustic wave as a superposition of wavelet-like sinusoidal pulses with carrier frequencies being the harmonics of the boundary tone burst disturbance. The model is valid for lossy media, arbitrarily shaped plane and focused sources, accounts for the effects of diffraction and can be applied to continuous as well as to pulsed waves. Depending on the source geometry, level of nonlinearity and frequency bandwidth, in comparison with the conventional approach the Time-Averaged Wave Envelopes (TAWE) method shortens computational time of the full 4D nonlinear field calculation by at least an order of magnitude; thus, predictions of nonlinear beam propagation from complex sources (such as phased arrays) can be available within 30-60 min using only a standard PC. The approximate ratio between the computational time costs obtained by using the TAWE method and the conventional approach in calculations of the nonlinear interactions is proportional to 1/N2, and in memory consumption to 1/N where N is the average bandwidth of the individual wavelets. Numerical computations comparing the spatial field distributions obtained by using both the TAWE method and the conventional approach
Propagation of longitudinal thermoplastic waves in layered structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Chen; Cetinkaya, Cetin
2000-05-01
The recent advances in photonics and laser instrumentation have been creating a favorable environment for thermal-based elastic wave generation techniques and their applications in various fields, such as nondestructive testing and smart structures. The main advantages of laser-based NDE include noncontact evaluation, freedom for complex surface geometry, high spatial and temporal resolution, easy access to cavities, and fast scanning. Two disadvantages are that the laser-based method requires a good physical understanding of thermoelastic wave propagation in solids, which is considerably more complicated than elastic wave propagation, and more complicated instrumentation needed for data collection. In an idealized solid, thermal energy is transported by two different mechanisms: by quantized electronic excitations, which are called free electrons, and the quanta of lattice vibrations, which are called phonons. These quanta undergo collisions of a dissipative nature, giving rise to thermal resistance in the medium. A relaxation time is associated with the average communication time between these collisions for the commencement of resistive flow. There are a number of optical methods available for elastic wave generation and detection. The most commonly utilized techniques include interferometric and noninterferometric techniques, optical heterodyning, differential interferometry, and time-delay interferometry. In the current work, a transfer matrix formulation including the second sound effect is developed for a thermoelastic layer. The second sound effect is included to eliminate the thermal wave travelling with infinite velocity as predicted by the diffusion heat transfer model, and, consequently, the immediate arrival of waves. Utilizing this formulation and the periodic systems framework, the attenuation and propagation properties of one-dimensional thermoelastic wave in both continuum and layered structures are studied. A perturbation analysis is carried out
Nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.
1985-01-01
A model problem that simulates an atmospheric acoustic wave propagation situation that is nonlinear is considered. The model is derived from the basic Euler equations for the atmospheric flow and from the regular perturbations for the acoustic part. The nonlinear effects are studied by obtaining two successive linear problems in which the second one involves the solution of the first problem. Well posedness of these problems is discussed and approximations of the radiation boundary conditions that can be used in numerical simulations are presented.
Nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.
1986-01-01
In this paper a model problem is considered that simulates an atmospheric acoustic wave propagation situation that is nonlinear. The model is derived from the basic Euler equations for the atmospheric flow and from the regular perturbations for the acoustic part. The nonlinear effects are studied by obtaining two successive linear problems in which the second one involves the solution of the first problem. Well-posedness of these problems is discussed and approximations of the radiation boundary conditions that can be used in numerical simulations are presented.
Surface-Wave Seismology (Overview)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levshin, A. L.
2006-12-01
Being involved with surface-wave studies for more than 40 years I am in a position to present a brief review of the progress in this field since it became an essential part of seismology. The existence of surface waves generated by earthquakes was known at least from the beginning of the 20th century. But even fifty years ago, at the time of publication of the outstanding book by M. Ewing, W. Jardetsky, and F. Press "Elastic Waves in Layered Media", where surface wave theory and observations were discussed in detail for the first time, only a few seismologists were interested in surface waves. The main interest was in the field of exploration geophysics where the means for muting "groundroll" noise observed on reflection records were badly needed. Only a few, but very important, studies dedicated to surface waves from earthquakes and their relation to the crustal and upper mantle structure had been performed in 1950s and 1960s. The situation is completely different now when the terms "surface-wave seismology" and "surface-wave tomography" have become regular expressions in the geophysical literature. Surface waves are used extensively for studying the Earth's crust and upper mantle at global and regional scales, for determining the parameters of seismic sources, as well as for evaluating subsurface structures in exploration geophysics and civil engineering. This progress has been achieved due to several reasons: (1) spectacular advances in the theory of surface wave propagation and numerical methods for solving the forward problems in realistic Earth models; (2) rapid development of inversion techniques; (3) availability of broadband digitalseismic records from exploding number of seismic observatories including ocean- bottom stations; and (4) new techniques for multicomponent seismic prospecting on land and on sea bottom. Interferometry techniques using ambient seismic noise are now emerging and are beginning to yield detailed information about the Earth
Propagation of gravity waves across the tropopause
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bense, Vera; Spichtinger, Peter
2015-04-01
The tropopause region is characterised by strong gradients in various atmospheric quantities that exhibit different properties in the troposphere compared to the stratosphere. The temperature lapse rate typically changes from negative to near-zero values resulting in a strong increase in stability. Accordingly, the buoyancy frequency often undergoes a jump at the tropopause. Analysis of radiosounding data also shows the existence of a strong inversion layer (tropopause inversion layer, TIL) characterised by a strong maximum in buoyancy frequency just above the tropopause, see e.g. Birner et al. (2002). Additionally, the magnitude of the vertical wind shear of the horizontal wind maximizes at the tropopause and the region also exhibits characteristical gradients of trace gases. Vertically propagating gravity waves can be excited in the troposphere by several mechanisms, e.g. by flow over topography (e.g. Durran, 1990), by jets and fronts (for a recent review: Plougonven and Zhang, 1990) or by convection (e.g. Clark et al., 1986). When these waves enter the tropopause region, their properties can be changed drastically by the changing stratification and strong wind shear. Within this work, the EULAG (Eulerian/semi-Lagrangian fluid solver, see e.g. Smolarkiewicz and Margolin, 1997) model is used to investigate the impact of the tropopause on vertically propagating gravity waves excited by flows over topography. The choice of topography (sine-shaped mountains, bell-shaped mountain) along with horizontal wind speed and tropospheric value of buoyancy frequency determine the spectrum of waves (horizontal and vertical wavelengths) that is excited in the tropsphere. In order to analyse how these spectra change for several topographies when a tropopause is present, we investigate different idealized cases in a two-dimensional domain. By varying the vertical profiles of buoyancy frequency (step-wise vs. continuos change, including TIL) and wind shear, the tropopause
Wave propagation in random granular chains.
Manjunath, Mohith; Awasthi, Amnaya P; Geubelle, Philippe H
2012-03-01
The influence of randomness on wave propagation in one-dimensional chains of spherical granular media is investigated. The interaction between the elastic spheres is modeled using the classical Hertzian contact law. Randomness is introduced in the discrete model using random distributions of particle mass, Young's modulus, or radius. Of particular interest in this study is the quantification of the attenuation in the amplitude of the impulse associated with various levels of randomness: two distinct regimes of decay are observed, characterized by an exponential or a power law, respectively. The responses are normalized to represent a vast array of material parameters and impact conditions. The virial theorem is applied to investigate the transfer from potential to kinetic energy components in the system for different levels of randomness. The level of attenuation in the two decay regimes is compared for the three different sources of randomness and it is found that randomness in radius leads to the maximum rate of decay in the exponential regime of wave propagation. PMID:22587093
Wave propagation in random granular chains.
Manjunath, Mohith; Awasthi, Amnaya P; Geubelle, Philippe H
2012-03-01
The influence of randomness on wave propagation in one-dimensional chains of spherical granular media is investigated. The interaction between the elastic spheres is modeled using the classical Hertzian contact law. Randomness is introduced in the discrete model using random distributions of particle mass, Young's modulus, or radius. Of particular interest in this study is the quantification of the attenuation in the amplitude of the impulse associated with various levels of randomness: two distinct regimes of decay are observed, characterized by an exponential or a power law, respectively. The responses are normalized to represent a vast array of material parameters and impact conditions. The virial theorem is applied to investigate the transfer from potential to kinetic energy components in the system for different levels of randomness. The level of attenuation in the two decay regimes is compared for the three different sources of randomness and it is found that randomness in radius leads to the maximum rate of decay in the exponential regime of wave propagation.
WAVE: Interactive Wave-based Sound Propagation for Virtual Environments.
Mehra, Ravish; Rungta, Atul; Golas, Abhinav; Ming Lin; Manocha, Dinesh
2015-04-01
We present an interactive wave-based sound propagation system that generates accurate, realistic sound in virtual environments for dynamic (moving) sources and listeners. We propose a novel algorithm to accurately solve the wave equation for dynamic sources and listeners using a combination of precomputation techniques and GPU-based runtime evaluation. Our system can handle large environments typically used in VR applications, compute spatial sound corresponding to listener's motion (including head tracking) and handle both omnidirectional and directional sources, all at interactive rates. As compared to prior wave-based techniques applied to large scenes with moving sources, we observe significant improvement in runtime memory. The overall sound-propagation and rendering system has been integrated with the Half-Life 2 game engine, Oculus-Rift head-mounted display, and the Xbox game controller to enable users to experience high-quality acoustic effects (e.g., amplification, diffraction low-passing, high-order scattering) and spatial audio, based on their interactions in the VR application. We provide the results of preliminary user evaluations, conducted to study the impact of wave-based acoustic effects and spatial audio on users' navigation performance in virtual environments. PMID:26357093
WAVE: Interactive Wave-based Sound Propagation for Virtual Environments.
Mehra, Ravish; Rungta, Atul; Golas, Abhinav; Ming Lin; Manocha, Dinesh
2015-04-01
We present an interactive wave-based sound propagation system that generates accurate, realistic sound in virtual environments for dynamic (moving) sources and listeners. We propose a novel algorithm to accurately solve the wave equation for dynamic sources and listeners using a combination of precomputation techniques and GPU-based runtime evaluation. Our system can handle large environments typically used in VR applications, compute spatial sound corresponding to listener's motion (including head tracking) and handle both omnidirectional and directional sources, all at interactive rates. As compared to prior wave-based techniques applied to large scenes with moving sources, we observe significant improvement in runtime memory. The overall sound-propagation and rendering system has been integrated with the Half-Life 2 game engine, Oculus-Rift head-mounted display, and the Xbox game controller to enable users to experience high-quality acoustic effects (e.g., amplification, diffraction low-passing, high-order scattering) and spatial audio, based on their interactions in the VR application. We provide the results of preliminary user evaluations, conducted to study the impact of wave-based acoustic effects and spatial audio on users' navigation performance in virtual environments.
Kink Wave Propagation in Thin Isothermal Magnetic Flux Tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopin, I. P.; Nagorny, I. G.; Nippolainen, E.
2014-08-01
We investigated the propagation of kink waves in thin and isothermal expanding flux tubes in cylindrical geometry. By using the method of radial expansion for fluctuating variables we obtained a new kink wave equation. We show that including the radial component of the tube magnetic field leads to cutoff-free propagation of kink waves along thin flux tubes.
On the generation of internal wave modes by surface waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harlander, Uwe; Kirschner, Ian; Maas, Christian; Zaussinger, Florian
2016-04-01
Internal gravity waves play an important role in the ocean since they transport energy and momentum and the can lead to mixing when they break. Surface waves and internal gravity waves can interact. On the one hand, long internal waves imply a slow varying shear current that modifies the propagation of surface waves. Surface waves generated by the atmosphere can, on the other hand, excite internal waves by nonlinear interaction. Thereby a surface wave packet consisting of two close frequencies can resonate with a low frequency internal wave (Phillips, 1966). From a theoretical point of view, the latter has been studied intensively by using a 2-layer model, i.e. a surface layer with a strong density contrast and an internal layer with a comparable weak density contrast (Ball, 1964; Craig et al., 2010). In the present work we analyse the wave coupling for a continuously stratified fluid using a fully non-linear 2D numerical model (OpenFoam) and compare this with laboratory experiments (see Lewis et al. 1974). Surface wave modes are used as initial condition and the time development of the dominant surface and internal waves are studied by spectral and harmonic analysis. For the simple geometry of a box, the results are compared with analytical spectra of surface and gravity waves. Ball, F.K. 1964: Energy transfer between external and internal gravity waves. J. Fluid Mech. 19, 465. Craig, W., Guyenne, P., Sulem, C. 2010: Coupling between internal and surface waves. Natural Hazards 57, 617-642. Lewis, J.E., Lake, B.M., Ko, D.R.S 1974: On the interaction of internal waves and surfacr gravity waves, J. Fluid Mech. 63, 773-800. Phillips, O.M. 1966: The dynamics of the upper ocean, Cambridge University Press, 336pp.
Wave propagation in predator-prey systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Sheng-Chen; Tsai, Je-Chiang
2015-12-01
In this paper, we study a class of predator-prey systems of reaction-diffusion type. Specifically, we are interested in the dynamical behaviour for the solution with the initial distribution where the prey species is at the level of the carrying capacity, and the density of the predator species has compact support, or exponentially small tails near x=+/- ∞ . Numerical evidence suggests that this will lead to the formation of a pair of diverging waves propagating outwards from the initial zone. Motivated by this phenomenon, we establish the existence of a family of travelling waves with the minimum speed. Unlike the previous studies, we do not use the shooting argument to show this. Instead, we apply an iteration process based on Berestycki et al 2005 (Math Comput. Modelling 50 1385-93) to construct a set of super/sub-solutions. Since the underlying system does not enjoy the comparison principle, such a set of super/sub-solutions is not based on travelling waves, and in fact the super/sub-solutions depend on each other. With the aid of the set of super/sub-solutions, we can construct the solution of the truncated problem on the finite interval, which, via the limiting argument, can in turn generate the wave solution. There are several advantages to this approach. First, it can remove the technical assumptions on the diffusivities of the species in the existing literature. Second, this approach is of PDE type, and hence it can shed some light on the spreading phenomenon indicated by numerical simulation. In fact, we can compute the spreading speed of the predator species for a class of biologically acceptable initial distributions. Third, this approach might be applied to the study of waves in non-cooperative systems (i.e. a system without a comparison principle).
Wave Propagation in Fractured Anisotropic Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, S.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.
2012-12-01
Discontinuities such as fractures, joints and faults occur in the Earth's crusts in a variety of rock types. While much theoretical, experimental and computational research have examined seismic wave propagation in fractured isotropic rock, few experimental studies have investigated seismic wave propagation in fractured anisotropic media. The co-existence of fractures and layers can complicate the interpretation of seismic properties because of the discrete guided modes that propagate along or are confined by the fractures. In this study, we use seismic arrays and acoustic wavefront imaging techniques to examine the competing sources of seismic anisotropy from fractures and from layers. Samples with textural anisotropy (100 mm x 100 mm x 100 mm) were fabricated from garolite, an epoxy - cloth laminate, with layer thickness 0f ~ 0.5 mm. Two sets of fractured samples were fabricated: (1) two single fractured samples with one fracture either parallel or (and) perpendicular to layers, and (2) four multi-fractured samples with 5 parallel fractures oriented either parallel, 30 degrees, 60 degrees or perpendicular to the layers. An intact sample containing no fractures was used as a standard orthorhombic medium for reference. Seismic arrays were used on the first set of samples to measure bulk waves and fracture interface waves as a function of stress. The seismic array contained two compressional and five shear-wave source-receiver pairs with a central frequency of 1 MHz. Shear wave transducers were polarized both perpendicular and parallel to the layering as well as to the fracture. Measurements were made for a range of stresses (0.4 - 4MPa). From these measurements it was observed that a fractured layered medium appears more isotropic or anisotropic than the orthorhombic background, depending on the orientation of the fracture relative to layers. The matrix anisotropy was recovered by increasing the normal stress on a fracture (i.e., by closing the fracture). For the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Sarra, Alcide; Fuà, Daniele; Meloni, Daniela
2013-04-01
This study is based on measurements made at ENEA Station for Climate Observations (35.52° N, 12.63° E, 50 m asl) on the island of Lampedusa, in the Southern part of the Central Mediterranean. A quasi periodic oscillation of aerosol optical depth, column water vapour, shortwave (SW) and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) is observed to occur during the morning of 7 September 2005. The quasi-periodic wave is present from about 6 to 10 UT, with solar zenith angles (SZA) varying between 77.5° and 37.2° . In this period the aerosol optical depth at 500 nm, ?, varies between 0.29 and 0.41; the column water vapour, cwv, varies between 2.4 and 2.8 cm. The oscillations of ? and cwv are in phase, while the modulation of the downward surface irradiances is in opposition of phase with respect to ? and cwv. The period of the oscillation is about 13 min. The oscillation is attributed to the propagation of a gravity wave which modulates the structure of the planetary boundary layer. The measured aerosol optical properties are typical of cases dominated by Saharan dust, with the Ångström exponent comprised between 0.5 and 0.6. The backtrajectory analysis for that day shows that airmasses overpass Northern Libya (trajectories arriving below 2000 m), Tunisia and Northern Algeria (trajectories arriving above 2000 m), carrying Saharan dust particles to Lampedusa. The combined modulation of downward irradiance, water vapour column, and aerosol optical depth is used to estimate the aerosol effect on the irradiance. From the irradiance-optical depth relation, the aerosol surface direct forcing efficiency (FE) is derived, under the assumption that during the measurement interval the aerosol microphysical properties do not appreciably change. As a first step, all SW irradiances are reported to the same cwv content (2.6 cm), by using radiative transfer model calculations. Reference curves describing the downward SW and PAR irradiances are constructed by using measurements obtained
Conformal surface plasmons propagating on ultrathin and flexible films
Shen, Xiaopeng; Cui, Tie Jun; Martin-Cano, Diego; Garcia-Vidal, Francisco J.
2013-01-01
Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are localized surface electromagnetic waves that propagate along the interface between a metal and a dielectric. Owing to their inherent subwavelength confinement, SPPs have a strong potential to become building blocks of a type of photonic circuitry built up on 2D metal surfaces; however, SPPs are difficult to control on curved surfaces conformably and flexibly to produce advanced functional devices. Here we propose the concept of conformal surface plasmons (CSPs), surface plasmon waves that can propagate on ultrathin and flexible films to long distances in a wide broadband range from microwave to mid-infrared frequencies. We present the experimental realization of these CSPs in the microwave regime on paper-like dielectric films with a thickness 600-fold smaller than the operating wavelength. The flexible paper-like films can be bent, folded, and even twisted to mold the flow of CSPs. PMID:23248311
Temperature-controlled acoustic surface waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cselyuszka, Norbert; Sečujski, Milan; Engheta, Nader; Crnojević-Bengin, Vesna
2016-10-01
Conventional approaches to the control of acoustic waves propagating along boundaries between fluids and hard grooved surfaces are limited to the manipulation of surface geometry. Here we demonstrate for the first time, through theoretical analysis, numerical simulation as well as experimentally, that the velocity of acoustic surface waves, and consequently the direction of their propagation as well as the shape of their wave fronts, can be controlled by varying the temperature distribution over the surface. This significantly increases the versatility of applications such as sound trapping, acoustic spectral analysis and acoustic focusing, by providing a simple mechanism for modifying their behavior without any change in the geometry of the system. We further discuss that the dependence between the behavior of acoustic surface waves and the temperature of the fluid can be exploited conversely as well, which opens a way for potential application in the domain of temperature sensing.
Anisotropic propagation of Ca2+ waves in isolated cardiomyocytes.
Engel, J; Fechner, M; Sowerby, A J; Finch, S A; Stier, A
1994-01-01
Digital imaging microscopy of fluor-3 fluorescence was used to study the propagation of intracellular Ca2+ waves in isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes from 17 to 37 degrees C. Ca2+ waves spread in both transverse and longitudinal direction of a myocyte. Transverse propagation was pronounced in waves starting from a focus at the edge of a myocyte and in waves following an irregular, curved path (spiral waves). For the former type of waves, propagation velocities were determined. Both transverse and longitudinal wave components propagated at constant velocity ranging from 30 to 125 micron/s. Myocytes were anisotropic with respect to wave propagation: waves propagated faster in the longitudinal than in the transverse direction. The ratio between longitudinal and transverse velocity increased from 1.30 at 17 degrees C to 1.55 at 37 degrees C. Apparent activation energies for transverse and longitudinal wave propagation were estimated to be -20 kJ/mol, suggesting that these processes are limited by diffusion of Ca2+. Direction-dependent propagation velocities are interpreted to result from the highly ordered structure of the myocytes, especially from the anisotropic arrangement of diffusion obstacles such as myofilaments and mitochondria. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 PMID:8075316
Wave Propagation in Expanding Cell Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Utuje, Kazage J. Christophe; Banerjee, Shiladitya; Marchetti, M. Cristina
2014-03-01
The coordinated migration of groups of cells drives important biological processes, such as wound healing and morphogenesis. In this talk we present a minimal continuum model of an expanding cell monolayer coupling elastic deformations to myosin-based activity in the cells. The myosin-driven contractile activity is quantified by the chemical potential difference for the process of ATP hydrolysis by myosin motors. A new ingredient of the model is a feedback of the local strain rate of the monolayer on contractility that naturally yields a mechanism for viscoelasticity of the cellular medium. By combining analytics and numerics we show that this simple model reproduces qualitatively many experimental findings, including the build-up of contractile stresses at the center of the cell monolayer, and the existence of traveling mechanical waves that control spreading dynamics and stress propagation in the cell monolayer. KJCU and MCM were supported by the NSF through grants DMR-1004789 and DGE-1068780.
Wave propagation in a random medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, R. W.; Harp, J. C.
1969-01-01
A simple technique is used to derive statistical characterizations of the perturbations imposed upon a wave (plane, spherical or beamed) propagating through a random medium. The method is essentially physical rather than mathematical, and is probably equivalent to the Rytov method. The limitations of the method are discussed in some detail; in general they are restrictive only for optical paths longer than a few hundred meters, and for paths at the lower microwave frequencies. Situations treated include arbitrary path geometries, finite transmitting and receiving apertures, and anisotropic media. Results include, in addition to the usual statistical quantities, time-lagged functions, mixed functions involving amplitude and phase fluctuations, angle-of-arrival covariances, frequency covariances, and other higher-order quantities.
Zabolotin, V.V.; Uvarova, L.A.
2015-03-10
A numerical simulation of the interaction of laser radiation with dispersed particles in the course of propagation of breather in the surface layer of the liquid breather was performed. The shape and amplitude of the acoustic signal formed in this interaction were obtained. Two acoustic signals, before and after the impact of a breather on the process of optical sound generation, were compared. Results of the comparison showed that the breather spreading over the surface of the liquid medium affecst the acoustic signal and its effect must be considered in the measurements.
Models and Observations of Shock Wave Propagation in Volcanic Settings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, J.; Johnson, J. B.; Ruiz, M. C.; Steele, A.
2013-12-01
High-amplitude air waves (shock waves) propagate nonlinearly; although this strongly affects recorded signals, it is not commonly modeled in studies of volcanic explosions. Failure to account for the shock wave component of air waves can lead to underestimation of source power and inaccurate source times. Additionally, propagation effects can significantly alter waveforms from the original source signals. In order to permit more accurate studies of shock wave sources, we examine modeling techniques and observations of shock waves. Shock wave signals begin with strong, abrupt compressions that, compared to typical sound waves, propagate and decay more quickly. Because of the high-amplitude discontinuities, numerical methods that are commonly used to study linear sound waves become unstable and inaccurate when applied to shock waves. We discuss the use of other techniques that are capable of modeling shock wave propagation. Equations relating wave speed to the difference of various physical quantities across the shock (such as pressure, density, and particle velocity) are useful for modeling these waves. Addressing the shock explicitly as such, in conjunction with use of traditional numerical methods for the remainder of the signal, permits modeling of full shock waveforms. Additionally, we present examples of recorded volcanic signals that propagate nonlinearly and demonstrate propagation effects on amplitude, waveform, and spectrum.
Wave propagation in sandwich panels with a poroelastic core.
Liu, Hao; Finnveden, Svante; Barbagallo, Mathias; Arteaga, Ines Lopez
2014-05-01
Wave propagation in sandwich panels with a poroelastic core, which is modeled by Biot's theory, is investigated using the waveguide finite element method. A waveguide poroelastic element is developed based on a displacement-pressure weak form. The dispersion curves of the sandwich panel are first identified as propagating or evanescent waves by varying the damping in the panel, and wave characteristics are analyzed by examining their motions. The energy distributions are calculated to identify the dominant motions. Simplified analytical models are also devised to show the main physics of the corresponding waves. This wave propagation analysis provides insight into the vibro-acoustic behavior of sandwich panels lined with elastic porous materials.
Effect of Resolution on Propagating Detonation Wave
Menikoff, Ralph
2014-07-10
Simulations of the cylinder test are used to illustrate the effect of mesh resolution on a propagating detonation wave. For this study we use the xRage code with the SURF burn model for PBX 9501. The adaptive mesh capability of xRage is used to vary the resolution of the reaction zone. We focus on two key properties: the detonation speed and the cylinder wall velocity. The latter is related to the release isentrope behind the detonation wave. As the reaction zone is refined (2 to 15 cells for cell size of 62 to 8μm), both the detonation speed and final wall velocity change by a small amount; less than 1 per cent. The detonation speed decreases with coarser resolution. Even when the reaction zone is grossly under-resolved (cell size twice the reaction-zone width of the burn model) the wall velocity is within a per cent and the detonation speed is low by only 2 per cent.
Wave propagation, scattering and emission in complex media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Ya-Qiu
I. Polarimetric scattering and SAR imagery. EM wave propagation and scattering in polarimetric SAR interferometry / S. R. Cloude. Terrain topographic inversion from single-pass polarimetric SAR image data by using polarimetric stokes parameters and morphological algorithm / Y. Q. Jin, L. Luo. Road detection in forested area using polarimetric SAR / G. W. Dong ... [et al.]. Research on some problems about SAR radiometric resolution / G. Dong ... [et al.]. A fast image matching algorithm for remote sensing applications / Z. Q. Hou ... [et al.]. A new algorithm of noised remote sensing image fusion based on steerable filters / X. Kang ... [et al.]. Adaptive noise reduction of InSAR data based on anisotropic diffusion models and their applications to phase unwrapping / C. Wang, X. Gao, H. Zhang -- II. Scattering from randomly rough surfaces. Modeling tools for backscattering from rough surfaces / A. K. Fung, K. S. Chen. Pseudo-nondiffracting beams from rough surface scattering / E. R. Méndez, T. A. Leskova, A. A. Maradudin. Surface roughness clutter effects in GPR modeling and detection / C. Rappaport. Scattering from rough surfaces with small slopes / M. Saillard, G. Soriano. Polarization and spectral characteristics of radar signals reflected by sea-surface / V. A. Butko, V. A. Khlusov, L. I. Sharygina. Simulation of microwave scattering from wind-driven ocean surfaces / M. Y. Xia ... [et al.]. HF surface wave radar tests at the Eastern China Sea / X. B. Wu ... [et al.] -- III. Electromagnetics of complex materials. Wave propagation in plane-parallel metamaterial and constitutive relations / A. Ishimaru ... [et al.]. Two dimensional periodic approach for the study of left-handed metamaterials / T. M. Grzegorczyk ... [et al.]. Numerical analysis of the effective constitutive parameters of a random medium containing small chiral spheres / Y. Nanbu, T. Matsuoka, M. Tateiba. Wave propagation in inhomogeneous media: from the Helmholtz to the Ginzburg -Landau equation / M
Linear and nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in the atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hariharan, S. I.; Yu, Ping
1988-01-01
The investigation of the acoustic wave propagation theory and numerical implementation for the situation of an isothermal atmosphere is described. A one-dimensional model to validate an asymptotic theory and a 3-D situation to relate to a realistic situation are considered. In addition, nonlinear wave propagation and the numerical treatment are included. It is known that the gravitational effects play a crucial role in the low frequency acoustic wave propagation. They propagate large distances and, as such, the numerical treatment of those problems become difficult in terms of posing boundary conditions which are valid for all frequencies.
Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic surface waves - Nonlinear aspects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hollweg, Joseph V.
1987-01-01
The nonlinear properties of MHD surface waves in the solar atmosphere are investigated analytically, assuming that the fluid is incompressible and that the waves are confined to a single surface, with semiinfinite regions on both sides. The governing equations are derived in detail, and qualitative results are presented in a graph. For propagating waves, second-order terms in the wave amplitude are found to lead to wave steepening at leading or trailing edges, the steepening rate becoming very large as the threshold for the linear Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is approached. Second-order effects on standing waves include crest and trough sharpening (increasing with time), a current independent of distance on the surface but decreasing exponentially with distance from the surface, and pressure-field fluctuations of infinite extent. It is suggested that these effects could account for a large fraction of solar-atmosphere heating.
Generation, propagation, and breaking of internal solitary waves.
Grue, John
2005-09-01
Tidal, two-layer flow over topography generates a kink of the interface separating an upstream interfacial elevation from a depression above the topography. Upstream undular bores and solitary waves of large amplitude are generated from the interfacial kink. The waves propagate upstream when the tide turns. Interfacial simulations of this kind of generation process fit with the observations at Knight Inlet in British Columbia, in the Sulu Sea experiment, and undular bores generated by internal tides in the Strait of Gibraltar. Fully nonlinear interfacial computations compare successfully with experimental observations of solitary waves in the laboratory and in the field for wave amplitudes ranging from small to maximal values. The waves exhibit only minor sensitivity to a finite thickness of the pycnocline. Analytical solitary waves are recaptured in the small amplitude limit. Shear-induced breaking appears first in the top part of the pycnocline and is expressed in terms of the Richardson number. Convective breaking in the top part of the water column occurs beyond a threshold amplitude when a pronounced stratification continues all the way to the ocean surface.
Generation, propagation, and breaking of internal solitary waves.
Grue, John
2005-09-01
Tidal, two-layer flow over topography generates a kink of the interface separating an upstream interfacial elevation from a depression above the topography. Upstream undular bores and solitary waves of large amplitude are generated from the interfacial kink. The waves propagate upstream when the tide turns. Interfacial simulations of this kind of generation process fit with the observations at Knight Inlet in British Columbia, in the Sulu Sea experiment, and undular bores generated by internal tides in the Strait of Gibraltar. Fully nonlinear interfacial computations compare successfully with experimental observations of solitary waves in the laboratory and in the field for wave amplitudes ranging from small to maximal values. The waves exhibit only minor sensitivity to a finite thickness of the pycnocline. Analytical solitary waves are recaptured in the small amplitude limit. Shear-induced breaking appears first in the top part of the pycnocline and is expressed in terms of the Richardson number. Convective breaking in the top part of the water column occurs beyond a threshold amplitude when a pronounced stratification continues all the way to the ocean surface. PMID:16253005
Subspace model identification of guided wave propagation in metallic plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Junhee; Kim, Kiyoung; Sohn, Hoon
2014-03-01
In this study, a data-driven subspace system identification approach is proposed for modeling guided wave propagation in plate media. In the data-driven approach, the subspace system identification estimates a mathematical model fitted to experimentally measured data, but the black-box model identified captures the dynamics of wave propagation. To demonstrate the versatility of the black-box model, wave motions in various shapes of aluminum plates are investigated in the study. In addition, a waveform predictor and temperature change indicator are proposed as applications of the black-box models, to further promote the modeling approach to guided wave propagation.
Anomalous wave propagation across the South Caspian Basin
Priestly, K.; Patton, H.J.; Schultz, C.
1997-10-01
The Caspian basin blocks the propagation of the regional seismic phase Lg and this has importance consequences for seismic discrimination in the Middle East. Intermediate period surface waves propagating across the basin are also severely affected. In a separate study we have developed a crustal model of the south Caspian basin and the surrounding region. The crust of the basin consists of 15-25 km of low velocity, highly attenuating sediments lying on high velocity crystalline crust. The Moho beneath the basin is at a depth of about 30 km as compared to about 50 km in the surrounding region. In this study we used an idealized rendition of this crustal model to compute hybrid normal mode finite difference synthetic seismograms to identify the features of the Caspian basin which lead to the seismic blockage. Of the various features of the basin, the thickness and attenuation of the sediments appear to be the dominant blocking mechanism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, Glen R.; Albers, Nicole; Esposito, Larry W.
2016-10-01
The effective damping produced by particle collisions prevents most spiral density waves in Saturn's rings from propagating more than about 100 km from their resonance location. The Janus 2:1 density wave defies the usual behavior and appears to alternatively grow and decay in amplitude repeatedly as it propagates into regions of larger mean optical depth before finally disappearing over 500 km from the resonance location. Borderies et al. (1985) suggested that the effective viscous coefficients in dense rings might lead to wave growth rather than damping. Salo et al. (2001) used N-body simulations to constrain the surface density dependence of the shear and bulk viscosity in the rings and applied them to the study of axisymmetric viscous overstable waves. We modify the formalism used by Latter and Ogilvie (2009) to model the nonlinear propagation of viscous overstable waves and apply it to model the propagation of the Janus 2:1 density wave. Normal optical depth profiles obtained from Cassini UVIS observations of stellar occultations are used to constrain the mean optical depth variation with ring radius as well as the variation of the wave amplitude. We find that the viscous overstability can indeed explain how the wave amplitude can alternately grow and decay repeatedly as the wave propagates into higher optical depth regions. Detailed modeling of the Janus 2:1 density wave profile should allow us to place new constraints on the viscous properties of Saturn's inner B ring.
General constitutive model for supercooled liquids: anomalous transverse wave propagation.
Mizuno, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Ryoichi
2013-03-01
A transverse acoustic wave propagates through supercooled liquids in an anomalous manner: for a macroscopic wave number k, the wave propagates long distances, as in elastic solids, whereas it attenuates rapidly for a mesoscopic to microscopic wave number k, as in viscous liquids. In this work, we theoretically describe this anomalous wave propagation using the hydrodynamics of the two-mode Maxwell constitutive model, which were determined independently from the mechanical properties under oscillatory shear strains. To ensure that the Maxwell model can be applied down to a microscopic length scale, we extended it to a k-dependent equation, taking into account the recently reported k dependences of the shear viscosity and modulus [A. Furukawa and H. Tanaka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 135703 (2009); A. Furukawa H. Tanaka Phys. Rev. E 84, 061503 (2011)]. The anomalous wave propagation in supercooled liquids can also be understood in terms of a linear coupling of many independent normal modes, as in amorphous solids. PMID:23496725
Wave-propagation formulation of seismic response of multistory buildings
Safak, E.
1999-01-01
This paper presents a discrete-time wave-propagation method to calculate the seismic response of multistory buildings, founded on layered soil media and subjected to vertically propagating shear waves. Buildings are modeled as an extension of the layered soil media by considering each story as another layer in the wave-propagation path. The seismic response is expressed in terms of wave travel times between the layers and wave reflection and transmission coefficients at layer interfaces. The method accounts for the filtering effects of the concentrated foundation and floor masses. Compared with commonly used vibration formulation, the wave-propagation formulation provides several advantages, including simplicity, improved accuracy, better representation of damping, the ability to incorporate the soil layers under the foundation, and providing better tools for identification and damage detection from seismic records. Examples are presented to show the versatility and the superiority of the method.
Superluminal propagation of solitary kinklike waves in amplifying media.
Janowicz, Maciej; Mostowski, Jan
2006-04-01
It is shown that solitary-wave, kinklike structures can propagate superluminally in two- and four-level amplifying media with strongly damped oscillations of coherences. This is done by solving analytically the Maxwell-Bloch equations in the kinetic limit. It is also shown that the true wave fronts--unlike the pseudo wave fronts of the kinks--must propagate with velocity c, so that no violation of special relativity is possible. The conditions of experimental verification are discussed. PMID:16711948
Two cortical circuits control propagating waves in visual cortex.
Wang, Wenxue; Campaigne, Clay; Ghosh, Bijoy K; Ulinski, Philip S
2005-12-01
Visual stimuli produce waves of activity that propagate across the visual cortex of fresh water turtles. This study used a large-scale model of the cortex to examine the roles of specific types of cortical neurons in controlling the formation, speed and duration of these waves. The waves were divided into three components: initial depolarizations, primary propagating waves and secondary waves. The maximal conductances of each receptor type postsynaptic to each population of neurons in the model was systematically varied and the speed of primary waves, durations of primary waves and total wave durations were measured. The analyses indicate that wave formation and speed are controlled principally by feedforward excitation and inhibition, while wave duration is controlled principally by recurrent excitation and feedback inhibition. PMID:16284712
Electronically nonadiabatic wave packet propagation using frozen Gaussian scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondorskiy, Alexey D.; Nanbu, Shinkoh
2015-09-01
We present an approach, which allows to employ the adiabatic wave packet propagation technique and semiclassical theory to treat the nonadiabatic processes by using trajectory hopping. The approach developed generates a bunch of hopping trajectories and gives all additional information to incorporate the effect of nonadiabatic coupling into the wave packet dynamics. This provides an interface between a general adiabatic frozen Gaussian wave packet propagation method and the trajectory surface hopping technique. The basic idea suggested in [A. D. Kondorskiy and H. Nakamura, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 8937 (2004)] is revisited and complemented in the present work by the elaboration of efficient numerical algorithms. We combine our approach with the adiabatic Herman-Kluk frozen Gaussian approximation. The efficiency and accuracy of the resulting method is demonstrated by applying it to popular benchmark model systems including three Tully's models and 24D model of pyrazine. It is shown that photoabsorption spectrum is successfully reproduced by using a few hundreds of trajectories. We employ the compact finite difference Hessian update scheme to consider feasibility of the ab initio "on-the-fly" simulations. It is found that this technique allows us to obtain the reliable final results using several Hessian matrix calculations per trajectory.
Electronically nonadiabatic wave packet propagation using frozen Gaussian scattering
Kondorskiy, Alexey D.; Nanbu, Shinkoh
2015-09-21
We present an approach, which allows to employ the adiabatic wave packet propagation technique and semiclassical theory to treat the nonadiabatic processes by using trajectory hopping. The approach developed generates a bunch of hopping trajectories and gives all additional information to incorporate the effect of nonadiabatic coupling into the wave packet dynamics. This provides an interface between a general adiabatic frozen Gaussian wave packet propagation method and the trajectory surface hopping technique. The basic idea suggested in [A. D. Kondorskiy and H. Nakamura, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 8937 (2004)] is revisited and complemented in the present work by the elaboration of efficient numerical algorithms. We combine our approach with the adiabatic Herman-Kluk frozen Gaussian approximation. The efficiency and accuracy of the resulting method is demonstrated by applying it to popular benchmark model systems including three Tully’s models and 24D model of pyrazine. It is shown that photoabsorption spectrum is successfully reproduced by using a few hundreds of trajectories. We employ the compact finite difference Hessian update scheme to consider feasibility of the ab initio “on-the-fly” simulations. It is found that this technique allows us to obtain the reliable final results using several Hessian matrix calculations per trajectory.
Propagation of Long-Wavelength Nonlinear Slow Sausage Waves in Stratified Magnetic Flux Tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbulescu, M.; Erdélyi, R.
2016-05-01
The propagation of nonlinear, long-wavelength, slow sausage waves in an expanding magnetic flux tube, embedded in a non-magnetic stratified environment, is discussed. The governing equation for surface waves, which is akin to the Leibovich-Roberts equation, is derived using the method of multiple scales. The solitary wave solution of the equation is obtained numerically. The results obtained are illustrative of a solitary wave whose properties are highly dependent on the degree of stratification.
[Propagation of shear waves in the muscle tissue].
Afanas'eva, D A; Tsaturian, A K
2010-01-01
A mathematical model of the propagation of acoustic shear waves in muscle tissue is considered. The muscle is modelled by an incompressible transversely isotropic viscoelastic continuum with quasi-one-dimensional active tension. Two types of shear waves in an infinite medium have been established. The waves of the second type (transverse) propagate without attenuation even when myofibril viscosity is taken into account. A problem of standing transverse waves in a rectangular layer has been investigated numerically. The values of the problem parameters have been found for which the active tension or muscle tonus is easily estimated from the characteristics of standing waves. This value is informative for the diagnosis of muscle state.
Sources and propagation of atmospherical acoustic shock waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulouvrat, François
2012-09-01
Sources of aerial shock waves are numerous and produce acoustical signals that propagate in the atmosphere over long ranges, with a wide frequency spectrum ranging from infrasonic to audible, and with a complex human response. They can be of natural origin, like meteors, lightning or volcanoes, or human-made as for explosions, so-called "buzz-saw noise" (BSN) from aircraft engines or sonic booms. Their description, modeling and data analysis within the viewpoint of nonlinear acoustics will be the topic of the present lecture, with focus on two main points: the challenges of the source description, and the main features of nonlinear atmospheric propagation. Inter-disciplinary aspects, with links to atmospheric and geo-sciences will be outlined. Detailed description of the source is very dependent on its nature. Mobile supersonic sources can be rotating (fan blades of aircraft engines) or in translation (meteors, sonic boom). Mach numbers range from transonic to hypersonic. Detailed knowledge of geometry is critical for the processes of boom minimization and audible frequency spectrum of BSN. Sources of geophysical nature are poorly known, and various mechanisms for explaining infrasound recorded from meteors or thunderstorms have been proposed. Comparison between recorded data and modeling may be one way to discriminate between them. Moreover, the nearfield of these sources is frequently beyond the limits of acoustical approximation, or too complex for simple modeling. A proper numerical description hence requires specific matching procedures between nearfield behavior and farfield propagation. Nonlinear propagation in the atmosphere is dominated by temperature and wind stratification. Ray theory is an efficient way to analyze observations, but is invalid in various situations. Nonlinear effects are enhanced locally at caustics, or in case of grazing propagation over a rigid surface. Absorption, which controls mostly the high frequency part of the spectrum contained
Peculiarities of the Propagation of Supersonic Seismic Waves to the Upper Atmosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavrilov, Nikolai M.; Kshevetskii, Sergey P.
2016-04-01
Seismic waves generated before and after earthquakes produce vertical and horizontal motion of the Earth's surface. The perturbations can propagate upwards and produce variations and oscillations of atmospheric characteristics at different altitudes. One of the mechanisms of such ionospheric perturbations is propagation of acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) in the atmosphere caused by seismic excitations at the ground surface. The main difficulties in such explanation are high phase speeds of surface seismic waves, much exceeding the sound speed in the atmosphere near the ground. The strongest ground seismic waves are the surface Rayleigh waves, having phase speeds 3 - 4 km/s (sometimes up to 10 km/s). Traditional theory of atmospheric AGWs predicts that such supersonic excitation should produce not propagating, but trapped (or evanescent) gravity wave modes with amplitudes exponentially decaying with altitude. This can raise questions about the importance of seismic-excited supersonic waves in the formation of ionospheric disturbances. In the present study, we use the recently developed nonlinear numerical Whole-altitude Acoustic-Gravity Wave Model (WAGWM) to simulate propagation of supersonic wave modes from the ground to the upper atmosphere. The WAGWM is a three-dimensional model and uses the plain geometry. It calculates atmospheric velocity components and deviations of temperature, pressure, and density from their background values. Gavrilov and Kshevetskii (2014) described the set of used nonlinear three-dimensional equations of continuity, motion and heat balance. At the upper boundary z = 500 km we assume zero vertical velocity and zero vertical gradients of the other wave parameters. In the present research, we made calculations in rectangle region of the atmosphere and assume horizontal periodicity of wave solutions. Variations of vertical velocity produced by propagating seismic waves at the Earth's surface serve to force the waves in the model. Calculations
ON THE SOURCE OF PROPAGATING SLOW MAGNETOACOUSTIC WAVES IN SUNSPOTS
Prasad, S. Krishna; Jess, D. B.; Khomenko, Elena
2015-10-10
Recent high-resolution observations of sunspot oscillations using simultaneously operated ground- and space-based telescopes reveal the intrinsic connection between different layers of the solar atmosphere. However, it is not clear whether these oscillations are externally driven or generated in situ. We address this question by using observations of propagating slow magnetoacoustic waves along a coronal fan loop system. In addition to the generally observed decreases in oscillation amplitudes with distance, the observed wave amplitudes are also found to be modulated with time, with similar variations observed throughout the propagation path of the wave train. Employing multi-wavelength and multi-instrument data, we study the amplitude variations with time as the waves propagate through different layers of the solar atmosphere. By comparing the amplitude modulation period in different layers, we find that slow magnetoacoustic waves observed in sunspots are externally driven by photospheric p-modes, which propagate upward into the corona before becoming dissipated.
Impact of propagating and standing waves on cavitation appearance.
Kenis, Alexander M; Grinfeld, Javier; Zadicario, Eyal; Vitek, Shuki
2012-01-01
Standing waves play a significant role in the appearance of cavitation phenomena. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect that the relation between standing and propagating waves in a focused field has on acoustic bubble cloud formation. Measurements of the cavitation signals were performed on five different configurations of a hemispheric phased array transducer (230 kHz) representing a wide range of relations between propagating and standing waves. The results show that configurations with a larger propagating component induce bubble clouds at lower pressures than configurations with a larger standing component.
Do cyanobacteria swim using traveling surface waves?
Ehlers, K M; Samuel, A D; Berg, H C; Montgomery, R
1996-01-01
Bacteria that swim without the benefit of flagella might do so by generating longitudinal or transverse surface waves. For example, swimming speeds of order 25 microns/s are expected for a spherical cell propagating longitudinal waves of 0.2 micron length, 0.02 micron amplitude, and 160 microns/s speed. This problem was solved earlier by mathematicians who were interested in the locomotion of ciliates and who considered the undulations of the envelope swept out by ciliary tips. A new solution is given for spheres propagating sinusoidal waveforms rather than Legendre polynomials. The earlier work is reviewed and possible experimental tests are suggested. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8710872
Surface Acoustic Wave Microfluidics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.
2014-01-01
Fluid manipulations at the microscale and beyond are powerfully enabled through the use of 10-1,000-MHz acoustic waves. A superior alternative in many cases to other microfluidic actuation techniques, such high-frequency acoustics is almost universally produced by surface acoustic wave devices that employ electromechanical transduction in wafer-scale or thin-film piezoelectric media to generate the kinetic energy needed to transport and manipulate fluids placed in adjacent microfluidic structures. These waves are responsible for a diverse range of complex fluid transport phenomena - from interfacial fluid vibration and drop and confined fluid transport to jetting and atomization - underlying a flourishing research literature spanning fundamental fluid physics to chip-scale engineering applications. We highlight some of this literature to provide the reader with a historical basis, routes for more detailed study, and an impression of the field's future directions.
Analysis of guided wave propagation in a tapered composite panel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wandowski, Tomasz; Malinowski, Pawel; Moll, Jochen; Radzienski, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw
2015-03-01
Many studies have been published in recent years on Lamb wave propagation in isotropic and (multi-layered) anisotropic structures. In this paper, adiabatic wave propagation phenomenon in a tapered composite panel made out of glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) will be considered. Such structural elements are often used e.g. in wind turbine blades and aerospace structures. Here, the wave velocity of each wave mode does not only change with frequency and the direction of wave propagation. It further changes locally due to the varying cross-section of the GFRP panel. Elastic waves were excited using a piezoelectric transducer. Full wave-field measurements using scanning Laser Doppler vibrometry have been performed. This approach allows the detailed analysis of elastic wave propagation in composite specimen with linearly changing thickness. It will be demonstrated here experimentally, that the wave velocity changes significantly due to the tapered geometry of the structure. Hence, this work motivates the theoretical and experimental analysis of adiabatic mode propagation for the purpose of Non-Destructive Testing and Structural Health Monitoring.
Propagation of ultrasonic Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic functionally graded materials.
Kiełczyński, P; Szalewski, M; Balcerzak, A; Wieja, K
2016-02-01
This paper presents a theoretical study of the propagation behavior of ultrasonic Love waves in nonhomogeneous functionally graded elastic materials, which is a vital problem in the mechanics of solids. The elastic properties (shear modulus) of a semi-infinite elastic half-space vary monotonically with the depth (distance from the surface of the material). The Direct Sturm-Liouville Problem that describes the propagation of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic functionally graded materials is formulated and solved by using two methods: i.e., (1) Finite Difference Method, and (2) Haskell-Thompson Transfer Matrix Method. The dispersion curves of phase and group velocity of surface Love waves in inhomogeneous elastic graded materials are evaluated. The integral formula for the group velocity of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic graded materials has been established. The effect of elastic non-homogeneities on the dispersion curves of Love waves is discussed. Two Love wave waveguide structures are analyzed: (1) a nonhomogeneous elastic surface layer deposited on a homogeneous elastic substrate, and (2) a semi-infinite nonhomogeneous elastic half-space. Obtained in this work, the phase and group velocity dispersion curves of Love waves propagating in the considered nonhomogeneous elastic waveguides have not previously been reported in the scientific literature. The results of this paper may give a deeper insight into the nature of Love waves propagation in elastic nonhomogeneous functionally graded materials, and can provide theoretical guidance for the design and optimization of Love wave based devices.
Simulation of guided wave propagation near numerical Brillouin zones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kijanka, Piotr; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Packo, Pawel
2016-04-01
Attractive properties of guided waves provides very unique potential for characterization of incipient damage, particularly in plate-like structures. Among other properties, guided waves can propagate over long distances and can be used to monitor hidden structural features and components. On the other hand, guided propagation brings substantial challenges for data analysis. Signal processing techniques are frequently supported by numerical simulations in order to facilitate problem solution. When employing numerical models additional sources of errors are introduced. These can play significant role for design and development of a wave-based monitoring strategy. Hence, the paper presents an investigation of numerical models for guided waves generation, propagation and sensing. Numerical dispersion analysis, for guided waves in plates, based on the LISA approach is presented and discussed in the paper. Both dispersion and modal amplitudes characteristics are analysed. It is shown that wave propagation in a numerical model resembles propagation in a periodic medium. Consequently, Lamb wave propagation close to numerical Brillouin zone is investigated and characterized.
Local effects of gravity wave propagation and saturation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fritts, D. C.
1985-01-01
In recent years, gravity waves were recognized to play a major role in the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. Perhaps the major effect of such motions are the reversal of the vertical shear of the mean zonal wind and the occurrence of a large turbulent diffusivity in the mesosphere due to gravity wave saturation. Yet, despite the importance of these gravity wave effects, the processes and the consequences of gravity wave propagation and saturation are only beginning to be understood in detail. The linear saturation theory predicts drag and turbulent diffusion due to saturating wave motion. This theory, however, fails to address a number of issues that are certain to be important for gravity wave propagation and saturation in the middle atmosphere. These issues, including wave transience, wave superposition, local convective adjustment, and nonlinearity, are discussed.
APPARENT CROSS-FIELD SUPERSLOW PROPAGATION OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN SOLAR PLASMAS
Kaneko, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Goossens, M.; Doorsselaere, T. Van; Soler, R.; Terradas, J.; Wright, A. N.
2015-10-20
In this paper we show that the phase-mixing of continuum Alfvén waves and/or continuum slow waves in the magnetic structures of the solar atmosphere as, e.g., coronal arcades, can create the illusion of wave propagation across the magnetic field. This phenomenon could be erroneously interpreted as fast magnetosonic waves. The cross-field propagation due to the phase-mixing of continuum waves is apparent because there is no real propagation of energy across the magnetic surfaces. We investigate the continuous Alfvén and slow spectra in two-dimensional (2D) Cartesian equilibrium models with a purely poloidal magnetic field. We show that apparent superslow propagation across the magnetic surfaces in solar coronal structures is a consequence of the existence of continuum Alfvén waves and continuum slow waves that naturally live on those structures and phase-mix as time evolves. The apparent cross-field phase velocity is related to the spatial variation of the local Alfvén/slow frequency across the magnetic surfaces and is slower than the Alfvén/sound velocities for typical coronal conditions. Understanding the nature of the apparent cross-field propagation is important for the correct analysis of numerical simulations and the correct interpretation of observations.
On the Propagation and Interaction of Spherical Blast Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kandula, Max; Freeman, Robert
2007-01-01
The characteristics and the scaling laws of isolated spherical blast waves have been briefly reviewed. Both self-similar solutions and numerical solutions of isolated blast waves are discussed. Blast profiles in the near-field (strong shock region) and the far-field (weak shock region) are examined. Particular attention is directed at the blast overpressure and shock propagating speed. Consideration is also given to the interaction of spherical blast waves. Test data for the propagation and interaction of spherical blast waves emanating from explosives placed in the vicinity of a solid propellant stack are presented. These data are discussed with regard to the scaling laws concerning the decay of blast overpressure.
Seismic-acoustic finite-difference wave propagation algorithm.
Preston, Leiph; Aldridge, David Franklin
2010-10-01
An efficient numerical algorithm for treating earth models composed of fluid and solid portions is obtained via straightforward modifications to a 3D time-domain finite-difference algorithm for simulating isotropic elastic wave propagation.
Wave Propagation in Isotropic Media with Two Orthogonal Fracture Sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, S.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.
2016-10-01
Orthogonal intersecting fracture sets form fracture networks that affect the hydraulic and mechanical integrity of a rock mass. Interpretation of elastic waves propagated through orthogonal fracture networks is complicated by guided modes that propagate along and between fractures, by multiple internal reflections, as well as by scattering from fracture intersections. The existence of some or all of these potentially overlapping modes depends on local stress fields that can preferentially close or open either one or both sets of fractures. In this study, an acoustic wave front imaging system was used to examine the effect of bi-axial loading conditions on acoustic wave propagation in isotropic media containing two orthogonal fracture sets. From the experimental data, orthogonal intersecting fracture sets support guided waves that depend on fracture spacing and fracture-specific stiffnesses. In addition, fracture intersections have stronger effects on propagating wave fronts than merely the superposition of the effects of two independent fractures because of energy partitioning among transmitted/reflected waves, scattered waves and guided modes. Interpretation of the properties of fractures or fracture sets from seismic measurements must consider non-uniform fracture stiffnesses within and among fracture sets, as well as considering the striking effects of fracture intersections on wave propagation.
Love wave propagation in functionally graded piezoelectric material layer.
Du, Jianke; Jin, Xiaoying; Wang, Ji; Xian, Kai
2007-03-01
An exact approach is used to investigate Love waves in functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) layer bonded to a semi-infinite homogeneous solid. The piezoelectric material is polarized in z-axis direction and the material properties change gradually with the thickness of the layer. We here assume that all material properties of the piezoelectric layer have the same exponential function distribution along the x-axis direction. The analytical solutions of dispersion relations are obtained for electrically open or short circuit conditions. The effects of the gradient variation of material constants on the phase velocity, the group velocity, and the coupled electromechanical factor are discussed in detail. The displacement, electric potential, and stress distributions along thickness of the graded layer are calculated and plotted. Numerical examples indicate that appropriate gradient distributing of the material properties make Love waves to propagate along the surface of the piezoelectric layer, or a bigger electromechanical coupling factor can be obtained, which is in favor of acquiring a better performance in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices.
Ultrafast Imaging of Surface Plasmons Propagating on a Gold Surface
Gong, Yu; Joly, Alan G.; Hu, Dehong; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.
2015-05-13
We record time-resolved nonlinear photoemission electron microscopy (tr-PEEM) images of propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) launched from a lithographically patterned rectangular trench on a flat gold surface. Our tr-PEEM scheme involves a pair of identical, spatially separated, and interferometrically-locked femtosecond laser pulses. Power dependent PEEM images provide experimental evidence for a sequential coherent nonlinear photoemission process, in which one laser source creates a PSP polarization state through a linear interaction, and the second subsequently probes the prepared state via two photon photoemission. The recorded time-resolved movies of a PSP allow us to directly measure various properties of the surface-bound wave packet, including its carrier wavelength (785 nm) and group velocity (0.95c). In addition, tr-PEEM in concert with finite-difference time domain simulations together allow us to set a lower limit of 75 μm for the decay length of the PSP on a 100 nm thick gold film.
Lamb wave propagation in negative Poisson's ratio composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Remillat, Chrystel; Wilcox, Paul; Scarpa, Fabrizio
2008-03-01
Lamb wave propagation is evaluated for cross-ply laminate composites exhibiting through-the-thickness negative Poisson's ratio. The laminates are mechanically modeled using the Classical Laminate Theory, while the propagation of Lamb waves is investigated using a combination of semi analytical models and Finite Element time-stepping techniques. The auxetic laminates exhibit well spaced bending, shear and symmetric fundamental modes, while featuring normal stresses for A 0 mode 3 times lower than composite laminates with positive Poisson's ratio.
Teaching Wave Propagation and the Emergence of Viete's Formula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cullerne, J. P.; Goekjian, M. C. Dunn
2012-01-01
The well-known result for the frequency of a simple spring-mass system may be combined with elementary concepts like speed = wavelength x frequency to obtain wave propagation speeds for an infinite chain of springs and masses (masses "m" held apart at equilibrium distance "a" by springs of stiffness "gamma"). These propagation speeds are dependent…
Role of Hydraulic Geometry in Flood Wave Propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orlandini, S.
2010-12-01
The role of hydraulic geometry in flood wave propagation is investigated by using a diffusion wave model with inertial effects. Power function relationships W = a’Qb’ and kS = r’Qy’ are used to reproduce the at-a-station variations of water-surface width W and Gauckler-Strickler conductance coefficient kS (the inverse of Manning resistance coefficient) with flow discharge Q. Downstream variations of coefficients a’ and r’ are not considered in this study. The considered hydraulic geometry relationships are incorporated into a diffusion wave model in which the term (1 - Ve2), Ve being the Vedernikov number, multiplies the Hayami’s diffusivity Q/(2WS0), S0 being the channel bed slope. This mathematical model is solved numerically by using a matched artificial diffusivity method. Numerical experiments are carried out by evaluating peak attenuation and mean peak celerity of flood waves propagating along channel reaches characterized by coefficients a’ and r’ equal to the average values observed in natural rivers, by all the combinations of exponents b’ and y’ laying in the range 0-0.5, and by values of S0 laying in the range 0.000125-0.032. It is found that: (1) peak attenuation and mean peak celerity display the minimum values for b’ = 0.5 and y’ = 0, (2) for high values of y’, Ve displays values greater than 1 indicating physical instability of flood waves, and (3) around the condition b’ = 0 and y’ = 0, for high values of Q/W and low values of S0, the Peclet number Pe (evaluated over the channel reach length) displays values less than 2 indicating unrealistic hydraulic diffusion (more storage effects than those produced by a reservoir). The region of the plane b’y’ representing relevant flood waves lays therefore between the instability region Ve > 1, where unstable flood waves are physically possible but rarely observed in natural channels and not reproducible with the considered model, and the region of unrealistic diffusion Pe
Time dependent wave envelope finite difference analysis of sound propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumeister, K. J.
1984-01-01
A transient finite difference wave envelope formulation is presented for sound propagation, without steady flow. Before the finite difference equations are formulated, the governing wave equation is first transformed to a form whose solution tends not to oscillate along the propagation direction. This transformation reduces the required number of grid points by an order of magnitude. Physically, the transformed pressure represents the amplitude of the conventional sound wave. The derivation for the wave envelope transient wave equation and appropriate boundary conditions are presented as well as the difference equations and stability requirements. To illustrate the method, example solutions are presented for sound propagation in a straight hard wall duct and in a two dimensional straight soft wall duct. The numerical results are in good agreement with exact analytical results.
Shear wave propagation in anisotropic soft tissues and gels.
Namani, Ravi; Bayly, Philip V
2009-01-01
The propagation of shear waves in soft tissue can be visualized by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) to characterize tissue mechanical properties. Dynamic deformation of brain tissue arising from shear wave propagation may underlie the pathology of blast-induced traumatic brain injury. White matter in the brain, like other biological materials, exhibits a transversely isotropic structure, due to the arrangement of parallel fibers. Appropriate mathematical models and well-characterized experimental systems are needed to understand wave propagation in these structures. In this paper we review the theory behind waves in anisotropic, soft materials, including small-amplitude waves superimposed on finite deformation of a nonlinear hyperelastic material. Some predictions of this theory are confirmed in experimental studies of a soft material with controlled anisotropy: magnetically-aligned fibrin gel. PMID:19963987
Hybrid simulation of wave propagation in the Io plasma torus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stauffer, B. H.; Delamere, P. A.; Damiano, P. A.
2015-12-01
The transmission of waves between Jupiter and Io is an excellent case study of magnetosphere/ionosphere (MI) coupling because the power generated by the interaction at Io and the auroral power emitted at Jupiter can be reasonably estimated. Wave formation begins with mass loading as Io passes through the plasma torus. A ring beam distribution of pickup ions and perturbation of the local flow by the conducting satellite generate electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves and Alfven waves. We investigate wave propagation through the torus and to higher latitudes using a hybrid plasma simulation with a physically realistic density gradient, assessing the transmission of Poynting flux and wave dispersion. We also analyze the propagation of kinetic Alfven waves through a density gradient in two dimensions.
Influence of Plasma Pressure Fluctuation on RF Wave Propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhiwei; Bao, Weimin; Li, Xiaoping; Liu, Donglin; Zhou, Hui
2016-02-01
Pressure fluctuations in the plasma sheath from spacecraft reentry affect radio-frequency (RF) wave propagation. The influence of these fluctuations on wave propagation and wave properties is studied using methods derived by synthesizing the compressible turbulent flow theory, plasma theory, and electromagnetic wave theory. We study these influences on wave propagation at GPS and Ka frequencies during typical reentry by adopting stratified modeling. We analyzed the variations in reflection and transmission properties induced by pressure fluctuations. Our results show that, at the GPS frequency, if the waves are not totally reflected then the pressure fluctuations can remarkably affect reflection, transmission, and absorption properties. In extreme situations, the fluctuations can even cause blackout. At the Ka frequency, the influences are obvious when the waves are not totally transmitted. The influences are more pronounced at the GPS frequency than at the Ka frequency. This suggests that the latter can mitigate blackout by reducing both the reflection and the absorption of waves, as well as the influences of plasma fluctuations on wave propagation. Given that communication links with the reentry vehicles are susceptible to plasma pressure fluctuations, the influences on link budgets should be taken into consideration. supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2014CB340205) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61301173)
Self-similar propagation of Hermite-Gauss water-wave pulses.
Fu, Shenhe; Tsur, Yuval; Zhou, Jianying; Shemer, Lev; Arie, Ady
2016-01-01
We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally propagation dynamics of surface gravity water-wave pulses, having Hermite-Gauss envelopes. We show that these waves propagate self-similarly along an 18-m wave tank, preserving their general Hermite-Gauss envelopes in both the linear and the nonlinear regimes. The measured surface elevation wave groups enable observing the envelope phase evolution of both nonchirped and linearly frequency chirped Hermite-Gauss pulses, hence allowing us to measure Gouy phase shifts of high-order Hermite-Gauss pulses for the first time. Finally, when increasing pulse amplitude, nonlinearity becomes essential and the second harmonic of Hermite-Gauss waves was observed. We further show that these generated second harmonic bound waves still exhibit self-similar Hermite-Gauss shapes along the tank. PMID:26871174
Shock wave and material vapour plume propagation during excimer laser ablation of aluminium samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, S. H.; Greif, R.; Russo, R. E.
1999-10-01
A probe beam deflection technique was utilized to measure the propagation of a shock wave and material vapour plume generated during excimer laser ablation of aluminium samples. The measured transit time of the laser-induced shock wave was compared with the prediction based on an ideal blast-wave model, using the Sedov-Taylor solution. The prediction of the incident laser energy converted into the laser-induced gasdynamic flow utilizing this blast-wave model overestimated the efficiency, even under conditions when the measured shock-wave velocity follows the correct model relation. The propagation of material vapour was measured from the deflection of the probe beam at later times. The propagation velocity of material vapour ranged from 20-40 m s-1 with a greater velocity near the target surface.
Surface electromagnetic wave equations in a warm magnetized quantum plasma
Li, Chunhua; Yang, Weihong; Wu, Zhengwei; Chu, Paul K.
2014-07-15
Based on the single-fluid plasma model, a theoretical investigation of surface electromagnetic waves in a warm quantum magnetized inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The surface electromagnetic waves are assumed to propagate on the plane between a vacuum and a warm quantum magnetized plasma. The quantum magnetohydrodynamic model includes quantum diffraction effect (Bohm potential), and quantum statistical pressure is used to derive the new dispersion relation of surface electromagnetic waves. And the general dispersion relation is analyzed in some special cases of interest. It is shown that surface plasma oscillations can be propagated due to quantum effects, and the propagation velocity is enhanced. Furthermore, the external magnetic field has a significant effect on surface wave's dispersion equation. Our work should be of a useful tool for investigating the physical characteristic of surface waves and physical properties of the bounded quantum plasmas.
Autoresonant propagation of incoherent light-waves.
Barak, Assaf; Lamhot, Yuval; Friedland, Lazar; Segev, Mordechai
2010-08-16
We study, theoretically and experimentally, the evolution of optical waves with randomly-fluctuating phases in a spatially chirped nonlinear directional coupler. As the system crosses its linear resonance, we observe collective self-phase-locking (autoresonance) of all mutually-incoherent waves, each with its own pump, and simultaneous amplification until the pumps are exhausted. We show that the autoresonant transition in this system exhibits a sharp threshold, common to all mutually-incoherent waves comprising the light beam.
Conductivity dependent surface plasmon polariton propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Arshad; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Jabar, M. S. Abdul; Khan, Anwar Ali; Uddin, Rafi; Ahmad, Iftikhar
2016-09-01
Conductivity-dependent surface plasmon polariton (SPP) propagation is investigated at the interface between a metal and a tripod-type atomic medium. Our theoretical investigations show that the SPP propagation depends on the conductivity of the metallic medium and the coherent driving fields applied in the atomic medium up to a saturation limit. Further, the SPPs drag and rotate with collective spinning of the proposed structure. The rotation is modified with the spin angular velocity of the whole structure. A maximum rotation of ±4 microradians is observed. Our results may find applications in plasmonster technology.
WAVE PROPAGATION AND JET FORMATION IN THE CHROMOSPHERE
Heggland, L.; Hansteen, V. H.; Carlsson, M.; De Pontieu, B.
2011-12-20
We present the results of numerical simulations of wave propagation and jet formation in solar atmosphere models with different magnetic field configurations. The presence in the chromosphere of waves with periods longer than the acoustic cutoff period has been ascribed to either strong inclined magnetic fields, or changes in the radiative relaxation time. Our simulations include a sophisticated treatment of radiative losses, as well as fields with different strengths and inclinations. Using Fourier and wavelet analysis techniques, we investigate the periodicity of the waves that travel through the chromosphere. We find that the velocity signal is dominated by waves with periods around 5 minutes in regions of strong, inclined field, including at the edges of strong flux tubes where the field expands, whereas 3 minute waves dominate in regions of weak or vertically oriented fields. Our results show that the field inclination is very important for long-period wave propagation, whereas variations in the radiative relaxation time have little effect. Furthermore, we find that atmospheric conditions can vary significantly on timescales of a few minutes, meaning that a Fourier analysis of wave propagation can be misleading. Wavelet techniques take variations with time into account and are more suitable analysis tools. Finally, we investigate the properties of jets formed by the propagating waves once they reach the transition region, and find systematic differences between the jets in inclined-field regions and those in vertical field regions, in agreement with observations of dynamic fibrils.
Influence of atmospheric structure and topography on infrasonic wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacanna, G.; Ichihara, M.; Iwakuni, M.; Takeo, M.; Iguchi, M.; Ripepe, M.
2014-04-01
The effects of topography and atmospheric structures on infrasonic wave propagation from a volcanic source were investigated using observations and numerical modeling. This paper presents the first long-term observational data set showing spatiotemporal variations in patterns of infrasound propagation at distances of up to 60 km from a persistently active infrasound source (Sakurajima Volcano, Japan). The data show that the amplitudes of infrasonic waves received at distant stations relative to those received at a reference station close to the source can vary up to an order of magnitude over short time intervals and short distances and that they do not follow the theoretical geometric decay expected for homogeneous media. Moreover, waveforms also change significantly in both time and space. Numerical simulations were performed using a two-dimensional finite difference time domain (2-D FDTD) method. Effects of atmospheric structure and topography are included in a vertical section parallel to the wave propagation direction. The simulation successfully reproduced the variations of amplitudes and waveforms. Results are interpreted in terms of wave refraction due to sound and wind speed gradients and wave diffraction at topographic barriers. Our numerical results indicate that both atmospheric and topographic propagation effects are nonnegligible. To evaluate the propagation effects and determine source processes in spatially and temporally varying infrasound data, atmospheric data with a time resolution higher than is currently available are required. If the data are available, the present results suggest that the propagation effects could be evaluated using 2-D FDTD modeling at realistic calculation times.
Propagation and Dissipation of MHD Waves in Coronal Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dwivedi, B. N.
2006-11-01
bholadwivedi@gmail.com In view of the landmark result on the solar wind outflow, starting between 5 Mm and 20 Mm above the photosphere in magnetic funnels, we investigate the propagation and dissipation of MHD waves in coronal holes. We underline the importance of Alfvén wave dissipation in the magnetic funnels through the viscous and resistive plasma. Our results show that Alfvén waves are one of the primary energy sources in the innermost part of coronal holes where the solar wind outflow starts. We also consider compressive viscosity and thermal conductivity to study the propagation and dissipation of long period slow longitudinal MHD waves in polar coronal holes. We discuss their likely role in the line profile narrowing, and in the energy budget for coronal holes and the solar wind. We compare the contribution of longitudinal MHD waves with high frequency Alfvén waves.
Wave propagation in reconfigurable magneto-elastic kagome lattice structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaeffer, Marshall; Ruzzene, Massimo
2015-05-01
The paper discusses the wave propagation characteristics of two-dimensional magneto-elastic kagome lattices. Mechanical instabilities caused by magnetic interactions are exploited in combination with particle contact to bring about changes in the topology and stiffness of the lattices. The analysis uses a lumped mass system of particles, which interact through axial and torsional elastic forces as well as magnetic forces. The propagation of in-plane waves is predicted by applying Bloch theorem to lattice unit cells with linearized interactions. Elastic wave dispersion in these lattices before and after topological changes is compared, and large differences are highlighted.
Nonlinear propagation and control of acoustic waves in phononic superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez, Noé; Mehrem, Ahmed; Picó, Rubén; García-Raffi, Lluís M.; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor J.
2016-05-01
The propagation of intense acoustic waves in a one-dimensional phononic crystal is studied. The medium consists in a structured fluid, formed by a periodic array of fluid layers with alternating linear acoustic properties and quadratic nonlinearity coefficient. The spacing between layers is of the order of the wavelength, therefore Bragg effects such as band gaps appear. We show that the interplay between strong dispersion and nonlinearity leads to new scenarios of wave propagation. The classical waveform distortion process typical of intense acoustic waves in homogeneous media can be strongly altered when nonlinearly generated harmonics lie inside or close to band gaps. This allows the possibility of engineer a medium in order to get a particular waveform. Examples of this include the design of media with effective (e.g., cubic) nonlinearities, or extremely linear media (where distortion can be canceled). The presented ideas open a way towards the control of acoustic wave propagation in nonlinear regime. xml:lang="fr"
Plasma wave propagation with a plasma density gradient
Cho, Guangsup; Choi, Eun-Ha; Uhm, Han Sup
2011-03-15
Plasma waves with the plasma diffusion velocity u{sub n} due to a plasma density gradient are described in a positive column plasma. The ion wave is generated by the perturbation of the operating frequency 10{sup 6} s{sup -1} and it propagates with the group velocity u{sub g{approx}}c{sub s}{sup 2}/u{sub n{approx}}(10{sup 5}-10{sup 6}) m/s, where c{sub s} is the acoustic velocity in a fine tube fluorescent lamp, while the electron wave cannot be generated with a turbulence of low frequency less than the electron oscillation frequency {omega}{sub pe}. The propagation of the lighting signal observed in long tube fluorescent lamps is well understood with the propagation of ion waves occurring along the plasma density gradient.
Finite Element Modeling of Guided Wave Propagation in Plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar KM, Manoj; Ramaswamy, Sivaramanivas; Kommareddy, Vamshi; Baskaran, Ganesan; Zongqi, Sun; Kirkire, Gautam
2006-03-01
This paper aims at developing a numerical model for guided wave propagation in plates and the interaction of modes with defects using Finite Element Modeling (FEM). Guided waves propagate as extensional, flexural and torsional waves. Theoretically, these modes are infinite in number, but only some of these propagate and the others are attenuated. The dispersion curves for a structure reveal the plausibility of these modes. In this paper, FEM is used to examine interaction of first few symmetric and anti-symmetric modes independently with the cracks of various sizes in a plate. A time-frequency representation of the acquired guided wave mode signals will be discussed to show the mode sensitivity with crack size.
Wave propagation on a random lattice
Sahlmann, Hanno
2010-09-15
Motivated by phenomenological questions in quantum gravity, we consider the propagation of a scalar field on a random lattice. We describe a procedure to calculate the dispersion relation for the field by taking a limit of a periodic lattice. We use this to calculate the lowest order coefficients of the dispersion relation for a specific one-dimensional model.
Modelling propagation of deflagration waves out of hot spots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Partom, Yehuda
2015-06-01
It is widely accepted that shock initiation and detonation of heterogeneous explosives come about by a two-step process known as ignition and growth. In the first step a shock sweeping an explosive cell (control volume) creates hot spots that become ignition sites. In the second step deflagration waves (or burn waves) propagate out of those hot spots and transform the reactant in the cell into reaction products. The macroscopic (or average) reaction rate of the reactant in a cell depends on the speed of those deflagration waves and on the average distance between neighbouring hot spots. Here we simulate the propagation of deflagration waves out of hot spots on the mesoscale in axial symmetry using a 2D hydrocode, to which we add heat conduction and bulk reaction. The propagation speed of the deflagration wave depends on both pressure and temperature, where pressure dependence is dominant at low shock level, and temperature dependence is dominant at a higher shock level. From the simulation we obtain deflagration (or burn) fronts emanating out of the hot spots. For intermediate shock levels the deflagration waves consume the explosive between hot spots. For higher shock levels the deflagration waves strengthen to become detonation waves on the mesoscale. From the simulation results we extract average deflagration wave speeds and show how they depend on reaction rate and on other material parameters.
Surface waves in magnetized quantum electron-positron plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misra, A. P.; Ghosh, N. K.; Shukla, P. K.
2010-02-01
The dispersion properties of electrostatic surface waves propagating along the interface between a quantum magnetoplasma composed of electrons and positrons, and vacuum are studied by using a quantum magnetohydrodynamic plasma model. The general dispersion relation for arbitrary orientation of the magnetic field and the propagation vector is derived and analyzed in some special cases of interest (viz. when the magnetic field is directed parallel and perpendicular to the boundary surface). It is found that the quantum effects facilitate the propagation of electrostatic surface modes in a dense magnetoplasma. The effect of the external magnetic field is found to increase the frequency of the quantum surface wave. The existence of a singular wave on the boundary surface is also proved, and its properties are analyzed numerically. It is shown that the new wave characteristics appear due to the Rayleigh type of the wave.
Surface plasmon THz waves on gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazarov, Maxim; Garet, Frédéric; Armand, Damien; Shkurinov, Alexander; Coutaz, Jean-Louis
2008-03-01
Because of their long propagation length at a metal surface in the far infrared, surface plasmons make potentially feasible the design and realization of 2D integrated terahertz systems over a metallic substrate. The coupling of a terahertz beam to the surface plasmon wave is very efficiently achieved by diffraction gratings engraved at the metal surface. In this article, we present a review of some recent works we performed in view of characterizing this coupling phenomenon. The analysis of the experimental data supplied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy allows us to point out the main parameters that govern this diffraction process and the propagation of a surface plasmon over a flat or corrugated metal surface. To cite this article: M. Nazarov et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).
Three-dimensional finite-element modeling of wave propagation in a transversely isotropic medium
Sun, Y.F.; Teng, Y.C.
1994-12-31
In this research, the authors present the numerical results of three-dimensional finite element modeling of elastic wave propagation in a half space of a transversely isotropic medium. The input physical parameters are taken from the physical model used by Chang and Gardner (1992). The synthetic seismograms of the three displacement components along the axis at an azimuth of 45{degree} to the fracture orientation on the surface are shown. Snapshots taken on the free surface are illustrated which are the displacement fields with polarization in the direction perpendicular to the fracture orientation. These snapshots show clearly the elliptical patterns demonstrating the effects of anisotropy on wave propagation. Four waves, namely, the fast and slow S-waves and the fast and slow P-waves, can be clearly observed.
Generation and propagation of stick-slip waves over a fault with rate-independent friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karachevtseva, Iuliia; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena
2014-05-01
Earthquakes generated at faults are either produced by rapid (sometimes supersonic) propagation of shear cracks/ruptures along the fault or originated in the stick-slip sliding over the fault. In some cases, supersonic (faster than the shear wave velocity) propagation of earthquake-generating shear ruptures or sliding is observed. This gave rise to the concept of supersonic shear crack propagation, much researched in the literature. Here we consider another mechanisms of supersonic sliding propagation. We concentrate on the stick-slip sliding as the earthquake mechanism. It is conventionally assumed that the mechanism of stick-slip lies in intermittent change between static and kinetic friction and the rate dependence of the friction coefficient. However the accumulation of elastic energy in the sliding plates on both sides of the fault can produce oscillations in the velocity of sliding even if the friction coefficient is constant. These oscillations resemble stick-slip movement, but they manifest themselves in terms of sliding velocity rather than displacement. Furthermore, over long faults the sliding exhibits wave-like propagation. We developed a model that shows that the zones of non-zero sliding velocities propagate along the fault with the velocity of p-wave. The mechanism of such fast movement is in the fact that sliding of every element of the rock at the fault surface creates normal (tensile/compressive) stresses in the neighbouring elements (normal stresses on the planes normal to the fault surface). The strains associated with these stresses are controlled by the Young's modulus rather than shear modulus resulting in the p-wave velocity of propagation of the sliding zone. This results in the observed supersonic (with respect to the s-waves) propagation of the apparent shear rupture. Keywords: Stick-slip, Rate-independent friction, Supersonic propagation.
Impact of gravity waves on long-range infrasound propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millet, Christophe; Lott, François; De La Camara, Alvaro
2016-04-01
In this work we study infrasound propagation in acoustic waveguides that support a finite number of propagating modes. We analyze the effects of gravity waves on these acoustic waveguides. Testing sound propagation in such perturbed fields can potentially be used to improve the gravity wave models. A linear solution modeling the interaction between an incoming acoustic wave and a randomly perturbed atmosphere is developed, using the forward-scattering approximation. The wave mode structure is determined by the effective sound speed profile which is strongly affected by gravity wave breaking. The random perturbations are described by a stochastic field predicted by a multiwave stochastic parameterization of gravity waves, which is operational in the LMDz climate model. The justification for this approach is two fold. On the one hand, the use of a few monochromatic waves mimics the observations of rather narrow-banded gravity wave packets in the lower stratosphere. On the other hand, the stochastic sampling of the gravity wave field and the random choice of wave properties deals with the inherent unpredictability of mesoscale dynamics from large scale conditions provided by the meteorological reanalysis. The transmitted acoustic signals contain a stable front and a small-amplitude incoherent coda. A general expression for the stable front is derived in terms of saddle-point contributions. The saddle-points are obtained from a WKB approximation of the vertical eigenvalue problem. This approach extract the dominant effects in the acoustic - gravity wave interaction. We present results that show how statistics of the transmitted signal are related to a few saddle-points and how the GW field can trigger large deviations in the acoustic signals. While some of the characteristics of the stable front can be directly related to that of a few individual gravity waves, it is shown that the amount of the launched gravity waves included in climate models can be estimated using
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riobóo, Rafael J. Jiménez; Prieto, Carlos; Cuscó, Ramón; Artús, Lluís; Boney, Chris; Bensaoula, Abdelhak; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Nanishi, Yasushi
2013-05-01
Temperature-dependent surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation velocity and temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) have been determined for the first time in InxGa1-xN alloys by means of high-resolution Brillouin spectroscopy (HRBS). HRBS offers an alternative way of determining TCF. The obtained TCF values present a non-linear behavior with the In concentration. TCF of pure InN (-13.75 ppm/K) is similar to those of AlN and GaN (-19 and -17.7 ppm/K, respectively). InxGa1-xN samples exhibit frequency values that are very stable against temperature changes, which makes InxGa1-xN a good candidate for current SAW-based technological applications.
Wave propagation in fiber composite laminates, part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daniel, I. M.; Liber, T.
1976-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the wave propagation characteristics, transient strains and residual properties in unidirectional and angle-ply boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy laminates impacted with silicone rubber projectiles at velocities up to 250 MS-1. The predominant wave is flexural, propagating at different velocities in different directions. In general, measured wave velocities were higher than theoretically predicted values. The amplitude of the in-plane wave is less than ten percent of that of the flexural wave. Peak strains and strain rates in the transverse to the (outer) fiber direction are much higher than those in the direction of the fibers. The dynamics of impact were also studied with high speed photography.
Spatial damping of propagating sausage waves in coronal cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui
2015-09-01
Context. Sausage modes are important in coronal seismology. Spatially damped propagating sausage waves were recently observed in the solar atmosphere. Aims: We examine how wave leakage influences the spatial damping of sausage waves propagating along coronal structures modeled by a cylindrical density enhancement embedded in a uniform magnetic field. Methods: Working in the framework of cold magnetohydrodynamics, we solve the dispersion relation (DR) governing sausage waves for complex-valued, longitudinal wavenumber k at given real angular frequencies ω. For validation purposes, we also provide analytical approximations to the DR in the low-frequency limit and in the vicinity of ωc, the critical angular frequency separating trapped from leaky waves. Results: In contrast to the standing case, propagating sausage waves are allowed for ω much lower than ωc. However, while able to direct their energy upward, these low-frequency waves are subject to substantial spatial attenuation. The spatial damping length shows little dependence on the density contrast between the cylinder and its surroundings, and depends only weakly on frequency. This spatial damping length is of the order of the cylinder radius for ω ≲ 1.5vAi/a, where a and vAi are the cylinder radius and the Alfvén speed in the cylinder, respectively. Conclusions: If a coronal cylinder is perturbed by symmetric boundary drivers (e.g., granular motions) with a broadband spectrum, wave leakage efficiently filters out the low-frequency components.
Scattering effects on lower hybrid wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertelli, N.; Phillips, C. K.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R.; Baek, S. G.; Bonoli, P. T.; Parker, R. R.; Wallace, G.; Wright, J. C.; Harvey, R. W.; Smirnov, A. P.
2012-10-01
The effects of edge plasma density fluctuations on the scattering of lower hybrid (LH) waves are studied. Scattering can improve the penetration of LH waves into the plasma core due to the k upshift that occurs through the poloidal field (because the rotation of k induces a finite poloidal mode number). Scattering can also inhibit wave penetration depending on the density fluctuation levels, resulting in enhanced collisional absorption of the waves in the SOL at high density. These two effects might contribute, respectively, to resolving the ``spectral gap'' problem [Bonoli P. T. and R. C. Englade, Phys. Fluids 9 (1986) 2937] and the ``density limit'' in the efficiency of LHCD [Wallace G. et al., Phys. Plasmas 17 (2010) 082508]. The scattering model used is based on the work of Bonoli and Ott [Phys. Fluids 25 (1982) 361] that introduces an electromagnetic wave kinetic equation solved by a Monte Carlo technique. This equation has been implemented in the ray tracing code GENRAY, which explicitly includes the SOL region. A detailed analysis of this scattering model will be presented in comparison with the experimental observations of LHCD for Alcator C-Mod tokamak.
Spin-wave propagation steered by electric field modulated exchange interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Sheng; Guan, Xiawei; Cheng, Xiaomin; Lian, Chen; Huang, Ting; Miao, Xiangshui
2016-09-01
Combined ab initio and micromagnetic simulations are carried out to demonstrate the feasibility on the electrical manipulation of spin-wave propagation in ultrathin Fe films. It is discovered that the exchange interaction can be substantially weakened under the influence of electric field applied perpendicular to the magnetic film surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the electric field modified exchange constant could effectively control the propagation of spin waves. To be specific, an external applied electric field of 5 V/nm can effectively weaken exchange interaction by 80% and is sufficient to induce nearly twofold change of the wavenumber. This discovery may open a door to energy-efficient local manipulation of the spin wave propagation utilizing electric fields, which is crucial for both fundamental research and spin wave based logic applications.
Spin-wave propagation steered by electric field modulated exchange interaction.
Wang, Sheng; Guan, Xiawei; Cheng, Xiaomin; Lian, Chen; Huang, Ting; Miao, Xiangshui
2016-01-01
Combined ab initio and micromagnetic simulations are carried out to demonstrate the feasibility on the electrical manipulation of spin-wave propagation in ultrathin Fe films. It is discovered that the exchange interaction can be substantially weakened under the influence of electric field applied perpendicular to the magnetic film surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the electric field modified exchange constant could effectively control the propagation of spin waves. To be specific, an external applied electric field of 5 V/nm can effectively weaken exchange interaction by 80% and is sufficient to induce nearly twofold change of the wavenumber. This discovery may open a door to energy-efficient local manipulation of the spin wave propagation utilizing electric fields, which is crucial for both fundamental research and spin wave based logic applications. PMID:27587083
Spin-wave propagation steered by electric field modulated exchange interaction
Wang, Sheng; Guan, Xiawei; Cheng, Xiaomin; Lian, Chen; Huang, Ting; Miao, Xiangshui
2016-01-01
Combined ab initio and micromagnetic simulations are carried out to demonstrate the feasibility on the electrical manipulation of spin-wave propagation in ultrathin Fe films. It is discovered that the exchange interaction can be substantially weakened under the influence of electric field applied perpendicular to the magnetic film surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the electric field modified exchange constant could effectively control the propagation of spin waves. To be specific, an external applied electric field of 5 V/nm can effectively weaken exchange interaction by 80% and is sufficient to induce nearly twofold change of the wavenumber. This discovery may open a door to energy-efficient local manipulation of the spin wave propagation utilizing electric fields, which is crucial for both fundamental research and spin wave based logic applications. PMID:27587083
Surface waves affect frontogenesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Hamlington, Peter E.; Van Roekel, Luke P.
2016-05-01
This paper provides a detailed analysis of momentum, angular momentum, vorticity, and energy budgets of a submesoscale front undergoing frontogenesis driven by an upper-ocean, submesoscale eddy field in a Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The LES solves the wave-averaged, or Craik-Leibovich, equations in order to account for the Stokes forces that result from interactions between nonbreaking surface waves and currents, and resolves both submesoscale eddies and boundary layer turbulence down to 4.9 m × 4.9 m × 1.25 m grid scales. It is found that submesoscale frontogenesis differs from traditional frontogenesis theory due to four effects: Stokes forces, momentum and kinetic energy transfer from submesoscale eddies to frontal secondary circulations, resolved turbulent stresses, and unbalanced torque. In the energy, momentum, angular momentum, and vorticity budgets for the frontal overturning circulation, the Stokes shear force is a leading-order contributor, typically either the second or third largest source of frontal overturning. These effects violate hydrostatic and thermal wind balances during submesoscale frontogenesis. The effect of the Stokes shear force becomes stronger with increasing alignment of the front and Stokes shear and with a nondimensional scaling. The Stokes shear force and momentum transfer from submesoscale eddies significantly energize the frontal secondary circulation along with the buoyancy.
Geometric effects on stress wave propagation.
Johnson, K L; Trim, M W; Horstemeyer, M F; Lee, N; Williams, L N; Liao, J; Rhee, H; Prabhu, R
2014-02-01
The present study, through finite element simulations, shows the geometric effects of a bioinspired solid on pressure and impulse mitigation for an elastic, plastic, and viscoelastic material. Because of the bioinspired geometries, stress wave mitigation became apparent in a nonintuitive manner such that potential real-world applications in human protective gear designs are realizable. In nature, there are several toroidal designs that are employed for mitigating stress waves; examples include the hyoid bone on the back of a woodpecker's jaw that extends around the skull to its nose and a ram's horn. This study evaluates four different geometries with the same length and same initial cross-sectional diameter at the impact location in three-dimensional finite element analyses. The geometries in increasing complexity were the following: (1) a round cylinder, (2) a round cylinder that was tapered to a point, (3) a round cylinder that was spiraled in a two dimensional plane, and (4) a round cylinder that was tapered and spiraled in a two-dimensional plane. The results show that the tapered spiral geometry mitigated the greatest amount of pressure and impulse (approximately 98% mitigation) when compared to the cylinder regardless of material type (elastic, plastic, and viscoelastic) and regardless of input pressure signature. The specimen taper effectively mitigated the stress wave as a result of uniaxial deformational processes and an induced shear that arose from its geometry. Due to the decreasing cross-sectional area arising from the taper, the local uniaxial and shear stresses increased along the specimen length. The spiral induced even greater shear stresses that help mitigate the stress wave and also induced transverse displacements at the tip such that minimal wave reflections occurred. This phenomenon arose although only longitudinal waves were introduced as the initial boundary condition (BC). In nature, when shearing occurs within or between materials
Surface acoustic wave mode conversion resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, S. J.; Gunshor, R. L.; Melloch, M. R.; Datta, S.; Pierret, R. F.
1983-08-01
The fact that a ZnO-on-Si structure supports two distinct surface waves, referred to as the Rayleigh and the Sezawa modes, if the ZnO layer is sufficiently thick is recalled. A description is given of a unique surface wave resonator that operates by efficiently converting between the two modes at the resonant frequency. Since input and output coupling is effected through different modes, the mode conversion resonator promises enhanced out-of-band signal rejection. A Rayleigh wave traversing the resonant cavity in one direction is reflected as a Sezawa wave. It is pointed out that the off-resonance rejection of the mode conversion resonator could be enhanced by designing the transducers to minimize the level of cross coupling between transducers and propagating modes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eslaminia, Mehran
A novel method is developed to approximately solve acoustic wave equation in the frequency domain. The key idea of the method is to partition the domain into smaller subdomains and solve for the wavefield in each subdomain sequentially, which is facilitated by special interface (continuity) conditions. The sequential solution is performed in two steps: First the downward propagating wavefield is computed considering only downward propagation and transmission at the interfaces. The wavefield is then corrected by adding the upward propagating wavefield resulting from reflections and body forces. It is shown that the proposed method results in accurate amplitudes for downward propagation and primary reflections and is hence called the Amplitude-Preserving Propagator. This novel wave propagator leads to three disparate contributions in large scale computational wave modeling and seismic imaging: forward modeling, migration imaging and full waveform inversion. Forward Modeling: The amplitude-preserving propagator is implemented as a preconditioner to iteratively solve the Helmholtz equation. The effectiveness of the proposed preconditioner is studied using various numerical experiments. We show three significant properties of the proposed preconditioner. First, number of iterations grows very slowly with increasing frequency which is a significant advantage compared to other methods, e.g. sweeping preconditioner. Second, the mesh size (i.e. number of elements per wavelength) does not change number of iterations. Third, and the most important one, the computational time is much less than many other preconditioners. Migration Imaging: In the context of migration imaging, the amplitude-preserving propagator is implemented as an efficient forward solver to perform wave propagation simulation in the frequency domain. We show that the propagator results in a new migration algorithm that is almost as accurate as full-wave migration, while being significantly more efficient
Investigation of plasma waves propagation around traversible wormhole's throat
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramezani-Arani, Reza; Mirzaee, Ali Reza; Abdoli-Arani, Abbas
2015-01-01
The ? formalism of general relativity is used in a preliminary investigation of waves propagating in a plasma around the throat of traversible wormhole. The relativistic two-fluid equations are used to take account of gravitational effects due to the throat of traversible wormhole. Here, a local approximation is used to investigate the one-dimensional electromagnetic waves radial propagation near the throat of wormhole. We use approximation near by the throat of wormhole for one-dimensional radial propagation. The dispersion relations for the transverse and longitudinal electromagnetic waves are obtained. Finally, the components of stress-energy tensor and the zero tidal force, and so flaring-out condition for traversible wormhole metric are calculated.
Localization of angular momentum in optical waves propagating through turbulence.
Sanchez, Darryl J; Oesch, Denis W
2011-12-01
This is the first in a series of papers demonstrating that photons with orbital angular momentum can be created in optical waves propagating through distributed turbulence. The scope of this first paper is much narrower. Here, we demonstrate that atmospheric turbulence can impart non-trivial angular momentum to beams and that this non-trivial angular momentum is highly localized. Furthermore, creation of this angular momentum is a normal part of propagation through atmospheric turbulence. PMID:22273930
Localization of angular momentum in optical waves propagating through turbulence.
Sanchez, Darryl J; Oesch, Denis W
2011-12-01
This is the first in a series of papers demonstrating that photons with orbital angular momentum can be created in optical waves propagating through distributed turbulence. The scope of this first paper is much narrower. Here, we demonstrate that atmospheric turbulence can impart non-trivial angular momentum to beams and that this non-trivial angular momentum is highly localized. Furthermore, creation of this angular momentum is a normal part of propagation through atmospheric turbulence.
Pc1 propagation in the ionospheric duct: wave vector determination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomura, Reiko; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Narita, Yasuhito; Plaschke, Fedinand; Mann, Ian
2013-04-01
Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations (Pc1) are believed to propagate as fast mode waves in the ionospheric duct. Previous studies tried to locate the Pc1 source region with different methods using the characteristics of the ionospheric duct propagation (e.g., polarization method and amplitude distributions). However, no observational study of the wave vectors and the dispersion relations in the Pc1 source region has been compared with the results estimated from model calculations of the Pc1 ionospheic duct propagation. We have investigated propagation directions of Pc1 pulsations in the ionospheric duct with the 2D Wave Telescope technique. For our study, we used ground-based measurements of Pc1 pulsations from 27 May 2011, observed at 17 different stations of the Canadian magnetometer network CARISMA (www.carisma.ca). These multi-point measurements allow to derive detailed information directly on the wave propagation directions. We also show the dispersion relation of the Pc1 pulsations in the ionospheric duct.
On the propagation of Voigt waves in energetically active materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh
2016-11-01
If Voigt-wave propagation is possible in a dissipative anisotropic dielectric material characterised by the permittivity dyadic \\mathop{\\varepsilon }\\limits\\raise{2pt=}, then it is also possible in the analogous energetically active material characterised by the permittivity dyadic \\mathop{\\tilde{\\varepsilon }}\\limits\\raise{2pt=}, where \\mathop{\\tilde{\\varepsilon }}\\limits\\raise{2pt=} is the hermitian conjugate of \\mathop{\\varepsilon }\\limits\\raise{2pt=}. This symmetry follows directly from a theoretical analysis of the necessary and sufficient conditions for Voigt-wave propagation in anisotropic materials. As a consequence of this symmetry, a porous dissipative material that exhibits Voigt-wave propagation can be used to construct a material that allows the propagation of Voigt waves with attendant linear gain in amplitude with propagation distance, by means of infiltration with an electrically or optically activated dye, for example. This phenomenon is captured by the Bruggeman formalism for homogenised composite materials based on isotropic dielectric component materials that are randomly distributed as oriented spheroidal particles.
Spectral-Element Simulations of Wave Propagation in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morency, C.; Tromp, J.
2007-12-01
Biot theory has been extensively used in the petroleum industry, where seismic surveys are performed to determine the physical properties of reservoir rocks. The theory is also of broad general interest when a physical understanding of the coupling between solid and fluid phases is desired. One fundamental result of Biot theory is the prediction of a second compressional wave, which attenuates rapidly, often referred to as "type II" or "Biot's slow compressional wave", in addition to the classical fast compressional and shear waves. The mathematical formulation of wave propagation in porous media developed by Biot is based upon the principle of virtual work, ignoring processes at the microscopic level. Moreover, even if the Biot formulations are claimed to be valid for non-uniform porosity, gradients in porosity are not explicitly incorporated in the original theory. More recent studies focused on averaging techniques to derive the macroscopic porous medium equations from the microscale, and made an attempt to derive an expression for the change in porosity, but there is still room for clarification of such an expression, and to properly integrate the effects of gradients in porosity. We aim to present a straightforward derivation of the main equations describing wave propagation in porous media, with a particular emphasis on the effects of gradients in porosity. We also present a two dimensional numerical implementation of these equations using a spectral-element method. Finally, we have performed different benchmarks to validate our method, involving acoustic-poroelastic waves interaction and wave propagation in heterogenous porous media.
Maxwell Equation for the Coupled Spin-Charge Wave Propagation
Bernevig, B.Andrei; Yu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-01-15
We show that the dissipationless spin current in the ground state of the Rashba model gives rise to a reactive coupling between the spin and charge propagation, which is formally identical to the coupling between the electric and the magnetic fields in the 2 + 1 dimensional Maxwell equation. This analogy leads to a remarkable prediction that a density packet can spontaneously split into two counter propagation packets, each carrying the opposite spins. In a certain parameter regime, the coupled spin and charge wave propagates like a transverse 'photon'. We propose both optical and purely electronic experiments to detect this effect.
The influence of polarization on millimeter wave propagation through rain
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bostian, C. W.; Stutzman, W. L.
1972-01-01
A program for the measurement and analysis of the depolarization and differential attenuation that occur when millimeter wave signals propagate through rain is described. Initial data are taken along a 1.43 km path at 17.65 GHz and a supporting theoretical model is developed to relate the propagation effects to rainfall rate and wind velocity. A block diagram of the overall experiment is included. It consists of: (1) an RF system (millimeter wave transmitter and receiver), (2) transmitting and receiving antennas, (3) a weather system with rain gauges, wind sensors, and drop counters, and (4) a digital control, processing, and data storage system.
A nonlinear wave equation in nonadiabatic flame propagation
Booty, M.R.; Matalon, M.; Matkowsky, B.J.
1988-06-01
The authors derive a nonlinear wave equation from the diffusional thermal model of gaseous combustion to describe the evolution of a flame front. The equation arises as a long wave theory, for values of the volumeric heat loss in a neighborhood of the extinction point (beyond which planar uniformly propagating flames cease to exist), and for Lewis numbers near the critical value beyond which uniformly propagating planar flames lose stability via a degenerate Hopf bifurcation. Analysis of the equation suggests the possibility of a singularity developing in finite time.
Propagating spectroscopy of backward volume spin waves in a metallic FeNi film
Sato, N.; Ishida, N.; Kawakami, T.; Sekiguchi, K.
2014-01-20
We report a propagating spin wave spectroscopy for a magnetostatic backward volume spin wave in a metallic Fe{sub 19}Ni{sub 81} film. We show that the mutual-inductance between two independent antennas detects a small but clear propagation signal of backward volume spin waves. All experimental data are consistent with the time-domain propagating spin-wave spectroscopy. The control of propagating backward spin wave enables to realize the miniaturize spin-wave circuit.
Direct observation of negative-index microwave surface waves.
Dockrey, J A; Horsley, S A R; Hooper, I R; Sambles, J R; Hibbins, A P
2016-01-01
Waves propagating in a negative-index material have wave-front propagation (wavevector, k) opposite in direction to that of energy flow (Poynting vector, S). Here we present an experimental realisation at microwave frequencies of an analogous surface wave phenomenon whereby a metasurface supports a surface mode that has two possible wavevector eigenstates within a narrow band of frequencies: one that supports surface waves with positive mode index, and another that supports surface waves with negative mode index. Phase sensitive measurements of the near-field of surface waves across the metasurface show the contrasting spatial evolution of the two eigenstates, providing a unique opportunity to directly observe the negative-index phenomenon. PMID:26903284
Direct observation of negative-index microwave surface waves
Dockrey, J. A.; Horsley, S. A. R.; Hooper, I. R.; Sambles, J. R.; Hibbins, A. P.
2016-01-01
Waves propagating in a negative-index material have wave-front propagation (wavevector, k) opposite in direction to that of energy flow (Poynting vector, S). Here we present an experimental realisation at microwave frequencies of an analogous surface wave phenomenon whereby a metasurface supports a surface mode that has two possible wavevector eigenstates within a narrow band of frequencies: one that supports surface waves with positive mode index, and another that supports surface waves with negative mode index. Phase sensitive measurements of the near-field of surface waves across the metasurface show the contrasting spatial evolution of the two eigenstates, providing a unique opportunity to directly observe the negative-index phenomenon. PMID:26903284
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Seulong; Kim, Kihong
2016-06-01
Bi-isotropic media, which include isotropic chiral media and Tellegen media as special cases, are the most general form of linear isotropic media where the electric displacement and the magnetic induction are related to both the electric field and the magnetic intensity. In inhomogeneous bi-isotropic media, electromagnetic waves of two different polarizations are coupled to each other. In this paper, we develop a generalized version of the invariant imbedding method for the study of wave propagation in arbitrarily inhomogeneous stratified bi-isotropic media, which can be used to solve the coupled wave propagation problem accurately and efficiently. We verify the validity and usefulness of the method by applying it to several examples, including the wave propagation in a uniform chiral slab, the surface wave excitation in a bilayer system made of a layer of Tellegen medium and a metal layer, and the mode conversion of transverse electromagnetic waves into longitudinal plasma oscillations in inhomogeneous Tellegen media. In contrast to the case of ordinary isotropic media, we find that the surface wave excitation and the mode conversion occur for both s and p waves in bi-isotropic media.
Numerical study on pressure wave propagation in a mercury loop
Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Riemer, Bernie; Wendel, Mark W; Haines, John R
2008-01-01
On-beam tests were carried out at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Weapons Neutron Research (LANSCE WNR) facility in June 2005 to investigate pressure wave mitigation in mercury targets for the MW-class spallation neutron sources under international collaboration between US Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and Japanese Spallation Neutron Source (JSNS). A mercury loop was used for the target, a so-called In-Beam Bubbling Test Loop (IBBTL). The loop consists of the rectangular pipe of 25 mm x 50 mm^2 in cross section, 1.5 mm in wall thickness and 2 m in total length approximately. The SNS team set 8 strain sensors on the pipe wall to measure the strain propagation caused by the pressure wave. The maximum strain appeared at 350 mm apart from the proton-bombarded point at 5.5 ms after the proton bombardment. It is known that the propagation velocity of the pressure wave in mercury is ca. 1500 m/s and that of the stress wave in stainless steel is ca. 5000 m/s. However, the apparent wave propagation velocity in the IBBTL was lower than those velocities and was observed to be 65 m/s. Numerical analysis was carried out to understand the strain propagation in the pipe wall of the IBBTL. Numerical results showed that the maximum strain at 350 mm apart from the beam spot appeared at 5.5 ms after proton bombardment in good agreement with experimental results.
Propagation of sound waves in tubes of noncircular cross section
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richards, W. B.
1986-01-01
Plane-acoustic-wave propagation in small tubes with a cross section in the shape of a flattened oval is described. Theoretical descriptions of a plane wave propagating in a tube with circular cross section and between a pair of infinite parallel plates, including viscous and thermal damping, are expressed in similar form. For a wide range of useful duct sizes, the propagation constant (whose real and imaginary parts are the amplitude attenuation rate and the wave number, respectively) is very nearly the same function of frequency for both cases if the radius of the circular tube is the same as the distance between the parallel plates. This suggests that either a circular-cross-section model or a flat-plate model can be used to calculate wave propagation in flat-oval tubing, or any other shape tubing, if its size is expressed in terms of an equivalent radius, given by g = 2 x (cross-sectional area)/(length of perimeter). Measurements of the frequency response of two sections of flat-oval tubing agree with calculations based on this idea. Flat-plate formulas are derived, the use of transmission-line matrices for calculations of plane waves in compound systems of ducts is described, and examples of computer programs written to carry out the calculations are shown.
Multi-layer Study of Wave Propagation in Sunspots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felipe, T.; Khomenko, E.; Collados, M.; Beck, C.
2010-10-01
We analyze the propagation of waves in sunspots from the photosphere to the chromosphere using time series of co-spatial Ca II H intensity spectra (including its line blends) and polarimetric spectra of Si I λ10,827 and the He I λ10,830 multiplet. From the Doppler shifts of these lines we retrieve the variation of the velocity along the line of sight at several heights. Phase spectra are used to obtain the relation between the oscillatory signals. Our analysis reveals standing waves at frequencies lower than 4 mHz and a continuous propagation of waves at higher frequencies, which steepen into shocks in the chromosphere when approaching the formation height of the Ca II H core. The observed nonlinearities are weaker in Ca II H than in He I lines. Our analysis suggests that the Ca II H core forms at a lower height than the He I λ10,830 line: a time delay of about 20 s is measured between the Doppler signal detected at both wavelengths. We fit a model of linear slow magnetoacoustic wave propagation in a stratified atmosphere with radiative losses according to Newton's cooling law to the phase spectra and derive the difference in the formation height of the spectral lines. We show that the linear model describes well the wave propagation up to the formation height of Ca II H, where nonlinearities start to become very important.
Holographic measurement of wave propagation in axi-symmetric shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evensen, D. A.; Aprahamian, R.; Jacoby, J. L.
1972-01-01
The report deals with the use of pulsed, double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the propagation of transverse waves in thin-walled axi-symmetric shells. The report is subdivided into sections dealing with: (1) wave propagation in circular cylindrical shells, (2) wave propagation past cut-outs and stiffeners, and (3) wave propagation in conical shells. Several interferograms are presented herein which show the waves reflecting from the shell boundaries, from cut-outs, and from stiffening rings. The initial response of the shell was nearly axi-symmetric in all cases, but nonsymmetric modes soon appeared in the radial response. This result suggests that the axi-symmetric response of the shell may be dynamically unstable, and thus may preferentially excite certain circumferential harmonics through parametric excitation. Attempts were made throughout to correlate the experimental data with analysis. For the most part, good agreement between theory and experiment was obtained. Occasional differences were attributed primarily to simplifying assumptions used in the analysis. From the standpoint of engineering applications, it is clear that pulsed laser holography can be used to obtain quantitative engineering data. Areas of dynamic stress concentration, stress concentration factors, local anomalies, etc., can be readily determined by holography.
Propagation of elastic waves through textured polycrystals: application to ice
Maurel, Agnès; Lund, Fernando; Montagnat, Maurine
2015-01-01
The propagation of elastic waves in polycrystals is revisited, with an emphasis on configurations relevant to the study of ice. Randomly oriented hexagonal single crystals are considered with specific, non-uniform, probability distributions for their major axis. Three typical textures or fabrics (i.e. preferred grain orientations) are studied in detail: one cluster fabric and two girdle fabrics, as found in ice recovered from deep ice cores. After computing the averaged elasticity tensor for the considered textures, wave propagation is studied using a wave equation with elastic constants c=〈c〉+δc that are equal to an average plus deviations, presumed small, from that average. This allows for the use of the Voigt average in the wave equation, and velocities are obtained solving the appropriate Christoffel equation. The velocity for vertical propagation, as appropriate to interpret sonic logging measurements, is analysed in more details. Our formulae are shown to be accurate at the 0.5% level and they provide a rationale for previous empirical fits to wave propagation velocities with a quantitative agreement at the 0.07–0.7% level. We conclude that, within the formalism presented here, it is appropriate to use, with confidence, velocity measurements to characterize ice fabrics. PMID:27547099
A space-time discretization procedure for wave propagation problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Sanford
1989-01-01
Higher order compact algorithms are developed for the numerical simulation of wave propagation by using the concept of a discrete dispersion relation. The dispersion relation is the imprint of any linear operator in space-time. The discrete dispersion relation is derived from the continuous dispersion relation by examining the process by which locally plane waves propagate through a chosen grid. The exponential structure of the discrete dispersion relation suggests an efficient splitting of convective and diffusive terms for dissipative waves. Fourth- and eighth-order convection schemes are examined that involve only three or five spatial grid points. These algorithms are subject to the same restrictions that govern the use of dispersion relations in the constructions of asymptotic expansions to nonlinear evolution equations. A new eighth-order scheme is developed that is exact for Courant numbers of 1, 2, 3, and 4. Examples are given of a pulse and step wave with a small amount of physical diffusion.
Propagation of guided waves through weak penetrable scatterers.
Maurel, Agnès; Mercier, Jean-François
2012-03-01
The scattering of a scalar wave propagating in a waveguide containing weak penetrable scatterers is inspected in the Born approximation. The scatterers are of arbitrary shape and present a contrast both in density and in wavespeed (or bulk modulus), a situation that can be translated in the context of SH waves, water waves, or transverse electric/transverse magnetic polarized electromagnetic waves. For small size inclusions compared to the waveguide height, analytical expressions of the transmission and reflection coefficients are derived, and compared to results of direct numerical simulations. The cases of periodically and randomly distributed inclusions are considered in more detail, and compared with unbounded propagation through inclusions. Comparisons with previous results valid in the low frequency regime are proposed. PMID:22423685
Propagation of guided waves through weak penetrable scatterers.
Maurel, Agnès; Mercier, Jean-François
2012-03-01
The scattering of a scalar wave propagating in a waveguide containing weak penetrable scatterers is inspected in the Born approximation. The scatterers are of arbitrary shape and present a contrast both in density and in wavespeed (or bulk modulus), a situation that can be translated in the context of SH waves, water waves, or transverse electric/transverse magnetic polarized electromagnetic waves. For small size inclusions compared to the waveguide height, analytical expressions of the transmission and reflection coefficients are derived, and compared to results of direct numerical simulations. The cases of periodically and randomly distributed inclusions are considered in more detail, and compared with unbounded propagation through inclusions. Comparisons with previous results valid in the low frequency regime are proposed.
Two-wave propagation in in vitro swine distal ulna
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mano, Isao; Horii, Kaoru; Matsukawa, Mami; Otani, Takahiko
2015-07-01
Ultrasonic transmitted waves were obtained in an in vitro swine distal ulna specimen, which mimics a human distal radius, that consists of interconnected cortical bone and cancellous bone. The transmitted waveforms appeared similar to the fast waves, slow waves, and overlapping fast and slow waves measured in the specimen after removing the surface cortical bone (only cancellous bone). In addition, the circumferential waves in the cortical bone and water did not affect the fast and slow waves. This suggests that the fast-and-slow-wave phenomenon can be observed in an in vivo human distal radius.
Skewon field and cosmic wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ni, Wei-Tou
2014-03-01
We study the propagation of the Hehl-Obukhov-Rubilar skewon field in weak gravity field/dilute matter or with weak violation of the Einstein Equivalence Principle (EEP), and further classify it into Type I and Type II skewons. From the dispersion relation we show that no dissipation/no amplification condition implies that the additional skewon field must be of Type II. For Type I skewon field, the dissipation/amplification is proportional to the frequency and the CMB spectrum would deviate from Planck spectrum. From the high precision agreement of the CMB spectrum with 2.755 K Planck spectrum, we constrain the Type I cosmic skewon field |χijkl(SkI)| to ⩽ a few ×10-35. The skewon part of constitutive tensor constructed from asymmetric metric is of Type II, hence it is allowed. This study may also be applied to macroscopic electrodynamics in the case of laser pumped medium or dissipative medium.
Elandt, Ryan B; Shakeri, Mostafa; Alam, Mohammad-Reza
2014-02-01
Here we show that a nonlinear resonance between oceanic surface waves caused by small seabed features (the so-called Bragg resonance) can be utilized to create the equivalent of lenses and curved mirrors for surface gravity waves. Such gravity wave lenses, which are merely small changes to the seafloor topography and therefore are surface noninvasive, can focus or defocus the energy of incident waves toward or away from any desired focal point. We further show that for a broadband incident wave spectrum (i.e., a wave group composed of a multitude of different-frequency waves), a polychromatic topography (occupying no more than the area required for a monochromatic lens) can achieve a broadband lensing effect. Gravity wave lenses can be utilized to create localized high-energy wave zones (e.g., for wave energy harvesting or creating artificial surf zones) as well as to disperse waves in order to create protected areas (e.g., harbors or areas near important offshore facilities). In reverse, lensing of oceanic waves may be caused by natural seabed features and may explain the frequent appearance of very high amplitude waves in certain bodies of water. PMID:25353576
Elandt, Ryan B; Shakeri, Mostafa; Alam, Mohammad-Reza
2014-02-01
Here we show that a nonlinear resonance between oceanic surface waves caused by small seabed features (the so-called Bragg resonance) can be utilized to create the equivalent of lenses and curved mirrors for surface gravity waves. Such gravity wave lenses, which are merely small changes to the seafloor topography and therefore are surface noninvasive, can focus or defocus the energy of incident waves toward or away from any desired focal point. We further show that for a broadband incident wave spectrum (i.e., a wave group composed of a multitude of different-frequency waves), a polychromatic topography (occupying no more than the area required for a monochromatic lens) can achieve a broadband lensing effect. Gravity wave lenses can be utilized to create localized high-energy wave zones (e.g., for wave energy harvesting or creating artificial surf zones) as well as to disperse waves in order to create protected areas (e.g., harbors or areas near important offshore facilities). In reverse, lensing of oceanic waves may be caused by natural seabed features and may explain the frequent appearance of very high amplitude waves in certain bodies of water.
Three-wave coupling coefficients for perpendicular wave propagation in a magnetized plasma
Brodin, G.; Stenflo, L.
2015-10-15
The resonant interaction between three waves in a uniform magnetized plasma is reconsidered. Starting from previous kinetic expressions, we limit our investigation to waves propagating perpendicularly to the external magnetic field. It is shown that reliable results can only be obtained in the two-dimensional case, i.e., when the wave vectors have both x and y components.
A Study of Alfven Wave Propagation and Heating the Chromosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tu, J.; Song, P.
2013-12-01
Alfven wave propagation, reflection and heating of the solar atmosphere are studied for a one-dimensional solar atmosphere by self-consistently solving plasma and neutral fluid equations and Maxwell's equations with incorporation of the Hall effect, strong electron-neutral, electron-ion, and ion-neutral collisions. The governing equations are very stiff because of the strong coupling between the charged and neutral fluids. We have developed a numerical model based on an implicit backward difference formula (BDF2) of second order accuracy both in time and space to overcome the stiffness. A non-reflecting boundary condition is applied to the top boundary of the simulation domain so that the wave reflection within the domain due to the density gradient can be unambiguously determined. It is shown that the Alfven waves are partially reflected throughout the chromosphere. The reflection is increasingly stronger at higher altitudes and the strongest reflection occurs at the transition region. The waves are damped in the lower chromosphere dominantly through Joule dissipation due to electron collisions with neutrals and ions. The heating resulting from the wave damping is strong enough to balance the radiation energy loss for the quiet chromosphere. The collisional dissipation of the Alfven waves in the weakly collisional corona is negligible. The heating rates are larger for weaker background magnetic fields. In addition, higher frequency waves are subject to heavier damping. There is an upper cutoff frequency, depending on the background magnetic field, above which the waves are completely damped. At the frequencies below which the waves are not strongly damped, the waves may be strongly reflected at the transition region. The reflected waves interacting with the upward propagating waves may produce power at their double frequencies, which leads to more damping. Due to the reflection and damping, the energy flux of the waves transmitted to the corona is one order of
Analysis of wave propagation in periodic 3D waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaal, Christoph; Bischoff, Stefan; Gaul, Lothar
2013-11-01
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is a growing research field in the realm of civil engineering. SHM concepts are implemented using integrated sensors and actuators to evaluate the state of a structure. Within this work, wave-based techniques are addressed. Dispersion effects for propagating waves in waveguides of different materials are analyzed for various different cross-sections. Since analytical theory is limited, a general approach based on the Waveguide Finite Element Method is applied. Numerical results are verified experimentally.
Interface Conditions for Wave Propagation Through Mesh Refinement Boundaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Dae-II; Brown, J. David; Imbiriba, Breno; Centrella, Joan; MacNeice, Peter
2002-01-01
We study the propagation of waves across fixed mesh refinement boundaries in linear and nonlinear model equations in 1-D and 2-D, and in the 3-D Einstein equations of general relativity. We demonstrate that using linear interpolation to set the data in guard cells leads to the production of reflected waves at the refinement boundaries. Implementing quadratic interpolation to fill the guard cells eliminates these spurious signals.
Interface conditions for wave propagation through mesh refinement boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Dae-Il; David Brown, J.; Imbiriba, Breno; Centrella, Joan; MacNeice, Peter
2004-01-01
We study the propagation of waves across fixed mesh refinement boundaries in linear and nonlinear model equations in 1-D and 2-D, and in the 3-D Einstein equations of general relativity. We demonstrate that using linear interpolation to set the data in guard cells leads to the production of reflected waves at the refinement boundaries. Implementing quadratic interpolation to fill the guard cells suppresses these spurious signals.
The propagation of horizontally polarized shear waves in plates bordered with viscous liquid.
Gitis, Alexander; Sauer, Dirk Uwe
2016-09-01
Requirements for ultrasonic horizontally polarized shear waves based viscosity sensors and their applicability for continuous in-line measurement are presented and discussed. The results reveal, that sensors using non-piezoelectric plates as well as wave guides and sensing surface have application-oriented advantages in corrosive and hot liquids. For such non-piezoelectric plate sensors, the dispersion relations are found and the linking equation among propagation velocity as well as attenuation coefficient and Newtonian liquid parameters are obtained. The findings show that in presence of viscous liquids the propagation parameters of horizontally polarized shear waves (HPSW) in non-piezoelectric plate change and a viscosity depending attenuation occurs. It is shown that the measurement sensitivity, in physical terms, of the investigated device highly depends on plate thickness, shear wave impedance of the plate material, and the shear wave impedance of the ambient liquid. Further, reasonable geometrical optimizations and suited plate materials are discussed. PMID:27423968
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golenitskii, K. Â. Yu.; Koshelev, K. Â. L.; Bogdanov, A. Â. A.
2016-10-01
In this work we develop a theory of surface electromagnetic waves localized at the interface of periodic metal-dielectric structures. We have shown that the anisotropy of plasma frequency in metal layers lifts the degeneracy of plasma oscillations and opens a series of photonic band gaps. This results in appearance of surface waves with singular density of states—we refer to them as Tamm-Langmuir waves. Such naming is natural since we have found that their properties are very similar to the properties of both bulk Langmuir and surface Tamm waves. Depending on the anisotropy parameters, Tamm-Langmuir waves can be either forward or backward waves. Singular density of states and high sensitivity of the dispersion to the anisotropy of the structure makes Tamm-Langmuir waves very promising for potential applications in nanophotonics and biosensing.
Impulsive Wave Propagation within Magmatic Conduits with Axial Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Negri Leiva, R. S.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.
2013-12-01
We implemented Trefftz's method to simulate wave propagation in a fluid-solid system aimed to represent a magmatic conduit. Assuming axial symmetry, a set of multipoles is used to build a complete system of wave functions for both the solid and the fluid. These functions are solutions of the elastodynamic equations that govern the motions in the fluid and the solid, respectively. The conduit can be closed or open and the exterior elastic domain may be unlimited or with an exterior boundary. In order to find the functions coefficients, boundary conditions (null shear and continuity of pressures and normal velocities) are satisfied in the least squares sense. The impulsive nature of the source is considered using Fourier analysis. Despite the simplicity of the formulation our results display a rich variety of behaviors. In fact, for a uniform infinite cylinder we reproduced the analytical solution. Moreover, this approach allows establishing some important effects of conduit geometry, including changes of sections. Lateral effects and bump resonances are well resolved. We compared our numerical calculations with results obtained from experimental simulations of volcanic explosions in which rapid depressurization induces fragmentation of volcanic rocks. These experiments are performed within a shock-tube apparatus at room temperature and various pressures using Argon (Ar) gas, particles and pumice samples of different porosities, from Popocatepetl volcano. The mechanical system is well characterized and the dynamics of the explosive process is monitored with high precision piezoelectric sensors located at the pipe surface. The combination of analytical and experimental approaches is very useful to understand the seismic wave field of volcanic conduit dynamics.
Classical chaos in nonseparable wave propagation problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palmer, David R.; Brown, Michael G.; Tappert, Frederick D.; Bezdek, Hugo F.
1988-06-01
Numerical calculations show that acoustic ray paths in a weakly range-dependent deterministic ocean model exhibit chaotic behavior, that is, have an exponentially sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Since the ray equations define a nonautonomous Hamiltonian system with one degree of freedom, these results may be understood in terms of recent advances in classical chaos. The Hamiltonian structure of ray equations in general suggests that chaotic ray trajectories will be present in all types of linear wave motion in geophysics when variables do not separate, as in laterally inhomogeneous media.
Group velocity and nonlinear dispersive wave propagation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayes, W. D.
1973-01-01
By the use of a Hamiltonian formulation, a basic group velocity is defined as the derivative of frequency with respect to wavenumber keeping action density constant, and is shown to represent an incremental action velocity in the general nonlinear case. The stability treatment of Whitham and Lighthill is extended to several dimensions. The water-wave analysis of Whitham (1967) is extended to two space dimensions, and is shown to predict oblique-mode instabilities for kh smaller than 1.36. A treatment of Lighthill's (1965) solution in the one-dimensional elliptic case resolves the problem of the energy distribution in the solution past the critical time.
Harhad, Nadia; El-Kettani, Mounsif Ech-Cherif; Djelouah, Hakim; Izbicki, Jean-Louis; Predoi, Mihai Valentin
2014-03-01
Guided waves propagation in immersed plates with irregular surfaces has potential application to detection and assessment of the extent, depth and pattern of the irregularity. The complexity of the problem, due to the large number of involved parameters, has limited the number of existing studies. The simplest case of irregularities of practical interest is the two-dimensional corrosion profile. Even this case is in general so complex, that one can extract several amplitude dominant periodic surfaces only by using a Fourier spectrum of the surface. Guided waves in plates, with one or both free surfaces having periodic perturbations of different shapes, have been presented in specialized literature. In this paper is studied the propagation of Lamb waves in an aluminum plate with a periodic grooved surface on only one side and immersed in water. The interaction between an incident Lamb wave and the grating gives rise to retro-converted waves. Preliminary numerical simulation by the finite element method is performed in order to obtain key parameters for the experiments. It is shown that retro-converted waves radiating into the water are detectable although their amplitudes are small. The phonon relation is verified for the leaky Lamb modes. The damping coefficients of the leaky Lamb modes in the grooved immersed plate are evaluated.
Modification of Spin Wave Propagation by Current Injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ono, Teruo
2010-03-01
We studied the effect of an electric current on the spin wave propagation in magnetic wires, and found the following two effects. (i) Current injection changes the velocity of spin wave; the velocity is increased or decreased depending on the current polarity. (ii) Current injection modifies the attenuation length of spin wave; the attenuation length of spin wave can increase when the spin waves and electrons move in the same direction. The first finding can be interpreted as the time-domain observation of the spin-wave Doppler shift by current injection [1]. The second effect is thought to be affected by the nonadiabaticity of the spin transfer torque and thus can be used to estimate the nonadiabaticity [2]. [4pt] [1] V. Vlaminck and M. Bailleul, Science 322, (2008) 410. [0pt] [2] S. M. Seo, K. J. Lee, H. Yang, and T. Ono, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, (2009) 147202.
Nonlinear wave propagation in constrained solids subjected to thermal loads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nucera, Claudio; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco
2014-01-01
The classical mathematical treatment governing nonlinear wave propagation in solids relies on finite strain theory. In this scenario, a system of nonlinear partial differential equations can be derived to mathematically describe nonlinear phenomena such as acoustoelasticity (wave speed dependency on quasi-static stress), wave interaction, wave distortion, and higher-harmonic generation. The present work expands the topic of nonlinear wave propagation to the case of a constrained solid subjected to thermal loads. The origin of nonlinear effects in this case is explained on the basis of the anharmonicity of interatomic potentials, and the absorption of the potential energy corresponding to the (prevented) thermal expansion. Such "residual" energy is, at least, cubic as a function of strain, hence leading to a nonlinear wave equation and higher-harmonic generation. Closed-form solutions are given for the longitudinal wave speed and the second-harmonic nonlinear parameter as a function of interatomic potential parameters and temperature increase. The model predicts a decrease in longitudinal wave speed and a corresponding increase in nonlinear parameter with increasing temperature, as a result of the thermal stresses caused by the prevented thermal expansion of the solid. Experimental measurements of the ultrasonic nonlinear parameter on a steel block under constrained thermal expansion confirm this trend. These results suggest the potential of a nonlinear ultrasonic measurement to quantify thermal stresses from prevented thermal expansion. This knowledge can be extremely useful to prevent thermal buckling of various structures, such as continuous-welded rails in hot weather.
Computational strategy for modeling radio wave propagation in lossy circular waveguides
Moses, Ronald; Cai, D Michael
2008-01-01
The propagation of radio waves in lossy waveguides and tunnels has been researched extensively for many years as can be seen in the detailed book by Wait. The mathematics used to model waveguides for communications is essentially the same as that needed to model radio frequency (RF) propagation in simple tunnels. The presence or lack of conductors inside a waveguide or tunnel is a key driver in the nature of the solutions one will find for a particular application, Delogne. When there are conductors passing through a waveguide or tunnel, the simplest modes of propagation are surface-guided waves following the conductor and typically enabling long-range transmission. A tunnel containing a core conductor can act rather like a coaxial cable, propagating waves at a nearly constant speed, regardless of frequency. Conversely, a tunnel or waveguide without internal conductors is subject to very different wave patterns, resulting in a much more complex propagation analysis. Holloway et al. presented an exhaustive study of RF propagation in circular structures embedded in lossy surroundings. The work of Holloway et al. is the basis for this paper, where we discuss application of their computational techniques and present refinements gleaned from our work on similar problems.
Modeling ocean wave propagation under sea ice covers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Xin; Shen, Hayley H.; Cheng, Sukun
2015-02-01
Operational ocean wave models need to work globally, yet current ocean wave models can only treat ice-covered regions crudely. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of ice effects on wave propagation and different research methodology used in studying these effects. Based on its proximity to land or sea, sea ice can be classified as: landfast ice zone, shear zone, and the marginal ice zone. All ice covers attenuate wave energy. Only long swells can penetrate deep into an ice cover. Being closest to open water, wave propagation in the marginal ice zone is the most complex to model. The physical appearance of sea ice in the marginal ice zone varies. Grease ice, pancake ice, brash ice, floe aggregates, and continuous ice sheet may be found in this zone at different times and locations. These types of ice are formed under different thermal-mechanical forcing. There are three classic models that describe wave propagation through an idealized ice cover: mass loading, thin elastic plate, and viscous layer models. From physical arguments we may conjecture that mass loading model is suitable for disjoint aggregates of ice floes much smaller than the wavelength, thin elastic plate model is suitable for a continuous ice sheet, and the viscous layer model is suitable for grease ice. For different sea ice types we may need different wave ice interaction models. A recently proposed viscoelastic model is able to synthesize all three classic models into one. Under suitable limiting conditions it converges to the three previous models. The complete theoretical framework for evaluating wave propagation through various ice covers need to be implemented in the operational ocean wave models. In this review, we introduce the sea ice types, previous wave ice interaction models, wave attenuation mechanisms, the methods to calculate wave reflection and transmission between different ice covers, and the effect of ice floe breaking on shaping the sea ice morphology
One-dimensional wave propagation in rods of variable cross section: A WKBJ solution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ochi, Simeon C. U.; Williams, James H., Jr.
1987-01-01
As an important step in the characterization of a particular dynamic surface displacement transducer (IQI Model 501), a one-dimensional wave propagation in isotropic nonpiezoelectric and piezoelectric rods of variable cross section are presented. With the use of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin-Jeffreys (WKBJ) approximate solution technique, an approximate formula, which relates the ratio of the amplitudes of a propagating wave observed at any two locations along the rod to the ratio of the cross sectional radii at these respective locations, is derived. The domains of frequency for which the approximate solution is valid are discussed for piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric materials.
Numerical simulation of surface waves instability on a homogeneous grid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korotkevich, Alexander O.; Dyachenko, Alexander I.; Zakharov, Vladimir E.
2016-05-01
We performed full-scale numerical simulation of instability of weakly nonlinear waves on the surface of deep fluid. We show that the instability development leads to chaotization and formation of wave turbulence. Instability of both propagating and standing waves was studied. We separately studied pure capillary wave, that was unstable due to three-wave interactions and pure gravity waves, that were unstable due to four-wave interactions. The theoretical description of instabilities in all cases is included in the article. The numerical algorithm used in these and many other previous simulations performed by the authors is described in detail.
Surface acoustic wave microfluidics
Ding, Xiaoyun; Li, Peng; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Stratton, Zackary S.; Nama, Nitesh; Guo, Feng; Slotcavage, Daniel; Mao, Xiaole; Shi, Jinjie; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun
2014-01-01
The recent introduction of surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology onto lab-on-a-chip platforms has opened a new frontier in microfluidics. The advantages provided by such SAW microfluidics are numerous: simple fabrication, high biocompatibility, fast fluid actuation, versatility, compact and inexpensive devices and accessories, contact-free particle manipulation, and compatibility with other microfluidic components. We believe that these advantages enable SAW microfluidics to play a significant role in a variety of applications in biology, chemistry, engineering, and medicine. In this review article, we discuss the theory underpinning SAWs and their interactions with particles and the contacting fluids in which they are suspended. We then review the SAW-enabled microfluidic devices demonstrated to date, starting with devices that accomplish fluid mixing and transport through the use of travelling SAW; we follow that by reviewing the more recent innovations achieved with standing SAW that enable such actions as particle/cell focusing, sorting, and patterning. Finally, we look forward and appraise where the discipline of SAW microfluidics could go next. PMID:23900527
Surface acoustic wave microfluidics.
Ding, Xiaoyun; Li, Peng; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Stratton, Zackary S; Nama, Nitesh; Guo, Feng; Slotcavage, Daniel; Mao, Xiaole; Shi, Jinjie; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun
2013-09-21
The recent introduction of surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology onto lab-on-a-chip platforms has opened a new frontier in microfluidics. The advantages provided by such SAW microfluidics are numerous: simple fabrication, high biocompatibility, fast fluid actuation, versatility, compact and inexpensive devices and accessories, contact-free particle manipulation, and compatibility with other microfluidic components. We believe that these advantages enable SAW microfluidics to play a significant role in a variety of applications in biology, chemistry, engineering and medicine. In this review article, we discuss the theory underpinning SAWs and their interactions with particles and the contacting fluids in which they are suspended. We then review the SAW-enabled microfluidic devices demonstrated to date, starting with devices that accomplish fluid mixing and transport through the use of travelling SAW; we follow that by reviewing the more recent innovations achieved with standing SAW that enable such actions as particle/cell focusing, sorting and patterning. Finally, we look forward and appraise where the discipline of SAW microfluidics could go next.
Electromagnetic wave propagation in rain and polarization effects
OKAMURA, Sogo; OGUCHI, Tomohiro
2010-01-01
This paper summarizes our study on microwave and millimeter-wave propagation in rain with special emphasis on the effects of polarization. Starting from a recount of our past findings, we will discuss developments with these and how they are connected with subsequent research. PMID:20551593
A compendium of millimeter wave propagation studies performed by NASA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaul, R.; Rogers, D.; Bremer, J.
1977-01-01
Key millimeter wave propagation experiments and analytical results were summarized. The experiments were performed with the Ats-5, Ats-6 and Comstar satellites, radars, radiometers and rain gage networks. Analytic models were developed for extrapolation of experimental results to frequencies, locations, and communications systems.
Corrigendum and addendum. Modeling weakly nonlinear acoustic wave propagation
Christov, Ivan; Christov, C. I.; Jordan, P. M.
2014-12-18
This article presents errors, corrections, and additions to the research outlined in the following citation: Christov, I., Christov, C. I., & Jordan, P. M. (2007). Modeling weakly nonlinear acoustic wave propagation. The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 60(4), 473-495.
A k-space method for moderately nonlinear wave propagation.
Jing, Yun; Wang, Tianren; Clement, Greg T
2012-08-01
A k-space method for moderately nonlinear wave propagation in absorptive media is presented. The Westervelt equation is first transferred into k-space via Fourier transformation, and is solved by a modified wave-vector time-domain scheme. The present approach is not limited to forward propagation or parabolic approximation. One- and two-dimensional problems are investigated to verify the method by comparing results to analytic solutions and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. It is found that to obtain accurate results in homogeneous media, the grid size can be as little as two points per wavelength, and for a moderately nonlinear problem, the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy number can be as large as 0.4. Through comparisons with the conventional FDTD method, the k-space method for nonlinear wave propagation is shown here to be computationally more efficient and accurate. The k-space method is then employed to study three-dimensional nonlinear wave propagation through the skull, which shows that a relatively accurate focusing can be achieved in the brain at a high frequency by sending a low frequency from the transducer. Finally, implementations of the k-space method using a single graphics processing unit shows that it required about one-seventh the computation time of a single-core CPU calculation.
A k-Space Method for Moderately Nonlinear Wave Propagation
Jing, Yun; Wang, Tianren; Clement, Greg T.
2013-01-01
A k-space method for moderately nonlinear wave propagation in absorptive media is presented. The Westervelt equation is first transferred into k-space via Fourier transformation, and is solved by a modified wave-vector time-domain scheme. The present approach is not limited to forward propagation or parabolic approximation. One- and two-dimensional problems are investigated to verify the method by comparing results to analytic solutions and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. It is found that to obtain accurate results in homogeneous media, the grid size can be as little as two points per wavelength, and for a moderately nonlinear problem, the Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy number can be as large as 0.4. Through comparisons with the conventional FDTD method, the k-space method for nonlinear wave propagation is shown here to be computationally more efficient and accurate. The k-space method is then employed to study three-dimensional nonlinear wave propagation through the skull, which shows that a relatively accurate focusing can be achieved in the brain at a high frequency by sending a low frequency from the transducer. Finally, implementations of the k-space method using a single graphics processing unit shows that it required about one-seventh the computation time of a single-core CPU calculation. PMID:22899114
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karachevtseva, Iuliia; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena
2015-04-01
Stick-slip sliding is often observed at various scales and in particular in fault sliding and the accompanied seismic events. Stick-slip is conventionally associated with rate-dependent friction, in particular the intermittent change between static and kinetic friction. However the accumulation of elastic energy in the sliding plates on both sides of the fault can produce oscillations in the velocity of sliding even if the friction coefficient is constant. This manifests itself in terms of oscillations in the sliding velocity somewhat resembling the stick-slip movement. Furthermore, over long faults the sliding exhibits wave-like propagation. We present a model that shows that the zones of non-zero sliding velocities propagate along the fault with the velocity of p-wave. The mechanism of such fast wave propagation is the normal (tensile/compressive) stresses in the neighbouring elements (normal stresses on the planes normal to the fault surface). The strains associated with these stresses are controlled by the Young's modulus rather than shear modulus resulting in the p-wave velocity of propagation of the sliding zone. This manifests itself as a supersonic (with respect to the s-waves) propagation of an apparent shear rupture.
Magnetoelastic surface waves in auxetic structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maruszewski, B.; Drzewiecki, A.; Starosta, R.
2010-06-01
In modern technologies searching materials of peculiar features is of a fundamental interest for many researchers and engineers. Negative Poisson's ratio materials and structures expand transversely when stretching axially. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in the development of these novel materials called auxetics. We are interested not only in their mechanical properties, but also in their interaction with external physical fields, e.g. electromagnetic field. It is expected that magnetoelastic surface waves propagation has essential meaning in many other physical and biomechanical applications. The paper aims at investigating propagation of magnetoelastic surface waves along an auxetic elastic halfspace in the presence of an external magnetic field of various orientations related to the limiting plane. Dispersion and existence conditions of those waves have been calculated and analyzed in order to present new features of described interactions. It has occurred that the dispersion properties in the case of the Rayleigh-like magnetoelastic surface waves are significantly different for the auxetic material compared to materials of positive Poisson's ratio.
Surface wave acoustics of granular packing under gravity
Clement, Eric; Andreotti, Bruno; Bonneau, Lenaic
2009-06-18
Due to the non-linearity of Hertzian contacts, the speed of sound in granular matter increases with pressure. For a packing under gravity and in the presence of a free surface, bulk acoustic waves cannot propagate due to the inherent refraction toward the surface (the mirage effect). Thus, only modes corresponding to surface waves (Raleigh-Hertz modes) are able to propagate the acoustic signal. First, based on a non-linear elasticity model, we describe the main features associated to these surface waves. We show that under gravity, a granular packing is from the acoustic propagation point of view an index gradient waveguide that selects modes of two distinct families i.e. the sagittal and transverse waves localized in the vicinity of the free surface. A striking feature of these surface waves is the multi-modal propagation: for both transverse and sagittal waves, we show the existence of a infinite but discrete series of propagating modes. In each case, we determine the mode shape and and the corresponding dispersion relation. In the case of a finite size system, a geometric waveguide is superimposed to the index gradient wave guide. In this later case, the dispersion relations are modified by the appearance of a cut-off frequency that scales with depth. The second part is devoted to an experimental study of surface waves propagating in a granular packing confined in a long channel. This set-up allows to tune a monomodal emission by taking advantage of the geometric waveguide features combined with properly designed emitters. For both sagittal and transverses waves, we were able to isolate a single mode (the fundamental one) and to plot the dispersion relation. This measurements agree well with the Hertzian scaling law as predicted by meanfield models. Furthermore, it allows us to determine quantitatively relations on the elastic moduli. However, we observe that our data yield a shear modulus abnormally weak when compared to several meanfield predictions.
Effects of D region ionization on radio wave propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larsen, T. R.
1979-01-01
The effects of anomalous D region ionization upon radio wave propagation are described for the main types of disturbances: sudden ionospheric disturbances, relativistic electron events, magnetic storms, auroral disturbances, polar cap events, and stratospheric warmings. Examples of radio wave characteristics for such conditions are given for the frequencies between the extremely low (3-3000 Hz) and high (3-30 MHz) frequency domains. Statistics on the disturbance effects and radio wave data are given in order to contribute towards the evaluation of possibilities for predicting the radio effects.
Wave propagation in a chiral fluid: an undergraduate study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garel, Thomas
2003-09-01
We study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a chiral fluid, where the molecules are described by a simplified version of the Kuhn coupled oscillator model. The eigenmodes of Maxwell's equations are circularly polarized waves. The application of a static magnetic field further leads to a magnetochiral term in the index of refraction of the fluid, which is independent of the wave polarization. A similar result holds when absorption is taken into account. Interference experiments and photochemical reactions have recently demonstrated the existence of the magnetochiral term. The comparison with Faraday rotation in an achiral fluid emphasizes the different symmetry properties of the two effects.
Wave propagation within some non-homogeneous continua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonio Tamarasselvame, Nirmal; Buisson, Manuel; Rakotomanana, Lalaonirina R.
We investigate the elastic wave propagation within a non-homogeneous continuum according to W. Noll. After some preliminaries in geometry approach suggested by E. Cartan, the linear momentum equation of so-called weakly continuous medium is written. A first example illustrates the modal analysis of an axisymmetric non-homogeneous thick tube. The overall solution is the product of an attenuating exponential response with Kummer's functions. The second example deals with a Timoshenko beam involving transversal displacement and angular rotation of section. We observe the presence of various waves with spatial attenuation, either for the displacement or the section rotation, together with the occurring waves at different scale levels.
Acoustic Measurement of Surface Wave Damping by a Meniscus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michel, Guillaume; Pétrélis, François; Fauve, Stéphan
2016-04-01
We investigate the reflection of gravity-capillary surface waves by a plane vertical barrier. The size of the meniscus is found to strongly affect reflection: the energy of the reflected wave with a pinned contact line is around twice the one corresponding to a fully developed meniscus. To perform these measurements, a new experimental setup similar to an acousto-optic modulator is developed and offers a simple way to measure the amplitude, frequency and direction of propagation of surface waves.
Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming
Branch; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold G.
2011-05-17
An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.
Simulation of wave propagation in three-dimensional random media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coles, William A.; Filice, J. P.; Frehlich, R. G.; Yadlowsky, M.
1993-01-01
Quantitative error analysis for simulation of wave propagation in three dimensional random media assuming narrow angular scattering are presented for the plane wave and spherical wave geometry. This includes the errors resulting from finite grid size, finite simulation dimensions, and the separation of the two-dimensional screens along the propagation direction. Simple error scalings are determined for power-law spectra of the random refractive index of the media. The effects of a finite inner scale are also considered. The spatial spectra of the intensity errors are calculated and compared to the spatial spectra of intensity. The numerical requirements for a simulation of given accuracy are determined for realizations of the field. The numerical requirements for accurate estimation of higher moments of the field are less stringent.
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in P T -symmetric hyperbolic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shramkova, O. V.; Tsironis, G. P.
2016-07-01
We investigate theoretically and numerically the propagation of electromagnetic waves in P T -symmetric periodic stacks composed of hyperbolic metamaterial layers separated by dielectric media with balanced loss and gain. We derive the characteristic frequencies governing the dispersion properties of the eigenwaves of P T -symmetric semiconductor-dielectric stacks. By tuning the loss/gain level and thicknesses of the layers, we study the evolution of the dispersion dependencies. We show that the effective-medium approach does not adequately describe the propagating waves in the P T -symmetric hypercrystals, even for wavelengths that are about 100 times larger than the period of the stack. We demonstrate the existence of anisotropic transmission resonances and above-unity reflection in P T -symmetric hyperbolic systems. The P T -symmetry-breaking transition of the scattering matrix is strongly influenced by the constitutive and geometrical parameters of the layers and the angles of wave incidence.
Excitation of coherent propagating spin waves by pure spin currents
Demidov, Vladislav E.; Urazhdin, Sergei; Liu, Ronghua; Divinskiy, Boris; Telegin, Andrey; Demokritov, Sergej O.
2016-01-01
Utilization of pure spin currents not accompanied by the flow of electrical charge provides unprecedented opportunities for the emerging technologies based on the electron's spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. It was recently shown that pure spin currents can be used to excite coherent magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanostructures. However, because of the intrinsic nonlinear self-localization effects, magnetic auto-oscillations in the demonstrated devices were spatially confined, preventing their applications as sources of propagating spin waves in magnonic circuits using these waves as signal carriers. Here, we experimentally demonstrate efficient excitation and directional propagation of coherent spin waves generated by pure spin current. We show that this can be achieved by using the nonlocal spin injection mechanism, which enables flexible design of magnetic nanosystems and allows one to efficiently control their dynamic characteristics. PMID:26818232
Torsional wave propagation in multiwalled carbon nanotubes using nonlocal elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arda, Mustafa; Aydogdu, Metin
2016-03-01
Torsional wave propagation in multiwalled carbon nanotubes is studied in the present work. Governing equation of motion of multiwalled carbon nanotube is obtained using Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory. The effect of van der Waals interaction coefficient is considered between inner and outer nanotubes. Dispersion relations are obtained and discussed in detail. Effect of nonlocal parameter and van der Waals interaction to the torsional wave propagation behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes is investigated. It is obtained that torsional van der Waals interaction between adjacent tubes can change the rotational direction of multiwalled carbon nanotube as in-phase or anti-phase. The group and escape velocity of the waves converge to a limit value in the nonlocal elasticity approach.
Quasinormal modes and classical wave propagation in analogue black holes
Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, Jose P.S.
2004-12-15
Many properties of black holes can be studied using acoustic analogues in the laboratory through the propagation of sound waves. We investigate in detail sound wave propagation in a rotating acoustic (2+1)-dimensional black hole, which corresponds to the 'draining bathtub' fluid flow. We compute the quasinormal mode frequencies of this system and discuss late-time power-law tails. Because of the presence of an ergoregion, waves in a rotating acoustic black hole can be superradiantly amplified. We also compute superradiant reflection coefficients and instability time scales for the acoustic black hole bomb, the equivalent of the Press-Teukolsky black hole bomb. Finally we discuss quasinormal modes and late-time tails in a nonrotating canonical acoustic black hole, corresponding to an incompressible, spherically symmetric (3+1)-dimensional fluid flow.
Obliquely propagating magnetosonic waves in multicomponent quantum magnetoplasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masood, W.; Mushtaq, A.
2008-06-01
Linear properties of obliquely propagating magnetosonic waves (both fast and slow) in multicomponent (electron-positron-ion ( e- p- i) and dust-electron-ion ( d- e- i)) quantum magnetoplasma are studied. It is found that the quantum Bohm potential term significantly changes the propagation of fast and slow magnetosonic waves in both e- p- i and d- e- i quantum plasmas. The variation of the dispersion characteristics with the increase/decrease of positron concentration in e- p- i and dust concentration in d- e- i quantum magnetoplasma is explored. Finally, the effect of angle θ (that the ambient magnetic field makes with the x-axis) on the dispersion properties of magnetosonic waves in multicomponent quantum magnetoplasma is investigated. The relevance of the present investigation to the dense astrophysical environments and microelectronic devices is also pointed out.
Nonlinear wave propagation in strongly coupled dusty plasmas
Veeresha, B. M.; Tiwari, S. K.; Sen, A.; Kaw, P. K.; Das, A.
2010-03-15
The nonlinear propagation of low-frequency waves in a strongly coupled dusty plasma medium is studied theoretically in the framework of the phenomenological generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model. A set of simplified model nonlinear equations are derived from the original nonlinear integrodifferential form of the GH model by employing an appropriate physical ansatz. Using standard perturbation techniques characteristic evolution equations for finite small amplitude waves are then obtained in various propagation regimes. The influence of viscoelastic properties arising from dust correlation contributions on the nature of nonlinear solutions is discussed. The modulational stability of dust acoustic waves to parallel perturbation is also examined and it is shown that dust compressibility contributions influenced by the Coulomb coupling effects introduce significant modification in the threshold and range of the instability domain.
Obliquely Propagating Electromagnetic Waves in Magnetized Kappa Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaelzer, R.
2015-12-01
The effects of velocity distribution functions (VDFs) that exhibit a power-law dependence on the high-energy tail have been the subjectof intense research by the space plasma community. Such functions, known as kappa or superthermal distributions, have beenfound to provide a better fitting to the VDF measured by spacecraft in the solar wind. One of the problems that is being addressed on this new light is the temperature anisotropy of solar wind protons and electrons. An anisotropic kappa VDF contains a large amount of free energy that can excite waves in the solar wind. Conversely, the wave-particle interaction is important to determine the shape of theobserved particle distributions.In the literature, the general treatment for waves excited by (bi-)Maxwellian plasmas is well-established. However, for kappa distributions, either isotropic or anisotropic, the wave characteristics have been studied mostly for the limiting cases of purely parallel or perpendicular propagation. Contributions for the general case of obliquely-propagating electromagnetic waves have been scarcely reported so far. The absence of a general treatment prevents a complete analysis of the wave-particle interaction in kappa plasmas, since some instabilities, such as the firehose, can operate simultaneously both in the parallel and oblique directions.In a recent work [1], we have obtained expressions for the dielectric tensor and dispersion relations for the low-frequency, quasi-perpendicular dispersive Alfvén waves resulting from a kappa VDF. In the present work, we generalize the formalism introduced by [1] for the general case of electrostatic and/or electromagnetic waves propagating in a kappa plasma in any frequency range and for arbitrary angles.We employ an isotropic distribution, but the methods used here can be easily applied to more general anisotropic distributions,such as the bi-kappa or product-bi-kappa. [1] R. Gaelzer and L. F. Ziebell, Journal of Geophysical Research 119, 9334
Wave packet propagation across barriers by semiclassical initial value methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petersen, Jakob; Kay, Kenneth G.
2015-07-01
Semiclassical initial value representation (IVR) formulas for the propagator have difficulty describing tunneling through barriers. A key reason is that these formulas do not automatically reduce, in the classical limit, to the version of the Van Vleck-Gutzwiller (VVG) propagator required to treat barrier tunneling, which involves trajectories that have complex initial conditions and that follow paths in complex time. In this work, a simple IVR expression, that has the correct tunneling form in the classical limit, is derived for the propagator in the case of one-dimensional barrier transmission. Similarly, an IVR formula, that reduces to the Generalized Gaussian Wave Packet Dynamics (GGWPD) expression [D. Huber, E. J. Heller, and R. Littlejohn, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 2003 (1988)] in the classical limit, is derived for the transmitted wave packet. Uniform semiclassical versions of the IVR formulas are presented and simplified expressions in terms of real trajectories and WKB penetration factors are described. Numerical tests show that the uniform IVR treatment gives good results for wave packet transmission through the Eckart and Gaussian barriers in all cases examined. In contrast, even when applied with the proper complex trajectories, the VVG and GGWPD treatments are inaccurate when the mean energy of the wave packet is near the classical transmission threshold. The IVR expressions for the propagator and wave packet are cast as contour integrals in the complex space of initial conditions and these are generalized to potentially allow treatment of a larger variety of systems. A steepest descent analysis of the contour integral formula for the wave packet in the present cases confirms its relationship to the GGWPD method, verifies its semiclassical validity, and explains results of numerical calculations.
Two layer asymptotic model for the wave propagation in the presence of vorticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazakova, M. Yu; Noble, P.
2016-06-01
In the present study, we consider the system of two layers of the immiscible constant density fluids which are modeled by the full Euler equations. The domain of the flow is infinite in the horizontal directions and delimited above by a free surface. Bottom topography is taken into account. This is a simple model of the wave propagation in the ocean where the upper layer corresponds to the (thin) layer of fluid above the thermocline whereas the lower layer is under the thermocline. Though even this simple framework is computationally too expensive and mathematically too complicated to describe efficiently propagation of waves in the ocean. Modeling assumption such as shallowness, vanishing vorticity and hydrostatic pressure are usually made to get the bi-layer shallow water models that are mathematically more manageable. Though, they cannot describe correctly the propagation of both internal and free surface waves and dispersive/non hydrostatic must be added. Our goal is to consider the regime of medium to large vorticities in shallow water flow. We present the derivation of the model for internal and surface wave propagation in the case of constant and general vorticities in each layer. The model reduces to the classical Green-Naghdi equations in the case of vanishing vorticities.
ATS-6 mm-wave propagation experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, C. C.; Ekstrom, P. A.
1976-01-01
Attenuation on a Space-to-Earth path was measured at 20 GHz for a ground terminal at approximately 1 km elevation in an arid (16 cm annual precipitation) region of eastern Washington state. Precipitation intensity and radiometric sky temperature at 20 GHz were also measured. Attenuation greater than 1 dB was observed only in the presence of wet snow on antenna surfaces. Ten thousand (10,000) hours of radiometric sky temperature data recorded over an 18-month period indicated atmospheric attenuation of 5 to 7 dB during two instances of rain intensity of approximately 1 inch per hour.
Propagation Dynamics of Nonspreading Cosine-Gauss Water-Wave Pulses.
Fu, Shenhe; Tsur, Yuval; Zhou, Jianying; Shemer, Lev; Arie, Ady
2015-12-18
Linear gravity water waves are highly dispersive; therefore, the spreading of initially short wave trains characterizes water surface waves, and is a universal property of a dispersive medium. Only if there is sufficient nonlinearity does this envelope admit solitary solutions which do not spread and remain in fixed forms. Here, in contrast to the nonlinear localized wave packets, we present both theoretically and experimentally a new type of linearly nondispersive water wave, having a cosine-Gauss envelope, as well as its higher-order Hermite cosine-Gauss variations. We show that these waves preserve their width despite the inherent dispersion while propagating in an 18-m wave tank, accompanied by a slowly varying carrier-envelope phase. These wave packets exhibit self-healing; i.e., they are restored after bypassing an obstacle. We further demonstrate that these nondispersive waves are robust to weakly nonlinear perturbations. In the strong nonlinear regime, symmetry breaking of these waves is observed, but their cosine-Gauss shapes are still approximately preserved during propagation. PMID:26722925
Propagation Dynamics of Nonspreading Cosine-Gauss Water-Wave Pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Shenhe; Tsur, Yuval; Zhou, Jianying; Shemer, Lev; Arie, Ady
2015-12-01
Linear gravity water waves are highly dispersive; therefore, the spreading of initially short wave trains characterizes water surface waves, and is a universal property of a dispersive medium. Only if there is sufficient nonlinearity does this envelope admit solitary solutions which do not spread and remain in fixed forms. Here, in contrast to the nonlinear localized wave packets, we present both theoretically and experimentally a new type of linearly nondispersive water wave, having a cosine-Gauss envelope, as well as its higher-order Hermite cosine-Gauss variations. We show that these waves preserve their width despite the inherent dispersion while propagating in an 18-m wave tank, accompanied by a slowly varying carrier-envelope phase. These wave packets exhibit self-healing; i.e., they are restored after bypassing an obstacle. We further demonstrate that these nondispersive waves are robust to weakly nonlinear perturbations. In the strong nonlinear regime, symmetry breaking of these waves is observed, but their cosine-Gauss shapes are still approximately preserved during propagation.
Propagation Dynamics of Nonspreading Cosine-Gauss Water-Wave Pulses.
Fu, Shenhe; Tsur, Yuval; Zhou, Jianying; Shemer, Lev; Arie, Ady
2015-12-18
Linear gravity water waves are highly dispersive; therefore, the spreading of initially short wave trains characterizes water surface waves, and is a universal property of a dispersive medium. Only if there is sufficient nonlinearity does this envelope admit solitary solutions which do not spread and remain in fixed forms. Here, in contrast to the nonlinear localized wave packets, we present both theoretically and experimentally a new type of linearly nondispersive water wave, having a cosine-Gauss envelope, as well as its higher-order Hermite cosine-Gauss variations. We show that these waves preserve their width despite the inherent dispersion while propagating in an 18-m wave tank, accompanied by a slowly varying carrier-envelope phase. These wave packets exhibit self-healing; i.e., they are restored after bypassing an obstacle. We further demonstrate that these nondispersive waves are robust to weakly nonlinear perturbations. In the strong nonlinear regime, symmetry breaking of these waves is observed, but their cosine-Gauss shapes are still approximately preserved during propagation.
Conversion of evanescent Lamb waves into propagating waves via a narrow aperture edge.
Yan, Xiang; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo
2015-06-01
This paper presents a quantitative study of conversion of evanescent Lamb waves into propagating in isotropic plates. The conversion is substantiated by prescribing time-harmonic Lamb displacements/tractions through a narrow aperture at an edge of a semi-infinite plate. Complex-valued dispersion and group velocity curves are employed to characterize the conversion process. The amplitude coefficient of the propagating Lamb modes converted from evanescent is quantified based on the complex reciprocity theorem via a finite element analysis. The power flow generated into the plate can be separated into radiative and reactive parts made on the basis of propagating and evanescent Lamb waves, where propagating Lamb waves are theoretically proved to radiate pure real power flow, and evanescent Lamb waves carry reactive pure imaginary power flow. The propagating power conversion efficiency is then defined to quantitatively describe the conversion. The conversion efficiency is strongly frequency dependent and can be significant. With the converted propagating waves from evanescent, sensors at far-field can recapture some localized damage information that is generally possessed in evanescent waves and may have potential application in structural health monitoring.
Generation and propagation of nonlinear internal waves in Massachusetts Bay
Scotti, A.; Beardsley, R.C.; Butman, B.
2007-01-01
During the summer, nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) are commonly observed propagating in Massachusetts Bay. The topography of the area is unique in the sense that the generation area (over Stellwagen Bank) is only 25 km away from the shoaling area, and thus it represents an excellent natural laboratory to study the life cycle of NLIWs. To assist in the interpretation of the data collected during the 1998 Massachusetts Bay Internal Wave Experiment (MBIWE98), a fully nonlinear and nonhydrostatic model covering the generation/shoaling region was developed, to investigate the response of the system to the range of background and driving conditions observed. Simplified models were also used to elucidate the role of nonlinearity and dispersion in shaping the NLIW field. This paper concentrates on the generation process and the subsequent evolution in the basin. The model was found to reproduce well the range of propagation characteristics observed (arrival time, propagation speed, amplitude), and provided a coherent framework to interpret the observations. Comparison with a fully nonlinear hydrostatic model shows that during the generation and initial evolution of the waves as they move away from Stellwagen Bank, dispersive effects play a negligible role. Thus the problem can be well understood considering the geometry of the characteristics along which the Riemann invariants of the hydrostatic problem propagate. Dispersion plays a role only during the evolution of the undular bore in the middle of Stellwagen Basin. The consequences for modeling NLIWs within hydrostatic models are briefly discussed at the end.
Constraining Gravitational-Wave Propagation Speed with Multimessenger Observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishizawa, Atsushi; Nakamura, Takashi
2015-04-01
Detection of gravitational waves (GW) provides us an opportunity to test general relativity in strong and dynamical regimes of gravity. One of the tests is checking whether GW propagates with the speed of light or not. This test is crucial because the velocity of GW has not ever been directly measured. Propagation speed of a GW can deviate from the speed of light due to the modification of gravity, graviton mass, and the nontrivial spacetime structure such as extra dimensions and quantum gravity effects. Here we report a simple method to measure the propagation speed of a GW by directly comparing arrival times between gravitational waves, and neutrinos from supernovae or photons from short gamma-ray bursts. As a result, we found that the future multimessenger observations of a GW, neutrinos, and photons can test the GW propagation speed with the precision of 10-16, improving the previous suggestions by 8-10 orders of magnitude. We also propose a novel method that distinguishes the true signal due to the deviation of GW propagation speed from the speed of light and the intrinsic time delay of the emission at a source by looking at the redshift dependence. A. N. is supported by JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowships for Research Abroad.
A propagating heat wave model of skin electroporation.
Pliquett, Uwe; Gusbeth, Ch; Nuccitelli, Richard
2008-03-21
The main barrier to transdermal drug delivery in human skin is the stratum corneum. Pulsed electric fields (PEFs) of sufficient amplitude can create new aqueous pathways across this barrier and enhance drug delivery through the skin. Here, we describe a model of pore formation between adjacent corneocytes that predicts the following sequence of events: (1) the PEF rapidly charges the stratum corneum near the electrode until the transepidermal potential difference is large enough to drive water into a small region of the stratum corneum, creating new aqueous pathways. (2) PEFs then drive a high current density through this newly created electropore to generate Joule heating that warms the pore perimeter. (3) This temperature rise at the perimeter increases the probability of further electroporation there as the local sphingolipids reach their phase transition temperature. (4) This heat-generated wave of further electroporation propagates outward until the surface area of the pore becomes so large that the reduced current density no longer generates sufficient heat to reach the phase transition temperature of the sphingolipids. (5) Cooling and partial recovery occurs after the field pulse. This process yields large, high permeability regions in the stratum corneum at which molecules can more readily cross this skin barrier. We present a model for this process that predicts that the initial radius of the first aqueous pathway is approximately 5nm for a transdermal voltage of 60V at room temperature.
Efficient way to convert propagating waves into guided waves via gradient wire structures.
Chu, Hong Chen; Luo, Jie; Lai, Yun
2016-08-01
We propose a method for the design of gradient wire structures that are capable of converting propagating waves into guided waves along the wire. The conversion process is achieved by imposing an additional wave vector to the scattered waves via the gradient wire structure, such that the wave vector of scattered waves is beyond the wave number in the background medium. Thus, the scattered waves turn into evanescent waves. We demonstrate that two types of gradient wire structures, with either a gradient permittivity and a fixed radius, or a gradient radius and a fixed permittivity, can both be designed to realize such a wave conversion effect. The principle demonstrated in our work has potential applications in various areas including nanophotonics, silicone photonics, and plasmonics.
Efficient way to convert propagating waves into guided waves via gradient wire structures.
Chu, Hong Chen; Luo, Jie; Lai, Yun
2016-08-01
We propose a method for the design of gradient wire structures that are capable of converting propagating waves into guided waves along the wire. The conversion process is achieved by imposing an additional wave vector to the scattered waves via the gradient wire structure, such that the wave vector of scattered waves is beyond the wave number in the background medium. Thus, the scattered waves turn into evanescent waves. We demonstrate that two types of gradient wire structures, with either a gradient permittivity and a fixed radius, or a gradient radius and a fixed permittivity, can both be designed to realize such a wave conversion effect. The principle demonstrated in our work has potential applications in various areas including nanophotonics, silicone photonics, and plasmonics. PMID:27472616
Electron plasma wave propagation in external-electrode fluorescent lamps
Cho, Guangsup; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Jeong, Jong-Mun; Hong, Byoung-Hee; Koo, Je-Huan; Choi, Eun-Ha; Verboncoeur, John P.; Uhm, Han Sup
2008-01-14
The optical propagation observed along the positive column of external electrode fluorescent lamps is shown to be an electron plasma wave propagating with the electron thermal speed of (kT{sub e}/m){sup 1/2}. When the luminance of the lamp is 10 000-20 000 cd/m{sup 2}, the electron plasma temperature and the plasma density in the positive column are determined to be kT{sub e}{approx}1.26-2.12 eV and n{sub o}{approx}(1.28-1.69)x10{sup 17} m{sup -3}, respectively.
Dynamics and Predictability of Deep Propagating Atmospheric Gravity Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doyle, J.; Fritts, D. C.; Smith, R.; Eckermann, S. D.
2012-12-01
An overview will be provided of the first field campaign that attempts to follow deeply propagating gravity waves (GWs) from their tropospheric sources to their mesospheric breakdown. The DEEP propagating gravity WAVE experiment over New Zealand (DEEPWAVE-NZ) is a comprehensive, airborne and ground-based measurement and modeling program focused on providing a new understanding of GW dynamics and impacts from the troposphere through the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). This program will employ the new NSF/NCAR GV (NGV) research aircraft from a base in New Zealand in a 6-week field measurement campaign in June-July 2014. The NGV will be equipped with new lidar and airglow instruments for the DEEPWAVE measurement program, providing temperatures and vertical winds spanning altitudes from immediately above the NGV flight altitude (~13 km) to ~100 km. The region near New Zealand is chosen since all the relevant GW sources occur strongly here, and upper-level winds in austral winter permit GWs to propagate to very high altitudes. Given large-amplitude GWs that propagate routinely into the MLT, the New Zealand region offers an ideal natural laboratory for studying these important GW dynamics and effects impacting weather and climate over a much deeper atmospheric layer than previous campaigns have attempted (0-100 km altitude). The logistics of making measurements in the vicinity of New Zealand are potentially easier than from the Andes and Drake Passage region. A suite of GW-focused modeling and predictability tools will be used to guide NGV flight planning to GW events of greatest scientific significance. These models will also drive scientific interpretation of the GW measurements, together providing answers to the key science questions posed by DEEPWAVE about GW dynamics, morphology, predictability and impacts from 0-100 km. Preliminary results will be presented from high-resolution and adjoint models applied over areas featuring deep wave propagation. The high
Extraction of near-surface properties for a lossy layered medium using the propagator matrix
Mehta, K.; Snieder, R.; Graizer, V.
2007-01-01
Near-surface properties play an important role in advancing earthquake hazard assessment. Other areas where near-surface properties are crucial include civil engineering and detection and delineation of potable groundwater. From an exploration point of view, near-surface properties are needed for wavefield separation and correcting for the local near-receiver structure. It has been shown that these properties can be estimated for a lossless homogeneous medium using the propagator matrix. To estimate the near-surface properties, we apply deconvolution to passive borehole recordings of waves excited by an earthquake. Deconvolution of these incoherent waveforms recorded by the sensors at different depths in the borehole with the recording at the surface results in waves that propagate upwards and downwards along the array. These waves, obtained by deconvolution, can be used to estimate the P- and S-wave velocities near the surface. As opposed to waves obtained by cross-correlation that represent filtered version of the sum of causal and acausal Green's function between the two receivers, the waves obtained by deconvolution represent the elements of the propagator matrix. Finally, we show analytically the extension of the propagator matrix analysis to a lossy layered medium for a special case of normal incidence. ?? 2007 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2007 RAS.
RESONANTLY DAMPED PROPAGATING KINK WAVES IN LONGITUDINALLY STRATIFIED SOLAR WAVEGUIDES
Soler, R.; Verth, G.; Goossens, M.; Terradas, J.
2011-07-20
It has been shown that resonant absorption is a robust physical mechanism for explaining the observed damping of magnetohydrodynamic kink waves in the solar atmosphere due to naturally occurring plasma inhomogeneity in the direction transverse to the direction of the magnetic field. Theoretical studies of this damping mechanism were greatly inspired by the first observations of post-flare standing kink modes in coronal loops using the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer. More recently, these studies have been extended to explain the attenuation of propagating coronal kink waves observed by the Coronal Multi-Channel Polarimeter. In the present study, for the first time we investigate the properties of propagating kink waves in solar waveguides including the effects of both longitudinal and transverse plasma inhomogeneity. Importantly, it is found that the wavelength is only dependent on the longitudinal stratification and the amplitude is simply a product of the two effects. In light of these results the advancement of solar atmospheric magnetoseismology by exploiting high spatial/temporal resolution observations of propagating kink waves in magnetic waveguides to determine the length scales of the plasma inhomogeneity along and transverse to the direction of the magnetic field is discussed.
Large-scale spatiotemporal spike patterning consistent with wave propagation in motor cortex.
Takahashi, Kazutaka; Kim, Sanggyun; Coleman, Todd P; Brown, Kevin A; Suminski, Aaron J; Best, Matthew D; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G
2015-05-21
Aggregate signals in cortex are known to be spatiotemporally organized as propagating waves across the cortical surface, but it remains unclear whether the same is true for spiking activity in individual neurons. Furthermore, the functional interactions between cortical neurons are well documented but their spatial arrangement on the cortical surface has been largely ignored. Here we use a functional network analysis to demonstrate that a subset of motor cortical neurons in non-human primates spatially coordinate their spiking activity in a manner that closely matches wave propagation measured in the beta oscillatory band of the local field potential. We also demonstrate that sequential spiking of pairs of neuron contains task-relevant information that peaks when the neurons are spatially oriented along the wave axis. We hypothesize that the spatial anisotropy of spike patterning may reflect the underlying organization of motor cortex and may be a general property shared by other cortical areas.
Large-scale spatiotemporal spike patterning consistent with wave propagation in motor cortex.
Takahashi, Kazutaka; Kim, Sanggyun; Coleman, Todd P; Brown, Kevin A; Suminski, Aaron J; Best, Matthew D; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G
2015-01-01
Aggregate signals in cortex are known to be spatiotemporally organized as propagating waves across the cortical surface, but it remains unclear whether the same is true for spiking activity in individual neurons. Furthermore, the functional interactions between cortical neurons are well documented but their spatial arrangement on the cortical surface has been largely ignored. Here we use a functional network analysis to demonstrate that a subset of motor cortical neurons in non-human primates spatially coordinate their spiking activity in a manner that closely matches wave propagation measured in the beta oscillatory band of the local field potential. We also demonstrate that sequential spiking of pairs of neuron contains task-relevant information that peaks when the neurons are spatially oriented along the wave axis. We hypothesize that the spatial anisotropy of spike patterning may reflect the underlying organization of motor cortex and may be a general property shared by other cortical areas. PMID:25994554
Mapping of spin wave propagation in a one-dimensional magnonic crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ordóñez-Romero, César L.; Lazcano-Ortiz, Zorayda; Drozdovskii, Andrey; Kalinikos, Boris; Aguilar-Huerta, Melisa; Domínguez-Juárez, J. L.; Lopez-Maldonado, Guillermo; Qureshi, Naser; Kolokoltsev, Oleg; Monsivais, Guillermo
2016-07-01
The formation and evolution of spin wave band gaps in the transmission spectrum of a magnonic crystal have been studied. A time and space resolved magneto inductive probing system has been used to map the spin wave propagation and evolution in a geometrically structured yttrium iron garnet film. Experiments have been carried out using (1) a chemically etched magnonic crystal supporting the propagation of magnetostatic surface spin waves, (2) a short microwave pulsed excitation of the spin waves, and (3) direct spin wave detection using a movable magneto inductive probe connected to a synchronized fast oscilloscope. The results show that the periodic structure not only modifies the spectra of the transmitted spin waves but also influences the distribution of the spin wave energy inside the magnonic crystal as a function of the position and the transmitted frequency. These results comprise an experimental confirmation of Bloch's theorem in a spin wave system and demonstrate good agreement with theoretical observations in analogue phononic and photonic systems. Theoretical prediction of the structured transmission spectra is achieved using a simple model based on microwave transmission lines theory. Here, a spin wave system illustrates in detail the evolution of a much more general physical concept: the band gap.
High-order Two-way Artificial Boundary Conditions for Nonlinear Wave Propagation with Backscattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fibich, Gadi; Tsynkov, Semyon
2000-01-01
When solving linear scattering problems, one typically first solves for the impinging wave in the absence of obstacles. Then, by linear superposition, the original problem is reduced to one that involves only the scattered waves driven by the values of the impinging field at the surface of the obstacles. In addition, when the original domain is unbounded, special artificial boundary conditions (ABCs) that would guarantee the reflectionless propagation of waves have to be set at the outer boundary of the finite computational domain. The situation becomes conceptually different when the propagation equation is nonlinear. In this case the impinging and scattered waves can no longer be separated, and the problem has to be solved in its entirety. In particular, the boundary on which the incoming field values are prescribed, should transmit the given incoming waves in one direction and simultaneously be transparent to all the outgoing waves that travel in the opposite direction. We call this type of boundary conditions two-way ABCs. In the paper, we construct the two-way ABCs for the nonlinear Helmholtz equation that models the laser beam propagation in a medium with nonlinear index of refraction. In this case, the forward propagation is accompanied by backscattering, i.e., generation of waves in the direction opposite to that of the incoming signal. Our two-way ABCs generate no reflection of the backscattered waves and at the same time impose the correct values of the incoming wave. The ABCs are obtained for a fourth-order accurate discretization to the Helmholtz operator; the fourth-order grid convergence is corroborated experimentally by solving linear model problems. We also present solutions in the nonlinear case using the two-way ABC which, unlike the traditional Dirichlet boundary condition, allows for direct calculation of the magnitude of backscattering.
Experimental study of wave propagation dynamics of multicomponent distillation columns
Ting, J.; Helfferich, F.G.; Hwang, Y.L.; Graham, G.K.; Keller, G.E. II
1999-10-01
Distillation columns with sharp separations exhibit severely nonlinear behavior, which has been known to cause difficulties in column control and design. Such a column is characterized by sharp composition and temperature variations in the column. Previously, the binary distillation case was thoroughly analyzed using a nonlinear wave theory and such an analysis was experimentally validated. For multicomponent distillation, the complicated nonlinear dynamics of the movement and interference of multiple sharp composition variations can be elucidated with a coherent-wave theory developed earlier for general countercurrent separation processes. With a ternary alcohol mixture, the present study has experimentally verified the theory by demonstrating the existence and propagation of constant-pattern coherent waves in a 50-tray stripping column in response to a step disturbance of feed composition, feed flow rate, or reboiler heat supply. The study has also tested the theory's predictions of composition profile, wave velocities, and asymmetric dynamics.
Experimental studies of fast wave propagation in DIII-D
Ikezi, H.; Pinsker, R.I.; Chiu, S.C.; deGrassie, J.S.
1995-06-01
Fast Alfven waves radiated from the phased array antenna in the DIII-D tokamak and used for heating and current drive are studied by employing a B-loop array mounted on the vacuum vessel wall. The wave propagation direction controlled by the antenna phasing is clearly observed. A small divergence of the rays arising from the anisotropic nature of the fast wave is found. Comparison with a ray tracing code confirms that the ray position calculated by the code is accurate up to at least one toroidal turn of the rays. Conservation of Rk{sub t} which is a basic assumption in computer codes is tested. Although the upshift of toroidal wavenumber k{sub t} at small major radius R is confirmed, Rk{sub t} is not well conserved. A mass density interferometer is demonstrated by employing the extraordinary fast wave.
Experimental study of wave propagation dynamics of binary distillation columns
Hwang, Y.L.; Graham, G.K.; Keller, G.E. II; Ting, J.; Helfferich, F.G.
1996-10-01
High-purity distillation columns are typically difficult to control because of their severely nonlinear behavior reflected by their sharp composition and temperature profiles. The dynamic behavior of such a column, as characterized by the movement of its sharp profile, was elucidated by a nonlinear wave theory established previously. With binary alcohol mixtures, this study provides an experimental observation of such wave-propagation dynamics of a 40-tray stripping column and a 50-tray fractionation column in response to step disturbances of feed composition, feed flow rate, and reboiler heat supply. These experimental results have verified that the sharp profile in a high-purity column moves as a constant-pattern wave and that the nonlinear wave theory predicts its velocity satisfactorily with very simple mathematics. Results also demonstrate the asymmetric dynamics of the transitions between two steady states.
Matter wave propagation using the Fourier optics approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shayganmanesh, M.; Hematizadeh, A.
2016-09-01
In this paper propagation of matter wave of particles is modeled using the Fourier optics approach. In first step the Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics is used to find the wave function of the particle. In the second step Fourier optics is employed to model the diffraction of the wave function of the particle through single and double slits. The results of the calculations are presented as graphs of diffraction patterns. The results of the presented method are compared to the existing results in the literature (with different methods) to check the validity of the introduced model. It is shown that the Fourier optics approach is applicable to matter wave of particles in diffraction through slits.
Propagating spin waves in YIG micro-channel on Silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jilei; Che, Ping; Tu, Sa; Zhang, Yan; Qin, Jun; Bi, Lei; Liu, Chuanpu; Liao, Zhimin; Yu, Dapeng; Yu, Haiming; Fert Beijing Research Institute Team; University Of Electronic Science; Technology Of China Team; Peking University Collaboration
Recently the utilization of spin waves in the field of information processing has been widely developed because it is free of Joule heat dissipation and beneficial to miniaturization of the magnon based devices. Here we study spin waves in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) with a low damping property. The YIG film is fabricated on silicon substrate using pulsed laser deposition and the measured FMR linewidth is only a few Gauss. Using ebeam lithography, we are able to pattern the YIG film into a micro-channel and integrate sub-meter waveguides to generate and detect spin waves of wavelength down to 1 μm or below. We show results of propagating spin waves in the YIG micro-channel measured by the S12 parameter of the vector network analyzer.
Asymptotic analysis of numerical wave propagation in finite difference equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giles, M.; Thompkins, W. T., Jr.
1983-01-01
An asymptotic technique is developed for analyzing the propagation and dissipation of wave-like solutions to finite difference equations. It is shown that for each fixed complex frequency there are usually several wave solutions with different wavenumbers and the slowly varying amplitude of each satisfies an asymptotic amplitude equation which includes the effects of smoothly varying coefficients in the finite difference equations. The local group velocity appears in this equation as the velocity of convection of the amplitude. Asymptotic boundary conditions coupling the amplitudes of the different wave solutions are also derived. A wavepacket theory is developed which predicts the motion, and interaction at boundaries, of wavepackets, wave-like disturbances of finite length. Comparison with numerical experiments demonstrates the success and limitations of the theory. Finally an asymptotic global stability analysis is developed.
Electromagnetic wave propagation in a random distribution of C{sub 60} molecules
Moradi, Afshin
2014-10-15
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a random distribution of C{sub 60} molecules are investigated, within the framework of the classical electrodynamics. Electronic excitations over the each C{sub 60} molecule surface are modeled by a spherical layer of electron gas represented by two interacting fluids, which takes into account the different nature of the π and σ electrons. It is found that the present medium supports four modes of electromagnetic waves, where they can be divided into two groups: one group with shorter wavelength than the light waves of the same frequency and the other with longer wavelength than the free-space radiation.
Multichannel analysis of surface waves
Park, C.B.; Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.
1999-01-01
The frequency-dependent properties of Rayleigh-type surface waves can be utilized for imaging and characterizing the shallow subsurface. Most surface-wave analysis relies on the accurate calculation of phase velocities for the horizontally traveling fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave acquired by stepping out a pair of receivers at intervals based on calculated ground roll wavelengths. Interference by coherent source-generated noise inhibits the reliability of shear-wave velocities determined through inversion of the whole wave field. Among these nonplanar, nonfundamental-mode Rayleigh waves (noise) are body waves, scattered and nonsource-generated surface waves, and higher-mode surface waves. The degree to which each of these types of noise contaminates the dispersion curve and, ultimately, the inverted shear-wave velocity profile is dependent on frequency as well as distance from the source. Multichannel recording permits effective identification and isolation of noise according to distinctive trace-to-trace coherency in arrival time and amplitude. An added advantage is the speed and redundancy of the measurement process. Decomposition of a multichannel record into a time variable-frequency format, similar to an uncorrelated Vibroseis record, permits analysis and display of each frequency component in a unique and continuous format. Coherent noise contamination can then be examined and its effects appraised in both frequency and offset space. Separation of frequency components permits real-time maximization of the S/N ratio during acquisition and subsequent processing steps. Linear separation of each ground roll frequency component allows calculation of phase velocities by simply measuring the linear slope of each frequency component. Breaks in coherent surface-wave arrivals, observable on the decomposed record, can be compensated for during acquisition and processing. Multichannel recording permits single-measurement surveying of a broad depth range, high levels of
Obliquely propagating electromagnetic waves in magnetized kappa plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaelzer, R.; Ziebell, L. F.
2016-02-01
Velocity distribution functions (VDFs) that exhibit a power-law dependence on the high-energy tail have been the subject of intense research by the plasma physics community. Such functions, known as kappa or superthermal distributions, have been found to provide a better fitting to the VDFs measured by spacecraft in the solar wind. One of the problems that is being addressed on this new light is the temperature anisotropy of solar wind protons and electrons. In the literature, the general treatment for waves excited by (bi-)Maxwellian plasmas is well-established. However, for kappa distributions, the wave characteristics have been studied mostly for the limiting cases of purely parallel or perpendicular propagation, relative to the ambient magnetic field. Contributions to the general case of obliquely propagating electromagnetic waves have been scarcely reported so far. The absence of a general treatment prevents a complete analysis of the wave-particle interaction in kappa plasmas, since some instabilities can operate simultaneously both in the parallel and oblique directions. In a recent work, Gaelzer and Ziebell [J. Geophys. Res. 119, 9334 (2014)] obtained expressions for the dielectric tensor and dispersion relations for the low-frequency, quasi-perpendicular dispersive Alfvén waves resulting from a kappa VDF. In the present work, the formalism is generalized for the general case of electrostatic and/or electromagnetic waves propagating in a kappa plasma in any frequency range and for arbitrary angles. An isotropic distribution is considered, but the methods used here can be easily applied to more general anisotropic distributions such as the bi-kappa or product-bi-kappa.
Propagation of waves in a medium with high radiation pressure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bisnovatyy-Kogan, G. S.; Blinnikov, S. I.
1979-01-01
The propagation and mutual transformation of acoustic and thermal waves are investigated in media with a high radiative pressure. The equations of hydrodynamics for matter and the radiative transfer equations in a moving medium in the Eddington approximation are used in the investigation. Model problems of waves in a homogeneous medium with an abrupt jump in opacity and in a medium of variable opacity are presented. The characteristic and the times of variability are discussed. Amplitude for the brightness fluctuations for very massive stars are discussed.
Wave propagation in a quasi-chemical equilibrium plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fang, T.-M.; Baum, H. R.
1975-01-01
Wave propagation in a quasi-chemical equilibrium plasma is studied. The plasma is infinite and without external fields. The chemical reactions are assumed to result from the ionization and recombination processes. When the gas is near equilibrium, the dominant role describing the evolution of a reacting plasma is played by the global conservation equations. These equations are first derived and then used to study the small amplitude wave motion for a near-equilibrium situation. Nontrivial damping effects have been obtained by including the conduction current terms.
Effect of propagation on pulsed four-wave mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weisman, P.; Wilson-Gordon, A. D.; Friedmann, H.
2000-05-01
We examine the effect of propagation on the resonance Rabi sideband of the four-wave mixing (FWM) spectrum, obtained when short temporally displaced pump and probe pulses interact with an optically thick medium of two-level atoms. We find that the dependence of the time-integrated FWM signal on the pump-probe delay is considerably altered by propagation. In particular, the logarithm of the FWM signal, for the case where the probe precedes the pump, deviates from linearity and may even increase over a range of values. An explanation is given in terms of the overlap of the pump envelope with the coherent response of the atomic system to the probe, both of which are modified on propagation.
Numerical modelling of nonlinear full-wave acoustic propagation
Velasco-Segura, Roberto Rendón, Pablo L.
2015-10-28
The various model equations of nonlinear acoustics are arrived at by making assumptions which permit the observation of the interaction with propagation of either single or joint effects. We present here a form of the conservation equations of fluid dynamics which are deduced using slightly less restrictive hypothesis than those necessary to obtain the well known Westervelt equation. This formulation accounts for full wave diffraction, nonlinearity, and thermoviscous dissipative effects. A two-dimensional, finite-volume method using Roe’s linearisation has been implemented to obtain numerically the solution of the proposed equations. This code, which has been written for parallel execution on a GPU, can be used to describe moderate nonlinear phenomena, at low Mach numbers, in domains as large as 100 wave lengths. Applications range from models of diagnostic and therapeutic HIFU, to parametric acoustic arrays and nonlinear propagation in acoustic waveguides. Examples related to these applications are shown and discussed.
Electrostatic wave propagation and trapping near the magnetic equator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barbosa, D. D.
1985-01-01
Results of a two-dimensional ray tracing computer code, based on Snell's law, for electrostatic wave propagation in a dipole magnetic field are discussed. A survey of possible ray paths varying a wide range of parameters is conducted for low-harmonic Bernstein modes in a high-density plasma. It is shown that the ray paths exhibit similarity with radial distance and that there exists the possibility of two classes of wave statistics of the equator: a broad emission region extending to about + or - 4 deg and a class of events restricted to the smaller region of 1-2 deg about the magnetic equator. The regulating parameter between these two types of events is the transition energy from the isotropic background electrons to the unstable distribution of superthermals. Ray paths for propagation in the magnetic equatorial plane are considered and an explanation is given for ray focusing in the equatorial plane based on electron gyroradius considerations.
Numerical simulation of shock wave propagation in flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rénier, Mathieu; Marchiano, Régis; Gaudard, Eric; Gallin, Louis-Jonardan; Coulouvrat, François
2012-09-01
Acoustical shock waves propagate through flows in many situations. The sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft influenced by winds, or the so-called Buzz-Saw-Noise produced by turbo-engine fan blades when rotating at supersonic speeds, are two examples of such a phenomenon. In this work, an original method called FLHOWARD, acronym for FLow and Heterogeneous One-Way Approximation for Resolution of Diffraction, is presented. It relies on a scalar nonlinear wave equation, which takes into account propagation in a privileged direction (one-way approach), with diffraction, flow, heterogeneous and nonlinear effects. Theoretical comparison of the dispersion relations between that equation and parabolic equations (standard or wide angle) shows that this approach is more precise than the parabolic approach because there are no restrictions about the angle of propagation. A numerical procedure based on the standard split-step technique is used. It consists in splitting the nonlinear wave equation into simpler equations. Each of these equations is solved thanks to an analytical solution when it is possible, and a finite differences scheme in other cases. The advancement along the propagation direction is done with an implicit scheme. The validity of that numerical procedure is assessed by comparisons with analytical solutions of the Lilley's equation in waveguides for uniform or shear flows in linear regime. Attention is paid to the advantages and drawbacks of that method. Finally, the numerical code is used to simulate the propagation of sonic boom through a piece of atmosphere with flows and heterogeneities. The effects of the various parameters are analysed.
Frequency and wavelength prediction of ultrasonic induced liquid surface waves.
Mahravan, Ehsan; Naderan, Hamid; Damangir, Ebrahim
2016-12-01
A theoretical investigation of parametric excitation of liquid free surface by a high frequency sound wave is preformed, using potential flow theory. Pressure and velocity distributions, resembling the sound wave, are applied to the free surface of the liquid. It is found that for impinging wave two distinct capillary frequencies will be excited: One of them is the same as the frequency of the sound wave, and the other is equal to the natural frequency corresponding to a wavenumber equal to the horizontal wavenumber of the sound wave. When the wave propagates in vertical direction, mathematical formulation leads to an equation, which has resonance frequency equal to half of the excitation frequency. This can explain an important contradiction between the frequency and the wavelength of capillary waves in the two cases of normal and inclined interaction of the sound wave and the free surface of the liquid.
Frequency and wavelength prediction of ultrasonic induced liquid surface waves.
Mahravan, Ehsan; Naderan, Hamid; Damangir, Ebrahim
2016-12-01
A theoretical investigation of parametric excitation of liquid free surface by a high frequency sound wave is preformed, using potential flow theory. Pressure and velocity distributions, resembling the sound wave, are applied to the free surface of the liquid. It is found that for impinging wave two distinct capillary frequencies will be excited: One of them is the same as the frequency of the sound wave, and the other is equal to the natural frequency corresponding to a wavenumber equal to the horizontal wavenumber of the sound wave. When the wave propagates in vertical direction, mathematical formulation leads to an equation, which has resonance frequency equal to half of the excitation frequency. This can explain an important contradiction between the frequency and the wavelength of capillary waves in the two cases of normal and inclined interaction of the sound wave and the free surface of the liquid. PMID:27566141
Wave propagation in the chromosphere and transition region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Steffens, S.; Deubner, F.-L.; Fleck, B.; Wilhelm, K.; Harrison, R.; Gurman, J.
1997-01-01
The results from a joint observing program involving the solar ultraviolet measurement of emitted radiation (SUMER), the coronal diagnostic spectrometer (CDS) and the extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope (EIT) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) are presented. These operations were coordinated with ground-based observations at the vacuum tower telescope at Izana (Tenerife). The purpose was to characterize the wave propagation properties in the solar atmosphere, from the photosphere through the chromosphere into the transition region.
Monograph on propagation of sound waves in curved ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rostafinski, Wojciech
1991-01-01
After reviewing and evaluating the existing material on sound propagation in curved ducts without flow, it seems strange that, except for Lord Rayleigh in 1878, no book on acoustics has treated the case of wave motion in bends. This monograph reviews the available analytical and experimental material, nearly 30 papers published on this subject so far, and concisely summarizes what has been learned about the motion of sound in hard-wall and acoustically lined cylindrical bends.
Radio Wave Propagation Handbook for Communication on and Around Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ho, Christian; Golshan, Nasser; Kliore, Arvydas
2002-01-01
This handbook examines the effects of the Martian environment on radio wave propagation on Mars and in the space near the planet. The environmental effects include these from the Martian atmosphere, ionosphere, global dust storms, aerosols, clouds, and geomorphologic features. Relevant Martian environmental parameters were extracted from the measurements of Mars missions during the past 30 years, especially from Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor. The results derived from measurements and analyses have been reviewed through an extensive literature search. The updated parameters have been theoretically analyzed to study their effects on radio propagation. This handbook also provides basic information about the entire telecommunications environment on and around Mars for propagation researchers, system engineers, and link analysts. Based on these original analyses, some important recommendations have been made, including the use of the Martian ionosphere as a reflector for Mars global or trans-horizon communication between future Martian colonies, reducing dust storm scattering effects, etc. These results have extended our wave propagation knowledge to a planet other than Earth; and the tables, models, and graphics included in this handbook will benefit telecommunication system engineers and scientific researchers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matda, Y.; Crawford, F. W.
1974-01-01
An economical low noise plasma simulation model is applied to a series of problems associated with electrostatic wave propagation in a one-dimensional, collisionless, Maxwellian plasma, in the absence of magnetic field. The model is described and tested, first in the absence of an applied signal, and then with a small amplitude perturbation, to establish the low noise features and to verify the theoretical linear dispersion relation at wave energy levels as low as 0.000,001 of the plasma thermal energy. The method is then used to study propagation of an essentially monochromatic plane wave. Results on amplitude oscillation and nonlinear frequency shift are compared with available theories. The additional phenomena of sideband instability and satellite growth, stimulated by large amplitude wave propagation and the resulting particle trapping, are described.
Equivalent Continuum Modeling for Shock Wave Propagation in Jointed Media
Vorobiev, O; Antoun, T
2009-12-11
This study presents discrete and continuum simulations of shock wave propagating through jointed media. The simulations were performed using the Lagrangian hydrocode GEODYN-L with joints treated explicitly using an advanced contact algorithm. They studied both isotropic and anisotropic joint representations. For an isotropically jointed geologic medium, the results show that the properties of the joints can be combined with the properties of the intact rock to develop an equivalent continuum model suitable for analyzing wave propagation through the jointed medium. For an anisotropically jointed geologic medium, they found it difficult to develop an equivalent continuum (EC) model that matches the response derived from mesoscopic simulation. They also performed simulations of wave propagation through jointed media. Two appraoches are suggested for modeling the rock mass. In one approach, jointed are modeled explicitly in a Lagrangian framework with appropriate contact algorithms used to track motion along the interfaces. In the other approach, the effect of joints is taken into account using a constitutive model derived from mesoscopic simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, M.; Kawakata, H.; Doi, I.; Takahashi, N.
2015-12-01
Recently, landslides due to heavy rain and/or earthquakes have been increasing and severe damage occurred in Japan in some cases (e.g., Chigira et al., 2013, Geomorph.). One of the principle factors activating landslides is groundwater. Continuous measurements of moisture in soil and/or pore pressure are performed to investigate the groundwater behavior. However, such measurements give information on only local behavior of the groundwater. To monitor the state of target slope, it is better to measure signals affected by the behavior of groundwater in a widely surrounding region. The elastic waves propagating through the medium under the target slope are one of candidates of such signals. In this study, we measure propagating waves through a sand soil made in laboratory, injecting water into it from the bottom. We investigate the characteristics of the propagating waves. We drop sand particles in a container (750 mm long, 300 mm wide and 400 mm high) freely and made a sand soil. The sand soil consists of two layers. One is made of larger sand particles (0.2-0.4 mm in diameter) and the other is made of smaller sand particles (0.05-0.2 mm in diameter). The dry density of these sand layers is about 1.45 g/cm3. We install a shaker for generating elastic waves, accelerometers and pore pressure gauges in the sand soil. We apply small voltage steps repeatedly, and we continuously measure elastic waves propagating through the sand soil at a sampling rate of 51.2 ksps for a period including the water injection period. We estimate the spatio-temporal variation in the maximum cross-correlation coefficients and the corresponding time lags, using template waveforms recorded in the initial period as references. The coefficient for the waveforms recorded at the accelerometer attached to the tip of the shaker is almost stable in high values with a slight decrease down to 0.94 in the period when the sand particles around the shaker are considered to become wet. On the other hand
Scattered surface wave energy in the seismic coda
Zeng, Y.
2006-01-01
One of the many important contributions that Aki has made to seismology pertains to the origin of coda waves (Aki, 1969; Aki and Chouet, 1975). In this paper, I revisit Aki's original idea of the role of scattered surface waves in the seismic coda. Based on the radiative transfer theory, I developed a new set of scattered wave energy equations by including scattered surface waves and body wave to surface wave scattering conversions. The work is an extended study of Zeng et al. (1991), Zeng (1993) and Sato (1994a) on multiple isotropic-scattering, and may shed new insight into the seismic coda wave interpretation. The scattering equations are solved numerically by first discretizing the model at regular grids and then solving the linear integral equations iteratively. The results show that scattered wave energy can be well approximated by body-wave to body wave scattering at earlier arrival times and short distances. At long distances from the source, scattered surface waves dominate scattered body waves at surface stations. Since surface waves are 2-D propagating waves, their scattered energies should in theory follow a common decay curve. The observed common decay trends on seismic coda of local earthquake recordings particular at long lapse times suggest that perhaps later seismic codas are dominated by scattered surface waves. When efficient body wave to surface wave conversion mechanisms are present in the shallow crustal layers, such as soft sediment layers, the scattered surface waves dominate the seismic coda at even early arrival times for shallow sources and at later arrival times for deeper events.
Distortion of surface plasmon polariton propagation on graphene due to chemical potential variation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amanatiadis, Stamatios; Kantartzis, Nikolaos
2016-04-01
The variation of graphene chemical potential owing to surface plasmon polariton excitation and its influence on the propagation properties of the latter is systematically examined in this paper. Although the chemical potential is controlled via a constant electric field bias, the excitation of the highly confined surface wave can considerably affect it, thus disrupting the wave natural propagation. To this aim, the propagation properties of the surface wave are extracted to reliably estimate the aforesaid distortion effect with regard to frequency. Numerical results, obtained in terms of an accurate finite-difference time-domain scheme, certify this interesting convention. Furthermore, the electrodynamic forces on the free electrons of the graphene layer are calculated to justify the electrostatic assumption.
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals
Stavroula Foteinopoulou
2003-12-12
In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates with the observed
Study of THz surface waves (TSW) on bare and coated metal surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Mufei
Scope and Method of Study. The focus of the research was to investigate the propagation characteristics (such as field distribution, attenuation and group velocity) of terahertz surface waves on bare and dielectric coated metal surface. The experiment was carried out on a modified standard terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system. Surface waves were coupled into the metal surface using the parallel plate waveguide coupling mechanism. The picosecond terahertz pulses were generated and detected using the Grischkowsky photo-conductive transmitter and antenna driven by a femtosecond laser. Findings and Conclusions. Surface waves at microwave and terahertz frequencies are weakly guided on bare metal surface due to the high metal conductivity. Detailed wave coupling analysis and experiment has shown that on a bare metal surface, the majority of energy remains to be uncoupled freely propagating waves. The spatial extent of the terahertz surface wave collapses two orders of magnitude upon the addition of the sub-wavelength dielectric layer on the metal surface. Simple theory in terahertz range gives an accurate explanation to this effect. Direct experimental measurements of the terahertz surface wave on an aluminum surface covered with a 12.5 mum thick dielectric layer have completely characterized the wave. The measurements of the frequency-dependent exponential fall-off of the evanescent wave from the surface agree well with theory.
Wave Propagation in the Ionosphere Associated With Earthquakes Revealed by GPS- TEC 4D Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watada, S.; Obayashi, M.; Ozawa, S.
2008-12-01
Hi-density high-rate sampling GPS network data is ideal for imaging quickly changing 3D structures in the ionosphere. GPS-TEC observation by GEONET in Japan during the 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake shows a clear propagating ionospheric disturbance. Heki and Ping (2005) interpreted the phenomena as a propagating sound wave in the thermosphere which was originally radiated into the atmosphere from the earthquake source region. To understand the ionosphere disturbance directly, we developed 4D ionosphere tomography method as an extension of a mantle tomography method to retrieve 3D seismic velocity structure of the mantle from traveltimes of seismic body waves from earthquakes to the seismic stations. We applied this tomography method to 1 Hz GPS-TEC data from GEONET which provides a dense line of sight coverage of space and time above and around the Japanese islands during and the after the earthquake. The image results show dispersive propagating waves, i.e., the phase speed of the waves is different from the wave energy propagation speed. The first phase, which appears first 100 km above the epicenter area, propagates horizontally with a phase speed about 1km/s and the secondary phase propagates slower. A close examination of the propagation of the first phase shows dispersion of the phase. The positive peak of the first phase travels 10% faster than the negative peak so that the peak shape broadens as it proceeds. The amplitude of the positive peak diminishes as it propagates over 1400 km distance from the source region. In contrast to the positive peak, the negative peak first appears as small amplitude and grows after traveling over 1000 km from the source region. Study of the evolution of the 4D GPS-TEC disturbance will provide rich information about the mechanisms of generation and propagation of ionospheric disturbance through the solid-earth-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling. Ionospheric disturbance can be generated from land surface deformation and the ocean
Theoretical Methods for Wave Propagation across Jointed Rock Masses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perino, A.; Zhu, J. B.; Li, J. C.; Barla, G.; Zhao, J.
2010-11-01
Different methods are presently available for the analysis of wave propagation across jointed rock masses with the consideration of multiple wave reflections between joints. These methods can be divided into two categories. One is based on the displacement discontinuity model for representing rock joints, where the displacements across a joint are discontinuous and the tractions are continuous, and the other is the equivalent medium method. For the first category, there are three methods, i.e., method of characteristics (MC), scattering matrix method (SMM) and virtual wave source method (VWS). MC solves the equation of motion by using the theory of characteristic curves. SMM is based on the definition of the scattering matrix in which the reflection and transmission coefficients of a set of joints are stored. VWS method replaces the joints in the rock mass with a virtual concept. For the second category, equivalent medium model treats the problem in the frame of continuum mechanics and simplifies it from an explicit wave propagation equation. The objective of this paper is to review and compare these theoretical methods. The comparison shows that the four solutions agree very well with each other. Some additional considerations about the advantages and disadvantages of these methods are also given in the paper.
A Kinetic Approach to Propagation and Stability of Detonation Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monaco, R.; Bianchi, M. Pandolfi; Soares, A. J.
2008-12-01
The problem of the steady propagation and linear stability of a detonation wave is formulated in the kinetic frame for a quaternary gas mixture in which a reversible bimolecular reaction takes place. The reactive Euler equations and related Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are deduced from the mesoscopic description of the process. The steady propagation problem is solved for a Zeldovich, von Neuman and Doering (ZND) wave, providing the detonation profiles and the wave thickness for different overdrive degrees. The one-dimensional stability of such detonation wave is then studied in terms of an initial value problem coupled with an acoustic radiation condition at the equilibrium final state. The stability equations and their initial data are deduced from the linearized reactive Euler equations and related Rankine-Hugoniot conditions through a normal mode analysis referred to the complex disturbances of the steady state variables. Some numerical simulations for an elementary reaction of the hydrogen-oxygen chain are proposed in order to describe the time and space evolution of the instabilities induced by the shock front perturbation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Fei
Honeycomb sandwich structures have been widely used in marine and aerospace applications due to their high strength/stiffness-to-weight ratio. However, an excessive load or repeated loading in the core tends to induce debonding along the skin-core interface, threatening the integrity and safety of the whole structure. This dissertation focuses on development of guided wave strategies for health monitoring of honeycomb sandwich structures, based on a piezoelectric actuator/sensor network. The honeycomb sandwich panels, which are composed of aluminum alloy (T6061) skins and hexagonal-celled Nomex core, are specifically considered in the study. First, elastic wave propagation mechanism in honeycomb sandwich structures is numerically and experimentally investigated, based on a piezoelectric actuator/sensor system. Influences of cell geometry parameters upon wave propagation are also discussed. Some wave propagation characteristics, such as wave group velocity dispersion relation and mode tuning capabilities, in the honeycomb composite panels are experimentally characterized. Secondly, effects of skin-core debonding upon the leaky guided wave propagation in honeycomb sandwich structures are studied by the finite element simulation. An appropriate signal difference coefficient is defined to represent the differential features caused by debonding. By means of probability analysis of differential features of transmitted guided waves and the image fusion, the final image of the structure is constructed with improved detection precision. A multilevel sensor network strategy is proposed to detect multiple debondings in the honeycomb sandwich structure. Thirdly, an analytical model considering coupled piezo-elastodynamics is developed to quantitatively describe dynamic load transfer between a surface-bonded piezoelectric wafer actuator and a prestressed plate. The finite element method is used to evaluate the accuracy of the analytical prediction. Effects of prestresses on the
Efficient techniques for wave-based sound propagation in interactive applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehra, Ravish
Sound propagation techniques model the effect of the environment on sound waves and predict their behavior from point of emission at the source to the final point of arrival at the listener. Sound is a pressure wave produced by mechanical vibration of a surface that propagates through a medium such as air or water, and the problem of sound propagation can be formulated mathematically as a second-order partial differential equation called the wave equation. Accurate techniques based on solving the wave equation, also called the wave-based techniques, are too expensive computationally and memory-wise. Therefore, these techniques face many challenges in terms of their applicability in interactive applications including sound propagation in large environments, time-varying source and listener directivity, and high simulation cost for mid-frequencies. In this dissertation, we propose a set of efficient wave-based sound propagation techniques that solve these three challenges and enable the use of wave-based sound propagation in interactive applications. Firstly, we propose a novel equivalent source technique for interactive wave-based sound propagation in large scenes spanning hundreds of meters. It is based on the equivalent source theory used for solving radiation and scattering problems in acoustics and electromagnetics. Instead of using a volumetric or surface-based approach, this technique takes an object-centric approach to sound propagation. The proposed equivalent source technique generates realistic acoustic effects and takes orders of magnitude less runtime memory compared to prior wave-based techniques. Secondly, we present an efficient framework for handling time-varying source and listener directivity for interactive wave-based sound propagation. The source directivity is represented as a linear combination of elementary spherical harmonic sources. This spherical harmonic-based representation of source directivity can support analytical, data
Combined wave propagation analysis of earthquake recordings from borehole and building sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrovic, B.; Parolai, S.; Dikmen, U.; Safak, E.; Moldobekov, B.; Orunbaev, S.
2015-12-01
In regions highly exposed to natural hazards, Early Warning Systems can play a central role in risk management and mitigation procedures. To improve at a relatively low cost the spatial resolution of regional earthquake early warning (EEW) systems, decentralized onsite EEW and building monitoring, a wireless sensing unit, the Self-Organizing Seismic Early Warning Information Network (SOSEWIN) was developed and further improved to include the multi-parameter acquisition. SOSEWINs working in continuous real time mode are currently tested on various sites. In Bishkek and Istanbul, an instrumented building is located close to a borehole equipped with downhole sensors. The joint data analysis of building and borehole earthquake recordings allows the study of the behavior of the building, characteristics of the soil, and soil-structure interactions. The interferometric approach applied to recordings of the building response is particularly suitable to characterize the wave propagation inside a building, including the propagation velocity of shear waves and attenuation. Applied to borehole sensors, it gives insights into velocity changes in different layers, reflections and mode conversion, and allows the estimation of the quality factor Qs. We used combined building and borehole data from the two test sites: 1) to estimate the characteristics of wave propagation through the building to the soil and back, and 2) to obtain an empirical insight into soil-structure interactions. The two test sites represent two different building and soil types, and soil structure impedance contrasts. The wave propagation through the soil to the building and back is investigated by the joint interferometric approach. The propagation of up and down-going waves through the building and soil is clearly imaged and the reflection of P and S waves from the earth surface and the top of the building identified. An estimate of the reflected and transmitted energy amounts is given, too.
Determination of particle size distributions from acoustic wave propagation measurements
Spelt, P.D.; Norato, M.A.; Sangani, A.S.; Tavlarides, L.L.
1999-05-01
The wave equations for the interior and exterior of the particles are ensemble averaged and combined with an analysis by Allegra and Hawley [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. {bold 51}, 1545 (1972)] for the interaction of a single particle with the incident wave to determine the phase speed and attenuation of sound waves propagating through dilute slurries. The theory is shown to compare very well with the measured attenuation. The inverse problem, i.e., the problem of determining the particle size distribution given the attenuation as a function of frequency, is examined using regularization techniques that have been successful for bubbly liquids. It is shown that, unlike the bubbly liquids, the success of solving the inverse problem is limited since it depends strongly on the nature of particles and the frequency range used in inverse calculations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
Propagation of acoustic waves in the partly ionized interstellar medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chalov, S. V.
2014-07-01
The properties of linear acoustic waves propagating in the interstellar medium, which is a mixture of electron-proton plasma and hydrogen atoms, are studied analytically. The plasma component interacts with hydrogen atoms through resonant charge exchange between the atoms and protons. To make the problem tractable, only short-wavelength disturbances are considered. Namely, the wavelength is assumed to be small as compared with the mean free path of atoms with respect to charge exchange. It is shown that short waves are damped out due to the charge exchange process, and the magnitude of decrement increases with the cross-section for charge exchange, number density of atoms and sound speed. In the first approximation, decrement does not depend on the wavelength, and acoustic waves are dispersionless. The advantage of our model is fully kinetic treatment of the interstellar atom motion.
Paraxial WKB Method Applied to the Lower Hybrid Wave Propagation
Bertelli, N; Poli, E; Harvey, R; Wright, J C; Bonoli, P T; Phillips, C K; Simov, A P; Valeo, E
2012-07-12
The paraxial WKB (pWKB) approximation, also called beam tracing method, has been employed in order to study the propagation of lower hybrid (LH) waves in a tokamak plasma. Analogous to the well-know ray tracing method, this approach reduces Maxwell's equations to a set of ordinary differential equations, while, in addition, retains the effects of the finite beam cross-section, and, thus, the effects of diffraction. A new code, LHBEAM (Lower Hybrid BEAM tracing), is presented, which solves the pWKB equations in tokamak geometry for arbitrary launching conditions and for analytic and experimental plasma equilibria. In addition, LHBEAM includes linear electron Landau damping for the evaluation of the absorbed power density and the reconstruction of the wave electric field in both the physical and Fourier space. Illustrative LHBEAM calculations are presented along with a comparison with the ray tracing code GENRAY and the full wave solver TORIC-LH.
On a method computing transient wave propagation in ionospheric regions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gray, K. G.; Bowhill, S. A.
1978-01-01
A consequence of an exoatmospheric nuclear burst is an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) radiated from it. In a region far enough away from the burst, where nonlinear effects can be ignored, the EMP can be represented by a large-amplitude narrow-time-width plane-wave pulse. If the ionosphere intervenes the origin and destination of the EMP, frequency dispersion can cause significant changes in the original pulse upon reception. A method of computing these dispersive effects of transient wave propagation is summarized. The method described is different from the standard transform techniques and provides physical insight into the transient wave process. The method, although exact, can be used in approximating the early-time transient response of an ionospheric region by a simple integration with only explicit knowledge of the electron density, electron collision frequency, and electron gyrofrequency required. As an illustration of the method, it is applied to a simple example and contrasted with the corresponding transform solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Yang; Kun-De, Yang; Yi-Xin, Yang; Yuan-Liang, Ma
2015-04-01
The evaporation duct which forms above the ocean surface has a significant influence on electromagnetic wave propagation above 2 GHz over the ocean. The effects of horizontal inhomogeneity of evaporation duct on electromagnetic wave propagation are investigated, both in numerical simulation and experimental observation methods, in this paper. Firstly, the features of the horizontal inhomogeneity of the evaporation duct are discussed. Then, two typical inhomogeneous cases are simulated and compared with the homogeneous case. The result shows that path loss is significantly higher than that in the homogeneous case when the evaporation duct height (EDH) at the receiver is lower than that at the transmitter. It is also concluded that the horizontal inhomogeneity of the evaporation duct has a significant influence when the EDH is low or when the electromagnetic wave frequency is lower than 13 GHz. Finally, experimental data collected on a 149-km long propagation path in the South China Sea in 2013 are used to verify the conclusion. The experimental results are consistent with the simulation results. The horizontal inhomogeneity of evaporation duct should be considered when modeling electromagnetic wave propagation over the ocean. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11174235) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. 3102014JC02010301).
Deterministic forward scatter from surface gravity waves.
Deane, Grant B; Preisig, James C; Tindle, Chris T; Lavery, Andone; Stokes, M Dale
2012-12-01
Deterministic structures in sound reflected by gravity waves, such as focused arrivals and Doppler shifts, have implications for underwater acoustics and sonar, and the performance of underwater acoustic communications systems. A stationary phase analysis of the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff scattering integral yields the trajectory of focused arrivals and their relationship to the curvature of the surface wave field. Deterministic effects along paths up to 70 water depths long are observed in shallow water measurements of surface-scattered sound at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory. The arrival time and amplitude of surface-scattered pulses are reconciled with model calculations using measurements of surface waves made with an upward-looking sonar mounted mid-way along the propagation path. The root mean square difference between the modeled and observed pulse arrival amplitude and delay, respectively, normalized by the maximum range of amplitudes and delays, is found to be 0.2 or less for the observation periods analyzed. Cross-correlation coefficients for modeled and observed pulse arrival delays varied from 0.83 to 0.16 depending on surface conditions. Cross-correlation coefficients for normalized pulse energy for the same conditions were small and varied from 0.16 to 0.06. In contrast, the modeled and observed pulse arrival delay and amplitude statistics were in good agreement.
Zero-group-velocity propagation of electromagnetic wave through nanomaterial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Taian
This research will investigate the problem on the propagation of electromagnetic wave through a specific nanomaterial. The nanomaterial analyzed is a material consisting of a field of Pt nanorods. This field of Pt nanorods are deposited on a substrate which consists of a RuO2 nano structure. When the nanorod is exposed to an electron beam emitted by a TEM (Transmission electron microscopy). A wave disturbance has been observed. A video taken within the chamber shows a wave with a speed in the scale of um/s (10-6 m/s), which is 14 orders of magnitude lower than speed of light in free space (approximate 3x108 m/s ). A physical and mathematical model is developed to explain this phenomenon. Due to the process of fabrication, the geometry of the decorated Pt nanorod field is assumed to be approximately periodic. The nanomaterials possess properties similar to a photonic crystal. Pt, as a noble metal, shows dispersive behaviours that is different from those ones of a perfect or good conductors. A FDTD algorithm is implemented to calculate the band diagram of the nanomaterials. To explore the dispersive properties of the Pt nanorod field, the FDTD algorithm is corrected with a Drude Model. The analysis of the corrected band diagram illustrates that the group velocity of the wave packet propagating through the nanomaterial can be positive, negative or zero. The possible zero-group velocity is therefore used to explain the extremely low velocity of wave (wave envelope) detected in the TEM.
ENERGY CONTENT AND PROPAGATION IN TRANSVERSE SOLAR ATMOSPHERIC WAVES
Goossens, M.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Soler, R.; Verth, G.
2013-05-10
Recently, a significant amount of transverse wave energy has been estimated propagating along solar atmospheric magnetic fields. However, these estimates have been made with the classic bulk Alfven wave model which assumes a homogeneous plasma. In this paper, the kinetic, magnetic, and total energy densities and the flux of energy are computed for transverse MHD waves in one-dimensional cylindrical flux tube models with a piecewise constant or continuous radial density profile. There are fundamental deviations from the properties for classic bulk Alfven waves. (1) There is no local equipartition between kinetic and magnetic energy. (2) The flux of energy and the velocity of energy transfer have, in addition to a component parallel to the magnetic field, components in the planes normal to the magnetic field. (3) The energy densities and the flux of energy vary spatially, contrary to the case of classic bulk Alfven waves. This last property has the important consequence that the energy flux computed with the well known expression for bulk Alfven waves could overestimate the real flux by a factor in the range 10-50, depending on the flux tube equilibrium properties.
Wave energy converter effects on wave propagation: A sensitivity study in Monterey Bay, CA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, G.; Jones, C. A.; Roberts, J.; Magalen, J.; Ruehl, K.; Chartrand, C.
2014-12-01
The development of renewable offshore energy in the United States is growing rapidly and wave energy is one of the largest resources currently being evaluated. The deployment of wave energy converter (WEC) arrays required to harness this resource could feasibly number in the hundreds of individual devices. The WEC arrays have the potential to alter nearshore wave propagation and circulation patterns and ecosystem processes. As the industry progresses from pilot- to commercial-scale it is important to understand and quantify the effects of WECs on the natural nearshore processes that support a local, healthy ecosystem. To help accelerate the realization of commercial-scale wave power, predictive modeling tools have been developed and utilized to evaluate the likelihood of environmental impact. At present, direct measurements of the effects of different types of WEC arrays on nearshore wave propagation are not available; therefore wave model simulations provide the groundwork for investigations of the sensitivity of model results to prescribed WEC characteristics over a range of anticipated wave conditions. The present study incorporates a modified version of an industry standard wave modeling tool, SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore), to simulate wave propagation through a hypothetical WEC array deployment site on the California coast. The modified SWAN, referred to as SNL-SWAN, incorporates device-specific WEC power take-off characteristics to more accurately evaluate a WEC device's effects on wave propagation. The primary objectives were to investigate the effects of a range of WEC devices and device and array characteristics (e.g., device spacing, number of WECs in an array) on nearshore wave propagation using SNL-SWAN model simulations. Results showed that significant wave height was most sensitive to variations in WEC device type and size and the number of WEC devices in an array. Locations in the lee centerline of the arrays in each modeled scenario showed the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rupp, Cory J.
Topology optimization is a versatile design tool for the synthesis of heterogeneous engineering systems where the optimal distribution of constituent materials is sought such that a prescribed measure of performance is optimized. In this dissertation, topology optimization methodologies are developed for solving problems associated with wave propagation and vibration in elastic and piezoelectric media. These methodologies utilize the finite element method in conjunction with gradient-based optimization algorithms to create functional materials, structures, and devices. The methodologies are demonstrated in a number of examples and illustrative studies that progress the state-of-the-art in the fields of topology optimization, elastic waveguides, phononic band-gap materials, and piezoelectric energy harvesting systems. These include the design of bulk and surface wave elastic waveguides in two and three dimensions that guide various forms of wave energy as desired, band-gap structures that provide tailored frequency transmission spectrums for bulk waves and surface waves, band-gap materials that prevent wave propagation within certain frequencies, and piezoelectric energy harvesting systems designed to optimize power output. Also addressed are previously unreported issues with the application of topology optimization to these types of problems including the role of physical phenomena in the solutions, mesh dependency effects, non-uniqueness, and the impact of small feature sizes.
Optical wave propagation in epitaxial Nd:Y2O3 planar waveguides.
Li, Wei; Webster, Scott E; Kumaran, Raveen; Penson, Shawn; Tiedje, Thomas
2010-02-01
Optical wave propagation in neodymium-doped yttrium oxide (Nd:Y(2)O(3)) films grown on R-plane sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy has been studied by the prism coupler method. The measurements yield propagation loss data, the refractive index, and the dispersion relation. The refractive index of the Nd:Y(2)O(3) at 632.8 nm is found to be 1.909, and the lowest propagation loss measured is 0.9 +/- 0.2 cm(-1) at 1046 nm with a polymethyl methacrylate top cladding layer on a film with 6 nm root mean square surface roughness. The loss measurements suggest that the majority loss of this planar waveguide sample is scatter from surface roughness that can be described by the model of Payne and Lacey [Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977 (1994)].
Wave propagation in media having negative permittivity and permeability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziolkowski, Richard W.; Heyman, Ehud
2001-11-01
Wave propagation in a double negative (DNG) medium, i.e., a medium having negative permittivity and negative permeability, is studied both analytically and numerically. The choices of the square root that leads to the index of refraction and the wave impedance in a DNG medium are determined by imposing analyticity in the complex frequency domain, and the corresponding wave properties associated with each choice are presented. These monochromatic concepts are then tested critically via a one-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation of the propagation of a causal, pulsed plane wave in a matched, lossy Drude model DNG medium. The causal responses of different spectral regimes of the medium with positive or negative refractive indices are studied by varying the carrier frequency of narrowband pulse excitations. The smooth transition of the phenomena associated with a DNG medium from its early-time nondispersive behavior to its late-time monochromatic response is explored with wideband pulse excitations. These FDTD results show conclusively that the square root choice leading to a negative index of refraction and positive wave impedance is the correct one, and that this choice is consistent with the overall causality of the response. An analytical, exact frequency domain solution to the scattering of a wave from a DNG slab is also given and is used to characterize several physical effects. This solution is independent of the choice of the square roots for the index of refraction and the wave impedance, and thus avoids any controversy that may arise in connection with the signs of these constituents. The DNG slab solution is used to critically examine the perfect lens concept suggested recently by Pendry. It is shown that the perfect lens effect exists only under the special case of a DNG medium with ɛ(ω)=μ(ω)=-1 that is both lossless and nondispersive. Otherwise, the closed form solutions for the field structure reveal that the DNG slab converts
Mapping a plasmonic hologram with photosensitive polymer films: standing versus propagating waves.
Papke, Thomas; Yadavalli, Nataraja Sekhar; Henkel, Carsten; Santer, Svetlana
2014-08-27
We use a photosensitive layer containing azobenzene moieties to map near-field intensity patterns in the vicinity of nanogrids fabricated within a thin silver layer. It is known that azobenzene containing films deform permanently during irradiation, following the pattern of the field intensity. The photosensitive material reacts only to stationary waves whose intensity patterns do not change in time. In this study, we have found a periodic deformation above the silver film outside the nanostructure, even if the latter consists of just one groove. This is in contradiction to the widely accepted viewpoint that propagating surface plasmon modes dominate outside nanogrids. We explain our observation based on an electromagnetic hologram formed by the constructive interference between a propagating surface plasmon wave and the incident light. This hologram contains a stationary intensity and polarization grating that even appears in the absence of the polymer layer.
Excitation, propagation and damping of helicon waves in a high density, low temperature plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caneses, J. F.; Blackwell, B. D.
2015-11-01
The MAGnetized Plasma Interaction Experiment (MAGPIE) is a helicon linear plasma device built to study fusion relevant plasma-surface interactions. In this work, we investigate helicon wave propagation in high density (1018-1019 m-3) low temperature (2-4 eV) magnetized (50-200 G) hydrogen plasma produced by a half-helical antenna operated at 7 MHz and 20 kW. Using the cold dielectric tensor with collisional terms (electron-neutral and Coulomb), helicon wave damping is calculated along the length of MAGPIE using a WKB approximation. Comparison with experiment indicates that wave damping, under these conditions, is entirely collisional. Numerical results from a fully electromagnetic wave code and 2D wavefield measurements indicate that helicon waves are excited at the plasma edge by the antenna's transverse current straps while the helical straps play a secondary role. These waves propagate towards the center of the discharge along the whistler wave ray direction (19 degrees to the background magnetic field), interfere on-axis and form the axial interference pattern commonly observed in helicon devices.
Optical surface wave in a crystal with diffusion photorefractive nonlinearity
Chetkin, S A; Akhmedzhanov, I M
2011-11-30
We consider a steady-state nonlinear photorefractive surface wave (PR SW) with TE or TM polarisation when the refractive index of the photorefractive crystal (PRC) depends on the strength of the diffusion crystal electric field emerging upon the wave propagation. We have determined the phase trajectory and transverse structure of the PR SW intensity distribution for different values of the diffusion photorefractive nonlinearity. We have investigated a photorefractive diffraction grating, which arises in the surface PRC layer during propagation of the nonlinear PR SW.
Multiphase flow, deformation and wave propagation in porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pazdniakou, A.; Adler, P. M.
2010-12-01
Our goals are to determine some of the most important macroscopic properties of porous media whether they are dry or saturated by one or two fluids such as permeabilities, solid deformations and acoustic velocities. Therefore, one needs to calculate fluid flow through the pores and the deformation of the solid matrix. Single and multiphase flows are determined by Lattice Boltzmann Models (LBM) where fluid motion is described in terms of a discretized particle distribution function which obeys a Lattice Boltzmann Equation equivalent to the Navier-Stokes equations at the macroscopic level. Complex boundary conditions can be easily treated by LBM which makes it convenient for flow simulations in porous media. Applications to the determination of the absolute permeability and of the relative permeabilities in complex media are given as well as examples of transient phenomena. Elastic deformations of the solid matrix whether they are static or time dependent can be determined by Lattice Spring Models (LSM). The solid matrix is represented by a regular cubic lattice whose points are connected by springs which are either linear (between the lattice points) or angular (between the linear springs). The spring set is selected in order to obtain an equivalent isotropic solid. The elastic properties of the medium can be calculated from the elastic energy stored in the elementary cell. A mass can be assigned to the lattice points. Applications to the determination of the macroscopic Young modulus and Poisson ratio of porous solids are given as well as direct simulations of wave propagation through dry porous solids. In order to study wave propagation in porous media containing one or two fluids, the LBM and LSM codes are coupled by using a momentum exchange algorithm which equates the velocities and the normal stresses at the solid-fluid interface. Then, two different methods can be used to study wave propagation. In the first direct method, a pressure variation is induced at a
Transition from 1D to 2D Laser-Induced Ultrasonic Wave Propagation in an Extended Plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laloš, Jernej; Požar, Tomaž; Možina, Janez
2016-05-01
Optodynamic interaction between a laser pulse and the surface of an opaque, solid elastic object produces transient waves that propagate and reverberate within the object. They can be, in general, categorized into three distinctive types which are all formed through different mechanisms: ablation-induced waves, light-pressure-induced waves, and thermoelastic waves. In this paper, out-of-plane displacements of such waves are simulated at the epicentral position on the opposite side of an extended plane-parallel elastic plate. Wave propagation is mathematically described by Green's transfer functions convolved with suitable time profiles of the incoming laser pulses. The simulated size of the circularly symmetric laser-illuminated area on the plate surface is varied to show the limit-to-limit transition of the displacement waveforms: from a 2D point source to an infinite 1D source.
Electromagnetic wave propagation through an overdense magnetized collisional plasma layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thoma, C.; Rose, D. V.; Miller, C. L.; Clark, R. E.; Hughes, T. P.
2009-08-01
The results of investigations into the feasibility of using a magnetic window to propagate electromagnetic waves through a finite-sized overdense plasma slab are described. We theoretically calculate the transmission coefficients for right- and left-handed circularly polarized plane waves through a uniform magnetized plasma slab. Using reasonable estimates for the plasma properties expected to be found in the ionized shock layer surrounding a hypersonic aircraft traveling in the earth's upper atmosphere (radio blackout conditions), and assuming a 1 GHz carrier frequency for the radio communications channel, we find that the required magnetic field for propagation of right-handed circularly polarized, or whistler, waves is on the order of a few hundred gauss. Transmission coefficients are calculated as a function of sheath thickness and are shown to be quite sensitive to the electron collision frequency. One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are shown to be in good agreement with the theory. These simulations also demonstrate that Ohmic heating of the electrons can be considerable. Two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations using a simplified waveguide and antenna model illustrate the same general transmission behavior as the theory and one-dimensional simulations. In addition, a net focusing effect due to the plasma is also observed in two and three dimensions. These simulations can be extended to design and analyze more realistic waveguide and antenna models.
Synthetic observations of wave propagation in a sunspot umbra
Felipe, T.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Khomenko, E.
2014-11-01
Spectropolarimetric temporal series from Fe I λ6301.5 Å and Ca II infrared triplet lines are obtained by applying the Stokes synthesis code NICOLE to a numerical simulation of wave propagation in a sunspot umbra from MANCHA code. The analysis of the phase difference between Doppler velocity and intensity core oscillations of the Fe I λ6301.5 Å line reveals that variations in the intensity are produced by opacity fluctuations rather than intrinsic temperature oscillations, except for frequencies between 5 and 6.5 mHz. On the other hand, the photospheric magnetic field retrieved from the weak field approximation provides the intrinsic magnetic field oscillations associated to wave propagation. Our results suggest that this is due to the low magnetic field gradient of our sunspot model. The Stokes parameters of the chromospheric Ca II infrared triplet lines show striking variations as shock waves travel through the formation height of the lines, including emission self-reversals in the line core and highly abnormal Stokes V profiles. Magnetic field oscillations inferred from the Ca II infrared lines using the weak field approximation appear to be related with the magnetic field strength variation between the photosphere and the chromosphere.
Poleward propagation of parametric subharmonic instability-induced inertial waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Xiaohui; Liu, Qian; Shang, Xiaodong; Chen, Guiying; Wang, Dongxiao
2016-03-01
This study presents two sets of current records obtained from the South China Sea and satellite altimeter data, and it suggests that near-inertial waves induced by parametric subharmonic instability (PSI) associated with internal tides can be transported poleward beyond their critical latitude φc by background geostrophic flow (BGF). The two mooring locations were poleward of φc (≈14°N) for diurnal subharmonics (0.5D1; half diurnal frequency D1); however, both of the current records revealed clear signals at 0.5D1. The enhanced subinertial motion at 0.5D1 exhibited a fortnightly spring-neap cycle but did not agree with that of D1, indicating that it may not be generated via PSI associated with the local D1. Observations from the altimeter data and a ray-tracing simulation suggested that these nonlocally generated 0.5D1 waves may be excited near their φc, after which they propagated poleward under the role of the BGF to the observation site with a latitude higher than φc. The poleward propagation of near-inertial waves can produce elevated vertical shears; thus, it may play an important role in enhancing the local turbulent mixing.
Shock wave propagation along constant sloped ocean bottoms.
Maestas, Joseph T; Taylor, Larissa F; Collis, Jon M
2014-12-01
The nonlinear progressive wave equation (NPE) is a time-domain model used to calculate long-range shock propagation using a wave-following computational domain. Current models are capable of treating smoothly spatially varying medium properties, and fluid-fluid interfaces that align horizontally with a computational grid that can be handled by enforcing appropriate interface conditions. However, sloping interfaces that do not align with a horizontal grid present a computational challenge as application of interface conditions to vertical contacts is non-trivial. In this work, range-dependent environments, characterized by sloping bathymetry, are treated using a rotated coordinate system approach where the irregular interface is aligned with the coordinate axes. The coordinate rotation does not change the governing equation due to the narrow-angle assumption adopted in its derivation, but care is taken with applying initial, interface, and boundary conditions. Additionally, sound pressure level influences on nonlinear steepening for range-independent and range-dependent domains are used to quantify the pressures for which linear acoustic models suffice. A study is also performed to investigate the effects of thin sediment layers on the propagation of blast waves generated by explosives buried beneath mud line.
Electromagnetic wave propagation through an overdense magnetized collisional plasma layer
Thoma, C.; Rose, D. V.; Miller, C. L.; Clark, R. E.; Hughes, T. P.
2009-08-15
The results of investigations into the feasibility of using a magnetic window to propagate electromagnetic waves through a finite-sized overdense plasma slab are described. We theoretically calculate the transmission coefficients for right- and left-handed circularly polarized plane waves through a uniform magnetized plasma slab. Using reasonable estimates for the plasma properties expected to be found in the ionized shock layer surrounding a hypersonic aircraft traveling in the earth's upper atmosphere (radio blackout conditions), and assuming a 1 GHz carrier frequency for the radio communications channel, we find that the required magnetic field for propagation of right-handed circularly polarized, or whistler, waves is on the order of a few hundred gauss. Transmission coefficients are calculated as a function of sheath thickness and are shown to be quite sensitive to the electron collision frequency. One-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are shown to be in good agreement with the theory. These simulations also demonstrate that Ohmic heating of the electrons can be considerable. Two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations using a simplified waveguide and antenna model illustrate the same general transmission behavior as the theory and one-dimensional simulations. In addition, a net focusing effect due to the plasma is also observed in two and three dimensions. These simulations can be extended to design and analyze more realistic waveguide and antenna models.
Workshop on Research Techniques in Wave Propagation and Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varadan, V. V.; Varadan, V. K.
1983-05-01
A Workshop/Symposium on Research Techniques in Wave Propagation and Scattering was held at the Ohio State University October 18-21, 1982. This workshop was co-sponsored with the generous financial support of the U.S. Army Research Office, U.S. Office of Naval Research, the Center for Welding Research, O.S.U., and the Department of Engineering Mechanics, O.S.U. The workshop format consisted of a core of a general lectures of fifty minutes duration each and several shorter contributions that were of twenty minutes duration each. In addition, there were three panel discussions. The general lectures were of an expository nature on fundamental concepts and basic analytical/numerical techniques for the solution of wave scattering and propagation problems. The speakers were noted for their contribution to these techniques and in many cases have pioneered the techniques that they elaborated upon. These lectures were invaluable to the participants since they were of a pedagogical nature and easily understood by even those not very familiar with the particular method. The written version of many of these lectures will appear in a four volume Handbook on Acoustic, Electromagnetic and Elastic Wave Scattering to be published by North Holland as a separate project.
Propagation of three-dimensional electron-acoustic solitary waves
Shalaby, M.; El-Sherif, L. S.; El-Labany, S. K.; Sabry, R.
2011-06-15
Theoretical investigation is carried out for understanding the properties of three-dimensional electron-acoustic waves propagating in magnetized plasma whose constituents are cold magnetized electron fluid, hot electrons obeying nonthermal distribution, and stationary ions. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic equations for the cold magnetized electron fluid, nonthermal electron density distribution, and the Poisson equation are used to derive the corresponding nonlinear evolution equation, Zkharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, in the small- but finite- amplitude regime. The ZK equation is solved analytically and it is found that it supports both solitary and blow-up solutions. It is found that rarefactive electron-acoustic solitary waves strongly depend on the density and temperature ratios of the hot-to-cold electron species as well as the nonthermal electron parameter. Furthermore, there is a critical value for the nonthermal electron parameter, which decides whether the electron-acoustic solitary wave's amplitude is decreased or increased by changing various plasma parameters. Importantly, the change of the propagation angles leads to miss the balance between the nonlinearity and dispersion; hence, the localized pulses convert to explosive/blow-up pulses. The relevance of this study to the nonlinear electron-acoustic structures in the dayside auroral zone in the light of Viking satellite observations is discussed.
Synthetic Observations of Wave Propagation in a Sunspot Umbra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felipe, T.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Khomenko, E.
2014-11-01
Spectropolarimetric temporal series from Fe I λ6301.5 Å and Ca II infrared triplet lines are obtained by applying the Stokes synthesis code NICOLE to a numerical simulation of wave propagation in a sunspot umbra from MANCHA code. The analysis of the phase difference between Doppler velocity and intensity core oscillations of the Fe I λ6301.5 Å line reveals that variations in the intensity are produced by opacity fluctuations rather than intrinsic temperature oscillations, except for frequencies between 5 and 6.5 mHz. On the other hand, the photospheric magnetic field retrieved from the weak field approximation provides the intrinsic magnetic field oscillations associated to wave propagation. Our results suggest that this is due to the low magnetic field gradient of our sunspot model. The Stokes parameters of the chromospheric Ca II infrared triplet lines show striking variations as shock waves travel through the formation height of the lines, including emission self-reversals in the line core and highly abnormal Stokes V profiles. Magnetic field oscillations inferred from the Ca II infrared lines using the weak field approximation appear to be related with the magnetic field strength variation between the photosphere and the chromosphere.
Shock wave propagation along constant sloped ocean bottoms.
Maestas, Joseph T; Taylor, Larissa F; Collis, Jon M
2014-12-01
The nonlinear progressive wave equation (NPE) is a time-domain model used to calculate long-range shock propagation using a wave-following computational domain. Current models are capable of treating smoothly spatially varying medium properties, and fluid-fluid interfaces that align horizontally with a computational grid that can be handled by enforcing appropriate interface conditions. However, sloping interfaces that do not align with a horizontal grid present a computational challenge as application of interface conditions to vertical contacts is non-trivial. In this work, range-dependent environments, characterized by sloping bathymetry, are treated using a rotated coordinate system approach where the irregular interface is aligned with the coordinate axes. The coordinate rotation does not change the governing equation due to the narrow-angle assumption adopted in its derivation, but care is taken with applying initial, interface, and boundary conditions. Additionally, sound pressure level influences on nonlinear steepening for range-independent and range-dependent domains are used to quantify the pressures for which linear acoustic models suffice. A study is also performed to investigate the effects of thin sediment layers on the propagation of blast waves generated by explosives buried beneath mud line. PMID:25480048
Double porosity modeling in elastic wave propagation for reservoir characterization
Berryman, J. G., LLNL
1998-06-01
Phenomenological equations for the poroelastic behavior of a double porosity medium have been formulated and the coefficients in these linear equations identified. The generalization from a single porosity model increases the number of independent coefficients from three to six for an isotropic applied stress. In a quasistatic analysis, the physical interpretations are based upon considerations of extremes in both spatial and temporal scales. The limit of very short times is the one most relevant for wave propagation, and in this case both matrix porosity and fractures behave in an undrained fashion. For the very long times more relevant for reservoir drawdown,the double porosity medium behaves as an equivalent single porosity medium At the macroscopic spatial level, the pertinent parameters (such as the total compressibility) may be determined by appropriate field tests. At the mesoscopic scale pertinent parameters of the rock matrix can be determined directly through laboratory measurements on core, and the compressibility can be measured for a single fracture. We show explicitly how to generalize the quasistatic results to incorporate wave propagation effects and how effects that are usually attributed to squirt flow under partially saturated conditions can be explained alternatively in terms of the double-porosity model. The result is therefore a theory that generalizes, but is completely consistent with, Biot`s theory of poroelasticity and is valid for analysis of elastic wave data from highly fractured reservoirs.
a New Approach to Bulk Wave Propagation in Anisotropic Media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tverdokhlebov, Andrey
A new approach to a theoretical description of ultrasonic bulk wave propagation through anisotropic media is developed from the retarded potential representation which was obtained for the Green's function of the elastic wave equation in anisotropic media. The general formulation of the problem and the method of solution are presented. On the basis of the theoretical development, a quantitative model was obtained that yields and properly describes all major features of the phenomena of an anisotropic filter influence. A comparison with other contemporary methods and models for the quantitative evaluation of the bulk wave propagation in anisotropic media is outlined and briefly discussed. The experimental proof of principle was established by ultrasonic measurements performed on centrifugally cast stainless steel (CCSS) and unidirectional graphite fiber -epoxy composite specimens. The experimental technique used a skip-distance arrangement of the identical quasi -point probes serving as a sender and a receiver. Consistent experimental results were attained allowing us to consider the suggested experimental arrangements as a basis for the future development of NDE technique for anisotropic material characterization. Three different types of pilot computer software were developed from this generalized retarded potential model. The results of the simulation runs turn out to be self- and mutually consistent and supported by experiments. The phenomena, such as beam skewing, beam splitting, beam focusing, unsymmetrical beams and other anisotropic effects, some of which have been already known from earlier experimental observations, emerge as computational results of the software developed from the model.
Propagation and Reflection of Diffusionless Torsional Waves in a Sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maffei, S.; Jackson, A.
2015-12-01
The magnetohydrodynamics of stars and planetary cores is usually dominated by the overwhelming importance of rotation compared to other forces. Under these conditions the fluid motions are characterized by a strong invariance along the rotation axis. In the presence of a background magnetic field, magnetohydrodynamic oscillations can be triggered. Among these, of particular interest are the torsional waves, azimuthal perturbations of the fluid that are axisymmetric and invariant along the vertical direction. Their periods depend solely on the intensity of the magnetic field component aligned with the radial direction of propagation. As the detection of the fundamental period could constrain the magnetic field intensity in the Earth's outer core there is a long history of attempted detection of torsional waves from geomagnetic data. There is however a fundamental lack of knowledge concerning the propagation and reflection properties of these waves, as observational studies suggests behaviors that are different from theoretical expectations. In particular, recent findings (Gillet et al., 2011) suggest the lack of reflection at the equator and at the rotation axis. Through numerical simulation and analytical techniques we analyze the temporal evolution of diffusionless torsional waves in spherical geometry, with particular attention on the reflection at the equator and the pseudo-reflection at the rotation axis. We develop a novel analytical solution to the torsional wave eigenvalue problem whose behavior at the boundaries helps us to illustrate the meaning of the boundary conditions. Furthermore we find that for any acceptable magnetic background field, reflections at both boundaries are allowed and we illustrate how the WKBJ approximation is an efficient tool for investigating them.
PROPAGATION AND STABILITY OF SUPERLUMINAL WAVES IN PULSAR WINDS
Mochol, Iwona; Kirk, John G. E-mail: john.kirk@mpi-hd.mpg.de
2013-07-01
Nonlinear electromagnetic waves with superluminal phase velocity can propagate in the winds around isolated pulsars, and around some pulsars in binary systems. Using a short-wavelength approximation, we find and analyze an integrable system of equations that govern their evolution in spherical geometry. A confined mode is identified that stagnates to finite pressure at large radius and can form a precursor to the termination shock. Using a simplified criterion, we find this mode is stable for most isolated pulsars, but may be unstable if the external pressure is high, such as in the pulsar wind nebulae in starburst galaxies and in W44. Pulsar winds in eccentric binary systems, such as PSR 1259-63, may go through phases with stable and unstable electromagnetic precursors, as well as phases in which the density is too high for these modes to propagate.
Non-reciprocal elastic wave propagation in spatiotemporal periodic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trainiti, G.; Ruzzene, M.
2016-08-01
We study longitudinal and transverse wave propagation in beams with elastic properties that are periodically varying in space and time. Spatiotemporal modulation of the elastic properties breaks mechanical reciprocity and induces one-way propagation. We follow an analytic approach to characterize the non-reciprocal behavior of the structures by analyzing the symmetry breaking of the dispersion spectrum, which results in the formation of directional band gaps and produces shifts of the first Brillouin zone limits. This approach allows us to relate position and width of the directional band gaps to the modulation parameters. Moreover, we identify the critical values of the modulation speed to maximize the non-reciprocal effect. We numerically verify the theoretical predictions by using a finite element model of the modulated beams to compute the transient response of the structure. We compute the two-dimensional Fourier transform of the collected displacement fields to calculate numerical band diagrams, showing excellent agreement between theoretical and numerical dispersion diagrams.
Orbital angular momentum in optical waves propagating through distributed turbulence.
Sanchez, Darryl J; Oesch, Denis W
2011-11-21
This is the second of two papers demonstrating that photons with orbital angular momentum can be created in optical waves propagating through distributed turbulence. In the companion paper, it is shown that propagation through atmospheric turbulence can create non-trivial angular momentum. Here, we extend the result and demonstrate that this momentum is, at least in part, orbital angular momentum. Specifically, we demonstrate that branch points (in the language of the adaptive optic community) indicate the presence of photons with non-zero OAM. Furthermore, the conditions required to create photons with non-zero orbital angular momentum are ubiquitous. The repercussions of this statement are wide ranging and these are cursorily enumerated. PMID:22109489
Orbital angular momentum in optical waves propagating through distributed turbulence.
Sanchez, Darryl J; Oesch, Denis W
2011-11-21
This is the second of two papers demonstrating that photons with orbital angular momentum can be created in optical waves propagating through distributed turbulence. In the companion paper, it is shown that propagation through atmospheric turbulence can create non-trivial angular momentum. Here, we extend the result and demonstrate that this momentum is, at least in part, orbital angular momentum. Specifically, we demonstrate that branch points (in the language of the adaptive optic community) indicate the presence of photons with non-zero OAM. Furthermore, the conditions required to create photons with non-zero orbital angular momentum are ubiquitous. The repercussions of this statement are wide ranging and these are cursorily enumerated.
Evaluation of a wave-vector-frequency-domain method for nonlinear wave propagation
Jing, Yun; Tao, Molei; Clement, Greg T.
2011-01-01
A wave-vector-frequency-domain method is presented to describe one-directional forward or backward acoustic wave propagation in a nonlinear homogeneous medium. Starting from a frequency-domain representation of the second-order nonlinear acoustic wave equation, an implicit solution for the nonlinear term is proposed by employing the Green’s function. Its approximation, which is more suitable for numerical implementation, is used. An error study is carried out to test the efficiency of the model by comparing the results with the Fubini solution. It is shown that the error grows as the propagation distance and step-size increase. However, for the specific case tested, even at a step size as large as one wavelength, sufficient accuracy for plane-wave propagation is observed. A two-dimensional steered transducer problem is explored to verify the nonlinear acoustic field directional independence of the model. A three-dimensional single-element transducer problem is solved to verify the forward model by comparing it with an existing nonlinear wave propagation code. Finally, backward-projection behavior is examined. The sound field over a plane in an absorptive medium is backward projected to the source and compared with the initial field, where good agreement is observed. PMID:21302985
Effect of tube ovalling on pressure wave propagation speed.
Anderson, A; Johnson, G R
1990-01-01
For physiological and other flows it is often assumed that the pressure pulse wave speed is given by the classic Moens-Korteweg expression and this may be used, for example, to assist in the determination of in vivo blood vessel wall incremental Young's modulus. A number of physical factors affecting the value of this wave speed have been reviewed in the literature, but the effect of slight ovalling of the tube cross-section is rarely mentioned. The analysis for a tube of elliptic cross-section shows that even a very small degree of ovalling can cause quite substantial reductions in Young mode wave propagation velocities compared with the classic Moens-Korteweg expression. Bending-induced changes in cross-section shape with internal pressure increase the apparent elasticity of the tube wall. Experimental confirmation is provided by waterhammer wave speed measurements in a copper tube that has been ovalled by coiling. Even though the Young mode is not dominant in this case, as it would be for a physiological case, the measured wave speed is quite clearly less than the Moens-Korteweg theory and it can be shown that the small degree of measured tube ovality explains this.
Global Propagation of Gravity Waves Generated with the Whole Atmosphere Transfer Function Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayr, H. G.; Talaat, E. R.; Wolven, B. C.
2012-12-01
three distinct classes of waves: (1) Lamb waves that propagate in the thermosphere with about 800 m/s, strongly dissipated by molecular viscosity. (2) Waves reflected from the Earth surface, which return in narrow propagation cones to the thermosphere with velocities of about 200 m/s. (3) Waves that are ducted through the lower atmosphere and leak back into the thermosphere, where they propagate with about 300 m/s, virtually without dissipation. Waves from the leaking duct, with short propagation velocity, thus can propagate from the auroral region to equatorial latitudes, and this has been observed. The TFM has been applied to simulate AGW patterns during magnetic sub-storm activity observed with the Dynamics Explorer (DE) spacecraft. The TFM can readily be employed also to simulate AGW generated with excitation sources in the lower atmosphere, and efforts are underway to resurrect the model with present day advanced computers and analysis software [e.g., Porter et al., AGU, 2008].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Mackay, Tom G.; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh
2016-11-01
The propagation of Dyakonov-Tamm waves guided by the planar interface of an isotropic topological insulator and a structurally chiral material, both assumed to be nonmagnetic, was investigated by numerically solving the associated canonical boundary-value problem. The topologically insulating surface states of the topological insulator were quantitated via a surface admittance {γ }{{TI}}, which significantly affects the phase speeds and the spatial profiles of the Dyakonov-Tamm waves. Most significantly, it is possible that a Dyakonov-Tamm wave propagates co-parallel to a vector {u} in the interface plane, but no Dyakonov-Tamm wave propagates anti-parallel to {u}. The left/right asymmetry, which vanishes for {γ }{{TI}}=0, is highly attractive for one-way on-chip optical communication.
Gravity Wave Variances and Propagation Derived from AIRS Radiances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gong, Jie; Wu, Dong L.; Eckermann, S. D.
2012-01-01
As the first gravity wave (GW) climatology study using nadir-viewing infrared sounders, 50 Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiance channels are selected to estimate GW variances at pressure levels between 2-100 hPa. The GW variance for each scan in the cross-track direction is derived from radiance perturbations in the scan, independently of adjacent scans along the orbit. Since the scanning swaths are perpendicular to the satellite orbits, which are inclined meridionally at most latitudes, the zonal component of GW propagation can be inferred by differencing the variances derived between the westmost and the eastmost viewing angles. Consistent with previous GW studies using various satellite instruments, monthly mean AIRS variance shows large enhancements over meridionally oriented mountain ranges as well as some islands at winter hemisphere high latitudes. Enhanced wave activities are also found above tropical deep convective regions. GWs prefer to propagate westward above mountain ranges, and eastward above deep convection. AIRS 90 field-of-views (FOVs), ranging from +48 deg. to -48 deg. off nadir, can detect large-amplitude GWs with a phase velocity propagating preferentially at steep angles (e.g., those from orographic and convective sources). The annual cycle dominates the GW variances and the preferred propagation directions for all latitudes. Indication of a weak two-year variation in the tropics is found, which is presumably related to the Quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). AIRS geometry makes its out-tracks capable of detecting GWs with vertical wavelengths substantially shorter than the thickness of instrument weighting functions. The novel discovery of AIRS capability of observing shallow inertia GWs will expand the potential of satellite GW remote sensing and provide further constraints on the GW drag parameterization schemes in the general circulation models (GCMs).
Deep vertical propagation of mountain waves above Scandinavia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dörnbrack, A.; Witschas, B.; Rahm, S.; Gisinger, S.; Rapp, M.; Baumgarten, G.; Stober, G.; Luebken, F. J.; Achtert, P.; Ehard, B.; Gumbel, J.; Kivi, R.; Wagner, J.
2014-12-01
The project "Investigation of the life cycle of gravity waves"(GW-LCYCLE) is part of the German research initiative ROMIC (Role of theMiddle atmosphere In Climate) funded by the ministry of research. Inclose cooperation with Scandinavian partners as the Stockholm Universityand the Finnish Meteorological Institute a first field phase wasconducted in November/December 2013. The field program combinedground-based observations of tropospheric and lower stratospheric flowand stratospheric and mesospheric temperature by lidars and radars atAlomar (N) and at Esrange (S) with airborne and balloonborneobservations. Northern Scandinavia was chosen since the westerly flowacross the mountains is often aligned with the polar night jetpermitting gravity waves (GWs) to propagate into the middle atmosphere.From 2 until 14 December 2013, 24 flight hours of the DLR Falcon flownin four intensive observing periods (IOPs) provided in-situ andremote-sensing observations of atmospheric wind, temperature, watervapour and other trace gases (e.g. CO, N2O, O3) in the vicinity of thetropopause. During three IOPs, the airborne observations were supportedby 3 hourly simultaneous radiosonde launches from Andøya (N), Esrange(S) and Sodankylä (FIN). Additionally, 1.5 hourly high-frequencyradiosonde launches were conducted from the Arena Arctica at Kirunaairport with two systems (Väisälä and GRAW)and different balloonfillings to obtain different ascent rates.During GW-LCYCLE, the atmospheric flow above the Scandinavian mountainswas observed under distinct meteorological conditions enabling orattenuating the deep vertical propagation of mountain-induced gravitywaves. The presentation juxtaposes two different cases and analyses theassociated meteorological conditions. The unique combination of airbornetropospheric wind lidar measurements, flight level data, high-frequencyradiosonde profiles and the ground-based lidar observations allow acomprehensive study of deeply propagating gravity waves
Air-ground interface: Surface waves, surface impedance and acoustic-to-seismic coupling coefficient
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daigle, Gilles; Embleton, Tony
1990-01-01
In atmospheric acoustics, the subject of surface waves has been an area of discussion for many years. The existence of an acoustic surface wave is now well established theoretically. The mathematical solution for spherical wave propagation above an impedance boundary includes the possibility of a contribution that possesses all the standard properties for a surface wave. Surface waves exist when the surface is sufficiently porous, relative to its acoustical resistance, that it can influence the airborne particle velocity near the surface and reduce the phase velocity of sound waves in air at the surface. This traps some of the sound energy in the air to remain near the surface as it propagates. Above porous grounds, the existence of surface waves has eluded direct experimental confirmation (pulse experiments have failed to show a separate arrival expected from the reduced phase speed) and indirect evidence for its existence has appeared contradictory. The experimental evidence for the existence of an acoustical surface wave above porous boundaries is reviewed. Recent measurements including pulse experiments are also described. A few years ago the acoustic impedance of a grass-covered surface was measured in the frequency range 30 to 300 Hz. Here, further measurements on the same site are discussed. These measurements include core samples, a shallow refractive survey to determine the seismic velocities, and measurements of the acoustic-to-seismic coupling coefficient.
Wave propagation downstream of a high power helicon in a dipolelike magnetic field
Prager, James; Winglee, Robert; Roberson, B. Race; Ziemba, Timothy
2010-01-15
The wave propagating downstream of a high power helicon source in a diverging magnetic field was investigated experimentally. The magnetic field of the wave has been measured both axially and radially. The three-dimensional structure of the propagating wave is observed and its wavelength and phase velocity are determined. The measurements are compared to predictions from helicon theory and that of a freely propagating whistler wave. The implications of this work on the helicon as a thruster are also discussed.
Ultrafast microfluidics using surface acoustic waves
Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.
2009-01-01
We demonstrate that surface acoustic waves (SAWs), nanometer amplitude Rayleigh waves driven at megahertz order frequencies propagating on the surface of a piezoelectric substrate, offer a powerful method for driving a host of extremely fast microfluidic actuation and micro∕bioparticle manipulation schemes. We show that sessile drops can be translated rapidly on planar substrates or fluid can be pumped through microchannels at 1–10 cm∕s velocities, which are typically one to two orders quicker than that afforded by current microfluidic technologies. Through symmetry-breaking, azimuthal recirculation can be induced within the drop to drive strong inertial microcentrifugation for micromixing and particle concentration or separation. Similar micromixing strategies can be induced in the same microchannel in which fluid is pumped with the SAW by merely changing the SAW frequency to rapidly switch the uniform through-flow into a chaotic oscillatory flow by exploiting superpositioning of the irradiated sound waves from the sidewalls of the microchannel. If the flow is sufficiently quiescent, the nodes of the transverse standing wave that arises across the microchannel also allow for particle aggregation, and hence, sorting on nodal lines. In addition, the SAW also facilitates other microfluidic capabilities. For example, capillary waves excited at the free surface of a sessile drop by the SAW underneath it can be exploited for micro∕nanoparticle collection and sorting at nodal points or lines at low powers. At higher powers, the large accelerations off the substrate surface as the SAW propagates across drives rapid destabilization of the drop free surface giving rise to inertial liquid jets that persist over 1–2 cm in length or atomization of the entire drop to produce 1–10 μm monodispersed aerosol droplets, which can be exploited for ink-jet printing, mass spectrometry interfacing, or pulmonary drug delivery. The atomization of polymer∕protein solutions
Dispersion relations for electromagnetic wave propagation in chiral plasmas
Gao, M. X.; Guo, B. Peng, L.; Cai, X.
2014-11-15
The dispersion relations for electromagnetic wave propagation in chiral plasmas are derived using a simplified method and investigated in detail. With the help of the dispersion relations for each eignwave, we explore how the chiral plasmas exhibit negative refraction and investigate the frequency region for negative refraction. The results show that chirality can induce negative refraction in plasmas. Moreover, both the degree of chirality and the external magnetic field have a significant effect on the critical frequency and the bandwidth of the frequency for negative refraction in chiral plasmas. The parameter dependence of the effects is calculated and discussed.
Obliquely propagating dust-acoustic waves in dense quantum magnetoplasmas
Khan, S. A.; Masood, W.; Siddiq, M.
2009-01-15
Two-dimensional, obliquely propagating nonlinear quantum dust-acoustic waves in dense magnetized plasmas are investigated on the basis of a quantum hydrodynamic model. In this regard, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation is derived using the small amplitude approximation method. The extended hyperbolic tangent method is employed to obtain solitary and explosive solutions of the ZK equation. It is found that the quantum effects related to the Bohm potential, dust concentration, external magnetic field, and obliqueness significantly modify the amplitude and width of both solitary and explosive pulses. The relevance of the study to dense plasmas is also discussed.
Regular Wave Propagation Out of Noise in Chemical Active Media
Alonso, S.; Sendina-Nadal, I.; Perez-Munuzuri, V.; Sancho, J. M.; Sagues, F.
2001-08-13
A pacemaker, regularly emitting chemical waves, is created out of noise when an excitable photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium, strictly unable to autonomously initiate autowaves, is forced with a spatiotemporal patterned random illumination. These experimental observations are also reproduced numerically by using a set of reaction-diffusion equations for an activator-inhibitor model, and further analytically interpreted in terms of genuine coupling effects arising from parametric fluctuations. Within the same framework we also address situations of noise-sustained propagation in subexcitable media.
Oblique propagation of nonlinear electrostatic waves in dense astrophysical magnetoplasmas
Masood, W.; Siddiq, M.; Rizvi, H.
2011-10-15
Nonlinear quantum ion-acoustic waves in dense dissipative as well as non-dissipative magnetized plasmas are investigated employing the quantum hydrodynamic model. In this regard, Zakharov Kuznetsov Burgers equation is derived in quantum plasmas, for the first time, using the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. The unique features of nonlinear electrostatic structures in pure electron-ion quantum magnetoplasma are highlighted and the parametric domain of the applicability of the model is unequivocally expressed. The present study may be useful to understand the nonlinear propagation characteristics of electrostatic shock and solitary structures in dense astrophysical systems where the quantum effects are expected to dominate.
Millimeter-wave propagation measurements at the Ballistic Research Laboratory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wallace, H. Bruce
1988-05-01
Results of measurements made with radars from 35 to 217 GHz of near-earth propagation in rain, fog, snow, and humidity are presented. The effects of water vapor are characterized by an attenuation coefficient that is a function of vapor pressure or absolute humidity. Backscatter contributes significantly to the adverse effect of rain on mm-wave radars because the droplet sizes become comparable to signal wavelengths. Path losses from fogs, haze, or clouds, are caused by both absorption and scattering by water droplets. Attenuation due to falling snow is difficult to link to and single characteristics.
Propagating speed of primordial gravitational waves and inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Yong; Wang, Yu-Tong; Piao, Yun-Song
2016-08-01
We show that if the propagating speed of gravitational waves (GWs) gradually diminishes during inflation, the power spectrum of primordial GWs will be strongly blue, while that of the primordial scalar perturbation may be unaffected. We also illustrate that such a scenario is actually a disformal dual to the superinflation, but it does not have the ghost instability. The blue tilt obtained is 0
Light wave propagation through a dilaton-Maxwell domain wall
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morris, J. R.; Schulze-Halberg, A.
2015-10-01
We consider the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a dilaton-Maxwell domain wall of the type introduced by Gibbons and Wells [G. W. Gibbons and C. G. Wells, Classical and Quantum Gravity 11, 2499 (1994)]. It is found that if such a wall exists within our observable Universe, it would be absurdly thick, or else have a magnetic field in its core which is much stronger than observed intergalactic fields. We conclude that it is highly improbable that any such wall is physically realized.
Oblique propagation of nonlinear electrostatic waves in dense astrophysical magnetoplasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masood, W.; Rizvi, H.; Siddiq, M.
2011-10-01
Nonlinear quantum ion-acoustic waves in dense dissipative as well as non-dissipative magnetized plasmas are investigated employing the quantum hydrodynamic model. In this regard, Zakharov Kuznetsov Burgers equation is derived in quantum plasmas, for the first time, using the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. The unique features of nonlinear electrostatic structures in pure electron-ion quantum magnetoplasma are highlighted and the parametric domain of the applicability of the model is unequivocally expressed. The present study may be useful to understand the nonlinear propagation characteristics of electrostatic shock and solitary structures in dense astrophysical systems where the quantum effects are expected to dominate.
Obliquely propagating dust-acoustic waves in dense quantum magnetoplasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, S. A.; Masood, W.; Siddiq, M.
2009-01-01
Two-dimensional, obliquely propagating nonlinear quantum dust-acoustic waves in dense magnetized plasmas are investigated on the basis of a quantum hydrodynamic model. In this regard, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation is derived using the small amplitude approximation method. The extended hyperbolic tangent method is employed to obtain solitary and explosive solutions of the ZK equation. It is found that the quantum effects related to the Bohm potential, dust concentration, external magnetic field, and obliqueness significantly modify the amplitude and width of both solitary and explosive pulses. The relevance of the study to dense plasmas is also discussed.
Radio wave propagation at frequencies exceeding MUF-F2 in the short wave band
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashkaliyev, Y. F.; Bocharov, V. I.
1972-01-01
The results of measurements of field strength and signal/noise ratio on experimental ionospheric-scattering short wave radio links are presented. It is shown that the seasonal and diurnal variations of field strength are determined by features of solar and meteoric activity. The role of the sporadic E-layer in propagation of short radio waves at frequencies exceeding MUF-F2 is noted.
Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J. S.
2014-02-01
The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.
Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand
Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J.S.
2014-02-18
The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.
Wave Propagation in a Green-Naghdi Thermoelastic Solid with Diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Baljeet
2013-03-01
The Green and Naghdi theory of thermoelasticity is applied to study plane-wave propagation in an elastic solid with thermo-diffusion. The governing equations of an elastic solid with generalized thermo-diffusion are solved to show the existence of three coupled longitudinal waves and a shear vertical (SV) wave in a two-dimensional model of the solid with thermo-diffusion. The reflection of plane waves from a thermally insulated stress-free surface of an elastic solid with thermo-diffusion is also studied. A non-homogeneous system of four equations in reflection coefficients is obtained. The speeds of the plane waves are computed numerically and plotted against frequency for a particular range. The complex absolute values of the reflection coefficients of all reflected waves are computed numerically and plotted against the angle of incidence of the striking wave at the free surface. The effects of diffusion parameters are shown graphically for speeds and reflection coefficients of plane waves.
Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Yatagai, Toyohiko
2010-12-01
A fast calculation method for computer generation of cylindrical holograms is proposed. The calculation method is based on wave propagation in spectral domain and in cylindrical co-ordinates, which is otherwise similar to the angular spectrum of plane waves in cartesian co-ordinates. The calculation requires only two FFT operations and hence is much faster. The theoretical background of the calculation method, sampling conditions and simulation results are presented. The generated cylindrical hologram has been tested for reconstruction in different view angles and also in plane surfaces.
Pang, Yu; Liu, Yu-Shan; Liu, Jin-Xi; Feng, Wen-Jie
2016-04-01
In this paper, SH bulk/surface waves propagating in the corresponding infinite/semi-infinite piezoelectric (PE)/piezomagnetic (PM) and PM/PE periodically layered composites are investigated by two methods, the stiffness matrix method and the transfer matrix method. For a semi-infinite PE/PM or PM/PE medium, the free surface is parallel to the layer interface. Both PE and PM materials are assumed to be transversely isotropic solids. Dispersion equations are derived by the stiffness/transfer matrix methods, respectively. The effects of electric-magnetic (ME) boundary conditions at the free surface and the layer thickness ratios on dispersion curves are considered in detail. Numerical examples show that the results calculated by the two methods are the same. The dispersion curves of SH surface waves are below the bulk bands or inside the frequency gaps. The ratio of the layer thickness has an important effect not only on the bulk bands but also on the dispersion curves of SH surface waves. Electric and magnetic boundary conditions, respectively, determine the dispersion curves of SH surface waves for the PE/PM and PM/PE semi-infinite structures. The band structures of SH bulk waves are consistent for the PE/PM and PM/PE structures, however, the dispersive behaviors of SH surface waves are indeed different for the two composites. The realization of the above-mentioned characteristics of SH waves will make it possible to design PE/PM acoustic wave devices with periodical structures and achieve the better performance.
Pang, Yu; Liu, Yu-Shan; Liu, Jin-Xi; Feng, Wen-Jie
2016-04-01
In this paper, SH bulk/surface waves propagating in the corresponding infinite/semi-infinite piezoelectric (PE)/piezomagnetic (PM) and PM/PE periodically layered composites are investigated by two methods, the stiffness matrix method and the transfer matrix method. For a semi-infinite PE/PM or PM/PE medium, the free surface is parallel to the layer interface. Both PE and PM materials are assumed to be transversely isotropic solids. Dispersion equations are derived by the stiffness/transfer matrix methods, respectively. The effects of electric-magnetic (ME) boundary conditions at the free surface and the layer thickness ratios on dispersion curves are considered in detail. Numerical examples show that the results calculated by the two methods are the same. The dispersion curves of SH surface waves are below the bulk bands or inside the frequency gaps. The ratio of the layer thickness has an important effect not only on the bulk bands but also on the dispersion curves of SH surface waves. Electric and magnetic boundary conditions, respectively, determine the dispersion curves of SH surface waves for the PE/PM and PM/PE semi-infinite structures. The band structures of SH bulk waves are consistent for the PE/PM and PM/PE structures, however, the dispersive behaviors of SH surface waves are indeed different for the two composites. The realization of the above-mentioned characteristics of SH waves will make it possible to design PE/PM acoustic wave devices with periodical structures and achieve the better performance. PMID:26836289
High-Frequency Wave Propagation by the Segment Projection Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Engquist, Björn; Runborg, Olof; Tornberg, Anna-Karin
2002-05-01
Geometrical optics is a standard technique used for the approximation of high-frequency wave propagation. Computational methods based on partial differential equations instead of the traditional ray tracing have recently been applied to geometrical optics. These new methods have a number of advantages but typically exhibit difficulties with linear superposition of waves. In this paper we introduce a new partial differential technique based on the segment projection method in phase space. The superposition problem is perfectly resolved and so is the problem of computing amplitudes in the neighborhood of caustics. The computational complexity is of the same order as that of ray tracing. The new algorithm is described and a number of computational examples are given, including a simulation of waveguides.
Wave propagation in reconfigurable broadband gain metamaterials at microwave frequencies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Yifeng; Nagarkoti, Deepak S.; Rajab, Khalid Z.; Hao, Yang; Zhang, Hao Chi; Cui, Tie Jun
2016-05-01
The wave dispersion characteristics for loop array-based metamaterials were analyzed, based on the general transmission line model of a one-dimensional host medium interacting with a chain of coupled loops. By relating the wave propagation constant and the effective parameters of the coupled host medium, we showed that an active medium embedded with non-Foster loaded loop array can be designed to exhibit broadband negative material parameters with positive gain. Accounting for all interactions, the stability of the active medium was investigated, further yielding necessary design specifications for the non-Foster loads. Subsequently, an experimental demonstration was provided to verify the theoretical analysis, showing that stable reconfigurable broadband gain metamaterials at microwave frequencies can be obtained with proper negative impedance converter design.
Discretizing singular point sources in hyperbolic wave propagation problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petersson, N. Anders; O'Reilly, Ossian; Sjögreen, Björn; Bydlon, Samuel
2016-09-01
We develop high order accurate source discretizations for hyperbolic wave propagation problems in first order formulation that are discretized by finite difference schemes. By studying the Fourier series expansions of the source discretization and the finite difference operator, we derive sufficient conditions for achieving design accuracy in the numerical solution. Only half of the conditions in Fourier space can be satisfied through moment conditions on the source discretization, and we develop smoothness conditions for satisfying the remaining accuracy conditions. The resulting source discretization has compact support in physical space, and is spread over as many grid points as the number of moment and smoothness conditions. In numerical experiments we demonstrate high order of accuracy in the numerical solution of the 1-D advection equation (both in the interior and near a boundary), the 3-D elastic wave equation, and the 3-D linearized Euler equations.
Ultrasonic wave propagation in concentrated slurries--the modelling problem.
Challis, Richard E; Pinfield, Valerie J
2014-09-01
The suspended particle size distribution in slurries can, in principle, be estimated from measured ultrasonic wave attenuation across a frequency band in the 10s of MHz range. The procedure requires a computational model of wave propagation which incorporates scattering phenomena. These models fail at high particle concentrations due to hydrodynamic effects which they do not incorporate. This work seeks an effective viscosity and density for the medium surrounding the particles, which would enable the scattering model predictions to match experimental data for high solids loading. It is found that the required viscosity model has unphysical characteristics leading to the conclusion that a simple effective medium modification to the ECAH/LB is not possible. The paper confirms the successful results which can be obtained using core-shell scattering models, for smaller particles than had previously been studied, and outlines modifications to these which would permit rapid computation of sufficient stability to support fast particle sizing procedures.
Active elastic metamaterials for subwavelength wave propagation control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y. Y.; Huang, G. L.
2015-06-01
Recent research activities in elastic metamaterials demonstrate a significant potential for subwavelength wave propagation control owing to their interior locally resonant mechanism. The growing technological developments in electro/magnetomechanical couplings of smart materials have introduced a controlling degree of freedom for passive elastic metamaterials. Active elastic metamaterials could allow for a fine control of material physical behavior and thereby induce new functional properties that cannot be produced by passive approaches. In this paper, two types of active elastic metamaterials with shunted piezoelectric materials and electrorheological elastomers are proposed. Theoretical analyses and numerical validations of the active elastic metamaterials with detailed microstructures are presented for designing adaptive applications in band gap structures and extraordinary waveguides. The active elastic metamaterial could provide a new design methodology for adaptive wave filters, high signal-to-noise sensors, and structural health monitoring applications.
Visualization of non-propagating Lamb wave modes for fatigue crack evaluation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Yun-Kyu; Sohn, Hoon
2015-03-01
This article develops a non-propagating Lamb wave mode (NPL) imaging technique for fatigue crack visualization. NPL has a great potential for crack evaluation in that it significantly contributes local mode amplitudes in the vicinity of a crack without spatial propagation. Such unique physical phenomenon is theoretically proven and experimentally measured through laser scanning. Although its measurement is a quite challenging work due to the fact that it is quite localized and coexists with complex propagating Lamb wave modes, a NPL filter proposed in this article overcomes the technical challenge by eliminating all propagating Lamb modes from laser scanned full Lamb wavefields. Through the NPL filtering process, only fatigue crack-induced NPLs can be measured and retained. To verify such physical observation and the corresponding NPL filter, a real micro fatigue crack is created by applying repeated tensile loading, and its detectability is tested using a surface-mounted piezoelectric transducer for generating Lamb waves and a laser Doppler vibrometer for measuring the corresponding responses. The experimental results confirm that even an invisible fatigue crack can be instantaneously visualized and effectively evaluated through the proposed NPL measurement and filtering processes.
Laboratory Measurement of Guided Wave (Krauklis Wave) Propagation Within a Fluid-Saturated Fracture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakagawa, S.; Korneev, V. A.
2013-12-01
A fluid-saturated flat channel between two solid half-spaces (i.e. a fracture) is known to support a guided wave called the Krauklis wave. In the field, this wave can potentially be used to examine the size and connectivity of natural and hydraulically induced fractures from a borehole. Krauklis waves propagate primarily within the fluid part of a fracture, can have very low velocity and large attenuation, and are very dispersive at low frequencies. We conducted laboratory measurements of the velocity of Krauklis waves using analogue fracture models at frequencies below 1 kHz. The models consisted of (1) two concentric aluminum cylinders with a water-filled gap and (2) a pair of rectangular aluminum plates containing a thin water-filled gap (tri-layer mode). In the latter, the water was contained by an o-ring along the edge of the plates. The velocity of the waves propagating within the models was determined both from waveforms in the time domain measured along the wave path and from acoustic resonances in the system. The results indicated that the waves measured from the cylindrical model were not dispersive at frequencies below 400 Hz, with a phase velocity of ~250 m/s. In contrast, the tri-layer model exhibited strongly dispersive velocity at measured frequencies of 7.5 Hz-500 Hz, with the lowest phase velocity being ~14 m/s at 7.5 Hz. These measurements agree well with our theoretical model predictions.
The Millikan shaking experiments and high-frequency seismic wave propagation in Southern California
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanimoto, Toshiro; Okamoto, Taro
2014-08-01
In order to study high-frequency seismic wave propagation, seismic wavefields generated by resonant-shaking experiments of the Millikan Library, on the campus of California Institute Technology (Pasadena, California, USA), were analysed. Because the resonant shaking frequencies are 1.12 Hz (the east-west direction) and 1.64 Hz (the north-south direction), this active-source experiment can provide opportunities for studying high-frequency seismic wave propagation in Southern California. Because they are very narrow frequency band data, the analyses must be quite different from ordinary time-domain analyses. We show, theoretically, that the signals must be dominated by surface waves. Adopting this surface wave assumption, we proceed to make two separate analyses, one on spectral amplitude and the other on phase. We present a new method to derive group velocity from phase based on the cross correlations between the station in the Millikan Library (MIK) and stations in the regional network. Our results support that an active-source experiment by resonant shaking of a building is a feasible approach for high-frequency seismic wave studies.
The correlation of VLF propagation variations with atmospheric planetary-scale waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cavalieri, D. J.; Deland, R. J.; Potemra, T. A.; Gavin, R. F.
1973-01-01
Variations in the received daytime phase of long distance, cesium-controlled, VLF transmission were compared to the height variations of the 10-mb isobaric surface during the first three months of 1965 and 1969. The VLF phase values are also compared to height variations of constant electron densities in the E-region and to variations of f-min which have been shown to be well correlated with planetary-scale variations in the stratosphere by Deland and Cavalieri (1973). The VLF phase variations show good correlation with these previous ionospheric measurements and with the 10-mb surfaces. The planetary scale waves in the stratosphere are shown to be travelling on the average eastward in 1965 and westward in 1969. These correlations are interpreted as due to the propagation of travelling planetary scale waves with westward tilted wave fronts. Upward energy transport due to the vertical structure of those waves is also discussed. These correlations provide further evidence for the coupling between the lower ionosphere at about 70 km altitude (the daytime VLF reflection height and the stratosphere, and they demonstrate the importance of planetary wave phenomena to VLF propagation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Junwei; Chen, Ruizhu; Hartlep, Thomas; Kosovichev, Alexander G.
2015-08-01
Helioseismic and magnetohydrodynamic waves are abundant in and above sunspots. Through cross-correlating oscillation signals in the photosphere observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, we reconstruct how waves propagate away from virtual wave sources located inside a sunspot. In addition to the usual helioseismic wave, a fast-moving wave is detected traveling along the sunspot’s radial direction from the umbra to about 15 Mm beyond the sunspot boundary. The wave has a frequency range of 2.5-4.0 mHz with a phase velocity of 45.3 km s-1, substantially faster than the typical speeds of Alfvén and magnetoacoustic waves in the photosphere. The observed phenomenon is consistent with a scenario of that a magnetoacoustic wave is excited at approximately 5 Mm beneath the sunspot. Its wavefront travels to and sweeps across the photosphere with a speed higher than the local magnetoacoustic speed. The fast-moving wave, if truly excited beneath the sunspot’s surface, will help open a new window for studying the internal structure and dynamics of sunspots.
Zhao, Junwei; Chen, Ruizhu; Hartlep, Thomas; Kosovichev, Alexander G.
2015-08-10
Helioseismic and magnetohydrodynamic waves are abundant in and above sunspots. Through cross-correlating oscillation signals in the photosphere observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, we reconstruct how waves propagate away from virtual wave sources located inside a sunspot. In addition to the usual helioseismic wave, a fast-moving wave is detected traveling along the sunspot’s radial direction from the umbra to about 15 Mm beyond the sunspot boundary. The wave has a frequency range of 2.5–4.0 mHz with a phase velocity of 45.3 km s{sup −1}, substantially faster than the typical speeds of Alfvén and magnetoacoustic waves in the photosphere. The observed phenomenon is consistent with a scenario of that a magnetoacoustic wave is excited at approximately 5 Mm beneath the sunspot. Its wavefront travels to and sweeps across the photosphere with a speed higher than the local magnetoacoustic speed. The fast-moving wave, if truly excited beneath the sunspot’s surface, will help open a new window for studying the internal structure and dynamics of sunspots.
Experimental classification of surface waves in optical coherence elastography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zvietcovich, Fernando; Yao, Jianing; Rolland, Jannick P.; Parker, Kevin J.
2016-03-01
Various types of waves are produced when a harmonic force is applied to a semi-infinite half space elastic medium. In particular, surface waves are perturbations with transverse and longitudinal components of displacement that propagate in the boundary region at the surface of the elastic solid. Shear wave speed estimation is the standard for characterizing elastic properties of tissue in elastography; however, the penetration depth of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is typically measured in millimeters constraining the measurement region of interest to be near the surface. Plane harmonic Rayleigh waves propagate in solid-vacuum interfaces while Scholte waves exist in solid-fluid interfaces. Theoretically, for an elastic solid with a Poisson's ratio close to 0.5, the ratio of the Rayleigh to shear wave speed is 95%, and 84% for the Scholte to shear wave. Our study demonstrates the evidence of Rayleigh waves propagating in the solid-air boundary of tissue-mimicking elastic phantoms. Sinusoidal tone-bursts of 400Hz and 1000 Hz were excited over the phantom by using a piezoelectric actuator. The wave propagation was detected with a phase-sensitive OCT system, and its speed was measured by tracking the most prominent peak of the tone in time and space. Similarly, this same experiment was repeated with a water interface. In order to obtain the shear wave speed in the material, mechanical compression tests were conducted in samples of the same phantom. A 93.9% Rayleigh-shear and 82.4% Scholte-Shear speed ratio were measured during experiments which are in agreement with theoretical results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grant, S. D. T.; Jess, D. B.; Moreels, M. G.; Morton, R. J.; Christian, D. J.; Giagkiozis, I.; Verth, G.; Fedun, V.; Keys, P. H.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Erdélyi, R.
2015-06-01
We present observational evidence of compressible MHD wave modes propagating from the solar photosphere through to the base of the transition region in a solar magnetic pore. High cadence images were obtained simultaneously across four wavelength bands using the Dunn Solar Telescope. Employing Fourier and wavelet techniques, sausage-mode oscillations displaying significant power were detected in both intensity and area fluctuations. The intensity and area fluctuations exhibit a range of periods from 181 to 412 s, with an average period ˜290 s, consistent with the global p-mode spectrum. Intensity and area oscillations present in adjacent bandpasses were found to be out of phase with one another, displaying phase angles of 6.°12, 5.°82, and 15.°97 between the 4170 Å continuum-G-band, G-band-Na i D1, and Na i D1-Ca ii K heights, respectively, reiterating the presence of upwardly propagating sausage-mode waves. A phase relationship of ˜0° between same-bandpass emission and area perturbations of the pore best categorizes the waves as belonging to the “slow” regime of a dispersion diagram. Theoretical calculations reveal that the waves are surface modes, with initial photospheric energies in excess of 35,000 W m-2. The wave energetics indicate a substantial decrease in energy with atmospheric height, confirming that magnetic pores are able to transport waves that exhibit appreciable energy damping, which may release considerable energy into the local chromospheric plasma.
Propagation of 3D nonlinear waves over complex bathymetry using a High-Order Spectral method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gouin, Maïté; Ducrozet, Guillaume; Ferrant, Pierre
2016-04-01
Scattering of regular and irregular surface gravity waves propagating over a region of arbitrary three-dimensional varying bathymetry is considered here. The three-dimensional High-Order Spectral method (HOS) with an extension to account for a variable bathymetry is used. The efficiency of the model has been proved to be conserved even with this extension. The method is first applied to a bathymetry consisting of an elliptical lens, as used in the Vincent and Briggs (1989) experiment. Incident waves passing across the lens are transformed and a strong convergence region is observed after the elliptical mound. The wave amplification depends on the incident wave. Numerical results for regular and irregular waves are analysed and compared with other methods and experimental data demonstrating the efficiency and practical applicability of the present approach. Then the method is used to model waves propagating over a real bathymetry: the canyons of Scripps/La Jolla in California. The implementation of this complex bathymetry in the model is presented, as well as the first results achieved. They will be compared to the ones obtained with another numerical model.
Propagation of elastic waves in hexagonal crystals with fiber texture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Liyong; Turner, Joseph A.
2005-09-01
Many cold-working processes for polycrystalline metals cause alignment of the grains with a single symmetry axis called fiber texture. The existence of a preferred orientation of the grains has a big influence on the propagation and scattering of ultrasonic waves, which are often used for materials inspection. Knowledge of the wave attenuation of such textured materials is of both theoretical and practical interest to nondestructive testing and materials characterization. In this presentation, the quantitative relations between fiber texture and wave attenuations of hexagonal crystals are presented. The texture is characterized by a Gaussian distribution function that contains a single parameter that governs the transition of the texture from statistically isotropic to fiber texture. Under this assumption, the materials of interest have a varying degree of transverse isotropy representatives of processing conditions. Simple expressions for the attenuations of the three modes of waves are given in a concise representation. Finally, numerical results are presented and discussed in terms of the directional, frequency, and texture dependence. The results presented are expected to improve the understanding of the microstructure evolution during thermomechanical processing. [Work supported by DOE.
Experimental studies of fast wave propagation in DIII-D
Ikezi, H.; Pinsker, R.I.; Chiu, S.C.; deGrassie, J.S.
1996-02-01
Fast Alfv{acute e}n waves radiated from the phased array antenna in the DIII-D tokamak and used for heating and current drive are studied by employing a {dot {ital B}}-loop array mounted on the vacuum vessel wall. The wave propagation direction controlled by the antenna phasing is clearly observed. A small divergence of the rays arising from the anisotropic nature of the fast wave is found. Comparison with a ray tracing code confirms that the ray position calculated by the code is accurate up to at least one toroidal turn of the rays. Conservation of {ital Rk}{sub t} which is a basic assumption in computer codes is tested. Although the upshift of toroidal wavenumber {ital k}{sub t} at small major radius {ital R} is confirmed, {ital Rk}{sub {ital t}} is not well conserved. A mass density interferometer is demonstrated by employing the extraordinary fast wave. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Plasma and radio waves from Neptune: Source mechanisms and propagation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wong, H. K.
1994-01-01
This report summarizes results obtained through the support of NASA Grant NAGW-2412. The objective of this project is to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the radio wave emission observed by the planetary radio astronomy (PRA) instrument on board Voyager 2 as if flew by Neptune. This study has included data analysis, theoretical and numerical calculations, ray tracing, and modeling to determine the possible source mechanism(s) and locations of the Neptune radio emissions. We have completed four papers, which are included in the appendix. The paper 'Modeling of Whistler Ray Paths in the Magnetosphere of Neptune' investigated the propagation and dispersion of lighting-generated whistler in the magnetosphere of Neptune by using three dimensional ray tracing. The two papers 'Numerical Simulations of Bursty Radio Emissions from Planetary Magnetospheres' and 'Numerical Simulations of Bursty Planetary Radio Emissions' employed numerical simulations to investigate an alternate source mechanism of bursty radio emissions in addition to the cyclotron maser instability. We have also studied the possible generation of Z and whistler mode waves by the temperature anisotropic beam instability and the result was published in 'Electron Cyclotron Wave Generation by Relativistic Electrons.' Besides the aforementioned studies, we have also collaborated with members of the PRA team to investigate various aspects of the radio wave data. Two papers have been submitted for publication and the abstracts of these papers are also listed in the appendix.
Anti-plane transverse waves propagation in nanoscale periodic layered piezoelectric structures.
Chen, A-Li; Yan, Dong-Jia; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng
2016-02-01
In this paper, anti-plane transverse wave propagation in nanoscale periodic layered piezoelectric structures is studied. The localization factor is introduced to characterize the wave propagation behavior. The transfer matrix method based on the nonlocal piezoelectricity continuum theory is used to calculate the localization factor. Additionally, the stiffness matrix method is applied to compute the wave transmission spectra. A cut-off frequency is found, beyond which the elastic waves cannot propagate through the periodic structure. The size effect or the influence of the ratio of the internal to external characteristic lengths on the cut-off frequency and the wave propagation behavior are investigated and discussed. PMID:26518526
Anti-plane transverse waves propagation in nanoscale periodic layered piezoelectric structures.
Chen, A-Li; Yan, Dong-Jia; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng
2016-02-01
In this paper, anti-plane transverse wave propagation in nanoscale periodic layered piezoelectric structures is studied. The localization factor is introduced to characterize the wave propagation behavior. The transfer matrix method based on the nonlocal piezoelectricity continuum theory is used to calculate the localization factor. Additionally, the stiffness matrix method is applied to compute the wave transmission spectra. A cut-off frequency is found, beyond which the elastic waves cannot propagate through the periodic structure. The size effect or the influence of the ratio of the internal to external characteristic lengths on the cut-off frequency and the wave propagation behavior are investigated and discussed.
Links between detonation wave propagation and reactive flow models.
Swift, D. C.; White, S. J.
2002-01-01
An accurate reactive flow model is necessary to be able to predict the initiation properties of explosives by complicated shock structures, but a very fine the spatial resolution is needed in reactive flow to reproduce the detailed dynamics of a detonation wave. However, it is not often necessary to use a reactive flow model to simulate the motion of a fully-developed detonation wave. In many situations the same results can be obtained with a coarse computational mesh using programmed burn techniques. In the WBL model [Lambourn89,Swift93], an eikonal detonation wave propagates through a body of explosive at a speed which depends on the curvature of the wave. The model describes the motion of the leading shock of the detonation wave. Here we use the level set method for integrating the WBL equations in time [Collyer98,Bdzil93,Osher88,Aslam98]. This method is attractive because complicated detonation wave shapes can be represented simply. It was found possible to initialize the level set field by a set of source points derived from a reactive flow simulation, by taking 'trigger states' from the reactive flow. The level set scheme was generalized further to take account of motion of the material behind the detonation wave, allowing it to be used for simulations coupled with reactive flow, where detonation may propagate through preshocked and moving material. The modified level set scheme was implemented in 1D and 2D Lagrangian hydrocodes. Trial calculations were performed of initiation and detonation in the TATB-based explosive LX-17, using the Lee - Tarver model. A CJ detonation was simulated in order to verify that the modified level set algorithm operated correctly. The detonation speed was in very good agreement with the expected value. Single-shock initiation was simulated. The position - time history of the leading shock from the coupled model was in excellent agreement with full reactive flow; the pressure profiles were similar but not identical, because of the
Sound radiation from an infinite elastic cylinder with dual-wave propagation-intensity distributions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fuller, C. R.
1988-01-01
The radiation of sound from an elastic cylindrical shell filled with fluid and supporting multiwave propagation is studied analytically. Combinations of supersonic and subsonic shell waves are considered. The radiated field is mapped by using acoustic intensity vectors evaluated at various locations. Both time averaged and instantaneous intensity are investigated. The acoustic intensity is seen to vary markedly with axial distance down the cylinder. The effect is shown to be associated with cross terms in the intensity relations, and its magnitude and location to depend upon the relative phase and amplitudes of individual waves. Subsonic shell waves are demonstrated to interact strongly with supersonic shell waves to cause a large modification in the radiated intensity distributions near the shell surface.
Numerical Homogenization of Jointed Rock Masses Using Wave Propagation Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gasmi, Hatem; Hamdi, Essaïeb; Bouden Romdhane, Nejla
2014-07-01
Homogenization in fractured rock analyses is essentially based on the calculation of equivalent elastic parameters. In this paper, a new numerical homogenization method that was programmed by means of a MATLAB code, called HLA-Dissim, is presented. The developed approach simulates a discontinuity network of real rock masses based on the International Society of Rock Mechanics (ISRM) scanline field mapping methodology. Then, it evaluates a series of classic joint parameters to characterize density (RQD, specific length of discontinuities). A pulse wave, characterized by its amplitude, central frequency, and duration, is propagated from a source point to a receiver point of the simulated jointed rock mass using a complex recursive method for evaluating the transmission and reflection coefficient for each simulated discontinuity. The seismic parameters, such as delay, velocity, and attenuation, are then calculated. Finally, the equivalent medium model parameters of the rock mass are computed numerically while taking into account the natural discontinuity distribution. This methodology was applied to 17 bench fronts from six aggregate quarries located in Tunisia, Spain, Austria, and Sweden. It allowed characterizing the rock mass discontinuity network, the resulting seismic performance, and the equivalent medium stiffness. The relationship between the equivalent Young's modulus and rock discontinuity parameters was also analyzed. For these different bench fronts, the proposed numerical approach was also compared to several empirical formulas, based on RQD and fracture density values, published in previous research studies, showing its usefulness and efficiency in estimating rapidly the Young's modulus of equivalent medium for wave propagation analysis.
Causal theories of evolution and wave propagation in mathematical physics
Kranys, M. )
1989-11-01
There are still many phenomena, especially in continuum physics, that are described by means of parabolic partial differential equations whose solution are not compatible with the causality principle. Compatibility with this principle is required also by the theory of relativity. A general form of hyperbolic operators for the most frequently occurring linear governing equations in mathematical physics is written down. It is then easy to convert any given parabolic equation to the hyperbolic form without necessarily entering into the cause of the inadequacy of the governing equation. The method is verified on the well-known example of Timoshenko's correction of the Bernoulli-Euler-Rayleigh beam equation for flexural motion. The Love-Rayleigh fourth-order differential equations for the longitudinal and torsional wave propagation in the rod is generalized with this method. The hyperbolic version (not to mention others) of the linear Korteweg-deVries equation and of the telegraph equation governing electromagnetic wave propagation through relaxing material are given. Lagrangians of all the equations studied are listed. For all the reasons given the author believes the hyperbolic governing equations to be physically and mathematically more realistic and adequate.
Longitudinal elastic wave propagation characteristics of inertant acoustic metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulkarni, Prateek P.; Manimala, James M.
2016-06-01
Longitudinal elastic wave propagation characteristics of acoustic metamaterials with various inerter configurations are investigated using their representative one-dimensional discrete element lattice models. Inerters are dynamic mass-amplifying mechanical elements that are activated by a difference in acceleration across them. They have a small device mass but can provide a relatively large dynamic mass presence depending on accelerations in systems that employ them. The effect of introducing inerters both in local attachments and in the lattice was examined vis-à-vis the propagation characteristics of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. A simple effective model based on mass, stiffness, or their combined equivalent was used to establish dispersion behavior and quantify attenuation within bandgaps. Depending on inerter configurations in local attachments or in the lattice, both up-shift and down-shift in the bandgap frequency range and their extent are shown to be possible while retaining static mass addition to the host structure to a minimum. Further, frequency-dependent negative and even extreme effective-stiffness regimes are encountered. The feasibility of employing tuned combinations of such mass-delimited inertant configurations to engineer acoustic metamaterials that act as high-pass filters without the use of grounded elements or even as complete longitudinal wave inhibitors is shown. Potential device implications and strategies for practical applications are also discussed.
Effects of branched defect geometry on the propagation of Rayleigh waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernandez-Valle, F.; Clough, A. R.; Dutton, B.; Edwards, R. S.
2014-02-01
Rayleigh waves can be used for characterisation of surface-breaking defects, giving a measure of the depth and the angle of propagation of a defect with simple (i.e. single crack) geometry. However, surface breaking defects will often grow with a more complicated geometry. We present here results of experimental measurements using laser generated and detected Rayleigh waves on aluminium samples containing machined slots with varied branched geometries. The signal enhancement found in the near-field, and the reflection and transmission of different wavemodes can be used to position the defect and gain an idea of its geometry. This research can be applied to monitor components prone to developing stress corrosion cracking (branched-like defects). Results are shown of the near-field interactions of Rayleigh waves with this type of cracking in stainless steel pipe samples, in order to resolve the spatial extent and geometric alignment of those defects.
Zhang, Yu; Li, Yan; Shao, Hao; Zhong, Yaozhao; Zhang, Sai; Zhao, Zongxi
2012-06-01
Band structure and wave localization are investigated for sea surface water waves over large-scale sand wave topography. Sand wave height, sand wave width, water depth, and water width between adjacent sand waves have significant impact on band gaps. Random fluctuations of sand wave height, sand wave width, and water depth induce water wave localization. However, random water width produces a perfect transmission tunnel of water waves at a certain frequency so that localization does not occur no matter how large a disorder level is applied. Together with theoretical results, the field experimental observations in the Taiwan Bank suggest band gap and wave localization as the physical mechanism of sea surface water wave propagating over natural large-scale sand waves.
Instationary compaction wave propagation in highly porous cohesive granular media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gunkelmann, Nina; Ringl, Christian; Urbassek, Herbert M.
2016-07-01
We study the collision of a highly porous granular aggregate of adhesive \\upmu m-sized silica grains with a hard wall using a granular discrete element method. A compaction wave runs through the granular sample building up an inhomogeneous density profile. The compaction is independent of the length of the aggregate, within the regime of lengths studied here. Also short pulses, as they might be exerted by a piston pushing the granular material, excite a compaction wave that runs through the entire material. The speed of the compaction wave is larger than the impact velocity but considerably smaller than the sound speed. The wave speed is related to the compaction rate at the colliding surface and the average slope of the linear density profile.
Surface wave chemical detector using optical radiation
Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.
2007-07-17
A surface wave chemical detector comprising at least one surface wave substrate, each of said substrates having a surface wave and at least one measurable surface wave parameter; means for exposing said surface wave substrate to an unknown sample of at least one chemical to be analyzed, said substrate adsorbing said at least one chemical to be sensed if present in said sample; a source of radiation for radiating said surface wave substrate with different wavelengths of said radiation, said surface wave parameter being changed by said adsorbing; and means for recording signals representative of said surface wave parameter of each of said surface wave substrates responsive to said radiation of said different wavelengths, measurable changes of said parameter due to adsorbing said chemical defining a unique signature of a detected chemical.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fazio, Claudio; Guastella, Ivan; Sperandeo-Mineo, Rosa Maria; Tarantino, Giovanni
2008-01-01
The present paper reports the design process and the experimentation of a teaching-learning sequence about the concept of mechanical wave propagation and the role played by media where waves are propagating. The sequence focuses on the central issue of the relationships between observable phenomena, like macroscopic behaviours of waves, and their…
A Problem-Based Approach to Elastic Wave Propagation: The Role of Constraints
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fazio, Claudio; Guastella, Ivan; Tarantino, Giovanni
2009-01-01
A problem-based approach to the teaching of mechanical wave propagation, focused on observation and measurement of wave properties in solids and on modelling of these properties, is presented. In particular, some experimental results, originally aimed at measuring the propagation speed of sound waves in metallic rods, are used in order to deepen…
Surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collman, James P.; Oglesby, Donald M.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Zhang, Xumu; Herrmann, Paul C.
1994-01-01
A surface acoustic wave (SAW) device that responds to oxygen pressure was developed by coating a 158 MHz quartz surface acoustic wave (SAW) device with an oxygen binding agent. Two types of coatings were used. One type was prepared by dissolving an oxygen binding agent in a toluene solution of a copolymer containing the axial ligand. A second type was prepared with an oxygen binding porphyrin solution containing excess axial ligand without a polymer matrix. In the polymer based coatings, the copolymer served to provide the axial ligand to the oxygen binding agent and as a coating matrix on the surface of the SAW device. The oxygen sensing SAW device has been shown to bind oxygen following a Langmuir isotherm and may be used to measure the equilibrium constant of the oxygen binding compound in the coating matrix.
Propagation of Long Extensional Nonlinear Waves in a Hyper-Elastic Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teymür, Mevlüt
Propagation of small but finite amplitude waves in a nonlinear hyper-elastic plate of uniform thickness is considered. By employing a perturbation expansion, extensional waves are examined under the long wave limit. It is shown that the asymptotic wave field is governed by a Korteweg-DeVries (K-dV) equation. Then the propagation characteristics of the asymptotic waves are discussed via the well known solutions of the K-dV equation.
Propagation of stationary Rossby waves in the Martian lower atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Priyanka; Thokuluwa, Ramkumar
The Martian lower atmospheric (-1.5 km to 29.3 km) temperature, measured by radio occultation technique during the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission launched by US in November 1996, at the Northern winter hemispheric latitude of about 63(°) N clearly shows a statistically significant (above 95 percent confidential level white noise) and strong 3.5-day oscillation during 1-10 January 2006. This strong signal occurs in the longitudinal sectors of 0-30(°) E and 190-230(°) E but statistically insignificant in almost all the other longitudes. This 180 degree separation between the two peaks of occurrence of strong 3.5 day oscillation indicates that this may be associated with zonal wave number 2 structure global scale wave. At the lowest height of -1.5 km, the power observed in the longitude of 0-30(°) E is 50 K (2) and it increased gradually to the maximum power of 130 K (2) at the height of 0.8 - 1.7 km. Above this height, the power decreased monotonously and gradually to insignificant level at the height of 3.7 km (20 K (2) ). This gradual decrease of power above the height of 1.7 km indicates that radiative damping (infra red cooling due to large abundance of CO _{2} molecules and dust particles) would have played an important role in the dissipation of waves. The height and longitudinal profiles of phase of the 3.5-day wave indicate that this wave is a vertically standing and eastward propagating planetary wave respectively. Since the statistically significant spectral amplitude occurs near the high topography structures, it seems that the wave is generated by flows over the topography. In the Northern winter, it is possible that the large gradient of temperature between the low and high latitudes would lead to flow of winds from the tropical to polar latitudes. Due to the Coriolis effect, this flow would in turn move towards the right and incite wave generation when the air flows over the high topographic structures. This lead to speculate that the observed 3
Effects of slight anisotropy on surface waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larson, Erik; Tromp, Jeroen; Ekström, Göran
1998-03-01
We present a complete ray theory for the calculation of surface-wave observables from anisotropic phase-velocity maps. Starting with the surface-wave dispersion relation in an anisotropic earth model, we derive practical dynamical ray-tracing equations. These equations allow calculation of the observables phase, arrival-angle and amplitude in a ray theoretical framework. Using perturbation theory, we also obtain approximate expressions for these observables. We assess the accuracy of the first-order approximations by using both theories to make predictions on a sample anisotropic phase-velocity map. A comparison of the two methods illustrates the size and type of errors which are introduced by perturbation theory. Perturbation theory phase and arrival-angle predictions agree well with the exact calculation, but amplitude predictions are poor. Many previous studies have modelled surface-wave propagation using only isotropic structure, not allowing for anisotropy. We present hypothetical examples to simulate isotropic modelling of surface waves which pass through anisotropic material. Synthetic data sets of phase and arrival angle are produced by ray tracing with exact ray theory on anisotropic phase-velocity maps. The isotropic models obtained by inverting synthetic anisotropic phase data sets produce deceptively high variance reductions because the effects of anisotropy are mapped into short-wavelength isotropic structure. Inversion of synthetic arrival-angle data sets for isotropic models results in poor variance reductions and poor recovery of the isotropic part of the anisotropic input map. Therefore, successful anisotropic phase-velocity inversions of real data require the inclusion of both phase and arrival-angle measurements.
Study of Magnetohydrodynamic Surface Waves on Liquid Gallium
Hantao Ji; William Fox; David Pace; H.L. Rappaport
2004-05-13
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) surface waves on liquid gallium are studied theoretically and experimentally in the small magnetic Reynolds number limit. A linear dispersion relation is derived when a horizontal magnetic field and a horizontal electric current is imposed. No wave damping is found in the shallow liquid limit while waves always damp in the deep liquid limit with a magnetic field parallel to the propagation direction. When the magnetic field is weak, waves are weakly damped and the real part of the dispersion is unaffected, while in the opposite limit waves are strongly damped with shortened wavelengths. In a table-top experiment, planar MHD surface waves on liquid gallium are studied in detail in the regime of weak magnetic field and deep liquid. A non-invasive diagnostic accurately measures surface waves at multiple locations by reflecting an array of lasers off the surface onto a screen, which is recorded by an Intensified-CCD camera. The measured dispersion relation is consistent with the linear theory with a reduced surface tension likely due to surface oxidation. In excellent agreement with linear theory, it is observed that surface waves are damped only when a horizontal magnetic field is imposed parallel to the propagation direction. No damping is observed under a perpendicular magnetic field. The existence of strong wave damping even without magnetic field suggests the importance of the surface oxide layer. Implications to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors, especially on the wave damping and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability when the Lorentz force is used to support liquid metal layer against gravity, are discussed.
Making waves: initiation and propagation of corticothalamic Ca2+ waves in vivo.
Stroh, Albrecht; Adelsberger, Helmuth; Groh, Alexander; Rühlmann, Charlotta; Fischer, Sebastian; Schierloh, Anja; Deisseroth, Karl; Konnerth, Arthur
2013-03-20
Corticothalamic slow oscillations of neuronal activity determine internal brain states. At least in the cortex, the electrical activity is associated with large neuronal Ca(2+) transients. Here we implemented an optogenetic approach to explore causal features of the generation of slow oscillation-associated Ca(2+) waves in the in vivo mouse brain. We demonstrate that brief optogenetic stimulation (3-20 ms) of a local group of layer 5 cortical neurons is sufficient for the induction of global brain Ca(2+) waves. These Ca(2+) waves are evoked in an all-or-none manner, exhibit refractoriness during repetitive stimulation, and propagate over long distances. By local optogenetic stimulation, we demonstrate that evoked Ca(2+) waves initially invade the cortex, followed by a secondary recruitment of the thalamus. Together, our results establish that synchronous activity in a small cluster of layer 5 cortical neurons can initiate a global neuronal wave of activity suited for long-range corticothalamic integration.
Dual differential interferometer for measurements of broadband surface acoustic waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turner, T. M.; Claus, R. O.
1981-01-01
A simple duel interferometer which uses two pairs of orthogonally polarized optical beams to measure both the amplitude and direction of propagation of broadband ultrasonic surface waves is described. Each pair of focused laser probe beams is used in a separate wideband differential interferometer to independently detect the component of surface wave motion along one direction on the surface. By combining the two output signals corresponding to both components, the two dimensional surface profile and its variation as a function of time is determined.
Acoustic Measurement of Surface Wave Damping by a Meniscus.
Michel, Guillaume; Pétrélis, François; Fauve, Stéphan
2016-04-29
We investigate the reflection of gravity-capillary surface waves by a plane vertical barrier. The size of the meniscus is found to strongly affect reflection: the energy of the reflected wave with a pinned contact line is around twice the one corresponding to a fully developed meniscus. To perform these measurements, a new experimental setup similar to an acousto-optic modulator is developed and offers a simple way to measure the amplitude, frequency and direction of propagation of surface waves. PMID:27176523
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jiasong; Wang, Shang; Manapuram, Ravi Kiran; Singh, Manmohan; Menodiado, Floredes M.; Aglyamov, Salavat; Emelianov, Stanislav; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.
2013-12-01
We demonstrate the use of phase-stabilized swept-source optical coherence tomography to assess the propagation of low-amplitude (micron-level) waves induced by a focused air-pulse system in tissue-mimicking phantoms, a contact lens, a silicone eye model, and the mouse cornea in vivo. The results show that the wave velocity can be quantified from the analysis of wave propagation, thereby enabling the estimation of the sample elasticity using the model of surface wave propagation for the tissue-mimicking phantoms. This noninvasive, noncontact measurement technique involves low-force methods of tissue excitation that can be potentially used to assess the biomechanical properties of ocular and other delicate tissues in vivo.
Probing Acoustic Nonlinearity by Mixing Surface Acoustic Waves
Hurley, David Howard; Telschow, Kenneth Louis
2000-07-01
Measurement methods aimed at determining material properties through nonlinear wave propagation are sensitive to artifacts caused by background nonlinearities inherent in the ultrasonic generation and detection methods. The focus of this paper is to describe our investigation of nonlinear mixing of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) as a means to decrease sensitivity to background nonlinearity and increase spatial sensitivity to acoustic nonlinearity induced by material microstructure.
Monolithic ZnO SAW (Surface Acoustic Waves) structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gunshor, R. L.; Pierret, R. F.
1983-07-01
ZnO-on-silicon surface acoustic wave devices have been fabricated and tested. Electronic erasure of a stored correlator reference was demonstrated, the effect of laser annealing on propagation loss was examined, preliminary ageing studies were performed, and a conceptually new mode conversion resonator configuration was reported.
Anisotropic effects on ultrasonic guided waves propagation in composite bends.
Yu, Xudong; Ratassepp, Madis; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Fan, Zheng
2016-12-01
Ultrasonic guided waves have proven to be attractive to the long-range testing of composite laminates. As complex-shaped composite components are increasingly incorporated in high-performance structures, understanding of both anisotropic and geometric effects on guided waves propagation is needed to evaluate their suitability for the non-destructive testing (NDT) of such complex structures. This paper reports the Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) simulations revealing the capability of energy confinement carried by two types of guided modes in 90° carbon fiber/epoxy (CF/EP) bends. Existence of the phenomenon is cross-validated by both 3D Finite Element (FE) modeling and experimental measurements. The physics of such energy trapping effect is explained in view of geometric variation and anisotropic properties, and the frequency effect on the extent of energy concentration is discussed. Finally, the feasibility of using such confined guided waves for rapid inspection of bent composite plate structures is also discussed. PMID:27518426
FDTD Simulation on Terahertz Waves Propagation Through a Dusty Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Maoyan; Zhang, Meng; Li, Guiping; Jiang, Baojun; Zhang, Xiaochuan; Xu, Jun
2016-08-01
The frequency dependent permittivity for dusty plasmas is provided by introducing the charging response factor and charge relaxation rate of airborne particles. The field equations that describe the characteristics of Terahertz (THz) waves propagation in a dusty plasma sheath are derived and discretized on the basis of the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) in the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Compared with numerical solutions in reference, the accuracy for the ADE FDTD method is validated. The reflection property of the metal Aluminum interlayer of the sheath at THz frequencies is discussed. The effects of the thickness, effective collision frequency, airborne particle density, and charge relaxation rate of airborne particles on the electromagnetic properties of Terahertz waves through a dusty plasma slab are investigated. Finally, some potential applications for Terahertz waves in information and communication are analyzed. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41104097, 11504252, 61201007, 41304119), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Nos. ZYGX2015J039, ZYGX2015J041), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20120185120012)
The propagation of sound waves in drill strings
Drumheller, D.S. ); Knudsen, S.D. )
1995-04-01
Deep wells are commonly drilled while steering the drill bit. The steering process is completely controlled by the drilling-rig operator. A key element of this procedure is the measurement and communication of navigation information from the bottom of the well to the operator. Pressure pulses modulated onto the flow of the drill fluid are now employed in some cases to communicate this information. However, data rates are only a few binary bits per second with this method. This drastically limits the quantity of data available to the operator. As an alternative method, elastic waves generated within the steel drill string can be used as a carrier signal to transmit data. The drill string is commonly assembled from 10-m segments of threaded pipe and forms a periodic structure. The elastic wavelengths of interest are shorter than this periodic length. Consequently, these waves undergo significant dispersion. This paper presents new data for the propagation of elastic waves in a 2-km drill string. The influence of aperiodicity in the drill string, rotation of the drill string, and noise levels are studied in detail. The data verify a method for reducing the attenuation of a carrier signal by a factor of 2.
Coherence of acoustic modes propagating through shallow water internal waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rouseff, Daniel; Turgut, Altan; Wolf, Stephen N.; Finette, Steve; Orr, Marshall H.; Pasewark, Bruce H.; Apel, John R.; Badiey, Mohsen; Chiu, Ching-Sang; Headrick, Robert H.; Lynch, James F.; Kemp, John N.; Newhall, Arthur E.; von der Heydt, Keith; Tielbuerger, Dirk
2002-04-01
The 1995 Shallow Water Acoustics in a Random Medium (SWARM) experiment [Apel et al., IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 22, 445-464 (1997)] was conducted off the New Jersey coast. The experiment featured two well-populated vertical receiving arrays, which permitted the measured acoustic field to be decomposed into its normal modes. The decomposition was repeated for successive transmissions allowing the amplitude of each mode to be tracked. The modal amplitudes were observed to decorrelate with time scales on the order of 100 s [Headrick et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107(1), 201-220 (2000)]. In the present work, a theoretical model is proposed to explain the observed decorrelation. Packets of intense internal waves are modeled as coherent structures moving along the acoustic propagation path without changing shape. The packets cause mode coupling and their motion results in a changing acoustic interference pattern. The model is consistent with the rapid decorrelation observed in SWARM. The model also predicts the observed partial recorrelation of the field at longer time scales. The model is first tested in simple continuous-wave simulations using canonical representations for the internal waves. More detailed time-domain simulations are presented mimicking the situation in SWARM. Modeling results are compared to experimental data.
Wave propagation in a dynamic system of soft granular materials.
Harada, Shusaku; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro
2003-06-01
The wave propagation in a dynamic system of soft elastic granules is investigated theoretically and numerically. The perturbation theory for simple fluids is applied to the elastic granular system in order to relate the elastic properties of individual particles with the "thermodynamic" quantities of the system. The properties of a piston-driven shock are derived from the obtained thermodynamic relations and the Rankine-Hugoniot relations. The discrete particle simulation of a piston-driven shock wave in a granular system is performed by the discrete element method. From theoretical and numerical results, the effect of the elastic properties of a particle on shock properties is shown quantitatively. Owing to the finite duration of the interparticle contact, the compressibility factor of the elastic granular system decreases in comparison with that of the hard-sphere system. In addition, the relation between the internal energy and the granular temperature changes due to the energy preserved with the elastic deformation of the particle. Consequently, the shock properties in soft particles are considerably different from those in the hard-sphere system. We also show the theoretical prediction of the speed of sound in soft particles and discuss the effect of the elasticity on an acoustic wave. PMID:16241219
Broadband transverse electric surface wave in silicene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ukhtary, M. Shoufie; Nugraha, Ahmad R. T.; Hasdeo, Eddwi H.; Saito, Riichiro
2016-08-01
Transverse electric (TE) surface wave in silicine is theoretically investigated. The TE surface wave in silicene is found to exhibit better characteristics compared with that in graphene, in terms of a broader frequency range and more confinement to the surface which originate from the buckled structure of silicene. We found that even undoped silicene can support the TE surface wave. We expect the similar characteristics of the TE surface wave in other two-dimensional materials that have a slightly buckled honeycomb lattice.
Numerical investigations of shock wave propagation in polymethylmethacrylate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popova, T. V.; Mayer, A. E.; Khishchenko, K. V.
2015-11-01
Using the Maxwell model of viscoelastic medium, we numerically investigate the influence of the viscoelastic properties of polymethylmethacrylate on the variation of the shock wave amplitude with depth. Parameters of the Maxwell model are chosen by comparison with experimental data on the high-speed impact of plates in order to fit the modeling results with the experimentally measured profiles of the free-surface velocity. A caloric equation of state is used to calculate the pressure from density and internal energy. It is shown that at the limit of weak shock waves, the accounting of the viscoelastic properties allows one to achieve a better agreement between calculated and experimental data for the magnitude of the shock wave velocity in comparison with the case of hydrodynamic calculations. Using the viscoelastic and hydrodynamic approaches, we investigated the dynamics of shock waves in polymethylmethacrylate initiated by micro-, nano- and picosecond pulses of pressure on the sample surface. The calculation results show that the changes in the shock wave amplitude with depth are approximately identical in the hydrodynamic and viscoelastic cases.
Surface Wave Cloak from Graded Refractive Index Nanocomposites
La Spada, L.; McManus, T. M.; Dyke, A.; Haq, S.; Zhang, L.; Cheng, Q.; Hao, Y.
2016-01-01
Recently, a great deal of interest has been re-emerged on the possibility to manipulate surface waves, in particular, towards the THz and optical regime. Both concepts of Transformation Optics (TO) and metamaterials have been regarded as one of key enablers for such applications in applied electromagnetics. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time a dielectric surface wave cloak from engineered gradient index materials to illustrate the possibility of using nanocomposites to control surface wave propagation through advanced additive manufacturing. The device is designed analytically and validated through numerical simulations and measurements, showing good agreement and performance as an effective surface wave cloak. The underlying design approach has much wider applications, which span from microwave to optics for the control of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and radiation of nanoantennas. PMID:27416815
Surface Wave Cloak from Graded Refractive Index Nanocomposites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
La Spada, L.; McManus, T. M.; Dyke, A.; Haq, S.; Zhang, L.; Cheng, Q.; Hao, Y.
2016-07-01
Recently, a great deal of interest has been re-emerged on the possibility to manipulate surface waves, in particular, towards the THz and optical regime. Both concepts of Transformation Optics (TO) and metamaterials have been regarded as one of key enablers for such applications in applied electromagnetics. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time a dielectric surface wave cloak from engineered gradient index materials to illustrate the possibility of using nanocomposites to control surface wave propagation through advanced additive manufacturing. The device is designed analytically and validated through numerical simulations and measurements, showing good agreement and performance as an effective surface wave cloak. The underlying design approach has much wider applications, which span from microwave to optics for the control of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and radiation of nanoantennas.
Surface Wave Cloak from Graded Refractive Index Nanocomposites.
La Spada, L; McManus, T M; Dyke, A; Haq, S; Zhang, L; Cheng, Q; Hao, Y
2016-01-01
Recently, a great deal of interest has been re-emerged on the possibility to manipulate surface waves, in particular, towards the THz and optical regime. Both concepts of Transformation Optics (TO) and metamaterials have been regarded as one of key enablers for such applications in applied electromagnetics. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time a dielectric surface wave cloak from engineered gradient index materials to illustrate the possibility of using nanocomposites to control surface wave propagation through advanced additive manufacturing. The device is designed analytically and validated through numerical simulations and measurements, showing good agreement and performance as an effective surface wave cloak. The underlying design approach has much wider applications, which span from microwave to optics for the control of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and radiation of nanoantennas. PMID:27416815
A ray tracing model of gravity wave propagation and breakdown in the middle atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schoeberl, M. R.
1985-01-01
Lindzen (1981, 1984) has considered the effects of monochromatic, steady gravity waves propagating into the upper atmosphere. These waves reach such large amplitudes in the mesosphere that they become convectively unstable. The wave is effectively dissipated by the convection, and the pseudomomentum carried by the wave is transferred to the basic flow. The net effect is to accelerate the background flow to the phase speed of the breaking gravity wave. Schoeberl et al. (1983) have discussed modifications to Lindzen's parameterization. The present paper has the objective to develop a type of parameterization scheme for wave breaking that, in principle, can handle lateral wave propagation. Ray tracing is used to follow the gravity wave packets through varying wind conditions. The theory considered uses both the propagation properties of the wave packet and the concept of the conservation of wave action density to determine the local amplitude and position of the wave packet.
Frequency Domain Modelling of Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Layered Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Felix; Lünenschloss, Peter; Mai, Juliane; Wagner, Norman; Töpfer, Hannes; Bumberger, Jan
2016-04-01
The amount of water in porous media such as soils and rocks is a key parameter when water resources are under investigation. Especially the quantitative spatial distribution and temporal evolution of water contents in soil formations are needed. In high frequency electromagnetic applications soil water content is quantitatively derived from the propagation behavior of electromagnetic waves along waveguides embedded in soil formations. The spatial distribution of the dielectric material properties along the waveguide can be estimated by numerical solving of the inverse problem based on the full wave forward model in time or frequency domain. However, current approaches mostly neglect or approximate the frequency dependence of the electromagnetic material properties of transfer function of the waveguide. As a first prove of concept a full two port broadband frequency domain forward model for propagation of transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves in coaxial waveguide has been implemented. It is based on the propagation matrix approach for layered transmission line sections. Depending on the complexity of the material different models for the frequency dependent complex permittivity were applied. For the validation of the model a broadband frequency domain measurement with network analyzer technique was used. The measurement is based on a 20 cm long 50 Ohm 20/46 coaxial transmission line cell considering inhomogeneous material distributions. This approach allows (i) an increase of the waveguide calibration accuracy in comparison to conventional TDR based technique and (ii) the consideration of the broadband permittivity spectrum of the porous material. In order to systematic analyze the model, theoretical results were compared with measurements as well as 3D broadband finite element modeling of homogeneous and layered media in the coaxial transmission line cell. Defined standards (Teflon, dry glass beads, de-ionized water) were placed inside the line as the dielectric
Propagation of quasiplane waves along an impedance boundary
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcaninch, G. L.; Myers, M. K.
1988-01-01
The parabolic approximation for the acoustic equations of motion is applied to the study of the sound field generated by a time harmonic plane wave at grazing incidence to a finite impedance boundary. The resulting equations possess a solution which may be expressed in terms of the complementary error function. Asymptotic expansion of this solution for field points near the boundary provides results compatible with those for a point source on the boundary for both the soft boundary (finite impedance) and hard boundary (the limit in which the impedance becomes infinite) cases. The presence of a surface wave in the solution is also established.
The effect of random Alfven waves on the propagation of hydromagnetic waves in a finite-beta plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamabata, Hiromitsu; Namikawa, Tomikazu
1990-01-01
Using first-order smoothing theory, Fourier analysis and perturbation methods, the evolution equation of the wave spectrum as well as the nonlinear forces generated by random Alfven waves in a finite-beta plasma with phenomenological Landau-damping effects are obtained. The effect of microscale random Alfven waves on the propagation of large-scale hydromagnetic waves is also investigated by solving the mean-field equations. It is shown that parallel-propagating random Alfven waves are modulationally stable and that obliquely propagating random Alfven waves can be modulationally unstable when the energy of random waves is converted to slow magnetoacoustic waves that can be Landau-damped, providing a dissipation mechanism for the Alfven waves.
Arregui, I.; Asensio Ramos, A.
2013-06-01
We present a Bayesian seismology inversion technique for propagating magnetohydrodynamic transverse waves observed in coronal waveguides. The technique uses theoretical predictions for the spatial damping of propagating kink waves in transversely inhomogeneous coronal waveguides. It combines wave amplitude damping length scales along the waveguide with theoretical results for resonantly damped propagating kink waves to infer the plasma density variation across the oscillating structures. Provided that the spatial dependence of the velocity amplitude along the propagation direction is measured and the existence of two different damping regimes is identified, the technique would enable us to fully constrain the transverse density structuring, providing estimates for the density contrast and its transverse inhomogeneity length scale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyab, Walid Mohamed Galal
A new formulation for the analysis of propagation of electromagnetic waves over imperfectly conducting planar surfaces is proposed. The classical approach for the analysis of this problem uses the Sommerfeld formulation. In Sommerfeld formulation, the wave function corresponding to a point source is expanded in terms of the propagation constants of the various waves in the radial direction from the source. This gives rise to the well-known Sommerfeld integrals which are highly oscillatory and slowly-decaying in nature, especially when the source is mounted just on top of a planar boundary between two media of arbitrary conductivity. In addition, the nature of the convergence for these integrals is extremely slow and may not yield stable results. In this dissertation we present an approach, developed originally by Schelkunoff, which expands the wave function in terms of the waves emanating perpendicular to the planar interface, not parallel to it as in Sommerfeld formulation. Expressions are given for both cases of vertical and horizontal electric dipoles on top of a planar interface. The debatable nature of this problem is unavoidable, thus a detailed analytical comparison between the Sommerfeld integrals and the expressions derived here is given. Based on the study given in this dissertation, the true rationale in relating the work of Zenneck and Sommerfeld to the relatively new field of surface plasmons is exposed. A detailed literature study as well as an analytical critique of the field of plasmonics and its relation to Sommerfeld-Zenneck surface waves is presented. Finally, some applications of the new formulation are discussed using numerical simulations.
Mapping the near-field propagation of surface plasmons on terahertz metasurfaces
Xu, Yuehong; Zhang, Xueqian; Tian, Zhen; Gu, Jianqiang; Ouyang, Chunmei; Li, Yanfeng; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili
2015-07-13
Controlling the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons is essential in developing highly integrated photonic devices. By using near-field scanning terahertz microscopy, we experimentally demonstrate that polarization-controlled tunable surface plasmons (SPs) could be directionally excited on a metal surface with carved columns of aperture resonators under special arrangement. The experimental results reveal that terahertz SPs could be unidirectionally launched in opposite directions owning to destructive and constructive interferences on the two sides with circularly polarized incident waves of opposite handedness. Meanwhile, the linearly polarized wave is able to excite the terahertz SPs along either side of the structures. The presented results would be useful to implement functional terahertz plasmonic devices.
Sikdar, Shirsendu; Banerjee, Sauvik
2016-09-01
A coordinated theoretical, numerical and experimental study is carried out in an effort to interpret the characteristics of propagating guided Lamb wave modes in presence of a high-density (HD) core region in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure (HCSS). Initially, a two-dimensional (2D) semi-analytical model based on the global matrix method is used to study the response and dispersion characteristics of the HCSS with a soft core. Due to the complex structural characteristics, the study of guided wave (GW) propagation in HCSS with HD-core region inherently poses many challenges. Therefore, a numerical simulation of GW propagation in the HCSS with and without the HD-core region is carried out, using surface-bonded piezoelectric wafer transducer (PWT) network. From the numerical results, it is observed that the presence of HD-core significantly decreases both the group velocity and the amplitude of the received GW signal. Laboratory experiments are then conducted in order to verify the theoretical and numerical results. A good agreement between the theoretical, numerical and experimental results is observed in all the cases studied. An extensive parametric study is also carried out for a range of HD-core sizes and densities in order to study the effect due to the change in size and density of the HD zone on the characteristics of propagating GW modes. It is found that the amplitudes and group velocities of the GW modes decrease with the increase in HD-core width and density.
Sikdar, Shirsendu; Banerjee, Sauvik
2016-09-01
A coordinated theoretical, numerical and experimental study is carried out in an effort to interpret the characteristics of propagating guided Lamb wave modes in presence of a high-density (HD) core region in a honeycomb composite sandwich structure (HCSS). Initially, a two-dimensional (2D) semi-analytical model based on the global matrix method is used to study the response and dispersion characteristics of the HCSS with a soft core. Due to the complex structural characteristics, the study of guided wave (GW) propagation in HCSS with HD-core region inherently poses many challenges. Therefore, a numerical simulation of GW propagation in the HCSS with and without the HD-core region is carried out, using surface-bonded piezoelectric wafer transducer (PWT) network. From the numerical results, it is observed that the presence of HD-core significantly decreases both the group velocity and the amplitude of the received GW signal. Laboratory experiments are then conducted in order to verify the theoretical and numerical results. A good agreement between the theoretical, numerical and experimental results is observed in all the cases studied. An extensive parametric study is also carried out for a range of HD-core sizes and densities in order to study the effect due to the change in size and density of the HD zone on the characteristics of propagating GW modes. It is found that the amplitudes and group velocities of the GW modes decrease with the increase in HD-core width and density. PMID:27290650
An updated model for millimeter wave propagation in moist air
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liebe, H. J.
1985-10-01
A practical atmospheric Millimeter-Wave Propagation Model is formulated that predicts attenuation, delay, and noise properties of moist air for frequencies up to 1000 GHz. Input variables are height distributions (0-30 km) of pressure, temperature, humidity, and suspended droplet concentration along an anticipated radio path. Spectroscopic data consists of more than 450 parameters describing local O2 and H2O absorption lines complemented by continuum spectra for dry air, water vapor, and hydrosols. For a model limited to frequencies below GHz, the number of spectroscopic parameters can be reduced to less than 200. Recent laboratory measurements at 138 GHz absolute attenuation rates for simulated air with water vapor pressures up to saturation allow the formulation of an improved, though empirical water vapor continuum. Model predictions are compared with selected (2.5-430 GHz) data from both laboratory and field experiments. In general, good agreement is obtained.
A nonlinear model of ionic wave propagation along microtubules.
Satarić, M V; Ilić, D I; Ralević, N; Tuszynski, Jack Adam
2009-06-01
Microtubules (MTs) are important cytoskeletal polymers engaged in a number of specific cellular activities including the traffic of organelles using motor proteins, cellular architecture and motility, cell division and a possible participation in information processing within neuronal functioning. How MTs operate and process electrical information is still largely unknown. In this paper we investigate the conditions enabling MTs to act as electrical transmission lines for ion flows along their lengths. We introduce a model in which each tubulin dimer is viewed as an electric element with a capacitive, inductive and resistive characteristics arising due to polyelectrolyte nature of MTs. Based on Kirchhoff's laws taken in the continuum limit, a nonlinear partial differential equation is derived and analyzed. We demonstrate that it can be used to describe the electrostatic potential coupled to the propagating localized ionic waves. PMID:19259657
Vibration and wave propagation characteristics of multisegmented elastic beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nayfeh, Adnan H.; Hawwa, Muhammad A.
1990-01-01
Closed form analytical solutions are derived for the vibration and wave propagation of multisegmented elastic beams. Each segment is modeled as a Timoshenko beam with possible inclusion of material viscosity, elastic foundation and axial forces. Solutions are obtained by using transfer matrix methods. According to these methods formal solutions are first constructed which relate the deflection, slope, moment and shear force of one end of the individual segment to those of the other. By satisfying appropriate continuity conditions at segment junctions, a global 4x4 matrix results which relates the deflection, slope, moment and shear force of one end of the beam to those of the other. If any boundary conditions are subsequently invoked on the ends of the beam one gets the appropriate characteristic equation for the natural frequencies. Furthermore, by invoking appropriate periodicity conditions the dispersion relation for a periodic system is obtained. A variety of numerical examples are included.
Wave propagation in granular chains with local resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonanomi, Luca; Theocharis, Georgios; Daraio, Chiara
2015-03-01
We study wave propagation in a chain of spherical particles containing a local resonator. The resonant particles are made of an aluminum outer spherical shell and a steel inner mass connected by a polymeric plastic structure acting as a spring. We characterize the dynamic response of individual particles and the transmitted linear spectra of a chain of particles in contact. A wide band gap is observed both in theoretical and experimental results. We show the ability to tune the acoustic transmission by varying the contact interaction between particles. Higher driving amplitude leads to the generation of nonlinearities both in the response of a single particle and that of the whole chain. For a single resonant particle, we observe experimentally a resonant frequency downshift, which follows a complex nonlinear behavior. In the chain of particles, nonlinearity leads to the generation of nonlinear harmonics and the presence of localized modes inside the band gap.
Variational structure of inverse problems in wave propagation and vibration
Berryman, J.G.
1995-03-01
Practical algorithms for solving realistic inverse problems may often be viewed as problems in nonlinear programming with the data serving as constraints. Such problems are most easily analyzed when it is possible to segment the solution space into regions that are feasible (satisfying all the known constraints) and infeasible (violating some of the constraints). Then, if the feasible set is convex or at least compact, the solution to the problem will normally lie on the boundary of the feasible set. A nonlinear program may seek the solution by systematically exploring the boundary while satisfying progressively more constraints. Examples of inverse problems in wave propagation (traveltime tomography) and vibration (modal analysis) will be presented to illustrate how the variational structure of these problems may be used to create nonlinear programs using implicit variational constraints.
Converging spherical wave propagation in a hemispherical solid lens
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yaoju; Ye, Xuehua; Chen, Junfeng
2006-06-01
The propagation of converging spherical waves through a hemispherical solid lens (HSL) is studied, and the multiple reflections inside the HSL are considered. It is found that the reflectivity and transmissivity have an oscillatory behaviour related to the optical radius of the HSL. When the refractive index of the HSL is smaller than that of the sample, the small mismatch in refractive indices is preferable for transmission-mode microscopy. But when the refractive index of the HSL is larger than that of the sample, the reflectivity increases rapidly as the mismatch in refractive indices and the converging angle of incident light increase, the larger mismatch and converging angle are useful for reflection-mode microscopy. The magnitude of the whole reflectivity and its modulation depth are strongly sensitive to the incident polarization, which is also discussed.
Lunar Surface Propagation Modeling and Effects on Communications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.
2008-01-01
This paper analyzes the lunar terrain effects on the signal propagation of the planned NASA lunar wireless communication and sensor systems. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate that the terrain geometry, antenna location, and lunar surface material are important factors determining the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless communication systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, operating frequency, and surface material. The analysis results from this paper are important for the lunar communication link margin analysis in determining the limits on the reliable communication range and radio frequency coverage performance at planned lunar base worksites. Key Words lunar, multipath, path loss, propagation, wireless.
Faraday rotation, band splitting, and one-way propagation of plasmon waves on a nanoparticle chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pike, N. A.; Stroud, D.
2016-03-01
We calculate the dispersion relations of plasmonic waves propagating along a chain of semiconducting or metallic nanoparticles in the presence of both a static magnetic field B and a liquid crystalline host. The dispersion relations are obtained using the quasistatic approximation and a dipole-dipole approximation to treat the interaction between surface plasmons on different nanoparticles. For plasmons propagating along a particle chain in a nematic liquid crystalline host with both B and the director parallel to the chain, we find a small, but finite, Faraday rotation angle. For B perpendicular to the chain, but director still parallel to the chain, the field couples the longitudinal and one of the two transverse plasmonic branches. This coupling is shown to split the two branches at the zero field crossing by an amount proportional to |B | . In a cholesteric liquid crystal host and an applied magnetic field parallel to the chain, the dispersion relations for left- and right-moving waves are found to be different. For some frequencies, the plasmonic wave propagates only in one of the two directions.
Time-resolved study of laser initiated shock wave propagation in superfluid 4He
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia, Allan; Buelna, Xavier; Popov, Evgeny; Eloranta, Jussi
2016-09-01
Intense shock waves in superfluid 4He between 1.7 and 2.1 K are generated by rapidly expanding confined plasma from laser ablation of a metal target immersed in the liquid. The resulting shock fronts in the liquid with initial velocities up to ca. Mach 10 are visualized by time-resolved shadowgraph photography. These high intensity shocks decay within 500 ns into less energetic shock waves traveling at Mach 2, which have their lifetime in the microsecond time scale. Based on the analysis using the classical Rankine-Hugoniot theory, the shock fronts created remain in the solid phase up to 1 μs and the associated thermodynamic state appears outside the previously studied region. The extrapolated initial shock pressure of 0.5 GPa is comparable to typical plasma pressures produced during liquid phase laser ablation. A secondary shock originating from fast heat propagation on the metal surface is also observed and a lower limit estimate for the heat propagation velocity is measured as 7 × 104 m/s. In the long-time limit, the high intensity shocks turn into liquid state waves that propagate near the speed of sound.
On the propagation of hydromagnetic waves in a plasma of thermal and suprathermal components
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Nagendra; Sikka, Himanshu
2007-12-01
The propagation of MHD waves is studied when two ideal fluids, thermal and suprathermal gases, coupled by magnetic field are moving with the steady flow velocity. The fluids move independently in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic field but gets coupled along the field. Due to the presence of flow in suprathermal and thermal fluids there appears forward and backward waves. All the forward and backward modes propagate in such a way that their rate of change of phase speed with the thermal Mach number is same. It is also found that besides the usual hydromagnetic modes there appears a suprathermal mode which propagates with faster speed. Surface waves are also examined on an interface formed with composite plasma (suprathermal and thermal gases) on one side and the other is a non-magnetized plasma. In this case, the modes obtained are two or three depending on whether the sound velocity in thermal gas is equal to or greater than the sound velocity in suprathermal gas. The results lead to the conclusion that the interaction of thermal and suprathermal components may lead to the occurrence of an additional mode called suprathermal mode whose phase velocity is higher than all the other modes.
A study of reactant interfaces in Ni+Al particle systems during shock wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Austin, Ryan A.; McDowell, David L.; Horie, Yasuyuki; Benson, David J.
2007-06-01
Macro-scale responses of energetic materials during shock compression are influenced strongly by thermo-mechano-chemical processes occurring at the level of the microstructure. For example, it is believed that the propagation of chemical reactions in reactive particle systems is intimately linked to conditions at reactant interfaces such as surface temperature, phase changes, defect density, and mass mixing due to inelastic deformation. To provide explicit resolution of such interfacial conditions, numerical models are constructed. The finite element method is used to numerically solve the differential equations that govern the coupled thermomechanical response of micron-size particle mixtures of Ni and Al during shock wave propagation (interface chemistry is not yet modeled). The size and temperature distributions of contiguous reactant contact surfaces are quantified for a range of shock strengths. A parametric study of mixture attributes is undertaken to assess the sensitivity of the aforementioned distributions to variations of the microstructure.
Reddy, Ch Sridhar; Prasad, M Durga
2016-04-28
An effective time dependent approach based on a method that is similar to the Gaussian wave packet propagation (GWP) technique of Heller is developed for the computation of vibrationally resolved electronic spectra at finite temperatures in the harmonic, Franck-Condon/Hertzberg-Teller approximations. Since the vibrational thermal density matrix of the ground electronic surface and the time evolution operator on that surface commute, it is possible to write the spectrum generating correlation function as a trace of the time evolved doorway state. In the stated approximations, the doorway state is a superposition of the harmonic oscillator zero and one quantum eigenfunctions and thus can be propagated by the GWP. The algorithm has an O(N(3)) dependence on the number of vibrational modes. An application to pyrene absorption spectrum at two temperatures is presented as a proof of the concept. PMID:27035861
Seismoelectric wave propagation numerical modelling in partially saturated materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warden, S.; Garambois, S.; Jouniaux, L.; Brito, D.; Sailhac, P.; Bordes, C.
2013-09-01
To better understand and interpret seismoelectric measurements acquired over vadose environments, both the existing theory and the wave propagation modelling programmes, available for saturated materials, should be extended to partial saturation conditions. We propose here an extension of Pride's equations aiming to take into account partially saturated materials, in the case of a water-air mixture. This new set of equations was incorporated into an existing seismoelectric wave propagation modelling code, originally designed for stratified saturated media. This extension concerns both the mechanical part, using a generalization of the Biot-Gassmann theory, and the electromagnetic part, for which dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity were expressed against water saturation. The dynamic seismoelectric coupling was written as a function of the streaming potential coefficient, which depends on saturation, using four different relations derived from recent laboratory or theoretical studies. In a second part, this extended programme was used to synthesize the seismoelectric response for a layered medium consisting of a partially saturated sand overburden on top of a saturated sandstone half-space. Subsequent analysis of the modelled amplitudes suggests that the typically very weak interface response (IR) may be best recovered when the shallow layer exhibits low saturation. We also use our programme to compute the seismoelectric response of a capillary fringe between a vadose sand overburden and a saturated sand half-space. Our first modelling results suggest that the study of the seismoelectric IR may help to detect a sharp saturation contrast better than a smooth saturation transition. In our example, a saturation contrast of 50 per cent between a fully saturated sand half-space and a partially saturated shallow sand layer yields a stronger IR than a stepwise decrease in saturation.
Analyses of Impedance Microstructure and Wave Propagation Characteristics in Rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasad, M.; Mukerji, T.
2002-12-01
Seismic methods are our primary tools to image subsurface structures and to derive information about microstructural properties at subsurface that are pertinent to exploration. However, velocity - physical property transforms are mostly empirical or qualitative in nature, mainly because microstructural descriptions are qualitative. Although, sedimentary systems produce distinctive textures that influence physical properties and seismic signatures, these textures are not quantified in terms comparable to seismic. We present a method to quantify microsctructure in terms of acoustic impedance and show how these microstructural impedance maps can be used to analyze wave propagation characteristics in rocks. Using image analyses techniques, the texture of the calibrated scanned images is quantified by spatial autocorrelation functions and binary morphological operations. Parametric modeling of the empirical autocorrelation functions is used to estimate the textural anisotropy. We quantify microstructural impedance anisotropy and compare these textural maps to ultrasonic velocity anisotropy measurements. Inclusion based effective medium theory is used to upscale the impedances at the microstructural scale to the core plug scale. In the example of optically opaque kerogen-rich shales, we find that 1. Acoustic impedance in kerogen shales increases with shale maturity, 2. Impedance measured on a micrometer scale and centimeter scale match well, indicating that seismic wave propagation are controlled by the microtexture 3. With increasing maturity, there is a transition from kerogen supported to grain supported framework We thank the Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZfP) for use of AM facilities, Walter Arnold (IZfP) for discussions about acoustic microscopy, ARCO and SRB Project for support. This work was performed under the auspices of National Science Foundation (Grant No. EAR 0074330) and Department of Energy (Award No. DE-FC26-01BC15354).
Radio-wave propagation for space communications systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ippolito, L. J.
1981-02-01
The most recent information on the effects of Earth's atmosphere on space communications systems is reviewed. The design and reliable operation of satellite systems that provide the many applications in space which rely on the transmission of radio waves for communications and scientific purposes are dependent on the propagation characteristics of the transmission path. The presence of atmospheric gases, clouds, fog, precipitation, and turbulence causes uncontrolled variations in the signal characteristics. These variations can result in a reduction of the quality and reliability of the transmitted information. Models and other techniques are used in the prediction of atmospheric effects as influenced by frequency, geography, elevation angle, and type of transmission. Recent data on performance characteristics obtained from direct measurements on satellite links operating to above 30 GHz have been reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on the effects of precipitation on the Earth/space path, including rain attenuation, and ice particle depolarization. Other factors are sky noise, antenna gain degradation, scintillations, and bandwidth coherence. Each of the various propagation factors has an effect on design criteria for communications systems. These criteria include link reliability, power margins, noise contribution, modulation and polarization factors, channel cross talk, error rate, and bandwidth limitations.
Radio-wave propagation for space communications systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ippolito, L. J.
1981-01-01
The most recent information on the effects of Earth's atmosphere on space communications systems is reviewed. The design and reliable operation of satellite systems that provide the many applications in space which rely on the transmission of radio waves for communications and scientific purposes are dependent on the propagation characteristics of the transmission path. The presence of atmospheric gases, clouds, fog, precipitation, and turbulence causes uncontrolled variations in the signal characteristics. These variations can result in a reduction of the quality and reliability of the transmitted information. Models and other techniques are used in the prediction of atmospheric effects as influenced by frequency, geography, elevation angle, and type of transmission. Recent data on performance characteristics obtained from direct measurements on satellite links operating to above 30 GHz have been reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on the effects of precipitation on the Earth/space path, including rain attenuation, and ice particle depolarization. Other factors are sky noise, antenna gain degradation, scintillations, and bandwidth coherence. Each of the various propagation factors has an effect on design criteria for communications systems. These criteria include link reliability, power margins, noise contribution, modulation and polarization factors, channel cross talk, error rate, and bandwidth limitations.