Science.gov

Sample records for surface weather observations

  1. Asian Dust Weather Categorization with Satellite and Surface Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Tang-Huang; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Huang, Shih-Jen

    2011-01-01

    This study categorizes various dust weather types by means of satellite remote sensing over central Asia. Airborne dust particles can be identified by satellite remote sensing because of the different optical properties exhibited by coarse and fine particles (i.e. varying particle sizes). If a correlation can be established between the retrieved aerosol optical properties and surface visibility, the intensity of dust weather can be more effectively and consistently discerned using satellite rather than surface observations. In this article, datasets consisting of collocated products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua and surface measurements are analysed. The results indicate an exponential relationship between the surface visibility and the satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth, which is subsequently used to categorize the dust weather. The satellite-derived spatial frequency distributions in the dust weather types are consistent with China s weather station reports during 2003, indicating that dust weather classification using satellite data is highly feasible. Although the period during the springtime from 2004 to 2007 may be not sufficient for statistical significance, our results reveal an increasing tendency in both intensity and frequency of dust weather over central Asia during this time period.

  2. Soesterberg, Netherlands. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-13

    is no objection to unlimited distribution of this report to the public at large, or by DDC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This...PRLUCESS1I4G BRAi4CH USAF ETAC CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY AIR WEATER SERVICE /MAC _ .q ~ _ _ S n F S T F R I F R G N b / ,lIO , .- 7. ’ E A R S^ r r...USAFETAC Air Weather Service (MAC ) EV~l REVISED UNIFORM SUMMARY OF SURFACE WEATHER OBSERVATIONS soEsTERIMRG NL BN 1152 8 E 5 16 FELD ELEV 56 FT EMlB

  3. Verification of National Weather Service spot forecasts using surface observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Matthew Robert

    Software has been developed to evaluate National Weather Service spot forecasts issued to support prescribed burns and early-stage wildfires. Fire management officials request spot forecasts from National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices to provide detailed guidance as to atmospheric conditions in the vicinity of planned prescribed burns as well as wildfires that do not have incident meteorologists on site. This open source software with online display capabilities is used to examine an extensive set of spot forecasts of maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, and maximum wind speed from April 2009 through November 2013 nationwide. The forecast values are compared to the closest available surface observations at stations installed primarily for fire weather and aviation applications. The accuracy of the spot forecasts is compared to those available from the National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD). Spot forecasts for selected prescribed burns and wildfires are used to illustrate issues associated with the verification procedures. Cumulative statistics for National Weather Service County Warning Areas and for the nation are presented. Basic error and accuracy metrics for all available spot forecasts and the entire nation indicate that the skill of the spot forecasts is higher than that available from the NDFD, with the greatest improvement for maximum temperature and the least improvement for maximum wind speed.

  4. Patrick AFB, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-21

    OEE lRevised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Final rept. Observations (RUSSWO) -Patrick AFB, Cocoa Beach, Florida, 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER...observations for Patrick AAFB., Cocoa Beach, Florida contains the following parts: (A) Weather Conditions and Atmospheric Phenomena; (B) Precipitation

  5. Takhli AB, Thailand. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-04-06

    oblection to unlimited distribution of this report to the public at large, or by DTIC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This...8217.. DATA PROCESSING DIVISION ETAC/USAF SURFACE WINDS2 AIR WEATER SERVICE /MAC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS...MumTA PROCESSING DIVISION USAF ETAC Air Weather Service ( MAC ) REVISED UNIFORM SUMMARY OF SURFACE WEATHER OBSERVATIOt TAKHLI THAILAND A1 WBAN# 41012

  6. Observational study of atmospheric surface layer and coastal weather in northern Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Dhrubajyoti; Sadr, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric surface layer is the interaction medium between atmosphere and Earth's surface. Better understanding of its turbulence nature is essential in characterizing the local weather, climate variability and modeling of turbulent exchange processes. The importance of Middle East region, with its unique geographical, economical and weather condition is well recognized. However, high quality micrometeorological observational studies are rare in this region. Here we show experimental results from micrometeorological observations from an experimental site in the coastal region of Qatar during August-December 2015. Measurements of winds are obtained from three sonic anemometers installed on a 9 m tower placed at Al Ghariyah beach in northern Qatar (26.08 °N, 51.36 °E). Different surface layer characteristics is analyzed and compared with earlier studies in equivalent weather conditions. Monthly statistics of wind speed, wind direction, temperature, humidity and heat index are made from concurrent observations from sonic anemometer and weather station to explore variations with surface layer characteristics. The results also highlights potential impact of sea breeze circulation on local weather and atmospheric turbulence. The observed daily maximum temperature and heat index during morning period may be related to sea breeze circulations. Along with the operational micrometeorological observation system, a camera system and ultrasonic wave measurement system are installed recently in the site to study coastline development and nearshore wave dynamics. Overall, the complete observational set up is going to provide new insights about nearshore wind dynamics and wind-wave interaction in Qatar.

  7. Nellis AFB, Nevada. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    42to Located on temporary Base Opera- Selsyn ML-144 N/A Feb 43 tionS Bldg. 2 ar 43to Located on NE corner of main Same Same N/A Apr 44 Hangar. 3 May...months) and the total valid observation cotmt. An asterisk (*) is printed in any year-month block when the extreme value is based on an in- complete month...a .... ...... ....... NOTE * ( BASED ON LESS THAN FULL MONTHS) L GLOYAL CLIMATOLOY BRANCH

  8. Ansbach AAF, Katterback, Germany. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-29

    report to th’ public at larg-e, or by DDC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical report has been reviewed and is... National Weather Service (USWB) Beginning thru 1945 at 08001ST Beginning thru Jun 52 at 0030GM Jan 46-May 47 at 1230C1 Jul 52-May 57 at 1230,’-.. Jun 57...USAFETAC/IS-80/036 DATA PROCESSING DIVISION USAFETAC Air Weather Service ( MAC ) RVISED UNIFORM SUM.MARY OF SURFACE WEATHER OBSERVATIONS ANSBACH AAF

  9. Pusan East AFS K-9, Pusan, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-02-26

    of this report to th- public at ]are, or by DDC to the National r-chnica] Information Servic - (NTIS). ,ro This technical r-.port has be~n reviewed...USAFETAC/DS-80/032 DATA PROCESSING DIVISION ETAC, USAF Air Weather Service (MAC) REV/ISED UNIFORM SUMMARY OF SURFACE WEATHER OBSERVATIONS PUSAN EAST...8217;rLtAFBIL 2225 EPR 14 CONTROLL INGOFF5ICE NAME’ ANC) AOOAFSS 2RPTL7E USAFETAC/CBD I ___ ____ Air Weather Service (MAC) _𔃿E 7Pr7E7 _ Scott AFB IL 62225

  10. Kwangju, K-57, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-03-06

    service for each period are as follows: Air Force Stations: U. S. Navy and National Weather Service (USWB) Beginning thru 1945 at 080OST Beginning...USAFETAC Air Weather Service ( MAC ) SURFACE VvEATHER O05SERVATIONt KWANG,J KOREA K-. 7 WBANN 43256 N 35 07 E 126 49 ELEV 52 FT RKJJ WMO# 47158 PARTS...USAF SURFACE WINDS AIR wEATER l VCF/mC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 4325b K ,JP,J, K KU -7 54-59,4-71 P

  11. Biggs AAF, El Paso, Texas. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-14

    4. TITLE (aind Subtitle.) 5 TYPE OF REPORT 6 PERI00 CZO,(ERLD Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Final repto Observations (RUSSWO)- Biggs AAF...34"’i ~DATA PROCESSING DIVISION .! tx Air Weather Service ( MAC . . REVISED UNIFORM SUMMARY OF : SURFACE WEATHER OBSERVATIONS ,t’ BIGGS AAF TX (E...PLI1it,* ), f ,, .) Revised Unifovim Suinnaury of Surface Wea ther Find.) rept Observations (RUSSWO)-"Biggs AAF, El Paso, 7 A~..4OA.4 -I COTRACT OR GRIANT

  12. Arctic Weather Change: Linking Indigenous (Inuit) Observations With the Surface Temperature Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noonan, G. J.; Weatherhead, E. C.; Gearheard, S.; Barry, R.

    2005-12-01

    Inuit observations in the Artic describe increasing unpredictability in the weather. In an effort to link their reports with scientific data, we analyzed time series of surface temperatures from two stations; Baker Lake and Clyde River, located in Nunavut, Canada. 52 year records (1953-2004) of hourly WMO weather station temperature data were utilized for a statistical assessment at the two locations. Large positive trends in mean temperature were observed at both sites. Hourly and daily temperature differences were then calculated noting that a positive tendency in results may be indicative of recent variability. This was not seen. Further examination focused on a possible increase or decrease in frontal activity; these results displayed little change in the magnitude of frontal activity in both locations. Very small changes were observed in the variance, with a tendency toward higher values. It is difficult to understand how these small changes in variance could be easily observable by the Inuit, although the ramification of a small change in variance may be more easily observed. Finally, day-to-day autocorrelation was calculated as a way to quantify the persistence of weather. A strong change was noted in June at Baker Lake. At the beginning of the time series (1953 - 1990) autocorrelation values were typically in the 0.8 +- 0.1 range, in the 1990's they were often around 0.4. These results show a marked change in the persistence of weather for this month. We will need to explore further if such an outcome can be used to estimate the predictability of weather and estimate changes in weather patterns. These initial results, however, are promising and point to a distinct change in the nature and predictability of weather.

  13. Taipei IAP, Taiwan. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-09-07

    t5LLA TwP r <,AT okES DFC F fk’ *J.Y SFRkv A C.. 4 66 T ’ " lrA.IPtl JAP TYA1xA 54-7, ’ AN FEB AR APR ~ A’ Wl -. A’ Af N NNC.A 5EA. 51-o1 5,4 58,9 64 77...C AC7-RESS Z2 REPORT ZA-E US~ t ~ ~ 7 Sep, 73 Air Weather Service (MAC) N~BR2 A Scott AFB IL 62225 4 M041TORINS A CN’.Y N AME 3 AUCAE3S,f :ie- floll t ...over) ’ T & report is sx-pat t sti~ calsmmr of surface weather observations for h,,jei IAP, Taiwan It contains the following parts: (A) Weather

  14. Cape Romanzof AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    to unlimited distribution of this report to the public at large, or by DDC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This techmical...m ,mm~ -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - aI GLOBAL CLIMATOLOGY BRANCH UShCT AC AIR wEATER SERVICe /MAC WEATHER...CLIMATOLOGY BRANCH uSFCETAC SURFACE WINDS AIR WEATER SERVICE /MAC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 71212c CAPE

  15. Constraining storm-scale forecasts of deep convective initiation with surface weather observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madaus, Luke

    Successfully forecasting when and where individual convective storms will form remains an elusive goal for short-term numerical weather prediction. In this dissertation, the convective initiation (CI) challenge is considered as a problem of insufficiently resolved initial conditions and dense surface weather observations are explored as a possible solution. To better quantify convective-scale surface variability in numerical simulations of discrete convective initiation, idealized ensemble simulations of a variety of environments where CI occurs in response to boundary-layer processes are examined. Coherent features 1-2 hours prior to CI are found in all surface fields examined. While some features were broadly expected, such as positive temperature anomalies and convergent winds, negative temperature anomalies due to cloud shadowing are the largest surface anomaly seen prior to CI. Based on these simulations, several hypotheses about the required characteristics of a surface observing network to constrain CI forecasts are developed. Principally, these suggest that observation spacings of less than 4---5 km would be required, based on correlation length scales. Furthermore, it is anticipated that 2-m temperature and 10-m wind observations would likely be more relevant for effectively constraining variability than surface pressure or 2-m moisture observations based on the magnitudes of observed anomalies relative to observation error. These hypotheses are tested with a series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) using a single CI-capable environment. The OSSE results largely confirm the hypotheses, and with 4-km and particularly 1-km surface observation spacing, skillful forecasts of CI are possible, but only within two hours of CI time. Several facets of convective-scale assimilation, including the need for properly-calibrated localization and problems from non-Gaussian ensemble estimates of the cloud field are discussed. Finally, the characteristics

  16. Fort Sill Oklahoma/Post Field. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-23

    uvious Willows ow Tnil bIA MI oIW U ~-A -- j f ;746 Y -imir,- 77---~ ( DATA PROCESSING qRAN;C4 1 ~ 1 C/UAF ERVIE/~AC INDSURFACE WINDSARWEATHER EVC /NA...PR "CESS.U 8Ak C ETAC/USAF- SURFACE WINDSAI ETE EVC /A ERETG RQEC FWN DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 1J94 FidAT SILL QKLAIH0M4/P0ST FLO...FcIm An Iomei, -.1- 1 1; X. - ! ;; -~i m *v ’g. i DATA PRUCESSLMG BRAfCri USAF ETAC SIFMC CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY AIR WEATHER EVC /A 13945 FORT SILL

  17. Vance AFB, Enid, Oklahoma. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-07

    NUMBER USAFETAC/DS- 79/014, /, T . 5 TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather’ F ° Observations (RUSSWO)- Vance AFB...82175164 W640 PAPUUR 13909 7 1VANCE AFE. OKLAFO2’A,/ND T N 36 21 11 09V 5 1307 KEM) STATION LOCATION AND INSTRUMENTATION HISTORY NURSER TYPE AT THIS...Okla. AFB Opt 48 Sep 49 N 36 21 U* 097 55 1290 1287 24 4. Same same Oct 49 Mar 53 same same same same 24 5 . ISame same Apr 53 Mar 57 same same same

  18. Myrtle Beach AFB South Carolina. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations. Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-03

    service for each period are as follows: Air Force Stations: UI. S. Navy and National Weather Service (USWB)I-Beginning thru 1945 at 0800IST Beginning...ADA 0 74658 USAFETAC/DS-79/032 DATA PROCESSING BRANCH USAFETAC Air Weather Service ( MAC) REVISED UNIFORM SUMMARY OF SURFACE WEATHER OBSERVATIQIG...or by DDC to the Naticnal Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. $CARL A. BOWER

  19. On Observing the Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

  20. Malmstrom AFB, Montana. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    for each period are as follows: Air Force Stations: U. S. Navy and National Weather Service (USWB) Beginning thru 1945 at O800SLST Beginning thru Jun...PROCESSING DIVISION USAFETACFL41.1 SO’" IL 6:2Z8 Air Weather Service ( MAC ) REVISED UNIFORA StMAMARY OF SURFACE WEATHER OBSERVATIO) L5 FEB 984 M.LM6TROM...CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE USAFETAC/CBD Feb 84 Air Weather Service (MAC) 13. NUMBER OF PAGES Scott AFB, IL 62225 320 14

  1. Bitburg AB, Bitburg, Germany. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-20

    at large, or by DDC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication...for each period are as follows: Air Force Stations: U. S. Navy and National Weather Service (USWB) Beginning thru 1945 at 080OLST Beginning thru Jun 52...OCT79 70A JSAFETAC/DS-79/116 A DATA PROCESSING BRANCH USAFETAC o : iAir Weather Service (MAC) o UNIFORM SUMMARY OF WEATHER OBSERVATIONS BITBURG AB DL

  2. Bardenas Reales Range, Spain. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (Russwo). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-30

    94.9 98.0 98.6, 98.6 98.6, cog.3 000.0. Q .0j 0.0. 0.00.0.00.0 4.96.(),01.6 98.6 96 )9.*3.00.0.00.0 00.0 00.0 001000000.00. 94 𔄃 9$ b9 . 86 9A . n9o0.00...SUMMARY OF SURFACE WEATHER OBSERVATIONS 3 f l 1 8W R ZA LE S T Aw G W.A # 4 0 . N 42 1 W 001 27 F.A’ ~ ~ B8 00 PARTS A, C-F 0 POP FRM HOURLY OMF M...FOG AND OR LOWING AND OR WITH OBST NO OF (L S.T STORMS 1) D0 AN ADO ALAD0 SOWN DRIZZLE DRIZZLE SLEET PRECIF. HAZER SAND TO VISION OBS. _ _ _ I K I

  3. Shipboard Weather Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmaccio, Richard J.

    1983-01-01

    Details of how observers on a moving ship can furnish an accurate report of wind velocity are provided. A method employing vector addition and some trigonometry is covered. Wind velocity is initially indicated through an anemometer and a wind vane. Ships are urged to radio weather data. (MP)

  4. Siegenberg Germany Gunnery Range, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-10-28

    exceed the total colurns. Fcg - luied are tCog, -’ce fl$c, gr:- - fag. &v’~ke an/o hze - Occurrences ofl snoe, aze, &rccnbina tions of s.ock.e and haze...OBSERVATIONS) 1.199 -. S:EGENBURG GERMANY GUNNERY RANGE 6670 - AN St E STATION "A9 YEAR moNT . ALL wEATHER 0600񓍀 CLts NOun (L$ T.) COSDlyW, SPE MEAN...SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS; 14lig.. _SjNSURG GERMANV GUNNERY RANGg 68;70 ________ OCT STAION TNSO KAE bAft MONT . _ __ AI.I WEATHER ____0600w08a00 I

  5. FT Stewart AAF, Savannah, Georgia. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-18

    report to the public at large, or by DDC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical report has been reviewed and isT...U. S. Navy and National Weather Service (USWB) Beginning thru 19145 at 0800IST Beginning thru Jun 52 at 003ON.f Jan 146-Y~y 147 at 1230G.W Jul 52-May...the total observations with reduced visibility. AW77 -- °: I "+GLOBArL C~jI. AT)L{JrY BRANCH 2 uSA :tTAC WEATHER CONDITIONS AIR ,’EATHER SERViCE /,’AC

  6. Daggett Municipal, California. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-02

    atr r . rc:,to7., fractict-.t .2’o tat~a iac rtt;o:lc :., : r,. .;t :. CO ~ xc, i. wi. ... . a i- .tl.c.,OcO tar s:it .itttiot.: PART A WEATHER...also drifting snow when reported from non -WBAN sources). Dust and/or sand - Included are blowing dust, blowing sand, and dust. Continued on Reverse A-l...OiF 0CCUPP NCE IF wEATHEr-0 CO ,"IATRONS "OM HOURLY ObSERVATIONS 1 O S 1T AIN FI REZI’N SOW 0 Of SMOKE SDust OF 085 TOTAL MONTH OU TND A RAIN & /OR AND

  7. Fort Campbell AAF, Clarksville, Kentucky. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-10

    FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 13806 FO~RT CA;*,PSFLL KY/ CAMPRELL AAF 43-45,t5-72 AUG STATION STATIONM ARC ?"Its MONTH (ALL V4,FATKER 1200-1400 CLASS... CAMPRELL AAF 44-45P50-72 APR STATKO, STATIO’ N E Y. "s ONT. PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE 12o-o (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) VISIBLITY (STATUTE MILES...T.,S 0EM Ate OM.CITE ( UDATA PRUCESS, b,"ACCh USAF ETAC CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY AIR WEATHER SERVICE/MAC + 13806 FORT CAMPBELL KY/ CAMPRELL AAF 4"A

  8. Dover AFB Delaware. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations. Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-07

    SNOW X OF SMOKE DUST X OF OSS TOTALMONTH T. STORMS AD/OR RAIN &/fOR AND/OR HAIL IObs WITH FOG AND/ORt BOWIG AND/ORt WITH ORST NO. OF( ST )DRIZZLE DRIZZLE...OBSERVATIONS) 13707 DUVEF AF8 DELAWARE 4 Ago4 f!,SL 55 AR STATION STATION RA50 01055 MONTH ALL WEATHER ALL CLASS NOVAS ( ST .) ( CONDITION SPE MEAN (NT...DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 1.3707 )0VEIc AFB 0ELAwAIRE 43-46251-72 JAN4 ALL WEATHEV, 0600-0800 Cuss x05o5 ILL ST .) SIPEED i MEAN (KNTS

  9. Nakhon Phanom RTAFB, Thailand. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-11-12

    DTIC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. VXTNE ’E. MCCOLLUM...st ations. The hours used by each service for each period are a follows: Air Force Stations: U. 8. Navy and National Weather Service (USWB) Beginning...EDITIONS Of THIS fORM ARE O ST KK64 * DATA PRUCESSIhiG BAN~CH2 ETAC/USAF SURFACE WINDS AIR WEATER SERVICE /MAC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND

  10. Chu Lai MCAF, Vietnam. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-03-01

    unlimited distribution of this report to the public at large, or by DTIC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical report has...FOM 0-8 5 (01. 1) PREVIOUS EDITION$ OF THIS FORM ARE OSSOLETE AA_ 64 "~ Z* 4 DATA PROCESSING DIVISIONETA+C/USAF SURFACE WINDS 2 AIR WEATER SERVICE /AC...DOCUMENT PROCESSING SHEETDTIC A T 19 70A CHU LAI UWs ETAO DS-&l/017t-~AD A098 605 DATA PROCESSING DIVISION USAF ETAC Air Weather Service ( MAC ) H . Li

  11. Niagara Falls IAP NY. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations. Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    WEATER SERVICE /MAC STATION NUMOLP: 725267 STATION NAE: NIAGARA FALLS TAP NY PERIOD OF RECORD: 51-64. t8-87 DAILY SNOW DEPT IN ]NCHES -M-O.N-1h-S- ALL...D I1 USAFETAC cc "Air Weather Service (MAC) S’mm in1SM uivoi SUMARY OF SURFACE WKRAT 06KBATIOUS NIMIARA FALLS AP lIY I5C 725287 X 43 06 v 078 57 sLIV...unlimited distribution of this document to the public at large, or by the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) to the National Technical Information

  12. Patrick AFB, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-14

    AD-AI02 396 AIR FORCE ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS CENTER..ETC FO 4/2 PATRICK AFA, COCOA BEACH, FLORIDA. REVISED UNIFORM SUMMARY OF S--ETC(U... COCOA A P_..O_- BEACH, FLORIDA -__N__ O . 6. CONTRkCT OR GRANT NUMB4EA L-. AN-- -. 0. PAO. R:5AR EL.MENT. IRCJ t C. - ,5; AFETAC/01L--A 4RA :R( UNIT...statisitical summary of surface weather observations fer PATRICK AFB, COCOA BEACH, FLORIDA It contains the following parts: (A) Weather Conditions; Atmospheric

  13. Fritzsche AAF, Fort Ord, Salinas, California. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-02-17

    large, or by DDC to the National Technical , Information Service (NTIS). This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. SUSAN V...8217~4z4Y4.~.’T=’I Z.-- " 3 .,f DATA PRGESSING DIVISIji, !TC/USA " SKY COVER AIR WEATER SERVICE /MAGS 93,7 FORT ORD CALIF/FRITZSCHE AAF 60-70 AUG STATION...USFEACDS79-8 ~~O 6O~ UAFTACDST7908 , JAir Weather Service (MAC ) REVISED UNIFORM SUMMARY OF SURFACE WEATHER OBSERVATIONS FORT ORD CALIF/FRITZSCHE AAF

  14. John Rodgers WBAS, Honolulu, Hawaii. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO), Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-12-05

    BUILDING "THIS DOCUMFNT HAS BEEN APPROVID FOR PU- SALE; ITS Of i ASHEVILLE, N. C. 0rRIBUTiL-. .v j’LiyUdTED" 10 2 105 9.A,. . zt --. , ~~~~~~~~~~~ - 5 ...TITLF (and Suhblltl) 5 TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)- John Rodgers WBAS, Honolulu...12 REPORT DATE USAFETAC/CBD 5 Dec 67 Air Weather Service (MAC) 13 NUMBER OF PAGES Scott AFB IL 62225 P. 𔃾 MONITORING AGENCY NAME 6 ADORESS(If

  15. Williams AFB, Chandler, Arizona. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-16

    HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 23104 WILLIAMS AFB ARIZONA/CHANDLER 42-74 NOV STlAT ION STATION AME{ TRDEMNTH ALL WEATHER 0900-1100 ClASS MOVIS (L ST.) CONDITION...1 9. 1011.12 13. 14 I. 16 17.18 19.20 21.22 23.24 25".26 27.28129.30 .31 D.B./W.B. pDy nulbFWetI ulbOew Porn , 34/ 33 289 32/3R1 _ I jJ _, _ 267 30

  16. Hiedelberg AAF, Germany Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-05

    NcV STATIOS STATION AME YungS MONTS ALL WEATHER 15 0-170 ; CLASS HOUSE (L.IT.) SPEED 1 MEAN(KNTS) 1-3 4.-6 7.-10 11-16 17-21 22-27 28-.33 34-40 41 -47...82.0 87.7 92.4 93.5 96.0 97.1 97.6 98.2 99.0 99.4 ru.C TOTAL NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS 9 3 USAF ETAC 0- 1-5 (OL A) P...OU.T.. OF...... PORN AN.. . v "..+w

  17. Taegu AB, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A, C-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-07

    SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) .>12 TAEGU AB KO 68-69,73-79 ICT STATION STATION NAME RANti MONT. ALL WEATHER __’_ ’’__8___ CLASS NOUNS (L.S.T...46 11/t .1 .1 2 2 6 5i 117 21 16 i / 15 .I 1 1 1 41 4 13 31 1 / 11 e I ~ I v 0-J ,I 7 6 f I 3 i -,l -5 1 Elt ... (X) .11 Obs. M , Mbe. of no$e Wilk

  18. F. E. Warren AFB, Cheyenne, Wyoming. Revised uniform summary of surface weather observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This report is a six-part statistical summary of surface weather observations for F E Warren AFB, Cheyenne, Wyoming. It contains the following parts: (A) Weather Conditions; Atmospheric Phenomena; (B) Precipitation, Snowfall and Snow Depth (daily amounts and extreme values); (C) Surface winds; (D) Ceiling Versus Visibility; Sky Cover; (E) Psychrometric Summaries (daily maximum and minimum temperatures, extreme maximum and minimum temperatures, psychrometric summary of wet-bulb temperature depression versus dry-bulb temperature, means and standard deviations of dry-bulb, wet-bulb and dew-point temperatures and relative humidity); and (F) Pressure Summary (means, standard, deviations, and observation counts of station pressure and sea-level pressure). Data in this report are presented in tabular form, in most cases in percentage frequency of occurrence or cumulative percentage frequency of occurrence tables.

  19. Tinian Island Nas, Mariana Islands. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-05-25

    unlimited distribution of this report to the public at large, or by DDC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). a technical report has be...OBSOLETE DATA PROCESSING RRANCH ETAC/USAF SURFACE WINDS 2 AIR WEATER SERVICE /MAC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY... Service ( MAC ) REVISED UNIFORM SUMMARY OF SURF6CE WEATHER OBSERVATION5 TINIAN NAS MARIANA IS WBAN #41413 N 150 0 E 145 38 ELEV 250 FT WMO# PARTS A-F

  20. Duluth, Duluth IAP, Minnesota. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    82 MAY ETY 5?A?=m iln" MGM * ALL WEATHER n.flflliinn 11AM ure LIt..) SPEED MEAN (KNTS) 1-3 4-6 7.10 11-16 17.21 22 - 7 2-33 34-40 41-47 48-355 k5 ...ja% TOTAL ?M 1 OF OURVATWOS th r USAFETAC FOR M S A( o w m mm 0- Iwi.t) coSm .. -.. : L t"to7 - *1* - I, GLOBAL CLINATOL06Y BRANCH AFETAC SURFACE...83.7 63.? 83.7 83.8 > 1 000 1..8.-..P .6. 9w0 83. 84. 85.; 85. a5. 85.2 85.2 85.2 85.3 85.3 85.3 5.3 85.3 85.3 35.8 p C. ~~~~ 800 7180 .1 f- % k5 --Sz

  1. Scott AFB Illinois /Belleville. Parts A-F. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-30

    8217 .K - ... .....-..... AA 9 DATA PRUCNSZNG BRANCH USAP/ITACIO. A 2 AIR WEATHER’RVC/A EXTREME VALUES SN~OWFALL (FROM DAILY OBSERVATIONS) STATIN ...ENE .6 1.3 1.6 8 .0 1 42 to6 F E 1.3 1. 1’,7 o7 5.2 6.6 1f ESE 7 1 Q10 Z .6 .1 .I !1 3.7 7.3 I SE _ 6 1 , .8 2.3 6 2.1 _0_.4 _ _ _3-. SE .8 .13 2__...ILLINUIS/BFLLEVILLE 38,,72 APR STATIN STATIONl MANlI TRANS NORTH | ALL WE ATHE’R 000-0500 cussD HOURS 4L 2 t.) ~CONDITIONI SPEED MEAN (KNTS) 1 . 3 4.•6

  2. Johnston Island, Pacific Island. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-06-07

    ST IN IS6A,40/ PACjA PC IS 45-72 __ .___y_ STATIN I TAT IO NAME TEAMS MEiTS ALL WEATHFk 06 00-0800 SPEED MEAN (KNTS) 1.2 4.6 7.10 11 - 16 17 - 21 22...FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) _______N l 1 ILANI,/PACIFIC IS 45-71(1.. STATION STATION ANK 75A.5 RO.TS ALL WEATHER 00onL-0? 00 CLAS N.OU. (L-T.) CO .... OO...99,9 9 9969 999 99oq 99910. Co a 500 .i 97:.q 99,4 99,5 99.7 99.? 99. 99. 99.8 99.; 99. 99.9100 .100*01 00100.0 0 400 9,* 9608 99.4 991. 99.7 99.7 99.0

  3. Bergstrom AFB, Austin, Texas. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-02-21

    34AMR TUBS MOTH~g ALL WEATHER 2100-2300 cull 0U S (LI..T.) CO "ODI ION4- C"° 1 I -" SPEED MEAN (KNTS) 1 .3 4.6 7. 10 I •6 17 .21 22 -27 28 33 34. 40 41 47...7,2? NNW 1.4 1.8 2.. .7 .5 6’.j 7.- - ~CICALM - >?<_ 3.9 21.1 1Z, 1__ __ _ .1>43 1 ii -.2( 60 C TOTAL NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS 2566 USAFETAC 0-8-5 ( CO ...10 7 197 , 1 7 0 .. co 68.0 71. 7 72 7272. 720. "/2. 72. 72. 72. 72. 72. 72o 72. 72.8 72. 7 3 6 9 0. 74 * 4 724 ’ 7 4 0 7 4 , ’ 7 4 0 74 0 7 4 , 7 4

  4. Kingsley Field, Klamath Falls, Oregon. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-16

    FIELD OR 68-70,73-79 APR ST -ATION 51ATION NAME YEARSMOT PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS RAIN FREEZI N...SNOW 1OF SMOKE BLOWING DUST OAS 08 TOTALMONTH Ls.) TUDRSADO RAI & i OR AND/OR HAIL 0ILS WITH FOG AND/OR SNOW AND/Olt IWIH ST NO. OF STRS DRIZZLE...1*59 .2’ 721 .8l, TRACE, .421 920; 1.34’ 1.68’ .70i 10.41, $4 2.8Z .47101. .2d .671 2.03 .34 TRACE’ .&as .1. ST 2.06 6.65 16.4$ -6- 1.a59; .07, .02- 1

  5. Impact of satellite-based lake surface observations on the initial state of HIRLAM weather forecasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheyrollah Pour, H.; Duguay, C. R.; Rontu, L.; Eerola, K.; Kurzeneva, E.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Surface Water Temperature (LSWT) observations are used to improve the lake surface state in the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM), a three-dimensional numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. Satellite-derived LSWT observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) are first evaluated against in-situ measurements for a selection of large to medium-size lakes during the open-water season. Three experiments were then run over northern Europe for two winters (2010-2011 and 2011-2012), which involved the assimilation of remote-sensing LSWT observations into the HIRLAM analysis. In the baseline experiment, the prognostic lake parameterization inside the forecast model provided the background for the LSWT analysis by the lake parameterizations of the Fresh-water Lake model (FLake) integrated in HIRLAM. No satellite observations were used in this experiment. In the second experiment, remote-sensing observations were included along with the FLake model and in-situ observations. In the third experiment, satellite observations were used to correct the background provided by the previous analysis, excluding the FLake parameterization scheme. Results encourage work to describe better the initial state of the lake surface in NWP models by combining satellite observations and lake parameterizations via advanced data assimilation methods. It has been learned that space-borne observations are beneficial for the description of lake surface state even without parameterizations when FLake alone would have led to too early break-up in spring. In order to utilize the space-borne and in-situ observations along with lake parameterization for the improvement of the weather forecast, methods to connect the analyzed LSWT and ice cover to the prognostic in-lake variables are needed to fully benefit from the space-borne observations.

  6. Volk FLD. Camp Douglas, Wisconsin. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-08-03

    REVISED’UNIFORWSUMMARY OF SURFACE WEATHER, OBSERVATION4S CAMP DOUGLAS WISCONSIN/VOLK FLO WSAN# 94930 N 43 56 W 90󈧔, ELEVi 925 FT. KVOK Wt ~O#I t PARTS A-F’ POR...Observations (RUSSW0)- Volk FLD,’ Camp Douglas , Wisconsin b PERORMINc ORG REPORT NUW ER 7. AUTHOR(o) CNTRACT OR GRANT HUMBER() 9, PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME...STATIONIFTI) KBAAOMEICR OAI 1 Volk Fld/Camp Douglas Wsconsin A Jur ,. Sep 66 N 43 56 W 90 16 925 Ancrold 13to19 1 No Change A Oct V Oct 68 No Change No

  7. Pease AFB, New Hampshire. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-05

    DTIC) to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. FOR THE COMMANDER...stations. The hours used by each service for each period are as follows Air Force Stations; U. S. Navy and National Weather Service (USWB) Beginning...PROCESSING BRANCH AWVS TECHNICAL LIRR 00USAFETAC LSCOTT AFB IL 62225 (n Air Weather Service ( MAC) ) U In uAJ -j 0? JUL D1IBU1ON TATMET~ A EEA BIDNELECTE

  8. Columbus AFB, Columbus, Mississippi. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-05

    Wet Bulb U) D Do. Point (. DATA PRUCLSSIIC BRANCH M 4 USAF ETAC PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARYi AIR WEATHER SERVIC) JMAC c 1 4;>5 C4;1 UN.RUS AFA Mgc_...WEATHER SERVIC/ JMAC 13825 CtjLUMFBUS AFB MISSISSIPPI 42-45#59-7, EP STATION STATION NAME YEAPS MONTH C PAGL d - 1200-1400 HOURS 4L. S. T.) Teo~p. WET

  9. U-Tapao RTNAS, Thailand. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-10-26

    to unlimited distribution of this report to the public at large, or by DTIC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical...Force Environmental Technical App1. Center Scott AFB IL 62225 ,bs~yfR ffoFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Air Weather Service (MAC) 3. 26 OCT... Service (MAC ) " REVISED NIFORM SUMMARY OF SURFACE WEA1HER OBSERVATIONS U-TAPAO RTNAS THAILAND WBAN* 41028 N 12 41 E 101 01 ELEV 69 FT VTLU WMO# PARTS A-F

  10. Hahn AB, Germany (West). Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-09

    unlimited distribution of this report to the public at large, or by DDC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical report has been...The hours used by each service for each period are as follows: Air Force Stations: U. S. Navy and National Weather Service (USWB) Beginning thru 19 4 5... NATIONAL SUEAU OF STOA OS -1963-A iI GLCBAL CLIMATOLOGY BRANCH CETAC ILING VERSUS VISIBILITY AIc WEATHER SERVICE /MAC 1 t16C HAHN AB DL 73-61

  11. Buckley ANGB, Colorado. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-19

    each period are as follows: Air Force Stations: U. S. Navy and National Weather Service (USWB) Beginning thru 1945 at O80OLsT Beginning thru Jun 52 at...TEST CHART NATIOnAL . OUREAU OF ST.WOAMDS - 63-A G ’AL CLINIATOLOGY 3PA4CI42 ’’ LTAC PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY A • ,EAT-4:- SERVICE /’0: 7:4. 95 JCKLEY A~f...MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NAT,ONAL BuAREAu OF 5TANDA*OS - ,963 - A .... . . . .... rL DATA PROCESSING DIVISION USAFETAC Air Weather Service

  12. George AFB Victorville, California. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-05

    Air Force Stations: U. S. Navy and National Weather Service (WWB) Beginning thru 194e5 at 080OLST Beginning thra Jun 52 at 003001M! Jan I.6-may 4𔄁 at...STAT ION "OR runI ALL s;..Jh n30 (o-(5U0 SPEED 1MEAN _INNNEl E SE - - 7 75S 3. ,1 4.9 1____,O__ SSE -* a. _ _ 109_ 4- - 18.7 --SS 1 ..Z10 504 - 1...below. U. S. Weather Bureau and Navy stations did not report ceilings within the range 10,000 feet and higher prior to January 1949. Summaries prepared

  13. Indian Mountain AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    31 8... . 1B b w., B. 0- r] N I o N.. Ob.. M.., N.. .1 N.-. it% To’p.Wo.- R. .1.__-___ 0 F 322 F *67 F *73 F 60S F *93 F To. 4 .. P , PSYCHROMETRIC...Psychrometrl- summary Surfoc, Worlds Extreme temperature Ceiling versus vis:boloi-; Helative Humidity -Climatological data (over) 20 ABSTRACT ’C- P ,, -1...uSAFETAC A2 4EATR SERVICE/MAC WEATHER CONDITIONS 70173C INDIAN MOUNTAIN AFS AK 73-8? P PEOCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS FROP HOURLY

  14. Hunter AAF, Savannah, Georgia. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-11-18

    A DATA PROCE~SSING DIVISION I3 USAF ETAC WEATHER CONDITIONSAIR WEATHER SERICE/MAC I . 13824 SAVANNAH GEORGIA/HUNTER AAF 46-70) F-ED ST ...TOTAL MIDT (...TURS AND/ORt RAIN &/OR AND/ORt HAIL OBS WITH FOG AND/ORt SOWN N/RWT BINO( ST ) SOM DRIZZLE DRIZZLE SLEET PRECIP. HAZE SNW SAND TO VISION...FREEZING SNOW X OF SMOKE DUST X OF 055 TOTALM NTHUNDER- ND/OR RAIN &/OR AND/ORt NAIL O&S WITH FOG AND/ORt SOWING AND/Oft WITH 01ST’ NO. OF AUG ST

  15. Hahn AB, Hunsbruck, Germany. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-29

    r- . 9* 1 72,1 25.31 23.i’ 2.8 - 1s 1 j1oo.L..LI TOM AQ.WMU Of Q 3~J f USAETAC C-8- mvm twI - co 3 ^ riI * L C SURFACE WINDS PERCENTAGE FREQUFNCY OF...9_9 _7 1 IL.5J 28,4j 36.51 17.7 2.71 100-0 1- TOTAL NUMBER Of OBSERVATIONS 9 3 0 j’ USAFETAC C-8-5 (OL-Al Ptiviou |S toOA1 Of THIAS F A Ml COS .IETI...r T-TltjW:, &W T-- Am, W. tzla - co ctmAn c~t- 3 E1 .’.Js. F SURFACE WINDS AIR ..,FAiFR SLIRVT¢C/ m Ar PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND

  16. Woodbridge RAF United Kingdom. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-07

    GLOcAL CLIMATOLOY 4PANCH uoAFETAC CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY AIP WEATHER SERVIC[/PAC 6 !� .0ODB8RI)E RAF UK _"_-_ " ___ .-8’ PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF...OSIVATIONWS A USAF ETAC 0. . -14.5(OL A) owvo I wv s op wpwm i -- GLOCAL CLIMATOLOGY RRANCH AT CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITYA’.P WEATHr SERVICE/MAC 7 .951

  17. Pope AFB, North Carolina Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    OL.A IRE.IOA$ E0.T10S 01.S T 04. RtU ASP OOtE)U 6 *L’-AL .LI"!ATCL)GY i %A %Cm 2_T SURFACE WINDS .AT-Fd 1.RV1CL’?1AC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND...DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 72V~ -JP AF-!_~ _________ 7-L_________ tot ST A-T 0 k.I IsA .;T. A .L .LAT" E-’ •_ _-_ SPEED MEAN KNTS 1...0 , T ._ . _ * ,... . K . --- .. j , ,.. ’ . .. , m E¢ 800 1 ,00 2! 6100 9 . t 1200- ___? .. ..00 . . . : 100 2! goo EXAMPLE # 1 lHead ceiling

  18. Portland IAP, Portland, Oregon. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-08

    21 .0 42.9 11688 I porn USAPETAC F~ORM .(.A.ftfO 0m4C ~FMA 5t1 -uy . - - -_ _ _ _ ______-mr)RmNOLOl X~ U S AIR FORCE NVIRONMENTAL STCHNICAL...ILtAION STATION Ae ?UU Ilea?. ALL WEATHER 1ti’- 12 f, CLAS movIes (L*ST.) ¢~ONDIIO KN SPEED MEAN (KNTS) 1 .3 4.6 7. 10 11 16 17.21 22.27 21.33 34.40 41

  19. Erding AS, Munchen, Germany. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-10-22

    or’ti::fl prrctice.. Ualesa other-4ac zottI th’e :ollowln aut-.ecs axe ld cr this eat-c1o: PART A WEATHZ. CO )2DMONS PART E DM!LY WMN, & IIEA I. Tc...INSTRUMENTATION HISTORY NUMBER TYPE AT TIS LOCATION ELEVTION) E KSL CoS OF GEOCRAPHICAL LO TION I ANE Of LATITUDE LONGITUOE PE LOCAION STATION FROM TO...USAP ETAC x AIR WEATHER SERVICE/vAC XX" FW w m F 3" 16s ERDINO GERMA\\Y AIA STATIN ’, 46-57 RTATION STATION NAME YEARS MTN C PERCEATAGE OF DAYS ?;ITH

  20. Fort Riley, Junction City, Kansas. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-12

    O.tDy Bulb Ee n Point T________ W77t BulTi I-I DATA PRoCESSI’, ’RTANCH4 UAF rTAC PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARYI AIR WEATHER SEkVICE/MAC 9 L. . FnP T RILEY...161 j 11 .32 _1. _ _-Ii09_ i L9 348/ 33𔃼/ I I’ 03 0 .1 z I L -2A 23 16 1 7 If , 2 .5 11 No. 17. 41n . 1o/ 9E~E i EVC /A I 2 TTO STA1O 7AI F R OT

  1. Ellington AFB, Houston, Texas Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-14

    at large, or by DDC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication... National Weather Service (USWB) Beginning thru 1945 at 0800LST Beginning thru Jun 52 at OO30GHT Jan 46-May 57 at 123GMT Jul 52-MaY 57 at 1230CT Jun 57...A1~ it uLZBAL CLIMATOLOGY BRANCH USAFETAC AIR wEATER SERVICE /MAC CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY 1? 9 -LLINGTON AFB TX 69,72-80 AUG eAtlONl 1?ATION NEi

  2. Edmonton IAP, Alberta, Canada. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-30

    TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS-1963-AL ,L.’-AL CLIMATOLOGY BRANCH ICEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY A7: EATAER SERVICE /MAC 2’ 142 LOMONTON IAP CN 73...I UUASFI USAFETAC/05-82/005 SBI-Ao-raso I4NS NL 1U EEEhIII IIIL ij2 12.0 I11.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS-1963-A...DTIC-DDA-2 FORM DOCUMENT PROCESSING SHEET DTIC ocT 70A - USAFETAC/DS-82/005 DATA PROCESSING DIVISION USAFETAC AWS TECHNIC LI Air Weather Service ( MAC

  3. Elmendorf AFB, Anchorage, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-17

    These is no objection to unlimited distribution of this report to the public at large, or by DDC to the National Technical V Information Service (NTIS...11 93 . ?. o’~ *r7~ L DATA PROCESSING BRANCH 2 USAF TAC PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY!, AIR WEATER SERVICE /MAC 6401 ELt4ENDORF AFB ALASKA/ANCHORAGE M- AAR...Air Weather Service ( MAC ) E-EM0RF AFB ALASKA/AllCHORAGE WI3AI Y 26401 N 61 15 W149 48 ELD ELEV 212 FT EDF V81O # 70272 POR: FROM- BOUBLY 035 JUN, 66

  4. Davison AAF, Ft. Belvoir Virginia. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-08

    8.21 9.99 6.6 2.67 1.39 61.80 830 2.7 1.4 4.9 3.7: 2.6S MEAN 3.00, 2.88 5.691 3.01t 3.69 3.63 3,68 4.69. .. 17 3.9L .3,313 .,55 S.D. l, 82 ’ 1.76 1.28...SURFACE WINDS AIR WEATHER SERVICE/MAC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) � -DAVISON AAF/FT RELVOIP VA b9 -70.71...OBSERVATIONS) . yj8 AVISON AAF/FT RELVOIR VA b9 -70.73-80 .F,3 STATION STATION NAMS YKARS MONTH ALL IWEATHE 8:- 0 CLASS HOURS IL.S.T. I CONDITION SPEED MEAN

  5. Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO), Edwards AFB, Lancaster, California (Revised)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-09

    FTAC WEATHER CONDITIONS Uo lR, ,4F-A .ER S VT CF.IAC ~ - PDll, IWARDSe 61:2 ;A4#,1&RA 7-7,),734-7L th STATIN " SATIONNA 4EYEARSMOT " ~PFRICENqTAGE...TAT I" III (FROM DAILY OERVATIONS) c!3114 CO !"APL- AI- CAL I F,RIA 4 __________ 7A___ STAT.N STATION AME YEARS 24. w1 AW’,T; 114 INCHES :1...T01 1T-! -1.3-2 A--._--5-.Fi - 17_ .6 -. .. 3. 17 __l_0 iT -III J ___ i - -- & -4 ’ Ii _A co - ___ Ii S. D _(_ 1 i ti , . ___3

  6. Gila Bend AAF, Gila Bend, Arizona, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-23

    following summaries are included for this statin : PART A WEATHER CONDITIONS PART E DAILY MAX, MIN, & MEAN TEMP ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA EXTREME MAX & MIN...CONDITIONS 03148 GILA BEND AAF ARILFINA b9-70,72-75 APR STATIN STATION NAME YEARS PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY O1 UCCURRENCF OF WEATH4ER CUNDITIONS FRUM HOURLY...00.0 000 00.0 O 0.000.0 00.0 .00~ 0 00. 00.0r oooou .00.0 00.,0 00.0) 9ou h 9908--99,90010 00o.o .00 .00.3 00.010* .00.0 10 1ioio~ co - 00.0 Poll.001

  7. Adak NAS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-24

    operated by the U. S. Ser- vices aoi some foreig;n stations .silim, similar reporting prscticei. UiJesu otlherwise noted the Co ~luwilof suianries are...34 TRNSITERVEoRE .iF Oct 3.94 Longviev hAl Weather Sot available NA N/ N/A statin (Jo~Unit hAP & Navy) 2. 2 2/31/13 Ad~k(Joint’Unit) AF & Not available N/A I/A N/A...641214.15 2.18 cO 4 18.1 7.2 17. 9 .1.4421 FES 5 . 18.1 5.4 17.2 1 .5 19.1 17.4 L. 4 2.1 .1 76.Z IIG2 4 .7 _9.57) 1.97 MAN 5 5.5 19.5 13.3 1I.3 12. 9

  8. Tonopah, Nevada, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-21

    AIR WEATHER EVC /A 724855 TONOPAH MV 75-63 FEB ST At I N STATION NE TSARS * ~~PAGE I Ql~I~ T..WET SUL&. TEMSPERATURE DEPRESSION (F) TOTAL TOTAL *(F) 0...82172 5 1 b75!S Ell-, (x{. ZXI’ I’ wl me . Obs. mome no. of’ I ..w(s - ts r lopo ,ft .. ... 2396 3 36774 58. 19.31 625 soIN 32 .67 . FnP sN"I ’Itov... EVC /A 724855 TONOPAHI NV 74-8ZJU STyAT, ow STATIONW vt ts wl *PAG E I A T...p. ____WET BULB TEMPERATUEDEPRESSION_(P) ___TOTAL ____TOTAL 0 .2) 3-4 5-A

  9. Hill AFB, Ogden, Utah. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-26

    1 .,22 .26..30 .51 0 101.250 2 SI. 3 00 5.01,10 0 10 01.20 00 OVER 20 00 OFDAYS TOTAL (INCHES) PEI. NN0-03 61 0 .5 .63 . 1 .D- WT...89 15 1.561 *35 2.3 2.01 17.7vho6 i 0 1 0 1 2 039 o6 0 9 - 3 1 - z2 01 0 ,0 2 , I n . 85 . 2 5 1 .4 3 1 2 0 1 10 .7 B ,fill .90 2.69 2,88 2.4 1.62 3.03...WEATHER 0900-1100 CLASS NOV#$ 4LST.) CONDITION SPEED % WIMND A (KNTS) 1 - 3 4-6 7. 10

  10. Friendship IAP, Maryland. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-04

    USAFETAC PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY’k A1 dEATHER SERVXCE/MAC STATIO STATION 041A vt LS MONT. PAGE I1 - i(Fl WI~III~i~i1IIi ET SUL& TESIPEXATUnE DEPRESION (F...WEATHER SERVICE/MAC L2AD0. FRIENDOSHIP IAP MD 74-S1orf STATION STATION *464 VtAAS M. PAGE 2 -nn-nn Th.~.WIT SUL$ TEMPERATURE DEPRESION (F) ITOTAL TOTAL () 0...Alte WEAT.4ER SERVICE/IAC 776ff F7hnSHTP Ti A mn-t ER STAION NWA YA PAGE 1 WE? BULB TEMPERATURE DEPRESION (F) TOTAL 1 TOTAL (I 0 1.2 j3-43. 7. 9. . 1o 1

  11. Michales AAF, Dugway, Utah. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A - F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-03-21

    4EATHER CiNDITIT;S FR,-Y POLRLY 08SFRVATlItNS HOURS THUNDER AN FREEZINGTi SNOW %,IOF SMOKE DUST % OF ORS TOTAL MONTH (t ST ) STORMS AND/OR RAIN &/OR AND...USAF ETAC 0-05(L-)M~r o mO t$fou M0S t .. X * Ij -~ -4- ~. ~ "~ ST ~*V %~ ,.- -£ DATA PROCESSING DIVISION * iETAC/USAF AIR WEATHER SERVICE (MAC...72 jAN 5?ANSTATION SUl AL TUNSl NONSI CLASS HOUR$ (L ST .) CONDITIONI SPEED MEAN (KNTS) 1 .3 4. 6 7. 10 11.-16 17 .21 22 .27 28.-33 34.40 41 47 48-53

  12. Cannon AFB, Clovis, New Mexico. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO), Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-16

    objection to unlimited distribution of this report to the public at large, or by DDC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical...operated stations. The hours used by each service for each period are as follows: Air Force Stations: U. S. Navy and National Weather Service (USWB...Weather Service ( MAC) REVISED UNIFORM SUMMARY OF SURFACE WEATHER OBSERVATIONSM CAJN AdS 11V =iaCo/cLOY wwPw P*3M A-? Pllt FKI4 SIRWLY OW~ Jan 43.O 1,6

  13. Stallion Site, San Marcial, New Mexico. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A, C through F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-21

    distribution of this report to the public at large, or by vDC to the National Technical Information Service (IS). This technical report has been...UNCLASSIFED USA60/0.W0O3S Lmmhmhhhh 11111 . ~2.0 1111112 11 1. 1 . MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS-1%63-A Camera Operator use...PROCESSIGSHEET DTI 70 OCT DATA PROCESSING BRANCH USAFETAC Air Weather Service ( MAC) REVISED UN IFORM SUMMARY OF SURFACE WEATHER OBSEVATIONS STALLION

  14. Yokota Air Base, Japan, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-05

    60.4! 80.5, 80 . r 25 60.5 8C. .5 r, PC . j 574 69. 744 78: 8?.91 o3 83.9 34 . .1 e. 0. b4 . 94’ .8_.1 .,o SE. 7 -. s 76.21 81 . -85.4 45.3 6.5 16.7...81.3 I 14 81 . I4 81 .*4, 1.4. 7 2.’ 36.7 5., 53.6 65.81 69.9 71.61 78.91 81 . 83.0 83 . 8.o 83.9 8.9 .9 83.9 60, 23. 3 3.81 45.P1 54..21 66.81 71.0 76.0 80 ...6l2225_ il CONTRO,/LING OFFICE NAME AN) ADDRESS 1, -E-04Y C-E USAFETAC/CBD DEC 83 Air Weather Service (MAC) i, N,,. BE , P’AE5 S Scott AFB IL 62225 p. 320 A

  15. Tatalina AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    at large, or by DDC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical report has been revieed and is approved for publication...NUMSER F OSEtVATIONS 7 1 q IJSAFETAC M--5 0 L.A 1.VoltS (O,’,Q OF ’-S FOPS A4 CN f GL034L CLIMATOLOGY BRANCI4 2 USAFETAC SURFACE WINDS AI. WEATER SERVICE ...CiUSAPETAC �-5 (OL.A) PM"VCIJ lffloftl OF tI? Pos* An OSEO.I - - - f 6LOBAL CLINATOLO6Y BRANcHUSAFTAC SURFACE WINDS AI WEATER [l SERVICE /MAC PERCENTAGE

  16. Hurlburt Field, Valparaiso, Florida. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-05-25

    7 _ _ _,_ _ PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) CEItING VISIBILITY (STATUTE MILES) FEEt- ?-10 >-6 >5 >-4 ->3 -21A >2...8217,ALPARA1 + 5.70 .5r7n SIAIO StAIOANt Olt . PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE 0 A (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) VISIBILITY iSTATUTE MILES) CEItING + ; l FET a3

  17. Randolph AFB, San Antonio, Texas. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-19

    of precipitation may be reported in the sme observation, the sums of the individual categories may exceed the percentaaas of the observations with...0-145 (OL A) ev." x o-os m a , s ,o.. of, s v: USFEA Ot " ;~ ~ . % • ("DATA PRuC -.S ,I,.(n PRA,,C-i( DATF ET "CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY AIR WEAl iFR

  18. Martian surface weathering studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvin, M.

    1973-01-01

    The nature of the Martian surface was characterized by means of its reflectance properties. The Mariner 9 photography was used to establish terrain units which were crossed by the Mariner 6 and 7 paths. The IR reflectance measured by the IR spectrometers on these spacecraft was to be used to indicate the nature of the surface within these units. There is an indication of physical size and/or compositional variation between units but too many natural parameters can vary (size, shape, composition, adsorbed phases, reradiation, atmospheric absorbtion, temperature gradients, etc.) to be certain what effect is causing those variations observed. It is suggested that the characterization could be fruitfully pursued by a group which was dedicated to peeling back the layers of minutia affecting IR reflectance.

  19. Minot AFB, North Dakota. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    Center (DTIC) to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. WAYNE E...available from U. S. o-erated stations. The hours used by each service for each period are as follows: A-. Force Stations: U. S. Navy and National ...IL MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANARSIN9S5-0 GLC,3AL CLIMATOLOGY BRANICH USAFETAC SURFACE WINDS AIP oEATHER SERVICE /MAC

  20. Osan AB, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-14

    alSSVATUŘ p3 C. ’C. USAFETAC 00101 040.5 (OL.A) uuvACW Um OF im porn AN 05OL AIL -, . . A mh i o% •mm- a i1 * GLOBAL CLIMATOLOSY BRANCH US AFETAC...8217-tFETAC CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY A!- iEATHER SERVICE/MAC 4 71227 Z’ OSAN AS KID 73-81 C PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE A (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS...82172 G5AN AB KID 73-81 U PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) CEILING VISBILITY (STATUTE MILES) IFEET - a10 :6 2t a4 a3 a2 a2 1

  1. Lakenheath, United Kingdom. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    and observation counts of station pressure and sea-level pressure). Data in this report are presented in tabular form , in most cases in percentage...hlurLy ttervals. DAILY OBSERVATIONS Inll) o. orvaoIln ar"e weLected from all lnta recorded on report.iv, form and combined Into Sumory of the Day...theme tables indicates lees then .05 percent, which Is usual)~ nl n occurrence. The various phenomena Included in each category on the forms are listed

  2. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Schwaebisch Hall AAF, DL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-17

    Hall AAF, DL 20. and dew point temperatures and relative humidity); and (F) Pressure Summary (means, standard, deviations, and observation counts of...DiRECTION AND SPEED (FROM -HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 3 47~ SAiS= WALAA WI E 1______________ _ --C STATION STATION 09ANC MASS w MTN CLSS NUS I.STS SPE6D j MEAN...humidity, dry-bulb, wet-bulb, and dew -point temperatures are shown in the section at the bottom left of the form. These consist of the sum of squares

  3. Niagara Falls, New York. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-08

    vale Is based an en In- complete month (at least one day missing for the month). When a mouth has valid observations reported but no occurrences, seros...for each year- mouth and annua. Also prepared are the densvi~~ itions, and total indr of valid, observations for each month and anual (all moths). An...011* 0 oa io #80 Alo age steelAai a~ a0 * ?. 9. 9. .96939 5.9 94. 93. 96. 93. 93. a 6 us 0 6 *I 05 90. 924 94. 9". 9a 9a 5 9.1 9%50 -~~1 of

  4. Tin City AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    GL&bAL CLIMATOLOGY 9 RA14CH T AC NG VERSUS Vi’SIBILITY A .FAT"E S[ PfIC /mAC I .17 TI CITY AFS AK 73-74,77-81 T 1b. 3 19.5 17.S 19.5 19.5...2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3 RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER USAFETAC/DS 83017 4. TITLE (d SubtII-)Reised Uniform Summary of Surface 5 TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD...WINDS PART 0 CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY PART F STATION PRESSURE SKYCOVER SEA LEVEL PRESSURE STANDARD 3 -HOUR GROUPS All su-nseri- requiring diurnal

  5. Cape Newenham AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    OBSERVATIONS) L P- 14 H~N A A-F S .~ 73-F2 ____ JA&,. ALL WI- LAt E -- .. - - 6 7 0 11 16 17 21 22 27 28- 33 34 *0 41 A7 48 5 .7 * . .3 .4 .4 . 1 . i E...PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 4LL . LAT -E- - 10 1 1 i 7 23 22 ’ 2 3 3 A 40 A 3 5 A7 A • ’ .. 5 .t",5...SCOTT A. APR 03 UNCLASSIFIED USAFETAC/DS-83/019 SBI-AD-EB50 397 F/6 4/2 NL SU 2. lii .0 EM *,*,- Ica L- 11111 1.25 s~w ,r- 1 . 11.6 I MiCRQ OPY

  6. Wiesbaden AB, Germany, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-08-16

    years. cr :--ed. NZY?,E: A day wIth rain an/rdrizzle -was not. searately reported in WBA!I data prior to Janu’ary 1919. ~Trefore percentages In this col...A , ,83 1 -. 4 - i - SJi c._ _ _ _ - 2-1G 161Ae 1 10 $4i TOTAL NUMBER Of OBSERVATIONS 179 USAFETAC ,. 0-8.5 (OL1i) OwOSS 10niOS 0 H5 [ CR All c0SOUr1...stations the "no ceiling" category corsists of observations with less then 6/10 total sky cover and those cases where total sky ccver is 6/10 cr more

  7. Shemya AFB, Alaska Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    observing schedule* did not eport ertal tree - our perlods far my pertieular eailh dring Lhe available peril of record. Such atteing sheets are listed below...s X) - Nm. Oh. Neem No. of Now wilk Tom pre Rol... 4 . 6.- : 7 11 0 sS 2 2F 07P73 oP 93 P T~ - . . o3lb 4’ 7 f4 31 - . 1 9ac e

  8. Eielson AFB, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-22

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT . TASK USAFTAC/L-A REA A BORKC UNIT NUMBERS Air Force Environmental Technical Appi...ddiar the available period of record. Smeb mdisn ostoe are listed below, and are applicable to ell mnie proered from hourly observations. .IAIM...included in each category on the forms are listed below: Thunderstorms - All reported occurrences of thunderstora, tornado, and waterspout-. Rain and/or

  9. Pueblo/Memorial, Colorado. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Jul 87. 14 Date of eport: Dec 87 15 Page Count: 312 16 Supplementary Notation: 17 COSATI Codes: Field--04, Group --02 18 Subject Term: *climatology...MANNER OF PRESLNTATION. STANDUARD 3-FOUR TIME GROUPS : IN ALL SUMMARIES S0OWING DIURVAL VARIATIONS, WE SUMMARIZE DATA USING THE FOLLOWING EIGHT 3-HOUR...2. DATA BASED ON HOURLY OBSERVATIONS. C !. StiMARIZED BY THE STANDARD 3-HOUR TIqE GROUPS BY MONTH, MONTHLY AND ANNUALLY IALL YEARS COMBINED

  10. Williams AFB, Arizona Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-21

    diffetent fom Repot) I _ , IS SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19 KEY WORDS ( Co tnu on revers ., .ide i,.ee. ary and denily by block numb.o) *RUSSW0 Daily...7 Nw .a .s .. L ,3 .5 11.0 6. a?4 mw .1 1.9 2.0 .1 4,1 7o4 VAUI____ ___ 6 CALMo 3.0 6YAL WjE co ONSSVATIIS 799 * USAFETAC O 048-S (OL.A) m Sviou Etios...USAETAC JL 0-5 (OL-A) MvNvA mmcv. OP IvTi foem CO MAR SPEED MEA LIt :L QAL CLIMATOLOGY BRANCH *" CTAC SURFACE WINDS A ,EATHER SERVICE/MAC PERCENTAGE

  11. Fulda AAF, Germany. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-02-08

    SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 355 Fi,&DA GERMiN ~IY 4AF b-~-Z______ STATON STATION MAN9 ICA.$ O.N ALL EATnE., 3" ,-.5 cuss NOUAS (L s 1 SPEEDN MEAN...30,1 33,1 3346 33,3 33 O 33, 34.7 1600 0 30,4 319,2 33,3 33,3 337. 239, 11000 1 4, 2 7,2 279 213 29,9 30.1 3,4 33.1 33.4 33,3 36 3,6 ’,>_20oo2. Zola

  12. Carswell AFB, Texas. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations. Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-24

    THIS COLUMN. FOGS ALL REPORTED FOG , ICE FOG AND GROUND FOG . SMOKE AND/OR HAZE: ALL REPORTED SMOKE, MAZE AND ANT COMBINATION THEREOF. BLOWING SNOWS ALL...PHENOMENA BUT CONTINUED TO TRANSMIT ONLY THE PIGHEST ORDER. FOR EXAMPLE, IF TOE OBSERVATION CONTAINED RAIN, FOG AND SHONE, ALL THREE WILL APPEAR ON 1E ANS...OSs SMOKE OUST I OS POURS I TSTMS &/OR RAIN S/OR PAIL WITH FOG C/OR SLOWING L/OR ulBS? TOTAL ILSTII DRIZZLE &/OR SLEET PRECIP HAZE SNOW SAND TO OBS

  13. Davis Monthan AFB Tucson, Arizona. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    4’. >-o NO CEItING 7t). 76,1 76.2 76.2 76.2 76.2 7u,2 76.2 7o.2 16.2 76.? 76.? 76. 76.2 76.2 76.2 _2000 80.7 b).7 50.7 jO.7 0.7 d.7 P0.7 on 7 8J.7...TUCSON) 41-45,R45-75 s_ p PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE 0900-11 00 (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) .o,,.,,.,, VISIBILITY (STATUTE MILES) ( CEItING ’ ) 10

  14. Hurlburt Field, Florida. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-20

    OT ls,,b 22514 -A 44277160.1, 9 ,.32g 73776 176 289.2 i 331 744 - o.. 0,, ri 204,20441. 376co% 51*,13,*0 7377 79.71 67.61 , 741* I...14 25 314 / 9 .14 .1 5 5 12 32 3 1 .4 . 3 3 4, 14O R ’’ _____ ____ _____ ____ _,_ ;I 3l 1 O T’e ; ;, 1.A L_ ______ _ ’ Sol ISO 92 9.7 , .927d 927 net...rept. Observations (RUSSWO)- HURLBURT FLD, Florida S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7AUTHOR(s) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) 9 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  15. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Misawa AB, Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-03

    FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) __44_ FlA- AS - TATm STATUS CIta i LL A- E __ __LL : tKNTS) 1 -3 1 . - -0 " ,.,i=" e...81. as1 86.4 86. 72.! 7. 97. 82 󈧕.’. 97*5 97.51 67.5 &7.5 87.6! ____ 76. 4 S 32.4 sb.v as. 3~7 851 ap.~ 8a r 8 apa I1 88’it. .3 576.~6. 82.7, a7.2i

  16. McChord AFB, Tacoma, Washington. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-03-19

    OBSERVATIONS 2860 I 1< C USAF ETAC 0’?. 14.5 (OL A) nrmou oi *. o, 0 ~ tot "I Au Lli~f -- -- -- --------- ------- - -"- ! Mll- I - . "w - GAI "T: .r4 OAT,4...3196176 247 384, 2957 -1 l. _ ,oy 80, Dy Bulb 06~~ 295L 7 o [03 F 772uOP1j ~ D~rr Porn , 55 t13 13464 45.5 _____ LA / 5 5 7 1 13

  17. Thule AB, Greenland. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-18

    OF OCCURRENCE (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) USiq L,- STAT.TE MILlS NO , ,p 1. 47.2 47.3 47o4 475 47.5 47.5 47.5 47.5 47.5 47.5 47.5 47.5 47.5 7.5 47.7...0 ~ Element (X) :7f Z N. m "bS. Meen Me. of Nott vitt Tomperstune *@I Re. Hum. 1 0 F 12 a6 P7F a7 #F 9 oa S Dry stab 1i4-95 -9 3

  18. Selfridge ANGB, Michigan. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-20

    AN OuOLIT73w 64 - - - -9 - -o - -o - -- - -- - -o- ’-L CL! AT0L~vY FHRNCH TAc SURFACE WINDS ;FAT- iFR SERVIC?/ ,4C PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND...SPUD NN|• 7 ’) - 8 1.4 o3 eME 0- . 0 *) 1 .4 .8 A ? 07 9 .1 me.? . 1 .8- .6, 3.4, 1 Em .0 2.2! 1.5 02 A1 .7 " ." Su oL I 1o) 1.3 0 1o4 t Sme A loi...1 ._31 7.6 ENE .5 1.4 1.4 .2 3.4 60 E 1.0 1.5 1.0 .1 3.1 5.3. ( E *9 o7 .5 .1 _.Z ,.8 SE *6 1.1 1.1 02 .__ 3.1 6.3 smE .8 1.1 1.4 es .0 3.9 69 S 1. 30

  19. Niagara Falls IAP, New York. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations. Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-30

    LA RRRRUR 1I cc PPPPPPPP siAAAALLAA RUASERER TY cc pp ALAAA L MR R IT CC vP AI A A Re OR it cc cc PP a A an am TT CCCCCCCC pp AA A MR Re 71...DIRECTION VERSUS WINO SFEEO us A FITAC FROM "OLLY OBSERVATIONS AI . dEATHER SERVICE/MAC STA10f. NUPILR: 152a7 STATICN NAME: PJIACAPf FALLS TAP NY...KN015 UI31LCT1IN | 2-3 4-b 7-IC’ 11-16 11-21 22-7? 2P-3L 36-60 41-47 48-55 AC 56 T(TAL L4AN 4 RErFS ) I 9 WIND f. NE .7 8 I.q 9.6 %E: . 2.C .6 2 3.13 9.5

  20. Wertheim Germany AAF. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-02-17

    69#21 ____ 11 1 9 91 8 1 1 045i . 32 _____ 14-_ I ,A 67! 566 _____12.14 ____ J 14~. 1, 6 1 I 214[ .s 351 ___16. 6 115f.171 1 15,6 1,6 598j 23,01 o.1fi...Ito 1 2,*, 1 5,5 1 1,5 11 1* ! I I II 1 , O, l 1 J _ w__ ,6 1 ji.6 I _ I I I’. 5 o6 _ h 494 i a 0 I p 8 32 CAlM < I i I 9 TOTAL NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS...118.3 1 1.3 I .2 I I i TOTAL OF OSSEVATOIS USA~TAC .0 -5 MO-1 I Cear = =-~--=--~-=-AX --- - = ___ 2ATA pq -;-:ct _Z55 7 11 ETAClUSAF PRETGFRQECOFMDSURFACE

  1. Otis AFB, Falmouth, Massachusetts. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-05

    humidity usually wub nct reported prior to 1949, nor subsequent to June 1958; and was computed by machine methods for observations recorded during these...5 1 / 11 I 1 29 ’. i ; , - ,I l , , i, __ _ __ _ _ __,___ _ _ __ _,,___ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ 9 ElImtnt (X) O’[ Z X M . s. Me" N. of "* Ufa .11 Tomperetwo...01 4o4 900 sw .3 27 0 .8 t o2 O S lee 11 bAM 901 hWSW *3 i4*2 3,0 293 96 ,04 ,1 1100 .9,5 w *4 3,7 4*7 Zol *2. 11,1 _@ 93 WW .ŗm 109. 2*7 09 *2 600

  2. George AFB, Victorville, Caifornia Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Parts A -F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-14

    Lu..A:-Aized ill elt -ht -Lur periods correspondin,- to the followuing sets 0of hourly observal iols: .~ J.-AoO, ’iolet .. A.-4et, i~o-i~oLcou-.AAA...8217 _. - -h >_i -6 5/16 c No Elt ,, 7. 7 , 7 92.7 2. 7 ’ .7 -Z. 7 Y?.7 󈧚.7 --. 7 .7 72.7> 20004: 20C 9-u1j 9 4. q - 94 a -4 2. , 94 . 94 . , 54•9 94 94 9...SUMMARY A 1 .TH r. SEFV iCt /MAC 2 1 .3 E F CA 7.,73-81 J AIN STATION STATION NAME YEARS MONTH PAGE 1 1 -y J- IlI:. NOUNS (L. S. T.) T..p. WET BULB

  3. Will Rogers IAP, Oklahoma. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-27

    81 .*7 820 82.0 820 82.0 82 .IP 82.0 82.0 82 . D 82.0 820 82 .: 82.0 022.0r, 74.1 ,_. -3X1 8. 83 ,_8 3 ,3.k83.", 83 . 8, 1...HOURLY OBSERVATIONS 6. 7. a 0 5.. 0 . *- .79.s 8, 5, 83 . b0 . ~.6 80.6- 90.6’ 8. 8.6 8 C. 6 80 . 6 87.6’ 8.6 ~ .1l 65.1 S6.1 86.1 66.2 66.2 86.2 86.2...7|, 64. .I- b ," 1.64.1.7 64 .4 , 4 4 t) 4 . I . . b2 . b4 . 7 . 364. .7T 65. 7 SS. 𔃻 5 . 1,5 . C ,55.. 6S .2 . . b i" .; 5 63. D 4.4 o5 ,

  4. Lemoore NAS, California. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    A.I ,5JN).s o..! CO -L -L -T OL 0 Y --H 2CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY MCC CA" PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS 1’’.2-.3 35.z...ii - ’.i 99. 99. 9 9 .9 3 ’ CO .l0 . ).11 .Ol ’ ,I 17,.10I O1 OOcl,. Co ) .0 4 . 9 9.q 99,A. 11,’J... .1.. 0 0. 31 S1.1110OaIcn, V1 0,01IO,(]103.I31...21𔃽o, I1j. -Iv. , +Y,9.l.I l I. nD1b.. co 6oO1o~c0.oGcg.01-10. j 𔃻.𔃾+ ŝ.5100,011r)n 1n0.0 1, lOQ 130. 31, .3C.10D.l0,100lC10l.o c,61,11O. o

  5. Fort Polk AAF, Fort Polk, Louisiana. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-08

    14.7 668 r15-17 2,1 12,61 12,6 5o5 6*4 1197 4120 16-20 1.7 3.4 3,4 5.2 5.2 58 21-23 3,4 1.4 3.4 3.4 6.9 58 TOTALS 17,9 .2 18,1 7@5 7,0 13.6 2359...68. 68*2 68. 668 . i3500 *ao , 64, 67,6 68, 69. 69.2 69,5 697 69. 701 70a1 7091 70. 70.2 70, 70-300’)0L 3 _ - , 7.U. aZ78 9.7 2 77.31 72A8 P#7 78. 7 72...F PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE P. 47 (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) VISIBILITY (STATUTE MILES, FEET, ’" - - - -I 10 >:6 : _4 -->3 -2a >- 222 2

  6. Bad Tolz AAF, Bad Tolz, Germany. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-26

    wj Dry Bulb___ U. < ~ Bulb -r ~ ~ ~ 0.01Do P int _______________ I" OATA PROCESSI!G ’)IVISICV9 USAF ETAC. PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY AIR WEATER SERVICE ...Air Weather Service (MAC ) REVISED UNIFOPM SILMAP.Y OF SURFACE WEATHER ObSCRVAI’IOI’. BAD TOLZ GERMANY AAF WBAN 3 34197 N 47 46 E 011 36 ELEV 2360 FT...approved for public rel-)as- . Th-re is no objection to unlimited distribution of this report to the public at large, or by DDC to the National Technical

  7. White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations. Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    of "Isgr RAW( dAM .. M& L/3A薋 848 WHITE SAN S, I M OP NOUTIOM UNCIAS11FID IVI 4012 HL 1.[0 WA2 LL.0 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL ...4USAFETAC Air Weather Service (MAC) REVISED UNIFORM SUMARY OF SURFACE WEATHER ODBSERVATIONS WHITE SANDS MR NM SC 747340 N 32 38 W 106 24 ELEV 3950 FT W1SM...HUMIDITY SUMMARIES PART r: PRESSURE SUMMARIES Ai.SPSC NtMBERs THIS NUPER IS THE AIR WEAITHR SERVICE MASTER STATION CATALOG NUMBER. THIS NUMBER IS

  8. Rhein-Main Apt, Germany/Franfurt. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations. Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    DATA PROCESSING BRANCH usAF E’ C CEILING, VERSUS VISIBILITY AIR WEATHER SERVICE/MAC 0 RHEINMAIN APT GERMANY/FRAtKFURT...SERVICE/MAC RHEINMAIN APT GENMANY/FRANKFURT 67-7o OEZ U. PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE 0000-.)200 , (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) o , - VISIBILITY

  9. Nha Trang Apt.,Vietnam. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-01-29

    1slxar st tfitica s’" u"ar of srface weather observations fir It contains the following parts: (A) Weather Conditions; Atmospheric Phenomena; (B...1.3 4.3 4,5 ,z .2 .0 . 6227 ( JUN 1.2 2.5 268 $1 @1 .0 .2 8413 JUL ,6 3,9 3,9 1 .2 so .1 6540 AUL .7 3.2 3.2 02 .1 .0 .3 8090 * SEP 1.4 9.1 s0 9.1 .2...UP OCCURRENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS FROM HOURLY UBSERVATIONS HOURS THUNDER AIN FREEZING SNOW % OF SMOKE DUST % OF OSS I TOTAL MONTH ( ST I NSTORMS AND

  10. Resolute Apt, Northwest Territories, Canada. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-17

    distribution of this report to the public at large, or by DTIC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical report has been reviewed...1 7279& 744𔃺 1 7-44 DATA PPUCFSSIN, DIVISION USAF ETAC PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY AIR WEATER SErVICE /MAC 19 NI_ RESOLUTE i,44T hOT APT 57-66 FE ST-3S...Air Weather Service ( MAC ) REVISED UNIFORM SUMMARY OF SURFACE WEADKER OBSLRVATIONS RESOLUTE NWT DOT APT WBAN # 17901 N 74 43 W 094 59 ELEV 209 FT

  11. Feucht AAF, Germany (West). Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A, C and D.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATIOU OF -- PAGE(?.L Dark E,,Ied, hI - - I "ɟ c: I Since Peucht AAF, DL is a part ti’- observing stati:) r ,, w- i:ar4t, i!:.. ’:. 1.0...serious misleading values that if used wouli rr s’ :. inaccurate climatology for the station, therefore the "ALL ALL" surtnarius w r r ,17-" , (because...I -L L CL7MATCLCv z ACm -TA!’ WEATHER CONDITIONS 7 .Ehrr- R SEO /Ct F7LCHT AAl" -L STATION STATION NAME YEARS MONTH Pu

  12. Tan Son Nhut AB, Saigon, Vietnam. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-10-12

    to unlimited distribution of this report to the public at large, or by DDC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). t "This technical...2,1, 1 l 12 7 .Je of. 47,4 143 14 b- z 1 -.* 4 1 060 a o 1 3 106~ TO _____ ’ !I DATA PRUChS5TNG fRANCHUSAF ETAC AIR WEATER ,ES VICE/1iAC WEATHER...BRANCtH 2 AIR WEATER SEKVICF/MAC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 4100h TAN SON NHUT AS VIETNAM/SA(VN 57ow72

  13. Prince George Apt, British Columbia, Canada, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-11-02

    DO NOT REPRODUCE LEGIBLY. SEC,,RITY CASSIFICA ! ON OF Tn-S PAGE REh- -nt,/ . i I REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE RE MSTING FORM I REPORT NUMaLA ’ GOVT...standard, deviations, and observation counts of station pressure and sea-level pressure). Data in this report are presented in tabular form , in most cases...DrITOF$ OF tNIS FORM ARE OBSOLETE -" - ,I T ss : II I T;V.2 , 1’ FTE. WEATHER CONDITIONS ". ’ C-.,T A T- STATION STATION NAME YEARS MONTH I. E(-At F

  14. Udorn RTAFB, Udon Thani, Thailand. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-09-05

    this report to the public at large, or by DTIC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical report has been reviewed and is...i; , , AD A 0 98 60 2 SDATA PROCESSING BRANCH UATCUSAFETAC Air Weather Service (MAC) REVISED UNIFORM SUMMARY OF KJFA. WEATHER OUEVATIOI4 DON...ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE USL 5 Sep, 1973 Air Weather Service (MAC) i). NUMBERO Scott AFB IL 62225 /00 I4. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(IH diffeent

  15. Cloud information for FIRE from surface weather reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Carole J.; Warren, Stephen G.; London, Julius

    1990-01-01

    Surface weather observations of clouds were analyzed to obtain a global cloud climatology (Warren et al, 1986; 1988). The form of the synoptic weather code limits the types of cloud information which are available from these reports. Comparison of surface weather reports with instrumental observations during the FIRE field experiments can help to clarify the operational definitions which were made in the climatology because of the nature of the synoptic code. The long-term climatology from surface weather observations is also useful background for planning the location and timing of intensive field experiments.

  16. Earth Observation Services Weather Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Microprocessor-based systems for processing satellite data offer mariners real-time images of weather systems, day and night, of large areas or allow them to zoom in on a few square miles. Systems West markets these commercial image processing systems, which have significantly decreased the cost of satellite weather stations. The company was assisted by the EOCAP program, which provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of, NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  17. Travis Air Force Base, California, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-19

    AL tL70A TO ANCI INDHZ TAC SURFACE WINDS .-FAT"’ SEPIC ’/"AC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) S TL SSTATI...FROM DAILY OBSERVATIONS! TEMP FE I 6 MAR API? MAI JUN JUt AUG SEP oC, NOV DC ANNIIA, 7.. .2. . 2 9 - ,1.0 .c. .2. .9 .,.. 5 - o .1 .6 3.9 4.2 3.1...millibars. Provided below is a scale to convert station pressure values in inches of mercury or millibars to pressure- altitude in 1000’s of feet. This scale

  18. Ramstein AB (Germany, F.R.) Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    addition of a suffix zero; or, in cases where there is no designated WMO number, a 5-digit number created in agreement with WMO rules, plus a sixth...HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) SURFACE WINDS l 3Mi»3 »MSTCH «J Si^WtMY STATION N^MC 7H-93 ILL ri£ ftTH £3 *JG ttOUi* (LIT.) SPEED (KNTS) DIR. 1 -3

  19. Mountain Home AFB, Mountain Home, Idaho. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-10

    and National Weather Service (USWB) Beginning thru 1945 at 08001ST Beginning thru Jun 52 at 0030GT Jan 46-May 47 at 1230GM Jul 52-May 57 at 123O Jun 57...onw + . of Hor .1 .’T. .. . ..o-ur. GLOBAL CLIMATOLOGY BRANCH USAFETAC PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY 11 AIR WEATER SERVICE /MAC 2q106 MOUNTAIN HOME AFB ID 68...Mar 80 Air Weather Service (MAC) 13 NUMBER OF PAGES Scott AFB IL 62225 P 14 MONITORING AGENCY NAME 6 AODRESS(it different Ito.. Controlling Office) IS

  20. Hamilton AFB, San Rafael, California. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A through F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-11-03

    RETURN TO DTIC.DDA-2 OTIC r0e40. 70A DOCUMENT PROCESSING SIIEFT0C t DATA PROCESSING DIVISION USAFETAC Air Weather Service ( MAC ) RFVISFt I INIIFOR M Sl&A...objection to tinlimited distribution of this report to the public at large, or by DDC to the National Technical Information Servico (NID). Thi technical...ORGTE OTNME USAFETAC/OL-3NoA7 Air Weather Service (MAC) 13 NUMBER OF PAGES Scott AFB IL 62225 ________________ P. 14 MONITORING AGENCY NAE6ADORESS111

  1. Ellsworth AFB, Rapid City, South Dakota. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    public at large, or by Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical report has been...Stations: U. S. Navy and National Weather Service (USWB) Beginning thru 1945 at O80OLST Beginning thru Jun 52 at 0O3OGMTJan 4 6-Mv 57 at 1230G0T Jul 52...U SA F: -TA C/D3s -9 3/0 ; DATA PROCESSING DIVISION cw USAFETAC Air Weather Service ( MAC ) 1AWS TECHNICAL LIB REVSMr I I~itf"MMN Ch.,1AMAkfQV r)F FL

  2. Statistics of link blockage due to cloud cover for free-space optical communications using NCDC surface weather observation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slobin, S. D.; Piazzolla, S.

    2002-01-01

    Cloud opacity is one of the main atmospheric physical phenomena that can jeopardize the successful completion of an optical link between a spacecraft and a ground station. Hence, the site location chosen for a telescope used for optical communications must rely on knowledge of weather and cloud cover statistics for the geographical area where the telescope itself is located.

  3. Sandhofen Germany/Coleman AAF. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-02-16

    EA -EQ 5FKCE/’ AC 34C68 S .’ E %’A Y/C LE’A A ___ a y STATION STATION NAIME -ER N_ PA PrK ’TAGE rk, E" CY 7F ,CC’-ARE\\CF ’F...34 , NNW z~~ _- _-- . . . 2 j4 41 VARBL TOTAL NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS USAFETAC CU 08 P 5L <I. I). C~ACC C I ,I ’AC/6s , SURFACE WINDS AIR EA - EA 5Ev’ CE...WINDS AIR EAT-’ EA "E .!CF/’AC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) ’J _ 54 A, ~ Y/ CLk’ -A F SPEED RAE AN (KNTS)

  4. Ft Smith, Northwest Territories, Canada. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-21

    tables are shown on pages 2 and 3 below. U. S. Weather Bureau and Navy stations did not report ceilings within the range lC,C00 feet and higher prior to...67.2 67s3 ble 73 67 3 67 3 67,3 67, 󈧳. 67.3 6710 67. 67.3 0’.3 67. -_9000 , t-7" 6- 6g 6i. p 0 hSc . - 4- -Q-l. h.., > 8000 7 Z.8 7*.t 7J.Z 73*3 73.4 7...but were not available for Navy stations until 148 or 1949. Weather Bureau stations recorded total cloud amount in re- marks be-:"inC so etine in 1945

  5. Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations. (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-29

    RACH A FLTAC SURFACE WINDS AP"’? FATHU SEPIC >/1C PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) i 4, PIGHT-PATFRSON -8 0H...00.0100.0 Z 200 b3. 87.6 92.4 96.2 97.8 98.9 99.3 99.8 99.9 99.9 00 .i _L0.O30.___D. o 0 87. 92. 96.2 97.8 98.9 99.3 99.8 99.9 99.9 oc000. DC . 00 . TOTAL...FOR THE TOTAL SKY COVER. CLEAR WAS CONVERTED TO 0/10 SCATTERED WAS CONVERTED TO 3/10 131ROKEN WAS CONVERTED TO 9/10 6 OVERCAST WAS CONVERTED TO 10/10

  6. McConnell AFB, Witchita, Kansas. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-14

    WINDS A" !EAT- iFR SERVICE/^4AC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 2 .3 CCONNELL AFR KS b9-7.73-8n E_ _ STATION...4,9 St 1.9 4.7 24 .7 .2 ._9 bs2 Sme 9 6 .T 7,8 3,4 1. 19, 8.6 S 3.8 5.9 3.7 1.1 .2 15.1 9.7 ssw .1 1.6 1,2 a2 3.,1 6.9 sw *4 .;3 .6 6. WS .2 3...IDITIONS 0 THIS "m AM 0510O111 Al4 L-€AL CLIMATOLOGY RPANCH .SURFACE WINDS Al E ’ AT! IFR SERVICEP/’"AC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND *DIRECTION AND SPEED

  7. Kimpo-iap K-14, Seoul, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-10-30

    Unhmitod DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT ACCESSION FOR NTIS GRAMI DTIC TAB 5 UNANNOUNCED ElELECTE JUSTIFICATION R S S EP 1 11980 BY D DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY...REPORT DATE uSM~IL/Luu30 Oct, 73 Air Weather Service (MAC) ~ 3 NUMBER Or PAGES Scott AFB IL 62225 14 ONuITORINGi AGENCY NAME 8ADDES11 dlfrleio, ot- 1 ...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 17 OIS RIEUTIO4 STATEMENT (of th* abte entered in Blozi 20, if 1 !’:’.nr front Report) I8SUPPLEMENTARY

  8. Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-01-29

    to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical report has been reviewed and is aonroved for ouhl i cati on. WAYNE IMCOLLOM,h...ADDRESS 12 REPORT ::ATE U 29 JAN 70 Air Weather Service (MAC) 13 1 6 S6ER OF PA2ES Scott AFB IL 62225 14 .ONITORIN2. AGENCY NAUME 8 ADDRESS(,e .I,fl- I...N/A N/A N/A to Aug 50 USAF ITAC JMA I4 0-64A (OL.) MAC- Al It .- li, PAT ROCSI G DIVISION Revised ETAC/USAF AIR WEATIE SERVICE (MAC) UNIFORM SUMMARY

  9. Norton AFB, San Bernardino, California. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-08

    Stations: U. S. Navy and National Weather Service (USWB) Beginning thru 1945 at 08001ST Beginning thru Jun 52 at 003OG Jan 46-May 47 at 1230GMT Jul 52...4pI ~ ~ ~~’~ :- ..m - ". r - _ UJ DATA PROCESSING BRANCH3 TA/SFSURFACE WINDS,AIR WEATER SERVICE /MAC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND...NG RANCIi ,. USAF ETAC PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY AIR wEATER SERVICE /MAC 23122 NORTON AFB CALIF/SN BEKNARI)IN 43-7z AUG , 4STATI0N STATION NAME Y[ARS

  10. MacDill AFB, Tampa Bay, Florida. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-05

    Thepe is no oojection to unlimited distribution of this report to the public at large, or by DDC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).t...and National Weather Service (MD Beginning thru 19Z45 at 0800LST Beinning thru Jun 52 at 003OO1T Ja 4-May 147 at1304!Jul 52-Nay 57 at l23O(NT Jun 57...AIP WEATER SERVICE /MAC 12$1’ eACOILL AFB FL 68-70,73-79 AUG STATION STATION NAME YEARS MONTH PAGE I ALL HOURS IL. S. T.) Tem __ WET BULB TEMPERATURE

  11. Regional chemical weather forecasting system CFORS: Model descriptions and analysis of surface observations at Japanese island stations during the ACE-Asia experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, I.; Carmichael, G. R.; Streets, D. G.; Tang, Y.; Yienger, J. J.; Satake, S.; Wang, Z.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Guttikunda, S.; Uematsu, M.; Matsumoto, K.; Tanimoto, H.; Yoshioka, K.; Iida, T.

    2003-12-01

    The Chemical Weather Forecast System (CFORS) is designed to aid in the design of field experiments and in the interpretation/postanalysis of observed data. The system integrates a regional chemical transport model with a multitracer, online system built within the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model. CFORS was deployed in forecast and postanalysis modes during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE)-Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P), International Global Atmospheric Chemistry project (IGAC)-International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation of Anthropogenic Pollution 2002 (ITCT 2K2) field studies. A description of the CFORS model system is presented. The model is used to help interpret the Variability of Maritime Aerosol Properties (VMAP) surface observation data. The CFORS model results help to explain the time variation of both anthropogenic pollutants (sulfate, black carbon, and CO) and natural constituents including radon and mineral dust. Time series and time-height cross-section analysis of gases and aerosols are presented to help identify key processes. Synoptic-scale weather changes are found to play an important role in the continental-scale transport of pollution in the springtime in East Asia. The complex vertical and horizontal structure of pollutants in these outflow events is also presented and discussed.

  12. Nellis AFB, Las Vegas, Nevada, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Part A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-07

    housing the Weatheheket heA/ - -04, 30 F1 Feb 54 Station. "’ (d Pnl, 5 Mar 54to Located 30 ft W of Weather Station Same Same 20 Ft - ar 55 on top of...TRACEC .20 4 06 0 Ř’ 52 L * T R. I ,8D ,6 ITREI 0 TRA,40 0ŝ , 1100 . i O .1 T .01 TRAC . T ,A ,9 TRACF TRACE .01 9 54 m _ ____ 0 .29al TA C TRA E ’TRdA...TRAC Eo TRACT .7 , .9 TA 1TRAC| ’.01 1:0 o ŕ Po A ,o De A 4 4 6Z #7- _ ;0"._ TRAC 1.8 .1 ’T9 ,CE 6 1 so s4 .5 ," * . 54 F .5 a 0 .6 ’.0’ -T t ’TRACg .5

  13. A Retrospective, Iterative, Geometry-Based (RIGB) tilt-correction method for radiation observed by automatic weather stations on snow-covered surfaces: application to Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenshan; Zender, Charles S.; van As, Dirk; Smeets, Paul C. J. P.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.

    2016-03-01

    Surface melt and mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet may play crucial roles in global climate change due to their positive feedbacks and large fresh-water storage. With few other regular meteorological observations available in this extreme environment, measurements from automatic weather stations (AWS) are the primary data source for studying surface energy budgets, and for validating satellite observations and model simulations. Station tilt, due to irregular surface melt, compaction and glacier dynamics, causes considerable biases in the AWS shortwave radiation measurements. In this study, we identify tilt-induced biases in the climatology of surface shortwave radiative flux and albedo, and retrospectively correct these by iterative application of solar geometric principles. We found, over all the AWS from the Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net), the Kangerlussuaq transect (K-transect) and the Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) networks, insolation on fewer than 40 % of clear days peaks within ±0.5 h of solar noon time, with the largest shift exceeding 3 h due to tilt. Hourly absolute biases in the magnitude of surface insolation can reach up to 200 W m-2, with respect to the well-understood clear-day insolation. We estimate the tilt angles and their directions based on the solar geometric relationship between the simulated insolation at a horizontal surface and the observed insolation by these tilted AWS under clear-sky conditions. Our adjustment reduces the root mean square error (RMSE) against references from both satellite observation and reanalysis by 16 W m-2 (24 %), and raises the correlation coefficients with them to above 0.95. Averaged over the whole Greenland Ice Sheet in the melt season, the adjustment in insolation to compensate station tilt is ˜ 11 W m-2, enough to melt 0.24 m of snow water equivalent. The adjusted diurnal cycles of albedo are smoother, with consistent semi-smiling patterns. The seasonal

  14. Austin Straubel Apt, Green Bay, Wisconsin. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-15

    observations whien one or more of the above obstructions to vision occurred. Since more than one type of obstruction may be reported in the sme observation...T : T: . ...-- . --- ..! .. ,, ,L, AL CLIMATOLO4Y 3PANCH :TAC CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY A - .EAT- iFR SERV4 CL//. AC 7 614 A ;ST:N

  15. Grand Forks AFB North Dakota. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical report has been reviewed and is approved...period available from U. S. operated stations. The hours used by each service for each period are as follows: Air Force Stations: U. S. Navy and National ...N m sohhoImmmImhhmhhhIh 1111-1 5. _ m414 NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS -1963- )I GLCBAL CLIMATOLOGY BRANCH USAFETAC SURFACE WINDS AIE .EATtER SERVICE

  16. Baker Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-13

    MAC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) uyo:5 HAKER ! LAKf: WIT UQT 57w66 JUN STATION STATION MARC TASHIll AL6...16903 HAKEr LjiKt Nhl U01 7-b6 ___U__ /$TtION STAION NASTA SCARs sMOsrA PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE o;6oo-.ooo (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS...r 3F 8 9 oa eDr B l i. r -. - DAIA PROCESSING DIVISIO]N2 SAZ ETAC " PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY _ ____WEATHE_ SEI___AC 16903 HAKER LAK: NW1 vUT 57-66 MAR

  17. Robins AFB, Warner Robins, Georgia. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-31

    73 - FED 79 POR FROM DAILY OBS: MAIR 49 - FEB 79 - AUG 3 11979- j FEDERAL BUILDING ASHEVILLE, N. C . - t~ 10 02 057j$9.tO J" *~-X* 33,... *,i 7...IZY WOflOS ( C oiliu ove.’o old. It . coory and lIdentify by block Ooosb.r)- *RUSSWO Daily temperature Atmospheric pressure Snowfall Extreme Snow depth...Phenomena; (8) Precipitation, Snowfall and Snow Depth (daily amounts and extreme values); ( C ) Surface winds; (D) Ceiling Versus Visibility; Sky Cover; (E

  18. Hector Apt, Fargo, North Dakota. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-11

    APT FARGO Nb 74-81 FC:: NTATtON STATION NAME VEAUC MO N PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE ____-____ (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) .. 4.... Si, STAT.’E...SERVICE/MAC 1- .14 CECTOR APT FARGO Nb 74-81 "’AY EVAVICA STAT.ON NAME 16A.. PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE 2121-;30C (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS...9193 93.5 93o8 94.0 94.7 9497 95.4 95.4 95.4 95.6 95,b 95o7 96.1 30 o0, 176 89.f 91.7 949 94o7 95. 96,0 96, 968 96.0 96.9 97.1 97.1 97.2 97.5 a oC. 88

  19. Bitburg Air Base, West Germany. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-29

    UNIT NUMBERS Air Force Environmental Technical Apple Center Scott AFB IL 62225 It. SWOt ~ t g Ws ~g FICE NAME AND ADORESS IS REPORT DATE AiU ete evc MC...forms or from automated data collections for all Air Force operated stations. For those stations observing less than 24 hours per day, and where maxi ...for any column. Two tables of daily extremes are prepared: a. Exree maxi temperature E b. Extreme minimum temperature NOTE: The following symbols are

  20. ROK AFS, Kwandae-ri, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-04-15

    KlmANCAF RI KCREA/kC, AFS K-6 1-54 AL L STATION STATION NAME YEARS MONTH PERCEfNT G ’F C., YS , 1Th VPR IC Lc AT CSP-F PIC P H-C F FRCf. CAILY C4SV...DS 301 iq WTIONS Op THIS pOrn AM OIomr ATA PRrCESSIN;G C[ S!CN ETAC, LSAF SURFACE WINDS AS#-EVILLE9 N. C. 28E01 PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND...NNW VAREIL F -3.4 7.4 5.4 .7 _ 1.0 TOTAL NUMBER OF OISERVATIONS 146 1210 WS j 0--S (0. SO) SSIeo.. KDSTIO,. oP TIN PORN AN O.S.OC. I [~. [ATA

  1. Chinae, ROK AFS K-10, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-04-10

    98.5 99.3 99.5 99.: 99. 99. 99. ICO.0100.൒C. 100." TOTAL NUMNI Of O8SUEVATIONS 1 3 C 2 USAF ETAC ULM4 0 14 5 (OL I) PREVIOUS EOTIONS OF THIS OFORM...99.9 00.100.0100.0100.0100.0100. TOTAL NUMBIR OF OBSERVATIONS 990 USAF ETAC jUL 0-14- 5 (OL I) PEVOUS EoTIONS Of TIS FORoM ARE OBSOLETE ,+ERAA CATA

  2. Don Muang IAP, Bangkok, Thailand. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-04-02

    release. There is no " i objection to unlimited distribution of this report to the ,. public at large, or by DTIC to the National Technical ~Information...opno4 O MRAoIs tf~ - A- ŕ X.- ~--- ~. t ~ ~ -6 -- Z D~APOESN VSO thell folwig DAPOESN DIIION DRVDFODIYOSRAIN AIWFLL DERIVED SERVOC DALYOBERC)ON S11OW...AIR WEAtER SERVICE/AC PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) URtsI) CEILING VISIBILITY (STATUTE MILEq- 0 > > 4 2t>3 ->2 _ ->2 -2

  3. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) for Little Rock AFB, Little Rock, Arkansas. Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-06

    13 0 J 67.4 89.0 92.3 94.0 96.9 97.4 98.2 98.7 98.8 99.3 99.4 99.4 99.5 99.5 99 ,6.00.0 TOTAL NWARhS OF OBSERVATIONS t46 USAF ETAC , Vk 0-14-5 (OL A) w...mv. w mm Com am 7- - ~ ~ - - - -~ ~.. N W-R 1 5 USA~ E TAC t wr-.U CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY T LITTLE DOCiK A5 A- 69-78 SEP PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF...DEPRESSION (F) TOTAL TOTAL (F) 0 -2 3-4 5.6 7.8 9. 10 11 2 13- 14 15- 16 17- 18:9.2012 21.523. 2425.26127.28j29. 30: * 31 .B-/W.8.(Dy *Bl Porno S14 h

  4. McChord AFB, Washington Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    5.8 .7 6.4 9 _) CO _ 5 116.7 167 11.3 .8 1.7 o _ 106-7_ 81 1_.6 . 14:8 13.1 1.6 13. 910 19~111 __ 13 8 13 .8 .____.8 _.2 1.3 5.3 9c 12 -141 1 Is.911 .1...OBSERVATIONS) -l pr RDkq A T. SC SAW 2’.-AIrAMIS Able m ~ Al I uFiTHFP 1Drn-r CLASS~l CO . SPEED 1 MEAN KNTS) I -3 - 6 7 10 11 . 16 17 .21 22 - 27 26...1 4. .. ____ WS - WNW -___ ___ ___ NW4 2A2~ _ ________ _ _ CDD USAFETAC AAJ0485 (OL.A) MIOUS 60111ONM CO DO$l #0"* ŕ 08$lf1 7

  5. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) for Illesheim AAF, Uffenheim, Germany. Parts C, D & E

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-21

    DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 3411- TlLc5:-P1 LAPF2 7,-7q JA_____ STATI STATIN %AI Tuft NO. .LL hi-Tdi. 0900-I 100 UI mo I,..T.) IK ) 13 4-6...oL 7, _ _-_€ STATIN STATIO N "KE TEAM .Nm ALL Ti- I 0&%000 OAML it 4LLtr. 1 1I I Ia .(KNTS) 1.3 4.6 7-10 it-16 17-21 22-27 28-3 34-4O 41-47 48-55i J...ILLLSHFcI AAF -)L 69-78 JU:. STATION STATION M Tas 0A OT01 ALL F.""ALL CLAW MUS (LS.T.) CO NDITIO N SPEED) 1.-3 4.6 7-10 222 83tNS 1 111 -16 17-21 122 263 14

  6. Hoengsong, ROK AFS K46, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-04-10

    PREvIous EOTIONS 0F T.,S FOrAM ARE O0S0LETE I USA ITA j’ot+ ,,45O )PEIUSEIIN fT4S OMAE01O EATA PRCCESSING CIVISICN 2 tAC, USAF CEILING VERSUS...USAF ETAC ULU 0-14-5 (OL I) PREVIOUS EOTION $OFTHSFORM AREOBSOLETE CATA PRUCESSI.G CIVISICN ETAC, USAF AS ’LVILLE* N. C. ?5C1 CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY...NUMBER OF OBSERVATIONS 12ŝ USAF ETAC ,U.Lu" 0-1-S (OL I) PRVIOUS EOtIONS OF THIS FoR AR E OBSOLETE I CATA PRCCESSI\\G CIVISICK E:h USAF CEILING VERSUS

  7. Williams Lake Apt, British Columbia, Canada. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-10-20

    gs !! b.9 97.8 916l 91.,;98. t,, CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY 1 L L : ,. 1 .o.I.. ’ PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE - ,L (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS...99. 9973 99., 99o 9 0 .1 97, 9 ,1 o 98, 98, 98 98, 7 99,9 99 91 99 1 991 4 9I 4," TOTAl. NUMBER OF OISERVATIONS ) ) ,If I TCEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY...97s2 97.4 97, 970 97o 97,9 98 .2 9 . 9a.2 9s.2 9b.4 9h.; >0(oo -,0,4 9 ’., 9*’?, 97. 󈧕. 9be. 98., 9$, s 98 , 960 gS . 98,5 98, 990 _900 ., 1.I )7

  8. Koon-Ni Range, Osan, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-24

    WINDS .FATfl SEPIC / ,K PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF WIND DIRECTION AND SPEED (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) , ~ ~ " , -N T A 411 -, :-7,J, 7.-7 , STATION I... dC .9 8’. S 6!_,.9 b.9 oj.9 8.9 7 00 75. 79. 3. 1.31 .9 81.9 81.0 P .2.1 e2.1 82.2 )j2.2 82.2 82.2 62.2 32.2 2 6000 75. 3’.. 38.7 1 8.5 ,2.5 i.5 12.7...8217§ 7 ’, c) 5’).9 DC .* 79 20000 4j__ 7 14 7__9__ ___ 65__ L,_ ___ D, 2. t~. S4. i5 L 5-* * 2’ S4 b 18000 4 . . . 3 (.1 3 . 4 4 £ 5 . 1 5 . 6 . 7 6

  9. McClellan AFB, California Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    pFvOoMO oP NI FOR A WoLTI . ... . . .T - - " - Z- . 4, l ’ GLObAL CLIMATOLOGY BRANCH S LO AFETAC VALUES A. 4,EATHER SERVICE/MAC EXTREME SNOW DEPTH...HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) 27_1 MCCLFLLAN AFE CA b9-7G.73-?2, mAV STATION STATION NAME YEAs MONTH ALL WEATHEP .b0 - 380 CLASS HOURS IL.S.T.I CONDITION SPEED...28. 3 .4 3 10 9 34.1 34o4 35*1 36.8 37.1 I705 3705 37.5 37.7 380 38. 4,2 >18000 21. 28. 32., 32.4 34*5 34.8 35.7 37.5 37.8 38.3 38.3 38.3 38.5 38.8

  10. MESSENGER Observations of Extreme Space Weather in Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, J. A.

    2013-09-01

    Increasing activity on the Sun is allowing MESSENGER to make its first observations of Mercury's magnetosphere under extreme solar wind conditions. At Earth interplanetary shock waves and coronal mass ejections produce severe "space weather" in the form of large geomagnetic storms that affect telecommunications, space systems, and ground-based power grids. In the case of Mercury the primary effect of extreme space weather in on the degree to which this it's weak global magnetic field can shield the planet from the solar wind. Direct impact of the solar wind on the surface of airless bodies like Mercury results in space weathering of the regolith and the sputtering of atomic species like sodium and calcium to high altitudes where they contribute to a tenuous, but highly dynamic exosphere. MESSENGER observations indicate that during extreme interplanetary conditions the solar wind plasma gains access to the surface of Mercury through three main regions: 1. The magnetospheric cusps, which fill with energized solar wind and planetary ions; 2. The subsolar magnetopause, which is compressed and eroded by reconnection to very low altitudes where the natural gyro-motion of solar wind protons may result in their impact on the surface; 3. The magnetotail where hot plasma sheet ions rapidly convect sunward to impact the surface on the nightside of Mercury. The possible implications of these new MESSENGER observations for our ability to predict space weather at Earth and other planets will be described.

  11. Weather observations through oceanic acoustic noise recorded by gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauchy, Pierre; Testor, Pierre; Guinet, Christophe; Gervaise, Cedric; Di Oro, Lucia; Ioana, Cornel; Mortier, Laurent; Bouin, Marie-Noelle; Beguery, Laurent; Klein, Patrice

    2013-04-01

    Offshore estimates of the meteorological parameters are unfortunately spurious when considering in-situ observtions only due to obvious observational limitations while their use would allow to calibrate satellite observations and to have better weather forecasts, if assimilated in numerical weather forecasting systems. The WOTAN (Weather Observations through Acoustic Noise) approach may be used to fill these gaps if coupled to the Global Ocean Observing Sytem which has now a global coverage thanks to many autonomous observing platforms. In this study we show first results from acoustic records collected by gliders deployed in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea in the framework of MOOSE. We show that using 3 descriptors at 5kHz, 8kHz, and 20kHz allows to extract the intensity of the wind and the precipitation when the glider is at depth. This approach based on the method presented by Barry & Nuysten (2004) is compared with meterological data from coastal weather stations and the offshore meteorological buoys from Meteo-France. We also show that there is a vane effect with the tail of the glider while at surface which allows to estimate the direction of the wind every so often. These observations coupled with the in-situ profiles on temperature and salinity profiles can allow to better study air-sea interactions.

  12. Widespread Surface Weathering on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, Damien; Carter, John; Mangold, Nicolas; Poulet, François; Rossi, Angelo; Allemand, Pascal; Quantin, Cathy; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The recent discovery of widespread hydrous clays on Mars indicates that diverse and widespread aqueous environments existed on Mars, from the surface to kilometric depths [1,2]. The study of the past habitability and past climates of the planet requires assessing the importance of sustained surface water vs. subsurface water in its aqueous history. Using remote sensing data, we propose that surface weathering existed on Mars, suggesting that Mars experienced durable episodes of sustained liquid water on its surface. Weathering profiles are identified as vertical sequences of Al-rich clays and Fe/Mg-rich clays in the top tens of meters of the surface, similar to cases of pedogenesis on Earth (e.g. [3,4]). Such localized clay sequences have been reported by other works in 3 regions of Mars [5-8] and a similar origin was also proposed. Their frequency is however likely underestimated due to limitations of orbital investigations and re-surfacing processes. A large survey of the CRISM dataset leaded to a down-selection of ~100 deposits with clear vertical sequences, widely distributed over the southern highlands and grouped in regional clusters [9]. These putative weathering sequences are found either on inter-crater plateaus, on the floor of craters and large basins, or on crater ejectas. We investigated the thickness of the altered sequences, the age of the altered units and the different geological contexts to further understand the weathering process(es). Using few HiRISE DEMs where possible, and CTX DEMs, we find that the thickness of the exposed Al clays is on average of the order of several meters to few tens of meters. The clay sequences reported here are consistent with terrestrial weathering sequences which form under wet climates over geological timescales (>105-107 years). The combined age assessment of the altered unit and the unaltered capping (where present) provides constraints on the age of the weathering itself. All investigated cases point to an

  13. Widespread Surface Weathering on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, D.; Carter, J.; Mangold, N.; Poulet, F.; Rossi, A.; Allemand, P.; Quantin, C.; Bibring, J.

    2013-12-01

    The recent discovery of widespread hydrous clays on Mars indicates that diverse and widespread aqueous environments existed on Mars, from the surface to kilometric depths [1,2]. The study of the past habitability of the planet requires assessing the importance of sustained surface water vs. subsurface water in its aqueous history. Using remote sensing data, we propose that surface weathering existed on Mars, suggesting that Mars experienced durable episodes of sustained liquid water on its surface. Weathering profiles are identified as vertical sequences of Al-rich clays and Fe/Mg-rich clays in the top tens of meters of the surface, similar to cases of pedogenesis on Earth (e.g. [3,4]). Such localized clay sequences have been reported by other works in 3 regions of Mars [5-8] and a similar origin was also proposed. Their frequency is however likely underestimated due to limitations of orbital investigations and re-surfacing processes. A large survey of the CRISM dataset leaded to a down-selection of 104 deposits with clear vertical sequences, widely distributed over the southern highlands and grouped in regional clusters [9]. These putative weathering sequences are found either on inter-crater plateaus, on the floor of craters and large basins, or on crater ejectas. We investigated the thickness of the altered sequences, the age of the altered units and the different geological contexts to further understand the weathering process(es). Using few HiRISE DEMs where possible, and CTX DEMs, we find that the thickness of the exposed Al clays is on average of the order of several meters to few tens of meters. The clay sequences reported here are consistent with terrestrial weathering sequences which form under wet climates over geological timescales (> 105-107 years). The combined age assessment of the altered unit and the unaltered capping (where present) provides constraints on the age of the weathering itself. All investigated cases point to an active weathering

  14. Rates of oxidative weathering on the surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.

    1992-01-01

    Implicit in the mnemonic 'MSATT' (Mars surface and atmosphere through time) is that rates of surface processes on Mars through time should be investigated, including studies of the kinetics and mechanism of oxidative weathering reactions occurring in the Martian regolith. Such measurements are described. Two major elements analyzed in the Viking Lander XRF experiment that are most vulnerable to atmospheric oxidation are iron and sulfur. Originally, they occurred as Fe(2+)-bearing silicate and sulfide minerals in basaltic rocks on the surface of Mars. However, chemical weathering reactions through time have produced ferric- and sulfate-bearing assemblages now visible in the Martian regolith. Such observations raise several question about: (1) when the oxidative weathering reactions took place on Mars; (2) whether or not the oxidized regolith is a fossilized remnant of past weathering processes; (3) deducting chemical interactions of the ancient Martian atmosphere with its surface from surviving phases; (4) possible weathering reactions still occurring in the frozen regolith; and (5) the kinetics and mechanism of past and present-day oxidative reactions on Mars. These questions may be addressed experimentally by studying reaction rates of dissolution and oxidation of basaltic minerals, and by identifying reaction products forming on the mineral surfaces. Results for the oxidation of pyrrhotite and dissolved ferrous iron are reported.

  15. Evaluating climate models: Should we use weather or climate observations?

    SciTech Connect

    Oglesby, Robert J; Erickson III, David J

    2009-12-01

    Calling the numerical models that we use for simulations of climate change 'climate models' is a bit of a misnomer. These 'general circulation models' (GCMs, AKA global climate models) and their cousins the 'regional climate models' (RCMs) are actually physically-based weather simulators. That is, these models simulate, either globally or locally, daily weather patterns in response to some change in forcing or boundary condition. These simulated weather patterns are then aggregated into climate statistics, very much as we aggregate observations into 'real climate statistics'. Traditionally, the output of GCMs has been evaluated using climate statistics, as opposed to their ability to simulate realistic daily weather observations. At the coarse global scale this may be a reasonable approach, however, as RCM's downscale to increasingly higher resolutions, the conjunction between weather and climate becomes more problematic. We present results from a series of present-day climate simulations using the WRF ARW for domains that cover North America, much of Latin America, and South Asia. The basic domains are at a 12 km resolution, but several inner domains at 4 km have also been simulated. These include regions of complex topography in Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Sri Lanka, as well as a region of low topography and fairly homogeneous land surface type (the U.S. Great Plains). Model evaluations are performed using standard climate analyses (e.g., reanalyses; NCDC data) but also using time series of daily station observations. Preliminary results suggest little difference in the assessment of long-term mean quantities, but the variability on seasonal and interannual timescales is better described. Furthermore, the value-added by using daily weather observations as an evaluation tool increases with the model resolution.

  16. Evaluating Climate Models: Should We Use Weather or Climate Observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oglesby, R. J.; Rowe, C. M.; Maasch, K. A.; Erickson, D. J.; Hays, C.

    2009-12-01

    Calling the numerical models that we use for simulations of climate change 'climate models' is a bit of a misnomer. These 'general circulation models' (GCMs, AKA global climate models) and their cousins the 'regional climate models' (RCMs) are actually physically-based weather simulators. That is, these models simulate, either globally or locally, daily weather patterns in response to some change in forcing or boundary condition. These simulated weather patterns are then aggregated into climate statistics, very much as we aggregate observations into 'real climate statistics'. Traditionally, the output of GCMs has been evaluated using climate statistics, as opposed to their ability to simulate realistic daily weather observations. At the coarse global scale this may be a reasonable approach, however, as RCM's downscale to increasingly higher resolutions, the conjunction between weather and climate becomes more problematic. We present results from a series of present-day climate simulations using the WRF ARW for domains that cover North America, much of Latin America, and South Asia. The basic domains are at a 12 km resolution, but several inner domains at 4 km have also been simulated. These include regions of complex topography in Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Sri Lanka, as well as a region of low topography and fairly homogeneous land surface type (the U.S. Great Plains). Model evaluations are performed using standard climate analyses (e.g., reanalyses; NCDC data) but also using time series of daily station observations. Preliminary results suggest little difference in the assessment of long-term mean quantities, but the variability on seasonal and interannual timescales is better described. Furthermore, the value-added by using daily weather observations as an evaluation tool increases with the model resolution.

  17. The surface of Mercury: space weathering effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratta, G.; Kanuchova, Z.; Palumbo, M. E.; Sangiorgio, I.; Strazzulla, G.

    2011-10-01

    We present some results of an ongoing experimental research aimed at simulating the effects of ion bombardment (space weathering) in solid objects of the Solar System. In particular we have investigated the color changes induced by the ion bombardment in the UV-Vis-IR In this contribution we focus on materials (silicates) and spectral range (200-300 nanometers) particularly relevant to the study of the Mercury's surface.

  18. Space weathering of asteroids: Lessons from Itokawa for future observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Sho; HIroi, Takahiro

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Space weathering of surface silicate minerals is the main process that should control the change of brightness and color of airless silicate bodies such and the Moon, Mercury and asteroids. Spectra of S-type asteroids exhibit more overall depletion and reddening, and more weakening of absorption bands than spectra of ordinary chondrites. These spectral mismatches are explained by the space weathering, where the primary proven mechanism of such spectral change is production of nanophase metallic iron particles (npFe0) 1), which were confirmed in the amorphous rim of lunar soil grains 2,3). Vapor-deposition through at high-velocity dust particle impacts as well as implantation of intensive solar wind ions would be responsible for producing the space weathering rims bearing nano-iron particles (npFe0). Simulation experiments using nanosecond pulse laser successfully produced vapor-deposition type npFe0 to change optical properties 4,5,6). Laser experiments showed that pyroxene would be weathered less than olivine, for pyroxene, pulse laser irradiation produced melt (amorphous) droplets containing npFe0, rather than vapour deposited rim that should provide stronger optical effect trough multiple scattering of incidental light. Itokawa Observed by Remote Sensing In November 2005, Japanese Asteroid Sample Return Mission HAYABUSA spacecraft rendezvoused S-type asteroid (25143) Itokawa. Optically, the surface of Itokawa is divided into brighter (and bluer) areas and darker (and redder) areas 7,8). In rough zones, dark boulder-rich surfaces usually superpose on bright materials. The near-infrared spectrometer (NIRS) confirmed previous disk-integrated results that suggested Itokawa's spectrum closely matched a weakly weathered LL5/6 chondrite 9). Although the surface is covered with rocks and is apparently lack of fine regolith, Itokawa's surface show darkening and reddening by space weathering. Experimental results suggest rocky meteorite fragments can be

  19. An evaluation of the impact of aerosol particles on weather forecasts from a biomass burning aerosol event over the Midwestern United States: observational-based analysis of surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianglong; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Christensen, Matthew; Benedetti, Angela

    2016-05-01

    A major continental-scale biomass burning smoke event from 28-30 June 2015, spanning central Canada through the eastern seaboard of the United States, resulted in unforecasted drops in daytime high surface temperatures on the order of 2-5 °C in the upper Midwest. This event, with strong smoke gradients and largely cloud-free conditions, provides a natural laboratory to study how aerosol radiative effects may influence numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecast outcomes. Here, we describe the nature of this smoke event and evaluate the differences in observed near-surface air temperatures between Bismarck (clear) and Grand Forks (overcast smoke), to evaluate to what degree solar radiation forcing from a smoke plume introduces daytime surface cooling, and how this affects model bias in forecasts and analyses. For this event, mid-visible (550 nm) smoke aerosol optical thickness (AOT, τ) reached values above 5. A direct surface cooling efficiency of -1.5 °C per unit AOT (at 550 nm, τ550) was found. A further analysis of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) near-surface air temperature forecasts for up to 54 h as a function of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Dark Target AOT data across more than 400 surface stations, also indicated the presence of the daytime aerosol direct cooling effect, but suggested a smaller aerosol direct surface cooling efficiency with magnitude on the order of -0.25 to -1.0 °C per unit τ550. In addition, using observations from the surface stations, uncertainties in near-surface air temperatures from ECMWF, NCEP, and UKMO model runs are estimated. This study further suggests that significant daily changes in τ550 above 1, at which the smoke-aerosol-induced direct surface cooling effect could be comparable in magnitude with model uncertainties, are rare events on a global scale. Thus, incorporating

  20. Surface Landing Site Weather Analysis for Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altino, Karen M.; Burns, K. Lee

    2008-01-01

    Weather information is an important asset for NASA's Constellation Program in developing the next generation space transportation system to fly to the International Space Station, the Moon and, eventually, to Mars. Weather conditions can affect vehicle safety and performance during multiple mission phases ranging from pre-launch ground processing to landing and recovery operations, including all potential abort scenarios. Meteorological analysis is an important contributor, not only to the development and verification of system design requirements but also to mission planning and active ground operations. Of particular interest are the surface atmospheric conditions at both nominal and abort landing sites for the manned Orion capsule. Weather parameters such as wind, rain, and fog all play critical roles in the safe landing of the vehicle and subsequent crew and vehicle recovery. The Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch has been tasked by the Constellation Program with defining the natural environments at potential landing zones. Climatological time series of operational surface weather observations are used to calculate probabilities of occurrence of various sets of hypothetical vehicle constraint thresholds, Data are available for numerous geographical locations such that statistical analysis can be performed for single sites as well as multiple-site network configurations. Results provide statistical descriptions of how often certain weather conditions are observed at the site(s) and the percentage that specified criteria thresholds are matched or exceeded. Outputs are tabulated by month and hour of day to show both seasonal and diurnal variation. This paper will describe the methodology used for data collection and quality control, detail the types of analyses performed, and provide a sample of the results that can be obtained,

  1. A web-based tool that combines satellite and weather station observations to support irrigation scheduling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: The Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) project combines NASA's Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS), Landsat and MODIS satellite imagery, and reference evapotranspiration from surface weather station networks to map daily crop irrigation demand in California in ...

  2. Driver behaviour data linked with vehicle, weather, road surface, and daylight data.

    PubMed

    Hjelkrem, Odd André; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen

    2017-02-01

    In this data set, vehicle observations have been linked to data containing weather and road surface conditions. A total of 311 908 observations are collected and classified in categories of precipitation type, road status information, and daylight condition. The data is collected for a long period of time, so that several different weather situations are present, ranging from dry summer to adverse winter weather conditions.

  3. Surface and internal structures of a space-weathered rim of an Itokawa regolith particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Toru; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Miyake, Akira; Noguchi, Takaaki; Nakamura, Michihiko; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Nakano, Tsukasa

    2015-09-01

    Surface morphologies of a regolith particle retrieved from Asteroid 25143 Itokawa were observed using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The images were compared with the internal structures of the space-weathered rim of the same particle observed by transmission electron and scanning transmission electron microscopies (TEM/STEM) to investigate whether there is a direct link between the surface morphology and internal structure. FE-SEM observation showed that most of the particle surface is covered by convex spots less than 100 nm in size. TEM/STEM observation revealed that this particle has a space-weathered rim composed of partially amorphous structures with nano-Fe particles and vesicles. The vesicles swell the surface and form blisters that correspond to the spotted structures observed by FE-SEM. These observations indicate that a space-weathered rim with blisters can be observed by FE-SEM without using destructive methods. The observation of the space-weathered rim by FE-SEM also enabled us to obtain the distribution of the space-weathered rim on the particle surfaces. The existence of space-weathered rims on the opposing surfaces of the particle shows that most of the surfaces were directly exposed to the space environment by movement on the Itokawa surface. The depths of the blister locations and the chemical composition of the space-weathered rim indicate that the observed space-weathered rim with blisters was formed mainly by solar wind irradiation. The space-weathered rim analyzed in this study is thicker than those of Itokawa particles previously examined, indicating that the rim may has experienced longer solar wind exposure than those previously observed.

  4. Martian Weather Analysis and Forecasts from Multiple Spacecraft Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, H.

    2004-05-01

    There is now a small fleet of spacecraft orbiting Mars with instruments that make observations relevant to the atmosphere. Chief among these is the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer that takes up to 6 nadir infrared spectra every three seconds from a low, circular, polar orbit, with occasional limb scans. The MGS also includes a Horizon Sensor that makes side-looking broadband 15 micrometer measurements, and a Radio Science experiment that determines the atmospheric structure from occasional radio occultations. From a different orbit, at a different time of day, the Mars Odyssey THEMIS instrument makes downward looking broadband 15 micrometer measurements. The Mars Express will add infrared and ultraviolet observations of the atmosphere from a highly elliptical orbit. All of these spacecraft carry cameras that observe ice and dust clouds. While none of the instruments or observing patterns is optimized for atmospheric science, the sum total of the data is more than enough to specify all of the parameters in a low resolution Martian general circulation model. We can therefore make use of data assimilation techniques (like those used in operational weather prediction on Earth) to deduce the full atmospheric state (4-dimensional temperatures, geopotential heights, winds, water vapor, dust, clouds, and surface pressure). The payoff is enormous: retrievals of atmospheric parameters are no longer independent of each other (and underdetermined), but are constrained by physical laws; the data assimilation product is a compact physical state that can reproduce the much more extensive spectral data (to within the observational errors); calibration can be addressed from the internal consistency of the observations of a given instrument; validation (in the absence of ground truth) is performed by detailed comparison of the data from different instruments and different platforms (even when there are no co-incident observations); data quality control

  5. Evidence of Space Weathering Processes Across the Surface of Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle M.; Blewett, David T.; Gaffey, Michael; Mittlefehldt, David W.; CristinaDeSanctis, Maria; Reddy, Vishnu; Coradini, Angioletta; Nathues, Andreas; Denevi, Brett W.; Li, Jian-Yang; McCord, Thomas B.; Marchi, Simone; Palmer, Eric E.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Filacchione, Gianrico; Ammannito, Eleonora; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2011-01-01

    As NASA s Dawn spacecraft explores the surface of Vesta, it has become abundantly clear that Vesta is like no other planetary body visited to date. Dawn is collecting global data at increasingly higher spatial resolution during its one-year orbital mission. The bulk properties of Vesta have previously been linked to the HED meteorites through remote mineral characterization of its surface from Earth-based spectroscopy. A principal puzzle has been why Vesta exhibits relatively unweathered diagnostic optical features compared to other large asteroids. Is this due to the composition of this proto-planet or the space environment at Vesta? Alteration or weathering of materials in space normally develops as the products of several processes accumulate on the surface or in an evolving particulate regolith, transforming the bedrock into fragmental material with properties that may be measurably different from the original. Data from Dawn reveal that the regolith of Vesta is exceptionally diverse. Regional surface units are observed that have not been erased by weathering with time. Several morphologically-fresh craters have excavated bright, mafic-rich materials and exhibit bright ray systems. Some of the larger craters have surrounding subdued regions (often asymmetric) that are lower in albedo and relatively red-sloped in the visible while exhibiting weaker mafic signatures. Several other prominent craters have rim exposures containing very dark material and/or display a system of prominent dark rays. Most, but not all, dark areas associated with craters exhibit significantly lower spectral contrast, suggesting that either a Vesta lithology with an opaque component has been exposed locally or that the surface has been contaminated by a relatively dark impactor. Similarly, most, but not all, bright areas associated with craters exhibit enhanced mafic signatures compared to surroundings. On a regional scale, the large south polar structure and surrounding terrain exhibit

  6. Surface Particle Detectors in Space Weather forecast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, Ashot

    Recently several groups report on the development of the alarm system based on the surface particle detector data. Among them are high-latitude neutron monitors network "Spaceship Earth", coordinated by the group from Bartol Research Center; Muon network coordinated by the group from Shinshu University and Athens Neutron Monitor Data Processing Center. In the presented report, based on the information content of data from particle detectors of Aragats Space Environmental Center (ASEC) we made attempt to review possibility of surface particle detectors in Space Weather forecasts. Particle monitors located at ASEC at 1000, 2000 and 3200 m altitudes (40˚25 N, 44˚15 E; Vertical cut-off rigidity in 2007: 7.1 GV) detect charged and neutral components of the secondary cosmic rays with different energy thresholds and various angles of incidence. ASEC monitors reliably detect the highest energy CR due to unique geographical location and large underground high energy muon detector. Forecasting of the Solar Energetic Proton (SEP) events by surface particle detectors is based on the detection of the Ground Level Enhancements (GLE). Unfortunately not all SEPs contain particles energetic enough to produce GLE, therefore, the efficiency of the warnings will not be very high. Nonetheless, we can expect that the major events, (like 1859, 1956, 1972, 1989) with high probability will generate GLEs and surface detectors can provide forewarnings on upcoming abundant SEP particles. With the exception of the event on 20 January, when due to very good magnetic connection of the flare site with earth, all relativistic particles seem to come simultaneously, the enhancements of GeV solar particles detected by surface particle detectors can alert on upcoming severe radiation storm. The alerts from middle and low latitude monitors are even more important compared to high latitude networks, because of lower probability of false alarms. If an enhancement occurs at monitors with large cutoff

  7. Observing Weather in Venus's Lower Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, E. F.; Bullock, M. A.; Chanover, N. J.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2003-05-01

    The rotation rate of Venus's sulfuric acid clouds is roughly 60 times greater than that of the solid surface, a phenomenon which is only partially understood. To help learn more about the details of the cloud motions, we observed Venus on three occasions near the past two inferior conjunctions at 2.3 microns, a window which transmits thermal radiation emanating from the lower scale heights of the atmosphere. Clouds block the thermal radiation in this wavelength band and show up as silhouettes on Venus's night side. We tracked atmospheric features to estimate their rates and directions. Several previous investigators have used 2.3 micron imaging to track Venus's clouds (e.g., Carlson et al. 1991, Crisp et al. 1991, Chanover et al. 1998). We compare our results to these previous investigations and to a solid-body rotator. We find no clear trend relating rotation rate to latitude. Instead, we often see local features with different rotation rates and different meridional directions from their neighbors within a latitudinal zone. These motions suggest that we are seeing snapshots of eddies in the mid-latitudes. Thick cloud cover is nearly always present at the equatorial latitudes and at both poles. The intermediate latitudes show thin cloud cover which is often broken into several narrow latitudinal ``zones,'' although these zones are certainly unlike belts and zones seen on Jupiter and Saturn, if only because (a) they are ephemeral on timescales of days and (b) they often have orientations that are up to 15 degrees away from the horizontal. As Crisp et al. (1991) suggest, these clearer regions could be the result of downwelling, possibly a manifestation of Hadley cells in the lower cloud deck. In approximately ten percent of our images we see turbulent-looking edges of the cloudy equatorial region, suggesting significant shear between adjacent latitudinal zones. Mark Bullock acknowledges support from NASA's Planetary Atmospheres and NSF's Planetary Astronomy programs

  8. Rock Rinds at Meridiani and Surface Weathering Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, B.; Knoll, A.; Farrand, W.; Sullivan, R.

    2006-12-01

    The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) on the Mars rover Opportunity can brush away surface dust and grind away outcrop surface, exposing presumably less altered rock at depths of several mm. Alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) and Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) analyses of pre- and post-RAT targets, thus, provide information on the chemical nature of weathering of Meridiani outcrop rocks. To date, Opportunity has analyzed some 25 undisturbed rock surfaces, brushed and then analyzed 7 more, and ground 23 targets for IDD analysis. Panoramic camera images show that outcrop surfaces are typically either buff or purple (as viewed in bands centered at 673, 535, and 432 nm, Farrand et al., JGR, in press). Relatively flat surfaces that are approximately parallel to the ground are typically buff, whereas those that slope steeply tend to be purple. Surfaces of rock interiors ground by the RAT are also commonly purple. Spectrally, these color differences correspond to more oxidized (buff) and less oxidized (purple), and appear to relate to the degree of eolian abrasion. Flat-lying surfaces are not eroded as quickly, thus surfaces chemically weathered by exposure to tenuous atmospheric vapor may be preserved. These observations are consistent with in-situ analyses of rock surfaces and interiors. Compared to interiors, rock surfaces have about 1/3 less S, and in general, surface compositions lie between those of rock interiors and average surface soil. In detail, they differ from soil-rock mixtures as follows: surfaces are relatively depleted in Mg, Fe, Mn, Ti, and Cr, and they are enriched in Al, Na, K, P, Cl, and Si. From MB analyses, surfaces are richer (compared to soil-rock mixtures) in oxidized Fe phases and poorer in magnetite, olivine, and pyroxene. Morphologically, numerous flat-lying rocks and outcrop surfaces that are at or near the ground surface have a rind of erosionally resistant material. Such rinds are also chemically distinct from outcrop interiors. A rind

  9. Measuring stone weathering in cities: Surface reduction on marble monuments

    SciTech Connect

    Dragovich, D. )

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether measurements of stone weathering recorded by different observers could be aggregated into a simple data base for evaluating pollution effects on calcareous building stone. Apparent differences in recorded weathering rates on marble tombstones were here found to be partly a result of lettering size measured, measuring devices used, and individual observers.

  10. A New Perspective on Surface Weather Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Steve

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional weather map is actually a physical representation of three-dimensional atmospheric conditions at a specific point in time. Abstract thinking is required to visualize this two-dimensional image in three-dimensional form. But once that visualization is accomplished, many of the meteorological concepts and processes conveyed by the…

  11. Generation of Multivariate Surface Weather Series with Use of the Stochastic Weather Generator Linked to Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovsky, M.; Farda, A.; Huth, R.

    2012-12-01

    The regional-scale simulations of weather-sensitive processes (e.g. hydrology, agriculture and forestry) for the present and/or future climate often require high resolution meteorological inputs in terms of the time series of selected surface weather characteristics (typically temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, humidity, wind) for a set of stations or on a regular grid. As even the latest Global and Regional Climate Models (GCMs and RCMs) do not provide realistic representation of statistical structure of the surface weather, the model outputs must be postprocessed (downscaled) to achieve the desired statistical structure of the weather data before being used as an input to the follow-up simulation models. One of the downscaling approaches, which is employed also here, is based on a weather generator (WG), which is calibrated using the observed weather series and then modified (in case of simulations for the future climate) according to the GCM- or RCM-based climate change scenarios. The present contribution uses the parametric daily weather generator M&Rfi to follow two aims: (1) Validation of the new simulations of the present climate (1961-1990) made by the ALADIN-Climate/CZ (v.2) Regional Climate Model at 25 km resolution. The WG parameters will be derived from the RCM-simulated surface weather series and compared to those derived from observational data in the Czech meteorological stations. The set of WG parameters will include selected statistics of the surface temperature and precipitation (characteristics of the mean, variability, interdiurnal variability and extremes). (2) Testing a potential of RCM output for calibration of the WG for the ungauged locations. The methodology being examined will consist in using the WG, whose parameters are interpolated from the surrounding stations and then corrected based on a RCM-simulated spatial variability. The quality of the weather series produced by the WG calibrated in this way will be assessed in terms

  12. SEVIRI rainfall retrieval and validation using weather radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roebeling, R. A.; Holleman, I.

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents and validates a new algorithm to detect precipitating clouds and estimate rain rates from cloud physical properties retrieved from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). The precipitation properties (PP) algorithm uses information on cloud condensed water path (CWP), particle effective radius, and cloud thermodynamic phase to detect precipitating clouds, while information on CWP and cloud top height is used to estimate rain rates. An independent data set of weather radar data is used to determine the optimum settings of the PP algorithm and calibrated it. For a 2-month period, the ability of SEVIRI to discriminate precipitating from nonprecipitating clouds is evaluated using weather radar over the Netherlands. In addition, weather radar and rain gauge observations are used to validate the SEVIRI retrievals of rain rate and accumulated rainfall across the entire study area and period. During the observation period, the spatial extents of precipitation over the study area from SEVIRI and weather radar are highly correlated (correlation ≈ 0.90), while weaker correlations (correlation ≈ 0.63) are found between the spatially mean rain rate retrievals from these instruments. The combined use of information on CWP, cloud thermodynamic phase, and particle size for the detection of precipitation results in an increase in explained variance (˜10%) and decrease in false alarms (˜15%), as compared to detection methods that are solely based on a threshold CWP. At a pixel level, the SEVIRI retrievals have an acceptable accuracy (bias) of about 0.1 mm h-1 and a precision (standard error) of about 0.8 mm h-1. It is argued that parts of the differences are caused by collocation errors and parallax shifts in the SEVIRI data and by irregularities in the weather radar data. In future studies we intend to exploit the observations of the European weather radar network Operational Programme for the Exchange of Weather Radar Information

  13. Use of meteorological satellite observations in weather modification programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, A. S.; Smith, P. L., Jr.; Biswas, K. R.

    1973-01-01

    The potential value of weather satellite data in field operations of weather modification is appraised. It was found that satellites could play a useful role in operational weather modification projects, particularly in the recognition of treatment opportunities. Satellite cloud photographs and infrared observations appear promising in the identification of treatment opportunities in seeding orographic cloud systems for increased snowpack, in seeding convective clouds for increased rainfall, in identifying hail threats, and in tracking and observing hurricanes as an aid to timing and location of seeding treatments. It was concluded that the potential value of satellite data in the treatment and evaluation phases of operational projects is not as great as in the recognition of treatment opportunity.

  14. The National Eclipse Weather Experiment: an assessment of citizen scientist weather observations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The National Eclipse Weather Experiment (NEWEx) was a citizen science project designed to assess the effects of the 20 March 2015 partial solar eclipse on the weather over the United Kingdom (UK). NEWEx had two principal objectives: to provide a spatial network of meteorological observations across the UK to aid the investigation of eclipse-induced weather changes, and to develop a nationwide public engagement activity-based participation of citizen scientists. In total, NEWEx collected 15 606 observations of air temperature, cloudiness and wind speed and direction from 309 locations across the UK, over a 3 h window spanning the eclipse period. The headline results were processed in near real time, immediately published online, and featured in UK national press articles on the day of the eclipse. Here, we describe the technical development of NEWEx and how the observations provided by the citizen scientists were analysed. By comparing the results of the NEWEx analyses with results from other investigations of the same eclipse using different observational networks, including measurements from the University of Reading’s Atmospheric Observatory, we demonstrate that NEWEx provided a fair representation of the change in the UK meteorological conditions throughout the eclipse. Despite the simplicity of the approach adopted, robust reductions in both temperature and wind speed during the eclipse were observed. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550767

  15. The National Eclipse Weather Experiment: an assessment of citizen scientist weather observations.

    PubMed

    Barnard, L; Portas, A M; Gray, S L; Harrison, R G

    2016-09-28

    The National Eclipse Weather Experiment (NEWEx) was a citizen science project designed to assess the effects of the 20 March 2015 partial solar eclipse on the weather over the United Kingdom (UK). NEWEx had two principal objectives: to provide a spatial network of meteorological observations across the UK to aid the investigation of eclipse-induced weather changes, and to develop a nationwide public engagement activity-based participation of citizen scientists. In total, NEWEx collected 15 606 observations of air temperature, cloudiness and wind speed and direction from 309 locations across the UK, over a 3 h window spanning the eclipse period. The headline results were processed in near real time, immediately published online, and featured in UK national press articles on the day of the eclipse. Here, we describe the technical development of NEWEx and how the observations provided by the citizen scientists were analysed. By comparing the results of the NEWEx analyses with results from other investigations of the same eclipse using different observational networks, including measurements from the University of Reading's Atmospheric Observatory, we demonstrate that NEWEx provided a fair representation of the change in the UK meteorological conditions throughout the eclipse. Despite the simplicity of the approach adopted, robust reductions in both temperature and wind speed during the eclipse were observed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  16. Aviation Weather Observations for Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS) and Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS). Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

    This handbook provides instructions for observing, identifying, and recording aviation weather at Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS) and Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS). Official technical definitions, meteorological and administrative procedures are outlined. Although this publication is intended for use…

  17. Surface chemistry associated with the cooling and subaerial weathering of recent basalt flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.F.; Hochella, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    The surface chemistry of fresh and weathered historical basalt flows was characterized using surface-sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Surfaces of unweathered 1987-1990 flows from the Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, exhibited variable enrichment in Al, Mg, Ca, and F due to the formation of refractory fluoride compounds and pronounced depletion in Si and Fe from the volatilization of SiF4 and FeF3 during cooling. These reactions, as predicted from shifts in thermodynamic equilibrium with temperature, are induced by diffusion of HF from the flow interiors to the cooling surface. The lack of Si loss and solid fluoride formation for recent basalts from the Krafla Volcano, Iceland, suggest HF degassing at higher temperatures. Subsequent short-term subaerial weathering reactions are strongly influenced by the initial surface composition of the flow and therefore its cooling history. Successive samples collected from the 1987 Kilauea flow demonstrated that the fluoridated flow surfaces leached to a predominantly SiO2 composition by natural weathering within one year. These chemically depleted surfaces were also observed on Hawaiian basalt flows dating back to 1801 AD. Solubility and kinetic models, based on thermodynamic and kinetic data for crystalline AlF3, MgF2, and CaF2, support observed elemental depletion rates due to chemical weathering. Additional loss of alkalis from the Hawaiian basalt occurs from incongruent dissolution of the basalt glass substrate during weathering. ?? 1992.

  18. Weather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on weather in Iowa and weather lore. The bulletin contains historical articles, fiction, activities, and maps. The table of contents lists: (1) "Wild Rosie's Map"; (2) "History Mystery"; (3) "Iowa's Weather History"; (4) "Weather Wonders"; (6)…

  19. Weather observations on Whistler Mountain during five storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thériault, Julie M.; Rasmussen, Kristen L.; Fisico, Teresa; Stewart, Ronald E.; Joe, Paul; Gultepe, Ismail; Clément, Marilys; Isaac, George A.

    2014-01-01

    A greater understanding of precipitation formation processes over complex terrain near the west coast of British Colombia will contribute to many relevant applications, such as climate studies, local hydrology, transportation, and winter sport competition. The phase of precipitation is difficult to determine because of the warm and moist weather conditions experienced during the wintertime in coastal mountain ranges. The goal of this study is to investigate the wide range of meteorological conditions that generated precipitation on Whistler Mountain from 4-12 March 2010 during the SNOW-V10 field campaign. During this time period, five different storms were documented in detail and were associated with noticeably different meteorological conditions in the vicinity of Whistler Mountain. New measurement techniques, along with the SNOW-V10 instrumentation, were used to obtain in situ observations during precipitation events along the Whistler mountainside. The results demonstrate a high variability of weather conditions ranging from the synoptic-scale to the macro-scale. These weather events were associated with a variation of precipitation along the mountainside, such as events associated with snow, snow pellets, and rain. Only two events associated with a rain-snow transition along the mountainside were observed, even though above-freezing temperatures along the mountainside were recorded 90 % of the time. On a smaller scale, these events were also associated with a high variability of snowflake types that were observed simultaneously near the top of Whistler Mountain. Overall, these detailed observations demonstrate the importance of understanding small-scale processes to improve observational techniques, short-term weather prediction, and longer-term climate projections over mountainous regions.

  20. Physical and chemical weathering. [of Martian surface and rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, James L.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Zolotov, Mikhail IU.

    1992-01-01

    Physical and chemical weathering processes that might be important on Mars are reviewed, and the limited observations, including relevant Viking results and laboratory simulations, are summarized. Physical weathering may have included rock splitting through growth of ice, salt or secondary silicate crystals in voids. Chemical weathering probably involved reactions of minerals with water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide, although predicted products vary sensitively with the abundance and physical form postulated for the water. On the basis of kinetics data for hydration of rock glass on earth, the fate of weathering-rind formation on glass-bearing Martian volcanic rocks is tentatively estimated to have been on the order of 0.1 to 4.5 cm/Gyr; lower rates would be expected for crystalline rocks.

  1. Establishment and Discontinuance Criteria for Automated Weather Observing Systems (AWOS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    regulations for coummercial operations. SAWRS weather observations, however, are generally taken only when needed by the operator and are not routinely...the general policy of paragraph 10 of FAA Order 7031.2B, Airway Planning Standard Number One (Reference I), which provides eligibility for inclusion of... generalized criteria designed to initially identify potential establishment and discontinuance candidates. Phase II is a site-specific camputerized

  2. Land-surface influences on weather and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, F.; Mintz, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Land-surface influences on weather and climate are reviewed. The interrelationship of vegetation, evapotranspiration, atmospheric circulation, and climate is discussed. Global precipitation, soil moisture, the seasonal water cycle, heat transfer, and atmospheric temperature are among the parameters considered in the context of a general biosphere model.

  3. Mobile vehicle road and weather observation quality check methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, Daniel Raymond

    data quality and accuracy, requiring the development of quality checks for mobile data collection. Using OBDII-equipped automobiles and mobile collection methods, we can begin to address issues of data quality by understanding, characterizing, and demonstrating the quality of mobile system observations from operational and research environments. Several forms of quality checking can be used, including range checks, Barnes spatial checks, comparing vehicle data to road weather models, and applying Clarus quality check methodologies and algorithms to mobile observations. Development of these quality checks can lead to the future integration of mobile data into the Clarus system, data implementation for improved forecasting, maintenance decision support, and traveler safety. This paper will discuss the benefits and challenges in mobile data collection, along with how the development and implementation of a system of quality checks will improve the quality and accuracy of mobile data collection.

  4. Jovian magnetospheric weathering of Europa's nonice surface material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbitts, Charles A.; Paranicas, Christopher; Blaney, Diana L.; Murchie, Scott; Seelos, Frank

    2016-10-01

    Jovian plasma and energetic charged particles bombard the Galilean satellites. These satellites vary from volcanically active (Io) to a nearly primordial surface (Callisto). These satellites are imbedded in a harsh and complex particle radiation environment that weathers their surfaces, and thus are virtual laboratories for understanding how particle bombardment alters the surfaces of airless bodies. Europa orbits deeply in the Jovian radiation belts and may have an active surface, where space weathering and geologic processes can interact in complex ways with a range of timescales. At Europa's surface temperature of 80K to 130K, the hydrated nonice material and to a lesser extent, water ice, will be thermally stable over geologic times and will exhibit the effects of weathering. The ice on the surface of Europa is amorphous and contains trace products such as H2O2 [1] due to weathering. The nonice material, which likely has an endogenic component [2] may also be partially amorphous and chemically altered as a result of being weathered by electrons, Iogenic sulfur, or other agents [3]. This hydrated salt or frozen brine likely compositionally 'matures' over time as the more weakly bound constituents are preferentially removed compared with Ca and Mg [4]. Electron bombardment induces chemical reactions through deposition of energy (e.g., ionizations) possibly explaining some of the nonice material's redness [5,6]. Concurrently, micrometeroid gardening mixes the upper surface burying weathered and altered material while exposing both fresh material and previous altered material, potentially with astrobiological implications. Our investigation of the spectral alteration of nonice analog materials irradiated by 10s keV electrons demonstrates the prevalence of this alteration and we discuss relevance to potential measurements by the Europa MISE instrument.References: [1] Moore, M. and R. Hudson, (2000), Icarus, 145, 282-288; [2] McCord et al., (1998), Science, 280, 1242

  5. Structural analysis of heat-treated birch (Betule papyrifera) surface during artificial weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xianai; Kocaefe, Duygu; Kocaefe, Yasar; Boluk, Yaman; Krause, Cornélia

    2013-01-01

    Effect of artificial weathering on the surface structural changes of birch (Betule papyrifera) wood, heat-treated to different temperatures, was studied using the fluorescence microscopy and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Changes in the chemical structure of wood components were analyzed by FTIR in order to understand the mechanism of degradation taking place due to heat treatment and artificial weathering. The results are compared with those of the untreated (kiln-dried) birch. The SEM analysis results show that the effect of weathering on the cell wall of the untreated birch surface is more than that of heat-treated samples. The FTIR spectroscopy results indicate that lignin is the most sensitive component of heat-treated birch to the weathering degradation process. Elimination of the amorphous and highly crystallised cellulose is observed for both heat-treated and untreated wood during weathering. It is also observed that heat treatment increases the lignin and crystallised cellulose contents, which to some extent protects heat-treated birch against degradation due to weathering.

  6. A climatological link between slantwise instability and surface weather conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glinton, M. R.; Gray, S. L.; Chagnon, J. M.; Morcrette, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    Midlatitude weather phenomena including rainbands in fronts and cloud heads and the descending sting jets found in extreme windstorms have been attributed, in part, to the release of conditional symmetric instability (CSI). CSI is a slantwise parcel instability arising from the combination of inertial and gravitational instability in a baroclinic atmosphere; its release gives slantwise convection. However, to date, demonstration of the link between CSI and severe weather has been confined to a few case studies. Weather forecast models with domains big enough to encompass entire midlatitude storms do not have sufficient resolution to realistically resolve the release of CSI, and CSI release is not parameterized in these models. The consequences of this lack of representation of CSI release are currently unknown and motivate this study. We present a North Atlantic climatology of the energy available for slantwise convection due to CSI derived from the ERA-Interim re-analysis, and compare it with an equivalent climatology of CAPE (the energy available for upright convection due to conditional instability). The annual cycle of land and sea surface temperatures are shown to strongly modulate these instabilities. The statistical relationship between these instabilities and surface weather conditions are presented.

  7. On the dual nature of lichen-induced rock surface weathering in contrasting micro-environments.

    PubMed

    Marques, Joana; Gonçalves, João; Oliveira, Cláudia; Favero-Longo, Sergio E; Paz-Bermúdez, Graciela; Almeida, Rubim; Prieto, Beatriz

    2016-10-01

    Contradictory evidence from biogeomorphological studies has increased the debate on the extent of lichen contribution to differential rock surface weathering in both natural and cultural settings. This study, undertaken in Côa Valley Archaeological Park, aimed at evaluating the effect of rock surface orientation on the weathering ability of dominant lichens. Hyphal penetration and oxalate formation at the lichen-rock interface were evaluated as proxies of physical and chemical weathering, respectively. A new protocol of pixel-based supervised image classification for the analysis of periodic acid-Schiff stained cross-sections of colonized schist revealed that hyphal spread of individual species was not influenced by surface orientation. However, hyphal spread was significantly higher in species dominant on northwest facing surfaces. An apparently opposite effect was noticed in terms of calcium oxalate accumulation at the lichen-rock interface; it was detected by Raman spectroscopy and complementary X-ray microdiffraction on southeast facing surfaces only. These results suggest that lichen-induced physical weathering may be most severe on northwest facing surfaces by means of an indirect effect of surface orientation on species abundance, and thus dependent on the species, whereas lichen-induced chemical weathering is apparently higher on southeast facing surfaces and dependent on micro-environmental conditions, giving only weak support to the hypothesis that lichens are responsible for the currently observed pattern of rock-art distribution in Côa Valley. Assumptions about the drivers of open-air rock-art distribution patterns elsewhere should also consider the micro-environmental controls of lichen-induced weathering, to avoid biased measures of lichen contribution to rock-art deterioration.

  8. Global cloud climatology from surface observations

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.

    1995-09-01

    Surface weather observations from stations on land and ships in the ocean are used to obtain the global distribution, at 5{sup o}x5{sup o} latitude-longitude resolution, of total cloud cover and the average amounts of the different cloud types: cumulus, cumulonimbus, stratus, stratocumulus, nimbostratus, altostratus, altocumulus, cirrus, cirrostratus, cirrocumulus, and fog. Diurnal and seasonal variations are derived, as well as interannual variations and multi-year trends. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Does mineral surface area affect chemical weathering rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salome Eiriksdottir, Eydis; Reynir Gislason, Sigurdur; Oelkers, Eric H.

    2010-05-01

    Iceland is a basaltic volcanic island representative of the high relief, volcanic and tectonic active islands that contribute over 45% of river suspended material to the oceans worldwide (Milliman and Syvitski, 1992). These islands have enormous mechanical and chemical weathering rates due to the combined effects of high relief, high runoff, the presence of glaciers and easily weathered volcanic rocks, and a lack of sedimentary traps. In total, Iceland delivers 0.7% of the worldwide river suspended matter flux to the ocean, which is approximately one fourth that of Africa (Tómasson, 1990). River suspended matter from volcanic islands is highly reactive in seawater and might play an important role in the global carbon cycle (Gislason et al., 2006). Thus it is important to define and understand the mechanical and chemical weathering rates of these islands. Experimental dissolution experiments performed in the laboratory suggest that chemical weathering rates should be proportional to rock-water interfacial surface area. This hypothesis is tested in the present study through a study of the chemical composition of suspended material collected from rivers located in Northeast Iceland. These rivers were selected for this study because their catchments essentially monolithic, consisting of uniform compositioned and aged basalts. Gaillardet (1999) described weathering intensities of the worlds river systems to be from 1 (low weathering intensity) to 25 (high weathering intensity). These indexes were calculated to be from 1.8 to 3.2 in rivers in NE-Iceland (Eiriksdottir et al., 2008). The surface area of sediments is inversely proportional to particle size; smaller particles have larger specific surface areas. As a result, smaller particles should weather faster. This trend is confirmed by the measured compositions of analyzed suspended material. The concentration of insoluble elements (Zr, Fe, Cu, Ni, Y) is found to increase in the suspended material, whereas the

  10. Surface Landing Site Weather Analysis for NASA's Constellation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altino, Karen M.; Burns, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Weather information is an important asset for NASA's Constellation Program in developing the next generation space transportation system to fly to the International Space Station, the Moon and, eventually, to Mars. Weather conditions can affect vehicle safety and performance during multiple mission phases ranging from pre-launch ground processing of the Ares vehicles to landing and recovery operations, including all potential abort scenarios. Meteorological analysis is art important contributor, not only to the development and verification of system design requirements but also to mission planning and active ground operations. Of particular interest are the surface weather conditions at both nominal and abort landing sites for the manned Orion capsule. Weather parameters such as wind, rain, and fog all play critical roles in the safe landing of the vehicle and subsequent crew and vehicle recovery. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Natural Environments Branch has been tasked by the Constellation Program with defining the natural environments at potential landing zones. This paper wiI1 describe the methodology used for data collection and quality control, detail the types of analyses performed, and provide a sample of the results that cab be obtained.

  11. Surface weathering and dispersibility of MC252 crude oil.

    PubMed

    Daling, Per S; Leirvik, Frode; Almås, Inger Kjersti; Brandvik, Per Johan; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Lewis, Alun; Reed, Mark

    2014-10-15

    Results from a comprehensive oil weathering and dispersant effectiveness study of the MC252 crude oil have been used to predict changes in oil properties due to weathering on the sea surface and to estimate the effective "time window" for dispersant application under various sea conditions. MC252 oil is a light paraffinic crude oil, for which approximately 55 wt.% will evaporate within 3-5 days when drifting on the sea. An unstable and low-viscosity water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion are formed during the first few days at the sea surface. This allows a high degree of natural dispersion when exposed to breaking wave conditions. Under calm sea conditions, a more stable and light-brown/orange colored water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion may start to form after several days, and viscosities of 10,000-15,000 mPa s can be achieved after 1-2 weeks. The "time window" for effective use of dispersants was estimated to be more than 1 week weathering at sea.

  12. Effect of accelerated weathering on surface chemistry of modified wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temiz, Ali; Terziev, Nasko; Eikenes, Morten; Hafren, Jonas

    2007-04-01

    In this study, the effects of UV-light irradiation and water spray on colour and surface chemistry of scots pine sapwood samples were investigated. The specimens were treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA), a metal-free propiconazol-based formulation, chitosan, furfuryl alcohol and linseed and tall oils. The weathering experiment was performed by cycles of 2 h UV-light irradiation followed by water spray for 18 min. The changes at the surface of the weathered samples were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR); colour characterizations were performed by measuring CIELab parameters. The results show that all treatment methods except chitosan treatment provided lower colour changes than the control groups after 800 h exposure in weathering test cycle, but differences between chitosan and control were also small. The lowest colour changes were found on linseed oil (full cell process) and CCA treated wood. FT-IR results show that oil treatment (linseed and tall oil) decreased the intensities of a lignin specific peak (1500-1515 cm -1). Absorption band changes at 1630-1660 cm -1 were reduced by all treatments.

  13. Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-10-27

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management.

  14. Two cases of severe weather in Catalonia (Spain): an observational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramis, Clemente; Arús, Joan; López, José Manuel; Mestres, Antoni M.

    1997-09-01

    Surface observations, satellite and radar imagery and cloud-to-ground lightning data are used in an observational study of two cases that produced severe weather in Catalonia (Spain). The first one occurred on 24 August 1993; a squall line crossed Catalonia from west to east producing heavy rain with rates of up to 100 mm h[minus sign]1 and hail of 7 cm diameter. The observational information provided is a good tool for monitoring the event and issuing a reasonable nowcast. The second case, which occurred on 31 August 1994, was associated with the development of a tornado (F1 in the Fujita scale) as well as hail of up to 5 cm diameter. In this case the convection was almost stationary and no clear signatures of severe weather can be identified from available satellite and radar imagery.

  15. Personal Computers, Weather Observations, and the National Climatic Data Center.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Richard, Jr.

    1988-05-01

    The personal computer (PC) has become an important part of meteorological observing, telecommunications, forecasting, research, and data-management systems. The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) is the nation's quality-control and archival facility for weather data. NCDC's digital archive consists of more than 200 data sets which are stored on over 50 000 reels of high-density magnetic tape. Its size and complexity make on-line access to the complete archive via PC and modem impractical. However, NCDC recognizes the growing importance of PCs in climatic applications and, since 1984, has made selected data sets available in a PC-readable format.The data sets available on diskette fall into the following broad categories: hourly observations, daily observations, derived quantities, and summary statistics. The period of record varies with each data set and with each station. In the digital archive, daily observations generally begin in the late 1800's to the early 1900's, and hourly observations generally begin in the mid 1900's.A review of NCDC data operations and products puts the digital archive into an operational perspective. The two formats (BASIC sequential element, and fixed-position fields) in which data-set diskettes are available are sumniafized. BASIC-sequential-element files can be "imported" into a LOTUS-type spreadsheet.NCDC is also responsible for describing the nation's climate. These functions have been condensed into a climatological data-management and analysis software package, called CLICOM, which can be run on a PC.

  16. Widespread Weathered Glass on the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horgan, Briony; Bell, James F., III

    2012-01-01

    Low albedo sediments cover >10(exp 7) sq km in the northern lowlands of Mars, but the composition and origin of these widespread deposits have remained ambiguous despite many previous investigations. Here we use near-infrared spectra acquired by the Mars Express OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activite') imaging spectrometer to show that these sediments exhibit spectral characteristics that are consistent with both high abundances of iron-bearing glass and silica-enriched leached rinds on glass. This interpretation is supported by observations of low-albedo soil grains with possible rinds at the Phoenix Mars Lander landing site in the northern lowlands. By comparison with the extensive glass-rich dune fields and sand sheets of Iceland, we propose an explosive volcanic origin for these glass-rich sediments. We also propose that the glassy remnant rinds on the sediments are the result of post-depositional alteration, as these rinds are commonly formed in arid terrestrial volcanic environments during water-limited, moderately acidic leaching. These weathered, glass-rich deposits in the northern lowlands are also colocated with the strongest concentrations of a major global compositional surface type previously identified in mid-infrared spectra, suggesting that they may be representative of global processes. Our results provide potential confirmation of models suggesting that explosive volcanism has been widespread on Mars, and also raise the possibilities that glass-rich volcaniclastics are a major source of eolian sand on Mars and that widespread surficial aqueous alteration has occurred under Amazonian climatic conditions.

  17. Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2008-03-01

    The Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) mostly uses conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute, 30-minute, and 1440-minute (daily) averages of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity (RH), barometric pressure, and precipitation at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) climate research site. The SMOSs are not calibrated as systems. The sensors and the data logger (which includes the analog-to-digital converter, or A/D) are calibrated separately. All systems are installed using components that have a current calibration. SMOSs have not been installed at extended facilities located within about 10 km of existing surface meteorological stations, such as those of the Oklahoma Mesonet. The Surface Meteorological Observation Systems are used to create climatology for each particular location, and to verify the output of numerical weather forecast and other model output. They are also used to “ground-truth” other remote sensing equipment.

  18. Optical space weathering on Vesta: Radiative-transfer models and Dawn observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewett, David T.; Denevi, Brett W.; Le Corre, Lucille; Reddy, Vishnu; Schröder, Stefan E.; Pieters, Carle M.; Tosi, Federico; Zambon, Francesca; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Ammannito, Eleonora; Roatsch, Thomas; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to ion and micrometeoroid bombardment in the space environment causes physical and chemical changes in the surface of an airless planetary body. These changes, called space weathering, can strongly influence a surface's optical characteristics, and hence complicate interpretation of composition from reflectance spectroscopy. Prior work using data from the Dawn spacecraft (Pieters, C.M. et al. [2012]. Nature 491, 79-82) found that accumulation of nanophase metallic iron (npFe0), which is a key space-weathering product on the Moon, does not appear to be important on Vesta, and instead regolith evolution is dominated by mixing with carbonaceous chondrite (CC) material delivered by impacts. In order to gain further insight into the nature of space weathering on Vesta, we constructed model reflectance spectra using Hapke's radiative-transfer theory and used them as an aid to understanding multispectral observations obtained by Dawn's Framing Cameras (FC). The model spectra, for a howardite mineral assemblage, include both the effects of npFe0 and that of a mixed CC component. We found that a plot of the 438-nm/555-nm ratio vs. the 555-nm reflectance for the model spectra helps to separate the effects of lunar-style space weathering (LSSW) from those of CC-mixing. We then constructed ratio-reflectance pixel scatterplots using FC images for four areas of contrasting composition: a eucritic area at Vibidia crater, a diogenitic area near Antonia crater, olivine-bearing material within Bellicia crater, and a light mantle unit (referred to as an ;orange patch; in some previous studies, based on steep spectral slope in the visible) northeast of Oppia crater. In these four cases the observed spectral trends are those expected from CC-mixing, with no evidence for weathering dominated by production of npFe0. In order to survey a wider range of surfaces, we also defined a spectral parameter that is a function of the change in 438-nm/555-nm ratio and the 555-nm reflectance

  19. A statistical model for road surface friction forecasting applying optical road weather measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippi, M.; Juga, I.; Nurmi, P.

    2009-09-01

    Road surface friction is defined as the grip between car tyre and underlying surface. Poor friction often plays a crucial role in wintertime car accidents. Friction can decrease dramatically during snowfall or when wet road surface temperature falls below zero. Even a thin layer of ice or snow can decrease friction substantially increasing the risk of accidents. Many studies have shown that road surface temperature, road conditions and friction can fluctuate dramatically within short distances under specific weather situations. Friction or grip can be improved with road maintenance activities like salting and gritting. Salting will melt the ice or snow layer, whereas gritting will improve the grip. Salting is effective only above -5C temperatures. Light snowfall together with low temperatures can result in very slippery driving conditions. Finnish Road Administration's observing network covers c. 500 road weather stations in Finland. Almost 100 of them are equipped with optical sensors (in winter 2008-2009). The number of optical sensors has increased remarkably during past few years. The optical measuring devices are Vaisala DSC111 sensors which measure the depth of water, snow and ice on the road surface and also produce an estimate of the state of road and prevailing friction. Observation data from road weather stations with optical sensors were collected from winter 2007/08, and a couple of representative (from a weather perspective) stations were selected for detailed statistical analysis. The purpose of the study was to find a statistical relationship between the observed values and, especially, the correlation between friction and other road weather parameters. Consequently, a model based on linear regression was developed. With the model friction being the dependent variable, the independent variables having highest correlations were the composite of ice and snow (water content) on the road, and the road surface temperature. In the case of a wet road

  20. Lightning Sensors for Observing, Tracking and Nowcasting Severe Weather

    PubMed Central

    Price, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Severe and extreme weather is a major natural hazard all over the world, often resulting in major natural disasters such as hail storms, tornados, wind storms, flash floods, forest fires and lightning damages. While precipitation, wind, hail, tornados, turbulence, etc. can only be observed at close distances, lightning activity in these damaging storms can be monitored at all spatial scales, from local (using very high frequency [VHF] sensors), to regional (using very low frequency [VLF] sensors), and even global scales (using extremely low frequency [ELF] sensors). Using sensors that detect the radio waves emitted by each lightning discharge, it is now possible to observe and track continuously distant thunderstorms using ground networks of sensors. In addition to the number of lightning discharges, these sensors can also provide information on lightning characteristics such as the ratio between intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning, the polarity of the lightning discharge, peak currents, charge removal, etc. It has been shown that changes in some of these lightning characteristics during thunderstorms are often related to changes in the severity of the storms. In this paper different lightning observing systems are described, and a few examples are provided showing how lightning may be used to monitor storm hazards around the globe, while also providing the possibility of supplying short term forecasts, called nowcasting. PMID:27879700

  1. Advances in Data Assimilation and Weather Prediction Using TRMM Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor); Hou, Arthur Y.; Zhang, Sara; daSilvia, Arlindo; Li, Jui-Lin; Zhang, Minghua

    2002-01-01

    Understanding the Earth's climate and how it responds to climate perturbations requires knowledge of how atmospheric moisture, clouds, latent heating, the large-scale circulation and energy fluxes vary with changing climatic conditions. The physical process linking these climate elements is precipitation. Accurate knowledge of how precipitation varies in space and time and how it couples with other atmospheric variables is essential for understanding the global water and energy cycle. In recent years, TRMM data products have played a key role in advancing the field of data assimilation to provide better global analyses for climate research and numerical weather prediction. TRMM research has demonstrated the effectiveness of microwave-based rainfall and total precipitable water (TPW) observations in improving the quality of assimilated datasets and upgrading forecast skills. TRMM latent heating products have also stimulated experimentation with innovative techniques to use this type of information to improve global analyses. We discuss strategies of assimilating TRMM observations at NASA s Data Assimilation Office and present results on the impact assimilating TRMM data on the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) analyses and forecast capabilities.

  2. Observations from remote weather stations in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gartner, J.W.; Cheng, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    Weather data collected at three remote weather stations in the San Francisco Bay estuarine system between November 1979 and September 1981 are compiled in this report. Measurements include average and maximum wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and irradiance. Data are presented in time-series plots with each graph covering one calendar month. Daily averages of all measurements are tabulated.

  3. Aviation & Space Weather Policy Research: Integrating Space Weather Observations & Forecasts into Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, G.; Jones, B.

    2006-12-01

    The American Meteorological Society and SolarMetrics Limited are conducting a policy research project leading to recommendations that will increase the safety, reliability, and efficiency of the nation's airline operations through more effective use of space weather forecasts and information. This study, which is funded by a 3-year National Science Foundation grant, also has the support of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) who is planning the Next Generation Air Transportation System. A major component involves interviewing and bringing together key people in the aviation industry who deal with space weather information. This research also examines public and industrial strategies and plans to respond to space weather information. The focus is to examine policy issues in implementing effective application of space weather services to the management of the nation's aviation system. The results from this project will provide government and industry leaders with additional tools and information to make effective decisions with respect to investments in space weather research and services. While space weather can impact the entire aviation industry, and this project will address national and international issues, the primary focus will be on developing a U.S. perspective for the airlines.

  4. Lightning Sensors for Observing, Tracking and Nowcasting Severe Weather.

    PubMed

    Price, Colin

    2008-01-21

    Severe and extreme weather is a major natural hazard all over the world, oftenresulting in major natural disasters such as hail storms, tornados, wind storms, flash floods,forest fires and lightning damages. While precipitation, wind, hail, tornados, turbulence,etc. can only be observed at close distances, lightning activity in these damaging stormscan be monitored at all spatial scales, from local (using very high frequency [VHF]sensors), to regional (using very low frequency [VLF] sensors), and even global scales(using extremely low frequency [ELF] sensors). Using sensors that detect the radio wavesemitted by each lightning discharge, it is now possible to observe and track continuouslydistant thunderstorms using ground networks of sensors. In addition to the number oflightning discharges, these sensors can also provide information on lightningcharacteristics such as the ratio between intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning, thepolarity of the lightning discharge, peak currents, charge removal, etc. It has been shownthat changes in some of these lightning characteristics during thunderstorms are oftenrelated to changes in the severity of the storms. In this paper different lightning observingsystems are described, and a few examples are provided showing how lightning may beused to monitor storm hazards around the globe, while also providing the possibility ofsupplying short term forecasts, called nowcasting.

  5. Evaluation of Weather Research and Forecasting Model Predictions Using Micrometeorological Tower Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prashant; Bhattacharya, Bimal K.; Pal, P. K.

    2015-11-01

    Here we assess the predictive skill of short-range weather forecasts from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the help of micrometeorological tower observations. WRF model forecasts at a 3-h temporal resolution and 5000-m spatial resolution are compared with ground observations collected at micrometeorological towers during the year 2011 over the Indian landmass. Results show good agreement between the WRF model forecast and tower observed surface temperature and relative humidity, 10-m wind speed, and surface pressure. The WRF model simulations of surface energy fluxes, such as incoming shortwave, longwave radiation, and ground heat flux are also compared with micrometeorological tower measurements. Relatively high errors in incoming shortwave radiation flux may be attributed to the lack of accurate cloud prediction and the non-inclusion of aerosol load. The cyclic pattern of errors in surface relative humidity is found to be tightly and oppositely coupled with the incoming longwave radiation flux. Errors in soil heat fluxes during daytime hours are dominated by errors in the incoming shortwave radiation flux.

  6. Burkholderia susongensis sp. nov., a mineral-weathering bacterium isolated from weathered rock surface.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jia-Yu; Zang, Sheng-Gang; Sheng, Xia-Fang; He, Lin-Yan; Huang, Zhi; Wang, Qi

    2015-03-01

    A novel type of mineral-weathering bacterium was isolated from the weathered surface of rock (mica schist) collected from Susong (Anhui, China). Cells of strain L226(T) were Gram-stain-negative. The strain grew optimally at 30 °C, with 1 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7.0 in trypticase soy broth. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, strain L226(T) was shown to belong to the genus Burkholderia and the closest phylogenetic relatives were Burkholderia sprentiae WSM5005(T) (98.3 %), Burkholderia acidipaludis NBRC 101816(T) (98.2 %), Burkholderia tuberum STM678(T) (97.2 %) and Burkholderia diazotrophica JPY461(T) (97.1 %). The DNA G+C content was 63.5 mol% and the respiratory quinone was Q-8. The major fatty acids were C16 : 0, C17 : 0 cyclo and C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c. The polar lipid profile of strain L226(T) consisted of a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, unknown lipids and unidentified aminophospholipids. Based on the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 25.8 % to 34.4 %) to the tested type strains of species of the genus Burkholderia and unique phenotypic characteristics, it is suggested that strain L226(T) represents a novel species of the genus Burkholderia, for which the name Burkholderia susongensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is L226(T) ( = CCTCC AB2014142(T) = JCM 30231(T)).

  7. Tropical Ocean Surface Energy Balance Variability: Linking Weather to Climate Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Clayson, Carol Anne

    2013-01-01

    Radiative and turbulent surface exchanges of heat and moisture across the atmosphere-ocean interface are fundamental components of the Earth s energy and water balance. Characterizing the spatiotemporal variability of these exchanges of heat and moisture is critical to understanding the global water and energy cycle variations, quantifying atmosphere-ocean feedbacks, and improving model predictability. These fluxes are integral components to tropical ocean-atmosphere variability; they can drive ocean mixed layer variations and modify the atmospheric boundary layer properties including moist static stability, thereby influencing larger-scale tropical dynamics. Non-parametric cluster-based classification of atmospheric and ocean surface properties has shown an ability to identify coherent weather regimes, each typically associated with similar properties and processes. Using satellite-based observational radiative and turbulent energy flux products, this study investigates the relationship between these weather states and surface energy processes within the context of tropical climate variability. Investigations of surface energy variations accompanying intraseasonal and interannual tropical variability often use composite-based analyses of the mean quantities of interest. Here, a similar compositing technique is employed, but the focus is on the distribution of the heat and moisture fluxes within their weather regimes. Are the observed changes in surface energy components dominated by changes in the frequency of the weather regimes or through changes in the associated fluxes within those regimes? It is this question that the presented work intends to address. The distribution of the surface heat and moisture fluxes is evaluated for both normal and non-normal states. By examining both phases of the climatic oscillations, the symmetry of energy and water cycle responses are considered.

  8. U. S. Navy Cold Weather Handbook for Surface Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    of sea ice. Kernel Potlatch • January 1987 Aleutian Islands; Bering Sea , Participants: USS CARL VINSON (CVN 70) USS VINCENNES (CG 49) USS...NORPAC, KIRK and Kernel Potlatch exercises presented. Latest research findings in areas of ice removal, weather forecasting, cold weather clothing...1986) Cold Weather/Heavy Weather Lessons Learned During Kernel Potlatch Exercise. Commander, Carrier Group Three. San Diego, CA (January 1987) Cold

  9. Forecasting New Hampshire Power Outages through the Analysis of Weather Station Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fessenden, Ross T.

    Eversource Energy, formerly Public Service of New Hampshire (PSNH), has worked closely with Plymouth State University (PSU) in the past, and present, to better predict weather-related power outage events and maximize the efficiency with which Eversource responds to them. This research paired weather data from thirteen stations throughout New Hampshire, Vermont, and Massachusetts with Eversource Trouble Report and Unsatisfactory Performance of Equipment Report (TRUPER) data in an effort to quantify weather situations that lead to power outages. The ultimate goal involved developing a predictive model that uses weather data to forecast the magnitude of power outages. The study focused on the Eversource Western/Central service territory and utilized data from 2006-2010. The first four years, 2006-2009, were analyzed using Classification and Regression Tree (CART) statistical analysis. The results of this CART analysis trained a predictive model, while the fifth year, 2010, served as the testing set for the predictive model. To conduct the statistical analysis, a database was created pairing TRUPER reports with the closest available hourly weather observations. The database included nine weather variables matched with three variables from the TRUPER data: 1) customers, 2) customer minutes, and 3) outage duration. While the entire Eversource service territory saw 91,286 TRUPERs from 2006-2010, the Western/Central service territory, the focus of this study, accounted for 29,430. Before conducting the CART analysis, correlations between single weather variables and TRUPER data were calculated and, in general, proved xi weak. In addition to analyzing the complete four-year training data set, many portions/variations of the data set were analyzed. The analyses included a yearly analysis, time lag analysis, cold/warm-season analysis, and a single-station analysis. Although individual years and smaller data sets showed moderately higher correlations between weather and outage

  10. The impact of synoptic weather on UK surface ozone and implications for premature mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, R. J.; Butt, E. W.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Doherty, R. M.; Fenech, S.; Schmidt, A.; Arnold, S. R.; Savage, N. H.

    2016-12-01

    Air pollutants, such as ozone, have adverse impacts on human health and cause, for example, respiratory and cardiovascular problems. In the United Kingdom (UK), peak surface ozone concentrations typically occur in the spring and summer and are controlled by emission of precursor gases, tropospheric chemistry and local meteorology which can be influenced by large-scale synoptic weather regimes. In this study we composite surface and satellite observations of summer-time (April to September) ozone under different UK atmospheric circulation patterns, as defined by the Lamb weather types. Anticyclonic conditions and easterly flows are shown to significantly enhance ozone concentrations over the UK relative to summer-time average values. Anticyclonic stability and light winds aid the trapping of ozone and its precursor gases near the surface. Easterly flows (NE, E, SE) transport ozone and precursor gases from polluted regions in continental Europe (e.g. the Benelux region) to the UK. Cyclonic conditions and westerly flows, associated with unstable weather, transport ozone from the UK mainland, replacing it with clean maritime (North Atlantic) air masses. Increased cloud cover also likely decrease ozone production rates. We show that the UK Met Office regional air quality model successfully reproduces UK summer-time ozone concentrations and ozone enhancements under anticyclonic and south-easterly conditions for the summer of 2006. By using established ozone exposure-health burden metrics, anticyclonic and easterly condition enhanced surface ozone concentrations pose the greatest public health risk.

  11. Chitinophaga qingshengii sp. nov., isolated from weathered rock surface.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Qi; He, Lin-Yan; Huang, Zhi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2015-01-01

    A novel mineral-weathering bacterium was isolated from weathered rock (potassic trachyte) surfaces collected from Nanjing (Jiangsu, PR China). Cells of strain JN246(T) were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and non-motile. Strain JN246(T) was aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, and grew optimally at 28 °C and pH 7.0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain JN246(T) belonged to the genus Chitinophaga and the closest phylogenetic relatives were Chitinophaga eiseniae YC6729(T) (98.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Chitinophaga terrae KP01(T) (96.8%), and Chitinophaga jiangningensis JN53(T) (96.3 %). The major respiratory quinone was MK-7 and the major polyamine was homospermidine. The major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, C16:1ω5c, C16:0 and iso-C17:0 3-OH. The polar lipid profile of strain JN246(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids and unknown lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JN246(T) was 48.8 mol%. Based on the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness of strain JN246(T) (ranging from 22.6% to 42.4%) to the type strains of other species of the genus Chitinophaga and unique phenotypic characteristics, strain JN246(T) represents a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga qingshengii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JN246(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2014201(T) = JCM 30026(T)).

  12. Weather Observer, 15-1. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This course, adapted from military curriculum materials for use in vocational and technical education, was designed to upgrade an apprentice weather observer to the weather observer specialist level. Intended to be used in a laboratory or on-the-job learning situation, it contains both basic information needed for review and supervisory…

  13. Weather radar observations of the Hekla 2000 eruption cloud, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasse, C.; Karlsdóttir, S.; Larsen, G.; Soosalu, H.; Rose, W. I.; Ernst, G. G. J.

    The Hekla eruption cloud on 26-27 February 2000 was the first volcanic cloud to be continuously and completely monitored advecting above Iceland, using the C-band weather radar near the Keflavík international airport. Real-time radar observations of the onset, advection, and waning of the eruption cloud were studied using time series of PPI (plan-position indicator) radar images, including VMI normal, Echotop, and Cappi level 2 displays. The reflectivity of the entire volcanic cloud ranges from 0 to >60 dBz. The eruption column above the vent is essentially characterised by VMI normal and Cappi level 2 values, >30 dBz, due to the dominant influence of lapilli and ash (tephra) on the overall reflected signal. The cloud generated by the column was advected downwind to the north-northeast. It is characterised by values between 0 and 30 dBz, and the persistence of these reflections likely result from continuing water condensation and freezing on ash particles. Echotop radar images of the eruption onset document a rapid ascent of the plume head with a mean velocity of 30 to 50 m s-1, before it reached an altitude of 11-12 km. The evolution of the reflected cloud was studied from the area change in pixels of its highly reflected portions, >30 dBz, and tied to recorded volcanic tremor amplitudes. The synchronous initial variation of both radar and seismic signals documents the abrupt increase in tephra emission and magma discharge rate from 18:20 to 19:00 UTC on 26 February. From 19:00 the >45 dBz and 30-45 dBz portions of the reflected cloud decrease and disappear at about 7 and 10.5 h, respectively, after the eruption began, indicating the end of the decaying explosive phase. The advection and extent of the reflected eruption cloud were compared with eyewitness accounts of tephra fall onset and the measured mass of tephra deposited on the ground during the first 12 h. Differences in the deposit map and volcanic cloud radar map are due to the fact that the greater part

  14. Space Weathering Impact on Solar System Surfaces and Planetary Mission Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.

    2011-01-01

    We often look "through a glass, darkly" at solar system bodies with tenuous atmospheres and direct surface exposure to the local space environment. Space weathering exposure acts via universal space-surface interaction processes to produce a thin patina of outer material covering, potentially obscuring endogenic surface materials of greatest interest for understanding origins and interior evolution. Examples of obscuring exogenic layers are radiation crusts on cometary nuclei and iogenic components of sulfate hydrate deposits on the trailing hemisphere of Europa. Weathering processes include plasma ion implantation into surfaces, sputtering by charged particles and solar ultraviolet photons, photolytic chemistry driven by UV irradiation, and radiolytic chemistry evolving from products of charged particle irradiation. Regolith structure from impacts, and underlying deeper structures from internal evolution, affects efficacy of certain surface interactions, e.g. sputtering as affected by porosity and surface irradiation dosage as partly attenuated by local topographic shielding. These processes should be regarded for mission science planning as potentially enabling, e.g. since direct surface sputtering, and resultant surface-bound exospheres, can provide in-situ samples of surface composition to ion and neutral mass spectrometers on orbital spacecraft. Sample return for highest sensitivity compOSitional and structural analyses at Earth will usually be precluded by limited range of surface sampling, long times for return, and high cost. Targeted advancements in instrument technology would be more cost efficient for local remote and in-situ sample analysis. More realistic laboratory simulations, e.g. for bulk samples, are needed to interpret mission science observations of weathered surfaces. Space environment effects on mission spacecraft and science operations must also be specified and mitigated from the hourly to monthly changes in space weather and from longer

  15. Training Guide in Surface SAWRS Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD. National Weather Service.

    As a replacement of the 1949 primary training manual for supplementary aeronautical weather reports, instructions are presented in this Training Paper No. 5 for the purpose of guiding learners through their study of the Weather Service Observing Handbook (WSOH) No. 4. The content is divided into six chapters concerned with such topics as…

  16. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Space Environments Engineering and Crew Auroral Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph; Pettit, Donald R.; Hartman, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Today s presentation describes how real time space weather data is used by the International Space Station (ISS) space environments team to obtain data on auroral charging of the ISS vehicle and support ISS crew efforts to obtain auroral images from orbit. Topics covered include: Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), . Auroral charging of ISS, . Real ]time space weather monitoring resources, . Examples of ISS auroral charging captured from space weather events, . ISS crew observations of aurora.

  17. Seasonal variability of atmospheric surface layer characteristics and weather pattern in Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Dhrubajyoti; Cheng, Way Lee; Sadr, Reza

    2016-11-01

    Qatar's economy is based on oil and gas industry, which are mostly located in coastal regions. Therefore, better understanding of coastal weather, characteristics of surface layer and turbulence exchange processes is much needed. However, the turbulent atmospheric layer study in this region is severely limited. To support the broader aim and study long term precise wind information, a micro-meteorological field campaign has been carried out in a coastal location of north Qatar. The site is based on a 9 m tower, installed at Al Ghariya in the northern coast of Qatar, equipped with three sonic anemometers, temperature-humidity sensor, radiometer and a weather station. This study shows results based on the period August 2015 to July 2016. Various surface layer characteristics and modellings coefficients based on Monin Obukhov similarity theory is studied for the year and seasonal change is noted. Along with the seasonal variabilities of different weather parameters also observed. We hope this long term field observational study will be very much helpful for research community especially for modelers. In addition, two beach and shoreline monitoring cameras installed at the site could give first time information on waves and shoreline changes, and wind-wave interaction in Qatar. An Preliminary Analysis of Wind-Wave Interaction in Qatar in the Context of Changing Climate.

  18. Toward Application of Lightning Observations to Weather Forecasts and Warnings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macgorman, D. R.

    2002-12-01

    Once lightning mapping systems became fast enough to locate lightning in real or near-real time, it became possible to consider applications of lightning data to weather operations. The first system to be used routinely in such a way was the LLP direction-finder network deployed around 1980 by the Bureau of Land Management to help detect range and forest fires started by cloud-to-ground lightning. In 1987, a federal interagency group collaborated with the State University of New York at Albany to put together a trial National Lightning Detection Network for a three-year evaluation of possible applications to weather operations. During this trial, the National Weather Service determined that the lightning ground-strike data are useful for detecting the presence, configuration, and evolution of storms and storm systems, and so subsequently procured lightning strike mapping data for federal use that has continued to the present. Research since then has suggested that detection of positive cloud-to-ground lightning may also be useful, when combined with radar data, to help identify some severe storms, though the conditions under which this is possible are still being investigated. Furthermore, cloud-to-ground flash data can be assimilated into forecast models to improve the initial conditions, and hence the forecasts, of the models. More recently technology has advanced to the point that mapping all types of lightning is feasible. Because typically more than 70% of the lightning flashes produced by a storm do not strike ground, such technologies, at a minimum, would increase sampling rates to identify thunderstorms more quickly and reliably. However, different types of lightning also provide different information about storms. Cloud-to-ground lightning tends to indicate the formation and descent of precipitation, while cloud flash rates appear to be associated more closely with updraft and graupel evolution. Research is underway to determine and quantify these

  19. Spectral properties of Titan's impact craters imply chemical weathering of its surface.

    PubMed

    Neish, C D; Barnes, J W; Sotin, C; MacKenzie, S; Soderblom, J M; Le Mouélic, S; Kirk, R L; Stiles, B W; Malaska, M J; Le Gall, A; Brown, R H; Baines, K H; Buratti, B; Clark, R N; Nicholson, P D

    2015-05-28

    We examined the spectral properties of a selection of Titan's impact craters that represent a range of degradation states. The most degraded craters have rims and ejecta blankets with spectral characteristics that suggest that they are more enriched in water ice than the rims and ejecta blankets of the freshest craters on Titan. The progression is consistent with the chemical weathering of Titan's surface. We propose an evolutionary sequence such that Titan's craters expose an intimate mixture of water ice and organic materials, and chemical weathering by methane rainfall removes the soluble organic materials, leaving the insoluble organics and water ice behind. These observations support the idea that fluvial processes are active in Titan's equatorial regions.

  20. Spectral properties of Titan's impact craters imply chemical weathering of its surface

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, J. W.; Sotin, C.; MacKenzie, S.; Soderblom, J. M.; Le Mouélic, S.; Kirk, R. L.; Stiles, B. W.; Malaska, M. J.; Le Gall, A.; Brown, R. H.; Baines, K. H.; Buratti, B.; Clark, R. N.; Nicholson, P. D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We examined the spectral properties of a selection of Titan's impact craters that represent a range of degradation states. The most degraded craters have rims and ejecta blankets with spectral characteristics that suggest that they are more enriched in water ice than the rims and ejecta blankets of the freshest craters on Titan. The progression is consistent with the chemical weathering of Titan's surface. We propose an evolutionary sequence such that Titan's craters expose an intimate mixture of water ice and organic materials, and chemical weathering by methane rainfall removes the soluble organic materials, leaving the insoluble organics and water ice behind. These observations support the idea that fluvial processes are active in Titan's equatorial regions. PMID:27656006

  1. Very Short Range Statistical Forecasting of Automated Weather Observations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    8217rsistence? on Tab.o i.K.c. .,>~:-~ c~ r~ i cia , Iment and for .:Ii I i .1LI .l .1i i oU s Toe total number * .( L.2 rtLs ind project ions. Tahit . )r t...miles or greater and ceiling- 1Ufl( feet or greater. VIS--Visihility. WD--Wi Td d ire ct ion. WS--W- Ind speed. WX--Presont weather. A-2- *mW UV-V1V...score, and 4) log score should have more scores !avoring GEM than persistence when all predictands are Coils ide-. -(I. - GEM must demonstrate op ind

  2. Mercury's Weather-Beaten Surface: Understanding Mercury in the Context of Lunar and Asteroid Space Weathering Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominque, Deborah L.; Chapman, Clark R.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Slavin, James A.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Schriver, David; Sprague, Ann L.; Blewett, David T.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Feldman, William C.; Lawrence, David J.; Ho, George C.; Vilas, Faith; Pieters, Carle M.; McClintock, William E.; Helbert, Jorn

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the composition of Mercury's crust is key to comprehending the formation of the planet. The regolith, derived from the crustal bedrock, has been altered via a set of space weathering processes. These processes are the same set of mechanisms that work to form Mercury's exosphere, and are moderated by the local space environment and the presence of an intrinsic planetary magnetic field. The alterations need to be understood in order to determine the initial crustal compositions. The complex interrelationships between Mercury's exospheric processes, the space environment, and surface composition are examined and reviewed. The processes are examined in the context of our understanding of these same processes on the lunar and asteroid regoliths. Keywords: Mercury (planet) Space weathering Surface processes Exosphere Surface composition Space environment 3

  3. Impact of various observing systems on weather analysis and forecast over the Indian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Randhir; Ojha, Satya P.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the potential impact of various types of data on weather forecast over the Indian region, a set of data-denial experiments spanning the entire month of July 2012 is executed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system. The experiments are designed to allow the assessment of mass versus wind observations and terrestrial versus space-based instruments, to evaluate the relative importance of the classes of conventional instrument such as radiosonde, and finally to investigate the role of individual spaceborne instruments. The moist total energy norm is used for validation and forecast skill assessment. The results show that the contribution of wind observations toward error reduction is larger than mass observations in the short range (48 h) forecast. Terrestrial-based observations generally contribute more than space-based observations except for the moisture fields, where the role of the space-based instruments becomes more prevalent. Only about 50% of individual instruments are found to be beneficial in this experiment configuration, with the most important role played by radiosondes. Thereafter, Meteosat Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs) (only for short range forecast) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) are second and third, followed by surface observations, Sounder for Probing Vertical Profiles of Humidity (SAPHIR) radiances and pilot observations. Results of the additional experiments of comparative performance of SSM/I total precipitable water (TPW), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS), and SAPHIR radiances indicate that SSM/I is the most important instrument followed by SAPHIR and MHS for improving the quality of the forecast over the Indian region. Further, the impact of single SAPHIR instrument (onboard Megha-Tropiques) is significantly larger compared to three MHS instruments (onboard NOAA-18/19 and MetOp-A).

  4. Surface Exposure Ages of Space-Weathered Grains from Asteroid 25143 Itokawa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Berger, E. L.; Christoffersen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Space weathering processes such as solar wind ion irradiation and micrometeorite impacts are widely known to alter the properties of regolith materials exposed on airless bodies. The rates of space weathering processes however, are poorly constrained for asteroid regoliths, with recent estimates ranging over many orders of magnitude. The return of surface samples by JAXA's Hayabusa mission to asteroid 25143 Itokawa, and their laboratory analysis provides "ground truth" to anchor the timescales for space weathering processes on airless bodies.

  5. Seasonal changes in Titan's weather and surface features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, E. P.; Perry, J. E.; McEwen, A. S.; Barbara, J.; Del Genio, A.; West, R. A.; Hayes, A.; Schaller, E.

    2010-04-01

    Since Cassini's arrival at Saturn, the Titan's season has progressed from southern summer to just past the southern autumnal equinox (the equivalent of 12 January to 26 March), and accompanying changes in meteorology have been observed. Through 2004, large convective cloud systems were common over Titan's South Pole (e.g., Schaller et al., 2006); since 2005 such storms have been less common. Elongated streaks of clouds have been observed consistently at mid-southern latitudes, and became common at high northern latitudes in 2007. Only recently have clouds been detected at mid-northern latitudes. Changes have also been observed in surface features at high southern latitudes. A large dark area appeared between July 2004 and June 2005 (Turtle et al., 2009), and may have subsequently faded. Recent observations of Ontario Lacus suggest that its shoreline may have receded (e.g., Hayes et al., 2009). No changes have been observed to date in lakes and seas at high northern latitudes. Intriguingly, Cassini RADAR observations of Titan's South Pole reveal far fewer lakes than have been identified in the north (Stofan et al., 2007) and fewer than suggested by the number of dark features observed by ISS in this area (Turtle et al., 2009). This apparent discrepancy may indicate that not all of the dark south-polar features identified by ISS are filled with liquid. Alternatively, some lakes may be ephemeral: differences may be the result of precipitation and ponding of liquid methane and subsequent evaporation or infiltration thereof (Turtle et al., 2009) in the time between observations: ISS in mid-2004 and mid-2005 (equivalent of ~12 and ~25 January) and the RADAR observations starting in late 2007 (equivalent of ~28 February). We will present observations of Titan's meteorology and surface features, documenting seasonal changes and their implications for Titan's active methane cycle and atmospheric circulation.

  6. Ground-based observations of the fair weather vertical current response to solar disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhalal, G.; Yair, Y.; Harrison, R.; Nicoll, K.; Price, C. G.; Yaniv, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Global atmospheric Electric Circuit (GEC) is a conceptual model that represents the observed variable and quasi-static electrical properties of the atmosphere in the Earth-ionosphere cavity. The DC component of the GEC is typified by an average potential difference of 250 kV between the upper and lower conducting layers of the surface and ionosphere, leading to a near-surface electric field (Ez) of potential gradient ~130 V m-1, and a steady downward-flowing fair-weather current density (Jz) of ~2 pA m-2. By separation the steady global circuit current from short-term fluctuations, Jz provides information on local and global conductivity changes due to aerosols, air-pollution and solar activity. This talk will present evidence for the effects of geomagnetic storms and sub-storms on the fair weather vertical current, based on results from continuous measurements of Jz conducted at the Wise Observatory in Mitzpe-Ramon, Israel (30°35'N, 34°45'E) with the GDACCS instrument (Bennett and Harrison, 2008). We studied 3 coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which included solar proton events (SPE) on 26.09.11, 24.10.11 and 08.03.12. In all three events, fluctuations in Jz increased by an order of magnitude compared to normal fair weather conditions. The dynamic spectrum of the increased fluctuations exhibit peaks in the Pc5 frequency range. Similar low frequency characteristics occur during periods of enhanced solar wind proton density. During the 24.10.11 event, the periods of increased fluctuations in Jz lasted for 7 hours and coincided with fluctuations of the inter-planetary magnetic field (IMF) that were detected by the ACE satellite. The observed current density fluctuations occurred at a period when Bz<0 and when it was highly variable, suggesting the possibility for magnetic reconnection with ensuing changes in ionospheric properties. These low-latitude observations probably represent a response of the GEC to the solar induced geomagnetic sub-storms, perhaps arising

  7. Martian Weathering Environments of the Amazonian Indicated by Correlated Morphologic and Spectral Observation in Acidalia Planitia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, M. D.; Rogers, D.; Fergason, R. L.; Michalski, J. R.; Sharp, T. G.

    2009-12-01

    While much attention has been given to chemical alteration and the state of water on early Mars, it remains important to understand aqueous processes throughout Martian history, including the recent geologic past. It has been suggested that the Amazonian was marked primarily by anhydrous, oxidative weathering because Amazonian surfaces, such as the northern plains, lack hydration features in near-infrared spectra [1]. But high-silica materials (Surface Type 2, ST2) discovered by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer [2] that occur in the northern plains attest to aqueous alteration of silicate minerals. The questions are when did this occur and by what process? ST2 correlates spatially with outflow sediments and high-silica materials may have formed in large amounts of water related to outflow flooding events of the late Hesperian [3,4]. ST2 also may correspond to global ice-rich mantles, indicating formation in icy environments related to geologically recent climate fluctuations [3]. Can these very different mechanisms and environments be discerned? In a global study of TES spectra, Rogers et al. (2007) [5] found significant spectral differences between ST2 surfaces in northern and southern Acidalia Planitia that occur near 40-50° N. Several geomorphic transitions occur across latitudes, and many of these are directly or potentially related to Amazonian periglacial activity and occur in the 40-50° N range. This potential link between composition and periglacial morphology needs further exploration. We examined this relationship from 40-50° N in Acidalia Planitia, using Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) multispectral data to measure the local spectral properties of the surface. We identified a boundary between two surface spectral types that match closely the spectra of north and south Acidalia derived by Rogers et al. [2007]. This boundary is diffuse, occurring between 47-48° N in our study region in western Acidalia, and correlates with observed

  8. Correlation of the Abundance of Betaproteobacteria on Mineral Surfaces with Mineral Weathering in Forest Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lepleux, C.; Turpault, M. P.; Oger, P.; Frey-Klett, P.

    2012-01-01

    Pyrosequencing-based analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a significant correlation between apatite dissolution and the abundance of betaproteobacteria on apatite surfaces, suggesting a role for the bacteria belonging to this phylum in mineral weathering. Notably, the cultivation-dependent approach demonstrated that the most efficient mineral-weathering bacteria belonged to the betaproteobacterial genus Burhkolderia. PMID:22798365

  9. Improving weather predictability by including land-surface model parameter uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Pappenberger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    The land surface forms an important component of Earth system models and interacts nonlinearly with other parts such as ocean and atmosphere. To capture the complex and heterogenous hydrology of the land surface, land surface models include a large number of parameters impacting the coupling to other components of the Earth system model. Focusing on ECMWF's land-surface model HTESSEL we present in this study a comprehensive parameter sensitivity evaluation using multiple observational datasets in Europe. We select 6 poorly constrained effective parameters (surface runoff effective depth, skin conductivity, minimum stomatal resistance, maximum interception, soil moisture stress function shape, total soil depth) and explore their sensitivity to model outputs such as soil moisture, evapotranspiration and runoff using uncoupled simulations and coupled seasonal forecasts. Additionally we investigate the possibility to construct ensembles from the multiple land surface parameters. In the uncoupled runs we find that minimum stomatal resistance and total soil depth have the most influence on model performance. Forecast skill scores are moreover sensitive to the same parameters as HTESSEL performance in the uncoupled analysis. We demonstrate the robustness of our findings by comparing multiple best performing parameter sets and multiple randomly chosen parameter sets. We find better temperature and precipitation forecast skill with the best-performing parameter perturbations demonstrating representativeness of model performance across uncoupled (and hence less computationally demanding) and coupled settings. Finally, we construct ensemble forecasts from ensemble members derived with different best-performing parameterizations of HTESSEL. This incorporation of parameter uncertainty in the ensemble generation yields an increase in forecast skill, even beyond the skill of the default system. Orth, R., E. Dutra, and F. Pappenberger, 2016: Improving weather predictability by

  10. A new model for weathering front propagation and the formation of regolith coupled with surface erosion and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Jean; Mercier, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    In many environments, the weathering of rocks is an essential process that not only contributes directly to the removal of material from continental interiors to the world oceans but also plays an important role in preconditioning rocks for physical erosion and transport. Weathering results in the formation of a regolith profile that typically comprises a mobile soil layer, a saprolite layer (in-place weathered material) and a layer of fractured rock overlying the fresh bedrock. A large body of observations tells us that chemical weathering is primarily controlled by the presence/absence of water in the subsurface and must therefore be related to climate through precipitation and temperature. However, a predictive model that represents the complex interplay between the hydrology of the regolith and its growth/evolution by chemical weathering and surface erosion and transport is still lacking. Here we present a new numerical model of the propagation of a weathering front at the base of the saprolite layer that we use to predict the evolution of the regolith on geological time scales. In this model, we compute the steady-state geometry of the water table and assume that the rate of propagation of the weathering front is proportional to flow velocity at the base of the regolith layer. Using this model, we predict that two fundamentally different regimes may exist during the formation of a regolith profile that will ultimately control its geometry, its depth and its sensitivity to climate and local slope. We show that the two regimes correspond to different values of a simple dimensionless number that relates slope, precipitation and the mean hydraulic conductivity of the regolith profile. We also show that both regimes may exist, regardless of tectonic uplift and erosion, as long as the rate of erosion is slower than the rate of propagation of the weathering front, a condition that can be expressed through another, simple dimensionless number. We will also test the

  11. Weather Specialist/Aerographer's Mate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This course trains Air Force personnel to perform duties prescribed for weather specialists and aerographer's mates. Training includes meteorology, surface and ship observation, weather radar, operation of standard weather instruments and communications equipment, and decoding and plotting of surface and upper air codes upon standard maps and…

  12. Naturally weathered feldspar surfaces in the Navajo Sandstone aquifer, Black Mesa, Arizona: Electron microscopic characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, Chen; Veblen, D.R.; Blum, A.E.; Chipera, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Naturally weathered feldspar surfaces in the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone at Black Mesa, Arizona, was characterized with high-resolution transmission and analytical electron microscope (HRTEM-AEM) and field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). Here, we report the first HRTEM observation of a 10-nm thick amorphous layer on naturally weathered K-feldspar in currently slightly alkaline groundwater. The amorphous layer is probably deficient in K and enriched in Si. In addition to the amorphous layer, the feldspar surfaces are also partially coated with tightly adhered kaolin platelets. Outside of the kaolin coatings, feldspar grains are covered with a continuous 3-5 ??m thick layer of authigenic smectite, which also coats quartz and other sediment grains. Authigenic K-feldspar overgrowth and etch pits were also found on feldspar grains. These characteristics of the aged feldspar surfaces accentuate the differences in reactivity between the freshly ground feldspar powders used in laboratory experiments and feldspar grains in natural systems, and may partially contribute to the commonly observed apparent laboratory-field dissolution rate discrepancy. At Black Mesa, feldspars in the Navajo Sandstone are dissolving at ???105 times slower than laboratory rate at comparable temperature and pH under far from equilibrium condition. The tightly adhered kaolin platelets reduce the feldspar reactive surface area, and the authigenic K-feldspar overgrowth reduces the feldspar reactivity. However, the continuous smectite coating layer does not appear to constitute a diffusion barrier. The exact role of the amorphous layer on feldspar dissolution kinetics depends on the origin of the layer (leached layer versus re-precipitated silica), which is uncertain at present. However, the nanometer thin layer can be detected only with HRTEM, and thus our study raises the possibility of its wide occurrence in geological systems. Rate laws and proposed mechanisms should consider the

  13. Naturally weathered feldspar surfaces in the Navajo Sandstone aquifer, Black Mesa, Arizona: Electron microscopic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chen; Veblen, David R.; Blum, Alex E.; Chipera, Stephen J.

    2006-09-01

    Naturally weathered feldspar surfaces in the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone at Black Mesa, Arizona, was characterized with high-resolution transmission and analytical electron microscope (HRTEM-AEM) and field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). Here, we report the first HRTEM observation of a 10-nm thick amorphous layer on naturally weathered K-feldspar in currently slightly alkaline groundwater. The amorphous layer is probably deficient in K and enriched in Si. In addition to the amorphous layer, the feldspar surfaces are also partially coated with tightly adhered kaolin platelets. Outside of the kaolin coatings, feldspar grains are covered with a continuous 3-5 μm thick layer of authigenic smectite, which also coats quartz and other sediment grains. Authigenic K-feldspar overgrowth and etch pits were also found on feldspar grains. These characteristics of the aged feldspar surfaces accentuate the differences in reactivity between the freshly ground feldspar powders used in laboratory experiments and feldspar grains in natural systems, and may partially contribute to the commonly observed apparent laboratory-field dissolution rate discrepancy. At Black Mesa, feldspars in the Navajo Sandstone are dissolving at ˜10 5 times slower than laboratory rate at comparable temperature and pH under far from equilibrium condition. The tightly adhered kaolin platelets reduce the feldspar reactive surface area, and the authigenic K-feldspar overgrowth reduces the feldspar reactivity. However, the continuous smectite coating layer does not appear to constitute a diffusion barrier. The exact role of the amorphous layer on feldspar dissolution kinetics depends on the origin of the layer (leached layer versus re-precipitated silica), which is uncertain at present. However, the nanometer thin layer can be detected only with HRTEM, and thus our study raises the possibility of its wide occurrence in geological systems. Rate laws and proposed mechanisms should consider the

  14. Mercury's Weather-Beaten Surface: Understanding Mercury in the Context of Lunar and Asteroidal Space Weathering Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domingue, Deborah L.; Chapman, Clark. R.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Slavin, James A.; Schriver, David; Travnicek, Pavel M.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Sprague, Ann L.; Blewett, David T.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Feldman, William C.; Lawrence, David J.; Ho, George C.; Ebel, Denton S.; Nittler, Larry R.; Vilas, Faith; Pieters, Carle M.; Solomon, Sean C.; Johnson, Catherine L.; Winslow, Reka M..; Helbert, Jorn; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Weider, Shoshana Z.; Mouawad, Nelly; Izenberg, Noam R.; McClintock, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury's regolith, derived from the crustal bedrock, has been altered by a set of space weathering processes. Before we can interpret crustal composition, it is necessary to understand the nature of these surface alterations. The processes that space weather the surface are the same as those that form Mercury's exosphere (micrometeoroid flux and solar wind interactions) and are moderated by the local space environment and the presence of a global magnetic field. To comprehend how space weathering acts on Mercury's regolith, an understanding is needed of how contributing processes act as an interactive system. As no direct information (e.g., from returned samples) is available about how the system of space weathering affects Mercury's regolith, we use as a basis for comparison the current understanding of these same processes on lunar and asteroidal regoliths as well as laboratory simulations. These comparisons suggest that Mercury's regolith is overturned more frequently (though the characteristic surface time for a grain is unknown even relative to the lunar case), more than an order of magnitude more melt and vapor per unit time and unit area is produced by impact processes than on the Moon (creating a higher glass content via grain coatings and agglutinates), the degree of surface irradiation is comparable to or greater than that on the Moon, and photon irradiation is up to an order of magnitude greater (creating amorphous grain rims, chemically reducing the upper layers of grains to produce nanometer scale particles of metallic iron, and depleting surface grains in volatile elements and alkali metals). The processes that chemically reduce the surface and produce nanometer-scale particles on Mercury are suggested to be more effective than similar processes on the Moon. Estimated abundances of nanometer-scale particles can account for Mercury's dark surface relative to that of the Moon without requiring macroscopic grains of opaque minerals. The presence of

  15. Solar Origins of Space Weather: Confronting Models with Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-30

    the Sun (SOLIS) suite of synoptic observing equipment. We are also developing methods to calibrate unique magnetic field data from the world-wide GONG...basis. This allows an Internet user to view the solar magnetic field from any vantage point around the sun and to zoom in on interesting regions using...cases. A major limitation to more extensive testing is uncertainty in linking a specific shock near Earth with a specific event at the sun . Difference

  16. INDICATION OF INSENSITIVITY OF PLANETARY WEATHERING BEHAVIOR AND HABITABLE ZONE TO SURFACE LAND FRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Abbot, Dorian S.; Ciesla, Fred J.; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2012-09-10

    It is likely that unambiguous habitable zone terrestrial planets of unknown water content will soon be discovered. Water content helps determine surface land fraction, which influences planetary weathering behavior. This is important because the silicate-weathering feedback determines the width of the habitable zone in space and time. Here a low-order model of weathering and climate, useful for gaining qualitative understanding, is developed to examine climate evolution for planets of various land-ocean fractions. It is pointed out that, if seafloor weathering does not depend directly on surface temperature, there can be no weathering-climate feedback on a waterworld. This would dramatically narrow the habitable zone of a waterworld. Results from our model indicate that weathering behavior does not depend strongly on land fraction for partially ocean-covered planets. This is powerful because it suggests that previous habitable zone theory is robust to changes in land fraction, as long as there is some land. Finally, a mechanism is proposed for a waterworld to prevent complete water loss during a moist greenhouse through rapid weathering of exposed continents. This process is named a 'waterworld self-arrest', and it implies that waterworlds can go through a moist greenhouse stage and end up as planets like Earth with partial ocean coverage. This work stresses the importance of surface and geologic effects, in addition to the usual incident stellar flux, for habitability.

  17. Laboratory Simulations of Space Weathering of Asteroid Surfaces by Solar Wind Ions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kenneth A.; De Ruette, Nathalie; Harlow, George; Domingue, Deborah L.; Savin, Daniel Wolf

    2014-06-01

    Studies into the formation of the terrestrial planets rely on the analysis of asteroids and meteorites. Asteroids are solar system remnants from the planetary formation period. By characterizing their mineralogical composition we can better constrain the formation and evolution of the inner planets.Remote sensing is the primary means for studying asteroids. Sample return missions, such as Hayabusa, are complex and expensive, hence we rely on asteroid reflectance spectra to determine chemical composition. Links have been made and debated between meteorite classes and asteroid types [1, 2]. If such relationships can be confirmed, then meteorites would provide a low cost asteroid sample set for study. However, a major issue in establishing this link is the spectral differences between meteorite samples and asteroid surfaces. The most commonly invoked explanation for these differences is that the surfaces of asteroids are space weathered [2, 3]. The dominant mechanism for this weathering is believed to be solar-wind ion irradiation [2, 4, 5]. Laboratory simulations of space weathering have demonstrated changes in the general direction required to alter spectra from unweathered meteorite samples to asteroid observations [3, 6 -10], but many open questions remain and we still lack a comprehensive understanding. We propose to explore the alleged connection of ordinary chondrite (OC) meteorites to S-type asteroids through a series of systematic laboratory simulations of solar-wind space weathering of asteroid surface materials. Here we describe the issue in more detail and describe the proposed apparatus. [1] Chapman C. R. (1996) Meteorit. Planet. Sci., 31, 699-725. [2] Chapman C. R. (2004), Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 32, 539-567. [3] Hapke B. (2001) J. Ge-ophys. Res., 106, 10039-10074. [4] Pieters C.M. et al. (2000) Meteorit. Planet. Sci., 35, 1101-1107. [5] Ver-nazza P. et al. (2009) Nature, 458, 993-995. [6] Stra-zulla G. et al. (2005) Icarus, 174, 31-35 (2005). [7

  18. An approach to space weather studies from ground based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minarovjech, M.; Rušin, V.; Rybanský, M.; Kudela, K.; Kollár, V.

    2004-10-01

    We use daily values of the green corona hole areas, as prepared from the ground-based observations above the E-limb of the Sun and cosmic ray flux observed at Climax and Huancayo/Haleakala, to study a relation between them during a long-term period. A cross-correlation method has been used in the period 1953-2002 (the end of solar cycle 18 to mid-cycle 23). There were found green coronal hole areas that precede the cosmic ray of 200 - 270 days, with the maximum of 230 days (an average of 8 months). The 27-day rotational periodicity is stored around the maximum of correlation coefficients that reached values of 0.78 and 0.72, respectively. This correlation could be used to forecast the level of the cosmic ray daily flux at neutron monitor energies. We try to explain this behavior in a framework of the total coronal mass and its expansion into the heliosphere.

  19. The rate and causes of lunar space weathering: Insights from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera ultraviolet observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denevi, B. W.; Robinson, M. S.; Sato, H.; Hapke, B. W.; McEwen, A. S.; Hawke, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Wide Angle Camera global ultraviolet and visible imaging provides a unique opportunity to examine the rate and causes of space weathering on the Moon. Silicates typically have a strong decrease in reflectance toward UV wavelengths (<~450 nm) due to strong bands at 250 nm and in the far UV. Metallic iron is relatively spectrally neutral, and laboratory spectra suggest that its addition to mature soils in the form of submicroscopic iron (also known as nanophase iron) flattens silicate spectra, significantly reducing spectral slope in the ultraviolet. Reflectance at ultraviolet wavelengths may be especially sensitive to the surface coatings that form due to exposure to space weathering because scattering from the surfaces of grains contributes a larger fraction to the reflectance spectrum at short wavelengths. We find that the UV slope (as measured by the 320/415 nm ratio) is a more sensitive measure of maturity than indexes based on visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Only the youngest features (less than ~100 Ma) retain a UV slope that is distinct from mature soils of the same composition. No craters >20 km have UV slopes that approach those observed in laboratory spectra of fresh lunar materials (powdered lunar rocks). While the 320/415 nm ratio increases by ~18% from powdered rocks to mature soils in laboratory samples, Giordano Bruno, the freshest large crater, only shows a 3% difference between fresh and mature materials. At the resolution of our UV data (400 m/pixel), we observe some small (<5 km) craters that show a ~14% difference in 320/415 nm ratio from their mature surroundings. UV observations show that Reiner Gamma has had significantly lower levels of space weathering than any of the Copernican craters we examined, and was the only region we found with a UV slope that approached laboratory values for fresh powdered rock samples. This is consistent with the hypothesis that its high albedo is due to magnetic shielding from

  20. The role of SANSA's geomagnetic observation network in space weather monitoring: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzé, P. B.; Cilliers, P. J.; Sutcliffe, P. R.

    2015-10-01

    Geomagnetic observations play a crucial role in the monitoring of space weather events. In a modern society relying on the efficient functioning of its technology network such observations are important in order to determine the potential hazard for activities and infrastructure. Until recently, it was the perception that geomagnetic storms had no or very little adverse effect on radio communication and electric power infrastructure at middle- and low-latitude regions like southern Africa. The 2003 Halloween storm changed this perception. In this paper we discuss the role of the geomagnetic observation network operated by the South African National Space Agency (SANSA) in space weather monitoring. The primary objective is to describe the geomagnetic data sets available to characterize and monitor the various types of solar-driven disturbances, with the aim to better understand the physics of these processes in the near-Earth space environment and to provide relevant space weather monitoring and prediction.

  1. Rates of oxidative weathering on the surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Roger G.; Fisher, Duncan S.

    1993-01-01

    A model of acid weathering is proposed for the iron-rich basalts on Mars. Aqueous oxidation of iron sulfides released SO4(2-) and H(+) ions that initiated the dissolution of basaltic ferromagnesian silicates and released Fe(2+) ions. The Fe(2+) ions eventually underwent ferrolysis reactions and produced insoluble hydrous ferric oxide phases. Measurements of the time-dependence of acid weathering reactions show that pyrrhotite is rapidly converted to pyrite plus dissolved ferrous iron, the rate of pyrite formation decreasing with rising pH and lower temperatures. On Mars, oxidation rates of dissolved Fe(2+) ions in equatorial melt-waters in contact with the atmosphere are estimated to lie in the range 0.3-3.0 ppb Fe/yr over the pH range 2 to 6. Oxidation of Fe(2+) ions is estimated to be extremely slow in brine eutectic solutions that might be present on Mars and to be negligible in the frozen regolith.

  2. A study on the integrity and authentication of weather observation data using Identity Based Encryption.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jung Woo; Lee, Sang Jin

    2016-01-01

    Weather information provides a safe working environment by contributing to the economic activity of the nation, and plays role of the prevention of natural disasters, which can cause large scaled casualties and damage of property. Especially during times of war, weather information plays a more important role than strategy, tactics and information about trends of the enemy. Also, it plays an essential role for the taking off and landing of fighter jet and the sailing of warships. If weather information, which plays a major role in national security and economy, gets misused for cyber terrorism resulting false weather information, it could be a huge threat for national security and the economy. We propose a plan to safely transmit the measured value from meteorological sensors through a meteorological telecommunication network in order to guarantee the confidentiality and integrity of the data despite cyber-attacks. Also, such a plan allows one to produce reliable weather forecasts by performing mutual authentication through authentication devices. To make sure of this, one can apply an Identity Based Signature to ensure the integrity of measured data, and transmit the encrypted weather information with mutual authentication about the authentication devices. There are merits of this research: It is not necessary to manage authentication certificates unlike the Public Key Infrastructure methodology, and it provides a powerful security measure with the capability to be realized in a small scale computing environment, such as the meteorological observation system due to the low burden on managing keys.

  3. Analysis of fog occurrence on E11-A75 Motorway, with weather station data in relation to satellite observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomb, M.; Bernardin, F.; Favier, B.; Mallet, E.; Laurantin, O.

    2010-07-01

    Transport is often disturbed in wintertime by fog occurrence causing delay. Fog may also be responsible for dramatic accidents causing injuries and fatalities. For meteorological weather services, fog is defined as when visibility is less than 1000 m. However, for road traffic, when visibility becomes less than 200 m, fog is considered a traffic hazard for road transport. Fog forecast remains a difficult task. Satellite observation combined with surface measurements by a network of road weather stations can provide short-term information that could be useful to assist traffic authorities in taking decisions relating to traffic control measures or drivers information. Satellite images allow to identify cloud types and to establish a map of the risk of fog occurrence. The surface measurements help to discriminate between low clouds and fog. The analysis method has already been tested last winter on some case studies on the motorway E11-A75 in Auvergne region in France, thanks to a network of 15 weather stations along the 300 km of motorway. In the highest area that is between 580 and 1100 m, the value of the relative humidity has been analysed in relation to the visibility measured by a diffusiometer and the observations of road maintenance staff. The main results will be presented and connected to the traditional synoptic network of Météo-France. In order to improve the map of fog risks, the requirement to have relevant data has been pointed out, especially for the relative humidity near the ground surface (i.e. 2 m above the ground). To go further in this investigation, one weather station, at the Col de la Fageole, has been identified as having the greatest occurrence of dense fog, i.e. less than 200 m. Then it has been decided to enrich the instrumentation at this observation point later on with a present weather sensor and with a camera. This paper will focus on the physical data of the weather station. It will be examined how the additional data of the new

  4. Weather and climate needs for lidar observations from space and concepts for their realization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, D.; Korb, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The spectrum of weather and climate needs for lidar observations from space is discussed. This paper focuses mainly on the requirements for winds, temperature, moisture, and pressure. Special emphasis is given to the need for wind observations, and it is shown that winds are required to depict realistically all atmospheric scales in the tropics and the smaller scales at higher latitudes, where both temperature and wind profiles are necessary. The need for means to estimate air-sea exchanges of sensible and latent heat also is noted. Lidar can aid here by measurement of the slope of the boundary layer. Recent theoretical feasibility studies concerning the profiling of temperature, pressure, and humidity by differential absorption lidar (DIAL) from space and expected accuracies are reviewed. Initial ground-based trials provide support for these approaches and also indicate their direct applicability to path-average temperature measurements near the surface. An alternative approach to Doppler lidar wind measurements also is presented. The concept involves the measurement of the displacement of the aerosol backscatter pattern, at constant height, between two successive scans of the same area, one ahead of the spacecraft and the other behind it, a few minutes later. Finally, an integrated space lidar system capable of measuring temperature, pressure, humidity, and winds which combines the DIAL methods with the aerosol pattern displacement concept is described briefly.

  5. Widespread Surface Weathering on Early Mars: possible implication on the Past Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizeau, Damien; Carter, John; Mangold, Nicolas; Poulet, François; Rossi, Angelo P.; Allemand, Pascal; Lozac'h, Loïc; Quantin, Cathy; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The recent discovery of widespread hydrous clays on Mars with OMEGA/Mars Express and CRISM/MRO indicates that diverse and widespread aqueous environments existed on Mars, from the surface to kilometric depths [1, 2]. The study of the past habitability and past climates of the planet requires assessing the importance of sustained surface water vs. subsurface water in its aqueous history. Vertical sequences of Al-rich clays on top of Fe/Mg-rich clays in the top tens of meters of the surface are identified on Mars [3-6] (see figure 1) and interpreted as possible weathering profiles, similar to cases of pedogenesis on Earth (e.g. [7, 8]). A global study of these clay sequences has recently been published by Carter et al. [9]. This following work presents detailed geological analysis, performed for each identified candidate, in order to constrain their age and origin. With the increasing availability of CTX and HiRISE stereoimages, we investigate the thickness of the altered sequences, the age of the altered units and the different geological contexts to further understand the weathering process(es), and their possible implication on the past climate. The types of geologic settings where the interpreted weathering profiles are observed are much varied: from basin floor to plateaus, in apparent massive rocks to finely layered rocks. Besides, the number and variety of sequences is/was likely larger. However, in term of chronology, the alteration seems to have stopped in a relatively limited period of time for the studied cases, between 3.8 and 3.6 Ga. This would point to a formation due to a global process that enabled liquid water at the surface and pedogenesis in various regions, on various terrains, from late Noachian to early Hesperian. This global process would imply regular, widely distributed ice or precipitations in large regions of Mars at that time. If weathering occurred before that time, during the early or middle Noachian, the sequences may have been erased

  6. Sensor performance considerations for aviation weather observations for the NOAA Consolidated Observations Requirements List (CORL CT-AWX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, John; Helms, David; Miner, Cecilia

    2008-08-01

    Airspace system demand is expected to increase as much as 300 percent by the year 2025 and the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is being developed to accommodate the super-density operations that this will entail. Concomitantly, significant improvements in observations and forecasting are being undertaken to support NextGen which will require greatly improved and more uniformly applied data for aviation weather hazards and constraints which typically comprise storm-scale and microscale observables. Various phenomena are associated with these hazards and constraints such as convective weather, in-flight icing, turbulence, and volcanic ash as well as more mundane aviation parameters such as cloud tops and bases and fuel-freeze temperatures at various flight levels. Emerging problems for aviation in space weather and the environmental impacts of aviation are also occurring at these scales. Until recently, the threshold and objective observational requirements for these observables had not been comprehensively documented in a single, authoritative source. Scientists at NASA and NOAA have recently completed this task and have established baseline observational requirements for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and expanded and updated the NOAA Consolidated Observations Requirements List (CORL) for Aviation (CT-AWX) to better inform National Weather Service investments for current and future observing systems. This paper describes the process and results of this effort. These comprehensive aviation observation requirements will now be used to conduct gap analyses for the aviation component of the Integrated Earth Observing System and to inform the investment strategies of the FAA, NASA, and NOAA that are needed to develop the observational architecture to support NextGen and other users of storm and microscale observations.

  7. Ground effects of space weather investigated by the surface impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirjola, R.; Boteler, D.; Trichtchenko, L.

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a discussion of the surface impedance applicable in connection with studies of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) in technological systems. This viewpoint means that the surface impedance is regarded as a tool to determine the horizontal (geo)electric field at the Earth's surface, which is the key quantity for GIC. Thus the approach is different from the traditional magnetotelluric viewpoint. The definition of the surface impedance usually involves wavenumber-frequency-domain fields, so inverse Fourier transforming the expression of the electric field in terms of the surface impedance and the geomagnetic field results in convolution integrals in the time and space domains. The frequency-dependent surface impedance has a high-pass filter character whereas the corresponding transfer function between the electric field and the time derivative of the magnetic field is of a low-pass filter type. The relative change of the latter transfer function with frequency is usually smaller than that of the surface impedance, which indicates that the geoelectric field is closer to the time derivative than to the magnetic field itself. An investigation of the surface impedance defined by the space-domain electric and magnetic components indicates that the largest electric fields are not always achieved by the plane wave assumption, which is sometimes regarded as an extreme case for GIC. It is also concluded in this paper that it is often possible to apply the plane wave relation locally between the surface electric and magnetic fields. The absolute value of the surface impedance decreases with an increasing wavenumber although the maximum may also be at a non-zero value of the wavenumber. The imaginary part of the surface impedance usually much exceeds the real part.

  8. Downscaling surface wind predictions from numerical weather prediction models in complex terrain with WindNinja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbrenner, Natalie S.; Forthofer, Jason M.; Lamb, Brian K.; Shannon, Kyle S.; Butler, Bret W.

    2016-04-01

    Wind predictions in complex terrain are important for a number of applications. Dynamic downscaling of numerical weather prediction (NWP) model winds with a high-resolution wind model is one way to obtain a wind forecast that accounts for local terrain effects, such as wind speed-up over ridges, flow channeling in valleys, flow separation around terrain obstacles, and flows induced by local surface heating and cooling. In this paper we investigate the ability of a mass-consistent wind model for downscaling near-surface wind predictions from four NWP models in complex terrain. Model predictions are compared with surface observations from a tall, isolated mountain. Downscaling improved near-surface wind forecasts under high-wind (near-neutral atmospheric stability) conditions. Results were mixed during upslope and downslope (non-neutral atmospheric stability) flow periods, although wind direction predictions generally improved with downscaling. This work constitutes evaluation of a diagnostic wind model at unprecedented high spatial resolution in terrain with topographical ruggedness approaching that of typical landscapes in the western US susceptible to wildland fire.

  9. Feasibility of using a seismic surface wave method to study seasonal and weather effects on shallow surface soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper is to study the feasibility of using a seismic surface wave method to investigate seasonal and weather effects on shallow surface soils. In the study, temporal variations of subsurface soil properties were measured and monitored by using a combination of a new seismic su...

  10. Feasibility of using a seismic surface wave method to study seasonal and weather effects on shallow surface soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the paper is to study the temporal variations of the subsurface soil properties due to seasonal and weather effects using a combination of a new seismic surface method and an existing acoustic probe system. A laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) based multi-channel analysis of surface wav...

  11. Space weathering of asteroidal surfaces. Influence on the UV-Vis spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaňuchová, Z.; Baratta, G. A.; Garozzo, M.; Strazzulla, G.

    2010-07-01

    Context. The surfaces of airless bodies in the Solar System are continuously altered by the bombardment of micrometeoroids and irradiation by solar wind, flares, and cosmic particles. Major effects of this process - space weathering - are darkening and “reddening” of the spectra of surface materials, as well as a “degrading” of absorption features. Aims: We studied the changes induced by energetic ion irradiation in the ultraviolet-visual-near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) (0.2-0.98 μm) reflectance spectra of targets selected to mimic the surfaces of airless bodies in the inner Solar System. Our chosen targets are olivine pellets, pure or covered by an organic polymer (polystyrene), which is transparent before irradiation. Polystyrene is used as a template for organic matter of low volatility that can be present on asteroidal surfaces. Moreover we measured the changes induced by ion irradiation in the absorption coefficient of the polymer. The purpose was to have a tool to better compare laboratory with observed spectra and distinguish between planetary objects with pure silicate surfaces and those whose surface is covered by organic matter exposed to cosmic ion bombardment. Methods: The samples were irradiated in vacuum, at room temperature, with 200 keV protons or 200-400 keV argon ions. Before, during, and after irradiation diffuse reflectance spectra were acquired. Polystyrene films were also deposited on quartz substrates and irradiated while transmittance spectra were recorded. Results: We measured the variations of the absorption coefficient of polystyrene as a function of ion fluence. We showed that after ion irradiation the diffuse reflectance spectra of the samples covered by organics exhibit a much more significant variation than those of pure silicates. The spectra of targets made of olivine plus polystyrene can be fitted by using the measured absorption coefficient of polystyrene. Conclusions: The results obtained for pure olivine extend to the UV the

  12. JPL's Real-Time Weather Processor project (RWP) metrics and observations at system completion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loesh, Robert E.; Conover, Robert A.; Malhotra, Shan

    1990-01-01

    As an integral part of the overall upgraded National Airspace System (NAS), the objective of the Real-Time Weather Processor (RWP) project is to improve the quality of weather information and the timeliness of its dissemination to system users. To accomplish this, an RWP will be installed in each of the Center Weather Service Units (CWSUs), located in 21 of the 23 Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCCs). The RWP System is a prototype system. It is planned that the software will be GFE and that production hardware will be acquired via industry competitive procurement. The ARTCC is a facility established to provide air traffic control service to aircraft operating on Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) flight plans within controlled airspace, principally during the en route phase of the flight. Covered here are requirement metrics, Software Problem Failure Reports (SPFRs), and Ada portability metrics and observations.

  13. Porosity and surface area evolution during weathering of two igneous rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis; Cole, David; Rother, Gernot; Jin, Lixin; Buss, Heather; Brantley, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    During weathering, rocks release nutrients and storewater vital for growth ofmicrobial and plant life. Thus, the growth of porosity as weathering advances into bedrock is a life-sustaining process for terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we use small-angle and ultra small-angle neutron scattering to show how porosity develops during initial weathering under tropical conditions of two igneous rock compositions, basaltic andesite and quartz diorite. The quartz diorite weathers spheroidally while the basaltic andesite does not. The weathering advance rates of the two systems also differ, perhaps due to this difference in mechanism, from 0.24 to 100 mm kyr1, respectively. The scattering data document how surfaces inside the feldspar-dominated rocks change as weathering advances into the protolith. In the unaltered rocks, neutrons scatter fromtwo types of featureswhose dimensions vary from6 nmto 40 lm: pores and bumps on pore grain surfaces. These features result in scattering data for both unaltered rocks that document multi-fractal behavior: scattering is best described by amass fractal dimension (Dm) and a surface fractal dimension (Ds) for features of length scales greater than and less than 1 lm, respectively. In the basaltic andesite, Dm is approximately 2.9 and Ds is approximately 2.7. The mechanism of solute transport during weathering of this rock is diffusion. Porosity and surface area increase from 1.5%to 8.5%and 3 to 23 m2 g1 respectively in a relatively consistent trend across themm-thick plagioclase reaction front. Across this front, both fractal dimensions decrease, consistentwith development of amoremonodisperse pore networkwith smoother pore surfaces. Both changes are consistent largely with increasing connectivity of pores without significant surface roughening, as expected for transport-limited weathering. In contrast, porosity and surface area increase from 1.3% to 9.5% and 1.5 to 13 m2 g1 respectively across a many cm-thick reaction front in the

  14. Investigating Surface Bias Errors in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model using a Geographic Information System (GIS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    ARL-TR-7212 ● FEB 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Investigating Surface Bias Errors in the Weather Research and Forecasting ...ARL-TR-7212 ● FEB 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Investigating Surface Bias Errors in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model...SUBTITLE Investigating surface bias errors in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model using a Geographic Information System (GIS) 5a

  15. Changes in the weathering of rock surfaces in different geomorphological environments: glacial, nival and coastal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feal-Pérez, A.; Blanco-Chao, R.; Pérez-Alberti, A.; López-Bedoya, J.; Valcárcel-Díaz, M.

    2009-04-01

    The sclerometer or Schmidt Rock Test Hammer has been broadly applied in geomorphology to estimate the strength of different rock types and to measure the degree of rock weathering. It has been proved that for a rock type, the rebound values are lower in weathered than in fresh rock surfaces. This evidence suggests that if there is any factor that causes a gradual change in the weathering degree, it must be possible to identify a distinctive tendency with the sclerometer. There are two types of factors that can cause gradual changes in the weathering degree. First, those related with the time of exposure of a rock surface, which are the basis of works that attempt to use the sclerometer as a tool for relative chronology. Second, those related with the frequency or duration at which the weathering agents operate, which are the basis for the studies focused on the efficacy of weathering. In both cases it is essential to understand how the factors of weathering are spatially distributed in order to achieve a good sampling procedure. We applied the sclerometer in three different environments: rock coasts, glacially exposed surfaces and rock surfaces subjected to nival processes. The sclerometer was used in a receding glacier in Tierra de Fuego, Argentina, assuming that the rock surface must be more weathered as more time passed since the exposure. The hypothesis was confirmed by the negative correlation between rebound values and the distance to the glaciar front. In rocky coasts, it was proved by field and laboratory data that one of the main factors responsible for variations in rock strength is the degree of weathering by tidally-induced wetting and drying. We found negative correlations between rebound values and tidal elevation in very different coastal environments in the NW of Spain and in the Beagle Channel. We also found that the absence of this relationship may be caused by processes of mechanical erosion, but they also can respond to disequilibrium of the

  16. Keesler AFB, Mississippi. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    99 1 141 jUl v 3 av 1,, 1 4l 63 b6 7c 7P b4 87 91 94 92 94 86 7S b6 94 C4 69 67 7, -- 6 -97-- - VT . .8-4 -T T 7T 97 I5 71 71 77 8 80 b9 93 90 88 83 ...803 3-7 80 ; 8.3 - ’A 15.01 70.2 76.6 7., 81 .! 82 .U 62.4 82.6 8 .8 82.8 87.9 82.9 82.9 S2.9 62.9 8Z.9 F i Lj? Of -7-1 U--7. -- R-3 30 639 8.8 8. 3. AT...87.7 F 9J7 74.5 61.2 83 .S 86.8 87.3 88.3 86.4 88.4 88.4 88.4 88. 88.5 88.6 88.6 88.6 CF FJ 74.9 81.7 84.1 67.4 b8 .u 88.9 89.0 69.0 89.C 89.0 89.1 82

  17. Ultramicroscopic observations on morphological changes in hair during 25 years of weathering.

    PubMed

    Chang, Byung Soo; Hong, Wan Sung; Lee, Eunju; Yeo, Sung Moon; Bang, In Seok; Chung, Yoon Hee; Lim, Do Sun; Mun, Ga Hee; Kim, Jaehyup; Park, Sang Ock; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2005-07-16

    Weathering or long-term burial may cause profound morphological and histological changes in hair, which may affect the results of forensic and archaeological investigations. We therefore used ultramicroscopic techniques to assay the changes in weathering hair shafts caused by burial for up to 25 years. We found that the middle portion of hair shafts from living individuals shows the expected histological hair structure, while the cuticle layer was absent from the terminal portion of the same hairs, which may be due to the increased weathering experienced by the terminal portion. In hair samples taken 5 years after death, no significant changes in morphology were observed. By 15 years after death, however, we observed losses in various layers of the hair, including the cuticle layer. At 25 years after death, hair shafts showed a number of pores extending into the medulla, with only some hair shafts retaining their cortical layers. To our knowledge, this is the first ultramicroscopic study on weathering of hair for up to 25 years after death. Our results may therefore provide a basis for similar studies in the fields of forensic science and physical anthropology.

  18. Weathering pits as indicators of the relative age of granite surfaces in the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, A.M.; Phillips, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Weathering pits 1-140 cm deep occur on granite surfaces in the Cairngorms associated with a range of landforms, including tors, glacially exposed slabs, large erratics and blockfields. Pit depth is positively correlated with cosmogenic exposure age, and both measures show consistent relationships on individual rock landforms. Rates of pit deepening are non-linear and a best fit is provided by the sigmoidal function D = b1+ exp(b2+b3/t). The deepest pits occur on unmodified tor summits, where 10 Be exposure ages indicate that surfaces have been exposed to weathering for a minimum of 52-297 ka. Glacially exposed surfaces with pits 10-46 cm deep have given 10 Be exposure durations of 21-79 ka, indicating exposure by glacial erosion before the last glacial cycle. The combination of cosmogenic exposure ages with weathering pit depths greatly extends the area over which inferences can be made regarding the ages of granite surfaces in the Cairngorms. Well-developed weathering pits on glacially exposed surfaces in other granite areas are potential indicators of glacial erosion before the Last Glacial Maximum. ?? Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography.

  19. Improving Weather Research and Forecasting Model Initial Conditions via Surface Pressure Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    ARL‐TR‐7447 ● SEP 2015          US Army Research Laboratory      Improving  Weather  Research and Forecasting  Model Initial Conditions via... Weather  Research and Forecasting  Model Initial Conditions via Surface Pressure  Analysis     by Brian P Reen   Computational and Information Sciences...Improving Weather Research and Forecasting Model Initial Conditions via Surface Pressure Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER  5b. GRANT NUMBER  5c. PROGRAM

  20. Chemical Weathering of Black Shales and Rare Earth Element Composition of Surface Waters and Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannigan, R. E.; Johannesson, K. H.

    2001-05-01

    Weathering processes dominate the dissolved and suspended loads of most of the world's major rivers. Among sedimentary rocks, black shales are particularly sensitive to chemical weathering. Therefore, shale systems are useful for investigating the partitioning of chemical elements during chemical weathering. Recent studies, such as those by Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Ravizza and others, link chemical weathering of black shales to changes in marine isotopic composition. Rare earth elements (REE) have a unique chemistry and are ideal for such tracer studies. We explored the effect of modern chemical weathering of black shales on the hydrochemistry of surface and groundwaters in the Mohawk Valley of New York State. This region provides an ideal site for the investigation of trace element remobilization during the chemical weathering of black shales. In this region, surface and groundwaters, in intimate contact with black shales and have high dissolved metal concentrations presumably due to water-rock interactions. The extent to which the dissolved REE composition of the surface and ground waters retains the rock signature is, in someway related to the length of time that the water remains in contact with the rock. We compared the REE compositions of surface and groundwaters in areas draining black shale to those of waters draining regions of dolostone-limestone to explore the extent of metal release due to chemical weathering. Shale normalized REE patterns for stream waters exhibit slight heavy REE enrichments and, at some locations, LREE depletion. REE patterns of the waters normalized to their respective sediments show some LREE depletion. However, waters associated with the Little Falls dolomite show fractionation predominantly enriched in the heavy REEs. Differences between the black shale sites, recorded as light REE depletion and/or middle REE enrichment, may be related to the discharge of the streams and the total dissolved solids. The dissolved REE chemistry of

  1. Additional Arctic observations improve weather and sea-ice forecasts for the Northern Sea Route.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Jun; Yamazaki, Akira; Ono, Jun; Dethloff, Klaus; Maturilli, Marion; Neuber, Roland; Edwards, Patti; Yamaguchi, Hajime

    2015-11-20

    During ice-free periods, the Northern Sea Route (NSR) could be an attractive shipping route. The decline in Arctic sea-ice extent, however, could be associated with an increase in the frequency of the causes of severe weather phenomena, and high wind-driven waves and the advection of sea ice could make ship navigation along the NSR difficult. Accurate forecasts of weather and sea ice are desirable for safe navigation, but large uncertainties exist in current forecasts, partly owing to the sparse observational network over the Arctic Ocean. Here, we show that the incorporation of additional Arctic observations improves the initial analysis and enhances the skill of weather and sea-ice forecasts, the application of which has socioeconomic benefits. Comparison of 63-member ensemble atmospheric forecasts, using different initial data sets, revealed that additional Arctic radiosonde observations were useful for predicting a persistent strong wind event. The sea-ice forecast, initialised by the wind fields that included the effects of the observations, skilfully predicted rapid wind-driven sea-ice advection along the NSR.

  2. Additional Arctic observations improve weather and sea-ice forecasts for the Northern Sea Route

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Jun; Yamazaki, Akira; Ono, Jun; Dethloff, Klaus; Maturilli, Marion; Neuber, Roland; Edwards, Patti; Yamaguchi, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    During ice-free periods, the Northern Sea Route (NSR) could be an attractive shipping route. The decline in Arctic sea-ice extent, however, could be associated with an increase in the frequency of the causes of severe weather phenomena, and high wind-driven waves and the advection of sea ice could make ship navigation along the NSR difficult. Accurate forecasts of weather and sea ice are desirable for safe navigation, but large uncertainties exist in current forecasts, partly owing to the sparse observational network over the Arctic Ocean. Here, we show that the incorporation of additional Arctic observations improves the initial analysis and enhances the skill of weather and sea-ice forecasts, the application of which has socioeconomic benefits. Comparison of 63-member ensemble atmospheric forecasts, using different initial data sets, revealed that additional Arctic radiosonde observations were useful for predicting a persistent strong wind event. The sea-ice forecast, initialised by the wind fields that included the effects of the observations, skilfully predicted rapid wind-driven sea-ice advection along the NSR. PMID:26585690

  3. Total Lightning Observations of Extreme Weather Events over the Contiguous United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, Lawrence D.; Petersen, Walter A.; Christian, Hugh J.

    2008-01-01

    The overall objective is to investigate total lightning characteristics of extreme weather events over the contiguous United States (CONUS) using TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) LIS (Lightning Image Sensor) and OTD (Optical Transient Detector) satellite observations. A large LIS (10+ years) and OTD (5 years) data base is available to study the instantaneous total or cloud-to-ground (CG) plus intracloud (IC) lightning characteristics of extreme weather events. More specifically, the LIS and OTD data are combined with National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) observations to examine the total and CG lightning flash rate and density, the IC:CG ratio, and positive CG percentage. These instantaneous lightning characteristics can be used for basic science studies to better understand the physical and dynamical linkages between lightning and precipitation and their environmental controls. They can also provide a first-look of extreme weather events leading up to future satellite observations (e.g., NOAA GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper [GLM]) for use in climate studies and the short-term prediction and warning process. Extreme weather events are defined by the NOAA Storm Data reports of tornadoes, large hail (at least 0.75 inch) and strong straight-line winds (at least 50 kts). Over CONUS, there are over 70,000 severe storm reports in the TRMM spatial domain (< 35 N) from 1998-2007 and over 100,000 storm reports in the OTD spatial domain (5/1995-4/2000). Temporal co-location is on the order of 1% (i.e., 1000 s of coincident overpasses), providing a statistically significant sample of instantaneous total lightning properties. This instantaneous behavior of lightning in extreme weather is then compared to that of typical thunderstorm events, or randomly sampled LIS/OTD events in which the extreme events have been eliminated from the population. Results describing the instantaneous behavior of total lightning within a large sample of extreme and typical

  4. Assimilation of surface AWS using 3DVAR and LAPS and their effects on short-term high-resolution weather forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcons, Jordi; Folch, Arnau; Afif, Abdelmalik Sairouní; Miró, Josep Ramon

    2015-04-01

    The progress in data assimilation techniques that incorporate weather observations into high-resolution numerical weather prediction models is challenging because of handling surface data in terrain misrepresentation, balance approximations, instrument errors and sensor representativeness. In the framework of operational numerical weather prediction, two data assimilation systems are compared using conventional observations from surface Automatic Weather Stations (AWS), a three-dimensional variational analysis (3DVAR) and the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS). The goal is to study the ability of these two systems to assimilate data from AWS and to assess which performs better for near-surface wind and temperature fields to initialize a short-range 1-km resolution forecast with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Results show that the 3DVAR assimilation patterns are unrealistic given the inhomogeneous nature of the near-surface fields in complex terrains. In contrast, LAPS analyses show a heterogeneous assimilation pattern, more consistent with the complexity of the terrain and the observations. During the model spin-up period, simulations initialized using both data assimilation methods approach rapidly the control simulation, initialized without assimilation. However, the 1 km resolution forecasts initialized with LAPS exhibit a significant improvement, particularly for the wind field module.

  5. Modelling convective severe weather occurrence using observations, reanalysis data and decadal climate predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistotnik, Georg; Groenemeijer, Pieter

    2014-05-01

    Observations of local severe convective events can be combined with atmospheric reanalyses to compute severe weather probability as a function of parameters characterizing the local state of the atmosphere. Using ERA-Interim reanalysis data and observations from the European Severe Weather Database, we have investigated several ways to express the probability of large hail, tornadoes, flash floods or wind gusts as a function of parameters such as convective available potential energy, vertical wind shear and precipitation. Our attempts include fitting analytic functions, using smoothers of various kinds, and binning the data within the multidimensional parameter space according to various algorithms. We imposed that any difference between binned observations and the modelled probability function be insignificant at the 95% confidence level. Further tests of robustness of the model were conducted. A probability function fulfilling this criterion was selected and subsequently applied to the ERA-Interim data as well as to predictions of the decadal forecasting system developed in the MiKlip programme. We investigated climatic and modelled past and future trends of severe convective weather. We will present the (preliminary) results of that effort.

  6. C3Winds: A Novel 3D Wind Observing System to Characterize Severe Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, M. A.; Wu, D. L.; Yee, J. H.; Boldt, J.; Demajistre, R.; Reynolds, E.; Tripoli, G. J.; Oman, L.; Prive, N.; Heidinger, A. K.; Wanzong, S.

    2015-12-01

    The CubeSat Constellation Cloud Winds (C3Winds) is a NASA Earth Venture Instrument (EV-I) concept with the primary objective to resolve high-resolution 3D dynamic structures of severe wind events. Rapid evolution of severe weather events highlights the need for high-resolution mesoscale wind observations. Yet mesoscale observations of severe weather dynamics are quite rare, especially over the ocean where extratropical and tropical cyclones (ETCs and TCs) can undergo explosive development. Measuring wind velocity at the mesoscale from space remains a great challenge, but is critically needed to understand and improve prediction of severe weather and tropical cyclones. Based on compact, visible/IR imagers and a mature stereoscopic technique, C3Winds has the capability to measure high-resolution (~2 km) cloud motion vectors and cloud geometric heights accurately by tracking cloud features from two formation-flying CubeSats, separated by 5-15 minutes. Complementary to lidar wind measurements from space, C3Winds will provide high-resolution wind fields needed for detailed investigations of severe wind events in occluded ETCs, rotational structures inside TC eyewalls, and ozone injections associated with tropopause folding events. Built upon mature imaging technologies and long history of stereoscopic remote sensing, C3Winds provides an innovative, cost-effective solution to global wind observations with the potential for increased diurnal sampling via CubeSat constellation.

  7. Production of mineral surface area within deep weathering profiles at eroding vs. depositional hillslope locations: Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, B.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Nater, E.

    2014-12-01

    Geomorphic and biogeochemical processes and hillslope morphology are partly controlled by the extent and degree of chemical weathering between soil and bedrock. The production of mineral specific surface area (SSA) via chemical weathering is a critical variable for mechanistic understanding of weathering and provides an interface between minerals and the soil carbon cycle. We examined two 21-meter deep drill cores in the Laurels Schist at 141 MASL (summit) and 130 MASL (interfluve) in a 900 ha first order watershed in the Laurels Preserve, a forested land use end member in the Christina River Basin CZO. In addition to mineral SSA, we report elemental and mineralogical changes through both weathering profiles. Despite highly variable bedrock composition, mobile elements (Ca & Na) are depleted within 3-5 m below the ground surface, which is consistent with the removal of Ca-Na-plagioclase ((Na,Ca)Al(Si,Al)3O8) at this interval; we consider this depth as a weathering front. The water table in both boreholes was ~123 MASL (5/2014), which is well below the weathering front, suggesting that weathering processes are not coupled with groundwater interactions in this system. Clay XRD reveals the presence of secondary phyllosilicates including vermiculite, illite, and kaolinite in the upper 3 m of the summit weathering profile, which are weathering products of primary plagioclase, muscovite, and chlorite. The currently available clay mineralogy results are consistent with the decrease in total SSA from up to 20 m2g-1 at the surface to <5 m2g-1 below 3 m depth. Within the first 3 m from the surface, citrate-dithionate extractable iron contributed 30-60% of the total surface area. Therefore transformation of primary minerals to secondary phyllosilicate minerals, involving leaching loss of cations, was partly responsible for SSA production, but iron oxides play a significant role in production of SSA above the weathering front. This observation did not differ between

  8. Mars surface weathering products and spectral analogs: Palagonites and synthetic iron minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    There are several hypotheses regarding the formation of Martian surface fines. These surface fines are thought to be products of weathering processes occurring on Mars. Four major weathering environments of igneous rocks on Mars have been proposed; (1) impact induced hydrothermal alterations; (2) subpermafrost igneous intrusion; (3) solid-gas surface reactions; and (4) subaerial igneous intrusion over permafrost. Although one or more of these processes may be important on the Martian surface, one factor in common for all these processes is the reaction of solid or molten basalt with water (solid, liquid, or gas). These proposed processes, with the exception of solid-gas surface reactions, are transient processes. The most likely product of transient hydrothermal processes are layer silicates, zeolites, hydrous iron oxides and palagonites. The long-term instability of hydrous clay minerals under present Martian conditions has been predicted; however, the persistence of such minerals due to slow kinetics of dehydration, or entrapment in permafrost, where the activity of water is high, can not be excluded. Anhydrous oxides of iron (e.g., hematite and maghemite) are thought to be stable under present Martian surface conditions. Oxidative weathering of sulfide minerals associated with Martian basalts has been proposed. Weathering of sulfide minerals leads to a potentially acidic permafrost and the formation of Fe(3) oxides and sulfates. Weathering of basalts under acidic conditions may lead to the formation of kaolinite through metastable halloysite and metahalloysite. Kaolinite, if present, is thought to be a thermodynamically stable phase at the Martian surface. Fine materials on Mars are important in that they influence the surface spectral properties; these fines are globally distributed on Mars by the dust storms and this fraction will have the highest surface area which should act as a sink for most of the absorbed volatiles near the surface of Mars. Therefore

  9. WORLD SURFACE CURRENTS FROM SHIP'S DRIFT OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C.P.; Schladow, S.G.

    1980-11-01

    Over 4 million observations of ship's drift are on file at the U.S. National Oceanographic Data Centre, in Washington, D. C., representing a vast amount of information on ocean surface currents. The observed drift speeds are dependent on the frequency of occurence of the particular current speeds and the frequency of observation. By comparing frequency of observation with the drift speeds observed it is possible to confirm known current patterns and detect singularities in surface currents.

  10. Surface of Titan : model and VIMS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannou, P.; Toledo, D.; Adriani, A.; Moriconi, M. L.; D'Aversa, E.; Lemouélic, S.; Sotin, C.; Brown, R. H.

    2015-10-01

    In this presentation we will describe how we explain the surface reflectivity observed by DISR and how we retrieved the surface albedo of Titan from VIMS observation, showing where are the main uncertainties. We show that the reflectivity at the Huygens Landing Site may be explained a layer of liquid methane at the surface. We also show that other zones on Titan may have the same type of surface reflectivity than the HLS.

  11. Weather Observers: A Manipulative Augmented Reality System for Weather Simulations at Home, in the Classroom, and at a Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Chang, Cheng-Sian; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Yau-Zng

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on how to enhance the interactivity and usefulness of augmented reality (AR) by integrating manipulative interactive tools with a real-world environment. A manipulative AR (MAR) system, which included 3D interactive models and manipulative aids, was designed and developed to teach the unit "Understanding Weather" in a…

  12. Space-weather Parameters for 1,000 Active Regions Observed by SDO/HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobra, M.; Liu, Y.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Sun, X.

    2013-12-01

    We present statistical studies of several space-weather parameters, derived from observations of the photospheric vector magnetic field by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, for a thousand active regions. Each active region has been observed every twelve minutes during the entirety of its disk passage. Some of these parameters, such as energy density and shear angle, indicate the deviation of the photospheric magnetic field from that of a potential field. Other parameters include flux, helicity, field gradients, polarity inversion line properties, and measures of complexity. We show that some of these parameters are useful for event prediction.

  13. Ground and surface water developmental toxicity at a municipal landfill--Description and weather-related variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruner, M.A.; Rao, M.; Dumont, J.N.; Hull, M.; Jones, T.; Bantle, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Contaminated groundwater poses a significant health hazard and may also impact wildlife such as amphibians when it surfaces. Using FETAX (Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus), the developmental toxicity of ground and surface water samples near a closed municipal landfill at Norman, OK, were evaluated. The groundwater samples were taken from a network of wells in a shallow, unconfined aquifer downgradient from the landfill. Surface water samples were obtained from a pond and small stream adjacent to the landfill. Surface water samples from a reference site in similar habitat were also analyzed. Groundwater samples were highly toxic in the area near the landfill, indicating a plume of toxicants. Surface water samples from the landfill site demonstrated elevated developmental toxicity. This toxicity was temporally variable and was significantly correlated with weather conditions during the 3 days prior to sampling. Mortality was negatively correlated with cumulative rain and relative humidity. Mortality was positively correlated with solar radiation and net radiation. No significant correlations were observed between mortality and weather parameters for days 4–7 preceding sampling.

  14. Nature and dynamic behaviour of organic surface layer deposits during dry weather.

    PubMed

    Oms, C; Gromaire, M C; Chebbo, G

    2005-01-01

    In-situ observations were performed at two different spatial and temporal scales, in order to get a better identification of the nature of the organic layer situated at the water-sediment interface, and which had previously been identified as major of combined sewer overflows organic loads. Its composition and its build up mechanisms during dry weather periods are presented. Results showed that the concept of dry weather accumulation and more generally the way organic sewer sediments are modelled needs to be reconsidered.

  15. Interactive Computing and Processing of NASA Land Surface Observations Using Google Earth Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew; Burks, Jason; Bell, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Google's Earth Engine offers a "big data" approach to processing large volumes of NASA and other remote sensing products. h\\ps://earthengine.google.com/ Interfaces include a Javascript or Python-based API, useful for accessing and processing over large periods of record for Landsat and MODIS observations. Other data sets are frequently added, including weather and climate model data sets, etc. Demonstrations here focus on exploratory efforts to perform land surface change detection related to severe weather, and other disaster events.

  16. Effects of UV weathering on surface properties of polypropylene composites reinforced with wood flour, lignin, and cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yao; Liu, Ru; Cao, Jinzhen; Chen, Yu

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the influence of accelerated weathering on polypropylene composites reinforced with wood flour (WF), lignin, and cellulose at different loading levels were evaluated. Six groups of samples were exposed in a QUV accelerated weathering tester for a total of 960 h. The surface color, surface gloss, contact angle and flexural properties of the samples were tested. Besides, the weathered surface was characterized by SEM and ATR-FTIR. The results revealed that (1) the discoloration of composites was accelerated by the presence of lignin, especially at high content; (2) composites containing lignin showed less loss of flexural strength and modulus, less cracks, and better hydrophobicity on weathered surface than other groups, confirming its functions of stabilization and antioxidation; (3) cellulose-based composites exhibited better color stability but more significant deterioration in flexural properties after weathering compared to other composites, suggesting that such kind of composites could not be used as load-bearing structure in outdoor applications.

  17. On the sensitivity of numerical weather prediction to remotely sensed marine surface wind data - A simulation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, M. A.; Cardone, V. J.; Halem, M.; Halberstam, I.

    1981-01-01

    The reported investigation has the objective to assess the potential impact on numerical weather prediction (NWP) of remotely sensed surface wind data. Other investigations conducted with similar objectives have not been satisfactory in connection with a use of procedures providing an unrealistic distribution of initial errors. In the current study, care has been taken to duplicate the actual distribution of information in the conventional observing system, thus shifting the emphasis from accuracy of the data to the data coverage. It is pointed out that this is an important consideration in assessing satellite observing systems since experience with sounder data has shown that improvements in forecasts due to satellite-derived information is due less to a general error reduction than to the ability to fill data-sparse regions. The reported study concentrates on the evaluation of the observing system simulation experimental design and on the assessment of the potential of remotely sensed marine surface wind data.

  18. November 2004 space weather events: Real-time observations and forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trichtchenko, L.; Zhukov, A.; van der Linden, R.; Stankov, S. M.; Jakowski, N.; StanisłAwska, I.; Juchnikowski, G.; Wilkinson, P.; Patterson, G.; Thomson, A. W. P.

    2007-06-01

    Space weather events with their solar origin and their distribution through the heliosphere affect the whole magnetosphere-ionosphere-Earth system. Their real-time monitoring and forecasting are important for science and technology. Here we discuss one of the largest space weather events of Solar Cycle 23, in November 2004, which was also one of the most difficult periods to forecast. Nine halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs), interacting on their way through the interplanetary medium and forming two geoeffective interplanetary structures, exemplify the complexity of the event. Real-time and quasi-real-time observations of the ground geomagnetic field show rapid and extensive expansion of the auroral oval to 55° in geomagnetic latitude accompanied by great variability of the ionosphere. Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) seen in ground networks, such as power grids and pipelines, were significant during the event, although no problems were reported. Forecasts of the CME propagation, global and local ground geomagnetic activity, and ionospheric parameters, issued by several regional warning centers, revealed certain deficiencies in predictions of the interplanetary characteristics of the CME, size of the geomagnetic disturbances, and complexity of the ionospheric variations produced by this event. This paper is a collective report based on the materials presented at the splinter session on November 2004 events during the first European Space Weather Week.

  19. Cockpit weather information needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanlon, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective is to develop an advanced pilot weather interface for the flight deck and to measure its utilization and effectiveness in pilot reroute decision processes, weather situation awareness, and weather monitoring. Identical graphical weather displays for the dispatcher, air traffic control (ATC), and pilot crew should also enhance the dialogue capabilities for reroute decisions. By utilizing a broadcast data link for surface observations, forecasts, radar summaries, lightning strikes, and weather alerts, onboard weather computing facilities construct graphical displays, historical weather displays, color textual displays, and other tools to assist the pilot crew. Since the weather data is continually being received and stored by the airborne system, the pilot crew has instantaneous access to the latest information. This information is color coded to distinguish degrees of category for surface observations, ceiling and visibilities, and ground radar summaries. Automatic weather monitoring and pilot crew alerting is accomplished by the airborne computing facilities. When a new weather information is received, the displays are instantaneously changed to reflect the new information. Also, when a new surface or special observation for the intended destination is received, the pilot crew is informed so that information can be studied at the pilot's discretion. The pilot crew is also immediately alerted when a severe weather notice, AIRMET or SIGMET, is received. The cockpit weather display shares a multicolor eight inch cathode ray tube and overlaid touch panel with a pilot crew data link interface. Touch sensitive buttons and areas are used for pilot selection of graphical and data link displays. Time critical ATC messages are presented in a small window that overlays other displays so that immediate pilot alerting and action can be taken. Predeparture and reroute clearances are displayed on the graphical weather system so pilot review of weather along

  20. The need for satellite based observations of global surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettenmaier, D.; Alsdorf, D.; Vörösmarty, C.; Birkett, C.

    2003-04-01

    River discharge as well as lake and wetland storage of water are critical elements of land surface hydrology, yet they are poorly observed globally and the prospects for improvement from in-situ networks are bleak. Considering this, our NASA Surface Water working group is focused on the following science and applications questions: (1) What are the observational and data assimilation requirements for measuring natural and manmade surface storage and river discharge that will allow us to (a) understand the land surface branch of the global hydrologic cycle, (b) predict the consequences of global change, and (c) make assessments for water resources management? (2) What are the roles of wetlands, lakes, and rivers (a) as regulators of biogeochemical and constituent cycles (e.g., carbon, nutrients, and sediments) and (b) in creating or ameliorating water-related hazards of relevance to society? Global models of weather and climate could be constrained spatially and temporally by stream discharge and surface storage measurements. Yet this constraint is rarely applied, despite weather and climate modeling results showing that predicted precipitation is often inconsistent with observed discharge. Thus, as satellite missions are developed for global observations of critical hydrologic parameters such as soil moisture (i.e., HYDROS) and precipitation (i.e., GPM), the lack of concomitant measurements of runoff and surface water storage at compatible spatial and temporal scales may well result in inconsistent parameterizations of global hydrologic, weather, and climate models. Although off-river-channel environments, such as wetlands, floodplains, and anabranches (e.g., braided channels) are increasingly recognized for their important roles in delaying continental runoff, in biogeochemical cycling of waterborne constituents, and in trace gas exchange with the atmosphere, these environments are not gauged because flow is diffusive (non-channelized). Rather than fixed station

  1. Mars weather and predictability: Modeling and ensemble data assimilation of spacecraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greybush, Steven J.

    Combining the perspectives of spacecraft observations and the GFDL Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) in the framework of ensemble data assimilation leads to an improved understanding of the weather and climate of Mars and its atmospheric predictability. The bred vector (BV) technique elucidates regions and seasons of instability in the MGCM, and a kinetic energy budget reveals their physical origins. Instabilities prominent in the late autumn through early spring seasons of each hemisphere along the polar temperature front result from baroclinic conversions from BV potential to BV kinetic energy, whereas barotropic conversions dominate along the westerly jets aloft. Low level tropics and the northern hemisphere summer are relatively stable. The bred vectors are linked to forecast ensemble spread in data assimilation and help explain the growth of forecast errors. Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) temperature profiles are assimilated into the MGCM using the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) for a 30-sol evaluation period during the northern hemisphere autumn. Short term (0.25 sol) forecasts compared to independent observations show reduced error (3--4 K global RMSE) and bias compared to a free running model. Several enhanced techniques result in further performance gains. Spatially-varying adaptive inflation and varying the dust distribution among ensemble members improve estimates of analysis uncertainty through the ensemble spread, and empirical bias correction using time mean analysis increments help account for model biases. With bias correction, we estimate a predictability horizon of about 5 sols during which temperature, wind, and surface pressure forecasts initialized from an assimilation analysis are superior to a free running model forecast. LETKF analyses, when compared with the UK reanalysis, show a superior correspondence to independent radio science temperature profiles. Traveling waves in both hemispheres share a correspondence in

  2. A High-Resolution 3D Weather Radar, MSG, and Lightning Sensor Observation Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Malte; Senf, Fabian; Wapler, Kathrin; Simmer, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    Within the research group 'Object-based Analysis and SEamless prediction' (OASE) of the Hans Ertel Centre for Weather Research programme (HerZ), a data composite containing weather radar, lightning sensor, and Meteosat Second Generation observations is being developed for the use in object-based weather analysis and nowcasting. At present, a 3D merging scheme combines measurements of the Bonn and Jülich dual polarimetric weather radar systems (data provided by the TR32 and TERENO projects) into a 3-dimensional polar-stereographic volume grid, with 500 meters horizontal, and 250 meters vertical resolution. The merging takes into account and compensates for various observational error sources, such as attenuation through hydrometeors, beam blockage through topography and buildings, minimum detectable signal as a function of noise threshold, non-hydrometeor echos like insects, and interference from other radar systems. In addition to this, the effect of convection during the radar 5-minute volume scan pattern is mitigated through calculation of advection vectors from subsequent scans and their use for advection correction when projecting the measurements into space for any desired timestamp. The Meteosat Second Generation rapid scan service provides a scan in 12 spectral visual and infrared wavelengths every 5 minutes over Germany and Europe. These scans, together with the derived microphysical cloud parameters, are projected into the same polar stereographic grid used for the radar data. Lightning counts from the LINET lightning sensor network are also provided for every 2D grid pixel. The combined 3D radar and 2D MSG/LINET data is stored in a fully documented netCDF file for every 5 minute interval, and is made ready for tracking and object based weather analysis. At the moment, the 3D data only covers the Bonn and Jülich area, but the algorithms are planed to be adapted to the newly conceived DWD polarimetric C-Band 5 minute interval volume scan strategy. An

  3. Atmospheric Visual and Infrared Transmission Deduced from Surface Weather Observations: Weather and Warplanes. V1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-10-01

    continental dust, forest fire smoke, industrial effluents, etc.), such as different "dry" size distributions, different growth rates with relative humidity...Airborne Measure- ments of Optica Atmospheric Properties in Southern Illinois, Visibility Laboratory, UCSD, San Diego (AFCRL-TR-73-0422, Air Force

  4. Data Assimilation of SMAP Observations and the Impact on Weather Forecasts and Heat Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Case, Jonathan; Blankenship, Clay; Crosson, William; White, Khristopher

    2014-01-01

    SPoRT produces real-time LIS soil moisture products for situational awareness and local numerical weather prediction over CONUS, Mesoamerica, and East Africa ?Currently interact/collaborate with operational partners on evaluation of soil moisture products ?Drought/fire ?Extreme heat ?Convective initiation ?Flood and water borne diseases ?Initial efforts to assimilate L2 soil moisture observations from SMOS (as a precursor for SMAP) have been successful ?Active/passive blended product from SMAP will be assimilated similarly and higher spatial resolution should improve on local-scale processes

  5. On the dynamic estimation of relative weights for observation and forecast in numerical weather prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahba, Grace; Deepak, A. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The problem of merging direct and remotely sensed (indirect) data with forecast data to get an estimate of the present state of the atmosphere for the purpose of numerical weather prediction is examined. To carry out this merging optimally, it is necessary to provide an estimate of the relative weights to be given to the observations and forecast. It is possible to do this dynamically from the information to be merged, if the correlation structure of the errors from the various sources is sufficiently different. Some new statistical approaches to doing this are described, and conditions quantified in which such estimates are likely to be good.

  6. State of Art in space weather observational activities and data management in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislawska, Iwona

    One of the primary scientific and technical goals of space weather is to produce data in order to investigate the Sun impact on the Earth and its environment. Studies based on data mining philosophy yield increase the knowledge of space weather physical properties, modelling capabilities and gain applications of various procedures in space weather monitoring and forecasting. Exchanging tailored individually and/or jointly data between different entities, storing of the databases and making data accessible for the users is the most important task undertaken by investigators. National activities spread over Europe is currently consolidated pursuant to the terms of effectiveness and individual contributions embedded in joint integrated efforts. The role of COST 724 Action in animation of such a movement is essential. The paper focuses on the analysis of the European availability in the Internet near-real time and historical collections of the European ground based and satellite observations, operational indices and parameters. A detailed description of data delivered is included. The structure of the content is supplied according to the following selection: (1) observations, raw and/or corrected, updated data, (2) resolution, availability of real-time and historical data, (3) products, as the results of models and theory including (a) maps, forecasts and alerts, (b) resolution, availability of real-time and historical data, (4) platforms to deliver data. Characterization of the networking of stations, observatories and space related monitoring systems of data collections is integrated part of the paper. According to these provisions operational systems developed for these purposes is presented and analysed. It concerns measurements, observations and parameters from the theory and models referred to local, regional collections, European and worldwide networks. Techniques used by these organizations to generate the digital content are identified. As the reference pan

  7. The Themis-Beagle families: Investigation of space-weathering processes on primitive surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Perna, D.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M.

    2014-07-01

    In the past 20 years, enormous progress has been reached in the study of space-weathering (SW) effects on silicates and silicate asteroids. The so-called ordinary chondrite paradox, that is, lack of asteroids similar to the ordinary chondrites, which represent 80 % of meteorite falls, has been solved. These meteorites are now clearly related to S-type asteroids, as proved also by the direct measurements of the NEAR and HAYABUSA missions on the near-Earth asteroids Eros and Itokawa. Spectral differences between S-type asteroids and ordinary chondrites are caused by space-weathering effects, which produce a darkening in the albedo, a reddening of the spectra, and diminish the silicate absorption bands on the asteroids surfaces, exposed to cosmic radiation and solar wind. On the other hand, our understanding of space-weathering effects on primitive asteroids is still poor. Only few laboratory experiments have been devoted to the investigation of SW effects on dark carbonaceous chondrites and on complex organic materials. Irradiation of transparent organic materials produces firstly redder and darker materials that upon further processing turn flatter-bluish and darker (Kanuchova et al. 2012; Moroz et al. 2004). The Themis family is a natural laboratory to study primitive asteroids and space-weathering effects. The Themis family is located between 3.05 and 3.24 au, beyond the snow line, and it is composed of primitive asteroids. Themis is one of the most statistically reliable families in the asteroid belt. First discovered by Hirayama (1918), it has been identified as a family in all subsequent works, and it has 550 members as determined by Zappalà et al. (1995) and more than 4000 as determined by Nesvorny et al. (2010). The family formed probably about 2.3 Gyr ago as a result of a large-scale catastrophic disruption event of a parent asteroid 400 km in diameter colliding with a 190-km projectile (Marzari et al. 1995). Several Themis family members show absorption

  8. Space Weather Observations by GNSS Radio Occultation: From FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC to FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xinan; Schreiner, William S; Pedatella, Nicholas; Anthes, Richard A; Mannucci, Anthony J; Straus, Paul R; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2014-11-01

    The joint Taiwan-United States FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) mission, hereafter called COSMIC, is the first satellite constellation dedicated to remotely sense Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere using a technique called Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO). The occultations yield abundant information about neutral atmospheric temperature and moisture as well as space weather estimates of slant total electron content, electron density profiles, and an amplitude scintillation index, S4. With the success of COSMIC, the United States and Taiwan are moving forward with a follow-on RO mission named FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (COSMIC-2), which will ultimately place 12 satellites in orbit with two launches in 2016 and 2019. COSMIC-2 satellites will carry an advanced Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) RO receiver that will track both GPS and Russian Global Navigation Satellite System signals, with capability for eventually tracking other GNSS signals from the Chinese BeiDou and European Galileo system, as well as secondary space weather payloads to measure low-latitude plasma drifts and scintillation at multiple frequencies. COSMIC-2 will provide 4-6 times (10-15X in the low latitudes) the number of atmospheric and ionospheric observations that were tracked with COSMIC and will also improve the quality of the observations. In this article we focus on COSMIC/COSMIC-2 measurements of key ionospheric parameters.

  9. Space Weather Observations by GNSS Radio Occultation: From FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC to FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xinan; Schreiner, William S.; Pedatella, Nicholas; Anthes, Richard A.; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Straus, Paul R.; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2014-11-01

    The joint Taiwan-United States FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) mission, hereafter called COSMIC, is the first satellite constellation dedicated to remotely sense Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere using a technique called Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO). The occultations yield abundant information about neutral atmospheric temperature and moisture as well as space weather estimates of slant total electron content, electron density profiles, and an amplitude scintillation index, S4. With the success of COSMIC, the United States and Taiwan are moving forward with a follow-on RO mission named FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (COSMIC-2), which will ultimately place 12 satellites in orbit with two launches in 2016 and 2019. COSMIC-2 satellites will carry an advanced Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) RO receiver that will track both GPS and Russian Global Navigation Satellite System signals, with capability for eventually tracking other GNSS signals from the Chinese BeiDou and European Galileo system, as well as secondary space weather payloads to measure low-latitude plasma drifts and scintillation at multiple frequencies. COSMIC-2 will provide 4-6 times (10-15X in the low latitudes) the number of atmospheric and ionospheric observations that were tracked with COSMIC and will also improve the quality of the observations. In this article we focus on COSMIC/COSMIC-2 measurements of key ionospheric parameters.

  10. Space Weather Observations by GNSS Radio Occultation: From FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC to FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Xinan; Schreiner, William S; Pedatella, Nicholas; Anthes, Richard A; Mannucci, Anthony J; Straus, Paul R; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2014-01-01

    The joint Taiwan-United States FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) mission, hereafter called COSMIC, is the first satellite constellation dedicated to remotely sense Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere using a technique called Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO). The occultations yield abundant information about neutral atmospheric temperature and moisture as well as space weather estimates of slant total electron content, electron density profiles, and an amplitude scintillation index, S4. With the success of COSMIC, the United States and Taiwan are moving forward with a follow-on RO mission named FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (COSMIC-2), which will ultimately place 12 satellites in orbit with two launches in 2016 and 2019. COSMIC-2 satellites will carry an advanced Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) RO receiver that will track both GPS and Russian Global Navigation Satellite System signals, with capability for eventually tracking other GNSS signals from the Chinese BeiDou and European Galileo system, as well as secondary space weather payloads to measure low-latitude plasma drifts and scintillation at multiple frequencies. COSMIC-2 will provide 4–6 times (10–15X in the low latitudes) the number of atmospheric and ionospheric observations that were tracked with COSMIC and will also improve the quality of the observations. In this article we focus on COSMIC/COSMIC-2 measurements of key ionospheric parameters. PMID:26213514

  11. Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Case, Jonathan L.; Molthan, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center develops new products and techniques that can be used in operational meteorology. The majority of these products are derived from NASA polar-orbiting satellite imagery from the Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms. One such product is a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is produced from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT began generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS) on 1 June 2010. The purpose of this study is to compare the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climatology GVF product (currently used in operational weather models) to the SPoRT-MODIS GVF during June to October 2010. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) was employed to study the impacts of the new SPoRT-MODIS GVF dataset on land surface models apart from a full numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. For the 2010 warm season, the SPoRT GVF in the western portion of the CONUS was generally higher than the NCEP climatology. The eastern CONUS GVF had variations both above and below the climatology during the period of study. These variations in GVF led to direct impacts on the rates of heating and evaporation from the land surface. The second phase of the project is to examine the impacts of the SPoRT GVF dataset on NWP using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two separate WRF model simulations were made for individual severe weather case days using the NCEP GVF (control) and SPoRT GVF (experimental), with all other model parameters remaining the same. Based on the sensitivity results in these case studies, regions with higher GVF in the SPoRT model runs had higher evapotranspiration and lower direct surface heating, which typically resulted in lower (higher) predicted 2-m temperatures (2-m dewpoint temperatures). The opposite was true

  12. A much warmer Earth surface for most of geologic time: implications to biotic weathering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzman, D. W.; McMenamin, M.

    1993-01-01

    The authors present two scenarios for the temperature history of Earth. One scenario is conventional, the other relies on a warmer history. Both scenarios include surface cooling determined by the evolution of the biosphere and are similar until the Proterozoic period. The warmer scenario requires a higher plant/lichen terrestrial biota to increase weathering intensity. Justification for a warmer surface includes period temperatures from the oxygen isotope record of coexisting phosphates and cherts, an upper limit of 58 degrees C from primary gypsum precipitation, and the lack of fractionation of sulfur isotopes between sulfide and sulfates in Archean sediments.

  13. Potential crop evapotranspiration and surface evaporation estimates via a gridded weather forcing dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Clayton S.; Allen, L. Niel

    2017-03-01

    Absent local weather stations, a gridded weather dataset can provide information useful for water management in irrigated areas including potential crop evapotranspiration calculations. In estimating crop irrigation requirements and surface evaporation in Utah, United States of America, methodology and software were developed using the ASCE Standardized Penman-Monteith Reference Evapotranspiration equation with input climate drivers from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) gridded weather forcing dataset and a digital elevation model. A simple procedure was devised to correct bias in NLDAS relative humidity and air temperature data based on comparison to weather data from ground stations. Potential evapotranspiration was calculated for 18 crops (including turfgrass), wetlands (large and narrow), and open water evaporation (deep and shallow) by multiplying crop coefficient curves to reference evapotranspiration with annual curve dates set by summation of Hargreaves evapotranspiration, cumulative growing degree days, or number of days. Net potential evapotranspiration was calculated by subtracting effective precipitation estimates from the Daymet gridded precipitation dataset. Analysis of the results showed that daily estimated potential crop evapotranspiration from the model compared well with estimates from electronic weather stations (1980-2014) and with independently calculated potential crop evapotranspiration in adjacent states. Designed for this study but open sourced for other applications, software entitled GridET encapsulated the GIS-based model that provided data download and management, calculation of reference and potential crop evapotranspiration, and viewing and analysis tools. Flexible features in GridET allows a user to specify grid resolution, evapotranspiration equations, cropping information, and additional datasets with the output being transferable to other GIS software.

  14. Implications of Non-Systematic Observations for Verification of Forecasts of Aviation Weather Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, B. G.; Young, G. S.; Fowler, T. L.

    2001-12-01

    Over the last several years, efforts have been undertaken to develop improved automated forecasts of weather phenomena that have large impacts on aviation, including turbulence and in-flight icing conditions. Verification of these forecasts - which has played a major role in their development - is difficult due to the nature of the limited observations available for these evaluations; in particular, voice reports by pilots (PIREPs). These reports, which are provided inconsistently by pilots, currently are the best observations of turbulence and in-flight icing conditions available. However, their sampling characteristics make PIREPs a difficult dataset to use for these evaluations. In particular, PIREPs have temporal and spatial biases (e.g., they are more frequent during daylight hours, and they occur most frequently along flight routes and in the vicinity of major airports, where aircraft are concentrated), and they are subjective. Most importantly, the observations are non-systematic. That is, observations are not consistently reported at the same location and time. This characteristic of the reports has numerous implications for the verification of forecasts of these phenomena. In particular, it is inappropriate to estimate certain common verification statistics that normally are of interest in forecast evaluations. For example, estimates of the false alarm ratio and critical success index are incorrect, due to the unrepresentativeness of the observations. Analytical explanations for this result have been developed, and the magnitudes of the errors associated with estimating these statistics have been estimated through Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, several approaches have been developed to compensate for these characteristics of PIREPs in verification studies, including methods for estimating confidence intervals for the verification statistics, which take into account their sampling variability. These approaches also have implications for verification

  15. Spectral evidence of size dependent space weathering processes on asteroid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffey, M. J.; Bell, J. F.; Brown, R. H.; Burbine, T. H.; Piatek, J. L.; Reed, K. L.; Chaky, D. A.

    1993-03-01

    Most compositional characterizations of the minor planets are derived from analysis of visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra. However, such spectra are derived from light which has only interacted with a very thin surface layer. Although regolith processes are assumed to mix all near-surface lithologic units into this layer, it has been proposed that space weathering processes can alter this surface layer to obscure the spectral signature of the bedrock lithology. It has been proposed that these spectral alteration processes are much less pronounced on asteroid surfaces than on the lunar surface, but the possibility of major spectral alteration of asteroidal optical surfaces has been invoked to reconcile S-asteroids with ordinary chondrites. The reflectance spectra of a large subset of the S-asteroid population have been analyzed in a systematic investigation of the mineralogical diversity within the S-class. In this sample, absorption band depth is a strong function of asteroid diameter. The S-asteroid band depths are relatively constant for objects larger than 100 km and increase linearly by factor of two toward smaller sizes (approximately 40 km). Although the S-asteroid surface materials includes a diverse variety of silicate assemblages, ranging from dunites to basalts, all compositional subtypes of the S-asteroids conform to this trend. The A-, R-, and V-type asteroids which are primarily silicate assemblages (as opposed to the metal-silicate mixtures of most S-asteroids) follow a parallel but displaced trend. Some sort of textural or regolith equilibrium appears to have been attained in the optical surfaces of asteroids larger than about 100 km diameter but not on bodies below this size. The relationships between absorption band depth, spectral slope, surface albedo and body size provide an intriguing insight into the nature of the optical surfaces of the S-asteroids and space weathering on these objects.

  16. Spectral evidence of size dependent space weathering processes on asteroid surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffey, M. J.; Bell, J. F.; Brown, R. H.; Burbine, T. H.; Piatek, J. L.; Reed, K. L.; Chaky, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    Most compositional characterizations of the minor planets are derived from analysis of visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra. However, such spectra are derived from light which has only interacted with a very thin surface layer. Although regolith processes are assumed to mix all near-surface lithologic units into this layer, it has been proposed that space weathering processes can alter this surface layer to obscure the spectral signature of the bedrock lithology. It has been proposed that these spectral alteration processes are much less pronounced on asteroid surfaces than on the lunar surface, but the possibility of major spectral alteration of asteroidal optical surfaces has been invoked to reconcile S-asteroids with ordinary chondrites. The reflectance spectra of a large subset of the S-asteroid population have been analyzed in a systematic investigation of the mineralogical diversity within the S-class. In this sample, absorption band depth is a strong function of asteroid diameter. The S-asteroid band depths are relatively constant for objects larger than 100 km and increase linearly by factor of two toward smaller sizes (approximately 40 km). Although the S-asteroid surface materials includes a diverse variety of silicate assemblages, ranging from dunites to basalts, all compositional subtypes of the S-asteroids conform to this trend. The A-, R-, and V-type asteroids which are primarily silicate assemblages (as opposed to the metal-silicate mixtures of most S-asteroids) follow a parallel but displaced trend. Some sort of textural or regolith equilibrium appears to have been attained in the optical surfaces of asteroids larger than about 100 km diameter but not on bodies below this size. The relationships between absorption band depth, spectral slope, surface albedo and body size provide an intriguing insight into the nature of the optical surfaces of the S-asteroids and space weathering on these objects.

  17. Assessing the Impact of Observations on Numerical Weather Forecasts Using the Adjoint Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelaro, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The adjoint of a data assimilation system provides a flexible and efficient tool for estimating observation impacts on short-range weather forecasts. The impacts of any or all observations can be estimated simultaneously based on a single execution of the adjoint system. The results can be easily aggregated according to data type, location, channel, etc., making this technique especially attractive for examining the impacts of new hyper-spectral satellite instruments and for conducting regular, even near-real time, monitoring of the entire observing system. This talk provides a general overview of the adjoint method, including the theoretical basis and practical implementation of the technique. Results are presented from the adjoint-based observation impact monitoring tool in NASA's GEOS-5 global atmospheric data assimilation and forecast system. When performed in conjunction with standard observing system experiments (OSEs), the adjoint results reveal both redundancies and dependencies between observing system impacts as observations are added or removed from the assimilation system. Understanding these dependencies may be important for optimizing the use of the current observational network and defining requirements for future observing systems

  18. Surface-Correlated Nanophase Iron Metal in Lunar Soils: Petrography and Space Weathering Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Wentworth, Susan J.; McKay, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Space weathering is a term used to include all of the processes that act on material exposed at the surface of a planetary or small body. In the case of the Moon, it includes a variety of processes that formed the lunar regolith, caused the maturation of lunar soils, and formed patina on rock surfaces. The processes include micrometeorite impact and reworking, implantation of solar wind and flare particles, radiation damage and chemical effects from solar particles and cosmic rays, interactions with the lunar atmosphere, and sputtering erosion and deposition. Space weathering effects collectively result in a reddened continuum slope, lowered albedo, and attenuated absorption features in reflectance spectra of lunar soils as compared to finely comminuted rocks from the same Apollo sites. Understanding these effects is critical in order to fully integrate the lunar sample collection with remotely sensed data from recent robotic missions (e.g., Lunar Prospector, Clementine, Galileo). Our objective is to determine the origin of space weathering effects in lunar soils through combined electron microscopy and microspectrophotometry techniques applied to individual soil particles from <20 pm size factions (dry-sieved) of mature lunar soils. It has been demonstrated that it is the finest size fraction (<25 pm) of lunar soils that dominates the optical properties of the bulk soils.

  19. Effects of copper-plasma deposition on weathering properties of wood surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascón-Garrido, P.; Mainusch, N.; Militz, H.; Viöl, W.; Mai, C.

    2016-03-01

    Thin layers of copper micro-particles were deposited on the surfaces of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) micro-veneers using atmospheric pressure plasma to improve the resistance of the surfaces to weathering. Three different loadings of copper were established. Micro-veneers were exposed to artificial weathering in a QUV weathering tester for 0, 24, 48, 96 and 144 h following the standard EN 927-6 [1]. Mass losses after each exposure showed significant differences between copper coated and untreated micro-veneers. Tensile strength was assessed at zero span (z-strength) and finite span (f-strength) under dry conditions (20 °C, 65% RH). During 48 h, micro-veneers lost their z-strength progressively. In contrast, copper coating at highest loading imparts a photo-protective effect to wood micro-veneers during 144 h exhibiting z-strength retention of 95%. F-strength losses were similar in all copper treated and untreated micro-veneers up to 96 h. However, after 144 h, copper coated micro-veneers at highest loading showed significantly greater strength retention of 56%, while untreated micro-veneers exhibited only 38%. Infrared spectroscopy suggested that copper coating does not stabilize lignin. Inductively Coupled Plasma revealed that micro-veneers coated with the highest loading exhibited the lowest percentage of copper loss. Blue stain resistance of copper coated Scots pine following the guidelines of EN 152 [2] was performed. Additional test with different position of the coated surface was also assessed. Copper coating reduced fungal growth when coated surface is exposed in contact with vermiculite. Spores of Aureobasidium pullulans were not able to germinate on the copper coated surface positioned uppermost.

  20. Real-time Observations of Rock Cracking and Weather Provide Insights into Thermal Stress-Related Processes of Mechanical Weathering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppes, M. C.; Magi, B. I.; Keanini, R.

    2015-12-01

    The environmental conditions (weather and/or climate) that limit or drive mechanical weathering via thermal stress are poorly understood. Here we examine acoustic emission (AE) records of rock cracking in boulders sitting on the ground in humid-temperate (~1 year of data) and semi-arid (~3 years) locations. We compare on-site average ambient daily temperature for days in which cracking occurs to the average temperatures for those dates derived from local climate records. The temperatures characterizing days on which cracking occurs is similar for both stations (range = -10 C to +30 C); where 21% and 73% of cracking occurs on hot days (> 20C) in the humid and semi-arid climates respectively while 17% and 0.1% occurs on very cold days (-8C to -3C). When days during which cracking occurs are compared to climate averages, 81% (NC) and 51% (NM) of all cracking occurs on days with absolute temperature anomalies >1, regardless of the temperature. The proportion of cracking that occurs on anomalously hot or cold days rises to 92% and 77% when the data is normalized to account for uneven sampling of the days with extreme temperatures. In order to determine to what extent this trend holds true in a more complex setting, we examined an existing 100+ year record of rock falls from Yosemite Valley. Preliminary results, although more equivocal, are consistent with the boulder cracking AE data. We examine the AE datasets in the context of our previous numerical modeling of insolation-driven thermal stress in rock and hypothesize that there is an increased potential for fracture on days with extreme temperatures because 1) thermal-stress is dependent on temperature variance from far-field and/or average rock temperatures and 2) that days with climatologically extreme air temperatures result in maximums in such variance. An implication of our results is that environments with extreme weather variability may have higher thermal breakdown rates, including certain locations today and

  1. Surface Exposure Ages of Space-Weathered Grains from Asteroid 25143 Itokawa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Berger, E. L.; Christoffersen, R.

    2015-01-01

    We use the observed effects of solar wind ion irradiation and the accumulation of solar flare particle tracks recorded in Itokawa grains to constrain the rates of space weathering and yield information about regolith dynamics. The track densities are consistent with exposure at mm depths for 104-105 years. The solar wind damaged rims form on a much faster timescale, <10(exp 3) years.

  2. On the sensitivity of numerical weather prediction to remotely sensed marine surface wind data: A simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cane, Mark A.; Cardone, Vincent J.; Halem, Milton; Halberstam, Isidore

    1981-09-01

    A series of observing system simulation experiments has been performed to assess the potential impact of marine surface wind data on numerical weather prediction. Care was taken to duplicate the spatial coverage and error characteristics of conventional surface, radiosonde, ship, and aircraft reports. These observations, suitably degraded to account for instrument and sampling errors, were used in a conventional analysis-forecast cycle. A series of five 72-hour forecasts were then made by using the analyzed fields as initial conditions. The forecast error growth was found to be similar to that in operational numerical forecasts. Further experiments simulated the time-continuous assimilation of remotely sensed marine surface wind or temperature sounding data in addition to the conventional data. The wind data were fabricated directly for model grid points intercepted by a Seasat-1 scatterometer (SASS) swath and were placed in the lowest active level (945 mbar) of the model. The temperature sounding experiment assimilated error-free data fabricated along actual Nimbus orbits. Forecasts were made from the resulting analysis fields, and the impact of the simulated satellite data was assessed by comparing these forecast errors with those of the control forecasts. When error-free winds were assimilated by using a localized successive correction method (SCM), the impacts in extratropical regions proved to be substantial, especially in lower tropospheric quantities such as surface pressure. In contrast, a less sophisticated assimilation method resulted in negligible impact. The assimilation of error-free sounder data (again by the SCM) gave impacts comparable to the wind data, suggesting that surface wind data alone may be as valuable as temperature soundings for numerical weather prediction. The effects of nominal SASS errors (±2 m/s in magnitude, ±20° in direction) on the impacts derived from wind data were found to be small.

  3. Climate-dependent sediment production: numerical modeling and field observations of variable grain size distributions from heterogeneous hillslope weathering of fractured basalt flows, Kohala Peninsula, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, B. P.; Johnson, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    in the length scale for the reduction in chemical weathering below the surface, or the flushing depth. The flushing depth is assumed to scale linearly with MAP, but decreases exponentially with increasing soil depth, as soil capillarity will imbibe infiltration. Modeling six MAP regimes between 500 and 3000 mm produces a non-linear increase in soil depths from 0.59 m soil to 5.15 m, which is broadly consistent with field observations from Kohala Peninsula. The median corestone grain size (D50) was calculated at model completion for the 20 blocks below the soil-rock interface. In the driest regime the D50 was 98% of that for the initial column, while the D50 for the wettest regime was 56% of the initial. This sediment preparation model predicts soil depths and tracks particle size reduction with variable climate-dependent weathering rates. Incorporating this type of model into sediment-transport dependent landscape evolution models may be the key to understanding the systematic differences in topography across spatially variable climate gradients, such as Kohala Peninsula.

  4. Problems at the Leading Edge of Space Weathering as Revealed by TEM Combined with Surface Science Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2015-11-01

    Analytical field-emission TEM techniques cross-correlated with surface analyses by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) provides a unique two-prong approach for characterizing how solar wind ion processing contributes to space weathering.

  5. Iron weathering products in a CO 2 + (H 2O or H 2O 2) atmosphere: Implications for weathering processes on the surface of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrier, V.; Mathé, P.-E.; Rochette, P.; Grauby, O.; Bourrié, G.; Trolard, F.

    2006-08-01

    Various iron-bearing primary phases and rocks have been weathered experimentally to simulate possible present and past weathering processes occurring on Mars. We used magnetite, monoclinic and hexagonal pyrrhotites, and metallic iron as it is suggested that meteoritic input to the martian surface may account for an important source of reduced iron. The phases were weathered in two different atmospheres: one composed of CO 2 + H 2O, to model the present and primary martian atmosphere, and a CO 2 + H 2O + H 2O 2 atmosphere to simulate the effect of strong oxidizing agents. Experiments were conducted at room temperature and a pressure of 0.75 atm. Magnetite is the only stable phase in the experiments and is thus likely to be released on the surface of Mars from primary rocks during weathering processes. Siderite, elemental sulfur, ferrous sulfates and ferric (oxy)hydroxides (goethite and lepidocrocite) are the main products in a water-bearing atmosphere, depending on the substrate. In the peroxide atmosphere, weathering products are dominated by ferric sulfates and goethite. A kinetic model was then developed for iron weathering in a water atmosphere, using the shrinking core model (SCM). This model includes competition between chemical reaction and diffusion of reactants through porous layers of secondary products. The results indicate that for short time scales, the mechanism is dominated by a chemical reaction with second order kinetics ( k = 7.75 × 10 -5 g -1/h), whereas for longer time scales, the mechanism is diffusion-controlled (De A = 2.71 × 10 -10 m 2/h). The results indicate that a primary CO 2- and H 2O-rich atmosphere should favour sulfur, ferrous phases such as siderite or Fe 2+-sulfates, associated with ferric (oxy)hydroxides (goethite and lepidocrocite). Further evolution to more oxidizing conditions may have forced these precursors to evolve into ferric sulfates and goethite/hematite.

  6. Ionospheric weather: cloning missed foF2 observations for derivation of variability index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.; Stanislwska, I.; Tomasik, M.

    2008-02-01

    A techique for filling the gaps of the missing F2-layer critical frequency is proposed and applied for the derivation of the ionospheric weather index, characterizing the degree of disturbance at each particular station. A daily-hourly analysis of ionosonde observations of foF2 for 16 stations at latitude range 37° to 70° N, longitudes of 10° W to 150° E, is performed during the solar minimum, 2006. Missed ionosonde observations are reconstructed by cloning data of another station. The process of gap filling considers hourly values of the F peak density NmF2 (deduced from foF2), normalized to the respective median, and assumes that this ratio remains the same for the parent and cloned data. It is shown that the correlation coefficient between cloned fcF2 and observed foF2 is greater than 0.75 for the positive and negative ionospheric disturbed days during a year at solar minimum, independent of the distance between the stations in high and middle latitudes. The quiet reference is determined as a running daily-hourly median for 27 days, preceding the day of observation calibrated for a seasonal trend with ITU-R foF2 predictions. The hourly deviation DNmF2 is defined as the logarithm of ratio of NmF2/NmF2med. A segmented logarithmic scale of the ionospheric weather index, W, is introduced, so that W=±1 refers to the quiet state, W=±2 to a moderate disturbance, W=±3 to the ionospheric storm, and W=±4 to the extreme or anomalous conditions. The catalog of the ionospheric disturbances for W exceeding ±2 at least during 3 consecutive hours is produced and presented online at the SRC and IZMIRAN web pages. It is found that the moderate disturbance is a prevailing state of the ionospheric weather for all stations. The stormy conditions comprise 1 to 20% of the times which occur more frequently at high latitudes, by night, during equinox and winter.

  7. Modeling COSMO-SkyMed measurements of precipitating clouds over the sea using simultaneous weather radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, N.; Baldini, L.; Facheris, L.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2014-07-01

    Several satellite missions employing X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) have been activated to provide high-resolution images of normalized radar cross-sections (NRCS) on land and ocean for numerous applications. Rainfall and wind affect the sea surface roughness and consequently the NRCS from the combined effects of corrugation due to impinging raindrops and surface wind. X-band frequencies are sensitive to precipitation: intense convective cells result in irregularly bright and dark patches in SAR images, masking changes in surface NRCS. Several works have modeled SAR images of intense precipitation over land; less adequately investigated is the precipitation effect over the sea surface. These images are analyzed in this study by modeling both the scattering and attenuation of radiation by hydrometeors in the rain cells and the NRCS surface changes using weather radar precipitation estimates as input. The reconstruction of X-band SAR returns in precipitating clouds is obtained by the joint utilization of volume reflectivity and attenuation, the latter estimated by coupling ground-based radar measurements and an electromagnetic model to predict the sea surface NRCS. Radar signatures of rain cells were investigated using X-band SAR images collected from the COSMO-SkyMed constellation of the Italian Space Agency. Two case studies were analyzed. The first occurred over the sea off the coast of Louisiana (USA) in summer 2010 with COSMO-SkyMed (CSK®) ScanSar mode monitoring of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Simultaneously, the NEXRAD S-band Doppler radar (KLIX) located in New Orleans was scanning the same portion of ocean. The second case study occurred in Liguria (Italy) on November 4, 2011, during an extraordinary flood event. The same events were observed by the Bric della Croce C-band dual polarization radar located close to Turin (Italy). The polarimetric capability of the ground radars utilized allows discrimination of the composition of the precipitation

  8. Biochemical evolution II: origin of life in tubular microstructures on weathered feldspar surfaces.

    PubMed

    Parsons, I; Lee, M R; Smith, J V

    1998-12-22

    Mineral surfaces were important during the emergence of life on Earth because the assembly of the necessary complex biomolecules by random collisions in dilute aqueous solutions is implausible. Most silicate mineral surfaces are hydrophilic and organophobic and unsuitable for catalytic reactions, but some silica-rich surfaces of partly dealuminated feldspars and zeolites are organophilic and potentially catalytic. Weathered alkali feldspar crystals from granitic rocks at Shap, north west England, contain abundant tubular etch pits, typically 0.4-0.6 microm wide, forming an orthogonal honeycomb network in a surface zone 50 microm thick, with 2-3 x 10(6) intersections per mm2 of crystal surface. Surviving metamorphic rocks demonstrate that granites and acidic surface water were present on the Earth's surface by approximately 3.8 Ga. By analogy with Shap granite, honeycombed feldspar has considerable potential as a natural catalytic surface for the start of biochemical evolution. Biomolecules should have become available by catalysis of amino acids, etc. The honeycomb would have provided access to various mineral inclusions in the feldspar, particularly apatite and oxides, which contain phosphorus and transition metals necessary for energetic life. The organized environment would have protected complex molecules from dispersion into dilute solutions, from hydrolysis, and from UV radiation. Sub-micrometer tubes in the honeycomb might have acted as rudimentary cell walls for proto-organisms, which ultimately evolved a lipid lid giving further shelter from the hostile outside environment. A lid would finally have become a complete cell wall permitting detachment and flotation in primordial "soup." Etch features on weathered alkali feldspar from Shap match the shape of overlying soil bacteria.

  9. Characterization of surface chemistry and crystallization behavior of polypropylene composites reinforced with wood flour, cellulose, and lignin during accelerated weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yao; Liu, Ru; Cao, Jinzhen

    2015-03-01

    In this study, six groups of polypropylene composites reinforced with wood flour (WF), cellulose, and lignin at different loading levels were exposed in a QUV accelerated weathering tester for a total duration of 960 h. The changes in surface morphology, chemistry, and thermal properties of weathered samples were characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), respectively. The flexural properties of all samples were tested after different durations of weathering. The results showed that: (1) the surface roughness of all samples increased after weathering; (2) composites containing lignin showed less loss of flexural strength and modulus and less roughness on weathered surface compared with lignin-free composites, indicating the functions of stabilization and antioxidation of lignin; (3) the crystallinity of PP increased in all weathered samples due to chain scissions and recrystallization; (4) ATR-FTIR and XPS analyses demonstrated in detail that significant changes occurred in surface chemistry, accompanied by the photodegradation and photo-oxidation of lignin and cellulose with prolonged weathering time.

  10. AIRS Observations of DomeC in Antarctica and Comparison with Automated Weather Stations (AWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gregorich, Dave; Broberg, Steve

    2006-01-01

    We compare the surface temperatures at Dome Concordia (DomeC) deduced from AIRS data and two Automatic Weather Stations at Concordia Station: AWS8989 , which has been in operation since December 1996, and AWS.it, for which data are available between January and November 2005. The AWS8989 readings are on average 3 K warmer than the AWS.it readings, with a warmer bias in the Antarctic summer than in the winter season. Although AIRS measures the skin brightness temperature, while the AWS reports the temperature of the air at 3 meter above the surface, the AIRS measurements agree well with the AWS.it readings for all data and separately for the summer and winter seasons, if data taken in the presence of strong surface inversions are filtered out. This can be done by deducing the vertical temperature gradient above the surface directly from the AIRS temperature sounding channels or indirectly by noting that extreme vertical gradients near the surface are unlikely if the wind speed is more than a few meters per second. Since the AIRS measurements are very well calibrated, the agreement with AWS.it is very encouraging. The warmer readings of AWS8989 are likely due to thermal contamination of the AWS8989 site by the increasing activity at Concordia Station. Data from an AWS.it quality station could be used for the evaluation of radiometric accuracy and stability of polar orbiting sounders at low temperatures. Unfortunately, data from AWS.it was available only for a limited time. The thermal contamination of the AWS8989 data makes long-term trends deduced from AWS8989 and possibly results about the rapid Antarctic warming deduced from other research stations on Antarctica suspect. AIRS is the first hyperspectral infrared sounder designed in support of weather forecasting and climate research. It was launched in May 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft into a 704 km altitude polar sun-synchronous orbit. The lifetime of AIRS, estimated before launch to be at least 5 years is

  11. A Ground-Based Array to Observe Geospace Electrodynamics During Adverse Space Weather Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, J. J.; Eccles, J. V.; Rice, D.

    2004-05-01

    Geomagnetic Storms occur with surprising frequency and create adverse space weather conditions. During these periods, our knowledge and ability to specify or forecast in adequate detail for user needs is negligible. Neither experimental observations nor theoretical developments have made a significant new impact on the problem for over two decades. Although we can now map Total Electron Content (TEC) in the ionosphere over a continent with sufficient resolution to see coherent long-lived structures, these do not provide constraints on the geospace electrodynamics that is at the heart of our lack of understanding. We present arguments for the need of a continental deployment of ground-based sensors to stepwise advance our understanding of the geospace electrodynamics when it is most adverse from a space weather perspective and also most frustrating from an understanding of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere coupling. That a continental-scale deployment is more productive at addressing the problem than a realizable global distribution is shown. Each measurement is discussed from the point-of-view of either providing new knowledge or becoming a key for future real-time specification and forecasting for user applications. An example of a storm database from one mid-latitude station for the 31 March 2002 is used as a conceptual point in a ground-based array. The presentation focuses on scientific questions that have eluded a quantitative solution for over three decades and view a ground-based array as an "IGY" type of catalyst for answering these questions.

  12. Surface degradation of CeO2 stabilized acrylic polyurethane coated thermally treated jack pine during accelerated weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Sudeshna; Kocaefe, Duygu; Boluk, Yaman; Pichette, Andre

    2013-07-01

    The thermally treated wood is a new value-added product and is very important for the diversification of forestry products. It drew the attention of consumers due to its attractive dark brown color. However, it loses its color when exposed to outside environment. Therefore, development of a protective coating for this value added product is necessary. In the present study, the efficiency of CeO2 nano particles alone or in combination with lignin stabilizer and/or bark extracts in acrylic polyurethane polymer was investigated by performing an accelerated weathering test. The color measurement results after accelerated weathering demonstrated that the coating containing CeO2 nano particles was the most effective whereas visual assessment suggested the coating containing CeO2 nano particles and lignin stabilizer as the most effective coating. The surface polarity changed for all the coatings during weathering and increase in contact angle after weathering suggested cross linking and reorientation of the polymer chain during weathering. The surface chemistry altered during weathering was evaluated by ATR-FTIR analysis. It suggested formation of different carbonyl byproducts during weathering. The chain scission reactions of the urethane linkages were not found to be significant during weathering.

  13. Combining Satellite Observations of Fire Activity and Numerical Weather Prediction to Improve the Prediction of Smoke Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. A.; Wang, J.; Hyer, E. J.; Ichoku, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Smoke emissions estimates used in air quality and visibility forecasting applications are currently limited by the information content of satellite fire observations, and the lack of a skillful short-term forecast of changes in fire activity. This study explores the potential benefits of a recently developed sub-pixel-based calculation of fire radiative power (FRPf) from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), which provides more precise estimates of the radiant energy (over the retrieved fire area) that in turn, improves estimates of the thermal buoyancy of smoke plumes and may be helpful characterizing the meteorological effects on fire activity for large fire events. Results show that unlike the current FRP product, the incorporation of FRPf produces a statistically significant correlation (R = 0.42) with smoke plume height data provided by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) and several meteorological variables, such as surface wind speed and temperature, which may be useful for discerning cases where smoke was injected above the boundary layer. Drawing from recent advances in numerical weather prediction (NWP), this study also examines the meteorological conditions characteristic of fire ignition, growth, decay, and extinction, which are used to develop an automated, 24-hour prediction of satellite fire activity. Satellite fire observations from MODIS and geostationary sensors show that the fire prediction model is an improvement (RMSE reduction of 13 - 20%) over the forecast of persistence commonly used by near-real-time fire emission inventories. The ultimate goal is to combine NWP data and satellite fire observations to improve both analysis and prediction of biomass-burning emissions, through improved understanding of the interactions between fire activity and weather at scales appropriate for operational modeling. This is a critical step toward producing a global fire prediction model and improving operational forecasts of

  14. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of extreme weather events and other weather-related variables on Cryptosporidium and Giardia in fresh surface waters.

    PubMed

    Young, Ian; Smith, Ben A; Fazil, Aamir

    2015-03-01

    Global climate change is expected to impact drinking water quality through multiple weather-related phenomena. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between various weather-related variables and the occurrence and concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in fresh surface waters. We implemented a comprehensive search in four databases, screened 1,228 unique citations for relevance, extracted data from 107 relevant articles, and conducted random-effects meta-analysis on 16 key relationships. The average odds of identifying Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in fresh surface waters was 2.61 (95% CI = 1.63-4.21; I² = 16%) and 2.87 (95% CI = 1.76-4.67; I² = 0%) times higher, respectively, during and after extreme weather events compared to baseline conditions. Similarly, the average concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia identified under these conditions was also higher, by approximately 4.38 oocysts/100 L (95% CI = 2.01-9.54; I(2) = 0%) and 2.68 cysts/100 L (95% CI = 1.08-6.55; I² = 48%). Correlation relationships between other weather-related parameters and the density of these pathogens were frequently heterogeneous and indicated low to moderate effects. Meta-regression analyses identified different study-level factors that influenced the variability in these relationships. The results can be used as direct inputs for quantitative microbial risk assessment. Future research is warranted to investigate these effects and potential mitigation strategies in different settings and contexts.

  15. Surface Material Analysis of the S-type Asteroids: Removing the Space Weathering Effect from Reflectance Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueda, Y.; Miyamoto, M.; Mikouchi, T.; Hiroi, T.

    2003-01-01

    Recent years, many researchers have been observing a lot of asteroid reflectance spectra in the UV, visible to NIR at wavelength region. Reflectance spectroscopy of asteroid at this range should bring us a lot of information about its surface materials. Pyroxene and olivine have characteristic absorption bands in this wavelength range. Low-Ca pyroxene has two absorption bands around 0.9 microns and 1.9 microns. The more Ca and Fe content, the longer both absorption band centers. On the other hand, reflectance spectrum of olivine has three complicated absorption bands around 1 m, and no absorption feature around 2 microns. In general, reflectance spectra of many asteroids that are considered to be silicate rich (i.e., S- and A type asteroids) show redder slope and more subdued absorption bands than those of terrestrial minerals and meteorites. These features are now believed to be caused by the space weathering effect, which is probably caused by micrometeorite bombardment and/or solar wind. This process causes nanophase reduced iron (npFe(sup 0)) particles near the surface of mineral grains, which leads the optical change. Therefore, the space weathering effect should be removed from asteroid reflectance spectra to compare with those of meteorite and terrestrial minerals. In this report, we will apply the expanded modified Gaussian model (MGM) to the reflectance spectra of S-type asteroids 7 Iris and 532 Herculina and compare them with those of meteorites.

  16. Weatherability Evaluation of Nanocomposite Polymeric Treatments for Surface Protection of Construction Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Scarfato, Paola; Letizia Fariello, Maria; Di Maio, Luciano; Incarnato, Loredana

    2010-06-02

    In this work the protective efficacy and stability against UV weathering of polymeric nanocomposites for concrete (CLS) surface protection have been evaluated. In particular, nanocomposite hybrids were prepared dispersing a commercial organomodified montmorillonite (Cloisite 30B) in two different polymeric matrices, one based on fluoroelastomers (Fluoline CP), the other on silane and siloxane (Antipluviol S). The obtained systems were characterized by several techniques (SAXD, DSC, TGA, FT-IR, contact angle measurements, colorimetry), before and after accelerated aging due to UV exposure, in order to evaluate the effect of the nanoscale dispersion of the organoclay on the properties and the UV stability of the treatments.

  17. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devarakonda, R.

    2014-12-01

    Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data and Climatological Summaries provides gridded estimates of daily weather parameters for North America, including daily continuous surfaces of minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation occurrence and amount, humidity, shortwave radiation, snow water equivalent, and day length. The current data product (Version 2) covers the period January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2013 [1]. Data are available on a daily time step at a 1-km x 1-km spatial resolution in Lambert Conformal Conic projection with a spatial extent that covers the North America as meteorological station density allows. Daymet data can be downloaded from 1) the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) search and order tools (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/cart/add2cart.pl?add=1219) or directly from the DAAC FTP site (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1219) and 2) the Single Pixel Tool (http://daymet.ornl.gov/singlepixel.html) and THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Data Services) Data Server (TDS) (http://daymet.ornl.gov/thredds_mosaics.html). The Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool [2] allows users to enter a single geographic point by latitude and longitude in decimal degrees. A routine is executed that translates the (lon, lat) coordinates into projected Daymet (x,y) coordinates. These coordinates are used to access the Daymet database of daily-interpolated surface weather variables. The Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool also provides the option to download multiple coordinates programmatically. The ORNL DAAC's TDS provides customized visualization and access to Daymet time series of North American mosaics. Users can subset and download Daymet data via a variety of community standards, including OPeNDAP, NetCDF Subset service, and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map/Coverage Service. References: [1] Thornton, P. E., Thornton, M. M., Mayer, B. W., Wilhelmi, N., Wei, Y., Devarakonda, R., & Cook, R. (2012). "Daymet: Daily surface weather on a 1

  18. A twenty-first century California observing network for monitoring extreme weather events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.B.; Anderson, M.L.; Dettinger, M.D.; Ralph, F.M.; Hinojosa, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Hartman, R.K.; Reynolds, D.W.; Johnson, L.E.; Schneider, T.L.; Cifelli, R.; Toth, Z.; Gutman, S.I.; King, C.W.; Gehrke, F.; Johnston, P.E.; Walls, C.; Mann, Dorte; Gottas, D.J.; Coleman, T.

    2013-01-01

    During Northern Hemisphere winters, the West Coast of North America is battered by extratropical storms. The impact of these storms is of paramount concern to California, where aging water supply and flood protection infrastructures are challenged by increased standards for urban flood protection, an unusually variable weather regime, and projections of climate change. Additionally, there are inherent conflicts between releasing water to provide flood protection and storing water to meet requirements for water supply, water quality, hydropower generation, water temperature and flow for at-risk species, and recreation. In order to improve reservoir management and meet the increasing demands on water, improved forecasts of precipitation, especially during extreme events, is required. Here we describe how California is addressing their most important and costliest environmental issue – water management – in part, by installing a state-of-the-art observing system to better track the area’s most severe wintertime storms.

  19. HF Radar Observations of Space Weather Effects in the Low and Mid-latitude Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menk, F. W.

    2015-12-01

    The ionosphere is dynamically coupled to the magnetosphere and hence diurnal and seasonal processes in the ionosphere are strongly influenced by space weather effects. These may vary the electron density distribution and cause changes in the reflection and absorption of HF radio signals. Other consequences include the formation of enhanced convective flows and irregularity features which may contribute to Doppler clutter. While there has been much discussion on the ionospheric signatures of magnetic storms at high latitudes, this presentation focuses on effects detected using mid- and low-latitude HF radars which examine field lines mapping to the vicinity of the ring current. Characteristic features include travelling ionospheric disturbances, high velocity flows and sustained irregular and quasi-sinusoidal 5 - 20 mHz waves recorded near the plasmapause. Such observations provide new insight on complex M-I coupling dynamics.

  20. Schwaebisch Hall West Germany. Limited Surface Observations Climatic Summary (LISOCS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-25

    34-, 7,- /’o74S’.- 50, /z .. (o // - 1.’Is- ,(:: // DATA PROCESSING DIVISION USAFETAC Cq Air Weather Service ( MAC ),L 4414 2220 "LIMITED SURFACE...DTIC) to the Natibnal Technical information Service (NTIS). This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. WAYNE . MCCOLLOM...Chie’ Technical Information Section USAFETAC/TST FOR THE COMMANDER WALTER S. BURGMANN aVc Director, Air Weather Service cp Technical Library AcceSiof

  1. Wavegliders for Arctic Surface Observations and Navigation Support (DURIP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    outfitted with different sensors. The long-term science that this work supports includes measuring surface processes such as weather and waves, and also (in...navigation sources. The sensors include devices to monitor weather and wave conditions, while the navigation sources will augment the beacons deployed...on the ice from Banks Island in April 2014. The Wave Glider, because it is mobile, will allow positioning the sensors and the acoustic sources as

  2. How much does weather-driven vegetation dynamics matter in land surface modelling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    Land surface models (LSM) are an essential part of weather and climate models as they provide the lower boundary condition for the atmospheric models. In state-of-the-art LSMs the seasonal vegetation dynamics is "frozen". The seasonal variation of vegetation state variables, such as leaf area index or green vegetation fraction, are prescribed in lookup tables. Hence, a year-by-year variation in the development of vegetation due to changing weather conditions cannot be considered. For climate simulations, this is obviously a severe drawback. The objective of the present study was to quantify the potential error in the simulation of land surface exchange processes resulting from "frozen" vegetation dynamics. For this purpose we simulated energy and water fluxes from a winter wheat stand and a maize stand in Southwest Germany. In a first set of simulations, six years (2010 to 2015) were simulated considering weather-driven vegetation dynamics. For this purpose, we coupled the generic crop growth model GECROS with the NOAH-MP model (NOAHMP-GECROS). In a second set of simulations all vegetation-related state variables of the 2010 simulation were written to an external file and were used to overwrite the vegetation-related state variables of the simulations of the years 2011-2015. The difference between both sets was taken as a measure for the potential error introduced to the LSM due to the assumption of a "frozen" vegetation dynamics. We will present first results and discuss the impact of "frozen" vegetation dynamics on climate change simulations.

  3. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Space Environments Engineering and Crew Auroral Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Pettit, Donald R.; Hartman, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The awareness of potentially significant impacts of space weather on spaceand ground ]based technological systems has generated a strong desire in many sectors of government and industry to effectively transform knowledge and understanding of the variable space environment into useful tools and applications for use by those entities responsible for systems that may be vulnerable to space weather impacts. Essentially, effectively transitioning science knowledge to useful applications relevant to space weather has become important. This talk will present proven methodologies that have been demonstrated to be effective, and how in the current environment those can be applied to space weather transition efforts.

  4. Space Weathering Effects in Lunar Soils: The Roles of Surface Exposure Time and Bulk Chemical Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Shouliang; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering effects on lunar soil grains result from both radiation-damaged and deposited layers on grain surfaces. Typically, solar wind irradiation forms an amorphous layer on regolith silicate grains, and induces the formation of surficial metallic Fe in Fe-bearing minerals [1,2]. Impacts into the lunar regolith generate high temperature melts and vapor. The vapor component is largely deposited on the surfaces of lunar soil grains [3] as is a fraction of the melt [4, this work]. Both the vapor-deposits and the deposited melt typically contain nanophase Fe metal particles (npFe0) as abundant inclusions. The development of these rims and the abundance of the npFe0 in lunar regolith, and thus the optical properties, vary with the soil mineralogy and the length of time the soil grains have been exposed to space weathering effects [5]. In this study, we used the density of solar flare particle tracks in soil grains to estimate exposure times for individual grains and then perform nanometer-scale characterization of the rims using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The work involved study of lunar soil samples with different mineralogy (mare vs. highland) and different exposure times (mature vs. immature).

  5. Are weather models better than gridded observations for precipitation in the mountains? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmann, E. D.; Rasmussen, R.; Liu, C.; Ikeda, K.; Clark, M. P.; Brekke, L. D.; Arnold, J.; Raff, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain snowpack is a critical storage component in the water cycle, and it provides drinking water for tens of millions of people in the Western US alone. This water store is susceptible to climate change both because warming temperatures are likely to lead to earlier melt and a temporal shift of the hydrograph, and because changing atmospheric conditions are likely to change the precipitation patterns that produce the snowpack. Current measurements of snowfall in complex terrain are limited in number due in part to the logistics of installing equipment in complex terrain. We show that this limitation leads to statistical artifacts in gridded observations of current climate including errors in precipitation season totals of a factor of two or more, increases in wet day fraction, and decreases in storm intensity. In contrast, a high-resolution numerical weather model (WRF) is able to reproduce observed precipitation patterns, leading to confidence in its predictions for areas without measurements and new observations support this. Running WRF for a future climate scenario shows substantial changes in the spatial patterns of precipitation in the mountains related to the physics of hydrometeor production and detrainment that are not captured by statistical downscaling products. The stationarity in statistical downscaling products is likely to lead to important errors in our estimation of future precipitation in complex terrain.

  6. An observational analysis: Tropical relative to Arctic influence on midlatitude weather in the era of Arctic amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Judah

    2016-05-01

    The tropics, in general, and El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in particular are almost exclusively relied upon for seasonal forecasting. Much less considered and certainly more controversial is the idea that Arctic variability is influencing midlatitude weather. However, since the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Arctic has undergone the most rapid warming observed globally, referred to as Arctic amplification (AA), which has coincided with an observed increase in extreme weather. Analysis of observed trends in hemispheric circulation over the period of AA more closely resembles variability associated with Arctic boundary forcings than with tropical forcing. Furthermore, analysis of intraseasonal temperature variability shows that the cooling in midlatitude winter temperatures has been accompanied by an increase in temperature variability and not a decrease, popularly referred to as "weather whiplash."

  7. Development of Innovative Technology to Provide Low-Cost Surface Atmospheric Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, Paul; Steinson, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and reliable real-time monitoring and dissemination of observations of surface weather conditions is critical for a variety of societal applications. Applications that provide local and regional information about temperature, precipitation, moisture, and winds, for example, are important for agriculture, water resource monitoring, health, and monitoring of hazard weather conditions. In many regions in Africa (and other global locations), surface weather stations are sparsely located and/or of poor quality. Existing stations have often been sited incorrectly, not well-maintained, and have limited communications established at the site for real-time monitoring. The US National Weather Service (NWS) International Activities Office (IAO) in partnership with University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) has started an initiative to develop and deploy low-cost weather instrumentation in sparsely observed regions of the world. The goal is to provide observations for environmental monitoring, and early warning alert systems that can be deployed at weather services in developing countries. Instrumentation is being designed using innovative new technologies such as 3D printers, Raspberry Pi computing systems, and wireless communications. The initial effort is focused on designing a surface network using GIS-based tools, deploying an initial network in Zambia, and providing training to Zambia Meteorological Department (ZMD) staff. The presentation will provide an overview of the project concepts, design of the low cost instrumentation, and initial experiences deploying a surface network deployment in Zambia.

  8. The main pillar: Assessment of space weather observational asset performance supporting nowcasting, forecasting, and research to operations

    PubMed Central

    Posner, A; Hesse, M; St Cyr, O C

    2014-01-01

    Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations. Key Points Manuscript assesses current and near-future space weather assets Current assets unreliable for forecasting of severe geomagnetic storms Near-future assets will not improve the situation PMID:26213516

  9. Inference of Surface Chemical and Physical Properties Using Mid-Infrared (MIR) Spectral Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.

    2016-01-01

    Reflected or emitted energy from solid surfaces in the solar system can provide insight into thermo-physical and chemical properties of the surface materials. Measurements have been obtained from instruments located on Earth-based telescopes and carried on several space missions. The characteristic spectral features commonly observed in Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectra of minerals will be reviewed, along with methods used for compositional interpretations of MIR emission spectra. The influence of surface grain size, and space weathering processes on MIR emissivity spectra will also be discussed. Methods used for estimating surface temperature, emissivity, and thermal inertias from MIR spectral observations will be reviewed.

  10. Quantifying the VNIR Effects of Nanophase Iron Generated through the Space Weathering of Silicates: Reconciling Modeled Data with Laboratory Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legett, C., IV; Glotch, T. D.; Lucey, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    Space weathering is a diverse set of processes that occur on the surfaces of airless bodies due to exposure to the space environment. One of the effects of space weathering is the generation of nanophase iron particles in glassy rims on mineral grains due to sputtering of iron-bearing minerals. These particles have a size-dependent effect on visible and near infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with smaller diameter particles (< 50 nm) causing both reddening and darkening of the spectra with respect to unweathered material (Britt-Pieters particle behavior), while larger particles (> 300 nm) darken without reddening. Between these two sizes, a gradual shift between these two behaviors occurs. In this work, we present results from the Multiple Sphere T-Matrix (MSTM) scattering model in combination with Hapke theory to explore the particle size and iron content parameter spaces with respect to VNIR (700-1700 nm) spectral slope. Previous work has shown that the MSTM-Hapke hybrid model offers improvements over Mie-Hapke models. Virtual particles are constructed out of an arbitrary number of spheres, and each sphere is assigned a refractive index and extinction coefficient for each wavelength of interest. The model then directly solves Maxwell's Equations at every wave-particle interface to predict the scattering, extinction and absorption efficiencies. These are then put into a simplified Hapke bidirectional reflectance model that yields a predicted reflectance. Preliminary results show an area of maximum slopes for iron particle diameters < 80 nm and iron concentrations of ~1-10wt% in an amorphous silica matrix. Further model runs are planned to better refine the extent of this region. Companion laboratory work using mixtures of powdered aerogel and nanophase iron particles provides a point of comparison to modeling efforts. The effects on reflectance and emissivity values due to particle size in a nearly ideal scatterer (aerogel) are also observed with comparisons to

  11. Mass discharge rate retrieval combining weather radar and thermal camera observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulpiani, Gianfranco; Ripepe, Maurizio; Valade, Sebastien

    2016-08-01

    The mass discharge rate is a key parameter for initializing volcanic ash dispersal models. Commonly used empirical approaches derive the discharge rate by the plume height as estimated by remote sensors. A novel approach based on the combination of weather radar observations and thermal camera imagery is presented here. It is based on radar ash concentration estimation and the retrieval of the vertical exit velocities of the explosive cloud using thermal camera measurements. The applied radar retrieval methodology is taken from a revision of previously presented work. Based on the analysis of four eruption events of the Mount Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy) that occurred in December 2015, the proposed methodology is tested using observations collected by three radar systems (at C and X band) operated by the Italian Department of Civil Protection. The total erupted mass was estimated to be about 9·109 kg and 2.4·109 kg for the first and second events, respectively, while it was about 1.2·109 kg for both the last two episodes. The comparison with empirical approaches based on radar-retrieved plume height shows a reasonably good agreement. Additionally, the comparative analysis of the polarimetric radar measurements provides interesting information on the vertical structure of the ash plume, including the size of the eruption column and the height of the gas thrust region.

  12. Constraining Numerical Geodynamo Modeling with Surface Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Weijia; Tangborn, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Numerical dynamo solutions have traditionally been generated entirely by a set of self-consistent differential equations that govern the spatial-temporal variation of the magnetic field, velocity field and other fields related to dynamo processes. In particular, those solutions are obtained with parameters very different from those appropriate for the Earth s core. Geophysical application of the numerical results therefore depends on correct understanding of the differences (errors) between the model outputs and the true states (truth) in the outer core. Part of the truth can be observed at the surface in the form of poloidal magnetic field. To understand these differences, or errors, we generate new initial model state (analysis) by assimilating sequentially the model outputs with the surface geomagnetic observations using an optimal interpolation scheme. The time evolution of the core state is then controlled by our MoSST core dynamics model. The final outputs (forecasts) are then compared with the surface observations as a means to test the success of the assimilation. We use the surface geomagnetic data back to year 1900 for our studies, with 5-year forecast and 20-year analysis periods. We intend to use the result; to understand time variation of the errors with the assimilation sequences, and the impact of the assimilation on other unobservable quantities, such as the toroidal field and the fluid velocity in the core.

  13. Some Climatological Aspects of Satellite-Observed Surface Heating in Kansas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarpley, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    A 6-year(1980-85)set of GOES data for seven sites in Kansas has been analyzed to determine the climatological characteristics of surface heating. The dataset as described, and procedures for automatically screening out cloudy observations are outlined. Morning surface heating between 0900 and 1200 LST is found to have distinctive seasonal and geographical variations that are related to climatological conditions at the surface. Conventional weather observations at Dodge City, Kansas, that were coincident with the satellite observations are used to relate the satellite-observed surface heating with meteorological conditions and soil moisture. Statistically significant relations between morning surface heating and soil moisture are observed, with higher heating rates occurring under dry conditions. Average surface heating is lower on days with higher than average wind speeds.

  14. Integrating weather and geotechnical monitoring data for assessing the stability of large scale surface mining operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiakakis, Chrysanthos; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Apostolou, Evangelia; Papavgeri, Georgia; Tripolitsiotis, Achilles

    2016-01-01

    The geotechnical challenges for safe slope design in large scale surface mining operations are enormous. Sometimes one degree of slope inclination can significantly reduce the overburden to ore ratio and therefore dramatically improve the economics of the operation, while large scale slope failures may have a significant impact on human lives. Furthermore, adverse weather conditions, such as high precipitation rates, may unfavorably affect the already delicate balance between operations and safety. Geotechnical, weather and production parameters should be systematically monitored and evaluated in order to safely operate such pits. Appropriate data management, processing and storage are critical to ensure timely and informed decisions. This paper presents an integrated data management system which was developed over a number of years as well as the advantages through a specific application. The presented case study illustrates how the high production slopes of a mine that exceed depths of 100-120 m were successfully mined with an average displacement rate of 10- 20 mm/day, approaching an almost slow to moderate landslide velocity. Monitoring data of the past four years are included in the database and can be analyzed to produce valuable results. Time-series data correlations of movements, precipitation records, etc. are evaluated and presented in this case study. The results can be used to successfully manage mine operations and ensure the safety of the mine and the workforce.

  15. An observed connection between wintertime temperature anomalies over Northwest China and weather regime transitions in North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Qingyun

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the association between wintertime temperature anomalies over Northwest China and the weather regime transitions in North Atlantic on synoptic scale is analyzed by using observational surface air temperature (SAT) data and atmospheric reanalysis data. Daily SAT anomaly and duration time are used in order to define SAT anomaly cases. Differences with regard to the circulation anomalies over the Ural Mountains and the upstream North Atlantic area are evident. It is found that the colder than normal SAT is caused by the enhanced Ural high and associated southward flow over Northwest China. Time-lagged composites reveal possible connections between the SAT anomalies and the different development phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The Ural highs tend to be strengthened during the negative phase of NAO (NAO-) to Atlantic ridge transition, which are closely related to the downstream-propagating Rossby wave activity. The opposite circulation patterns are observed in the warm SAT cases. A cyclonic circulation anomaly is distinctly enhanced over the Urals during the positive phase of NAO (NAO+) to Scandinavian blocking transition, which would cause warmer SAT over Northwest China. Further analyses suggest that the intensified zonal wind over North Atlantic would favor the NAO- to Atlantic ridge transition, while the weakened zonal wind may be responsible for the transition between NAO+ and Scandinavian blocking.

  16. Surface Temperature Variation Prediction Model Using Real-Time Weather Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, M.; Vant-Hull, B.; Nazari, R.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Combination of climate change and urbanization are heating up cities and putting the lives of millions of people in danger. More than half of the world's total population resides in cities and urban centers. Cities are experiencing urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Hotter days are associated with serious health impacts, heart attaches and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Densely populated cities like Manhattan, New York can be affected by UHI impact much more than less populated cities. Even though many studies have been focused on the impact of UHI and temperature changes between urban and rural air temperature, not many look at the temperature variations within a city. These studies mostly use remote sensing data or typical measurements collected by local meteorological station networks. Local meteorological measurements only have local coverage and cannot be used to study the impact of UHI in a city and remote sensing data such as MODIS, LANDSAT and ASTER have with very low resolution which cannot be used for the purpose of this study. Therefore, predicting surface temperature in urban cities using weather data can be useful.Three months of Field campaign in Manhattan were used to measure spatial and temporal temperature variations within an urban setting by placing 10 fixed sensors deployed to measure temperature, relative humidity and sunlight. Fixed instrument shelters containing relative humidity, temperature and illumination sensors were mounted on lampposts in ten different locations in Manhattan (Vant-Hull et al, 2014). The shelters were fixed 3-4 meters above the ground for the period of three months from June 23 to September 20th of 2013 making measurements with the interval of 3 minutes. These high resolution temperature measurements and three months of weather data were used to predict temperature variability from weather forecasts. This study shows that the amplitude of spatial and temporal variation in temperature for each day can be predicted

  17. An auto weather-vaning system for a dp vessel that uses a nonlinear controller and a disturbance observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dae Hyuk; Kim, Nakwan

    2014-03-01

    An auto weather-vaning system for a Dynamic Positioning (DP) vessel is proposed. When a DP vessel is operating, its position keeping is hindered by ocean environmental disturbances which include the ocean current, wave and wind. Generally, most ocean vessels have a longitudinal length that is larger than the transverse width. The largest load acts on the DP vessel by ocean disturbances, when the disturbances are incoming in the transverse direction. Weather- vaning is the concept of making the heading angle of the DP vessel head toward (or sway from) the disturbance direc-tion. This enables the DP vessel to not only perform marine operations stably and safely, but also to maintain its posi-tion with minimum control forces (surge & sway components). To implement auto weather-vaning, a nonlinear control¬ler and a disturbance observer are used. The disturbance observer transforms a real plant to the nominal model without disturbance to enhance the control performance. And the nonlinear controller deals with the kinematic nonlinearity. The auto weather-vaning system is completed by adding a weather-vaning algorithm to disturbance based controller. Numerical simulations of a semi-submersible type vessel were performed for the validation. The results show that the proposed method enables a DP vessel to maintain its position with minimum control force.

  18. Space Weather Measurements from the Surface of Mars with the RAD Instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Rafkin, Scot; Reitz, Guenther; Koehler, Jan; Posner, Arik; Guo, Jingnan; Ehresmann, Bent; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Matthiä, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) is a compact, lightweight energetic particle analyzer currently operating on the surface of Mars as part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission. RAD is providing the first measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of another planet due to solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). RAD is providing synoptic measurements of the energetic particle environment at a 2nd location in heliosphere (other than near-Earth or L1), and will aid heliospheric modeling over solar cycle. These observations of SEP fluxes are contributing to a solar energetic particle (SEP) event database at Mars and the Martian surface to aid prediction of Solar Particle Events (SPEs), including onset, temporal & size predictions. This presentation will provide an overview of the RAD investigation and present measurements of the solar flare, GCR and radiation environment on the surface of Mars, and discuss the importance of providing broad heliospheric coverage for situational awareness of space weather as we plan to send humans out into deep space and to Mars. RAD is supported by NASA (HEOMD) under JPL subcontract #1273039 to SwRI, and by DLR in Germany under contract with Christian-Albrechts-Universitat (CAU).

  19. Space Weather Measurements from the Surface of Mars with the RAD Instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) is a compact, lightweight energetic particle analyzer currently operating on the surface of Mars as part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission. RAD is providing the first measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of another planet due to solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). RAD is providing synoptic measurements of the energetic particle environment at a 2nd location in heliosphere (other than near-Earth or L1), and will aid heliospheric modeling over solar cycle. These observations of SEP fluxes are contributing to a solar energetic particle (SEP) event database at Mars and the Martian surface to aid prediction of Solar Particle Events (SPEs), including onset, temporal & size predictions. This presentation will provide an overview of the RAD investigation and present measurements of the solar flare, GCR and radiation environment on the surface of Mars, and discuss the importance of providing broad heliospheric coverage for situational awareness of space weather as we plan to send humans out into deep space and to Mars. RAD is supported by NASA (HEOMD) under JPL subcontract #1273039 to SwRI, and by DLR in Germany under contract with Christian-Albrechts-Universitat (CAU).

  20. An Experimental Approach to Thermal and Solar Weathering of Mercury's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. M.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.

    2010-12-01

    The surface of Mercury is heated to 450°C during the day and is periodically bombarded by the solar wind - processes that have likely been occurring for billions of years. Mercury’s ion tail is composed of ions including Na, K, and Ca and is thought to be the result of surface mineral damage from heat and irradiation processes, possibly including photon-stimulated desorption, thermal desorption, and impact vaporization. We are seeking to quantify the results of irradiation and thermal damage on likely surface minerals that make up the regolith by simulating space weathering. We irradiate anorthoclase, enstatite, diopside, and ilmenite with fast neutrons for 12hrs, and then heat these minerals to 1300°C. We also heat grains that have not been irradiated. The irradiation is equivalent to 40,000 Earth years on the surface of Mercury. The grains are analyzed in an electron microprobe before and after irradiation and/or heating. Our initial results take the form of compositional profiles from the interior to the exterior of grains, showing ion losses from both irradiation and heating; we compare our curves with those from diffusion models. The results of these studies should indicate the species and volumes of ions likely to be released from each mineral, and should pave the way for measuring spectra of damaged minerals in labs, with the goal of comparing the spectra of damaged minerals with spectra obtained from MESSENGER.

  1. Oscillation Responses to an Extreme Weather Event from a Deep Moored Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Dimarco, S. F.; Stoessel, M. M.; Zhang, X.; Ingle, S.

    2011-12-01

    In June 2007 tropical Cyclone Gonu passed directly over an ocean observing system consisting of four, deep autonomous mooring stations along the 3000 m isobath in the northern Arabian Sea. Gonu was the largest cyclone known to have occurred in the Arabian Sea or to strike the Arabian Peninsula. The mooring system was designed by Lighthouse R & D Enterprises, Inc. and installed in cooperation with the Oman Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Wealth. The instruments on the moorings continuously recorded water velocities, temperature, conductivity, pressure, dissolved oxygen and turbidity at multiple depths and at hourly intervals during the storm. Near-inertial oscillations at all moorings from thermocline to seafloor are coincident with the arrival of Gonu. Sub-inertial oscillations with periods of 2-10 days are recorded at the post-storm relaxation stage of Gonu, primarily in the thermocline. These oscillations consist of warm, saline water masses, likely originating from the Persian Gulf. Prominent 12.7-day sub-inertial waves, measured at a station ~300 km offshore, are bottom-intensified and have characteristics of baroclinic, topographically-trapped waves. Theoretical results from a topographically-trapped wave model are in a good agreement with the observed 12.7-day waves. The wavelength of the 12.7-day waves is about 590 km calculated from the dispersion relationship. Further analysis suggests that a resonant standing wave is responsible for trapping the 12.7-day wave energy inside the Sea of Oman basin. The observational results reported here are the first measurements of deepwater responses to a tropical cyclone in the Sea of Oman/Arabian Sea. Our study demonstrates the utility of sustained monitoring for studying the impact of extreme weather events on the ocean.

  2. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  3. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Peter E; Thornton, Michele M; Mayer, Benjamin W; Wilhelmi, Nate; Wei, Yaxing; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Cook, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    More information: http://daymet.ornl.gov Presenter: Ranjeet Devarakonda Environmental Sciences Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data and Climatological Summaries provides gridded estimates of daily weather parameters for North America, including daily continuous surfaces of minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation occurrence and amount, humidity, shortwave radiation, snow water equivalent, and day length. The current data product (Version 2) covers the period January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2013 [1]. The prior product (Version 1) only covered from 1980-2008. Data are available on a daily time step at a 1-km x 1-km spatial resolution in Lambert Conformal Conic projection with a spatial extent that covers the conterminous United States, Mexico, and Southern Canada as meteorological station density allows. Daymet data can be downloaded from 1) the ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) search and order tools (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/cart/add2cart.pl?add=1219) or directly from the DAAC FTP site (http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1219) and 2) the Single Pixel Tool [2] and THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Data Services) Data Server [3]. The Single Pixel Data Extraction Tool allows users to enter a single geographic point by latitude and longitude in decimal degrees. A routine is executed that translates the (lon, lat) coordinates into projected Daymet (x,y) coordinates. These coordinates are used to access the Daymet database of daily-interpolated surface weather variables. Daily data from the nearest 1 km x 1 km Daymet grid cell are extracted from the database and formatted as a table with one column for each Daymet variable and one row for each day. All daily data for selected years are returned as a single (long) table, formatted for display in the browser window. At the top of this table is a link to the same data in a simple comma-separated text format, suitable for import into a

  4. Weather in the News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of TV weather forecasting introduces this article which features several hands-on science activities involving observing, researching, and experimenting with the weather. A reproducible worksheet on the reliability of weather forecasts is included. (IAH)

  5. Oxidative Weathering of Earth's Surface 3.7 Billion Years ago? - A Chromium Isotope Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, R.; Crowe, S.; Bau, M.; Polat, A.; Fowle, D. A.; Døssing, L. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Great Oxidation Event signals the first large-scale oxygenation of the atmosphere roughly 2.4 Gyr ago. Geochemical signals diagnostic of oxidative weathering, however, extend as far back as 3.3-2.9 Gyr ago. 3.8-3.7 Gyr old rocks from Isua, Greenland stand as a deep time outpost, recording information on Earth's earliest surface chemistry and the low oxygen primordial biosphere. We find positive Cr isotope values (average δ53Cr = +0.05 +/- 0.10 permil; δ53Cr = (53Cr/52Cr)sample/(53Cr/52Cr)SRM 979 - 1) x 1000, where SRM 979 denotes Standard Reference Material 979 in both the Fe and Si-rich mesobands of 7 compositionally distinct quartz-magnetite and magnesian banded iron formation (BIF) samples collected from the eastern portion of the Isua BIF (Western Greenland). These postively fractioned Cr isotopes, relative to the igneous silicate Earth reservoir, in metamorphosed BIFs from Isua indicate oxidative Cr cycling 3.8-3.7 Gyr ago. We also examined the distribution of U, which is immobile in its reduced state but mobile when it is oxidized. Elevated U/Th ratios (mean U/Th ratio of 0.70 ± 0.29) in these BIFs relative to the contemporary crust, also signal oxidative mobilization of U. We suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulated in Earth's surface environment inducing the oxidative weathering of rocks during the deposition of the Isua BIFs. The precise threshold atmospheric O2 concentrations for the induction of Cr isotope fractionation remain uncertain, but we argue that our data are consistent with the very low levels of oxygen or other ROS indicated by other proxies. Importantly, any trace of Cr that cycled through redox reactions on land would tend both to be heavy, and to mobilize into the contemporaneous run-off more readily than Cr weathered directly as Cr(III). Once having reached the oceans, this fractionated Cr would have been stripped from seawater by Fe (oxy)hydroxides formed during the deposition of BIFs from low oxygen oceans. The

  6. Fort Wainwright, Wainwright AAF, Alaska, Limited Surface Observations Climatic Summary (LISOCS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-13

    occurring only during limited duty hours of operation . This report is a five- part statisitical summary of surface weather observations for FOTWAINWRIGH{T...provide you with as mch data as possible, we "blocked" the data to reflect noral operating tou= 0500 LWr to 2100 WNf. Therefore, in all sawies using...comprising each part of the LISOCS and the manner of presentation. Tahulations are prepared from observations recorded by stations operated by the US

  7. The Main Pillar: Assessment of Space Weather Observational Asset Performance Supporting Nowcasting, Forecasting and Research to Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posner, Arik; Hesse, Michael; SaintCyr, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations.

  8. The main pillar: Assessment of space weather observational asset performance supporting nowcasting, forecasting, and research to operations.

    PubMed

    Posner, A; Hesse, M; St Cyr, O C

    2014-04-01

    Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations.

  9. The main pillar: Assessment of space weather observational asset performance supporting nowcasting, forecasting, and research to operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posner, A.; Hesse, M.; St. Cyr, O. C.

    2014-04-01

    Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations.

  10. Intersatellite calibration of AMSU-A observations for weather and climate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Wenhui

    2011-12-01

    Long-term observations from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) onboard polar-orbiting satellites NOAA 15, 16, 17, and 18 and European Meteorological Operational satellite program-A (MetOp-A) were intercalibrated using their overlap observations. Simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNOs) and global ocean mean differences between these satellites were used to characterize calibration errors and to obtain calibration coefficients. Calibration errors were found manifesting themselves as certain scatter or temporal patterns of intersatellite biases, such as well-defined seasonal cycles in the Arctic and Antarctic SNO difference time series or a unique pattern closely correlated to the instrument temperature variability induced by Solar Beta Angle (SBA) variations in global ocean mean difference time series. Analyses of these patterns revealed five different types of biases that need to be removed from existing prelaunch-calibrated AMSU-A observations, which include relatively stable intersatellite biases between most satellite pairs, bias drifts on NOAA 16 and channel 7 of MetOp-A, sun-heating-induced instrument temperature variability in radiances, scene temperature dependency in biases due to inaccurate calibration nonlinearity, and biases due to channel frequency shift from its prelaunch measurement in certain satellite channels. Level-1c time-dependent calibration offsets and nonlinear coefficients were introduced and determined from SNO and global ocean mean temperature regressions to remove or minimize the first four types of biases. Channel frequency shift in NOAA 15 channel 6 was obtained from the radiative transfer model simulation experiments. The new calibration coefficients and channel frequency values have significantly reduced the five different types of biases and resulted in more consistent multisatellite radiance observations for intercalibrated satellite channels. The intercalibrated AMSU-A observations have been merged with its precursor, the

  11. Surface dynamics of crude and weathered oil in the presence of dispersants: Laboratory experiment and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, Alexander V.; Haus, Brian. K.; McGauley, Michael G.; Dean, Cayla W.; Ortiz-Suslow, David G.; Laxague, Nathan J. M.; Özgökmen, Tamay M.

    2016-05-01

    Marine oil spills can have dire consequences for the environment. Research on their dynamics is important for the well-being of coastal communities and their economies. Propagation of oil spills is a very complex physical-chemical process. As seen during the Deepwater Horizon event in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010, one of the critical problems remaining for prediction of oil transport and dispersion in the marine environment is the small-scale structure and dynamics of surface oil spills. The laboratory experiments conducted in this work were focused on understanding the differences between the dynamics of crude and weathered oil spills and the effect of dispersants. After deposition on the still water surface, a drop of crude oil quickly spread into a thin slick; while at the same time, a drop of machine (proxy for weathered) oil did not show significant evolution. Subsequent application of dispersant to the crude oil slick resulted in a quick contraction or fragmentation of the slick into narrow wedges and tiny drops. Notably, the slick of machine oil did not show significant change in size or topology after spraying dispersant. An advanced multi-phase, volume of fluid computational fluid dynamics model, incorporating capillary forces, was able to explain some of the features observed in the laboratory experiment. As a result of the laboratory and modeling experiments, the new interpretation of the effect of dispersant on the oil dispersion process including capillary effects has been proposed, which is expected to lead to improved oil spill models and response strategies.

  12. Observation of local cloud and moisture feedbacks over high ocean and desert surface temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chahine, Moustafa T.

    1995-01-01

    New data on clouds and moisture, made possible by reanalysis of weather satellite observations, show that the atmosphere reacts to warm clusters of very high sea surface temperatures in the western Pacific Ocean with increased moisture, cloudiness, and convection, suggesting a negative feedback limiting the sea surface temperature rise. The reverse was observed over dry and hot deserts where both moisture and cloudiness decrease, suggesting a positive feedback perpetuating existing desert conditions. In addition, the observations show a common critical surface temperature for both oceans and land; the distribution of atmospheric moisture is observed to reach a maximum value when the daily surface temperatures approach 304 +/- 1 K. These observations reveal complex dynamic-radiative interactions where multiple processes act simultaneously at the surface as well as in the atmosphere to regulate the feedback processes.

  13. GEM: Statistical weather forecasting procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the Generalized Exponential Markov (GEM) Program was to develop a weather forecast guidance system that would: predict between 0 to 6 hours all elements in the airways observations; respond instantly to the latest observed conditions of the surface weather; process these observations at local sites on minicomputing equipment; exceed the accuracy of current persistence predictions at the shortest prediction of one hour and beyond; exceed the accuracy of current forecast model output statistics inside eight hours; and be capable of making predictions at one location for all locations where weather information is available.

  14. Sensitivity of Spacebased Microwave Radiometer Observations to Ocean Surface Evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Timothy W.; Li, Li

    2000-01-01

    Ocean surface evaporation and the latent heat it carries are the major components of the hydrologic and thermal forcing on the global oceans. However, there is practically no direct in situ measurements. Evaporation estimated from bulk parameterization methods depends on the quality and distribution of volunteer-ship reports which are far less than satisfactory. The only way to monitor evaporation with sufficient temporal and spatial resolutions to study global environment changes is by spaceborne sensors. The estimation of seasonal-to-interannual variation of ocean evaporation, using spacebased measurements of wind speed, sea surface temperature (SST), and integrated water vapor, through bulk parameterization method,s was achieved with reasonable success over most of the global ocean, in the past decade. Because all the three geophysical parameters can be retrieved from the radiance at the frequencies measured by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on Nimbus-7, the feasibility of retrieving evaporation directly from the measured radiance was suggested and demonstrated using coincident brightness temperatures observed by SMMR and latent heat flux computed from ship data, in the monthly time scale. However, the operational microwave radiometers that followed SMMR, the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), lack the low frequency channels which are sensitive to SST. This low frequency channels are again included in the microwave imager (TMI) of the recently launched Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM). The radiance at the frequencies observed by both TMI and SSM/I were simulated through an atmospheric radiative transfer model using ocean surface parameters and atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles produced by the reanalysis of the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). From the same ECMWF data set, coincident evaporation is computed using a surface layer turbulent transfer model. The sensitivity of the radiance to

  15. Space weathering of asteroidal surfaces . Influence on the UV-Vis spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanuchova&, Z.; Baratta, G. A.; Garozzo, M.; Strazzulla, G.

    The surfaces of airless bodies in the Solar System are continuously altered by micrometeoroids bombardment and irradiation by solar wind, flares and cosmic particles. Major effects of this process - space weathering - are darkening and "reddening" of the spectra of surface materials. We have studied the changes induced by energetic ion irradiation, in the UV-Vis-NIR (0.2-0.98 mu m) reflectance spectra of targets selected to mimic the surfaces of airless bodies in the inner Solar System. Chosen targets are olivine pellets, pure or covered by a transparent organic polymer (polystyrene). We have also measured the changes induced by ion irradiation in the absorption coefficient of the polymer. We have measured the variations of the absorption coefficient (0.25-0.98 mu m) of polystyrene as a function of ion fluence. The diffuse reflectance spectra of irradiated samples covered by organics exhibit a much more significant variation than those of pure silicates. The spectra of targets made of olivine plus polystyrene can be fitted by using the measured absorption coefficient of polystyrene.

  16. The rate of chemical weathering of pyrite on the surface of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegley, B., Jr.; Lodders, K.

    1993-01-01

    This abstract reports results of an experimental study of the chemical weathering of pyrite (FeS2) under Venus-like conditions. This work, which extends the earlier study by Fegley and Treiman, is part of a long range research program to experimentally measure the rates of thermochemical gas-solid reactions important in the atmospheric-lithospheric sulfur cycle on Venus. The objectives of this research are (1) to measure the kinetics of thermochemical gas-solid reactions responsible for both the production (e.g., anhydrite formation) and destruction (e.g., pyrrhotite oxidation) of sulfur-bearing minerals on the surface of Venus and (2) to incorporate these and other constraints into holistic models of the chemical interactions between the atmosphere and surface of Venus. Experiments were done with single crystal cubes of natural pyrite (Navajun, Logrono, Spain) that were cut and polished into slices of known weight and surface area. The slices were isothermally heated at atmospheric pressure in 99.99 percent CO2 (Coleman Instrument Grade) at either 412 C (685 K) or 465 C (738 K) for time periods up to 10 days. These two isotherms correspond to temperatures at about 6 km and 0 km altitude, respectively, on Venus. The reaction rate was determined by measuring the weight loss of the reacted slices after removal from the furnace. The reaction products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy on the SEM.

  17. Global surface-based cloud observation for ISCCP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Visual observations of cloud cover are hindered at night due to inadequate illumination of the clouds. This usually leads to an underestimation of the average cloud cover at night, especially for the amounts of middle and high clouds, in climatologies on surface observations. The diurnal cycles of cloud amounts, if based on all the surface observations, are therefore in error, but they can be obtained more accurately if the nighttime observations are screened to select those made under sufficient moonlight. Ten years of nighttime weather observations from the northern hemisphere in December were classified according to the illuminance of moonlight or twilight on the cloud tops, and a threshold level of illuminance was determined, above which the clouds are apparently detected adequately. This threshold corresponds to light from a full moon at an elevation angle of 6 degrees or from a partial moon at higher elevation, or twilight from the sun less than 9 degrees below the horizon. It permits the use of about 38% of the observations made with the sun below the horizon. The computed diurnal cycles of total cloud cover are altered considerably when this moonlight criterion is imposed. Maximum cloud cover over much of the ocean is now found to be at night or in the morning, whereas computations obtained without benefit of the moonlight criterion, as in our published atlases, showed the time of maximum to be noon or early afternoon in many regions. Cloud cover is greater at night than during the day over the open oceans far from the continents, particularly in summer. However, near noon maxima are still evident in the coastal regions, so that the global annual average oceanic cloud cover is still slightly greater during the day than at night, by 0.3%. Over land, where daytime maxima are still obtained but with reduced amplitude, average cloud cover is 3.3% greater during the daytime. The diurnal cycles of total cloud cover we obtain are compared with those of ISCCP for a

  18. Improving the Long-Term Stability of Atmospheric Surface Deformation Predictions by Mitigating the Effects of Orography Updates in Operational Weather Forecast Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Robert; Bergmann-Wolf, Inga; Thomas, Maik; Dobslaw, Henryk

    2016-04-01

    The global numerical weather prediction model routinely operated at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is typically updated about two times a year to incorporate the most recent improvements in the numerical scheme, the physical model or the data assimilation procedures into the system for steadily improving daily weather forecasting quality. Even though such changes frequently affect the long-term stability of meteorological quantities, data from the ECMWF deterministic model is often preferred over alternatively available atmospheric re-analyses due to both the availability of the data in near real-time and the substantially higher spatial resolution. However, global surface pressure time-series, which are crucial for the interpretation of geodetic observables, such as Earth rotation, surface deformation, and the Earth's gravity field, are in particular affected by changes in the surface orography of the model associated with every major change in horizontal resolution happened, e.g., in February 2006, January 2010, and May 2015 in case of the ECMWF operational model. In this contribution, we present an algorithm to harmonize surface pressure time-series from the operational ECMWF model by projecting them onto a time-invariant reference topography under consideration of the time-variable atmospheric density structure. The effectiveness of the method will be assessed globally in terms of pressure anomalies. In addition, we will discuss the impact of the method on predictions of crustal deformations based on ECMWF input, which have been recently made available by GFZ Potsdam.

  19. A surface-based cloud observing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, B. A.; Ackerman, T. P.; Thomson, D. W.; Mace, G.; Miller, M. A.; Peters, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a surface-based system, called the Cloud Observing System (COS), that was developed for measurements of the dynamical and thermodynamical properties of clouds and of their interaction with the large-scale environment, by combining several remote sensors and in situ systems. The atmospheric parameters that will be measured by COS include precipitation, the velocity and direction of wind, the cloud liquid water, the low-level winds and turbulence structure, integrated liquid and vapor quantities, the temperature and water profiles, the cloud radiance and the cloud base temperature, irradiances at the surface, the low-level temperature profile, the cloud-base height, and the cloud fraction; video cameras will provide visual records of clouds.

  20. Lunar Surface Properties from Diviner Eclipse Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayne, Paul; Paige, David; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Bandfield, Joshua; Siegler, Matthew; Lucey, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The thermal behavior of planetary bodies can reveal information about fundamental processes shaping their surfaces and interiors. Diviner [1] has been mapping the Moon's diurnal temperatures since the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) arrived in 2009, yielding new insights into regolith formation [2, 3], the distribution of volatiles [4, 5], lunar volcanism [6, 7, 8], and impact processes [9]. The Moon's cooling during eclipse provides complementary information on the physical properties of the uppermost surface layer, which can be used to further investigate these and other processes. We used data from Diviner's seven thermal infrared spectral channels to measure surface temperatures before, during and after the 8 Oct., 2014 eclipse. In its standard nadir-pushbroom mode, Diviner maps surface temperatures in a ~6-km swath with a spatial resolution of ~250 m. Using Diviner's independent scanning capability [11], we also targeted two regions of interest on sequential orbits to create a time series of thermal observations: 1) Kepler crater (-38°E, 8°N) and 2) an unnamed nighttime "cold spot" (-33.3°E, 3°N). Pre-eclipse surface temperatures in these regions were ~380 K. As a relatively young Copernican-aged impact crater, Kepler was selected to investigate the abundance and size distribution of rocks in the ejecta and interior. Lunar nighttime "cold spots" are anomalous features around very young impact craters, extending for up to hundreds of crater radii, notable for their low temperatures in the Diviner nighttime data [9]. Although their origins are not fully explained, they are likely the result of in-situ disruption and decompression of regolith during the impact process. The selected cold spot (one of hundreds or even thousands on the lunar surface) was located with good viewing ge- ometry from LRO, and had a diameter of ~10 km surrounding a crater < 1 km in diameter. At Kepler crater, we observed dramatic differences in the amount of cooling related to the

  1. Neutron Monitor Observations and Space Weather, 1. Automatically Search of Great Solar Energetic Particle Event Beginning.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, L. I.; Pustil'Nik, L. A.; Sternlieb, A.; Zukerman, I. G.

    It is well known that in periods of great SEP fluxes of energetic particles can be so big that memory of computers and other electronics in space may be destroyed, satellites and spacecrafts became dead: according to NOAA Space Weather Scales are danger- ous Solar Radiation Storms S5-extreme (flux level of particles with energy > 10 MeV more than 10^5), S4-severe (flux more than 10^4) and S3-strong (flux more than 10^3). In these periods is necessary to switch off some part of electronics for few hours to protect computer memories. These periods are also dangerous for astronauts on space- ships, and passengers and crew in commercial jets (especially during S5 storms). The problem is how to forecast exactly these dangerous phenomena. We show that exact forecast can be made by using high-energy particles (few GeV/nucleon and higher) which transportation from the Sun is characterized by much bigger diffusion coeffi- cient than for small and middle energy particles. Therefore high energy particles came from the Sun much more early (8-20 minutes after acceleration and escaping into so- lar wind) than main part of smaller energy particles caused dangerous situation for electronics (about 30-60 minutes later). We describe here principles and experience of automatically working of program "FEP-Search". The positive result which shows the exact beginning of FEP event on the Emilio Segre' Observatory (2025 m above sea level, Rc=10.8 GV), is determined now automatically by simultaneously increas- ing on 2.5 St. Dev. in two sections of neutron supermonitor. The next 1-min data the program "FEP-Search" uses for checking that the observed increase reflects the begin- ning of real great FEP or not. If yes, automatically starts to work on line the programs "FEP-Research".

  2. Annual carbon dioxide cycle in a montane soil: observations, modeling, and implications for weathering

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, D.K.; Cerling, T.E.

    1987-12-01

    Profiles of CO/sub 2/ concentrations in soil and snow, soil respiration, soil and snow temperatures, and shallow ground water chemistry were monitored from March 1984 to July 1985 in a montane region neat Brighton, Utah. Significant seasonal variations in the concentrations of CO/sub 2/ in soil and snow occurred, and two principal rise-decline cycles were observed. During the first cycle the concentration of soil CO/sub 2/ at 35 cm rose from 4200 ppmv in July to a maximum of 12,400 ppmv in August and then declined to 4300 ppmv by October. This cycle is attributed to the changing production rate of soil CO/sub 2/ during the growing season. During the second cycle the concentration of CO/sub 2/ at 35 cm began to rise in November, reached a maximum of 7200 ppmv in early spring, and quickly declined to 3200 ppmv by late spring shortly after the snow cover had melted. This cycle is attributed to deterioration in the exchange of CO/sub 2/ between the soil and atmosphere due to a deep snowpack. A model based on Fick's second law of diffusion was developed to account for the temporal and spatial distribution of soil CO/sub 2/. The model predicts that soil CO/sub 2/ at 35 cm is increased by as much as 15 times due to the deep snowpack. The elevated concentration of soil CO/sub 2/, abundance of water, and above-freezing soil temperatures imply that significant soil weathering occurs during the winter in montane regions.

  3. Fundamental statistical relationships between monthly and daily meteorological variables: Temporal downscaling of weather based on a global observational dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Philipp; Kaplan, Jed

    2016-04-01

    Accurate modelling of large-scale vegetation dynamics, hydrology, and other environmental processes requires meteorological forcing on daily timescales. While meteorological data with high temporal resolution is becoming increasingly available, simulations for the future or distant past are limited by lack of data and poor performance of climate models, e.g., in simulating daily precipitation. To overcome these limitations, we may temporally downscale monthly summary data to a daily time step using a weather generator. Parameterization of such statistical models has traditionally been based on a limited number of observations. Recent developments in the archiving, distribution, and analysis of "big data" datasets provide new opportunities for the parameterization of a temporal downscaling model that is applicable over a wide range of climates. Here we parameterize a WGEN-type weather generator using more than 50 million individual daily meteorological observations, from over 10'000 stations covering all continents, based on the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) and Synoptic Cloud Reports (EECRA) databases. Using the resulting "universal" parameterization and driven by monthly summaries, we downscale mean temperature (minimum and maximum), cloud cover, and total precipitation, to daily estimates. We apply a hybrid gamma-generalized Pareto distribution to calculate daily precipitation amounts, which overcomes much of the inability of earlier weather generators to simulate high amounts of daily precipitation. Our globally parameterized weather generator has numerous applications, including vegetation and crop modelling for paleoenvironmental studies.

  4. Weather types across the Caribbean basin and their relationship with rainfall and sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moron, Vincent; Gouirand, Isabelle; Taylor, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Eight weather types (WTs) are computed over 98.75°W-56.25°W, 8.75°N-31.25°N using cluster analysis of daily low-level (925 hPa) winds and outgoing longwave radiation, without removing the mean annual cycle, by a k-means algorithm from 1979 to 2013. The WTs can be firstly interpreted as snapshots of the annual cycle with a clear distinction between 5 "wintertime" and 3 "summertime" WTs, which account together for 70 % of the total mean annual rainfall across the studied domain. The wintertime WTs occur mostly from late November to late April and are characterized by varying intensity and location of the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH) and transient synoptic troughs along the northern edge of the domain. Large-scale subsidence dominates the whole basin but rainfall can occur over sections of the basin, especially on the windward shores of the troughs associated with the synoptic waves. The transition between wintertime and summertime WTs is rather abrupt, especially in May. One summertime WT (WT 4) is prevalent in summer, and almost exclusive around late July. It is characterized by strong NASH, fast Caribbean low level jet and rainfall mostly concentrated over the Caribbean Islands, the Florida Peninsula, the whole Central America and the tropical Eastern Pacific. The two remaining summertime WTs display widespread rainfall respectively from Central America to Bermuda (WT 5) and over the Eastern Caribbean (WT 6). Both WTs combine reduced regional scale subsidence and weaker Caribbean low-level jet relatively to WT 4. The relationships between WT frequency and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are broadly linear. Warm central and eastern ENSO events are associated with more WT 4 (less WT 5-6) during boreal summer and autumn (0) while this relationship is reversed during boreal summer (+1) for central events only. In boreal winter, the largest anomalies are observed for two WTs consistent with negative (WT 2) and positive (WT 8) phases of the

  5. Comparison of surface water chemistry and weathering effects of two lake basins in the Changtang Nature Reserve, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Liu, Zhaofei; Jiang, Liguang; Yao, Zhijun; Wang, Junbo; Ju, Jianting

    2016-03-01

    The geochemistry of natural waters in the Changtang Nature Reserve, northern Tibet, can help us understand the geology of catchments, and provide additional insight in surface processes that influence water chemistry such as rock weathering on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, severe natural conditions are responsible for a lack of scientific data for this area. This study represents the first investigation of the chemical composition of surface waters and weathering effects in two lake basins in the reserve (Lake Dogaicoring Qiangco and Lake Longwei Co). The results indicate that total dissolved solids (TDS) in the two lakes are significantly higher than in other gauged lakes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, reaching 20-40g/L, and that TDS of the tectonic lake (Lake Dogaicoring Qiangco) is significantly higher than that of the barrier lake (Lake Longwei Co). Na(+) and Cl(-) are the dominant ions in the lake waters as well as in the glacier-fed lake inflows, with chemical compositions mainly affected by halite weathering. In contrast, ion contents of inflowing rivers fed by nearby runoff are lower and concentrations of dominant ions are not significant. Evaporite, silicate, and carbonate weathering has relatively equal effects on these rivers. Due to their limited scope, small streams near the lakes are less affected by carbonate than by silicate weathering.

  6. Convective weather events in high-frequency Eulerian observations and model column outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapes, B.

    2006-05-01

    Convective cloud systems produce large fractions of the Earth's rainfall. High-frequency Eulerian time-height datasets containing such convective storm passages permit clean, objective comparisons between observations and model output. Lagged regressions of these datasets vs. surface rainfall are used to depict the characteristic structure of precipitating disturbances, mainly in the wet tropics. Both observations and models have organized convective rain events with time scales of many hours, even though convection parameterizations (and arguably cumulus cells in nature) operate column by column and typically have no long-time memory. However, different models have very different characteristic structures: very different from observations (which are fairly similar from place to place), and very different from other models. Experiments with single-column versions suggest that this characteristic structure stems largely from the physical parameterizations.

  7. Labrador Sea surface temperature control on the summer weather in the Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnatiuk, Natalia; Vihma, Timo; Bobylev, Leonid

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have addressed the linkages between the Arctic Amplification and mid-latitude weather patterns. Most of them have focused on the effects of changes in sea ice, terrestrial snow or open ocean SST on the air temperature in selected mid-latitude areas. However, when analysing such potential linkages, one should be aware that from the point of view of the atmosphere it is almost the same whether the thermal forcing originates from the sea ice melt, snowmelt, or changes in SST. Most important is to quantify how the atmosphere responds to anomalies in the surface temperature and then affects weather patterns in remote areas. For this purpose, we studied the hemispheric-scale relationships between anomalies in the Northern Hemisphere Earth surface temperature (Ts) and 2-m air temperature (T2m) in mid-latitudes (Central and Eastern Europe). Using regression analyses based on the ERA-Interim reanalysis data, we assessed the said temperature relationships with focus on the lagged monthly and inter-seasonal linkages. Technically we divided the Northern Hemisphere in equal areas with a size of 15x10 degrees and calculated correlation coefficients for the monthly mean temperatures between all defined regions from one side and the Central/East European study regions from another side over the period 1979-2014. Using this approach, we found that the strongest links in the considered kind of relationships take place between spring sea surface temperature in the Labrador Sea and summer air (T2m) temperature in the Eastern Europe. In order to confirm the correlation results obtained, to identify thermal forcing factors and to assess their relative importance, we analysed the multiyear averages and anomalies of various meteorological parameters for 10 coldest and 10 warmest springs and summers in the period 1979-2014: surface pressure, total precipitation, sea-ice and total cloud cover, wind components, surface solar radiation downwards, surface heat fluxes and air

  8. Implementation of the WRF Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation Method of Observation Nudging for Use as an ARL Weather Running Estimate-Nowcast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Implementation of the WRF Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation Method of Observation Nudging for Use as an ARL Weather Running Estimate-Nowcast...Method of Observation Nudging for Use as an ARL Weather Running Estimate-Nowcast Robert Dumais, Steve Kirby, and Robert Flanigan Computational and...Information Sciences Directorate, ARL Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

  9. Characterization of space weathering from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera ultraviolet observations of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denevi, Brett W.; Robinson, Mark S.; Boyd, Aaron K.; Sato, Hiroyuki; Hapke, Bruce W.; Hawke, B. Ray

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the effects of space weathering at ultraviolet wavelengths using a near-global seven-band (321-689 nm) mosaic from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC). We confirm that for moderate- to high-iron compositions (≳ 5 wt % FeO), the steeply positive UV slope at wavelengths <415 nm shallows with increasing exposure to space weathering. We measure these differences in LROC WAC data as variations in the 321/415 nm ratio, which has low values for fresh craters in the mare and moderate-iron highlands. For low-iron highland compositions, the break in slope occurs at shorter wavelengths, and it is instead the 321/360 nm ratio that increases with exposure to the space-weathering environment, whereas the 321/415 nm ratio appears to be largely controlled by the degree of shock experienced during the impact. The effects of shock may be more important at highland craters because modest shock pressures result in the solid-state transformation of plagioclase to its glass equivalent, maskelynite, and can help distinguish between primary shocked ejecta and locally exposed fresh material in rays. While all of the "fresh" craters we examined have UV spectral properties consistent with substantial alteration due to space weathering, the UV spectra of lunar swirls (magnetically shielded from the solar wind) are consistent with exposure of immature, crystalline material. Together these results suggest that lunar space weathering is dominated by the solar wind and "saturates" in the UV at Is/FeO values of ~40 (submature).

  10. Near-Real Time Satellite-Retrieved Cloud and Surface Properties for Weather and Aviation Safety Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnis, P.; Smith, W., Jr.; Bedka, K. M.; Nguyen, L.; Palikonda, R.; Hong, G.; Trepte, Q.; Chee, T.; Scarino, B. R.; Spangenberg, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Fleeger, C.; Ayers, J. K.; Chang, F. L.; Heck, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud properties determined from satellite imager radiances provide a valuable source of information for nowcasting and weather forecasting. In recent years, it has been shown that assimilation of cloud top temperature, optical depth, and total water path can increase the accuracies of weather analyses and forecasts. Aircraft icing conditions can be accurately diagnosed in near-real time (NRT) retrievals of cloud effective particle size, phase, and water path, providing valuable data for pilots. NRT retrievals of surface skin temperature can also be assimilated in numerical weather prediction models to provide more accurate representations of solar heating and longwave cooling at the surface, where convective initiation. These and other applications are being exploited more frequently as the value of NRT cloud data become recognized. At NASA Langley, cloud properties and surface skin temperature are being retrieved in near-real time globally from both geostationary (GEO) and low-earth orbiting (LEO) satellite imagers for weather model assimilation and nowcasting for hazards such as aircraft icing. Cloud data from GEO satellites over North America are disseminated through NCEP, while those data and global LEO and GEO retrievals are disseminated from a Langley website. This paper presents an overview of the various available datasets, provides examples of their application, and discusses the use of the various datasets downstream. Future challenges and areas of improvement are also presented.

  11. Near-Real Time Satellite-Retrieved Cloud and Surface Properties for Weather and Aviation Safety Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William L., Jr.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Nguyen, Louis; Palikonda, Rabindra; Hong, Gang; Trepte, Qing Z.; Chee, Thad; Scarino, Benjamin; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Sun-Mack, Szedung; Fleeger, Cecilia; Ayers, J. Kirk; Chang, Fu-Lung; Heck, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Cloud properties determined from satellite imager radiances provide a valuable source of information for nowcasting and weather forecasting. In recent years, it has been shown that assimilation of cloud top temperature, optical depth, and total water path can increase the accuracies of weather analyses and forecasts. Aircraft icing conditions can be accurately diagnosed in near-­-real time (NRT) retrievals of cloud effective particle size, phase, and water path, providing valuable data for pilots. NRT retrievals of surface skin temperature can also be assimilated in numerical weather prediction models to provide more accurate representations of solar heating and longwave cooling at the surface, where convective initiation. These and other applications are being exploited more frequently as the value of NRT cloud data become recognized. At NASA Langley, cloud properties and surface skin temperature are being retrieved in near-­-real time globally from both geostationary (GEO) and low-­-earth orbiting (LEO) satellite imagers for weather model assimilation and nowcasting for hazards such as aircraft icing. Cloud data from GEO satellites over North America are disseminated through NCEP, while those data and global LEO and GEO retrievals are disseminated from a Langley website. This paper presents an overview of the various available datasets, provides examples of their application, and discusses the use of the various datasets downstream. Future challenges and areas of improvement are also presented.

  12. First Light Infrared Observations with the 1.6 Meter Solar Telescope in Big Bear: Origins of Space Weather Telescope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-16

    later transported toward the corona . 2)We investigated properties of magnetic fields in nearly 400 solar active regions. Time profiles of...1.6 Meter Solar Telescope in Big Bear: Origins of Space Weather Telescope. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-09-1-0655 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...STATEMENT 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In early 2009 at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO), first light science observations were made

  13. Space Weathering of Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, L. A.

    2002-12-01

    Space weathering is defined as any process that wears away and alters surfaces, here confined to small bodies in the Solar System. Mechanisms which possibly alter asteroid and comet surfaces include solar wind bombardment, UV radiation, cosmic ray bombardment, micrometeorite bombardment. These processes are likely to contribute to surface processes differently. For example, solar wind bombardment would be more important on a body closer to the Sun compared to a comet where cosmic ray bombardment might be a more significant weathering mechanism. How can we measure the effects of space weathering? A big problem is that we don't know the nature of the surface before it was weathered. We are in a new era in the study of surface processes on small bodies brought about by the availability of spatially resolved, color and spectral measurements of asteroids from Galileo and NEAR. What processes are active on which bodies? What physics controls surface processes in different regions of the solar system? How do processes differ on different bodies of different physical and chemical properties? What combinations of observable parameters best address the nature of surface processes? Are there alternative explanations for the observed parameters that have been attributed to space weathering? Should we retain the term, space weathering? How can our understanding of space weathering on the Moon help us understand it on asteroids and comets? Finally, we have to leave behind some presuppositions, one being that there is evidence of space weathering based on the fact that the optical properties of S-type asteroids differs from those of ordinary chondrites.

  14. Open Surface Solar Irradiance Observations - A Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, Lionel; Nüst, Daniel; Jirka, Simon; Maso, Joan; Ranchin, Thierry; Wald, Lucien

    2015-04-01

    The newly started project ConnectinGEO funded by the European Commission aims at improving the understanding on which environmental observations are currently available in Europe and subsequently providing an informational basis to close gaps in diverse observation networks. The project complements supporting actions and networking activities with practical challenges to test and improve the procedures and methods for identifying observation data gaps, and to ensure viability in real world scenarios. We present a challenge on future concepts for building a data sharing portal for the solar energy industry as well as the state of the art in the domain. Decision makers and project developers of solar power plants have identified the Surface Solar Irradiance (SSI) and its components as an important factor for their business development. SSI observations are crucial in the process of selecting suitable locations for building new plants. Since in-situ pyranometric stations form a sparse network, the search for locations starts with global satellite data and is followed by the deployment of in-situ sensors in selected areas for at least one year. To form a convincing picture, answers must be sought in the conjunction of these EO systems, and although companies collecting SSI observations are willing to share this information, the means to exchange in-situ measurements across companies and between stakeholders in the market are still missing. We present a solution for interoperable exchange of SSI data comprising in-situ time-series observations as well as sensor descriptions based on practical experiences from other domains. More concretely, we will apply concepts and implementations of the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) framework of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The work is based on an existing spatial data infrastructure (SDI), which currently comprises metadata, maps and coverage data, but no in-situ observations yet. This catalogue is already registered in the

  15. BET surface area distributions in polar stream sediments: Implications for silicate weathering in a cold-arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marra, Kristen R.; Elwood Madden, Megan E; Soreghan, Gerilyn S.; Hall, Brenda L

    2014-01-01

    BET surface area values are critical for quantifying the amount of potentially reactive sediments available for chemical weathering and ultimately, prediction of silicate weathering fluxes. BET surface area values of fine-grained (<62.5 μm) sediment from the hyporheic zone of polar glacial streams in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica (Wright and Taylor Valleys) exhibit a wide range (2.5–70.6 m2/g) of surface area values. Samples from one (Delta Stream, Taylor Valley) of the four sampled stream transects exhibit high values (up to 70.6 m2/g), which greatly exceed surface area values from three temperate proglacial streams (0.3–12.1 m2/g). Only Clark stream in Wright Valley exhibits a robust trend with distance, wherein surface area systematically decreases (and particle size increases) in the mud fraction downstream, interpreted to reflect rapid dissolution processes in the weathering environment. The remaining transects exhibit a range in variability in surface area distributions along the length of the channel, likely related to variations in eolian input to exposed channel beds, adjacent snow drifts, and to glacier surfaces, where dust is trapped and subsequently liberated during summer melting. Additionally, variations in stream discharge rate, which mobilizes sediment in pulses and influences water:rock ratios, the origin and nature of the underlying drift material, and the contribution of organic acids may play significant roles in the production and mobilization of high-surface area sediment. This study highlights the presence of sediments with high surface area in cold-based glacier systems, which influences models of chemical denudation rates and the impact of glacial systems on the global carbon cycle.

  16. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  17. All-Weather Sounding of Moisture and Temperature From Microwave Sensors Using a Coupled Surface/Atmosphere Inversion Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukabara, S. A.; Garrett, K.

    2014-12-01

    A one-dimensional variational retrieval system has been developed, capable of producing temperature and water vapor profiles in clear, cloudy and precipitating conditions. The algorithm, known as the Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MiRS), is currently running operationally at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS), and is applied to a variety of data from the AMSU-A/MHS sensors on board the NOAA-18, NOAA-19, and MetOp-A/B polar satellite platforms, as well as SSMI/S on board both DMSP F-16 and F18, and from the NPP ATMS sensor. MiRS inverts microwave brightness temperatures into atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles, along with hydrometeors and surface parameters, simultaneously. This atmosphere/surface coupled inversion allows for more accurate retrievals in the lower tropospheric layers by accounting for the surface emissivity impact on the measurements. It also allows the inversion of the soundings in all-weather conditions thanks to the incorporation of the hydrometeors parameters in the inverted state vector as well as to the inclusion of the emissivity in the same state vector, which is accounted for dynamically for the highly variable surface conditions found under precipitating atmospheres. The inversion is constrained in precipitating conditions by the inclusion of covariances for hydrometeors, to take advantage of the natural correlations that exist between temperature and water vapor with liquid and ice cloud along with rain water. In this study, we present a full assessment of temperature and water vapor retrieval performances in all-weather conditions and over all surface types (ocean, sea-ice, land, and snow) using matchups with radiosonde as well as Numerical Weather Prediction and other satellite retrieval algorithms as references. An emphasis is placed on retrievals in cloudy and precipitating atmospheres, including extreme weather events

  18. Assimilation of microwave, infrared, and radio occultation satellite observations with a weather research and forecasting model for heavy rainfall forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonyuen, Pakornpop; Wu, Falin; Phunthirawuth, Parwapath; Zhao, Yan

    2016-10-01

    In this research, satellite observation data were assimilated into Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) by using Three-dimensional Variational Data Assimilation System (3DVAR) to analyze its impacts on heavy rainfall forecasts. The weather case for this research was during 13-18 September 2015. Tropical cyclone VAMCO, forming in South China Sea near with Vietnam, moved on west direction to the Northeast of Thailand. After passed through Vietnam, the tropical cyclone was become to depression and there was heavy rainfall throughout the area of Thailand. Observation data, used in this research, included microwave radiance observations from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A), infrared radiance observations from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), and GPS radio occultation (RO) from the COSMIC and CHAMP missions. The experiments were designed in five cases, namely, 1) without data assimilation (CTRL); 2) with only RO data (RO); 3) with only AMSU-A data (AMSUA); 4) with only IASI data (IASI); and 5) with all of RO, AMSU-A and IASI data assimilation (ALL). Then all experiment results would be compared with both NCEP FNL (Final) Operational Global Analysis and the observation data from Thai Meteorological Department weather stations. The experiments result demonstrated that with microwave (AMSU-A), infrared (IASI) and GPS radio occultation (RO) data assimilation can produce the positive impact on analyses and forecast. All of satellite data assimilations have corresponding positive effects in term of temperature and humidity forecasting, and the GPS-RO assimilation produces the best of temperature and humidity forecast biases. The satellite data assimilation has a good impact on temperature and humidity in lower troposphere and vertical distribution that very helpful for heavy rainfall forecast improvement.

  19. Problems at the Leading Edge of Space Weathering as Revealed by TEM Combined with Surface Science Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C. A.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Both transmission electron micros-copy (TEM) and surface analysis techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were instrumen-tal in making the first characterizations of material generated by space weathering in lunar samples [1,2]. Without them, the nature of nanophase metallic Fe (npFe0) correlated with the surface of lunar regolith grains would have taken much longer to become rec-ognized and understood. Our groups at JSC and UVa have been using both techniques in a cross-correlated way to investigate how the solar wind contributes to space weathering [e.g., 3]. These efforts have identified a number of ongoing problems and knowledge gaps. Key insights made by UVa group leader Raul Barag-iola during this work are gratefully remembered.

  20. Observed Changes at the Surface of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortmeyer, M.; Rigor, I.

    2004-12-01

    The Arctic has long been considered a harbinger of global climate change since simulations with global climate models predict that if the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere doubles, the Arctic would warm by more than 5°C, compared to a warming of 2°C for subpolar regions (Manabe et al., 1991). And indeed, studies of the observational records show polar amplification of the warming trends (e.g. Serreze and Francis, 2004). These temperature trends are accompanied by myriad concurrent changes in Arctic climate. One of the first indicators of Arctic climate change was found by Walsh et al. (1996) using sea level pressure (SLP) data from the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP, http://iabp.apl.washington.edu). In this study, they showed that SLP over the Arctic Ocean decreased by over 4 hPa from 1979 - 1994. The decreases in SLP (winds) over the Arctic Ocean, forced changes in the circulation of sea ice and the surface ocean currents such that the Beaufort Gyre is reduced in size and speed (e.g. Rigor et al., 2002). Data from the IABP has also been assimilated into the global surface air temperature (SAT) climatologies (e.g. Jones et al. 1999), and the IABP SAT analysis shows that the temperature trends noted over land extend out over the Arctic Ocean. Specifically, Rigor et al. (2000) found warming trends in SAT over the Arctic Ocean during win¬ter and spring, with values as high as 2°C/decade in the eastern Arctic during spring. It should be noted that many of the changes in Arctic climate were first observed or explained using data from the IABP. The observations from IABP have been one of the cornerstones for environmental forecasting and studies of climate and climate change. These changes have a profound impact on wildlife and people. Many species and cultures depend on the sea ice for habitat and subsistence. Thus, monitoring the Arctic Ocean is crucial not only for our ability to detect climate change, but also to improve our understanding of the

  1. Assimilation of GOES Land Surface Data: Application to Short-Term Numerical Weather Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, W. M.; Suggs, R.; McNider, R. T.; Jedlovec, G.

    2001-05-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite-observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The focus of this paper is to examine how the satellite assimilation technique impacts simulations of near-surface meteorology on the 4- to 48-hour time scale. The technique is implemented within the PSU/NCAR MM5 V3-4 and applied on a 36-km CONUS domain and a12-km nest centered over Oklahoma. Two 30-day periods during 2000 were selected for study, one during the warm season (May-June) and the other in the cold season (Nov-Dec). Bulk verification statistics (BIAS and RMSE) of surface air temperature and dewpoint show that the assimilation technique can improve numerical simulations on both regional and continental scales. Comparison of the simulated surface energy and water fluxes with observations from Energy Balance Bowen Ratio measurements taken at CART/ARM sites in the Southern Great Plains showed the assimilation technique produces a realistic adjustment of the Bowen ratio in both seasons. Additional runs with the Oregon

  2. Comparative study of pulsed laser cleaning applied to weathered marble surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, P.; Antúnez, V.; Ortiz, R.; Martín, J. M.; Gómez, M. A.; Hortal, A. R.; Martínez-Haya, B.

    2013-10-01

    The removal of unwanted matter from surface stones is a demanding task in the conservation of cultural heritage. This paper investigates the effectiveness of near-infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) laser pulses for the cleaning of surface deposits, iron oxide stains and different types of graffiti (black, red and green sprays and markers, and black cutting-edge ink) on dolomitic white marble. The performance of the laser techniques is compared to common cleaning methods on the same samples, namely pressurized water and chemical treatments. The degree of cleaning achieved with each technique is assessed by means of colorimetric measurements and X-ray microfluorescence. Eventual morphological changes induced on the marble substrate are monitored with optical and electronic microscopy. It is found that UV pulsed laser ablation at 266 nm manages to clean all the stains except the cutting-edge ink, although some degree of surface erosion is produced. The IR laser pulses at 1064 nm can remove surface deposits and black spray acceptably, but a yellowing is observed on the stone surface after treatment. An economic evaluation shows that pulsed laser cleaning techniques are advantageous for the rapid cleaning of small or inaccessible surface areas, although their extensive application becomes expensive due to the long operating times required.

  3. Space Weathering Products Found on the Surfaces of the Itokawa Dust Particles: A Summary of the Initial Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noguchi, T.; Kimura, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Konno, M.; Nakamura, T.; Ogami, T.; Ishida, H.; Sagae, R.; Tsujimoto, S.; Tsuchiyama, A,; Zolensky, M. E.; Tanaka, M.; Fujimura, A.; Abe, M.; Yada, T.; Mukai, T.; Ueno, M.; Okada, T.; Shirai, K.; Ishibashi, Y.; Okazaki, R.

    2012-01-01

    Surfaces of airless bodies exposed to interplanetary space gradually have their structures, optical properties, chemical compositions, and mineralogy changed by solar wind implantation and sputtering, irradiation by galactic and solar cosmic rays, and micrometeorite bombardment. These alteration processes and the resultant optical changes are known as space weathering [1, 2, 3]. Our knowledge of space weathering has depended almost entirely on studies of the surface materials returned from the Moon and regolith breccia meteorites [1, 4, 5, 6] until the surface material of the asteroid Itokawa was returned to the Earth by the Hayabusa spacecraft [7]. Lunar soil studies show that space weathering darkens the albedo of lunar soil and regolith, reddens the slopes of their reflectance spectra, and attenuates the characteristic absorption bands of their reflectance spectra [1, 2, 3]. These changes are caused by vapor deposition of small (<40 nm) metallic Fe nanoparticles within the grain rims of lunar soils and agglutinates [5, 6, 8]. The initial analysis of the Itokawa dust particles revealed that 5 out of 10 particles have nanoparticle-bearing rims, whose structure varies depending on mineral species. Sulfur-bearing Fe-rich nanoparticles (npFe) exist in a thin (5-15 nm) surface layer (zone I) on olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, and plagioclase, suggestive of vapor deposition. Sulfur-free npFe exist deeper inside (<60 nm) ferromagnesian silicates (zone II). Their texture suggests formation by amorphization and in-situ reduction of Fe2+ in ferromagnesian silicates [7]. On the other hand, nanophase metallic iron (npFe0) in the lunar samples is embedded in amorphous silicate [5, 6, 8]. These textural differences indicate that the major formation mechanisms of the npFe0 are different between the Itokawa and the lunar samples. Here we report a summary of the initial analysis of space weathering of the Itokawa dust particles.

  4. Modeling land-surface processes and land-atmosphere interactions in the community weather and regional climate WRF model (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F.; Barlage, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model has been widely used with high-resolution configuration in the weather and regional climate communities, and hence demands its land-surface models to treat not only fast-response processes, such as plant evapotranspiration that are important for numerical weather prediction but also slow-evolving processes such as snow hydrology and interactions between surface soil water and deep aquifer. Correctly representing urbanization, which has been traditionally ignored in coarse-resolution modeling, is critical for applying WRF to air quality and public health research. To meet these demands, numerous efforts have been undertaken to improve land-surface models (LSM) in WRF, including the recent implementation of the Noah-MP (Noah Multiple-Physics). Noah-MP uses multiple options for key sub-grid land-atmosphere interaction processes (Niu et al., 2011; Yang et al., 2011), and contains a separate vegetation canopy representing within- and under-canopy radiation and turbulent processes, a multilayer physically-based snow model, and a photosynthesis canopy resistance parameterization with a dynamic vegetation model. This paper will focus on the interactions between fast and slow land processes through: 1) a benchmarking of the Noah-MP performance, in comparison to five widely-used land-surface models, in simulating and diagnosing snow evolution for complex terrain forested regions, and 2) the effects of interactions between shallow and deep aquifers on regional weather and climate. Moreover, we will provide an overview of recent improvements of the integrated WRF-Urban modeling system, especially its hydrological enhancements that takes into account the effects of lawn irrigation, urban oasis, evaporation from pavements, anthropogenic moisture sources, and a green-roof parameterization.

  5. Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Audrey H.

    1989-01-01

    Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)

  6. Assimilation of GOES Land Surface Data: Benefits to Numerical Weather Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William M.; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard T.; Jedlovec, Gary; Dembek, Scott; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The technique has been employed on a semi-operational basis at the GHCC within the PSU/CAR MM5 since 1 November 1998. A one-way nested grid configuration was employed with a 75 kin CONUS domain and a 25 km grid over the southeastern United States. Initial conditions were obtained from the 12 UTC Early Eta Data Assimilation System analyses and lateral boundary conditions from the Early Eta forecast available at 3 hour intervals. The satellite-derived land surface temperature tendencies and insolation were assimilated between two and five hours (1400 and 1650 UTC) of the forecast. We performed the assimilation on the Southeastern domain only. In addition, a control run without assimilation was performed to provide insight into the performance of the assimilation technique.

  7. A statistical-dynamical scheme for reconstructing ocean forcing in the Atlantic. Part I: weather regimes as predictors for ocean surface variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassou, Christophe; Minvielle, Marie; Terray, Laurent; Périgaud, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The links between the observed variability of the surface ocean variables estimated from reanalysis and the overlying atmosphere decomposed in classes of large-scale atmospheric circulation via clustering are investigated over the Atlantic from 1958 to 2002. Daily 500 hPa geopotential height and 1,000 hPa wind anomaly maps are classified following a weather-typing approach to describe the North Atlantic and tropical Atlantic atmospheric dynamics, respectively. The algorithm yields patterns that correspond in the extratropics to the well-known North Atlantic-Europe weather regimes (NAE-WR) accounting for the barotropic dynamics, and in the tropics to wind classes (T-WC) representing the alteration of the trades. 10-m wind and 2-m temperature (T2) anomaly composites derived from regime/wind class occurrence are indicative of strong relationships between daily large-scale atmospheric circulation and ocean surface over the entire Atlantic basin. High temporal correlation values are obtained basin-wide at low frequency between the observed fields and their reconstruction by multiple linear regressions with the frequencies of occurrence of both NAE-WR and T-WC used as sole predictors. Additional multiple linear regressions also emphasize the importance of accounting for the strength of the daily anomalous atmospheric circulation estimated by the combined distances to all regimes centroids in order to reproduce the daily to interannual variability of the Atlantic ocean. We show that for most of the North Atlantic basin the occurrence of NAE-WR generally sets the sign of the ocean surface anomaly for a given day, and that the inter-regime distances are valuable predictors for the magnitude of that anomaly. Finally, we provide evidence that a large fraction of the low-frequency trends in the Atlantic observed at the surface over the last 50 years can be traced back, except for T2, to changes in occurrence of tropical and extratropical weather classes. All together, our

  8. Rain cell-based identification of the vertical profile of reflectivity as observed by weather radar and its use for precipitation uncertainty estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazenberg, P.; Torfs, P. J. J. F.; Leijnse, H.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2012-04-01

    The wide scale implementation of weather radar systems over the last couple of decades has increased our understanding concerning spatio-temporal precipitation dynamics. However, the quantitative estimation of precipitation by these devices is affected by many sources of error. A very dominant source of error results from vertical variations in the hydrometeor size distribution known as the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR). Since the height of the measurement as well as the beam volume increases with distance from the radar, for stratiform precipitation this results in a serious underestimation (overestimation) of the surface reflectivity while sampling within the snow (bright band) region. This research presents a precipitation cell-based implementation to correct volumetric weather radar measurements for VPR effects. Using the properties of a flipping carpenter square, a contour-based identification technique was developed, which is able to identify and track precipitation cells in real time, distinguishing between convective, stratiform and undefined precipitation. For the latter two types of systems, for each individual cell, a physically plausible vertical profile of reflectivity is estimated using a Monte Carlo optimization method. Since it can be expected that the VPR will vary within a given precipitation cell, a method was developed to take the uncertainty of the VPR estimate into account. As a result, we are able to estimate the amount of precipitation uncertainty as observed by weather radar due to VPR for a given precipitation type and storm cell. We demonstrate the possibilities of this technique for a number of winter precipitation systems observed within the Belgian Ardennes. For these systems, in general, the precipitation uncertainty estimate due to vertical reflectivity profile variations varies between 10-40%.

  9. Aquarius Observations of Sea Surface Salinity

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows changes in global sea surface salinity, as measured by NASA’s Aquarius instrument aboard the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft, from December 2011 through December 2012. Red repr...

  10. Seasonal changes in Titan's weather patterns and the evolution and implications of accompanying surface changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, Elizabeth; McEwen, Alfred

    2012-07-01

    Post-equinox changes in Titan's atmospheric circulation brought clouds and extensive methane rain to low latitudes [1,2]. Observations by Cassini ISS over the ensuing ~1.5 yr revealed surface changes to be short-lived; few rain-darkened areas persisted through 2011. In an unsaturated permeable medium, infiltration rates are >20 mm/week [3], so persistence of surface liquids over several months suggests that either an impermeable layer or the local methane table lies close to the surface. Evaporation rates >1 mm/week are predicted at low latitudes [4] and 20 mm/week has been documented at Titan's poles [5], thus areas where darkening persisted must be saturated ground at the level of a methane table or have had ponded liquid 2.5-50 cm deep. Several smaller areas of surface brightening were also observed, a phenomenon that is less well understood. Cassini VIMS spectra of these regions do not match clouds or other surface units [6]. Interpretations include cleaning by runoff [2] or deposition of a fine-grained volatile solid as the result of evaporative cooling of the surface [6]. In general, brightening has persisted longer than darkening, but these areas are also reverting to their original appearance, possibly due to evaporation/sublimation of the bright material or re-deposition of darker hydrocarbons by aeolian transport or precipitation from the atmosphere. Cassini and Earth-based observers monitor Titan frequently, but few clouds have been observed since Fall 2010, which may indicate that enough methane was removed from the atmosphere and the lapse rate stabilized sufficiently that activity will not resume until the onset of convection at mid-northern latitudes later in northern spring. A similar lapse followed a 2004 outburst of south-polar clouds [7], which also appeared to produce significant rainfall [8]. [1] Turtle et al., GRL 38, L03203, doi:10.1029/2010GL046266, 2011. [2] Turtle et al., Science 331, 10.1126/science.1201063. 2011. [3] Hayes et al., GRL 35

  11. Meteorite Falls Observed in U.S. Weather Radar Data in 2015 and 2016 (To Date)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, Marc; Fries, Jeffrey; Hankey, Mike; Matson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    To date, over twenty meteorite falls have been located in the weather radar imagery of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s NEXRAD radar network. We present here the most prominent events recorded since the last Meteoritical Society meeting, covering most of 2015 and early 2016. Meteorite Falls: The following events produced evidence of falling meteorites in radar imagery and resulted in meteorites recovered at the fall site. Creston, CA (24 Oct 2015 0531 UTC): This event generated 218 eyewitness reports submitted to the American Meteor Society (AMS) and is recorded as event #2635 for 2015 on the AMS website. Witnesses reported a bright fireball with fragmentation terminating near the city of Creston, CA, north of Los Angeles. Sonic booms and electrophonic noise were reported in the vicinity of the event. Weather radar imagery records signatures consistent with falling meteorites in data from the KMUX, KVTX, KHNX and KVBX. The Meteoritical Society records the Creston fall as an L6 meteorite with a total recovered mass of 688g. Osceola, FL (24 Jan 2016 1527 UTC): This daytime fireball generated 134 eyewitness reports on AMS report number 266 for 2016, with one credible sonic boom report. The fireball traveled roughly NE to SW with a terminus location north of Lake City, FL in sparsely populated, forested countryside. Radar imagery shows distinct and prominent evidence of a significant meteorite fall with radar signatures seen in data from the KJAX and KVAX radars. Searchers at the fall site found that recoveries were restricted to road sites by the difficult terrain, and yet several meteorites were recovered. Evidence indicates that this was a relatively large meteorite fall where most of the meteorites are unrecoverable due to terrain. Osceola is an L6 meteorite with 991 g total mass recovered to date. Mount Blanco, TX (18 Feb 2016 0343 UTC): This event produced only 39 eyewitness reports and is recorded as AMS event #635 for 2016. No

  12. Frost Monitoring and Forecasting Using MODIS Land Surface Temperature Data and a Numerical Weather Prediction Model Forecasts for Eastern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kabuchanga, Eric; Flores, Africa; Malaso, Susan; Mungai, John; Sakwa, Vincent; Shaka, Ayub; Limaye, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Frost is a major challenge across Eastern Africa, severely impacting agricultural farms. Frost damages have wide ranging economic implications on tea and coffee farms, which represent a major economic sector. Early monitoring and forecasting will enable farmers to take preventive actions to minimize the losses. Although clearly important, timely information on when to protect crops from freezing is relatively limited. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data, derived from NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, and 72-hr weather forecasts from the Kenya Meteorological Service's operational Weather Research Forecast model are enabling the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) and the Tea Research Foundation of Kenya to provide timely information to farmers in the region. This presentation will highlight an ongoing collaboration among the Kenya Meteorological Service, RCMRD, and the Tea Research Foundation of Kenya to identify frost events and provide farmers with potential frost forecasts in Eastern Africa.

  13. Surface analysis and anti-graffiti behavior of a weathered polyurethane-based coating embedded with hydrophobic nano silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabea, A. Mohammad; Mohseni, M.; Mirabedini, S. M.; Tabatabaei, M. Hashemi

    2012-03-01

    In this study, a permanent anti-graffiti polyurethane coating was prepared using concomitant loading of an OH-functional silicone modified polyacrylate additive ranging from 2 to 15 mol% and hydrophobic silica nanoparticles from 1 to 5 wt%. UV-visible spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) analysis were conducted on selected samples to study the weathering performance of samples containing various amounts of silica nanoparticles before and after accelerated weathering conditions. The results showed that higher amounts of additive had inferior effects on the anti-graffiti performance of the coating samples after exposure. However, silica nanoparticles could positively affect the anti-graffiti performance against ageing cycles. This improvement was attributed to lower degradation of samples containing silica nanoparticles and barrier property of nanoparticles against graffiti penetration. The presence of silica nanoparticles did not have any significant effect on the surface free energy of the samples prior and after ageing.

  14. The impact of aircraft digital weather data in an adaptive observation strategy to improve the ensemble prediction of hurricanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensman, Edward Leroy

    Modern meteorological data assimilation techniques and ensemble weather prediction methods involve the minimization of error variance. Both of these techniques are used here to assess the impact of assimilating digital aircraft weather data, in an adaptive observation strategy, to improve hurricane forecasting. Many operational and research centers utilize ensemble prediction systems to improve their weather forecasts. This study utilizes a Monte Carlo technique to randomly generate a series of 50 separate perturbed model states. These ``random'' perturbations are scaled to the typical error values observed daily in meteorology. From the family of 50 ensemble members a field of sea level pressure variance, at the 48-hour forecast point, is calculated using deviations of the 50 members from the control (unperturbed state). The bull's eye of maximum error variance is then backward correlated to various meteorological fields such as temperature, wind and humidity at the 24-hour point of the forecast. The areas of highest correlation represent model sensitivity to random error growth and thus targets for intensive observations. In August and September of 1998, a team of scientists participated in a NASA-sponsored field campaign termed the Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3). The purpose was to conduct an intensive study of Atlantic hurricanes. The CAMEX-3 data were utilized in this research to assess the impact of targeted observations on subsequent forecasts. Specifically, a series of experiments were conducted utilizing: all of the CAMEX-3 data, a portion just over the model-sensitive target areas, and from a random selection of data throughout the near-storm environment. These data were assimilated using both a multivariate optimal interpolation technique and a 4-dimensional variational assimilation method. Results from these experiments showed that these data, once assimilated into the model's initial state, improved subsequent hurricane forecasts

  15. Seasonal changes in Titan's weather patterns and the evolution and implications of accompanying surface changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, E. P.; Perry, J.; McEwen, A. S.; Barbara, J. M.; Del Genio, A. D.; West, R. A.; Barnes, J. W.; Hayes, A.; Lorenz, R. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Stofan, E. R.; Schaller, E. L.; Lopes, R. M.; Ray, T. L.

    2012-12-01

    Post-equinox changes in Titan's atmospheric circulation brought clouds and extensive methane rain to Titan's low latitudes [1,2]. Observations by Cassini ISS over the ~2 years since the storm revealed most of the changes to be short-lived; only a few darkened patches persisted through Fall 2011. In an unsaturated permeable medium, infiltration rates exceed 20 mm/week [3], so persistence of surface liquids over several months suggests either a shallow impermeable layer or that the local methane table lies close to the surface. Evaporation rates greater than 1 mm/week are predicted in equatorial regions [4] and rates of 20 mm/week have been documented at Titan's poles [5], thus areas where darkening persisted must be saturated ground at the level of a methane table or have had liquid ponded to depths of 2.5-50 cm. Several smaller areas of surface brightening were also observed, a phenomenon that is less well understood. Cassini VIMS spectra of these regions do not match those of clouds or other surface units [6, 7]. Interpretations include cleaning by runoff [2] or deposition of a fine-grained volatile solid as the result of evaporative cooling [6, 7]. In general, brightening has persisted longer than darkening, but these areas are also reverting to their original appearance, which could constrain rates of evaporation/sublimation of the bright material or re-deposition of darker hydrocarbons by aeolian transport or precipitation from the atmosphere. Cassini and Earth-based observers monitor Titan frequently (typically at least a few times per month), but few clouds have been observed since Fall 2010, which may indicate that enough methane was removed from the atmosphere and the lapse rate stabilized sufficiently that activity will not resume until the onset of convection at mid-northern latitudes later in northern spring. A similar lapse followed a 2004 outburst of south-polar clouds [8], which also appeared to produce significant rainfall [9]. [1] Turtle et al., GRL

  16. Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Kumar, Sujay V.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is updated daily using swaths of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT began generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS) on 1 June 2010. The purpose of this study is to compare the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climatology GVF product (currently used in operational weather models) to the SPoRT-MODIS GVF during June to October 2010. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) was employed to study the impacts of the SPoRT-MODIS GVF dataset on a land surface model (LSM) apart from a full numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. For the 2010 warm season, the SPoRT GVF in the western portion of the CONUS was generally higher than the NCEP climatology. The eastern CONUS GVF had variations both above and below the climatology during the period of study. These variations in GVF led to direct impacts on the rates of heating and evaporation from the land surface. In the West, higher latent heat fluxes prevailed, which enhanced the rates of evapotranspiration and soil moisture depletion in the LSM. By late Summer and Autumn, both the average sensible and latent heat fluxes increased in the West as a result of the more rapid soil drying and higher coverage of GVF. The impacts of the SPoRT GVF dataset on NWP was also examined for a single severe weather case study using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two separate coupled LIS/WRF model simulations were made for the 17 July 2010 severe weather event in the Upper Midwest using the NCEP and SPoRT GVFs, with all other model parameters remaining the same. Based on the sensitivity results, regions with higher GVF in the SPoRT model runs had higher evapotranspiration and

  17. Tracking tropical cloud systems - Observations for the diagnosis of simulations by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelmann, A.M.; Lin, W.; Cialella, A.; Luke, E.; Jensen, M.; Zhang, M.

    2010-03-15

    To aid in improving model parameterizations of clouds and convection, we examine the capability of models, using explicit convection, to simulate the life cycle of tropical cloud systems in the vicinity of the ARM Tropical Western Pacific sites. The cloud life cycle is determined using a satellite cloud tracking algorithm (Boer and Ramanathan, 1997), and the statistics are compared to those of simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. Using New York Blue, a Blue Gene/L supercomputer that is co-operated by Brookhaven and Stony Brook, simulations are run at a resolution comparable to the observations. Initial results suggest a computational paradox where, even though the size of the simulated systems are about half of that observed, their longevities are still similar. The explanation for this seeming incongruity will be explored.

  18. The Role of Model and Initial Condition Error in Numerical Weather Forecasting Investigated with an Observing System Simulation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prive, Nikki C.; Errico, Ronald M.

    2013-01-01

    A series of experiments that explore the roles of model and initial condition error in numerical weather prediction are performed using an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) framework developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (NASA/GMAO). The use of an OSSE allows the analysis and forecast errors to be explicitly calculated, and different hypothetical observing networks can be tested with ease. In these experiments, both a full global OSSE framework and an 'identical twin' OSSE setup are utilized to compare the behavior of the data assimilation system and evolution of forecast skill with and without model error. The initial condition error is manipulated by varying the distribution and quality of the observing network and the magnitude of observation errors. The results show that model error has a strong impact on both the quality of the analysis field and the evolution of forecast skill, including both systematic and unsystematic model error components. With a realistic observing network, the analysis state retains a significant quantity of error due to systematic model error. If errors of the analysis state are minimized, model error acts to rapidly degrade forecast skill during the first 24-48 hours of forward integration. In the presence of model error, the impact of observation errors on forecast skill is small, but in the absence of model error, observation errors cause a substantial degradation of the skill of medium range forecasts.

  19. PV powering a weather station for severe weather

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. Jr.; Schmidt, J.

    1997-12-31

    A natural disaster, such as Hurricane Andrew, destroys thousands of homes and businesses. The destruction from this storm left thousands of people without communications, potable water, and electrical power. This prompted the Florida Solar Energy Center to study the application of solar electric power for use in disasters. During this same period, volunteers at the Tropical Prediction Center at the National Hurricane Center (NHC), Miami, Florida and the Miami Office of the National Weather Service (NWS) were working to increase the quantity and quality of observations received from home weather stations. Forecasters at NHC have found surface reports from home weather stations a valuable tool in determining the size, strength and course of hurricanes. Home weather stations appear able to record the required information with an adequate level of accuracy. Amateur radio, utilizing the Automatic Packet Report System, (APRS) can be used to transmit this data to weather service offices in virtually real time. Many weather data collecting stations are at remote sites which are not readily serviced by dependable commercial power. Photovoltaic (solar electric) modules generate electricity and when connected to a battery can operate as a stand alone power system. The integration of these components provides an inexpensive standalone system. The system is easy to install, operates automatically and has good communication capabilities. This paper discusses the design criteria, operation, construction and deployment of a prototype solar powered weather station.

  20. Vertical structure of the wind field during the Special Observing Period I of the Global Weather Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paegle, J. N.; Paegle, J.; Zhen, Z.; Sampson, G.

    1986-01-01

    The vertical structure of the global atmosphere is analyzed for selected periods of the Special Observing Period I (SOP-I) for the Global Weather Experiment (GWE). The analysis consists of projection of the stream-function and velocity potential at 200 and 850 mb on spherical harmonics and of the wind and height fields on the normal modes of a linearized form of the primitive equations for a basic state at rest. The kinematic vertical structure is discussed in terms of correlation coefficients of the 200 mb and 850 mb winds and analysis of the internal and external normal modes of the primitive equations. The reliability of the results is checked by applying the same analysis methods to data sets obtained from three different institutions: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF), and Goddard Laboratory for the Atmospheres (GLA). It is found that, on a global basis, vertically reversing circulations are as important as the equivalent barotropic structures. For the verticaly reversing components, the gravity and mixed Rossby-gravity modes have contributions of the same order of magnitude as those of the Rossby modes in tropical latitudes.

  1. Space Weathering Processes on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Pieters, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    Like the Moon, Mercury has no atmosphere to protect it from the harsh space environment and therefore it is expected that it will incur the effects of space weathering. These weathering processes are capable of both creating regolith and altering its optical properties. However, there are many important differences between the environments of Mercury and the Moon. These environmental differences will almost certainly affect the weathering processes as well as the products of those processes. It should be possible to observe the effects of these differences in Vis/NIR spectra of the type expected to be returned by MESSENGER. More importantly, understanding these weathering processes and their consequences is essential for evaluating the spectral data returned from MESSENGER and other missions in order to determine the mineralogy and the iron content of the Mercurian surface. Theoretical and experimental work has been undertaken in order to better understand these consequences.

  2. Micro-mapping Meteorite Surfaces on Mars using Microscopic Imager Mosaics — A Tool for Unraveling Weathering History at Meridiani Planum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, J. W.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Golombek, M. P.; Johnson, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Meteorites found on Mars provide valuable insights into martian surface processes. During the course of Mars Exploration Rover (MER) extended missions, Spirit and Opportunity have identified 17 confirmed and candidate meteorites on Mars, most of which are irons. The iron meteorites exhibit morphologies and coatings that communicate complex post-fall exposure histories relevant to an understanding of climate near the martian equator [1-4]. Both chemical and mechanical weathering effects are represented. Among the more significant of these are: 1) cm-scale hollowing, 2) surficial rounding, 3) mass excavation/dissolution and removal, 4) differential etching of kamacite plates and taenite lamellae, revealing Widmanstätten patterns, 5) discontinuous iron oxide coatings, and 6) the effects of cavernous weathering, which often penetrate to rock interiors. Determining the nature, magnitude, and timing of each process and its associated features is a complex problem that will be aided by laboratory experiments, image processing, and careful surface evaluation. Because some features appear to superpose others in ways analogous to stratigraphic relationships, Microscopic Imager (MI) mosaics are useful for sketching "geologic maps" of meteorite surfaces. Employing the techniques of conventional planetary mapping [5], each map was drafted manually using full-resolution MI mosaics and Adobe Photoshop software. Units were selected to represent the oxide coating, dust-coated surfaces, sand-coated surfaces, taenite lamellae, and uncoated metal. Also included are areas in shadow, and regions of blooming caused by specular reflection of metal. Regmaglypt rim crests are presented as lineations. As with stratigraphic relationships, noting embayments and other cross-cutting relationships assists with establishing the relative timing for observed weathering effects. In addition to suggesting alternating sequences of wind and water exposure [1], patterns in oxide coating occurrence show

  3. Ground-based microwave weather radar observations and retrievals during the 2014 Holuhraun eruption (Bárðarbunga, Iceland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereu, Luigi; Silvio Marzano, Frank; Barsotti, Sara; Montopoli, Mario; Yeo, Richard; Arngrimsson, Hermann; Björnsson, Halldór; Bonadonna, Costanza

    2015-04-01

    During an eruptive event the real-time forecasting of ash dispersal into the atmosphere is a key factor to prevent air traffic disasters. The ash plume is extremely hazardous to aircraft that inadvertently may fly through it. Real-time monitoring of such phenomena is crucial, particularly to obtain specific data for the initialization of eruption and dispersion models in terms of source parameters. The latter, such as plume height, ash concentration, mass flow rate and size spectra, are usually very difficult to measure or to estimate with a relatively good accuracy. Over the last years different techniques have been developed to improved ash plume detection and retrieval. Satellite-based observations, using multi-frequency visible and infrared radiometers, are usually exploited for monitoring and measuring dispersed ash clouds. The observations from geostationary orbit suffer from a relatively poor spatial resolution, whereas the low orbit level has a relatively poor temporal resolution. Moreover, the field-of-view of infrared radiometric measurements may be reduced by obstructions caused by water and ice clouds lying between the ground and the sensor's antenna. Weather radar-based observations represent an emerging technique to detect and, to a certain extent, mitigate the hazard from the ash plumes. Ground-based microwave scanning radar systems can provide the three-dimensional information about the detected ash volume with a fairly high spatial resolution every few minutes and in all weather conditions. Methodological studies have recently investigated the possibility of using single-polarization and dual-polarization ground-based radar for the remote sensing of volcanic ash cloud. In this respect, radar observations can be complementary to satellite observations. A microphysical electromagnetic characterization of volcanic ash was carried out in terms of dielectric properties, composition, size and orientation of ash particles. An extended Volcanic Ash Radar

  4. Evaluation of Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM with All Weather Gauge Observations over CONUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Qi, Y.; Hu, B.; Hu, J.; Hong, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is composed of an international network of satellites that provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow. Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) is the state-of-art precipitation products with high spatio-temporal resolution of 0.1°/30min. IMERG unifies precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational satellites with the core sensors dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and microwave imager (GMI) on board a "Core" satellite. Additionally, IMERG blends the advantages of currently most popular satellite-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) algorithms, i.e. TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH), Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS). The real-time and post real-time IMERG products are now available online at https://stormpps.gsfc.nasa.gov/storm. In this study, the final run post real-time IMERG is evaluated with all-weather manual gauge observations over CONUS from June 2014 through May 2015. Relative Bias (RB), Root-Mean-Squared Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CC), Probability Of Detection (POD), False Alarm Ratio (FAR), and Critical Success Index (CSI) are used to quantify the performance of IMERG. The performance of IMERG in estimating snowfall precipitation is highlighted in the study. This timely evaluation with all-weather gauge observations is expected to offer insights into performance of IMERG and thus provide useful feedback to the algorithm developers as well as the GPM data users.

  5. Solid Surface Combustion Experiment Yields Significant Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Koudelka, John M.; Vergilii, Franklin

    1999-01-01

    The spread of a flame over solid fuel is not only a fundamental textbook combustion phenomenon, but also the central element of destructive fires that cause tragic loss of life and property each year. Throughout history, practical measures to prevent and fight fires have been developed, but these have often been based on lessons learned in a costly fire. Since the 1960 s, scientists and engineers have employed powerful tools of scientific research to understand the details of flame spread and how a material can be rendered nonflammable. High-speed computers have enabled complex flame simulations, whereasand lasers have provided measurements of the chemical composition, temperature, and air velocities inside flames. The microgravity environment has emerged as the third great tool for these studies. Spreading flames are complex combinations of chemical reactions and several physical processes including the transport of oxygen and fuel vapor to the flame and the transfer of heat from the flame to fresh fuel and to the surroundings. Depending on its speed, air motion in the vicinity of the flame can affect the flame in substantially different ways. For example, consider the difference between blowing on a campfire and blowing out a match. On Earth, gravity induces air motion because of buoyancy (the familiar rising hot gases); this process cannot be controlled experimentally. For theoreticians, buoyant air motion complicates the problem modeling of flame spread beyond the capacity of modern computers to simulate. The microgravity environment provides experimental control of air motion near spreading flames, with results that can be compared with detailed theory. The Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE) was designed to obtain benchmark flame spreading data in quiescent test atmospheres--the limiting case of flames spreading. Professor Robert Altenkirch, Vice President for Research at Mississippi State University, proposed the experiment concept, and the NASA Lewis

  6. Low cloud type over the ocean from surface observations. Part 1: Relationship to surface meteorology and the vertical distribution of temperature and moisture

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, J.R.

    1998-03-01

    Surface cloud observations and coincident surface meteorological observations and soundings from five ocean weather stations are used to establish representative relationships between low cloud type and marine boundary layer (MBL) properties for the subtropics and midlatitudes by compositing soundings and meteorological observations for which the same low cloud type was observed. Physically consistent relationships are found to exist between low cloud type, MBL structure, and surface meteorology at substantially different geographical locations and seasons. Relative MBL height and inferred decoupling between subcloud and cloud layers are increasingly greater for stratocumulus, cumulus-under-stratocumulus, and cumulus, respectively, at midlatitude locations as well as the eastern subtropical location during both summer and winter. At the midlatitude locations examined, cloudiness identified as fair-weather stratus often occurs in a deep, stratified cloud layer with little or no capping inversion. This strongly contrasts with cloudiness identified as stratocumulus, which typically occurs in a relatively well-mixed MBL under a strong capping inversion at both midlatitude and eastern subtropical locations. At the transition between subtropics and midlatitudes in the western North Pacific, cloudiness identified as fair-weather stratus occurs in a very shallow layer near the surface. Above this layer the associated profile of temperature and moisture is similar to that for cumulus at the same location, and neither of these cloud types is associated with a discernible MBL. Sky-obscuring fog and observations of no low cloudiness typically occur with surface-based inversions. These observed relationships can be used in future studies of cloudiness and cloudiness variability to infer processes and MBL structure where above-surface observations are lacking. 42 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Doppler weather radar observations of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, David J.; Hoblitt, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a transportable Doppler C-band radar during the precursory stage of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska that provided valuable information during subsequent explosive events. We describe the capabilities of this new monitoring tool and present data captured during the Redoubt eruption. The MiniMax 250-C (MM-250C) radar detected seventeen of the nineteen largest explosive events between March 23 and April 4, 2009. Sixteen of these events reached the stratosphere (above 10 km) within 2–5 min of explosion onset. High column and proximal cloud reflectivity values (50 to 60 dBZ) were observed from many of these events, and were likely due to the formation of mm-sized accretionary tephra-ice pellets. Reflectivity data suggest that these pellets formed within the first few minutes of explosion onset. Rapid sedimentation of the mm-sized pellets was observed as a decrease in maximum detection cloud height. The volcanic cloud from the April 4 explosive event showed lower reflectivity values, due to finer particle sizes (related to dome collapse and related pyroclastic flows) and lack of significant pellet formation. Eruption durations determined by the radar were within a factor of two compared to seismic and pressure-sensor derived estimates, and were not well correlated. Ash dispersion observed by the radar was primarily in the upper troposphere below 10 km, but satellite observations indicate the presence of volcanogenic clouds in the stratosphere. This study suggests that radar is a valuable complement to traditional seismic and satellite monitoring of explosive eruptions.

  8. Doppler weather radar observations of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, David J.; Hoblitt, Richard P.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a transportable Doppler C-band radar during the precursory stage of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska that provided valuable information during subsequent explosive events. We describe the capabilities of this new monitoring tool and present data captured during the Redoubt eruption. The MiniMax 250-C (MM-250C) radar detected seventeen of the nineteen largest explosive events between March 23 and April 4, 2009. Sixteen of these events reached the stratosphere (above 10 km) within 2-5 min of explosion onset. High column and proximal cloud reflectivity values (50 to 60 dBZ) were observed from many of these events, and were likely due to the formation of mm-sized accretionary tephra-ice pellets. Reflectivity data suggest that these pellets formed within the first few minutes of explosion onset. Rapid sedimentation of the mm-sized pellets was observed as a decrease in maximum detection cloud height. The volcanic cloud from the April 4 explosive event showed lower reflectivity values, due to finer particle sizes (related to dome collapse and related pyroclastic flows) and lack of significant pellet formation. Eruption durations determined by the radar were within a factor of two compared to seismic and pressure-sensor derived estimates, and were not well correlated. Ash dispersion observed by the radar was primarily in the upper troposphere below 10 km, but satellite observations indicate the presence of volcanogenic clouds in the stratosphere. This study suggests that radar is a valuable complement to traditional seismic and satellite monitoring of explosive eruptions.

  9. Coastal Observations of Weather Features in Senegal during the AMMA SOP-3 Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, G.; Kucera, P.; Joseph, E.; Fuentes, J.; Gaye, A.; Gerlach, J.; Roux, F.; Viltard, N.; Papazzoni, M.; Protat, A.; Bouniol, D.; Reynolds, A.; Arnault, J.; Badiane, D.; Kebe, F.; Camara, M.; Sall, S.

    2009-01-01

    During 15 August through 30 September 2006, ground and aircraft measurements were obtained from a multi-national group of students and scientists in Senegal. Key measurements were aimed at investigating and understanding precipitation processes, thermodynamic and dynamic environmental conditions, cloud, aerosol and microphysical processes and spaceborne sensors (TRMM, CloudSat/Calipso) validation. Ground and aircraft instruments include: ground based polarimetric radar, disdrometer measurements, a course and a high-density rain gauge network, surface chemical measurements, a 10 m flux tower, broadband IR, solar and microwave measurements, rawinsonde and radiosonde measurements, FA-20 dropsonde, in situ microphysics and cloud radar measurements. Highlights during SOP3 include ground and aircraft measurements of squall lines, African Easterly Waves (AEWs), Saharan Air Layer advances into Senegal, and aircraft measurements of AEWs -- including the perturbation that became Hurricane Isaac.

  10. Age calibration of weathering fractures in desert clasts: A new approach to dating geomorphic surfaces in arid landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arcy, Mitch; Roda Boluda, Duna; Whittaker, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Advances in geomorphological and sedimentological research depend on the availability of reliable exposure age constraints. Establishing robust age models at a high spatial and temporal resolution is crucial for measuring rates of geomorphological change and decoding complex landscapes shaped by time-dependent forces, e.g. climate fluctuations. A number of isotopic and luminescence techniques are now available for dating geomorphic surfaces, however they remain expensive and time-consuming to deploy with detailed coverage over space and time in many study areas. For this reason, quick and accessible methods for correlating and extrapolating these chronologies are needed. In arid landscapes, among others, a variety of weathering-induced changes occur to geomorphic and sedimentary surfaces, and many of these processes occur at predictable rates and can be quantified using objective, field based measurements. One example is the gradual widening of fractures that exist within boulders on desert surfaces, by a combination of processes including salt weathering and freeze-thaw cycles. The recent emergence of very detailed exposure age models in a number of locations means it is now possible to measure the rates of desert weathering processes, and use them as fully calibrated age indicators themselves. With the potential to significantly extend the coverage of existing age constraints, this kind of quantitative age correlation would enable a broad range of geomorphological and sedimentological research that depends on detailed absolute age models. We have measured the mean widths of hundreds of vertical fractures that dissect granitic boulders, on a variety of alluvial surfaces in Owens Valley, California, which have themselves been independently dated in detail using cosmogenic nuclides. Our data demonstrates for the first time that these fractures widen at a predictable, steady rate of approximately 1 mm ka-1 for at least the last 150 ka, in this arid study area in the

  11. Plasmon Surface Polariton Dispersion by Direct Optical Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swalen, J. D.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes several simple experiments that can be used to observe directly the dispersion curve of plasmon surface polaritons (PSP) on flat metal surfaces. A method is described of observing the increonental change in the wave vector of the PSP due to coatings that differ in thickness by a few nanometers. (Author/CS)

  12. Space Weathering of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

  13. Detection of Rain-on-Snow (ROS) Events Using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and Weather Station Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E. M.; Brucker, L.; Forman, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    During the winter months, the occurrence of rain-on-snow (ROS) events can impact snow stratigraphy via generation of large scale ice crusts, e.g., on or within the snowpack. The formation of such layers significantly alters the electromagnetic response of the snowpack, which can be witnessed using space-based microwave radiometers. In addition, ROS layers can hinder the ability of wildlife to burrow in the snow for vegetation, which limits their foraging capability. A prime example occurred on 23 October 2003 in Banks Island, Canada, where an ROS event is believed to have caused the deaths of over 20,000 musk oxen. Through the use of passive microwave remote sensing, ROS events can be detected by utilizing observed brightness temperatures (Tb) from AMSR-E. Tb observed at different microwave frequencies and polarizations depends on snow properties. A wet snowpack formed from an ROS event yields a larger Tb than a typical dry snowpack would. This phenomenon makes observed Tb useful when detecting ROS events. With the use of data retrieved from AMSR-E, in conjunction with observations from ground-based weather station networks, a database of estimated ROS events over the past twelve years was generated. Using this database, changes in measured Tb following the ROS events was also observed. This study adds to the growing knowledge of ROS events and has the potential to help inform passive microwave snow water equivalent (SWE) retrievals or snow cover properties in polar regions.

  14. Ionospheric F-region observations over American sector during an intense space weather event using multi-instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abreu, A. J.; Martin, I. M.; Fagundes, P. R.; Venkatesh, K.; Batista, I. S.; de Jesus, R.; Rockenback, M.; Coster, A.; Gende, M.; Alves, M. A.; Wild, M.

    2017-04-01

    The critical interaction between the magnetosphere and ionosphere during intense geomagnetic storms continues to be important to space weather studies. In this investigation, we present and discuss the ionospheric F-region observations in the equatorial, low- and mid-latitude regions in both hemispheres over American sector during the intense geomagnetic storm on 01-03 June 2013. The geomagnetic storm reached a minimum Dst of -119 nT at 0900 UT on 01 June. For this investigation, we present vertical total electron content (VTEC) and phase fluctuations (in TECU/min) from a chain of 10 GPS stations and the ionospheric parameters foF2 and h‧F from a chain of 4 digital ionosonde stations, covering from equatorial to mid-latitudes regions over American sector during the entire storm-time period 31 May-03 June 2013. In addition, the plasma density observed from DMSP satellites is presented. The results obtained show that during the sudden impulse/SSC and throughout the main phase of the storm, a large positive phase was observed in mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere, which could be due to changes in the thermospheric wind circulation. On the other hand, in the mid-latitudes of the southern hemisphere, no deviations are observed in VTEC and foF2 when compared to the quiet period. During the long recovery phase of the storm on 01-02 June, a north-south asymmetry is observed in the F-region. The study confirms the dominant role of the thermospheric winds on north-south asymmetry in the ionospheric F-region. The ionospheric irregularities are found to be confined in the equatorial region, of the bottomside spread-F type, before and during the geomagnetic storm. It shows that the geomagnetic storm did not affect the generation or suppression of ionospheric irregularities at the stations investigated.

  15. Evaluation of Nimbus 7 SMMR sensor with airborne radiometers and surface observations in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Cavalieri, D.; Crawford, J.; Campbell, W. J.; Farrelly, B.; Johannessen, J.; Johannessen, O. M.; Svendsen, E.; Kloster, K.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements made by the Nimbus 7 SMMR are compared with near simultaneous observations using the airborne SMMR simulator and with surface observations. The area of the test is in the Norwegian Sea between Bear Island and Northern Norway. It is noted that during the observation period two low-pressure systems were located in the test area, giving a spatial wind variation from 3-20 m/s. It is shown that the use of the currently available brightness temperatures and algorithms for SMMR does not give universally satisfactory results for SST and wind speed under extreme weather conditions. In addition, the SMMR simulator results are seen as indicating the need for more work on calibration.

  16. Weather Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Herschell Marvin

    1973-01-01

    Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

  17. Field observations, experiments, and modeling of sediment production from freeze and thaw action on a bare, weathered granite slope in a temperate region of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Daizo; Fujita, Masaharu

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, field observations and model simulations were conducted to examine the process of sediment production due to freeze and thaw action in a temperate climate region. Two small areas were designated and observations were conducted to determine the mechanisms of sediment production due to freeze and thaw action on a bare, weathered granite slope in the Tanakami Mountains in the southern part of Shiga Prefecture, Japan. During the cold season from 2004 to 2005, air, surface, and subsurface temperatures were measured at 10-min intervals. The sediment produced on plot 1 was collected and weighed once per week, whereas the sediment produced on plot 2 was left untouched until the end of the cold season. The freeze and thaw cycle occurred repeatedly, with the frozen zone (i.e., temperature < 0 °C) extending to a depth of 10 cm. Sediment was produced as a result of active freeze and thaw processes and, accordingly, there was no longer sediment production at the end of the cold season. Plots 1 and 2 produced 108 and 44 kg m- 2 year- 1 of sediment, respectively. This difference indicates that sediment cover of the saprolite surface mitigated the destructive effects of freezing. During the cold season from 2005 to 2006, a half of plot 1 was covered by broadleaves (Quercus serrata) and the other half was covered by coniferous leaves (Pinus densiflora); plot 2 was covered by no leaves to understand the effects of surface cover on the reduction in sediment production. The results showed that surface leaf cover dramatically decreased sediment production due to freeze and thaw action versus the no-surface cover. A simulation model combining a thermal conductivity analysis and a simple and empirical sediment production model was developed to estimate the amount of sediment produced by the freeze and thaw action. The observation results of temperature change and amount of sediment during the first season, from 2004 to 2005, were simulated with the model. The model

  18. Climate change effects on Glacier recession in Himalayas using Multitemporal SAR data and Automatic Weather Station observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, V.; Singh, S. K.; Venkataraman, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Himalaya is the highest but the youngest mountain belt (20 to 60 million years B.P.) of the earth running in arc shape for about 2500 km. It has more than 90 peaks above 6000 m and contains about 50% of all glaciers outside of the polar environments (Bahadur, 1993). All glaciers in this region are in general recession since last 150 years (Paul et al.,1979). Gangotri, Siachen, Bara Shigri and Patsio are major glaciers in this region which are showing retreat with different rates and their respective tributary glaciers are completely disconnected from main body of glaciers. Spaceborne synthetic aperture radar data provide an important tool for monitoring the fluctuation of the glaciers. In this paper attempt has been made for quantifying the glacier retreat using multitemporal synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. SAR intensity and phase information will be exploited separately under SAR intensity tracking and interferometric SAR (InSAR) coherence tracking (Strozzi et al., 2002) respectively. Glacier retreat study have been done using time series coregistered multi temporal SAR images. Simultaneously InSAR coherence thresholding is applied for tracking the snout of Gangotri glacier. It is observed that glacier is retreating at the rate of 21 m/a. Availability of high resolution spotlight mode TerraSAR-X SAR data will supplement the ENVISAT ASAR and ERS-1/2 based observations. The observatory in the proximity of Gangotri glacier has been made functional at Bhojbasa and all weather parameters viz. Snow fall, temperature, pressure, air vector, column water vapor and humidity are recorded twice a day as per WMO standards manually and automatically. Three Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) have been established in the glacier area at Bhojbasa , Kalindipass and Nandaban. Since Himalayan environment is presently under great stress of decay and degeneration, AWS data will be analyzed in the context of climate change effects on fluctuation of glaciers. References 1.Jagdish

  19. Large surface scintillators as base of impact point detectors and their application in Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayuso, Sindulfo; Medina, José; Gómez-Herrero, Raul; José Blanco, Juan; García-Tejedor, Ignacio; García-Población, Oscar; Díaz-Romeral, Gonzalo

    2016-04-01

    The use of a pile of two 100 cm x 100 cm x 5 cm BC-400 organic scintillators is proposed as ground-based cosmic ray detector able to provide directional information on the incident muons. The challenge is to get in real time the muon impact point on the scintillator and its arrival direction using as few Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) as possible. The instrument is based on the dependence of attenuation of light with the traversed distance in each scintillator. For the time being, four photomultiplier tubes gather the light through the lateral faces (100 cm x 5 cm) of the scintillator. Several experiments have already been carried out. The results show how data contain information about the muon trajectory through the scintillator. This information can be extracted using the pulse heights collected by the PMTs working in coincidence mode. Reliability and accuracy of results strongly depend on the number of PMTs used and mainly on their appropriate geometrical arrangement with regard to the scintillator. In order to determine the optimal position and the minimum number of PMTs required, a Montecarlo simulation code has been developed. Preliminary experimental and simulation results are presented and the potential of the system for space weather monitoring is discussed.

  20. Observed Asteroid Surface Area in the Thermal Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Wright, E. L.; Bauer, J.; Grav, T.; Kramer, E.; Sonnett, S.

    2017-02-01

    The rapid accumulation of thermal infrared observations and shape models of asteroids has led to increased interest in thermophysical modeling. Most of these infrared observations are unresolved. We consider what fraction of an asteroid’s surface area contributes the bulk of the emitted thermal flux for two model asteroids of different shapes over a range of thermal parameters. The resulting observed surface in the infrared is generally more fragmented than the area observed in visible wavelengths, indicating high sensitivity to shape. For objects with low values of the thermal parameter, small fractions of the surface contribute the majority of thermally emitted flux. Calculating observed areas could enable the production of spatially resolved thermal inertia maps from non-resolved observations of asteroids.

  1. Controls over the thickness and elemental enrichment patterns in microscopic weathering-zones in exposed and terra-rossa covered carbonate bedrock surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryb, U.; Erel, Y.; Matmon, A.

    2014-12-01

    Weathering zone's mineral and chemical compositions reflect the processes that govern denudation. We study 0-2500 μm thick weathering zones that evolve below carbonate bedrock surfaces, which experienced prolong denudation under Mediterranean climate, in the Judea Hills, Israel. Samples were collected from exposed (n=13) and terra-rossa covered (n=12) surfaces. In a previous study, denudation rates were calculated for the exposed bedrock samples. Since most of the terra-rossa volume is derived from an aeolian source, we do not consider it an integral part of the rock weathering zone. Bulk rock compositions range from limestone to dolomite, and frequently consist of a mixture of calcite and dolomite minerals. We analyzed major and trace elements across the weathering zones using a laser-ablation ICPMS system. Selected samples were further analyzed with an electron-probe. The extent of weathering zones is marked by the variation of element concentrations near the rock surface (relatively to the bulk rock), at depths of 0-500 μm and 0-2500 μm in exposed and terra-rossa covered surfaces, respectively. These zones are characterized by a relatively high porosity resulting from carbonate-mineral dissolution below the surface. Correlation analyses within each profile reveal three major elemental correlations: (1) Mg-Sr-U correlation results from variation in the abundance of the mineral dolomite. These elements are typically depleted toward the surface, due to preferential dissolution of dolomite crystals and precipitation of secondary calcite; (2) Al-Si correlation results from variations in the abundance of clay minerals, which may concentrate as an insoluble residue, or derive from the outer environment; and, (3) P-Y-REE correlation is highly enriched toward the surface, suggesting contribution from the outer environment. In contrast to silicate rocks, the extent and intensity of the weathering zones of exposed carbonate surfaces are decoupled from denudation rates

  2. The surface composition and temperature of asteroid 21 Lutetia as observed by Rosetta/VIRTIS.

    PubMed

    Coradini, A; Capaccioni, F; Erard, S; Arnold, G; De Sanctis, M C; Filacchione, G; Tosi, F; Barucci, M A; Capria, M T; Ammannito, E; Grassi, D; Piccioni, G; Giuppi, S; Bellucci, G; Benkhoff, J; Bibring, J P; Blanco, A; Blecka, M; Bockelee-Morvan, D; Carraro, F; Carlson, R; Carsenty, U; Cerroni, P; Colangeli, L; Combes, M; Combi, M; Crovisier, J; Drossart, P; Encrenaz, E T; Federico, C; Fink, U; Fonti, S; Giacomini, L; Ip, W H; Jaumann, R; Kuehrt, E; Langevin, Y; Magni, G; McCord, T; Mennella, V; Mottola, S; Neukum, G; Orofino, V; Palumbo, P; Schade, U; Schmitt, B; Taylor, F; Tiphene, D; Tozzi, G

    2011-10-28

    The Visible, InfraRed, and Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) on Rosetta obtained hyperspectral images, spectral reflectance maps, and temperature maps of the asteroid 21 Lutetia. No absorption features, of either silicates or hydrated minerals, have been detected across the observed area in the spectral range from 0.4 to 3.5 micrometers. The surface temperature reaches a maximum value of 245 kelvin and correlates well with topographic features. The thermal inertia is in the range from 20 to 30 joules meter(-2) kelvin(-1) second(-0.5), comparable to a lunarlike powdery regolith. Spectral signatures of surface alteration, resulting from space weathering, seem to be missing. Lutetia is likely a remnant of the primordial planetesimal population, unaltered by differentiation processes and composed of chondritic materials of enstatitic or carbonaceous origin, dominated by iron-poor minerals that have not suffered aqueous alteration.

  3. Spectroscopic analyses of Fe and water in clays: A Martian surface weathering study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, Carle M.; Edwards, J. O.; Coyne, L. M.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    Martian surface morphology suggests the presence of liquid H2O on Mars in the past. Reflectance spectra of the Martian surface include features which correspond to the crystal field transitions of iron, as well as features supporting the presence of ice and minerals containing structural OH and surface water. Researchers initiated further spectroscopic studies of surface iron and water and structural OH in clays in order to determine what remotely obtained spectra can indicate about the presence of clays on Mars based on a clearer understanding of the factors influencing the spectral features. Current technology allows researchers to better correlate the low frequency fundamental stretching and bending vibrations of O-H bonds with the diagnostic near infrared overtone and combination bands used in mineral characterization and identification.

  4. Correction of Sampling Errors in Ocean Surface Cross-Sectional Estimates from Nadir-Looking Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caylor, I. Jeff; Meneghini, R.; Miller, L. S.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    The return from the ocean surface has a number of uses for airborne meteorological radar. The normalized surface cross section has been used for radar system calibration, estimation of surface winds, and in algorithms for estimating the path-integrated attenuation in rain. However, meteorological radars are normally optimized for observation of distributed targets that fill the resolution volume, and so a point target such as the surface can be poorly sampled, particularly at near-nadir look angles. Sampling the nadir surface return at an insufficient rate results in a negative bias of the estimated cross section. This error is found to be as large as 4 dB using observations from a high-altitude airborne radar. An algorithm for mitigating the error is developed that is based upon the shape of the surface echo and uses the returned signal at the three range gates nearest the peak surface echo.

  5. Greenland surface albedo changes 1981-2012 from satellite observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Significant melt over Greenland has been observed during the last several decades associated with extreme warming events over the northern Atlantic Ocean. An analysis of surface albedo change over Greenland is presented, using a 32-year consistent satellite albedo product from the Global Land Surfac...

  6. Surface Observation Climatic Summaries (SOCS) for Yokota AB, Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    0*tSAFETAC/DS-88/202A OIC FILE COPY 0 00 N1 SURFACE OBSERVATION CLIMATIC SUMMARIES 0 FOR YOKOTA AB, JAPAN h F~ E TAC Prepared by 01-A, USAFETAC...62225-5438 REVIEW AND APPROVAL STATEMENT USAFETAC/DS-88/202, SURFACE OBSERVATION CLIMATIC SUMMARIES FOR YOKOTA AB JAPAN , NOVEMBER 1988, HAS BEEN REVIEWED...AB JAPAN 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS: OPERATING LOCATION A, USAFETAC, FEDERAL BUILDING, ASHEVILLE, NC 28801-2723 8. PERFORMING

  7. An assessment of the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model representation of near-surface meteorological variables over West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Pranab; Orr, Andrew; Hosking, J. Scott; Phillips, Tony; Turner, John; Bannister, Daniel; Pope, James O.; Colwell, Steve

    2016-02-01

    Despite the recent significant climatic changes observed over West Antarctica, which include large warming in central West Antarctica and accelerated ice loss, adequate validation of regional simulations of meteorological variables are rare for this region. To address this gap, results from a recent version of the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting model (Polar WRF) covering West Antarctica at a high horizontal resolution of 5 km were validated against near-surface meteorological observations. The model employed physics options that included the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino boundary layer scheme, the WRF Single Moment 5-Class cloud microphysics scheme, the new version of the rapid radiative transfer model for both shortwave and longwave radiation, and the Noah land surface model. Our evaluation finds this model to be a useful tool for realistically capturing the near-surface meteorological conditions. It showed high skill in simulating surface pressure (correlation ≥0.97), good skill for wind speed with better correlation at inland sites (0.7-0.8) compared to coastal sites (0.3-0.6), generally good representation of strong wind events, and good skill for temperature in winter (correlation ≥0.8). The main shortcomings of this configuration of Polar WRF are an occasional failure to properly represent transient cyclones and their influence on coastal winds, an amplified diurnal temperature cycle in summer, and a general tendency to underestimate the wind speed at inland sites in summer. Additional sensitivity studies were performed to quantify the impact of the choice of boundary layer scheme and surface boundary conditions. It is shown that the model is most sensitive to the choice of boundary layer scheme, with the representation of the temperature diurnal cycle in summer significantly improved by selecting the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic boundary layer scheme. By contrast, the model results showed little sensitivity to whether the horizontal resolution was 5 or

  8. Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

  9. Coupling fast all-season soil strength land surface model with weather research and forecasting model to assess low-level icing in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sines, Taleena R.

    Icing poses as a severe hazard to aircraft safety with financial resources and even human lives hanging in the balance when the decision to ground a flight must be made. When analyzing the effects of ice on aviation, a chief cause for danger is the disruption of smooth airflow, which increases the drag force on the aircraft therefore decreasing its ability to create lift. The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model Advanced Research WRF (WRF-ARW) is a collaboratively created, flexible model designed to run on distributed computing systems for a variety of applications including forecasting research, parameterization research, and real-time numerical weather prediction. Land-surface models, one of the physics options available in the WRF-ARW, output surface heat and moisture flux given radiation, precipitation, and surface properties such as soil type. The Fast All-Season Soil STrength (FASST) land-surface model was developed by the U.S. Army ERDC-CRREL in Hanover, New Hampshire. Designed to use both meteorological and terrain data, the model calculates heat and moisture within the surface layer as well as the exchange of these parameters between the soil, surface elements (such as snow and vegetation), and atmosphere. Focusing on the Presidential Mountain Range of New Hampshire under the NASA Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) Icing Assessments in Cold and Alpine Environments project, one of the main goals is to create a customized, high resolution model to predict and assess ice accretion in complex terrain. The purpose of this research is to couple the FASST land-surface model with the WRF to improve icing forecasts in complex terrain. Coupling FASST with the WRF-ARW may improve icing forecasts because of its sophisticated approach to handling processes such as meltwater, freezing, thawing, and others that would affect the water and energy budget and in turn affect icing forecasts. Several transformations had to take place in order

  10. Low Cloud Type over the Ocean from Surface Observations. Part III: Relationship to Vertical Motion and the Regional Surface Synoptic Environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, Joel R.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    Composite large-scale dynamical fields contemporaneous with low cloud types observed at midlatitude Ocean Weather Station (OWS) C and eastern subtropical OWS N are used to establish representative relationships between low cloud type and the synoptic environment. The composites are constructed by averaging meteorological observations of surface wind and sea level pressure from volunteering observing ships (VOS) and analyses of sea level pressure, 1000-mb wind, and 700-mb pressure vertical velocity from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis project on those dates and times of day when a particular low cloud type was reported at the OWS.VOS and NCEP results for OWS C during summer show that bad-weather stratus occurs with strong convergence and ascent slightly ahead of a surface low center and trough. Cumulus-under-stratocumulus and moderate and large cumulus occur with divergence and subsidence in the cold sector of an extratropical cyclone. Both sky-obscuring fog and no-low-cloud typically occur with southwesterly flow from regions of warmer sea surface temperature and differ primarily according to slight surface convergence and stronger warm advection in the case of sky-obscuring fog or surface divergence and weaker warm advection in the case of no-low-cloud. Fair-weather stratus and ordinary stratocumulus are associated with a mixture of meteorological conditions, but differ with respect to vertical motion in the environment. Fair-weather stratus occurs most commonly in the presence of slight convergence and ascent, while stratocumulus often occurs in the presence of divergence and subsidence.Surface divergence and estimated subsidence at the top of the boundary layer are calculated from VOS observations. At both OWS C and OWS N during summer and winter these values are large for ordinary stratocumulus, less for cumulus-under-stratocumulus, and least (and sometimes slightly negative) for

  11. Shortwave surface radiation budget network for observing small-scale cloud inhomogeneity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, B. L.; Kalisch, J.; Macke, A.

    2015-03-01

    As part of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), a high spatial density network of 99 silicon photodiode pyranometers was set up around Jülich (10 km x 12 km area) from April to July 2013, to capture the variability in the radiation field at the surface induced by small-scale cloud inhomogeneity. Each of these autonomously operated pyranometer stations was equipped with weather sensors for simultaneous measurements of ambient air temperature and relative humidity. In this paper, we provide the details of this unique setup of the pyranometer network and the data analysis with initial quality screening procedure we adopted. We also present some exemplary cases consisting of the days with clear, broken cloudy and overcast skies to assess our spatio-temporal observations from the network, and validate their consistency with other collocated radiation measurements available during the HOPE period.

  12. Observability of surface currents in p-wave superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakurskiy, S. V.; Klenov, N. V.; Soloviev, I. I.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu; Golubov, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    A general approach is formulated to describe spontaneous surface current distribution in a chiral p-wave superconductor. We use the quasiclassical Eilenberger formalism in the Ricatti parametrization to describe various types of the superconductor surface, including arbitrary roughness and metallic behavior of the surface layer. We calculate angle resolved distributions of the spontaneous surface currents and formulate the conditions of their observability. We argue that local measurements of these currents by muon spin rotation technique may provide an information on the underlying pairing symmetry in the bulk superconductor.

  13. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

  14. Severe Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Evan B.

    2004-01-01

    Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

  15. The Surface of Titan from Adaptive Optics Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbard, S. G.; Macintosh, B.; Max, C.; Roe, H.; de Pater, I.; Young, E. F.; McKay, C. P.

    Saturn's largest moon Titan is the only satellite in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. Photolysis of methane creates a hydrocarbon haze in Titan's atmosphere that is opaque to visible light. The new adaptive optics system on the 10-meter W.M. Keck Telescope enables us to observe Titan with a resolution of 0.04 arcseconds, or 20 resolution elements across the disk. By observing at near-infrared wavelengths that are methane band windows we can see through Titan's hydrocarbon haze to the surface beneath. Recent adaptive optics images of Titan both in broadband (J, H, and K) filters and in narrowband filters that selectively probe Titan's surface and atmosphere allow us to determine surface albedo and properties of the hydrocarbon haze layer. Future observations will include high-resolution spectroscopy coupled with adaptive optics to obtain spectra of individual surface features.

  16. Applications of Land Surface Temperature from Microwave Observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key input for physically-based retrieval algorithms of hydrological states and fluxes. Yet, it remains a poorly constrained parameter for global scale studies. The main two observational methods to remotely measure T are based on thermal infrared (TIR) observation...

  17. Impact of Assimilating Surface Velocity Observations on the Model Sea Surface Height Using the NCOM-4DVAR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-26

    information regarding the shape and gradient of the ocean SSH, without the need to derive an estimate of the geoid. Observing systems, such as Acoustic ...of August 2012, the operational global forecasting model 1052 MONTHLY WEATHER REV IEW VOLUME 144 used by the U.S. Navy (Barron et al. 2006). It was an...color) with velocity perturbations (arrows) overlaid at end of 96-h TL model integration. 1054 MONTHLY WEATHER REV IEW VOLUME 144 the velocity components

  18. Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2012-01-01

    All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

  19. SEM and TEM Observation of the Surfaces of the Fine-Grained Particles Retrieved from the Muses-C Regio on the Asteroid 25413 Itokawa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noguchi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Tanaka, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Konno, M.; Nakato, A.; Ogami, T.; Fujimura, A.; Abe, M.; Yada, T.; Mukai, T.; Ueno, M.; Okada, T.; Shirai, K.; Ishibashi, Y.; Okazaki, R.

    2011-01-01

    Surface materials on airless solar system bodies exposed to interplanetary space are gradually changed their visible to near-infrared reflectance spectra by the process called "space weathering", which makes the spectra darker and redder. Hapke et al. proposed a model of space weathering: vapor deposition of nanophase reduced iron (npFe(sup 0)) on the surfaces of the grains within the very surface of lunar regolith. This model has been proved by detailed observation of the surfaces of the lunar soil grains by transmission electron microscope (TEM). They demonstrated that npFe(sup 0) was formed by a combination of vapor deposition and irradiation effects. In other words, both micrometeorite impacts and irradiation by solar wind and galactic cosmic ray play roles on the space weathering on the Moon. Because there is a continuum of reflectance spectra from those of Q-type asteroids (almost the same as those of ordinary chondrites) to those of S-type asteroids, it is strongly suggested that reflectance spectra of asteroids composed of ordinary chondrite-like materials were modified over time to those of S-type asteroids due to space weathering. It is predicted that a small amount of npFe(sup 0) on the surface of grains in the asteroidal regolith composed of ordinary chondrite-like materials is the main agent of asteroidal space weathering.

  20. Dobbins AFB, Marietta, Georgia. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-15

    80 80 . 80 . 8...76.! 78. 79179. 79.: 80 . 80 .’ 80 -5 80 . 80 . 80 .i 80. 80 80.1 80., 80 81. 81. 81, 82. 82.l 82. 82.2 82.82.21 81: 7T77 ~.- i.8 82. 82-’_20_o 60. 79.! 81...76 .78. 78.1 79. 80. 8. 80 . 80 . 80 . 81. 81. 81.1 810. 1 600 49.- 71. 76.0 78.C 80. 80.! 81. 82.4 82. 83. 83.2 83. 83. 83. 83.4 83. --- 4 7. - 1

  1. Fort Carson Butts AAF, Colorado, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-06

    77. 78 78. . 78. 78.: 78:1 78,1 1 78 78. 78-j 78. C, 2- 3500 772. 78. 78. 79. 79 79*1 79. 79.1 79. 79. 79. 79o2 79.2 79 79 9 79,_3000 78. 79. 80 . 80 . 80 . 8...73. 73. 73.* 73.1 73. 71.7 73.7 73.7 73.1 71.-,173. 73.7 > 6000 77. 77. 77.E 77. 77 .77 77. 77. 77. 77.8 77.8 77. 77. 77.8 77. 77.8 (o0 m 80 80 80 . 8...76.1 76.1 76. 76.1 76.’ 76. 76, 76.:j 76.1 7o, 76. 7o.1 77. >120o 80 . 80 : 80 . 81 .8 1.11 R 1. 81 1 A 81. 1 81, 81.)1. 1 .L 81.. -0oooo 81., dl. 82, 8?.2

  2. Izmir Turkey, Cigli AB. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-01-06

    600 91. .9 9. 99 . L 99. 0 g0 000 00, 0 ’C Jc00,J 500 91. 99. 99. 99. 99. 990 99. 99. 99 100 100.1SOIIOS0S0.C 000.000 S400 91 9. 99 19 9 .99. ggE 99. 0...j g,l gge 8 ±j! 0 g gqg~ gg 5 60 85. 98 . 991 99. 99. 99. 99.| 99.1 99. 99. 99. 90 98 99.; 99.9 99.9 99.9 Z: 3o0 85.1 98.7 99. 99.1 99. 99 .99 99

  3. Griffiss AFB, Rome, New York. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-14

    7LjJ GkIFFISS A)li/RE NY A6,_-77 _lAy STATIO STATION MANI YEARS lONTM ALL wrATiirij 0900-iIOu CLANS MOVIE (L I..) CONDITION SPEED MEAN (RNTS) 1.3 4.6...31 D.B./W.B.DOtt Bulb Wet Bulb De. Porn ? I 90/ 09 .0 0 1 .12, 12 88/ 87’ .0 .0 . .1 .01 1 21 21 86/ 85! 0 0 1 1 0 to 31 318.. _ . 1 .1 1 i0 - 9 3 j

  4. Yokota Air Base, Japan: Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    1.9 7.1 1? .. 26.0 8.9 NNC I . 3., 7.7 1.6 .7 .11.7 6.9 NL I ." 2 , .6 .3 1.2 5.5 INL 2.2 3 4, ,.9 4. 2 L 3." 2.’ , 6.7 3.7 E2L 7 2.7 .4 .1 5.9 q.1 SL... lMr : ThRKll A AR JAPAN PERIO00 Or RECORD: 78-E? MONTHi: APR NOURSILSYI: 1220-2400 I WIND SPEL[Y IN. KNOTS DIRECTION 1-37 4-6 7-fl 1122b 17-21 22-2 7 28

  5. Mildenhall RAF, United Kingdom Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    2 . 234. 2. 310* 30.5 33. 3Ś 35. 35.3 35.7 35.7 35.8 35.9 36. 󈧨.1 26000 * 24.1 29.9 3 . 30.6 33. 316. 35.1 35.3 35.7 35.7 35.8 35.9 36o2 36.1 400...IS * 9,". -30 93.2 3 . 94.a 94 0T 94.1 94.1 94.1 94.1 94.1 94.1 94.1 ’am Iso .9V3 ;3 . 1 𔄃 q4. 94, 94.3 94.3 94.3 94.3 94.! 94.3 94.3 :. 91 94 . 94.0...57 5 57.0 57.0 57.0 57.C 57. ’ 51. > .5 51 56. 56. 561 58. ;e. Sl 58A ISo * S8j 58.l 58 2 58.2 3k > oo 1. 54. 56. 57. c7. 58, e.8 58. 58.8 58.8 58.8

  6. Brunswick NAS, Maine. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-02

    23.’f .a. .3 2,.- .fl .i rOTAL NUEE Of ONATIONS 913 C (- porn USAPETAC Poe" 04.5 (OLA) avo. n ,,,inm oI tis pow Am iounnln AI. 6 GLOBAL CLIMATOLOGY...6m0 9*9 59.4 61.2 61.8 62.2 62.2 62.5 62.5 62.8 62.8 62.8 62.8 62.9 62.9 63.0 63.2 6000 62, 63a 63-1 -b 11±.? 64.5 64.5 ijA kid 64.& id 64l 6 S4500

  7. Beale AFB, Marysville, California Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-19

    3 4 1.4, ? 3 C 2.1-23 ____ 1.2 .____1.21___ ___ . .1 -3C TOTALS 114 * . __ 3 . 44 * USAFETAC jL’K𔄀 O... 3 ... 3 ’ * , 27. 2 6 22 7 ?So 3 . ! . .5 39.7 47.7 S.D. 7.U9C 8.526 5.794 3.734 3.823 4e671 !, 44 " 4. G83±5,4ik b,1E 7.61,49 , s.41 o, 22 TOTAL 086. 62...56 . WIND DIR. SPIED N- .0 3 .9 .4 , ,8 8 1 u4 .7 NNE 2.0 5 .1 2.7 3.0 NE 1.7 1 . . 3 1 .1.7 4.0 EPIE 1.7 .8 .1 1 2.6 3.3 1 2 9 lea .5 e 44 3 *2 ESE

  8. Keesler AFB, Biloxi, Mississippi. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-08

    Same Same Apr 44 Dec 47 Same Same 33 25 24 3 . Keesler AFB, Miss. AFB Jan 48 Mar 53 Same Same Same Same 24 4. Same Same Apr 53 Mar 55 Same Same 36...2 ,. .b ?.. L7( 31. 7 116 7.-i.11.8 7. . .4 4(-______ I-I1 -1 - 1 4 . 6 7 . r .i J 12 . 17 . 7 7. 7 i ’ -2~ .𔃾 "). 3 9.7 14.L 17.7 .41 3 .- ! 44 .1...00 5.01-10 00 1001-20.00 VER 2000 OF DAYS TOCAS WIT" i O . SOWFALL! NONE TRACE 0-04 02.14 13.24 2334 3 3 - 44 3 -6-4 63.-0. 1043-14 133.254 23-304 OVER

  9. Burlington IAP, Vermont. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-23

    PARTS A - F POR FRU HOUWiL OBS: JUN 73 - MAY 81 POW FROM DAL! OBS: JAN 48 - -AT 81 TDI CO VERSION GM TO LST: - 5 DCC 2 3 ISeI ’ ,IS TlO( lw.-. Tt REEN...13Z 8.3 5.1 13.3 7.44 ,1-2’ 1i.Z 1.2 12.I t ,5 3.4 11.2 74 TOTALS 11 2.2. 0 13o8 1O.i 3.1 .0 12.6 551 .GIAL 4TA ’CCODEO IN SYNOPTIC COED " USAMAC polo 0...VARS J ~~~AMOUNTS ,INCHS, IIN __RCENT, TOTAL MONTHLY AMOUNTS PIRCeP MOE ACE 1 01 02. 05 .06.10 j.11-25 26.350 .51-1.0 1.01 2.50 25315300 3101-100 co

  10. Kunsan AB, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    22 1.36 .37* 2.0 2.57 2.4 .47 .54 .91 .43 2oS 66 .12 .58 1.55 1.21 .95 3.1 3.11 2.51 1.51 1.87 .42 .87 3.11 67 .32 .81 .99* . 97 * . 9 2. 1.77 5.83 .7...1.*1 3___ ___ _2__~ SSE .2 . 9 .2 _____ __ 194 5.00 -S .1 .7 1.2 .2 __ I___1.3 69.5 SSW *I o 2 97 -l___I __ ___12 9o5 SW__ ____ 2 .2 91 1 .1 __7_ 9 WSW...1 ,3 .2 ,7 10.5 --’ "- 2 .2 .1 1_ .7 9.8 mW ,_ ,) 97 _2 ,2 a 1 1,8 1C, 9 NNww oT 6 ,o4 ,1 1,4 1 1.o1 VANK 1.4 .6 1 2,0 2,, 9 (CALMIA 12.3 3C. 9 38.7

  11. King Salmon, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-10

    1 .2 - i 121 1b 15 o -- 9 2.4 z 2 22 2 2 2fi 2 13 1ee (X) I me. O.. N.. o Nof " . Tom .eet W .. I T 0 F s 32P IN 67 P 3 FNP -93 P T...I w e Or ulb t...CLIMATOLOGY BRANCHT 2 AkETAHRSRVC/A PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY2 I ETE EVC /A 7 3260_ KING SALMON AFS AK 73-82 JAN STAT.Oft STATION NWAI villOAN *PAGE ? 1890...T,,.) .. ." " " , . - . . 1 i. . , ’. . ; : ; .-. A f;: ’ ,- ;. * GLr rA E LMTL~ T AC? PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARYT2 FAH- EVC /A 7 3267 XING SALM4ON AFS

  12. Grafenwohr AAF, Germany (West). Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-03

    available from U. S. operated stations. The hours used by each service for each period are as follows: Air Force Stations: U. S. Navy and National...Reverse Side m3-d I NOTES: (1) The above studies may also be prepared for stations operating for less than full months for portions or all of the period of...record. This may include stations operating 5 or 6 days a week and those with only random days missing. An asterisk (*) in the data blocks will give

  13. RAF Lakenheath, United Kingdom. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    3: 1 ... . 2 . . jb -3VI SO I 7.27b 6 . ( 5.764 5.103 4.571 4.47 1 4.367 .47 5.244 b.712 7.717 7.3< 7 5.4.7 1333 osJ 915 a37 91 ’ɘ 911 645 0. 92’ 1...LA II WE17,rY uSAFLTAC fqL" LUlLy CFS[kVATO.V AIR .LA IHfP SERVICC/MAC STATIO, NUMPER: 75 3- STAIIOf, NAME : R AF LAKtNI-ATH L91[EU KINGf0CM L CIEC

  14. Dyess AFB, Texas. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    5 -. 6 o4.A ,,f PZ7 7 .1 6E.4 88. 85.1 69.6 t ’.o 47.2 4.C ". 1 90.1 .1 90.2 93.2 90. 1 .. 9.2 (- E 72 7.7 2 7., 89.2 9.2.? 43. 1. 1. , ,4 91,C ŕ.5...99.6 99.6 99.6 E .7i t’𔃻 t,2 97.48. ’ .,6 .9.< q).3 99.3 .9.6 99.7 99.7 99.7 99.7 99.7 99.7 ’I ’ C21 1 .?.. .. 97.4 88.1 48.9 P.6.5 99. 99. 3 99.3 99.6...99.b 99.6 99.6 99.6 q9.6 E 1221 46. ! S4.4 99.. 99.4 99.5 99.5 94.7 99.7 99.7 99.7 99.7 99.7 99.7 99.7 99.7 99.7 IO z C21 0 .I S55 99.5 99. 49.6 99.6

  15. Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-17

    91 *2 8__ ____ .6 41? KESE 2.6 1, N9 ___ __9 ______I .9 4, S 10& H14 1 .4 it 5 8____ __ ____ * SSE ,7 2 ) 14 It s,, , ssw .y , . .3 _ _.9 5.8 sw i7 .3...0 I 2 3. 4 5.6 o. 10 -12 1 6 1- 18 19. 20 21. 2223. 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 1 D.- .B. -Dy Bb We, BtI Po... d J - -i -T _ _l I _ _ __ t - 11<,-32/31

  16. Moody AFB Valdosta, Georgia. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-26

    4-0 rd 0 d W)r0 ;4 0 ~ HUO S oH 440. 4)8.r- p H14 00 04C4D- 4 0H bD)~ L-0) 4) 004 Id d) 4-1’d :1 4) 0 A 43r r ~~~~~~ A cjc >0)4b r4. 41 O~4" 14A %-H E...A00 L 000 O OBOO-T41~1;Oo A 0 00% BO 00 COB B BC 000-7 _ o1 S0,010e1-B u ~ ~ Q0 00 C M BtI N NCCoN 1 .. *i -4 t0 Ble!V C1 u- >, A- .0or - ,r -r U -O

  17. Holloman AFB, New Mexico. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    98.6 98.8 98.9 ණ.1 99.2 99.Z 99.3 99.3 9973 99.3 E 9 .6 97.9 99.1 9b.2 98.7 98.7 98.9 99.2 99.3 99.0 99.5 99.5 99.6 99.6 99.6 99.6 6F Zr.r. 9E.6 97.9...8l.3 .3 933 98. 9 .3 98 V 9.3 98.5 6,E SrjrI 98,.6 99.1 99.3 99.4 99.4 9S.4 99.4 99.4 99.4 99.4 99.4f 99.4 99.8 99f-4 99.4 99.41 GS 4’J-1 99.6 99.1...99.7 99.6 99.E 99.9 100.0 100.0 1.u’J.0 100.0 100.0 1110.0 1UU.u luu.u (uu.u luIJ.u Gs 7%ll69. 79.4 99.7 99.6 99.8, 99.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 200.0

  18. La Crosse MAP, Wisconsin. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-30

    OSST NO. OFMORUM 022MT STOSM 񓑶PIZI a NC. KAUE SAND TO VISION 055 £JUL 00-02 00.2 40.7 ___ _ _0.7 6.2 4P.3 ___ ___ 9.1 si3 C3- GS 3.2 6.1 be_...al_ ?g__ _____* o ml _ _ ___ ll 00 40 so? 305 07± __0 ____X 9 * to is0 Ia1 . o&.. WSW 101 2 ag 5 ww_ 29 1 4 l49 gs * A M a~. -e, 0 a a . UIWAC MNE 045...lo l.7 too .06 ±& A. & I ..A e .J0O . O,8 lo.r o ___ .___ ____ iJ s a1 3.3 *aS ol1 .l 1911 gs , I ssw al 1.3 3,9 2.1 *2 .21 9a. sw *1 1,3 2.0

  19. Clark AFB, Philippines. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    4 .3 92 _ 1-_ L . 9 NW 1.1 0R "Ř ZoJ ,,.1 NNW .9 1.2 o3 . 2.L - fVARIL ’" 2.2 .2 07 2.______ __ y j S22.9 1 14-2 21.1 6.Ll 1.2 .1 1nm - TOTAL...8217 55.7! S 5 5. 55. 55. 571 5. 6 ’ y 57.6, r5.3 55.7 55.8 55.9 55.9 5 . c5. 9 55.9 55.9 55.9 55.9, 55.9 5 S.9 56.’ " ’lCK 584. 57.6, 58.1 S8,2 58 .? C8.2’ 5...8217 96.6 96.6 96.6 96.6 96. & 96.6 9.6 87.6 9 3: 9. V05.9! 96.’ 96.4, 96.1 07 . 1k 97.4i 97.6! 97.6 97.6, 97.6, 97.6 97.6, 97.6 0 .7.6 93.3 95.3 95*9 96. Y

  20. Danang Apt, Tourane, Vietnam. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-09-19

    distribution to the public at large, or by DDC to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for...0f ;?46 fM APE 08SOLETE - ------ - - - - , - . . ..... .... . (FEET) 1 T i I | " I II USAF REAC CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY AIR WEATER SERVICE /MAC 41003...Do ~ .Po.. 74o&,~m7b4 2 ŕ I "- , 6r DATA PRUCESSIN(, 1RANCH 2 USAF ETAC PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY AIR WEATER SERVICE /MAC 4_1003 _ ALAG AS

  1. Johnston Island Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    09. ~9 g9 9_ ’.- - o-o41 _ cc, ; r. - n n i-r) oil 0ic 2 ci I - m: .j _ .7 . 9P .7 . .91 99. S , ?9.9’I2L. ,JCic. T110. I0.0.00 .3 F.-1 .21<.1Ŝ.3 9c 9...6.9 91 Q 3.71 9A.7 98.17 9P .71 99.7 98.7 98.7 9F.7 95.7 9d. 7 c8.7 99.7 98.7 9. IZ99 ’Si_29 _i.2 1 99. s , 9Q. 99C) a7g: 9 Q -- 29 , .- 2 1 , 9.2 99.3...8217t 2 4 i 13. &-9 a. P4- 9q k < - 8 A:s a- S ig 9 9A 9 gm - ,f 9 c’ .2 9P . og.J 9o.5 99.5 9o. , 99.5, 995,, q 9.5 99.5 9.,3 99. 9 .5 ,6 49,.o 1,.3

  2. Altus AFB, Oklahoma Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    GE3505891 8. 9.5 985 6. 8.5 965 6. 9.5 98.5 98.5 98.5 99.5 98.5 98.5 :68. 6E 30005 69.1 98.3 98.5 98.6 98.6 98.6 98.6 98.6 96.6 986 9. 66 9.9 9. 86 9. GE...994.9 -99.9g 9%9.9 991.9 GE 20001 86.1 99.3 95.2 95.6 95.7 9S.1 99.7 94.7 9S.7 95.7 95.7 -95.7 95.1 95.7 95.1 5 GE 30005 86.2 99.9 95.3 9S.1 9S.8 9S.6...90.9 93.6 93.9 93.9 96.1 96.3 96.3 9 j, 9.3 9.3 96.3 9q.3 96.3 9.3 91.3 9%.3 Gi 30005 92.0 95.3 9S.7 96.0 96.3 96.6 96.6 96.6 96.6 96.6 96.4 96.6

  3. Clark AB Philippines Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations. Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    78.2 79.2 78.2 78.2 78.2 79.2 76.2 GE 35001 81.3 81.9 82.1 82.. 82.4 82.9 82.1 82.9 e2.4 82.9 82.4 82.9 82.9 82.4 82.4 GE 30005 89.6 90.4 91.0 91.9...87.2 98.5 90.2 90.3 90.7 9o.9 90.9 91.0 91.0 91.0 91.1 p1.1 91.1 91.1 GE 30005 85.1 87.9 89.3 91.2 91.3 93.8 92.1 92.1 92.2 92.3 92.3 92.4 92.4 92.4 92.4...82.0 82.0 82.0 82.0 GE 35005 88.7 85.9 85.9 86.2 86.2 86.2 86.2 66.2 86.2 86.2 86.2 86.2 86.2 86.2 86.2 GE 30005 91.7 93.4 93.8 98.8 94.8 94.8 94.8

  4. Fairchild AFB, Washington Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    points from the beginning of record through June 1968, and in tens of degrees starting in July 1968. The extreme is selected and printed from available...terpIrin ure’] c. Daily mean t--iper Oi orea O’fE : Bleginning (In Joanry l.9t7,1, daily mrfxlmori id ininii ur teiopexnL’ires arc rutinely selected ...used InA thie ixstremu usta tA.ockB. (1.) ’indicates the extreme wt’ae selected flor a it ’niTth with urie )r nr OiLYS ml;tng. (2) ftIndicates the

  5. Watertown, New York Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    CLASSIFICTION jOCmAssIIwimumuTo 03 SAME As RPT. C3DTic USERS Unclassified Ila. NAME OF RESPONS1ILE INOEVICIAL 󈧚b. TELEPONFEcu kk s jZ.c OFFICE SRM I r...47.0 47.0 4 q . 56. 57.t 5. 57.1 57. 57. 57.1 57E . 57.1 57. 57.8 57. 57.8, !7.8 S., n, i , ’. 79. 1q,’ ; a= 9 1, f2 64. 9aE 9hit 97. 9B 69-Ai im . 2 994

  6. Thule AB, Greenland. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-12

    SUMMARIES: PRECEEDING EACH PART OF THE RUSSWO IS A BRIEF DISCUSSION OF THE SUMMARY INCLUOING THE MANNER OF PRESENTATION. STANDARD S-HOUR TIME GROUPS: IN...ALL SUMMARIES SHOWING DIURNAL VARIATIONS, WE SUMMARIZE DATA USING THE FOLLOWING ETO6T 3-HOUR TIME PERIODS IN LOCAL STANDARD TIME : OUDO-OZUD, 0TU-OSO0...ORSERVATI(TNS. 3. SUMMARIZED BY THE STANDARD 3-HOUP TIME GROUPS BY MONTH, MONTHLY AND ANNUALLY (ALL YEARS COMBIN VT. ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA SUMMARY I. A

  7. Seattle Tacoma IAP, Washington. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-21

    Drgc DISTRIBUTION STAMP .,. 8208 02 140 DATE RECEIVED IN DTIC PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET AND RETURN TO DTIC-DDA-2 FORM DOCUMENT PROCESSING SHEETADTIC oct 79...CURI TY CL ASSI FICATION OF THIS P AGE (Wh". Date Entered) ~2~ READ InSTRUCTIONSREPORT DCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM I ’-PORT NUMBER 2...in this report are presented in tabular form , in most cases in percentage frequency of occurance or cumulative percentage frequency of occuring tables

  8. Hickam AFB, Hawaii Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    Y0 - Yo 09 .4 7 9C*...........7 1~ 1200 . yo . * ~ 76 9 - ’. ~ I5* ;9O7 ;Y .6.’ 99* 0. 7I * 00 *6- 9 .’- . 7 . . -2 . " - . : L’ . ..- +700 -+.’---’ W...o ..* 9 o 7 )9.7 9 i 9 9 99.~ ~9* C r-. n--800 0° 9 𔄃 I*- 99.1 .7 9 97.. 1 9 9. - o. ,1.1 .-’° . ,> 00 v Do 9 Yo .., 9 ..7 ; a 99.7 a9.9 , 0...1...8217 .9 93.9 09..- 9 ’. 9 9.. , 6 99.7 1,9.3 𔄃 . ,9 ’ onI q ’ .O’, > ,0 ,. 1 ’(,.9 99.9, 99.,. 9.3s 09.3 𔄃.6 99.7 Q.ti p 9 . 5 . 093 yo 0- .y 1 , . 1

  9. Andersen AFB, Guam, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-16

    vSIBIL ITV STA :TE ’-kS S frET 0 >- 5 ’ 46.l 󈧲.9 46:9’ 46 q j 󈧲.91 116.9 46.9. . 6.9: 󈧲. 9 46.9 ’.6.9 󈨉 󈧲.92oooo __I 65091 b5 9 : 65 ,- 6S...4 4/ 6-7 971Z9 0 I (- I_ _ _ _ _ _ _ X__m,______e"_e._oNess,1% empeet_ I ~- ---.-.VOW- G10 0 A1 CLIMATOLOGY BRANCH 2 t;-,,AETACPSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY

  10. Forbes Fld, Kansas. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-23

    92.1 92.1 ?300 61. 91. 92. 92. 92. 92. 92.7 92,7 92.7 92.7 92.7 92 7 92.7 92.7 92.7 207 ? 3Xo) 52. 92., 93.1 93. 93.: 93,. 93.8 93.8 93o8 93.8 93.8...301 3 8 5- o L / 19._ 32 451 45 4_4 _ IV 1 / 17 1.2 2.9 .2 40 40 󈧭 6 0~.2 52.1 .. ~ ~ . - _ > 1 13 03 4.0 40 9 3 2 1. 1 .8 3.3 1 3V! 351 7 Z7 o . .4...5.1 1 52’ 52 b2I 31 3-/ 33 . .6 .9 2.0 ., . . 59 59 67! 3 21 31 .3 1.3 1.5 1.4 o 1 43 431 701 41 f- 2 4 ~J* 5~ 1 -511 5 63 7 2 / 27 .1 1.4 1.5 .8 I 351

  11. Atlantic City, New Jersey, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-23

    N69 Nb 4,Sd 5,ItNW 37Sw 455S 38S5 351s 38 w 26h4 27T,. 36NWU 35 W 47 W 51 70 NW 35S 40E 42 1S 58 33W so5w qawsw 3SJW 39 w 32;S 34 W 42 S S8 71 W 68r5...6.6 _ _ 1.5 .6 61 el 2.4 6.9 Est 1.3 .7 .6 2.7 8.3 sE .1 1.2 .3 3 .1 1 2.1 7.5 SSE *1 09 94 93 *3 2.1 9.4 2o 4s,6 2,4 ,6 _0,3 9.5 SSW *1 207 3.8 1.6...9.41 NNW 1 3*8 395 207 94 10.6 8.9 VAIRK CALM 3*7 H 1.81 31.61 37.21 21.2 3.5 i.n ll2)AA . TOTAL NUM OF 5SEvATIONS 67 USAFETAC " 0-8-5 (OL-A) Mv.OuS

  12. Grissom AFB, Indiana. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    A80 9 F-. / 4 ,- 6 7671 O0 . . .. . .......... . . Elee X t Z I ] X * , No. Ok... M.on N.. o1 N.,.. ..119 T...p....,,. 9,, H., .’ 4.o51 :< *. *i , 3J1...34 "’ ’ 80 " 9,*, , _ , , , , - _ - .. !.- D, .. . , ..- ; ., . ’ 4 - .4 - I ’, - , • • - . -. . . L 1.! 7. . 2 o ,’ I . * £ . . .. - 1 .’ 2 . _ Elee ’ 9. Z Z...A... 7 1 1 .. ... . . . . 7&. A I 1 1 r A A2 .. * :7 A. / .4 1. - : I ’ 3. . 1 * L 7. A AL 1. A ~ Elee . . * X . 1.4 1

  13. Kansas City IAP, Missouri. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-09

    8217 - _ , " _ 5𔄀 -’. . 4’ " 3. 57. 51.r. 51.5 51.7 51.7 51.7 51.7 51.7 51.7 51.? 51.7 n.l.7 51.7 51.7 51 .7 _ ’ 451 . 53.] 55.3 55.3 55.4 55,55 5 55.4 5...provide the cumulative percentage frequency to .ertl ’ of temperature by 5-deg-ee Farenheit inorements, plus mean temperature, standard deviations, and te...8217,71 " J . 75 9 4 7i .3 . .I ., 3 6 7𔃾/ 7T 1. 1 ___ 2. 3.8 . , . 3 443 __I1 4 45’ 9 I 33 3 7,_/ 71 . 1. 2 . 4 .. .9 . o 451 ’ 4 1 i :4 574 7 L. / 69 . 1

  14. Plattsburgh, AFB, New York. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-24

    45.4 5 45.1 45.1 45.1! 45.1 451 ’ 45.1 4S.1 45.2 45.2 45.3’ 45.,, .6 48.1 48. i4 1 48.4 4 8.6 1, 48 48.61 48.6 48.61 48.6 48.61 487T 48. 48.8 ,,8.9...tabuettions provide the cumulative percentage frequency to tenths of temperivture by 5-deFree Farenheit inremsnts, plue mean temperature, standard...4 - 2 451 47 ,3. 3.4 1.7o 1.2 o2 l u4 6 99 3 4𔃻 r, .1 2.8 2.21 1. .5 5 6 ’I4/ 43 , 3 .9 3 5 7 3 7 1 6 4. 2/ 41. .9 2. 3.31 1.8- 75 7 6 6 4

  15. Hill AFB, Utah Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    GLCqAL CLIMATOLOGY QRANCN b AX EAT,.C PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY AIP WE THER+ SEPICE /CPNIAC ?9 𔃿’ HILL AF- uT 14-81 ST" e~- STA?1010 1M1 VIA STN PAGE2 yeP...1 *, * 1-,* . 1 1 . I ! I i !9 -./ ., 1. 4 ,; ? , j : .. 7, dc L_ 1 I_ ’ I a AA I 6 if / "i - IT 𔃾 _ _"_ __. i ./ 2 . , 2 ., 921 ,- ’ 7 3 7.3...SEP. OCT NOV. DC ANNUAL MEAN ’’’ 7 *L 𔃾.3 23. .8 7.7 𔃽.3 4C.8 34.8 79.3 23.4 14.9 9.s SO 5D *143 7 4 7.128 7 . 94 6 .8g4 7.2;5 7 9 ;3 9.2 42 8 .632

  16. Fort Bragg, Fayetteville, North Carolina. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-02-18

    6,2 Ssw lL L9 .9 1 142 1 1 6,9 796 SW 1.2 2.2! 3.4 1,; * 813 7,6 wsw lei 3jj 3,,7 IA/ 91 88 7,8 w s7 2,.1 --L2 t9 1*It to 7eO 1 7* WNW- I..k. 1L -..L...WIND DIR. I____ SPEED N 10 ____ .9_@6_ 592 -6o9 NNE 1,0 2. 2.6 96 -L, -a 666 NE 1 a7~ 1, Za6 ____ -- w 1_ 6.7 7.1 ENE I lei 225 2.5 *J.± I . 7a2_...NNE ,j9 k*6 le 1~ 45 N E t_17 61_9 0 ENE 1.0 1.4 $3 ______2.7 4, ESE o.1 .3 to- I_ - SSW __9 #5 -41 le * ___ 16. 1 ____ __4 #1 F 4. SSW lei 3o le 41

  17. Eielson AFB, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    50.9 S0.9 k.E 97301 S5.0 51.9 57.9 S7.$ 57.9 97.6 S7.6 57.6 51.8 97.6 97.6 57.6 96.0 S6.0 56.0 S6.0 .1[ 6(󈧄 63.9 66.5 66.6 66.6 66.7 61.0 67.0 67.0...3 62.7 62.8 62.9 63.2 63.2 63.2 63.2 63.2 63.2 63.2 63.2 63.2 63.2 63.2 63.2 uE 97301 65.9 66.3 66.5 66.6 66.9 66.9 66.9 66,9 66.9 66.9 66.9 66.9 66.9

  18. Wurtsmith AFB, Michigan. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-17

    s9 .5 , * __ 1,1 402 SSE .01 .4 1.3 2 ISO 7 ".s 1.4 Zo 06 105 S*7/ 86 SSW 2.0Z6 106 *S o? L* sw 3.1 3.1 . , .1 _ _ 7* 3 %o? wsw 3.2 1 . .2 .2 S1i qoS...l 5 57 3 / 29 ,11 1 9 25 27 2 26 1/ 25 - 21 Q 2/ 231 iso 󈧙 21 is OTAL 6. 22.128. 1V2O.,l=.2 6.e 3 @2 to . - - - ,81 6 _I -8191 $91 8191 Big...5191 5 3981 23. 591 83 273 3.51 leg 1.1 .6 627 627 S131 330 a :/571 * 3 1.90 2 6 1.5 l.1 .4 2NO 526 526 S98[ 11146 5i 55 .2 2.6 1.91 1.5 *9 . 3 1 180 80

  19. Holloman AFB, New Mexico. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-12

    Information is provided: a. The min body of the sumary comslste of a bivariate percentage frequency distribution of wet-bulb depression in 17 classes...SERVICE/MAC C. 747320 HOLLOMAN AFS NM 68-70.7S-81 MAR STATION STATION WA&C VYZWS WONT" C PAGE 1 0 -MO. Temp. WET OUL11 TEMPEIATUIDE DEPRESSION (F) TOTAL...Tep. WET SUL& TEMPERATURE DEPRESSION (P) TOTAL TOTAL (F) 0 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-1 9.10 11-1213-14 15-16 17.18 19. 21.n23-24 25-262.029.20 -31 .L’W. S Ib Wt

  20. Galena AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-28

    152 149 ft 24 5 Sane Sare Mar 79 Jul 83 Sare Same Sane Same 24 Ii I ia ; DATE SUFACI wis$ EINi[Mau INFOaR11Iie Of OF IPS f TrP p li Alcoa RtAfiS...ri sr .9 -I .,, i I _ 7 e" l .. ., III Ois Me,* fNw -l .ot R.I. 0 P 73 miP Imm IP mi93 Fn i ~ L :LlT12L3 y DA’% C42 7* T AC PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY 2 .AT

  1. Fort Sill, Oklahoma Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    44 4’X 4 ’T 42 ON. , 0 iii 4 4* 842 ~ D~ P..4 2 -’-PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY ST.T .TAYION NAMe YEARS TRp . WET BULB TEMPERATURE DEPRESSION IF) TOTAL TOTAL F...A .11 1" 1 10 - .1 - C42 :5 ::2:1- .- . --. - .? I i.4.2*-*, - .r IA I - -.------" -1--- . .4 77 ,4 471 43 * ’ ’ . . . *.: .] .7 7 174 37 Q

  2. Hellenikon AB, Greece. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-29

    A I. N NTA ThO £ LRU*ITUDE L.4161Th I ISTAI’O E V( F I MLT$I C AI. m 167160 HE IKON AB GR N 37 54 E 23 44 90 FT VAT 16760 STA TION...8217 FATHFP SERVICF/MIAC OT. Hi,; -ELLLr, IKON AP &R 73-si S’ STATION STATION NAME YEARS MONTH PERCLNTA3E FPECUENCY OF OCCUPRENCE OF hE&ATHEO CONOITIONS...EAT1E4 SERVICE/MAC L61z hELLE- IKON AB GQ 73- ....81_ STATION STATION NkME YEARS *~~ PAGC I I21 T j NOUNS ,.. S. I. T emp. TWET BULB TEMPERATURE

  3. Incirlik Air Base, Turkey. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations. Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    part ettavsdtcnl data ousisey of surfaer ,Isather aobe’rvattoa. S... P.,: icrTAt TUrhe-. SOMMATY "Q0eiss oft PAIT A, Vttsatbe ;.1wttOxA 9- Y...Atuoaph.ric Pheomenao. PART 8, l’rtcp~t..t~oao PUT C, Sturftce t’tnds, PAIT V. C41ting andBy V!sibiltty; PAR’ t, Fsyeh.’oiesrtc Suecariss; Ma1 F, Pressure...PRECEEDING EAC~4 PART OFif. 11L u t SwO IS A SRIEF DISCUSSION OF THE SUM14ARY INCLLDING THE MAT,’NEQ OF PRLSE4TAIION. STANDARD 3-I-OUR TIIPE GRGCPS: IN

  4. Kwajalein, Marshall Island, Bucholz. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-06-08

    J 107!> FOM1210 WS jUI. 64 O,|S,5 lOLI ) PA ls[IVIO S O010 F$0 THIS lORM A01 00S00)i| A .-.-- - -’* q t if DATA PROCESSING BRANCH EXTREME VALUES...1 994] 94.9 99.4 So 960 99~ loli 99,v 99, Y 99,’ Z919, 9, 9 0:9 9,0 99,0 9 , 00 , ¢,010 9.1,{0 400o 96.5 9,1 99,Z 99&4 . ,9 99, 71 eo . 9 ,9 4 le * A 9

  5. Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    34. . . . . .. . . .. .1 ’’ 4 . .. 1~ ’ . ........ .. . .3.. . ’ ’.. 9,!.. 4.!o. . 8,3 4.3.° . . .. . L l4773, 𔃽’’’ 7$ (7Of 0 ’’,!Ř ATl3"’ V L );-AL CL1i’a7 [ LOLY 1,P

  6. Offutt AFB, Nebraska Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    ILSY. OPTN CALL SIG N W.. u... 725540 OFFUTT AFB NE/OMAHA N 41 07 W 095 55 1048 OFF 7.654 STATION LOCATION AND INSTRUMENTATION HISTORY 11JAI TYPE AT...t... --- ------- --- -t---- 31 sigs 1 29.-a TOT io-o -_1361 t3%&j4--- 111-- 1147! _L___i _-___ l nn s tnan! i a 1l2 212 lNOTE $ 48ASED ON LESS...55.3 5SS51 5.5 SSo s , 59.1159.1a 4 59.4 59*4 �. mOOC 54.2 57.4, 4 5p 59.1 59. 59 so 4 59 u 59.6 5 4.6, 57.8_ 5.51 5P.8 59.4 59.6 59.7 59.8 59.8

  7. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations for Maxwell AFB, AL, MSC 722265

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    1- - I9 01 Z L 0 Id D. =- 0 0 ai3 00a 0 Ur4 P4. C- 4 II Ol 0 0 U) ~ ~ ~ ~ . go)OM~- - 0~ 24 34 P’ 4 ad .> $4 0 24c 3 0 4 0 Or I to0 OM 0 iP f 04 02 ...34404 I 0 . 0.0 IX~1.4 C4 43 0 01 0 oI Vq 00 H0 a) w0 44 Ř 4PE 0 -c V- 04 ) 0" 02 w1 to 01 ;t*1 0of m41 to Ř i N0 P 0 t 0 ) 0 Ř A > $ m I0A4 ) P N4 4...I M6 zoo - - s. -U r- L -C- I IL U U. 0-a I% 1- ’t I - 02 cc uui z 0I +-- I X - - - - -- - - - - to (~ . -x log A6, I2. -t a. I; - I LL.. I~ -. I U) I

  8. Phillips, Aberdeen, Maryland, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-03

    7 AUlpOR(.) 0 CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER,., 9 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND AODRESS ID PROGRAM ELEMENT PROJECT TASK ARE A & WORK UNIT NUMBERS...93 _6-08. .3 12.8 *8 𔃻 __ 17.3 72.8 13.8 .1 __ 34.0 12 _ ’ 9 -1 1 8 1 1 . 4 . 9 ’ 4 . 1 5 .6 1 6 .1 1 9 .0 _ 3 3 .2 9 6 3 12-1 4. .3 lr,.l .6 2.9...3.4 _ 15.5 lb.’ 6.s 1 .2 22.7 R419 06-08 11.1 .7 2.2 13.9 24 ’ 1$.l 6. 9 849. 17- _ _ 11.2 .4 2.,, 4 .. , 1 . . 93.$ 12-14 9.8 .6 109 12*u , _. l 110

  9. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO), March AFB, Riverside, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-28

    of rv P9 Apr 66 1. Located 1950 ft down and 625 Sa cam -toff centerline of rnwy 31. 1 2. Located150fdonad00e Sa Sme ae 10 Ar6 ofte 1500 ft down and...73.4ARCH AFB CA/RIVERSIDE t7 0?- 5 JUl 4PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE ’soo-2goo IFR OM HOURLY OBSERVATIONSt 4o.6 74.1 Sl5 1 5 -- 8.0 90.~ 91.4-Q. 9I .4

  10. Kwang Ju AB, Korea, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO) Parts A, C - F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    0 --- -- -- S~~~d A& ,f , ~ ~* I A JbL "Its S - I II- -UP¢ -IN- A -.AL l o &L A , I IiM&i l-2AL .k,~~~~ #4’ ifR t’t 10 MAW*-# - - -- .0, 4 . -. - . H I...34*m -." "*Am SIs kOMV OinvAnaOI ,- 4i *4-44 i4 OISV 4 L A# ’LL Sme - o - S. *’’ j. -- _ . t-- - 6 ob. A* 7. AkAL;" 7. 1&1s £ 792 I "o --9 -- wk. mi

  11. Fort Belvoir, Alexandria, Virginia. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-09-07

    PE LOCAION STATION FROM TO ITATIONIE BPO Eff AI I Ft Belvoir va/Davison AAF AAF Feb 57 Feb 60 W i3 W 077 11’ 65 67ft 2 Swane Sme Mar 60 Feb 63 Same...ETAC. .° Q 88-5((i) f + Y’ . 5> . " 4- .!# + + it" - .. .; <+,++++ , . 4, OAT l-’--I.( .-. --~t O3’.TA "PUC~ss(JVIS," EXTREME VALUES ( &pR EAT- iFR 3LVC...o2:6 >5 >: > :3 >2: > 2 >:1 >st1 >1 >: 5 2 >- s!> 5/16 a_’ >0 IFr , 𔄁 ,L - 1 + >_zs’.oo i 3 7 t), 1,+: 7 , t+.> " , A , A ,; ? 6- 4 - , ’+ I t r. I

  12. Camp Casey, Tongduchon, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-10

    tic aa n V, o . - 1 2000± > 8000 .l __.~. i z 5r 20.2 oC.c.C ic c r 700 I j-- a 9 oq -’D 2! AM n.. ,.r u z~ - if ______________________________ 0 &I...96.000 .61Z1.± . a . --. 0 . c.. ;-A --n. ;n :-3: l aG 3’- I ’ = : ’ - I ’ c - -P - e? - 1 714 " 1 .4 a•aP L. " aula j ;.iv: .i,. .L.JJ± . n-n -- 12

  13. Moody AFB, Georgia. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-21

    158 898. 8;8,඘{ 9080 9 80380 93 9]80 El L J AL CLIMATOLOGY ? ANCH SEF ICT A C CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITYt , EATH 9 SERVICE/MAC In7- P13? 0DY AFZ GA...L71 _ _ _ _ ? | II I Elt -tn (X) ZA, It w , No., Obl* Moon MRe. of Nemrsl ilbl Tolm tom 1 80b 2831497 41114 67 . 608I 416*5 226o 7?i W, ,b

  14. Seattle FWS, Washington. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1970-08-28

    MORI "CIOUR .. I. z w w FRUEZING SLUIT SNOW NAIL SLOWING WIND RAIN RAIN "SHOWERS ’GRAINS ICt Poo SMOE SLOWING SAND NC DIET AIN SHWR R01IZZL E IEttING...NALS CEARS MONTH HOURS fU.S.?.) w FREEZING SLEET SNW AISOWN WIND RAIN O SHOW "GANIC O ME LOWING > Ol RAIN RAIN DRIZZLE FREZIN .... - ELTS SAL ICUDE FOG

  15. Sachon AFS K-4, Sacheon, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1968-04-11

    STATIOX STATION NARE YE(ARS .7m ALL HEATHER 060C-080C CLASS .. - - - -Rs S T COil DST 10- SPEED Ii MEAN (.IKNTS) 1.3 4-6 7-10 11-16 17.21 22-27 28-33 34.40...468 -10 ~1 .107. 10AI §C1 .l 12.41C 3.9" IC16.212 SO 5.89g 5.38, 6.0 ;3 ,. dS1 5.07; 4.134 3.92 4.76 5.15 4.78d 5.1511 5,(.66 7.94 TOTAtOS 403 3 64 2 39

  16. Tinker AFB, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-11

    temperature; Mean and Standard Deviations of Temperatures: Dry bulb, Wet bulb and Dew point; Relative Humidity (F) Station (atmospheric) pressure; sea...WSJSH 0SOI0 n0A d ( 0 -Z0 1 0’ - No-t Mtn -’-- %t -7 1-f 0 -’ ln m wo, ,4 V; 0-4.4 - -4 4,--4 N -4 -- 4-,4 I- M -40 ’ota-4 wU Ocr ’ 4 O -4 4 4 -4 NN4

  17. Fort Meade, Baltimore, Maryland. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-03

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Acessiozj for NTXS OR"AI DOC TAB Unamounaedl Justification By__D__D__C _AvibuIt-,L D DCo ~~i~ nb ± COOC 4~d~ 1979 jAval ~ ind/oz. Miat...9)9(olf4*3 94.6 95o4 911.9 9509 96.3 96,4 96#5 96o7 . 400 7F8l .18 P 7.5 s .9 92.0 9090, 9497 95.1 96. 96*6 96.7 97 ,𔃽 97 9 _ Z0300 7o. 830 87*5 9...T -$71 84o 2 ao 91.0 92,8 9o7 9497 95#3 95.9 96.0 96ol 96#1 96.1 96o1 96,1 _ 400 79*1 84@2 88s1 91,1 92,7 9 ,9 94,9 9 8 96.5 96,8 96.9 97.3 97.8

  18. Sondrestrom AB, Greenland Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    71 1’ 9V:; 9*3 92:9 933 93. 936 937 9307 93.8 9308 94.1 98. 98.0 9401 S0 7. 89. 91- 93. 93.6 98.4 994. 94.3 94.4 9404 94.5 98.5, 94.7 94.7 9497 94o8 o...7T:9 747 :9747 497 9497 97 949/ , oe Tqe.: T ".b 7 10 . r5 e 711 q 9 71 9 7q 9 7 0 74 0 7 1149 7 49 7 40 𔄁 o S9000 5.; 76.7 76.8 77.0 77.1 7.1 77.1...I’USAF ETAC ,:,, 0-14-5(0L A) owl 0..O0PThbnOma.O gl lev i-L / 3W v T4: j31vs 9.5 .7 U0. T. --- S-"v" vv- n- , 91". - 969. ci. Nb Ii . 108GLOBAL

  19. England AFB, Alexandria, Louisiana Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    22.27v 28.33 U-40 41-47 A.55 Im %. wCDIR. w N- .2~~__ _ - __ NNE 1.2 .6 02 .5 _ _ _ _ _ _s_ Za .. NB .9 2.1 .6 ___ ______ ___ 3.6 408 .7 .91 .5 .?1...8 5.5 9S.6 9S.9 95.9 959 96.0 96.0 96.2 9 u _ 9w0 71. 61 68.: 941 9497 95.3 958 9So9 96.2 96.2 96.2 96.3 91.3 96.6 960i 8N 72 81 89. 9. 956 96.1 967

  20. Maxwell AFB, Alabama. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-24

    m °° , 88e 4 1. 92 9 9 t 91 " 91.6 91. 91.7 91,7 919.7 11.91. > 3500 28. 86. 91. 93. 94,. 9461 98. 91S 98.5 94*5 94.7 9%.7 98.7 98.7 98.7 9497 , G 30...15 1 32 0 3 14f/ 13 *1 1 11 2 21 If I/ 11 1 - -1 21 *hmmwal (X) as Nb meN.. of "eoo N.... .04. womo Doe 6.1b~ nr .e ~ m. 1911,w I 7-- * ~-:. GLcBAL...6211 8e12 1 el2S93 t * Nb ! i olw , 3423 42sl e6 81 111 93, D" row 2_2m _ it&- -a _-_ 1 i21 -~ 0ii7_ __• >1 I --. 1 -f.-. .. .to . 6v r __ Ih A