Science.gov

Sample records for surface-specific anti-weathering stone

  1. Development of a surface-specific, anti-weathering stone preservative treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S.M.; Brinkar, C.J.; Rao, S.M.; Ross, T.J.

    1997-04-01

    We are testing an anti-weathering preservation strategy that is specific to limestone surfaces. The strategy involves the application of a mineral-specific, bifunctional, passivating/coupling agent that binds to both the limestone surface and to the consolidating inorganic polymer matrix. The sol-gel based reactions form composite materials with desirable conservation and anti-weathering properties. We present the results of our efforts, the highlights of which are: (1) scanning probe microscopy of moisture-free calcite crystals treated with the trisilanol form of silylalkylaminocarboxylate (SAAC), reveals porous agglomerates that offer no significant resistance to the mild leaching action of deionized water. When the crystals are further consolidated with a silica-based consolidant (A2**), no dissolution is seen although the positive role of the passivant molecule is not yet delineated. (2) Modulus of rupture tests on limestone cores treated with an aminoalkylsilane (AEAPS) and A2** showed a 25-35% increase in strength compared to the untreated samples. (3) Environmental scanning electron microscopy of treated limestone subjected to a concentrated acid attack showed degradation of the surface except in areas where thick layers of the consolidant were deposited.

  2. Anti-weathering treatments to protect mineral surfaces: Hybrid sol-gel and biomimetic strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Sudeep Motupalli

    1998-12-01

    The natural weathering of stone is accelerated by the combined effects of acid rain, salt crystallization and the freeze-thaw cycles of water. This dissertation describes the development of two anti-weathering preservation treatments that are specific to limestone surfaces. The first strategy involves the application of a surface-specific, bifunctional, passivating, coupling agent that binds to both the limestone surface and to a consolidating inorganic polymeric silica matrix by a sol-gel process. The second strategy involves biomimetic process that converts the exposed limestone surface into a nonreactive calcium oxalate hydrate ceramic layer found in kidney stones and lichen deposits. The microreactor environment of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) fluid cell was used to simulate acid rain effects on treated and untreated calcite surfaces, seen as etch pits and crystal step movement. The treatment process was also monitored at near molecular scale resolution using the SPM. Calcite crystals treated with aminoethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (25% AEAPS) passivating coupling agent and a silica consolidating solution (50%w/w), are resistant to the leaching action of deionized water equilibriated with atmospheric COsb2 to pH 5. The aminoalkoxylsilane coupling agent catalyses the condensation reaction and also reacts with the surface to offer the coupling mechanism. Modulus of rupture strength tests on limestone cores treated with the AEAPS and silica-based consolidant showed a 25-35% increase in strength. Environmental scanning electron microscopy of treated limestone exposed to concentrated sulfuric acid showed degradation of the surface except in areas where thick layers of the consolidant were deposited. Powder leach tests using a pH-stat apparatus yielded quantitative proof of the efficacy of the biomimetic calcium oxalate process. The dissolution rates (2.14×10sp{-9} mmol/cmsp2/sec) of treated calcite were two orders of magnitude less than untreated calcium

  3. [Calyceal stones].

    PubMed

    Netsch, C; Gross, A J

    2013-08-01

    The natural course of untreated, asymptomatic calyceal calculi has not yet been clearly defined regarding disease progression and risk of surgical interventions. The decision for an active treatment of calyceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the German (DGU) and European (EAU) Associations of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of calyceal stones <2 cm in diameter. However, immediate removal of stones is not achieved with ESWL. The primary stone-free rates (SFR) after ESWL depend on stone location and stone composition and can show remarkable differences. Minimally invasive procedures, such as percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy and ureteroscopy are alternatives for the treatment of calyceal stones which have low morbidity and high primary SFR when performed in centres of excellence.

  4. Bladder stones

    MedlinePlus

    Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi ... Benway BM, Bhayani SM. Lower urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 89. Sharma R, Dill CE, Gelman DY. Urinary ...

  5. Kidney stones

    MedlinePlus

    ... for uric acid stones) Antibiotics (for struvite stones) Diuretics (water pills) Phosphate solutions Sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate Water pills (thiazide diuretics) Tamsulosin to relax the ureter and help the ...

  6. Dimension stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2003-01-01

    Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.

  7. Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

    The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  8. Kidney stones

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... urine exits the kidney and enters the ureter. As urine can become very concentrated as it passes through the kidneys. When the urine ... chemicals dissolved in the urine can crystallize, forming a kidney stone (renal calculus). Usually the calculus is ...

  9. Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Kleeman, Charles R.; Coburn, Jack W.; Brickman, Arnold S.; Lee, David B. N.; Narins, Robert G.; Ehrlich, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones has steadily risen during this century; passage of a calculus and a positive family history increase the probability of recurrence. Findings from recent studies on the cause of renal calculi have stressed crystallization and crystal aggregation of stone minerals from supersaturated urine, rather than excessive organic matrix. Absence of normal urine inhibitors of calcium salts is also stressed. Formation of calcium oxalate stones is the major problem. Therapy with decreased calcium and oxalate intake, thiazides, phosphate salts and allopurinol in various combinations has substantially decreased the prevalence of recurrent stones. The rationale for the use of allopurinol is that uric acid salts enhance the tendency for calcium oxalate to crystallize from supersaturated urine. The hypercalciuria seen in 30 percent to 40 percent of patients with oxalate stones is usually caused by intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium. Although patients with uric acid calculi constitute only a small fraction of those in whom stones form, they represent a group in whom good medical therapy, based on sound physiologic principles, has proved extremely successful. Renal tubular syndromes lead to nephrocalcinosis and lithiasis through hypercalciuria, alkaline urine and hypocitraturia, the latter an inhibitor of calcium salt precipitation. Recent advances in surgical techniques are discussed, including the rationale for removing staghorn calculi. The ileal ureter and coagulum pyelolithotomy deserve special emphasis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 7. PMID:7385835

  10. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Kidney Stones KidsHealth > For Parents > Kidney Stones Print A ... remove the stones from their urinary tracts. How Kidney Stones Form It's the kidneys' job to remove ...

  11. [Management of renal stones].

    PubMed

    Lechevallier, E; Traxer, O; Saussine, C

    2008-12-01

    The management of renal stones needs a recent and good quality imaging. Contrast medium injection is optional. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the most common treatment of renal stones. ESWL is indicated as first line treatment for less than 1.5cm stones. The stone-free (SF) rate at 3 months of ESWL is 70-80%. Results of ESWL for stones with more than 1000UH density or located in the lower calyx are poor. Flexible ureteroscopy (URS) is indicated in case of ESWL failure or for hyperdense, 1-2cm stones. The SF rate of flexible is 80%. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is indicated for complex or more than 2cm stones. Asymptomatic and non infected stones, especially if located in the lower calyx, do not need urological treatment but must be followed up. In all cases, renal stones needs a metabolic evaluation and treatment, and annual follow-up.

  12. Rejoinder to Lynda Stone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Mark E.

    1997-01-01

    Responds to Lynda Stone's comments on the author's essay on the interpretation of history. Demonstrates the linkages between his argument and those of Stone. Concludes by contesting some of her interpretations of his philosophical forebear, Edmund Husserl, and by pointing to the common objectives of both his and Stone's research. (DSK)

  13. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites.

  14. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  15. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  16. 12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; STONE CRANE HAS OAK SPAR, JIB AND BRACE, METAL SCREW, IRON YOKE AND DOGS; IRON PINS FIT THROUGH HOLES IN DOGS INTO HOLES DRILLED IN RUNNER STONE - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  17. Kidney Stones in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nephrology American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Stones in Children Page Content On this page: ...

  18. Renal stones in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Norma; DasGupta, Ranan

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of renal stones during pregnancy is a complex problem. Risks to the fetus from ionising radiation and interventional procedures need to be balanced with optimising clinical care for the mother. Management of such patients requires a clear understanding of available options, with a multidisciplinary team approach. In this review, we discuss the role of different diagnostic tests including ultrasound, magnetic resonance urography, and computerized tomography. We also provide an update on recent developments in the treatment of renal stones during pregnancy. Expectant management remains first-line treatment. Where definitive treatment of the stone is required, new evidence suggests that ureteroscopic stone removal may be equally safe, and possibly better than traditional temporising procedures. PMID:27512433

  19. Gallbladder stones: shockwave therapy.

    PubMed

    Sackmann, M

    1992-11-01

    Within the past 7 years, gallbladder lithotripsy by shockwaves has been proven to be a safe and effective non-invasive therapy for selected patients with gallstone disease. While regulatory decisions prevent shockwave therapy from being used more frequently in the USA, the number of patients treated in Europe and Asia is increasing constantly. At our institution, a relatively constant number of about 250 new patients per year have been treated since 1988 (Figure 4). About 20% of patients with gallstones are suitable for shockwave therapy according to present criteria. The rate of evacuation of all fragments is determined by the initial stone number and stone size, the success at stone fragmentation, adjuvant bile acid dissolution therapy, and gallbladder contractility. In contrast to laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Dubois et al, 1989; Perissat et al, 1989; Southern Surgeons Club, 1991), shockwave therapy does not require general anaesthesia. And in contrast to direct contact dissolution therapy of gallbladder stones using MTBE (Thistle et al, 1989), lithotripsy is non-invasive. In the majority of patients, complete fragment disappearance takes several months. Preliminary analyses of the cost-effectiveness of lithotripsy have revealed that lithotripsy, including retreatments and bile acid medication for recurrent stones, costs about as much as open cholecystectomy (Rothschild et al, 1990; Bass et al, 1991). The ideal patient for gallbladder lithotripsy has a single radiolucent stone < or = 20-25 mm in diameter in a functioning gallbladder (Figure 1). In patients with such stones, nearly all studies have confirmed a favourable outcome with rapid clearance of all fragments and a relatively low rate of stone recurrence. For carefully selected patients, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is therefore an attractive non-invasive therapy.

  20. Kidney stones - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Renal calculi - self-care; Nephrolithiasis - self-care; Stones - kidney - self-care ... You visited your health care provider or the hospital because you have a kidney stone. You will need to take self-care steps. Which steps ...

  1. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... may also help prevent kidney stones, such as citrus drinks. Recommendations based on the specific type of ... do to prevent kidney stones. Some studies suggest citrus drinks like lemonade and orange juice protect against ...

  2. Challenging Case: Stones.

    PubMed

    Soloway, Mark S; Ziemba, Justin B; Matlaga, Brian R; Monga, Manoj

    2016-10-01

    A 40-year-old woman presents to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident, and a CT scan revealed no injuries but incidentally notes three non-obstructing stones in the left kidney of 3, 4, and 5 mm in size. She is completely asymptomatic and has no history of urolithiasis.

  3. Kidney stones during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Semins, Michelle J; Matlaga, Brian R

    2014-03-01

    Kidney stones affect 10% of people at some point in their lives and, for some unfortunate women, this happens during pregnancy. Pregnancy is a complex state and both physiological and mechanical changes alter risk factors for kidney stone formation. When a pregnant woman develops acute nephrolithiasis, the situation is more complicated than in nonpregnant women. Imaging limitations and treatment restrictions mean that special diagnostic and management algorithms are needed upon presentation. Ultrasonography remains the gold-standard first-line diagnostic imaging modality for kidney stones during pregnancy but several second-line alternatives exist. Acute renal colic during pregnancy is associated with risks to both mother and fetus. As such, these patients need to be handled with special attention. First-line management is generally conservative (trial of passage and pain management) and is associated with a high rate of stone passage. Presentation of obstructive nephrolithiasis with associated infection represents a unique and serious clinical situation requiring immediate drainage. If infection is not present and conservative management fails, ureteroscopy can be offered if clinically appropriate, but, in some circumstances, temporary drainage with ureteral stent or nephrostomy tube might be indicated. Shockwave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are contraindicated during pregnancy.

  4. Challenging Case: Stones.

    PubMed

    Soloway, Mark S; Ziemba, Justin B; Matlaga, Brian R; Monga, Manoj

    2016-10-01

    A 40-year-old woman presents to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident, and a CT scan revealed no injuries but incidentally notes three non-obstructing stones in the left kidney of 3, 4, and 5 mm in size. She is completely asymptomatic and has no history of urolithiasis. PMID:27566646

  5. When Stones Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucier, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Creating towers of balanced stones is a versatile outdoor learning activity that can be experienced in the classroom, school yard, forest, or parking lot. Students discover hidden talents, learn to work and communicate clearly with others, and reconnect with the natural world. Several variations on the exercise are given, along with principles of…

  6. Assessment of stone composition in the management of urinary stones.

    PubMed

    Kijvikai, Kittinut; de la Rosette, J J M

    2011-02-01

    Several explanations have been suggested to account for the failure of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment in patients with urinary stones, including large stone volume, unfavorable stone location or composition and the type of lithotriptor used. Unfavorable stone composition is considered a major cause of failure of ESWL treatment, and consequently knowledge of the stone composition before treatment is initiated is desirable. Plain abdominal radiographs cannot accurately determine either stone composition or fragility, and although the CT attenuation value in Hounsfield units (HU) (that is, normalized to the attenuation characteristics of water) is useful, this parameter has limited value as a predictor of stone composition or the response to ESWL treatment. By contrast, stone morphology as visualized by CT correlates well with both fragility and susceptibility to fragmentation by ESWL. For patients prone to recurrent calculi, analyses of stone composition are especially important, as they may reveal an underlying metabolic abnormality. The development of advanced imaging technologies that can predict stone fragility is essential, as they could provide extra information for physicians, enabling them to select the most appropriate treatment option for patients with urinary stones.

  7. Nutritional aspects of stone disease.

    PubMed

    Hess, Bernhard

    2002-12-01

    Kidney stones can form during a state of urinary supersaturation. Because urine often is supersaturated with respect to various salts, crystal formation is very common in nonstone formers and stone formers alike, and it may even be absent in kidney stone formers. Thus, uncomplicated crystalluria does not distinguish between stone formers and healthy people. Landmark clinical studies, however, have shown that under identical conditions of dietary and fluid intake, healthy controls almost exclusively excrete single calcium oxalate crystals 3 to 4 microns in diameter, whereas recurrent calcium stone formers pass larger crystals, 10 to 12 microns in diameter, often fused into polycrystalline aggregates 20 to 300 microns in diameter. Thus, those who form stones appear to be more "sensitive" to a given diet than nonstone formers. It is in these subjects that "bad dietary habits" induce nephrolithiasis, making nutritional aspects important. This article reviews the current evidence-based knowledge of the impact of nutrition on the recurrence of a kidney stone.

  8. Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Lede stone is an arenaceous limestone with a Lutetian age, occurring as discrete (most of the times three) stone banks in the marine sandy sediments of the Lede Formation (Belgium). It has a quartz content of approximate 40%. This increases abrasion strength and together with the cementation results in an average compressive strength of about 80-85 MPa. The cement is a microsparitic calcite cement. Other carbonate particles are both microfossils (mainly foraminifers) and macrofossils (bivalves, serpulids, echinoderms, …). This great diversity gives the stone a heterogeneous, animated appearance. The intra- and interparticle porosity is in total 5-10 % in average and the apparent density is 2400-2550 kg/m3. Another important constituent is glauconite, present in a few percent. In fresh state, the stone has a greenish-grey colour, but when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions for a couple of years, the stone acquires a yellowish to rust-coloured patina due to the weathering of glauconite. Sulphatation causes severe damage to the stone, and black gypsum crusts are common in urban environments on stones protected from runoff. This stone was excavated in both open air and underground quarries in the areas of Brussels and Ghent. The proximity of main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne provided transport routes for export towards the north (e.g. Antwerp and The Netherlands). Its first known use dates back to Roman times but the stone flourished in Gothic architecture due to its easy workability and its 'divine' light coloured patina. This results nowadays in a dominant occurrence in the cultural heritage of northwestern Belgium and the south of The Netherlands. Socio-economical reasons caused several declines and revivals of Lede stone in use. In the beginning of the 20th century, only a few excavation sites remained, with as main quarry the one located at Bambrugge (Belgium). By the end of the first half of the 20th century, however, no quarry sites remained

  9. Necromancing the stones.

    PubMed

    Goel, V

    1995-12-15

    Since its introduction 15 years ago extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has become a standard treatment for urinary stones. The author comments on the results of Adrian R. Levy and Maurice McGregor's study of the use of ESWL for urinary stones in Quebec (see pages 1729 to 1736 of this issue). The rapid increase in the use of ESWL that occurred in the first 2 years of the study points to the fact that the application of a new technology is often quickly expanded before thorough assessments of effectiveness and safety have been carried out. New technologies also lead to shifts in cost distribution that must be considered in cost analyses. The author argues that continuing research is needed to document the dissemination of new technologies and points to methodologic concerns that should be addressed to make such research as fruitful as possible.

  10. Complicated bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  11. Diet and calcium stones.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J; Norman, R W

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature on the dietary modification of urinary risk factors as a means of reducing the likelihood of recurrent stone formation and to develop practical dietary recommendations that might be useful to this end. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published from 1983 to 1990. Additional references were selected from the bibliographies of identified articles. STUDY SELECTION: Nonrandomized trials and retrospective reviews were included because of a paucity of randomized controlled trials. DATA SYNTHESIS: Information on the dietary intake of calcium, oxalate, protein, sodium and fibre and on alcohol and fluid intake was used to develop practical guidelines on dietary modification. CONCLUSION: Dietary modification plays an important role in the reduction of urinary risk factors in patients with calcium stone disease of the urinary tract. As an initial form of prevention attention should be directed toward moderating the intake of calcium, oxalate, protein, sodium and alcohol and increasing the intake of fibre and water. Future research should include an assessment of the long-term reduction of dietary and urinary risk factors and the rates of recurrence of calcium stones. PMID:1310430

  12. Pyrophosphate Transport and Stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, John A.; Carr, Georgina; Moochhala, Shabbir H.; Simmons, Nicholas L.

    2008-09-01

    Since the 1960's, inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) has been known to inhibit apatite precipitation. Recent findings suggest that PPi plays a central role in the control of normal bone mineralization. Knockout mice have established the functional importance of PPi transmembrane transport, via the pyrophosphate transporter ANKH. The molecular nature and transport function of ANKH are reviewed. PPi is present in urine and ANKH is expressed in the cortical collecting duct where PPi transport to both the tubular lumen and renal interstitium may occur. Arginine vasopressin stimulation of cortical collecting duct cells grown on semi-permeable supports appears to upregulate apical ANKH expression, which we postulate may be a mechanism of stone inhibition during urinary concentration and supersaturation of calcium salts. Hypopyrophosphaturia may be a forgotten metabolic risk factor for stone formation and polymorphisms of the ANKH gene may underlie this defect. The physiological importance and clinical significance of PPi generation and transport in preventing idiopathic renal stone disease and nephrocalcinosis now needs to be established.

  13. Medical management of renal stones.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Monica S C; Pearle, Margaret S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing in industrialized nations, resulting in a corresponding rise in economic burden. Nephrolithiasis is now recognized as both a chronic and systemic condition, which further underscores the impact of the disease. Diet and environment play an important role in stone disease, presumably by modulating urine composition. Dietary modification as a preventive treatment to decrease lithogenic risk factors and prevent stone recurrence has gained interest because of its potential to be safer and more economical than drug treatment. However, not all abnormalities are likely to be amenable to dietary therapy, and in some cases drugs are necessary to reduce the risk of stone formation. Unfortunately, no new drugs have been developed for stone prevention since the 1980s when potassium citrate was introduced, perhaps because the long observation period needed to demonstrate efficacy discourages investigators from embarking on clinical trials. Nonetheless, effective established treatment regimens are currently available for stone prevention. PMID:26977089

  14. Medical management of renal stones.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Monica S C; Pearle, Margaret S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing in industrialized nations, resulting in a corresponding rise in economic burden. Nephrolithiasis is now recognized as both a chronic and systemic condition, which further underscores the impact of the disease. Diet and environment play an important role in stone disease, presumably by modulating urine composition. Dietary modification as a preventive treatment to decrease lithogenic risk factors and prevent stone recurrence has gained interest because of its potential to be safer and more economical than drug treatment. However, not all abnormalities are likely to be amenable to dietary therapy, and in some cases drugs are necessary to reduce the risk of stone formation. Unfortunately, no new drugs have been developed for stone prevention since the 1980s when potassium citrate was introduced, perhaps because the long observation period needed to demonstrate efficacy discourages investigators from embarking on clinical trials. Nonetheless, effective established treatment regimens are currently available for stone prevention.

  15. Stone Morphology: Implication for Pathogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudon, Michel; Jungers, Paul; Bazin, Dominique

    2008-09-01

    Urinary stones of similar crystalline composition as identified by X-ray diffraction or Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) may exhibit distinct structures, which are reflected in distinctive stone morphology. Among factors involved in stone morphology—some reflecting lithogenic activity, others depending on the crystal shape, or on the propensity of crystalline phases to form large aggregates, finally the environment where the stone is growing—all of these factors influence the inner structure of the stone and its superficial characteristics. We present here examples of the clinical interest of refined morphologic examination of stones, in addition to X-ray diffraction or FT-IR identification of its components. Such combination of methods allows the identification of specific etiologies among calcium oxalate stones, especially a morphological type pathognomonic of primary hyperoxaluria and other types related to distinct conditions of stone formation. Among phosphatic stones—in addition to stone composition, which must be considered not only on the basis of the main component, but also taking into account the minor crystalline phases, which often are clinically relevant—morphological types also contribute to diagnosis of the underlying etiology, especially for stones related to distal tubular acidosis. Finally, common purine stones also exhibit different morphologies related to stone composition and etiology: two main structures for uric acid and two for ammonium urate help to distinguish risk factors and lithogenic conditions involved in the formation of these calculi. Morphologic examination is a simple, rapid and cheap method that points to specific diseases or lithogenic factors. Better awareness of its clinical relevance should lead to wider utilization.

  16. Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip C.; Bailey, Michael R.; Harper, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Ultrasonic propulsion is a novel technique that uses short bursts of focused ultrasonic pulses to reposition stones transcutaneously within the renal collecting system and ureter. The purpose of this review is to discuss the initial testing of effectiveness and safety, directions for refinement of technique and technology, and opinions on clinical application. Recent findings Preclinical studies with a range of probes, interfaces, and outputs have demonstrated feasibility and consistent safety of ultrasonic propulsion with room for increased outputs and refinement toward specific applications. Ultrasonic propulsion was used painlessly and without adverse events to reposition stones in 14 of 15 human study participants without restrictions on patient size, stone size, or stone location. The initial feasibility study showed applicability in a range of clinically relevant situations, including facilitating passage of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, moving a large stone at the UPJ with relief of pain, and differentiating large stones from a collection of small fragments. Summary Ultrasonic propulsion shows promise as an office-based system for transcutaneously repositioning kidney stones. Potential applications include facilitating expulsion of residual fragments following ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy, repositioning stones prior to treatment, and repositioning obstructing UPJ stones into the kidney to alleviate acute renal colic. PMID:26845428

  17. [Infection-induced urinary stones].

    PubMed

    Bichler, K-H; Eipper, E; Naber, K

    2003-01-01

    Infection stones make up approximately 15% of urinary stone diseases and are thus an important group. These stones are composed of struvite and/or carbonate apatite. The basic precondition for the formation of infection stones is a urease-positive urinary tract infection. Urease is necessary to split urea into ammonia and CO(2). As a result, ammonia ions can form and at the same time alkaline urine develops, both being preconditions for the formation of struvite and carbonate apatite crystals. When these crystals are deposited infection stones form. Pathogenetically, various risk factors play a role: urinary obstruction, neurogenic bladder, dRTA, and MSK. If these infections are not treated and the stones are not removed, the kidney will be damaged. Modern methods are available for stone removal, e.g., ESWL and/or instrumental urinary stone removal. Here, especially less invasive methods are preferable. Any treatment must be adjusted to the patient individually. Patients should be examined frequently for recurrent urinary tract infections and stone recurrences, and new infections must be resolutely treated. Good therapy and prophylaxis are possible with present-day treatment modalities. PMID:12574884

  18. Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone

  19. The Systematic Classification of Gallbladder Stones

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Zhen-liang; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background To develop a method for systematic classification of gallbladder stones, analyze the clinical characteristics of each type of stone and provide a theoretical basis for the study of the formation mechanism of different types of gallbladder stones. Methodology A total of 807 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones were enrolled and their gallstones were studied. The material composition of gallbladder stones was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the distribution and microstructure of material components was observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy. The composition and distribution of elements were analyzed by an X-ray energy spectrometer. Gallbladder stones were classified accordingly, and then, gender, age, medical history and BMI of patients with each type of stone were analyzed. Principal Findings Gallbladder stones were classified into 8 types and more than ten subtypes, including cholesterol stones (297), pigment stones (217), calcium carbonate stones (139), phosphate stones (12), calcium stearate stones (9), protein stones (3), cystine stones (1) and mixed stones (129). Mixed stones were those stones with two or more than two kinds of material components and the content of each component was similar. A total of 11 subtypes of mixed stones were found in this study. Patients with cholesterol stones were mainly female between the ages of 30 and 50, with higher BMI and shorter medical history than patients with pigment stones (P<0.05), however, patients with pigment, calcium carbonate, phosphate stones were mainly male between the ages of 40 and 60. Conclusion The systematic classification of gallbladder stones indicates that different types of stones have different characteristics in terms of the microstructure, elemental composition and distribution, providing an important basis for the mechanistic study of gallbladder stones. PMID:24124459

  20. Recumbent Stone Circles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, British archaeoastronomers were striving to bridge the interpretative gulf between the "megalithic observatories" of Alexander Thom and an archaeological mainstream that, generally speaking, was hostile to any mention of astronomy in relation to the megalithic monuments of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain. The Scottish recumbent stone circles (RSCs) came to represent an example where sounder methodology could overcome many of the data selection issues that had beset earlier studies and, with due restraint, produce credible interpretations. Systematic studies of their orientations consistently concluded that the RSCs had a strong lunar connection, and it was widely envisaged that they were the setting for ceremonies associated with the appearance of the moon over the recumbent stone. Other evidence such as the presence of white quartz and the spatial distribution of cupmarks appeared to back up this conclusion. New archaeological investigations since 1999 have challenged and modified these conclusions, confirming in particular that the circles were built to enclose cairns rather than to demarcate open spaces. Yet the restricted pattern of orientations of these structures could only have been achieved by reference to the basic diurnal motions of the skies, and orientation in relation to simple observations of the midsummer moon remains the most likely reading of the alignment evidence taken as a whole. On the other hand, a consideration of the broader context, which includes the nearby Clava cairns, highlights instead the symbolic importance of the sun.

  1. Scottish Short Stone Rows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

  2. Hyaluronan and Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselman, Marino

    2008-09-01

    Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

  3. Treatment of urinary tract stones.

    PubMed

    Wickham, J E

    1993-11-27

    Replacement of open surgery with minimally invasive techniques for treating stones in the renal tract has greatly reduced patients' morbidity and mortality and the period of hospitalisation and convalescence. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy does not require anaesthesia and requires little analgesia so that treatment can be given on an outpatient basis, and there is no wound to heal. Only a small puncture site is needed for percutaneous endoscopic lithotomy, and with the advent of prophylactic antibiotics there are few complications. Of renal stones, about 85% can now be successfully treated by extracorporeal lithotripsy alone, and almost all of the stones too large or hard for lithotripsy can be treated endoscopically, with ultrasonic or electrohydraulic probes being used to fragment the stone. Stones in the upper and lower thirds of the ureter can be treated by extracorporeal lithotripsy, but stones in the middle third, which cannot normally be visualised to allow focusing of the shockwaves, usually require ureteroscopy. Nearly all bladder stones can be treated by transurethral endoscopy with an electrohydraulic probe. Only the largest renal tract stones still require open surgery.

  4. The exposome for kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, David S

    2016-02-01

    The exposome is the assembly and measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime. An individual's exposures begin before birth and include insults from environmental and occupational sources. The associated field is called exposomics, which relies on the application of internal and external exposure assessment methods. Exposomics has not yet been thoroughly applied to the study of kidney stones although much is known about how diet and fluid intake affect nephrolithiasis. Some other novel exposures that may contribute to kidney stones are discussed including use of antibiotics, urbanization and migration to urban heat islands, and occupation. People whose school and jobs limit their access to fluids and adequate bathroom facilities may have higher prevalence of stones. Examples include athletes, teachers, heathcare workers, and cab drivers. Occupational kidney stones have received scant attention and may represent a neglected, and preventable, type of stone. An exposomic-oriented history would include a careful delineation of occupation and activities. PMID:26615595

  5. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  6. The bioreceptivity of building stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauko Pranjić, Alenka; Mulec, Janez; Muck, Tadeja; Hladnik, Aleš; Mladenovič, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Bioreceptivity is an intrinsic property of stone, and is defined as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. The fouling and staining of building stone material due to the activity of microorganisms presents a serious problem in modern as well as historical buildings, not only due to the aesthetic impact but also due to the deterioration of the material. Biological colonisation on stone materials is influenced by a number of factors, e.g. the intrinsic properties of the stone (porosity, roughness, permeability, mineral composition), environmental parameters (e.g. solar radiation, temperature, water regime, climate, etc.), and specific microclimatic parameters (e.g. orientation, exposure to shadow, permanent capillary humidity, etc.). In order to assess the bioreceptivity of building stones, use is often made of artificial colonisation experiments compromising the inoculation of stones with a single species or a few isolated strains under laboratory conditions. In the present work the authors present the development of a method for the determination of bioreceptivity, as well as a study of the bioreceptivity of selected natural stone versus the latter's intrinsic properties. Field examples of biodeterioration are also presented. The study was supported by the Slovenian Research Agency (L1-5453).

  7. Lost Stones During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Arozamena, C.; Gutierrez, L.; Bracco, J.; Mon, A.; Almeyra, R. Sanchez; Secchi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Gallbladder perforation, with loss of calculi in the abdomen is frequent during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Recent publications report complications in port sites or in the abdominal cavity. A study of 3686 laparsocopic cholecystectomies performed by 6 surgeons was undertaken. In 627 patients, perforation of the gallbladder occurred and in 254 stones were spilled into the abdominal cavity. In 214 they were retrieved and in 40 left in the abdomen. Twelve patients developed complications. Percutaneous drainage was successful in 2 with serous collections. Two patients with abdominal abscesses were reoperated, stones retrieved and the abdomen drained. One patient developed an intestinal obstruction due to a stone in the ileum. One patient who had a cholecystectomy in another hospital developed a paraumbilical tumor. At reoperation a stone was retrieved. In another six patients, stones were found in port sites. Stones lost into the abdomen should be removed because of their potential morbidity, especially if they are large or if infection is present in the gallbladder at the time of initial surgery. There is no indication for routine conversion to open surgery when stone spillage occurs, although patients should be informed to avoid legal consequence, and to hasten early diagnosis of later complications. PMID:9893240

  8. Gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, E.S.; Mossotti, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of gypsum on carbonate stone has been investigated through exposure of fresh samples of limestone and marble at monitored sites, through examination of alteration crusts from old buildings and through laboratory experiments. Several factors contribute to gypsum accumulation on carbonate stone. Marble or limestone that is sheltered from direct washing by rain in an urban environment with elevated pollution levels is likely to accumulate a gypsum crust. Crust development may be enhanced if the stone is porous or has an irregular surface area. Gypsum crusts are a surficial alteration feature; gypsum crystals form at the pore opening-air interface, where evaporation is greatest.

  9. Nutritional Management of Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis)

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Adam M.; Seifter, Julian L.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of kidney stones is common in the United States and treatments for them are very costly. This review article provides information about epidemiology, mechanism, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of kidney stone formation, and methods for the evaluation of stone risks for new and follow-up patients. Adequate evaluation and management can prevent recurrence of stones. Kidney stone prevention should be individualized in both its medical and dietary management, keeping in mind the specific risks involved for each type of stones. Recognition of these risk factors and development of long-term management strategies for dealing with them are the most effective ways to prevent recurrence of kidney stones. PMID:26251832

  10. [Management of proximal ureteral stones].

    PubMed

    Lechevallier, E; Taxer, O; Saussine, C

    2008-12-01

    Proximal ureteral stone less than 4-6mm may initially be treated by surveillance. Generally, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the first line treatment for proximal ureteral stones, specially for stones less than 1cm. For stones greater than 1cm, the results of ureteroscopy (URS) are better than the results of ESWL and in these cases URS may be an option. In case of failure of ESWL, URS can be proposed. URS can be the first line treatment in case of severe ureteral obstruction with no urinary infection. Proximal ureteroscopy must be careful because severe complications are not infrequent. Open surgery has very rare indication. Metabolic check-up and annually follow-up with at least a renal imaging at three months are recommended.

  11. Laser lithotripsy for ureteric stones.

    PubMed

    Foo, K T; Wujanto, R; Wong, M Y

    1994-01-01

    The use of laser is a relatively new modality of treatment in urology. With the advent of the pulse-dye laser lithotripter and a finer 7.2 ureteroscope (miniscope), we found that it was more effective for treating ureteric stones than the conventional ultrasound lithotripsy. Between May 1989 and December 1991, 239 patients (162 males, 77 females) with 259 ureteric stones were treated endoscopically by this modality. Their ages ranged from 19 to 81 years (mean 46.3). The stones were mostly of 5 to 10 mm in their transverse diameters. They were situated in the upper ureter in 59, middle ureter in 39, and lower ureter in 161 cases. The miniscope was inserted into the ureter without prior dilatation and under direct vision. Stone fragmentation was performed using the 504-nm pulse-dye laser of 30 to 60 mJ energy. Complete fragmentation of the stone using the Candela laser lithotripter was achieved in 202 patients (85%). The average hospital stay was two days. Of the 37 unsuccessful cases, 11 were due to failed ureteroscopy, ten due to poor visibility from bleeding, 14 due to stone migrating up to the kidneys and two were monohydrate calculi which did not fragment with laser lithotripsy. Open ureterolithotomies were necessary in 14 patients (5.9%). Significant morbidity was perforation of the ureters which occurred in three patients (1.3%). This was due to ureteroscopy rather than the laser lithotripsy itself. With the availability of the new shockwave lithotripter (ESWL) which can treat ureteric stones in even less invasive ways, without anaesthesia and as outpatient, we are now reserving laser lithotripsy for those who failed ESWL. Generally they are the stones which cause severe obstruction to the ureter.

  12. Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evan, Andrew P.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

  13. Lunar stone saw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd

    1988-01-01

    This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

  14. Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might

  15. Treating stones in transplanted kidneys.

    PubMed

    Saxena, S; Sadideen, H; Goldsmith, D

    2013-02-01

    The formation of calculi in renal allografts is an uncommon complication in renal transplant recipients, with a reported incidence of 0.2-1.7% according to retrospective studies. Although the majority of these stones appear to form de novo following renal transplantation (RTX), there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that more often than previously thought they may be transplanted with the donor graft itself. The etiology and pathophysiology of renal graft stones is multifactorial. A combination of metabolic and urodynamic factors predispose to stone formation and these are generally found more frequently in allograft rather than native kidneys. In addition tertiary hyperparathyroidism (following RTX) plays an important role. Renal allograft stones can pose significant challenges for the clinician. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and must be prompt, as these patients' reliance on a solitary kidney for their renal function leaves them susceptible to significant morbidity. However, reports in the literature come largely from anecdotal experience and case reports, meaning that there is a limited consensus regarding how best to manage the condition. We suggest that interventional treatment should be guided primarily by stone size and individual patient presentation. Good outcomes have been reported with shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and ureteroscopy, but optimal management of the risk factors leading to calculi formation (i.e., prevention) will remain the most cost-effective management.

  16. Canada's National Building Stone: Tyndall Stone from Manitoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Brian R.; Young, Graham A.; Dobrzanski, Edward P.

    2016-04-01

    Tyndall Stone is a distinctively mottled and highly fossiliferous dolomitic limestone that belongs to the Selkirk Member of the Red River Formation, of Late Ordovician (Katian) age. It has been quarried at Garson, Manitoba, 37 km northeast of Winnipeg, since 1895, although other quarries in the area go back to 1832. Tyndall Stone, so named because it was shipped by rail from nearby Tyndall, is currently produced by Gillis Quarries Limited. It has various uses as a dimension stone. Large slabs, most often cut parallel to bedding, face the exterior or interior of many important buildings such as the Parliament Buildings and the Canadian Museum of Civilization in the Ottawa area, the Empress Hotel in Victoria, and the provincial legislatures in Winnipeg and Regina, as well as many commercial buildings especially in the Canadian prairies. At the quarries, the stone is cut vertically, using eight foot (2.44 m) diameter saws mounted on one hundred foot (30.5 m) tracks, then split into 6-8 tonne blocks that are moved using front-end loaders. Gillis Quarries operates a large finishing plant with an area of about 4000 m2. Stone is processed along advanced cutting lines that feature eight primary saws and six gantry saw stations, allowing it to be made into a variety of sizes, shapes, and finishes. The Selkirk Member is 43 m thick and the stone is extracted from a 6-8 m thick interval within the lower part. The upper beds tend to be more buff-coloured than the grey lower beds due to weathering by groundwater. The stone is massive, but extracted blocks are less than ~1m thick due to splitting along stylolites. Consisting of bioturbated wackestone to packstone, the Tyndall Stone was deposited in a shallow-marine environment within the photic zone, in the central part of the vast equatorial epicontinental sea that covered much of Laurentia. Scattered thin, bioclastic grainstone lenses record brief, low-energy storm events. The distinctive mottles are formed by dolomitized

  17. [Rare cases of bladder stones].

    PubMed

    Sampalmieri, Gregorio; Moretti, Antonello; Sampalmieri, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    We present here two special cases of urolithiasis. The first one shows a giant bladder lithiasis resulting in severe renal insufficiency in a 63-year-old patient, who had previously had nicturia (2-3 times), occasional episodes of urinary frequency and burning micturition, in the absence of renal colic, hematuria or interrupted urination. The second case referes to an 85-year-old man suffering from prostatic enlargement and bladder stones, hospitalized to undergo intervention of trans-vesical prostatic adenomectomy, during which two star-shaped stones were found without obvious symptoms.

  18. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney ...

  19. "Stone Age" Fun: Releasing the Animal Within.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Janet Marie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a fifth-grade sculpture project that uses a subtractive, rather than additive, technique. Students carve an animal sculpture from a block of simulated stone compound. Explains the process and how to make the simulated stone compound. (CMK)

  20. Luserna Stone: A nomination for "Global Heritage Stone Resource"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primavori, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Luserna Stone (Pietra di Luserna) is the commercial name of a grey-greenish leucogranitic orthogneiss, probably from the Lower Permian Age, that outcrops in the Luserna-Infernotto basin (Cottian Alps, Piedmont, NW Italy) on the border between the Turin and Cuneo provinces. Geologically speaking, it pertains to the Dora-Maira Massif that represents a part of the ancient European margin annexed to the Cottian Alps during the Alpine orogenesis; from a petrographic point of view, it is the metamorphic result of a late-Ercinian leucogranitic rock transformation. Lithological features and building applications allow the recognition of two main varieties: 1) a micro-augen gneiss with very regular schistosity planes with centimetric spacing and easy split workability, known as Splittable facies; 2) a micro-Augen gneiss characterized by lower schistosity and poor split, suitable for blocks cutting machines (diamond wires, gang-saws, traditional saws), known as Massive facies. A third, rare, white variety also exists, called "Bianchetta". Luserna stone extends over an area of approximately 50 km2, where more than fifty quarries are in operation, together with a relevant number of processing plants and artisanal laboratories. The stone is quarried and processed since almost the Middle Age, and currently represents one of the three most important siliceous production cluster in Italy (together with the Ossola and Sardegna Island granites). Some characteristics of this stone - such as the relevant physical-mechanical properties, an intrinsic versatility and its peculiar splittability - have made it one of the most widely used stone materials in Italy and in the countries surrounding the North Western border of Italy. Apart from its intrinsic geological, petrographic, commercial and technical properties, several issues related to the Luserna Stone are considered to be of relevant importance for its designation as a Global Heritage Stone Resource, such as the distinctive mark on

  1. Chronic kidney disease in kidney stone formers.

    PubMed

    Rule, Andrew D; Krambeck, Amy E; Lieske, John C

    2011-08-01

    Recent population studies have found symptomatic kidney stone formers to be at increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although kidney stones are not commonly identified as the primary cause of ESRD, they still may be important contributing factors. Paradoxically, CKD can be protective against forming kidney stones because of the substantial reduction in urine calcium excretion. Among stone formers, those with rare hereditary diseases (cystinuria, primary hyperoxaluria, Dent disease, and 2,8 dihydroxyadenine stones), recurrent urinary tract infections, struvite stones, hypertension, and diabetes seem to be at highest risk for CKD. The primary mechanism for CKD from kidney stones is usually attributed to an obstructive uropathy or pyelonephritis, but crystal plugs at the ducts of Bellini and parenchymal injury from shockwave lithotripsy may also contribute. The historical shift to less invasive surgical management of kidney stones has likely had a beneficial impact on the risk for CKD. Among potential kidney donors, past symptomatic kidney stones but not radiographic stones found on computed tomography scans were associated with albuminuria. Kidney stones detected by ultrasound screening have also been associated with CKD in the general population. Further studies that better classify CKD, better characterize stone formers, more thoroughly address potential confounding by comorbidities, and have active instead of passive follow-up to avoid detection bias are needed.

  2. Intraperitoneal stone migration during percutaneos nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Diri, Akif; Karakan, Tolga; Resorlu, Mustafa; Kabar, Mucahit; Germiyanoglu, Cankon

    2014-12-01

    Percutaneos nephrolithotomy (PNL) is the standard care for renal stones larger than 2 cm. The procedure has some major and minor complications. Renal pelvis laceration and stone migration to the retroperitoneum is one of the rare condition. We report the first case of intraperitoneal stone migration during PNL. PMID:25641455

  3. Barium stone impaction in parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Erhan, Y; Koyuncu, A; Osmanoglu, N

    1995-06-01

    Autonomic symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension, abnormal sweating and constipation occur frequently in Parkinson's disease. In our case, barium meal used for upper gastrointestinal study caused barium stone formation and a paralytic-ileus-like syndrome. Therefore, attention should be paid while using barium meal for diagnostic purpose in Parkinsonism. PMID:7474296

  4. Developing disease resistant stone fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stone fruit (Prunus spp.) (peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, cherry) and almonds are susceptible to a number of pathogens. These pathogens can cause extensive losses in the field, during transport and storage, and in the market. Breeding for disease resistance requires an extensive knowledge of the...

  5. "Stone Cold": Worthy of Study?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douthwaite, Alison

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on my experiences of teaching "Stone Cold" to respond to a blog post suggesting that the novel holds little educational value. I argue that the novel's narrative style helps to foster criticality while its subject matter can help students see the relevance of literature to the world around them. Relating this to…

  6. Management of lower-pole caliceal stones.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Glenn S

    2003-09-01

    A series of 205 urologists answered questions about their choice of treatment for lower-caliceal stones. The preferred approaches were extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) for stones <1 cm and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for those >2 cm. For stones of 1 to 2 cm, 65% preferred SWL and 30% would advise PCNL. Thus, SWL is recommended for lower-caliceal stones more frequently than is justified by published success rates. Continued efforts need to be made to inform practicing urologists regarding the most appropriate therapy for patients with lower-pole stones >1 cm.

  7. Endoscopic management of upper urinary tract stones.

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, D. A.; Buist, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    In a two year period from March 1983, 157 patients with upper urinary tract stones were managed primarily by endoscopy. Of 90 patients with renal stones, extraction was achieved in 91% of patients with complete extraction in 76%. Of the remaining patients with ureteric stones, successful extraction was achieved in 75%. Ten patients required open surgery which was for failed extraction in 9. Morbidity is low with a mean hospital stay of 4.7 days for patients with kidney stones, and of 3.7 days for patients undergoing extraction of ureteric stones. Images Fig. 2 PMID:3954313

  8. Effect of surface-specific training on 20-m sprint performance on sand and grass surfaces.

    PubMed

    Binnie, Martyn J; Peeling, Peter; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Dawson, Brian

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the effect of an 8-week preseason conditioning program conducted on a sand (SAND) or grass (GRASS) surface on 20-m sprint performance. Twelve team-sport athletes were required to attend three 1-hour training sessions per week, including 2 surface-specific sessions (SAND, n = 6 or GRASS, n = 6) and 1 group session (conducted on grass). Throughout the training period, 20-m sprint times of all athletes were recorded on both sand and grass surfaces at the end of weeks 1, 4, and 8. Results showed a significant improvement in 20-m sand time in the SAND group only (p < 0.05), whereas 20-m grass time improved equally in both training subgroups (p < 0.05). These results suggest that surface-specificity is essential for 20-m speed improvements on sand and also that there is no detriment to grass speed gains when incorporating sand surfaces into a preseason program.

  9. Macromolecules Relevant to Stone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryall, Rosemary L.; Cook, Alison F.; Thurgood, Lauren A.; Grover, Phulwinder K.

    2007-04-01

    Despite years of research, no single macromolecule in kidney calculi or in urine has yet been shown to fulfill a specific function in stone pathogenesis. In this paper we briefly review papers investigating the urinary excretion of individual macromolecules, their effects on calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystallization and attachment of crystals to renal epithelial cells, and the influence of lithogenic conditions on their renal expression in cultured cells and animal models. Using prothrombin fragment 1 (PTF1) and human serum albumin as examples, we show the types of patterns resulting from the binding of a fluorescently tagged protein to a specific CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystal face and its incorporation into the crystal structure. Molecular modeling is also used to illustrate how PTF1 can align with the atomic array on a COM crystal surface. We conclude that although many macromolecules are, by strict definition, relevant to stone formation, very few are probably truly influential.

  10. Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2008-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

  11. Greco-Roman Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

  12. The Matariki Stone of Rapanui

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, T. A.

    2005-12-01

    Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it is the result of in situ investigation (2000). The boulder is 1 m x 1.5 m x 2 m in approximate size and weighs in excess of 10,000 kg. According to local informants, at least six cupules, averaging 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth, were placed in it prior to western contact with the island and prior to transport to the boulder's present location. Information about the Matariki Stone's original setting, orientation, and context is lost. "Matariki" means "Pleiades" (or, more generally, a group of stars). However, the pattern of the Matariki Stone cupules strongly resembles another familiar asterism of third-magnitude stars. 2 These zodiac stars were placed significantly in the Rapanui sky of 1500 CE. Yet no local ethnographic evidence mentions these stars, nor is association with these stars and other regional cultures (e. g., Australian aboriginal and Mayan) compelling. 3 Moreover, there is no Polynesian tradition of constellation depiction in rock art at all, whereas the Pleiades figure prominently in that culture's oral tradition. 4 Thus, the Matariki Stone remains a conundrum. 1 Liller, William. The Ancient Solar Observatories of Rapanui: The Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island. (1993) 2 Hockey, Thomas and Hoffman, Alice. "An Archaeoastronomical Investigation: Does A Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" Rapa Nui Journal. 14, no. 3. (2000) 3 For example, Kelly, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (2005) 4 For example, Makemson, Maude. The Morning Star Rises. (1941)

  13. Flexible ureteroscopy for kidney stones in children.

    PubMed

    Defidio, Lorenzo; De Dominicis, Mauro

    2010-03-01

    Endoscopic evaluation and management of different pathological conditions involving the upper urinary tract using rigid or flexible endoscopes, is now readily feasible and has been shown to be safe and efficacious even in the smallest children. Paediatric ureteroscopic procedures are similar to their adult counterparts, so that basic endoscopic principles should be observed. Aims of the management should be complete clearance of stones, preservation of renal function and prevention of stone recurrence. In order to select the most appropriate surgical treatment, location, composition, and size of the stone(s), the anatomy of the collecting system, and the presence of obstruction along with the presence of infection of the urinary tract should be considered. Although extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still the most important procedure for treating urinary stones, advances in flexible endoscopes, intracorporeal lithotripsy, and extraction instruments have led to a shift in the range of indications. According to the location of the stone the treatment can be done with the rigid or flexible ureteroscope. To obtain stone fragments is essentialfor biochemical analysis. The stone composition may give significant information to prevent the high rate of recurrence, with dietary modification and specific therapy. Successful outcomes for the retrograde treatment of renal calculi are similar to the ones obtained in the adult population (stone free rate 91-98%). The retrograde semirigid and flexible ureteropyeloscopy, using a small calibre ureteroscope, are a valuable technique for kidney stones treatment in children. With excellent technique and meticulous attention to details, the significant complications are rare.

  14. Preventing stone retropulsion during intracorporeal lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Elashry, Osama M; Tawfik, Ahmad M

    2012-12-01

    Several studies of ureteroscopic treatment for ureteral stones have reported that most stone clearance failures can be attributed to stone fragment retropulsion. Stone retropulsion can result in increased operative time and cost-resulting from the need to change from the semi-rigid ureteroscope to a flexible instrument to chase migrated calculi-and additional procedures to treat residual migrated fragments are often required. The degree of migration depends mainly on the energy source used for lithotripsy; pneumatic and electrohydraulic lithotripters are associated with a greater degree of retropulsion than lasers. Different stone-trapping strategies and devices have been developed to minimize stone migration. Novel devices include the Lithovac(®) suction device, the Passport(™) balloon, the Stone Cone(™), the PercSys Accordion(®), the NTrap(®), and stone baskets such as the LithoCatch(™), the Parachute(™), and the Escape(®). Some authors have also reported on the use of lubricating jelly and BackStop(®) gel (a reverse thermosensitive polymeric plug); these devices are instilled proximal to the stone prior to the application of kinetic energy in order to prevent retrograde stone migration.

  15. Flexible ureteroscopy for kidney stones in children.

    PubMed

    Defidio, Lorenzo; De Dominicis, Mauro

    2010-03-01

    Endoscopic evaluation and management of different pathological conditions involving the upper urinary tract using rigid or flexible endoscopes, is now readily feasible and has been shown to be safe and efficacious even in the smallest children. Paediatric ureteroscopic procedures are similar to their adult counterparts, so that basic endoscopic principles should be observed. Aims of the management should be complete clearance of stones, preservation of renal function and prevention of stone recurrence. In order to select the most appropriate surgical treatment, location, composition, and size of the stone(s), the anatomy of the collecting system, and the presence of obstruction along with the presence of infection of the urinary tract should be considered. Although extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still the most important procedure for treating urinary stones, advances in flexible endoscopes, intracorporeal lithotripsy, and extraction instruments have led to a shift in the range of indications. According to the location of the stone the treatment can be done with the rigid or flexible ureteroscope. To obtain stone fragments is essentialfor biochemical analysis. The stone composition may give significant information to prevent the high rate of recurrence, with dietary modification and specific therapy. Successful outcomes for the retrograde treatment of renal calculi are similar to the ones obtained in the adult population (stone free rate 91-98%). The retrograde semirigid and flexible ureteropyeloscopy, using a small calibre ureteroscope, are a valuable technique for kidney stones treatment in children. With excellent technique and meticulous attention to details, the significant complications are rare. PMID:20593723

  16. Percutaneous cholecystolithotomy: is gall stone recurrence inevitable?

    PubMed Central

    Donald, J J; Cheslyn-Curtis, S; Gillams, A R; Russell, R C; Lees, W R

    1994-01-01

    Using radiological interventional techniques the gall bladder can be cleared of stones with a high success rate. As with any treatment option that leaves the gall bladder in situ there is an accompanying risk of stone recurrence, which is currently unknown for the radiological method. One hundred patients were studied prospectively to determine the recurrence rate of stones and clinical outcome after successful percutaneous cholecystolithotomy. Follow up included both clinical assessment and ultrasound examination at 3, 6, and 12 months and then annual intervals thereafter. The overall stone recurrence rate was 31% at a mean follow up of 26 months (range, 3-50 months). By actuarial life table analysis, the cumulative proportion of gall stone recurrence was 7, 19, 28, 35, and 44% at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months respectively. Of the 31 patients with recurrent stones; 17 remain asymptomatic, seven have experienced biliary colic, two abdominal pain, three non-specific upper gastrointestinal symptoms, and two jaundice secondary to common duct stones. Thirteen of the stone free patients have remained symptomatic; six with abdominal pain and seven with nonspecific upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Eight patients have subsequently had a cholecystectomy. No significant difference was found between the sex of the patient or the number of stones before treatment and the stone recurrence rates. The cumulative stone recurrence rate was significantly less in the 56 patients who received adjuvant chemolitholysis (p < 0.05). These data show that stone recurrence after successful percutaneous cholecystolithotomy occurs in the minority, and is usually asymptomatic. It is concluded that the technique remains justified in the management of selected patients with gall stones. PMID:8200568

  17. Management of stone disease in infants.

    PubMed

    Azili, Mujdem Nur; Ozturk, Fatma; Inozu, Mihriban; Çayci, Fatma Şemsa; Acar, Banu; Ozmert, Sengul; Tiryaki, Tugrul

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating and treating renal stone disease in infants are technically challenging. In this study, we evaluated the surgical treatment of renal stones in children under 1 year of age. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients under 1 year old who were treated with ESWL, endourological or open surgical procedures for renal stone disease between January, 2009 and December, 2012. The patients' age, gender, stone size, stone location and number, complications, stone-free status, and postoperative complications were recorded. 19 of 121 infants with a mean age of 10.2 ± 3.07 months were treated with surgical procedures. Six (75%) of eight cystinuria patients required a surgical intervention. Retrograde endoscopic management was performed in thirteen patients (63.4%) as an initial surgical approach. There were three major (15.7%) complications. The rate of open surgical procedures was 31.6% (6 of 19 infants). The cutoff value of stone size for open surgery was 10 mm. There was a significant relationship between the conversion to open procedures and stone size, stone location, and symptom presentation especially the presence of obstruction (p < 0.05). After repeated treatments, the stone clearance rate of RIRS reached 84.6%. Retrograde intrarenal surgery is an effective and safe treatment method for renal stones in infants and can be used as a first-line therapy in most patients under 1 year old. This is especially important if an associated ureteral stone or lower pole stone that requires treatment is present and for patients with cystinuria, which does not respond favorably to ESWL.

  18. Emergency management of ureteral stones: Recent advances.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Luis; Lima, Estêvão; Autorino, Riccardo; Marcelo, Filinto

    2008-10-01

    Most ureteral stones can be observed with reasonable expectation of uneventful stone passage. When an active ureteral stone treatment is warranted, the best procedure to choose is dependent on several factors, besides stone size and location, including operators' experience, patients' preference, available equipment and related costs. Placement of double-J stent or nephrostomy tube represents the classical procedures performed in a renal colic due to acute ureteral obstruction when the conservative drug therapy does not resolve the symptoms. These maneuvers are usually followed by ureteroscopy or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, which currently represent the mainstay of treatment for ureteral stones. In this review paper a literature search was performed to identify reports dealing with emergency management of renal colic due to ureteral stones. The main aspects related to this debated issue are analyzed and the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment option are carefully discussed.

  19. Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, F.; Schillinger, B.; Rohatsch, A.; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.

    2009-06-01

    The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

  20. Clonorcis sinensis eggs are associated with calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2014-10-01

    Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones were easily neglected because they were previously reported as a rare stone type in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between calcium carbonate stones and Clonorchis sinensis infection. A total of 598 gallbladder stones were studied. The stone types were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The C. sinensis eggs and DNA were detected by microscopic examination and real-time fluorescent PCR respectively. And then, some egg-positive stones were randomly selected for further SEM examination. Corresponding clinical characteristics of patients with different types of stones were also statistically analyzed. The detection rate of C. sinensis eggs in calcium carbonate stone, pigment stone, mixed stone and cholesterol stone types, as well as other stone types was 60%, 44%, 36%, 6% and 30%, respectively, which was highest in calcium carbonate stone yet lowest in cholesterol stone. A total of 182 stones were egg-positive, 67 (37%) of which were calcium carbonate stones. The C. sinensis eggs were found adherent to calcium carbonate crystals by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Patients with calcium carbonate stones were mainly male between the ages of 30 and 60, the CO2 combining power of patients with calcium carbonate stones were higher than those with cholesterol stones. Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones are not rare, the formation of which may be associated with C. sinensis infection.

  1. 6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE TO LEFT OF STONES ADJUSTS SPACE BETWEEN STONES, THUS CONTROLING FINENESS OF FLOUR. STONE CRANE AT RIGHT USED TO LIFT STONES FOR DRESSING). OTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IDENTIFIED. NOTE STAIRS IN LEFT REAR. - Hildebrand's Mill, Flint, Delaware County, OK

  2. The recurrence rate of stones following ESWL.

    PubMed

    Köhrmann, K U; Rassweiler, J; Alken, P

    1993-01-01

    With extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) stone fragmentation and the potential creation of residual stones has become an integral part of the treatment strategy. Therefore true recurrence, regrowth and pseudo-recurrence determine the rate of new stone formation. In unselected series the overall recurrence rate after ESWL varies between 6% after 1 year and 20% after 4 years. The comparison between the recurrence rate after ESWL and the natural recurrence rate reveals that the results of ESWL are better than expected. Lithotripsy has no special effect on true stone recurrence, and even pseudo-recurrence is of minor clinical significance.

  3. Modern management of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, James

    2013-04-01

    It is imperative for gastroenterologists to understand the different formations of bile duct stones and the various medical treatments available. To minimize the complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), it is critical to appropriately assess the risk of bile duct stones before intervention. Biliary endoscopists should be comfortable with the basic techniques of stone removal, including sphincterotomy, mechanical lithotripsy, and stent placement. It is important to be aware of advanced options, including laser and electrohydraulic stone fragmentation, and papillary dilatation for problematic cases. The timing and need for ERCP in those who require a cholecystectomy is also a consideration. PMID:23540960

  4. STONES: Passing a stone in your sleep might be easier than you think

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2014-01-01

    Passing kidney calculi can be excruciatingly painful for patients, likened to childbirth in intensity. The mechanism of the simple act of passing a stone, however, is not well understood. A recent research article examined a novel approach for optimizing kidney stone clearance—sleep position, a simple noninvasive concept that might improve urinary stone passage. PMID:21878879

  5. Global stone heritage: larvikite, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldal, Tom; Dahl, Rolv

    2013-04-01

    Larvikite has for more than hundred years been appreciated as one of the world's most attractive dimension-stones, and at present time its production and use is more extensive than ever. The main reason for the continuous success of the larvikite on the world market is the blue iridescence displayed on polished surfaces, which is caused by optical interference in microscopic lamellae within the ternary feldspars. The larvikite complex consists of different intrusions defining several ring-shaped structures, emplaced during a period of approximately five million years. Following this pattern, several commercial subtypes of larvikite, characterised by their colour and iridescence, have been identified. The name "larvikite" was first applied by Waldemar Brøgger, in his descriptions of the monzonitic rocks within the southern part of the Carboniferous-Permian Oslo Igneous Province. The name has its origin in the small coastal town of Larvik, situated almost right in the centre of the main plutonic complex of larvikite. From a geologist's point of view, the larvikites are important for understanding the igneous mechanisms behind the formation of the Oslo rift, representing a series of semi-circular intrusions, varying from quartz-bearing monzonites in the east (earliest phases) towards nepheline-bearing monzonites and nepheline syenite in the west (latest phases). However, most other people see larvikite as a particularly beautiful rock. Production started already in the 1880s, and at present time the export value of rough blocks of dimension-stone from the Larvik Region is close to 100 million euro, distributed on approximately 20 individual quarries. Different types of larvikite have different market value, and the customers can choose between a range of types and qualities under trade names such as "Blue Pearl", "Emerald Pearl" and "Marina Pearl". Globally, larvikite has put a significant mark on architecture around the world, and should be included in the global

  6. A Lion of a Stone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image of the rock called 'Lion Stone' was acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 104 (May 9, 2004). The rock stands about 10 centimeters tall (about 4 inches) and is about 30 centimeters long (12 inches). Plans for the coming sols include investigating the rock with the spectrometers on the rover's instrument arm.

    This image was generated using the camera's L2 (750-nanometer), L5 (530-nanometer) and L6 (480-nanometer) filters.

  7. Changes in stone composition over two decades: evaluation of over 10,000 stone analyses.

    PubMed

    Moses, Rachel; Pais, Vernon M; Ursiny, Michal; Prien, Edwin L; Miller, Nicole; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-04-01

    To examine the changes in stone composition from 1990 to 2010. A retrospective review was performed of all renal and ureteral stones submitted from the state of Massachusetts to a single laboratory (Laboratory for Stone Research, Newton, MA) for the years 1990 and 2010. Stone composition was determined by infrared spectroscopy and/or polarizing microscopy. A total of 11,099 stones were evaluated (56.7% from 1990, 43.3% from 2010). From 1990 to 2010, the percentage of stones from females (i.e., female/male ratio) increased significantly (29.8% in 1990 to 39.1% in 2010, p < 0.001). Among women, from 1990 to 2010, there was a significant increase in stones which were >50% uric acid (7.6-10.2%, p < 0.005) and a significant decrease in struvite stones (7.8-3.0%, p < 0.001). Among women with calcium stones, the % apatite per stone decreased significantly (20.0 vs. 11.7%, p < 0.001). Among men, there were no changes in stones which were majority uric acid (11.7-10.8%, p = 0.2). Among men with calcium stones, the % apatite per stone increased significantly (9.8 vs. 12.5%, p < 0.001). Males also demonstrated a significant increase in both cystine (0.1-0.6%, p < 0.001) and struvite stones (2.8-3.7%, p = 0.02). The epidemiology of stone disease continues to evolve and appears to vary according to gender. While some of these findings may be related to population changes in body mass index and obesity, the etiology of others remains unclear. PMID:25689875

  8. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of pancreatic duct stones.

    PubMed

    Rawat, B; Fache, J S; Burhenne, H J

    1992-01-01

    Encouraging results with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for pancreatic duct stones have been reported from Europe. We present our experience with the first two North American patients, treated with excellent results in one and limited clinical improvement in the other patient at 1 year follow-up. Targeting of pancreatic duct stones was achieved with either fluoroscopy or ultrasound.

  9. Nutrition and renal stone disease in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis.

  10. Ventricular candidiasis in stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus).

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    Ventricular candidiasis is consistently one of the most prominent pathologic conditions diagnosed in stone curlews (Burhinus oedicnemus) in the United Arab Emirates, predominately affecting the captive population. Predisposing factors are a humid environment, stress, immunosuppression, inadequate nutrition, and an extended use of oral antibiotics. In this report, we describe the clinical signs, diagnosis, and pathologic result in stone curlews with ventricular candidiasis.

  11. Sludge, stones and sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, A A; Olatunji, P O

    2002-12-01

    A total of ninety-seven paediatric and adult patients with sickle cell anaemia and fourty-eight control subjects were investigated with the aim of determining the content of the gallbladder. The patients and control subjects were categorised according to the presence or otherwise of gallbladder stones, and, or sludge. The age last birthday, PCV and number of crises per year were recorded in order to determine their influence on the development of gallbladder stones and sludge. The gallbladder contents were examined using ultrasonographic technique. The age and number of crises per year was determined from the clinical record files and direct questioning of patients. Seventy patients had normal gallbladder content while eighteen had sludge, six had stones, and three had a combination of sludge and stones. None of the control subjects had sludge or stone. The age of patients increased from progressively from those with normal content through those with sludge to those with stones. The PCV and number of crises per year only differentiated between normal and abnormal gallbladder contents. While the prevalence of gallbladder stones in this study falls within the range in previous studies, a high prevalence of sludge was observed. The association between the occurrence of sludge and stones with age, PVC and number of crises per year suggests the need for a larger series and that they may identify a group of patients requiring closer monitoring.

  12. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Killilea, David W.; Westropp, Jodi L.; Shiraki, Ryoji; Mellema, Matthew; Larsen, Jennifer; Kahn, Arnold J.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease. PMID:26066810

  13. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of primary intrahepatic stones.

    PubMed

    Kim, M H; Lee, S K; Min, Y I; Lee, M G; Sung, K B; Cho, K S; Lee, S G; Min, P C

    1992-01-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithothripsy (ESWL) was performed in intrahepatic stone patients (n = 18) by Dornier MPL 9,000 with ultrasound guidance. The patients had T-tube (n = 9) or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tube (n = 9). Average treatment session was four and shock-wave numbers were in the range of 3,064 to 12,000 (average 6,288 shocks). Intrahepatic stones were removed completely in 16 patients over a 3 month period by ESWL and combined stone extraction maneuver such as cholangioscopic or interventional radiologic method. Extracorporeal shockwave lithothripsy was very helpful in facilitating extraction of stones in unfavorable locations or located above the severe stricture. In summary, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, followed by percutaneous stone extraction, will provide an improvement in the success rate and duration of treatment required for complete removal of primary hepatolithiasis.

  14. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    PubMed

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones.

  15. Kidney stone risk following modern bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Ricardo D; Canales, Benjamin K

    2014-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, a variety of reports have linked bariatric surgery to metabolic changes that alter kidney stone risk. Most of these studies were retrospective, lacked appropriate controls, or involved bariatric patients with a variety of inclusion criteria. Despite these limitations, recent clinical and experimental research has contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of stone disease in this high-risk population. This review summarizes the urinary chemistry profiles that may be responsible for the increased kidney stone incidence seen in contemporary epidemiological bariatric studies, outlines the mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and potential therapies through a newly described experimental bariatric animal model, and provides a focused appraisal of recommendations for reducing stone risk in bariatric stone formers.

  16. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    PubMed

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones. PMID:26378390

  17. Protecting Space Travelers from Kidney Stones: Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Renal stones, popularly known as kidney or bladder stones, are small rock-like objects formed in the kidneys or urinary tract by deposits of calcium and other minerals. The problem arises when the stones block the drainage of the kidney, resulting in urinary obstruction and pain. Passing these stones can be one of the most painful experiences a person will endure so doctors often prescribe pain relievers to ease the experience. Drinking plenty of fluids, which help flush waste out of the body, and eating a well-balanced diet are the first steps to preventing stones. For individuals at risk, this may not be enough, and a doctor may recommend a special diet and medications. Unfortunately, approximately 60 percent of people who have had a renal stone will experience a recurrence. This is particularly true of men, who are four to five times more likely to develop stones than women. Renal stones do not discriminate based on age; even children are at risk. Astronauts are particularly at risk of developing renal stones because they lose bone and muscle mass; calcium, other minerals, and protein normally used for bone and muscle end up in the bloodstream and then in the kidneys. Without plenty of fluid to wash them away, crystals can form and then grow into stones. This factor compounds the risk for astronauts, since they also perceive that they are less thirsty in space and will drink less than normal during the mission. To minimize all of these factors, doctors must instead treat the stone-forming compounds with medication. This study will use potassium citrate to reduce the risk of stone formation. Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. During STS-107, earthbound preventions and treatments become astronauts

  18. Shockwave lithotripsy of salivary duct stones.

    PubMed

    Iro, H; Schneider, H T; Födra, C; Waitz, G; Nitsche, N; Heinritz, H H; Benninger, J; Ell, C

    1992-05-30

    Surgical extirpation of the affected gland has been necessary for cases of sialolithiasis in which the stone cannot be removed by dilatation or dissection of the salivary duct. The ability of the piezoelectric lithotripter to deliver shockwaves to a small focus makes extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of salivary gland stones potentially safe. Its safety and efficacy have been assessed in 51 patients with symptomatic solitary salivary stones that could not be removed by conservative measures. The stones had a median diameter of 8 (range 4-18) mm and were located in the submandibular gland in 69% of patients and in the parotid gland in 31%. A total of 72 shockwave treatment sessions (maximum 3 per patient) were given under continuous sonographic monitoring. In 45 patients (88%) complete fragmentation (fragments less than or equal to 3 mm) of the concrements was achieved. No patient needed anaesthesia, sedatives, or analgesics. The only untoward effects were localised petechial haemorrhages after 10 (13%) out of 72 treatments and transient swelling of the gland immediately after delivery of shockwave in 2/72 (3%) sessions. 20 weeks after the first session 90% (46/51) of patients were free of discomfort, and 53% (27/51) were stone free. Stone-clearance rate was higher among patients with stones in the parotid gland (81%) than among those with stones of the submandibular gland (40%). Auxiliary measures such as dilatation or dissection of the salivary duct were required only in patients with stones in the submandibular gland (20%). No long-term damage to the treated salivary gland or to adjacent tissue structures was noted during the median follow-up of 9 (1-24) months. Extracorporeal piezoelectric shockwave therapy seems likely to be safe, comfortable, and effective minimally-invasive, non-surgical treatment for salivary stones.

  19. Optimum nutrition for kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Heilberg, Ita P; Goldfarb, David S

    2013-03-01

    We summarize the data regarding the associations of individual dietary components with kidney stones and the effects on 24-hour urinary profiles. The therapeutic recommendations for stone prevention that result from these studies are applied where possible to stones of specific composition. Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone-formers are advised to reduce ingestion of animal protein, oxalate, and sodium while maintaining intake of 800 to 1200 mg of calcium and increasing consumption of citrate and potassium. There are few data regarding dietary therapy of calcium phosphate stones. Whether the inhibitory effect of citrate sufficiently counteracts increasing urine pH to justify more intake of potassium and citrate is not clear. Reduction of sodium intake to decrease urinary calcium excretion would also be expected to decrease calcium phosphate stone recurrence. Conversely, the most important urine variable in the causation of uric acid stones is low urine pH, linked to insulin resistance as a component of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The mainstay of therapy is weight loss and urinary alkalinization provided by a more vegetarian diet. Reduction in animal protein intake will reduce purine ingestion and uric acid excretion. For cystine stones, restriction of animal protein is associated with reduction in intake of the cystine precursor methionine as well as cystine. Reduction of urine sodium results in less urine cystine. Ingestion of vegetables high in organic anion content, such as citrate and malate, should be associated with higher urine pH and fewer stones because the amino acid cystine is soluble in more alkaline urine. Because of their infectious origin, diet has no definitive role for struvite stones except for avoiding urinary alkalinization, which may worsen their development.

  20. EDAX versus FTIR in mixed stones.

    PubMed

    Fazil Marickar, Y M; Lekshmi, P R; Varma, Luxmi; Koshy, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Mixed stones form a significant number of all urinary stones. Accurate analysis of individual areas of stones is fraught with uncertainties. Scanning electron microscopy with elemental distribution analysis (SEM-EDAX) is a very important tool in assessing stone composition. The objective of this paper is to project the role of the combination of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and SEM-EDAX combination in achieving a total understanding of mixed stone morphology. Ten mixed urinary stones were washed and dried and the composition recognized by analysis of FTIR spectra by comparing with the spectra of pure components. Spectra for different layers were obtained. Then the stone samples were further studied by SEM-EDAX analysis. The findings of FTIR were correlated with SEM-EDAX and detailed data generated. Using SEM-EDAX, the spatial distribution of major and trace elements were studied to understand their initiation and formation. As much as 80% of the stones studied were mixtures of calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) in various proportions. Quantitative evaluation of components was achieved through FTIR and SEM-EDAX analysis. It was possible to get an idea about the spatial distribution of molecules using SEM analysis. The composition of different areas was identified using EDAX. Analyzing with EDAX, it was possible to obtain the percentage of different elements present in a single sample. The study concludes that the most common mixed stone encountered in the study is a mixture of calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium phosphate in a definite proportion. The combination identified not only the molecular species present in the calculus, but also the crystalline forms within chemical constituents. Using EDAX, the amount of calcium, phosphorus, oxygen and carbon present in the stone sample could be well understood.

  1. Surface-specific flow factors for prediction of friction of cross-hatched surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leighton, M.; Rahmani, R.; Rahnejat, H.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a combined numerical and experimental study of generated sliding friction at low sliding speeds and high load intensity, typical of the top compression ring-cylinder liner conjunction at top dead centre in the compression stroke of high performance race engines. Frictional losses in the transition from compression to power stroke represent a significant portion of cyclic cylinder losses. The cylinder liner is cross-hatch honed with non-Gaussian topography, including larger groove features and a fairly smooth plateau roughness. Surface-specific flow factors are derived to closely represent the actual real rough conjunction. The predictions closely agree with the representative reported precision tribometric study of measured friction.

  2. Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

  3. Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

  4. Stone orientation affects the mechanism of failure in artificial kidney stones subject to shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Cauwelaert, Javier; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2003-10-01

    Micro computed tomography (CT) imaging was used to follow the progressive development of cracks in artificial kidney stones. The artificial stones were made from U30 cement with a cylindrical shape (6.5 mm diameter and 8.5 mm long). The stones were held within a polypropylene vial in one of three orientations: vertical, horizontal, and angled at 45 deg. The stones were treated with an electromagnetic lithotripter and the initiation and growth of cracks was observed using microCT. The images show that the orientation of the stones with respect to the shock changes the dominant mechanism for fragmentation. Vertical stones developed a spall-like crack near the distal surface, which propagated from the surface to the interior of the stone. Initiation of a secondary spall-like crack was observed proximal to the first crack. Little surface damage was observed. Horizontal stones presented pitting in the proximal surface and erosion in lateral faces, indicating the action of cavitation. Angled stones presented both spall-like fracture in either the leading or the distal corners and surface damage (pitting) in the proximal surface. Experiments are being performed to follow the development of cracks in human kidney stones. [Work supported by the Whitaker Foundation.

  5. Endoscopic lithotripsy for bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Lee, J G; Leung, J W

    1993-01-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy and common duct stone extraction is successful in 85-90% of patients using conventional balloons and baskets. However, most patients with biliary stones > 2 cm will require mechanical, electrohydraulic, or laser lithotripsy prior to stone extraction. Mechanical lithotripsy is inexpensive, easy to perform, and effective in 80-90% of cases. Most failures result from inability to entrap the stone in the lithotripsy basket. These cases may be successfully treated using either electrohydraulic or laser lithotripsy (intraductal shockwave lithotripsy). In most cases, intraductal shockwave lithotripsy requires direct visual control. Due to difficulty with peroral cholangioscopy, these techniques will not be widely used until a smaller, more maneuverable "mother and baby scope" system is developed. We recommend mechanical lithotripsy as the initial treatment for large biliary stones. Failed cases should be referred to specialized centers for a repeat attempt with intraductal shockwave lithotripsy. With this approach, an experienced endoscopist is successful in removing biliary stones in over 95% of patients. Long term biliary stenting remains a viable option for the high risk patients with large common bile duct stones.

  6. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-11

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

  7. [Calcium kidney stones. Diagnostic and preventive prospects].

    PubMed

    Arcidiacono, T; Terranegra, A; Biasion, R; Soldati, L; Vezzoli, G

    2007-01-01

    Kidney stone disease is one of the main causes of hospitalization in Italy. Its prevalence increased in the last century and is probably still increasing. The pathogenesis of the disease is not known, although two main theories have been elaborated. The first hypothesizes that hydroxyapatite deposition in the interstitium of the renal papillae (Randall's plaque) precedes urinary calcium oxalate precipitation on the ulcered surface of the papilla to form a stone. The second presumes the tubular lumen of Bellini's duct to be the site where calcium-oxalate salts precipitate to form the nucleus for stone formation within the urinary tract. These pathogenetic processes may be favored by different dietary and genetic factors. The genes involved are not known, although many studies have been performed. Polymorphisms of genes coding for the vitamin D receptor, calcium-sensing receptor, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, and urokinase were found to be associated with kidney stones, but these results have not been replicated. Different nutrients are suspected to predispose patients to calcium kidney stone disease. A high intake of animal proteins, sodium, vitamin C and oxalate has been implicated in stone formation, whereas calcium, alkalis and phytate may have a protective effect. The prevention of calcium stone formation is based on the recognition of risk factors like those already mentioned here. Furthermore, a family history of kidney stones may be useful in identifying subjects predisposed to become calcium stone formers. However, the expectations of the scientific community are turned to the advances in genetics and to the findings of genetic studies, which may provide diagnostic tools and criteria to define the risk profile of the single individual.

  8. Managing acute and chronic renal stone disease.

    PubMed

    Moran, Conor P; Courtney, Aisling E

    2016-02-01

    Nephrolithiasis, or renal stone disease, is common and the incidence is increasing globally. In the UK the lifetime risk is estimated to be 8-10%. On a population level, the increase in stone incidence, erosion of gender disparity, and younger age of onset is likely to reflect increasing prevalence of obesity and a Western diet with a high intake of animal protein and salt. Stones can be detected by a variety of imaging techniques. The gold standard is a non-contrast CT of kidneys, ureters and bladder (CT KUB) which can identify > 99% of stones. CT KUB should be the primary mode of imaging for all patients with colic unless contraindicated. In such instances, or if a CT KUB is not available, an ultrasound KUB is an alternative. This has advantages in terms of radiation exposure and cost, but is limited in sensitivity, particularly for ureteric stones. Once diagnosed, a plain film KUB can be used for follow-up of radiopaque stones. For most patients diclofenac is a reasonable first choice of analgesia, e.g. 50-100 mg rectally, or 75 mg IM. Opioid medication can worsen nausea and be less effective, but should be used if there is a contraindication to NSAIDs. A combination of diclofenac, paracetamol, and/or codeine regularly can provide adequate pain control in many cases. Failure of this analgesic combination should prompt consideration of secondary care support. If a ureteric stone < 5 mm in diameter is identified, the expectation is that this will pass without intervention. Initially medical management is still useful for stones between 5 and 10mm in diameter, but urology input is more likely to be necessary as up to 50% of these may require intervention. Stones that are >10 mm in diameter should be discussed with the urology service as they are unlikely to pass spontaneously.

  9. Famous building stones of our Nation's capital

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital are constructed with rocks from quarries located throughout the United States and many distant lands. The earliest Government buildings, however, were constructed with stones from nearby sources because it was too difficult and expensive to move heavy materials such as stone any great distance without the aid of modern transportation methods, including large cargo ships, trains, and trucks. This fact sheet describes the source and appearance of three frequently used local stones employed in building Washington, D.C., and the geologic environment in which they were formed.

  10. INACCURATE REPORTING OF MINERAL COMPOSITION BY COMMERCIAL STONE ANALYSIS LABORATORIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR INFECTION AND METABOLIC STONES

    PubMed Central

    Krambeck, Amy E.; Khan, Naseem F.; Jackson, Molly E.; Lingeman, James E.; McAteer, James A; Williams, James C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy of stone composition analysis by commercial laboratories. METHODS 25 human renal stones with infrared spectroscopy (IR) determined compositions were fragmented into aliquots and studied with micro-computed tomography (CT) to ensure fragment similarity. Representative fragments of each stone were submitted to 5 commercial stone laboratories for blinded analysis. RESULTS All laboratories agreed on composition for 6 pure stones. Of 4 stones known to contain struvite, only 2(50%) were identified as struvite by all laboratories. Struvite was reported as a component by some laboratories for 4 stones previously determined not to contain struvite. Overall, there was disagreement regarding struvite in 6(24%) stones. For 9 calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones, all laboratories reported some mixture of CaOx, but the quantities of subtypes differed significantly among laboratories. In 6 apatite containing stones, apatite was missed by the laboratories in 20% of the samples. None of the laboratories identified atazanavir in a stone containing that antiviral drug. One laboratory reported protein in every sample, while all others reported it in only 1 sample. Nomenclature for apatite differed among laboratories, with one reporting apatite as carbonate apatite (CA) and never hydroxyapatite (HA), another never reporting CA and always reporting HA, and a third reporting CA as apatite with calcium carbonate. CONCLUSIONS Commercial laboratories reliably recognize pure calculi; however, variability in reporting of mixed calculi suggests a problem with accuracy of stone analysis results. Furthermore, there is a lack of standard nomenclature used by laboratories. PMID:20728108

  11. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    PubMed Central

    Cakıroglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  12. Salivary stones: symptoms, aetiology, biochemical composition and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kraaij, S; Karagozoglu, K H; Forouzanfar, T; Veerman, E C I; Brand, H S

    2014-12-01

    Salivary stones, also known as sialoliths, are calcified concrements in the salivary glands. Sialoliths are more frequently located in the submandibular gland (84%), than in the parotid gland (13%). The majority of the submandibular stones are located in Wharton's duct (90%), whereas parotid stones are more often located in the gland itself. Salivary stones consist of an amorphous mineralised nucleus, surrounded by concentric laminated layers of organic and inorganic substances. The organic components of salivary stones include collagen, glycoproteins, amino acids and carbohydrates. The major inorganic components are hydroxyapatite, carbonate apatite, whitlockite and brushite. The management of salivary stones is focused on removing the salivary stones and preservation of salivary gland function which depends on the size and location of the stone. Conservative management of salivary stones consists of salivary gland massage and the use of sialogogues. Other therapeutic options include removal of the stone or in some cases surgical removal of the whole salivary gland.

  13. Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built

  14. The nutrition consult for recurrent stone formers.

    PubMed

    Penniston, Kristina L

    2015-07-01

    Diet is implicated in stone formation and growth. Whether alone or in concert with pharmacologics, dietary changes may be useful in reducing recurrence but only when they correct dietary stone-forming risks. Patients benefit from recommendations individualized to their food preferences as well as to lifestyle, age, food knowledge and access, preparation skills, and cultural and ethnic identities. Urologists can provide general dietary recommendations but often lack the time to provide the full complement of individualized nutrition care offered by a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN). Urologists can partner with and refer patients to a RDN for any component of the nutrition care process: assessment of diet, diagnosis of dietary factors that contribute to stone risk factors, intervention formulation and implementation, and monitoring the effectiveness of the intervention and modifying it as needed to maintain suitably low dietary risk for stone recurrence.

  15. ESWL and the future of stone management.

    PubMed

    Eisenberger, F; Schmidt, A

    1993-01-01

    Based on optimal efficacy regarding disintegration and stone clearance, combined with minimal invasiveness, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) represents the first choice therapy for urolithiasis. Further developments in ESWL have related more to economic aspects than to improvement of disintegration efficacy or reduction of side effects. Routine indications for ESWL are well known and widely accepted. Its limitations are also well established: silent calyceal stones, calyceal diverticula stones, nephrolithiasis in horse-shoe kidneys, medullary sponge kidney, and residual fragments after ESWL. Although endourology provides new, less invasive and traumatic means of stone retrieval or disintegration, including laser lithotripsy, small ureteroscopes and actively deflectable uretero- and pyeloscopes, indications for an aggressive approach in such cases are limited to those who are symptomatic. In the case of distal ureteral calculi ureteroscopy in traureteral laser-induced shockwave lithotripsy open up new and interesting possibilities for the future.

  16. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of bile duct stones].

    PubMed

    Wenzel, H; Greiner, L; Jakobeit, C; Lazica, M; Thüroff, J

    1989-05-12

    Extracorporeal lithotripsy (EL) was undertaken in 50 patients (mean age 73.7 years; range 29-90 years) with extrahepatic and, in five, with intrahepatic gallstones, the usual endoscopic methods having been unsuccessful in removing the stones. Occasionally stone fragments were passed spontaneously, but in most they had to be removed endoscopically, in 48 (96%) with extrahepatic and in three (60%) with intrahepatic stones. Biliary tract or gallbladder infections occurred after the lithotripsy and associated local litholysis in seven of the 48 with extrahepatic (14%) and three of the five (60%) with intrahepatic stones. There was one hospital death. The results indicate that EL has definite advantages over surgical treatment in these patients, who are usually elderly and in whom surgical intervention is more risky.

  17. Adenoid Stones – “Adenoliths”

    PubMed Central

    Sakano, Hitomi; Thaker, Ameet I.; Davis, Greg E.

    2015-01-01

    Stones made of bacterial aggregates can be found in chronically inflamed lymphoid tissue such as hypertrophied tonsils. Although it is common to find tonsilloliths in cryptic tonsils, it is rare to find stones in adenoid tissue. Here we present an interesting case of a patient who underwent adenoidectomy for adenoid hypertrophy, recurrent malaise and upper respiratory infections. Intraoperatively we found numerous bright green stones in the crypts of the adenoid tissue, reminiscent of tonsilloliths in tonsillar crypts. Pathology revealed polymicrobial bacterial aggregates surrounded by neutrophils. Our findings suggest that the pathophysiology is similar to that of tonsillolith formation. Thus, we should at least consider the presence of adenoid stones and consider adenoidectomy for symptoms often attributed to tonsilloliths. We have coined the term “adenoliths” to describe this interesting finding and present it as a potential source of recurrent infection. PMID:26798664

  18. Non-conventional halide oxidation pathways : oxidation by imidazole triplet and surface specific oxidation by ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, Markus; Corral-Arroyo, Pablo; Aellig, Raphael; Orlando, Fabrizio; Lee, Ming-Tao; Artiglia, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Oxidation of halide ions (chloride, bromide, iodide) are the starting point of halogen release mechanisms out of sea water, marine aerosol or other halide containing continental aerosols. Slow oxidation of chloride and bromide by ozone in the bulk aqueous phase is of limited relevance. Faster surface specific oxidation has been suggested based on heterogeneous kinetics experiments. We provide first insight into very efficient bromide oxidation by ozone at the aqueous solution - air interface by surface sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicating significant build-up of an oxidized intermediate at the surface within millisecond time scales. The second source of oxidants in the condensed we have considered is the absorption of light by triplet forming photosensitizers at wavelengths longer than needed for direct photolysis and radical formation. We have performed coated wall flow tube experiments with mixtures of citric acid (CA) and imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) to represent secondary organic material rich marine aerosol. The halide ions bromide and iodide have been observed to act as efficient electron donors leading to their oxidation, HO2 formation and finally release of molecular halogen compounds. The photosensitization of imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) involves a well-known mechanism where the triplet excited state of IC is reduced by citric acid to a reduced ketyl radical that reacts with halide ions. A competition kinetics approach has been used to evaluate the rate limiting steps and to assess the significance of this source of halogens to the gas phase.

  19. Stone Composition as a Function of Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Andrew D.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Williams, James C.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Mehta, Ramila A.; Moyer, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Kidney stones are heterogeneous but often grouped together. The potential effects of patient demographics and calendar month (season) on stone composition are not widely appreciated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The first stone submitted by patients for analysis to the Mayo Clinic Metals Laboratory during 2010 was studied (n=43,545). Stones were classified in the following order: any struvite, any cystine, any uric acid, any brushite, majority (≥50%) calcium oxalate, or majority (≥50%) hydroxyapatite. Results Calcium oxalate (67%) was the most common followed by hydroxyapatite (16%), uric acid (8%), struvite (3%), brushite (0.9%), and cystine (0.35%). Men accounted for more stone submissions (58%) than women. However, women submitted more stones than men between the ages of 10–19 (63%) and 20–29 (62%) years. Women submitted the majority of hydroxyapatite (65%) and struvite (65%) stones, whereas men submitted the majority of calcium oxalate (64%) and uric acid (72%) stones (P<0.001). Although calcium oxalate stones were the most common type of stone overall, hydroxyapatite stones were the second most common before age 55 years, whereas uric acid stones were the second most common after age 55 years. More calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were submitted in the summer months (July and August; P<0.001), whereas the season did not influence other stone types. Conclusions It is well known that calcium oxalate stones are the most common stone type. However, age and sex have a marked influence on the type of stone formed. The higher number of stones submitted by women compared with men between the ages of 10 and 29 years old and the change in composition among the elderly favoring uric acid have not been widely appreciated. These data also suggest increases in stone risk during the summer, although this is restricted to calcium oxalate and uric acid stones. PMID:25278549

  20. Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200μm-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using

  1. Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-04-01

    The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

  2. The mechanisms of stone fragmentation in ESWL.

    PubMed

    Eisenmenger, W

    2001-05-01

    Currently, several mechanisms of kidney stone fragmentation in extracorporal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) are under discussion. As a new mechanism, the circumferential quasistatic compression or "squeezing" by evanescent waves in the stone has been introduced. In fragmentation experiments with self-focussing electromagnetic shock-wave generators with focal diameters comparable to or larger than the stone diameter, we observed first cleavage surfaces either parallel or perpendicular to the wave propagation direction. This is in agreement with the expectation of the "squeezing" mechanism. Because, for positive pulse pressures below 35 MPa and stones with radii of 15 mm or smaller, cleavage into only two fragments was observed, we developed a quantitative model of binary fragmentation by "quasistatic squeezing." This model predicts the ratio of the number of pulses for the fragmentation to 2-mm size and of the number of pulses required for the first cleavage into two parts. This "fragmentation-ratio" depends linearly alone on the stone radius and on the final size of the fragments. The experimental results for spherical artificial stones of 5 mm, 12 mm and 15 mm diameter at a pulse pressure of 11 MPa are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. Thus, binary fragmentation by quasistatic squeezing in ESWL as a new efficient fragmentation mechanism is also quantitatively verified.

  3. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy for isolated calyceal stones: How important is the stone location?

    PubMed Central

    Özgör, Faruk; Küçüktopcu, Onur; Şimşek, Abdulmuttalip; Sarılar, Ömer; Binbay, Murat; Gürbüz, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of percutaneous access site on the success and complication rates of isolated calyceal stones. Material and methods We retrospectively evaluated 2700 patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in our clinic between October 2002 and August 2014. We selected only the patients with isolated lower, middle or upper calyceal stones and we grouped the patients according to the location of their stones. Successful operation was defined as complete stone clearence or retention of stone fragments smaller than 4 mm which do not lead to infection, obstruction or pain requiring treatment. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were also recorded. Results Totally 360 patients underwent PNL for their isolated upper, middle and lower calyceal stones. Access sites for those patients were selected based on stone location. The stones were localized in the lower (n=304), middle (n=14), and upper (n=42) calices. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to operation and scopy times. Hemoglobin drop was seen more frequently in the upper calyceal access group, without any significant intergroup difference. Thoracic complications including hemothorax, pneumothorax and pleural effusion were more common in the upper calyceal access group (11.9%; p<0.001). Complete stone clerance was accomplished in 81.9%, 92.9% and 78.6% of the patients with lower, middle and upper calyceal stones respectively without any significant intergroup difference (p=0.537). Conclusion PNL is an effective and safe treatment modality for isolated calyceal kidney stones and upper calyceal access causes thoracic complications more than other access sites. PMID:26623144

  4. When should one perform shockwave lithotripsy for lower caliceal stones?

    PubMed

    Ilker, Y; Tarcan, T; Akdas, A

    1995-12-01

    Extracorporal shockwave lithotripsy of lower caliceal stones is often unrewarding because of the difficulty of passing stone fragments. We report our results in SWL of lower pole stones in 219 patients and compare them with the results of SWL of middle (82 patients) and upper pole (85 patients) stones. The stone-free rate of SWL monotherapy was found to be 59%, 77%, and 64% in lower, middle, and upper caliceal stones, respectively. In lower pole stones, SWL was unsuccessful in 41% of the patients, of whom 9% had minimal residual asymptomatic stones (less than 4 mm in greatest diameter). In comparison with the results of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCN) of lower pole urolithiasis in the literature, SWL was unsuccessful in large stones, with stone-free rates of 13% and 0 when the stone size was 3 to 4.9 cm2 and > 5 cm2, respectively. A stone-free rate of 82% when the stone burden was < 1 cm2 is similar to the PCN results of other centers, suggesting that SWL may be the first choice of treatment in lower pole stones of this size. We achieved a stone-free rate of 59% when the stone size was between 1 and 3 cm2, which is lower than the stone-free rates of PCN in the literature. In spite of its lower stone-free rates, SWL, with its lower morbidity, may still be considered an acceptable treatment modality in this range of moderate stone burden, especially when there is a patient desire for conservative treatment.

  5. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite

  6. Stones in 2015: Changes in stone management - suspending belief for evidence.

    PubMed

    Ambani, Sapan N; Ghani, Khurshid R

    2016-02-01

    In 2015, population-based studies in patients with urinary stones informed us of the changing trends in contemporary stone management and identified areas for improvement. Although meta-analyses aim to provide the highest level of evidence, a randomized controlled trial of medical expulsive therapy challenged current paradigms and was the defining publication of the year.

  7. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts

  8. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies. PMID:25805105

  9. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies.

  10. HadISDH: an updateable land surface specific humidity product for climate monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, K. M.; Williams, C. N., Jr.; Dunn, R. J. H.; Thorne, P. W.; Bell, S.; de Podesta, M.; Jones, P. D.; Parker, D. E.

    2013-03-01

    HadISDH is a near-global land surface specific humidity monitoring product providing monthly means from 1973 onwards over large-scale grids. Presented herein to 2012, annual updates are anticipated. HadISDH is an update to the land component of HadCRUH, utilising the global high-resolution land surface station product HadISD as a basis. HadISD, in turn, uses an updated version of NOAA's Integrated Surface Database. Intensive automated quality control has been undertaken at the individual observation level, as part of HadISD processing. The data have been subsequently run through the pairwise homogenisation algorithm developed for NCDC's US Historical Climatology Network monthly temperature product. For the first time, uncertainty estimates are provided at the grid-box spatial scale and monthly timescale. HadISDH is in good agreement with existing land surface humidity products in periods of overlap, and with both land air and sea surface temperature estimates. Widespread moistening is shown over the 1973-2012 period. The largest moistening signals are over the tropics with drying over the subtropics, supporting other evidence of an intensified hydrological cycle over recent years. Moistening is detectable with high (95%) confidence over large-scale averages for the globe, Northern Hemisphere and tropics, with trends of 0.089 (0.080 to 0.098) g kg-1 per decade, 0.086 (0.075 to 0.097) g kg-1 per decade and 0.133 (0.119 to 0.148) g kg-1 per decade, respectively. These changes are outside the uncertainty range for the large-scale average which is dominated by the spatial coverage component; station and grid-box sampling uncertainty is essentially negligible on large scales. A very small moistening (0.013 (-0.005 to 0.031) g kg-1 per decade) is found in the Southern Hemisphere, but it is not significantly different from zero and uncertainty is large. When globally averaged, 1998 is the moistest year since monitoring began in 1973, closely followed by 2010, two strong El

  11. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products

  12. Analysis of stone-column reinforced foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; Pande, G. N.

    1998-12-01

    A numerical model is proposed to analyse elastic as well as elastoplastic behaviour of stone-column reinforced foundations. The stone-columns are assumed to be dispersed within the in situ soil and a homogenization technique is invoked to establish equivalent material properties for in situ soil and stone-column composite. The difficulties encountered in carrying out elastoplastic analyses of composite materials are overcome by adopting a separate yield function for each of the constituent materials and a sub-iteration procedure within an implicit backward Euler stress integration scheme. In the proposed procedure, equilibrium as well as kinematic conditions implied in the homogenization procedure are satisfied for both elastic as well as elastoplastic stress states.The proposed model is implemented in an axi-symmetric finite element code and numerical prediction is made for the behaviour of model circular footings resting on stone-column reinforced foundations. This prediction indicates good agreement with experimental observation. Finally, a new scheme in which the length of stone-column is variable is proposed and its behaviour is examined through a numerical example.

  13. Cancer incidence among Danish stone workers.

    PubMed

    Guénel, P; Højberg, G; Lynge, E

    1989-08-01

    The lung cancer incidence of 2071 Danish stone workers was followed for a 42-year period. The expected numbers of cancer cases were based on the incidence rates for all Danish men after adjustment for region, and the data were analyzed separately for skilled and unskilled stone workers. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for lung cancer was 200 (44 observed, 22.0 expected) for all skilled stone workers, 808 (7 observed, 0.9 expected) for skilled sandstone cutters in Copenhagen, 119 (8 observed, 6.5 expected) for skilled granite cutters in Bornholm, 181 (24 observed, 13.2 expected) for all unskilled stone workers, 246 (17 observed, 6.9 expected) for unskilled workers in the road and building material industry, and 111 (7 observed, 6.3 expected) for unskilled workers in the stonecutting industry. Smoking was unlikely alone to explain the excess risk, and the available data on levels of exposure in the Danish stone industry point to a possible dose-response relationship between exposure to respirable silica dust and the incidence of lung cancer.

  14. Future Treatment of Common Bile Duct Stones.

    PubMed

    Johnson; Hunter

    1997-03-01

    Management options for patients found to have common bile duct stones have expanded as a function of improved instrumentation and radiographic support. Technological advances initially lead to increased costs but eventually result in improved quality for patients. Controversy exists for patients with either soft clinical findings or stones found at the time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. As laparoscopic common duct exploration becomes more widespread the need for perioperative ERCP will likely decrease; however, this will depend on the experience of the surgeons at a given institution. Common bile duct stones found at the time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be approached in a variety of different ways. The most commonly used methods are laparoscopic transcystic common bile duct exploration, laparoscopic choledochotomy with common bile duct exploration, open common bile duct exploration, laparoscopic antegrade sphincterotomy, and postoperative ERCP. In the future, the treatment goal of biliary lithiasis will be to accomplish cholecystectomy and removal of bile duct stones in a single stage. Advances in fiberoptic technology will make transcystic duct exploration more effective, but it is likely that sphincterotomy (antegrade or retrograde) will be used preferentially for the distally impacted stone.

  15. Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.

    PubMed

    Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

    2013-12-20

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements. PMID:24513932

  16. Endoscopic management of upper urinary tract stones.

    PubMed

    Payne, S R; Ford, T F; Wickham, J E

    1985-10-01

    Since 1981, 525 renal and ureteric calculi have been removed with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCN) or transurethral ureteroscopy as the primary modalities of therapy. Successful extraction of the stone at the first attempt was achieved in 92 per cent of cases by PCN and 70 per cent of cases by ureteroscopy, whilst further endoscopic surgery improved the overall success rates to 98 per cent and to 80 per cent respectively. Complication rates from these procedures have both been low as has the morbidity, with most patients leaving hospital within 4 days and returning to work within 2 weeks. The successful development of endoscopic lithotomy and the use of in situ destruction techniques has meant that we now reserve open surgery for difficult multibranched staghorn calculi and ureteric stones embedded in the urothelium. With the advent of extracorporeally generated shockwave lithotripsy it is likely that even these types of stone will be amenable to minimally invasive procedures.

  17. Trace element relations to renal stones phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paluszkiewicz, C.; Kwiatek, W. M.; Gazilka, M.

    1990-04-01

    The renal stones formation is still not well known and seems to be a very complex phenomenon. Therefore, the renal stones were analyzed by the Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy as well as by the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) method. Using FTIR the samples were grouped into 5 types: phosphates, mixture of phosphates and oxalates, oxalates, mixture of oxalates and uric acid, and uric acid. PIXE was used to determine Trace Element (TE) contents. The combination of the two analysis methods enables us to find some TE relations to different renal stones phases. In general it appeared that TE contents in mixed structures are always between values of the respective pure phases. It was also found that some of the toxic elements are related to the structures but not necessarily to environmental influences as in the case of lead. All data were statistically analyzed and the correalations of the elements are presented.

  18. Laser ablation of gall bladder stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marafi, M.; Makdisi, Y.; Bhatia, K. S.; Abdulah, A. H.; Kokaj, Y.; Mathew, K.; Quinn, F.; Qabazard, A.

    1999-06-01

    Study of laser interaction with calculi is presented. A system of Nd-Yag and Ho-Yag pulsed lasers were used to produce fluorescence and plasma signals at the stone surface surrounded by saline and bile fluids. Fourth harmonic from Nd-Yag laser was transmitted to the samples by graded UV optical fibres. Gall bladder stones of various compositions were subjected to the high power Ho-Yag laser. Temporal transients and spectral evolution of plasma and fluorescence signals were monitored by a streak camera. A profile of acoustic pressures generated by shock waves was recorded with sensitive hydrophones placed in the surrounding fluids. Ablation threshold, cavitation process and fluorescence dependence on the laser parameters were studied in detail. Potential of stone identification by fluorescence and possible hydrodynamic model for ablation of biological samples is discussed.

  19. Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.

    PubMed

    Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

    2013-12-20

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements.

  20. Sequencing of proteins extracted from stones.

    PubMed

    Binette, J P; Binette, M B

    1994-01-01

    Proteins from urinary tract and gallbladder stones were extracted and characterized to determine the composition of the matrix and possibly unravel the role of the organic phase in stone formation. Proteins from crushed stones were extracted by electrodialysis and concentrated in the Amicon centricon cartridge or by lyophilization after dialysis against distilled water. Aliquots were first analyzed by isoelectric focusing in gel and if suitable subjected to two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis. The most promising spots were harvested and the N-terminal amino acids sequenced, thus providing maximum information with minimum expenditure of material. The 2D separations and amino acid sequences of several protein extracts demonstrated similarities and differences in composition and achieved the identification or demonstration of previously and recently detected polypeptides.

  1. Technetium Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Asmussen, Robert M.; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2015-10-15

    The cementitious material known as Cast Stone has been selected as the preferred waste form for solidification of aqueous secondary liquid effluents from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process condensates and low-activity waste (LAW) melter off-gas caustic scrubber effluents. Cast Stone is also being evaluated as a supplemental immobilization technology to provide the necessary LAW treatment capacity to complete the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost effective manner. Two radionuclides of particular concern in these waste streams are technetium-99 (99Tc) and iodine-129 (129I). These radioactive tank waste components contribute the most to the environmental impacts associated with the cleanup of the Hanford site. A recent environmental assessment of Cast Stone performance, which assumes a diffusion controlled release of contaminants from the waste form, calculates groundwater in excess of the allowable maximum permissible concentrations for both contaminants. There is, therefore, a need and an opportunity to improve the retention of both 99Tc and 129I in Cast Stone. One method to improve the performance of Cast Stone is through the addition of “getters” that selectively sequester Tc and I, therefore reducing their diffusion out of Cast Stone. In this paper, we present results of Tc and I removal from solution with various getters with batch sorption experiments conducted in deionized water (DIW) and a highly caustic 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. In general, the data show that the selected getters are effective in DIW but their performance is comprised when experiments are performed with the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. Reasons for the mitigated performance in the LAW simulant may be due to competition with Cr present in the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant and to a pH effect.

  2. [Stone Cone® in ureteroscopic ballistic lithotripsy of proximal ureteral stones].

    PubMed

    Arancio, M; Guglielmetti, S; Delsignore, A; Landi, A; Marchetti, C; Mina, A; Marcato, M; Martinengo, C

    2008-01-01

    Stone Cone® (Microvasive-Boston Scientific Corp, USA) is a device which prevents retrograde calculus migration during endoscopic ureterolithotripsy. We have studied the safety and efficacy of this device in endoscopic ureterolithotripsy with ballistic energy in proximal ureteral stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS. From 01/02/2006 to 01/02/2008 we carried out 36 ureterorenoscopies (URS) for proximal ureteral stones (average age: 46, range: 15-73). A ballistic energy was used for stones fragmentation. In 18 patients (Group A) we carried out URS with the aid of Stone Cone®, which was not used in the other 18 patients (Group B). Semirigid 8 Ch or 10 Ch Storz ureteroscope and ballistic lithotriptor Swiss Lithoclast Master EMS® were used. In cases of migration, edema, and ureteral damage, a ureteral stent was used. RESULTS. In Group B patients (URS performed without Stone Cone®) the migration of the whole stone, or of clinically significant fragments, occurred 8 times (45%). All of these patients underwent external shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) at a center equipped with a lithotriptor. A ureteral stent was placed in 14 cases (78%). In Group A, the migration of a stone requiring ESWL treatment occurred only once (5%). The ureteral stent was placed 8 times (45%). We had no significant complications during the procedure. CONCLUSIONS. The Stone Cone® is a safe and easy-to-use device. The cost of this device can be balanced by the reduction of postoperative ESWL treatments for lithiasic fragments pushing up into the kidneys (p<0.01), and of ureteral stent applications at the end of the procedure (p<0.05).

  3. Monitoring for Renal Stone Recurrence in Astronauts With History of Stone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David P.; Sargsyan, Ashot; Locke, James; Davis, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    After an initial stone episode persons are at increased risk for future stone formation. A systematic approach is required to monitor the efficacy of treatment and preventive measures, and to assess the risk of developing new stones. This is important for persons working in critical jobs or austere environments, such as astronauts. A literature review of the current standards of care for renal stone monitoring and imaging was done. Military and civil aviation standards were also reviewed, as well as the medical precedents from the space program. Additionally, a new, more effective, renal stone ultrasound protocol has been developed. Using this work, a monitoring algorithm was proposed that takes into consideration the unique mission and operational environment of spaceflight. The approach to imaging persons with history of renal stones varies widely in the literature. Imaging is often done yearly or biannually, which may be too long for mission critical personnel. In the proposed algorithm astronauts with a history of renal stone, who may be under consideration for assignment, are imaged by a detailed, physiciandriven, ultrasound protocol. Unassigned personnel are monitored by yearly ultrasound and urine studies. Any positive ultrasound study is then followed by low-dose renal computed tomography scan. Other criteria are also established. The proposed algorithm provides a balanced approach between efficacy and reduced radiation exposure for the monitoring of astronauts with a renal stone history. This may eventually allow a transition from a risk-averse, to a risk-modifying approach that can enable continued service of individuals with history of renal stone that have adequately controlled risk factors.

  4. [Minimally-invasive therapy of urinary stones].

    PubMed

    Knoll, T; Trojan, L; Haecker, A; Michel, M S; Köhrmann, K U; Alken, P

    2003-09-01

    Open surgery was the standard therapy for urinary calculi up to about 30 years ago. This changed upon introduction of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) in 1980, a procedure that is now the primary therapy for 70 % of the patients in western countries. Simultaneously, endourological procedures like ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) have been improved, and now, modern small diameter and highly efficient instruments offer an ideal alternative to shockwave lithotripsy. Today, minimally-invasive stone treatment has replaced open stone surgery almost completely. This article introduces ESWL, URS and PCNL and discusses indications, outcomes and limitations.

  5. Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain

  6. Building stones of our Nation's Capital

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Withington, Charles F.

    1975-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital serve as an unusual geologic display, for the city has been constructed with rocks from quarries throughout the United States and many distant lands. Each building is a unique museum that not only displays the important features of various stones and the geologic environment in which they were formed, but also serves as an historic witness to the city's growth and to the development of its architecture. This booklet describes the source and appearance of the stones used in Washington, D.C.; it includes a map and a walking guide to assist the visitor in examining them.

  7. Endotherapy for chronic pancreatitis with intracanalar stones.

    PubMed

    Maydeo, A; Soehendra, N; Reddy, N; Bhandari, S

    2007-07-01

    Endotherapy for pancreatic stone is an emerging specialty. The judicious application of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in selected groups of patients has increased the success rates of endotherapy, with excellent long-term results. In this review the authors share their vast experience of treating patients with pancreatic stones. The article will focus on the basic principles of pancreatic endotherapy, the instrumentation required, details of the ESWL technique and its applications, as well as the limitations, success rate, and complications of endotherapy in selected patients.

  8. 2. STONE ARCH BRIDGE. TIMBERS ON THE UPSTREAM FACE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. STONE ARCH BRIDGE. TIMBERS ON THE UPSTREAM FACE OF THE PIER PROTECTED THE STONEWORK FROM DAMAGE FROM ICE FLOWS, BARGES, ETC. - Lockport Historic District, Stone Arch Bridge, Spanning Des Plaines River at Ninth Street, Lockport, Will County, IL

  9. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for kidney stone on surgical clip.

    PubMed

    Clark, J Y; Kearse, W S

    1997-04-01

    We report the successful use of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for the destruction of a renal stone that had formed around a surgical clip. The SWL led to passage of both the stone and the clip.

  10. 8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ON STONE SPINDLE, VERY SHORT STEELYARD - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

  11. View east, stone sluice, beginning of lower standing section, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, stone sluice, beginning of lower standing section, showing third drop, stone pier in center, cement piers to right - Glens Falls Feeder, Sluice, Along south side of Glens Falls Feeder between locks 10 & 20, Hudson Falls, Washington County, NY

  12. 1. WEIDER'S CROSSING STONE HOUSE. WEIDER'S CROSSING WAS ONCE A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEIDER'S CROSSING STONE HOUSE. WEIDER'S CROSSING WAS ONCE A SIZABLE COMMUNITY. THIS IS ONE OF ONLY TWO HOUSES REMAINING MARKING WEIDER'S CROSSING. - Weider's Crossing Stone House, Weissport, Carbon County, PA

  13. 3. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND CARVED STONE UNIT IDENTIFYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND CARVED STONE UNIT IDENTIFYING THE BUILDER AND YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION, FACING NORTHEAST. - Cut Stone Bridge, Southern Pacific Railroad line spanning runoff channel at South Spruce Avenue, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, CA

  14. 44. Interior detail, stone sill, east study window. This is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Interior detail, stone sill, east study window. This is the only stone window sill in the house. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM HALF-WAY POINT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  16. 22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM GARDNER HOUSES - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  17. Metabolic evaluation of stone disease patients: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Norman, R W

    2001-07-01

    The high success rates of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and endourological techniques, together with their ease of use, in the treatment of urinary stones often overshadow the importance of the metabolic component of stone disease. It is my opinion that the prevention of further stones complements management of the acute episode. This review summarizes a variety of approaches to the measurement and manipulation of individual risk factors in recurrent urinary stone disease.

  18. Prediction of calcium oxalate monohydrate stone composition during ureteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidizedah, Reza; Melnyk, Megan; Teichman, Joel M. H.

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: Prior research shows that Ho:YAG lithotripsy produces tiny dust fragments at low pulse energy (0.2J). However, calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones may not fragment at this low pulse energy setting. Stone composition is rarely known until after surgery and historically, attempts to predict stone composition on the basis of endoscopic stone appearance were unsuccessful. Current endoscopic technology permits visual details that previously were not evident. As COM appears black under ambient light, we attempt to predict COM stone composition at the time of ureteroscopy based on its endoscopic appearance. Methods: Consecutive subjects undergoing ureteroscopy for stone disease were studied. Any portion of the stone that appeared black under endoscopic vision was considered clinical evidence of COM. Predicted stone composition was correlated with post-operative calculus analysis. Results: 46 consecutive ureteroscopic stone cases were analyzed prospectively. 25 of 28 subjects (89%) with black stones had stones later proven to be COM by composition analysis, versus one of 18 patients (6%) with non-black stones that were COM (p<0.0001). A black endoscopic stone appearance had a positive predictive value for COM of 89% and a non-black endoscopic stone appearance had a negative predictive value for COM of 94% (sensitivity 96%, specificity 83%). Conclusions: COM may reasonably be predicted intra-operatively by its black endoscopic appearance. The clinical utility would be to use higher laser pulse energy settings than for non-COM compositions. This data raises the possibility that more sophisticated optical characterization of endoscopic stone appearance may prove to be a useful tool to predict stone composition.

  19. The ROKS nomogram for predicting a second symptomatic stone episode.

    PubMed

    Rule, Andrew D; Lieske, John C; Li, Xujian; Melton, L Joseph; Krambeck, Amy E; Bergstralh, Eric J

    2014-12-01

    Most patients with first-time kidney stones undergo limited evaluations, and few receive preventive therapy. A prediction tool for the risk of a second kidney stone episode is needed to optimize treatment strategies. We identified adult first-time symptomatic stone formers residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1984 to 2003 and manually reviewed their linked comprehensive medical records through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Clinical characteristics in the medical record before or up to 90 days after the first stone episode were evaluated as predictors for symptomatic recurrence. A nomogram was developed from a multivariable model based on these characteristics. There were 2239 first-time adult kidney stone formers with evidence of a passed, obstructing, or infected stone causing pain or gross hematuria. Symptomatic recurrence occurred in 707 of these stone formers through 2012 (recurrence rates at 2, 5, 10, and 15 years were 11%, 20%, 31%, and 39%, respectively). A parsimonious model had the following risk factors for recurrence: younger age, male sex, white race, family history of stones, prior asymptomatic stone on imaging, prior suspected stone episode, gross hematuria, nonobstructing (asymptomatic) stone on imaging, symptomatic renal pelvic or lower-pole stone on imaging, no ureterovesicular junction stone on imaging, and uric acid stone composition. Ten-year recurrence rates varied from 12% to 56% between the first and fifth quintiles of nomogram score. The Recurrence of Kidney Stone nomogram identifies kidney stone formers at greatest risk for a second symptomatic episode. Such individuals may benefit from medical intervention and be good candidates for prevention trials.

  20. 8. TENTERING GEAR OF EAST BURR STONES; CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. TENTERING GEAR OF EAST BURR STONES; CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ON STONE SPINDLE; ALSO SEEN IS THE CHUTE FROM THE TUN OF THE BURR STONES; HANGING IN THE BACKGROUND ARE THE MILL SAILS. - Hayground Windmill, Windmill Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  1. Detail, squared cut stone masonry center pier, from northwest, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, squared cut stone masonry center pier, from northwest, showing original cut stone masonry, concrete-encased nose on upstream end, portion of squared cut stone masonry south abutment, and portion of truss superstructure - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  2. [Multimodal surgical management of stones in the upper urinary tract].

    PubMed

    Fritschi Urs; Kabongo, Olivier M'Baya; Tawadros, Thomas; Jichlinski, Patrice; Valerio, Massimo

    2014-12-01

    Emergency and differed urinary stone treatment are basic challenges in daily urological practice. By proposing the complete range of treatment and by improving medical and paramedical skills, management of stone patients can be optimized. In this article, we present the latest developments in stone treatment as well as our experiences with new technologies. PMID:25626248

  3. Correlation of the gallbladder stone and tissue fluorescent images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaj, Jahja O.; Marafi, Mustafa A.; Makdisi, Yacob; Bhatia, Kuldip S.

    2001-11-01

    Fluorescent images of gallbladder stones, tissue and bile are obtained using a streak camera. A Match Spatial Filer (MSF) is made using a stone fluorescent image. The MSF is used to perform correlations with fluorescent tissue and bile image. A method for recognition of the stone and rejection of the tissue during the laser lithotripsy is proposed using the correlation outputs.

  4. Atypical findings in a patient with a renal milky stone including a cake of stone.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Tatsuya; Ichikawa, Takaharu

    2006-08-01

    A 54-year-old woman was admitted to our department with the diagnosis of a renal calculus. She exhibited dull left flank pain. A plain film revealed a round opaque calcific density in the left kidney in the supine and the upright position. There was no connection between the calcification and the renal collecting system by retrograde pyelography. Computed tomography in the supine position showed a rounded calcification in the left renal parenchyma without a semilunar configuration. She was diagnosed with left renal calyceal diverticula calculi. She underwent a surgical intervention which found a renal milky stone including a 10-mm. diameter stone. The examination of the fluid and the stone material disclosed three components: calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate and calcium carbonate. The present case is interesting because its characteristics differ from the common features of renal milky stone.

  5. Kidney Stones: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney stones are caused by high levels of calcium, oxalate, and phosphorus in the urine. Some foods may ... consume of the following: • liquids • sodium • animal protein • calcium • oxalate Drinking enough liquids each day is the best ...

  6. Endolithic phototrophs in built and natural stone.

    PubMed

    Gaylarde, Christine C; Gaylarde, Peter M; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-08-01

    Lichens, algae and cyanobacteria have been detected growing endolithically in natural rock and in stone buildings in various countries of Australasia, Europe and Latin America. Previously these organisms had mainly been described in natural carbonaceous rocks in aquatic environments, with some reports in siliceous rocks, principally from extremophilic regions. Using various culture and microscopy methods, we have detected endoliths in siliceous stone, both natural and cut, in humid temperate and subtropical climates. Such endolithic growth leads to degradation of the stone structure, not only by mechanical means, but also by metabolites liberated by the cells. Using in vitro culture, transmission, optical and fluorescence microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, both coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria and algae, including Cyanidiales, have been identified growing endolithically in the facades of historic buildings built from limestone, sandstone, granite, basalt and soapstone, as well as in some natural rocks. Numerically, the most abundant are small, single-celled, colonial cyanobacteria. These small phototrophs are difficult to detect by standard microscope techniques and some of these species have not been previously reported within stone.

  7. Profilometry of medieval Irish stone monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daubos, Thierry; Redfern, Michael; O Croinin, Daibh

    2005-06-01

    National monuments are at ever-increasing risk of severe and permanent damage. The 3D laser scanning of stone monuments brings a new dimension in the field of cultural heritage by providing means of preserving, visualizing, accessing and analysing some of its most invaluable artefacts. In this article, we present the results obtained with our project "Profilometry of Medieval Irish Stone Monuments" hosted at the Centre for the Study of Human Settlement and Historical Change, NUI Galway. This project aims to create a virtual archive of selected incised stones from 3D scans taken in the field. The raw scans are processed into watertight 3D models and new processing techniques have been developed to enhance the surface features of the stones. Also, textured 3D models of the artefacts have been made available online for the benefit of both the historian community and the broader public. This article focuses on the analysis we performed on the shaft of the east cross at Toureen Peacaun, Co Tipperary, which shows the longest inscription in Ireland with geometrical capitals.

  8. Mineralogical signatures of stone formation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gower, Laurie B; Amos, Fairland F; Khan, Saeed R

    2010-08-01

    The mechanisms involved in biomineralization are modulated through interactions with organic matrix. In the case of stone formation, the role of the organic macromolecules in the complex urinary environment is not clear, but the presence of mineralogical 'signatures' suggests that some aspects of stone formation may result from a non-classical crystallization process that is induced by acidic proteins. An amorphous precursor has been detected in many biologically controlled mineralization reactions, which is thought to be regulated by non-specific interactions between soluble acidic proteins and mineral ions. Using in vitro model systems, we find that a liquid-phase amorphous mineral precursor induced by acidic polypeptides can lead to crystal textures that resemble those found in Randall's plaque and kidney stones. This polymer-induced liquid-precursor process leads to agglomerates of coalesced mineral spherules, dense-packed spherulites with concentric laminations, mineral coatings and 'cements', and collagen-associated mineralization. Through the use of in vitro model systems, the mechanisms involved in the formation of these crystallographic features may be resolved, enhancing our understanding of the potential role(s) that proteins play in stone formation.

  9. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    Stone Soup is in the center foreground of this stereo view, which appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. The view combines left-eye and right-eye images taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture of Stone Soup trench on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Honors Education and Stone-Campbell Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willerton, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the Stone-Campbell tradition, which produced the North American Disciples of Christ and Churches of Christ. In this tradition he finds the distinctive combination of three emphases to promote civic virtues in an honors context: (1) the individual pursuit of truth; (2) reliance on Scripture; and (3) the drive…

  12. Transducer Joint for Kidney-Stone Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonic therapy for kidney stones improved by new way of connecting wire-probe ultrasonic waveguide to transducer. Improved mounting allows joint to last long enough for effective treatment. Sheath and rubber dampers constrain lateral vibration of wire waveguide. Combination of V-shaped mounting groove, sheath, and rubber dampers increases life expectancy of wire 15 times or more.

  13. Barton Warren Stone: An American Religious Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrey, Evan

    This biographical sketch of Barton Warren Stone, an early American advocate of the Restoration Movement, describes and interprets some of the innate and environmental factors that must have been to a large measure responsible for his leadership of what has been called the largest indigenous American religious movement. It details some of the…

  14. Drop impact on natural porous stones.

    PubMed

    Lee, J B; Derome, D; Carmeliet, J

    2016-05-01

    Drop impact and spreading on three natural porous stones are experimentally determined using high-speed imaging and compared with spreading over an impermeable steel surface. The dynamic non-wetting behavior during spreading and the hydrophobic contact angle >90° is attributed to the presence of an air layer between the droplet and the porous substrate. As the contact line pins at maximum spreading on the porous stone, the maximum spreading determines the liquid contact area on such substrate. The droplet gets pinned when the air layer is broken at the contact line and capillary forces develop in fines pores at the droplet edge, pinning the droplet. Maximum spreading on porous stones increases with impact velocity but does not scale with Weber number at low impact velocity. It is demonstrated that dynamic wetting plays an important role in the spreading at low velocity and that the dynamic wetting as characterized by the dynamic contact angle θD has to be taken into account for predicting the maximum spreading. Correcting the maximum spreading ratio with the dynamic wetting behavior, all data for porous stones and non-porous substrate collapse onto a single curve.

  15. Sarsen Stones of Stonehenge: How and by what route were the stones transported? What is the significance of their markings?

    PubMed

    Hill, P A

    1961-04-21

    A route via Lockeridge and the Avon Valley, involving a slide down the chalk escarpment, is postulated for the sarsen stones of Stonehenge. The transportation problem would have been greatly simplified if the stones had been relayed from point to point over snow or slush during successive winters. Markings on the stones hitherto undescribed are interpreted.

  16. Sarsen Stones of Stonehenge: How and by what route were the stones transported? What is the significance of their markings?

    PubMed

    Hill, P A

    1961-04-21

    A route via Lockeridge and the Avon Valley, involving a slide down the chalk escarpment, is postulated for the sarsen stones of Stonehenge. The transportation problem would have been greatly simplified if the stones had been relayed from point to point over snow or slush during successive winters. Markings on the stones hitherto undescribed are interpreted. PMID:17830710

  17. Gallstone disease: Management of intrahepatic stones.

    PubMed

    Mori, Toshiyuki; Sugiyama, Masanori; Atomi, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Hepatolithiasis (oriental cholangiohepatitis) has reportedly been endemic only in East Asia. The disease is now occasionally recognized in Western societies, especially in people who have lived in the Orient. Hepatolithiasis is characterized by its intractable nature and frequent recurrence, requiring multiple operative interventions, which is in distinct contrast to gallbladder stones. In addition to frequent cholangitis and chronic sepsis, it is widely known that longstanding intrahepatic stones lead to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Symptoms of hepatolithiasis include abdominal pain, jaundice and cholangitis. Pyogenic cholangitis due to strictures and hepatolithiasis tends to recur, and sometimes patients may present with liver abscesses. Radiological studies and percutaneous procedures are keys in the diagnosis and treatment of hepatolithiasis. Non-invasive imaging modalities such as ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accurately depict the normal anatomy and presence of intrahepatic stones. It should be stressed that each modality has its pros and cons, and imaging studies should be performed on the basis of understanding the pathophysiology. As the diagnostic role of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) evolves, the roles of both endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), and their most significant advantage, is primarily therapeutic with their ability to extract stones, biopsy intraductal lesions, and place stents easily. The primary goals of treatment are to eliminate attacks of cholangitis and to stop the progression of the disease (which leads to biliary cirrhosis). Surgery has a primary role in hepatolithiasis because hepatolithiasis tends to recur, so that multiple sessions of the endoscopic approach (i.e. two or three times a year) are often required. PTC is an alternative when surgical resection of the affected lobe is

  18. Dietary habits of calcium stone formers.

    PubMed

    Martini, L A; Heilberg, I P; Cuppari, L; Medeiros, F A; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Schor, N

    1993-08-01

    1. Since dietary factors are known to be related to nephrolithiasis, calcium stone-forming (CSF) patients were evaluated in terms of calcium, total protein of both animal and plant origin, carbohydrate and energy intakes, on the basis of 72-h dietary records during the week plus 24-h dietary records during the week-end. 2. The data for 77 calcium stone formers (57 with absorptive hypercalciuria and 20 with renal hypercalciuria) were compared to those for 29 age-matched healthy subjects. The body mass index of the CSF group was higher than that of healthy subjects (P < 0.05). Consumption of all nutrients was similar for both groups during the week but week-end dietary records for CSF showed higher calcium intake (586 +/- 38 vs 438 +/- 82 mg/day, P < 0.05), protein to body weight ratio (1.2 +/- 0.1 vs 1.0 +/- 0.5 g kg-1 day-1, P < 0.05) and animal protein (56 +/- 3 vs 40 +/- 3 g/day, P < 0.05) when compared with healthy subjects. 3. Comparison of hypercalciuria subtypes (renal hypercalciuria and absorptive hypercalciuria) did not indicate any difference in calcium or energy intake between groups, either during the week or during the week-end. However, the absorptive hypercalciuric group presented higher protein and animal protein consumption during the week-end. 4. These data suggest a low calcium intake in this population, even by stone formers. The higher animal protein consumption by our calcium stone formers observed during week-ends seems to be more important than calcium intake for stone formation. PMID:8298515

  19. Large proximal ureteral stones: Ideal treatment modality?

    PubMed Central

    Kadyan, B.; Sabale, V.; Mane, D.; Satav, V.; Mulay, A.; Thakur, N.; Kankalia, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Ideal treatment modality for patients with large impacted proximal ureteral stone remains controversial. We compared laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy (Lap-TPUL) and semirigid ureteroscopy for large proximal ureteric stones to evaluate their efficacy and safety. Patients and Methods: From November 2012 to December 2014, we enrolled 122 patients with large (≥1.5 cm) proximal ureteral stone in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: Group A (60 patients), retrograde ureteroscopic lithotripsy using a semirigid ureteroscope; Group B (62 patients), transperitoneal LU (Lap-TPUL). Results: The overall stone-free rate was 71.6% and 93.5% for Group A and Group B respectively (P = 0.008). Auxiliary procedure rate was higher in Group A than in Group B (27.3% vs. 5.6%). The complication rate was 11.2% in Group B versus 25% in Group A. Mean procedure time was higher in laparoscopy group as compared to ureterorenoscopy (URS) groups (84.07 ± 16.80 vs. 62.82 ± 12.71 min). Hospital stay was 4.16 ± 0.67 days in laparoscopy group and 1.18 ± 0.38 days in URS group (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a minimally invasive, safe and effective treatment modality and should be recommended to all patients of impacted large proximal stones, which are not amenable to URS or extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or as a primary modality of choice especially if patient is otherwise candidate for open surgery. PMID:27141190

  20. Compatibility study and adaption of stone repair mortars for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, T.; Vandevoorde, D.; Boone, M. A.; Dewanckele, J.; De Boever, W.; Lanzón, M.; De Schutter, G.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main historic building materials in northern Belgium is the Lede stone. This arenaceous limestone from Lutetian age was excavated in the region of Ghent and Brussels and was transported northwards by main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne. Thanks to this natural transport route, the stone in also found in many cities which lie abroad the excavation area, such as Antwerp (Belgium) and various cities in the Netherlands (Breda, Zierikzee, …). Due to its dominant occurrence in our cultural heritage, it is frequently subjected to restoration and renovation works. Depending on the degree of decay, most frequent stone operations are cleaning, healing with mortar or replacing it by (often exotic) fresh blocks. Originally, this limestone has a greenish-gray colour, but when being exposed to atmospheric conditions it acquires a yellowish to rusty coloured patina. The origin of the latter is most likely the oxidation of glauconite minerals which are present in a few percent in the stone. In addition, the stone often demonstrates black crust formation due to sulphation. Cleaning of the stone often results in an excess removal of this black gypsum crusts and patina, thus exposing deeper parts of the stone which appear more greenish-gray again. When the stone is subsequently healed by adding repair mortar to damaged parts, the question rises which mortar colour is more appropriate. The choice of repair mortar is greatly depending on commercial aspects. When handling entire facades on monuments, a mineral mortar based on ZnCl is most often applied in Belgium. The big advantage of this mortar is its fast curing. Three colour types have been developed for the Lede stone in specific. However, the hardness of this mortar is sometimes in conflict with reversibility. For the handling of individual sculptures some conservators choose for the application of (hydraulic) lime mortars. The advantage of using such mortars is their high compatibility and reversibility. The

  1. Treating urinary tract stones: common questions about a common problem.

    PubMed

    Monga, Manoj

    2010-08-01

    Urinary stones are a common and costly problem. Although shockwave lithotripsy is the mainstay of treatment for stones, a number of other surgical tools and approaches may be beneficial to some patients. Newer diagnostic techniques and technologies are improving our ability to determine the size, location, and composition of stones and, thus, our approach to treatment. And an increased focus on diet and metabolism is helping patients prevent stone formation. This article reviews the current approaches to diagnosing and treating urologic stones and answers questions primary care physicians often ask about this topic.

  2. [A Case Report of 2,8-Dihydroxyadenine Stone].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shunsuke; Haba, Tomomi; Koike, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Here we report a case of a 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA) stone. A 48-year-old woman arrived at our hospital with left flank pain. She was diagnosed with a left ureteral stone. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was tried, but the left ureteral stone was radiolucent and ESWL was not effective. Transurethral ureterolithotripsy (TUL) was successful. An analysis of the stone revealed 2,8-DHA. A 2,8-DHA stone is caused by adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency. By genetic tests, she was diagnosed with APRT deficiency. PMID:26278213

  3. A nidus, crystalluria and aggregation: key ingredients for stone enlargement.

    PubMed

    Saw, N K; Rao, P N; Kavanagh, J P

    2008-02-01

    The in vitro study of calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formation is usually based on crystallisation models but it is recognised that both healthy individuals and stone formers have crystalluria. We have established a robust in vitro stone growth model based on the principle of mixed suspension, mixed product removal system (MSMPR). Utilising this technique we studied the influence of CaOx crystallisation kinetics and the variation of calcium and oxalate concentrations on CaOx stone growth in vitro. Six stones received standard concentration of Ca (6 mM) and Ox (1.2 mM) in the medium while another six received variable concentrations of both Ca and Ox at various intervals. Stone mass was plotted against the experiment duration (typically 5-7 weeks). The stone growth was dependent on sufficient input calcium and oxalate concentrations and once triggered, stone growth could not be maintained at reduced calcium and oxalate inputs. The stone growth rate was positively correlated to the number of crystals in suspension around the stone and to the crystal nucleation rate and negatively correlated to the crystal growth rates. This leads to the conclusion that aggregation of crystals from the surrounding suspension was the dominant mechanism for stone enlargement.

  4. Gallstone disease. The clinical manifestations of infectious stones.

    PubMed

    Smith, A L; Stewart, L; Fine, R; Pellegrini, C A; Way, L W

    1989-05-01

    Gallstones from 82 patients were examined under a scanning electron microscope for evidence of bacteria, and the findings were compared with the clinical manifestations of the disease. Bacteria were present in 68% of pigment stones and the pigment portions of 80% of composite stones. These gallstones were referred to as infectious stones. No bacteria were found in cholesterol gallstones. Acute cholangitis was diagnosed in 52% of patients with infectious stones and in 18% of patients with noninfectious stones. Over half of the patients with noninfectious stones presented with mild symptoms. Infectious stones were more often associated with a previous common duct exploration, an urgent operation, infected bile, a common duct procedure, and complications. These data show that gallstone disease is more virulent in patients whose gallstones contain bacteria.

  5. The "Global Heritage Stone Resource": Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry

    2013-04-01

    The "Global Heritage Stone Resource" designation arose in 2007 as a suggested mechanism to enhance international recognition of famous dimension stones. There were also many aspects of dimension stone study that had no formal recognition in mainstream geology and which could be recognised in a formal geological sense via an internationally acceptable geological standard. Such a standard could also receive recognition by other professionals and the wider community. From the start, it was appreciated that active quarrying would an important aspect of the designation so a designation different to any other standard was needed. Also the project was linked to the long-established Commission C-10 Building Stone and Ornamental Rocks of the International Association of Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG C-10). Since 2007, the "Global Heritage Stone Resource" (GHSR) proposal has evolved in both in stature and purpose due to an increasing number of interested international correspondents that were actively sought via conference participation. The "English Stone Forum" in particular was pursuing similar aims and was quick to advise that English dimension stone types were being recognised as having international, national or regional importance. Furthermore the proposed designation was suggested as to having significant value in safeguarding designated stone types whilst also providing a potential mechanism in preventing heritage stone replacement by cheap substitutes. During development it also became apparent that stone types having practical applications such as roofing slates and millstones or even stone types utilised by prehistoric man can also be recognised by the new designation. The heritage importance of architects was also recognised. Most importantly an international network evolved, primarily including geologists, that now seems to be the largest international grouping of dimension stone professionals. This has assisted the project to affiliate with the

  6. Intrahepatic Duct Stones Harboring Ascariasis Ova

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Fang; Lee, Wei-Chen; Wu, Ren-Chin; Chen, Tse-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ascariasis lumbricoides is one of the most common helminthic infestations in humans. Despite the fact that the prevalence of ascariasis in developed countries has been decreasing, biliary ascariasis can cause serious complications, such as acute cholangitis, pancreatitis, and liver abscess. Here we presented a rare ascariasis-related complication—hepatolithiasis. A 60-year-old female patient had symptoms of recurrent cholangitis. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed left intrahepatic duct stones with left liver lobe atrophy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed, but the stones could not be removed due to left main intrahepatic duct stenosis. The patient was treated with left hemi-hepatectomy. Unexpectedly, Ascaris ova were found on the histopathological examination. She received antihelminthic therapy orally and was on regular follow-up without any complications. Our study indicates that clinicians should be aware of biliary ascariasis in patients with hepatolithiasis, though not living in endemic areas. PMID:27015193

  7. Analysis of renal stones by capillary isotachophoresis.

    PubMed

    Jarolímová, Zdeňka; Lubal, Přemysl; Kanický, Viktor

    2012-08-30

    An analytical method for the determination of the composition of renal stones by capillary isotachophoresis with conductometric detection was developed. Using different leading/terminating electrolyte systems, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic compounds (urate, xanthate, oxalate) and inorganic ions (phosphate, Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), NH(4)(+)) species commonly present in mixed renal stones in three separate steps can be carried out with limits of detection about 10 μmol/L. The developed method was validated by the analysis of real samples and can be used for urinary calculi classification. In addition, it was verified that this method can also be employed for the determination of the above mentioned analytes in some other samples (bones, teeth) concerning apatite biominerals (fluoro-, carbonate-, chloro-apatite). PMID:22939127

  8. Various Stone-Wales defects in phagraphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Openov, L. A.; Podlivaev, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    Various Stone-Wales defects in phagraphene, which is a graphene allotrope, predicted recently are studied in terms of the nonorthogonal tight-binding model. The energies of the defect formation and the heights of energy barriers preventing the formation and annealing of the defects are found. Corresponding frequency factors in the Arrhenius formula are calculated. The evolution of the defect structure is studied in the real-time mode using the molecular dynamics method.

  9. Surface analysis of stone and bone tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemp, W. James; Watson, Adam S.; Evans, Adrian A.

    2016-03-01

    Microwear (use-wear) analysis is a powerful method for identifying tool use that archaeologists and anthropologists employ to determine the activities undertaken by both humans and their hominin ancestors. Knowledge of tool use allows for more accurate and detailed reconstructions of past behavior, particularly in relation to subsistence practices, economic activities, conflict and ritual. It can also be used to document changes in these activities over time, in different locations, and by different members of society, in terms of gender and status, for example. Both stone and bone tools have been analyzed using a variety of techniques that focus on the observation, documentation and interpretation of wear traces. Traditionally, microwear analysis relied on the qualitative assessment of wear features using microscopes and often included comparisons between replicated tools used experimentally and the recovered artifacts, as well as functional analogies dependent upon modern implements and those used by indigenous peoples from various places around the world. Determination of tool use has also relied on the recovery and analysis of both organic and inorganic residues of past worked materials that survived in and on artifact surfaces. To determine tool use and better understand the mechanics of wear formation, particularly on stone and bone, archaeologists and anthropologists have increasingly turned to surface metrology and tribology to assist them in their research. This paper provides a history of the development of traditional microwear analysis in archaeology and anthropology and also explores the introduction and adoption of more modern methods and technologies for documenting and identifying wear on stone and bone tools, specifically those developed for the engineering sciences to study surface structures on micro- and nanoscales. The current state of microwear analysis is discussed as are the future directions in the study of microwear on stone and bone tools.

  10. An Unusual Type of Kidney Stone.

    PubMed

    De Koninck, Anne-Sophie; Groen, Luitzen-Albert; Maes, Heleen; Verstraete, Alain Gaston; Stove, Veronique; Delanghe, Joris Richard

    2016-01-01

    A very rare case of acetylsulfapyridine nephrolithiasis is presented in a 54-year-old female patient who had been prescribed sulfasalazine (6 x 500 mg/day) because of psoriatic arthritis for the last 9 years. The patient's renal function was only slightly impaired. Reflectance infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed the identification of the chemical nature of the stone. As acetylsulfapyridine is a metabolite of sulfasalazine, administration of the latter drug was the cause of the nephrolithiasis.

  11. Renal stone disease in spinal-cord-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Welk, Blayne; Fuller, Andrew; Razvi, Hassan; Denstedt, John

    2012-08-01

    Renal stone disease is common among patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). They frequently have recurrent stones, staghorn calculi, and bilateral stone disease. The potential risk factors for stones in the SCI population are lesion level, bladder management strategy, specific metabolic changes, and frequent urinary tract infections. There has been a reduction in struvite stones among these patients, likely as a result of advances in their urologic care. The clinical presentation of stone disease in patients with SCI may involve frequent urinary infections or urosepsis, and at the time of presentation patients may need emergency renal drainage. The proportion of patients who have their stones treated with different modalities is largely unknown. Shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is commonly used to manage stones in patients with SCI, and there have been reports of stone-free rates of 50% to 70%. The literature suggests that the morbidity associated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy in these patients is considerable. Ureteroscopy is a common modality used in the general population to treat patients with upper tract stone disease. Traditional limitations of this procedure in patients with SCI have likely been overcome with new flexible scopes; however, the medical literature has not specifically reported on its use among patients with SCI.

  12. Mechanisms of differing stone fragility in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Zhong, P; Preminger, G M

    1994-08-01

    Clinical experience with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) has demonstrated significant variations in stone fragility. To understand the physical mechanisms of the differences, we quantitatively determined shockwave-stone interaction under clinically relevant SWL conditions for six stone compositions: calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), struvite (MAPH), calcium apatite (CA), uric acid (UA), brushite, and cystine. We also characterized the acoustic and mechanical properties of the stones using ultrasound and microindentation techniques. Our results show that renal calculi have distinctly different acoustic and mechanical properties. Higher wave speed, Young's modulus, and fracture toughness were measured from COM and cystine stones, whereas lower values of the corresponding properties were found in CA and MAPH, and the values for brushite and UA stones were in between. Computer modeling of shockwave propagation revealed that under the same shockwave intensity, larger deformation was induced in CA and MAPH stones than in COM and cystine stones. In addition, multiple reflected tensile waves were predicted for stones with concentric layer structure, indicating their susceptibility to shockwave fragmentation. These findings elucidate the mechanisms of the differences in stone fragility observed clinically. Their implications to SWL are discussed.

  13. Mineralogy and chemistry of urinary stones: patients from North Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Iyad Ahmed

    2008-10-01

    Urinary stone diseases are increasing in the Middle East. The majority of urinary stone cases are found in the northern part of the country. Stone samples taken from patients living in the Irbid area were collected from Princess Basma Hospital. The present study concentrates on the mineralogical and chemical composition of the urinary stones and on the effective environmental factors that assist in developing the different types of urinary stones. Using X-ray diffraction techniques, the mineralogical composition of the urinary stones was found to be as follows: oxalate, cholesten, and uric acid, with cystine stones occuring more frequently than the others. Cholesten and calcium oxalate stones are the most dominant types of stones. Calcium oxalate is the most common type of oxalate stone. Calcium oxalate is represented in: whewellite, wheddellite, and calcium carbonate oxalate hydrate minerals, in addition to other minerals such as brushite, ammonium phosphate, vaterite, valleriite, and bobierrite from other types of stones. Bobierrite (phosphate group) is a new mineral reported in urinary stones, and this has not been determined in any previous study worldwide. Apatite (calcium phosphate) is deduced using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The SEM technique determined crystal forms and systems, shapes, morphological features, and the names of the minerals forming urine stones, while optical properties are studied by polarizing microscope. X-ray fluorescence technique determined the concentrations of major and some trace elements. It revealed that Ca is the main constituent of the urinary stones, especially those composed of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. The concentration of trace elements was Ba = 1.57, P = 3.61, Fe = 1.78, S = 2.08, Zr = 4.63, Mo = 3.92, Cu = 1.89, Co = 1.56, and F = 4.2% and was higher in the urinary stones of Jordanian patients than in foreigners in the country. Questionnaires completed by patients suggest that the most

  14. Using a three-dimensional computer assisted stone volume estimates to evaluate extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy treatment of kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Bigum, Lene Hyldgaard; Ulriksen, Peter Sommer; Omar, Omar Salah

    2016-10-01

    This study describes and evaluates the use of non-contrast enhanced computerized tomography (NCCT) before and after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL). Computer measured stone volume was used as an exact measurement for treatment response. 81 patients received SWL of kidney stones at Herlev Hospital between April 2013 and January 2014 and follow-up was possible in 77 (95 %) patients. NCCT was used before and after treatment. Treatment response was expressed as a reduction of the stone volume. Stone characteristics as the stone volumes, HU, SSD and localization were measured by radiologist using a vendor non-specific computer program. Complications, patient characteristics and additional treatment were registered. On average, 5858 shocks were given each patient. The follow-up NCCT was performed 24 days after treatment. It was possible to calculate the stone volume in 88 % of the patients-the remaining 12 % it was not possible due to stone disintegration. The stone free rate was 22 %. The average relative reduction in stone burden was 62 %. Only 8 % of the patients were radiological non-responders. Steinstrasse was observed in 13 (17 %) and 28 (36 %) patients had additional treatment performed. Irradiation dose per NCCT was 2.6 mSv. Stone volume could be calculated in most patients. The relative reduction in stone burden after treatment was 62 %. The stone volume was redundant when evaluating stone free patients, but in cases of partial response it gave an exact quantification, to be used in the further management and follow-up of the patients.

  15. Using a three-dimensional computer assisted stone volume estimates to evaluate extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy treatment of kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Bigum, Lene Hyldgaard; Ulriksen, Peter Sommer; Omar, Omar Salah

    2016-10-01

    This study describes and evaluates the use of non-contrast enhanced computerized tomography (NCCT) before and after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL). Computer measured stone volume was used as an exact measurement for treatment response. 81 patients received SWL of kidney stones at Herlev Hospital between April 2013 and January 2014 and follow-up was possible in 77 (95 %) patients. NCCT was used before and after treatment. Treatment response was expressed as a reduction of the stone volume. Stone characteristics as the stone volumes, HU, SSD and localization were measured by radiologist using a vendor non-specific computer program. Complications, patient characteristics and additional treatment were registered. On average, 5858 shocks were given each patient. The follow-up NCCT was performed 24 days after treatment. It was possible to calculate the stone volume in 88 % of the patients-the remaining 12 % it was not possible due to stone disintegration. The stone free rate was 22 %. The average relative reduction in stone burden was 62 %. Only 8 % of the patients were radiological non-responders. Steinstrasse was observed in 13 (17 %) and 28 (36 %) patients had additional treatment performed. Irradiation dose per NCCT was 2.6 mSv. Stone volume could be calculated in most patients. The relative reduction in stone burden after treatment was 62 %. The stone volume was redundant when evaluating stone free patients, but in cases of partial response it gave an exact quantification, to be used in the further management and follow-up of the patients. PMID:26914829

  16. Quantification of Urinary Stone Composition in Mixed Stones Using Dual-Energy CT: A Phantom Study

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Shuai; Huang, Alice; Montoya, Juan; Duan, Xinhui; Williams, James C.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using dual-energy computed tomography to accurately quantify uric acid and non-uric-acid components in urinary stones having mixed composition. Materials and Methods A total of 24 urinary stones were analyzed with microCT to serve as the reference standard for uric acid and non-uric-acid composition. These stones were placed in water phantoms to simulate body attenuation of slim to obese adults and scanned on a third-generation dual-source scanner using dual-energy modes adaptively selected based on phantom size. CT number ratio, which is distinct for different materials, was calculated for each pixel of the stones. Each pixel was then classified as uric acid and non-uric-acid by comparing the CT number ratio with preset thresholds ranging from 1.1 to 1.7. Minimal, maximal and root-mean-square errors were calculated by comparing composition to the reference standard and the threshold with the minimal root-mean-square-error was determined. A paired t-test was performed to compare the stone composition determined with dual-energy CT with the reference standard obtained with microCT. Results The optimal CT number ratio threshold ranged from 1.27 to 1.55, dependent on phantom size. The root-mean-square error ranged from 9.60% to 12.87% across all phantom sizes. Minimal and maximal absolute error ranged from 0.04% to 1.24% and from 22.05% to 35.46%, respectively. Dual-energy CT and the reference microCT did not differ significantly on uric acid and non-uric-acid composition (P from 0.20 to 0.96, paired t-test). Conclusion Accurate quantification of uric acid and non-uric-acid composition in mixed stones is possible using dual-energy CT. PMID:27224260

  17. Introduction: Kidney Stone Research, Lessons From Human Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Fredric L.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, the prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and calcium phosphate; 10% of struvite; 9% of uric acid; and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stone. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. In this introduction, I have outlined our current thinking of the possible mechanisms involved in stone formation based on our biopsy data collected from a series of human kidney stone formers. In addition, I have presented a set of questions as a means of focusing future research in this field.

  18. Artificial aggregate made from waste stone sludge and waste silt.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Lee, Ming-Yu; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Jyh-Dong

    2010-11-01

    In this research, waste stone sludge obtained from slab stone processing and waste silt from aggregate washing plants were recycled to manufacture artificial aggregate. Fine-powdered stone sludge was mixed with waste silt of larger particle size; vibratory compaction was applied for good water permeability, resulting in a smaller amount of solidifying agent being used. For the densified packing used in this study, the mix proportion of waste stone sludge to waste silt was 35:50, which produced artificial aggregate of more compact structure with water absorption rate below 0.1%. In addition, applying vibratory compaction of 33.3 Hz to the artificial aggregate and curing for 28 days doubled the compressive strength to above 29.4 MPa. Hence, recycling of waste stone sludge and waste silt for the production of artificial aggregate not only offers a feasible substitute for sand and stone, but also an ecological alternative to waste management of sludge and silt.

  19. Development of latent fingermarks from rocks and stones.

    PubMed

    Hefetz, Ido; Cohen, Amit; Cohen, Yaron; Chaikovsky, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Since the beginning of recorded history, stones have been used in the commission of crimes due to their widespread availability. Stones can be used as a lethal weapon that sometimes might be the only evidence in a serious case. The common perception, even in professional fingermark circles, is that stones do not yield identifiable latent fingermarks. The authors of this research paper examined the feasibility of developing fingermarks from seven types of stones using three latent fingermark techniques: magnetic powder, cyanoacrylate fuming, and ninhydrin. The paper will demonstrate that by classifying stones and rocks according to their natural properties (porosity, permeability, and the nature of surface area), even application of the simplest development techniques can produce good results. In conclusion, chert and limestone yielded the most qualitative and quantitative results using magnetic powder. The time factor is also important in recovering latent fingermarks on stones and rocks. PMID:24502220

  20. Application research of CO2 laser cutting natural stone plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lixiu; Song, Jijiang

    2009-08-01

    Now, the processing of natural stone plates is the high performance sawing machine primarily,many researchers deeply studied the processing characters in the sawing process and the strength characters during the processing. In order to realize the profiled-processing and pattern- carving of the natural stone, It lays a solid foundation for the laser cutting and the pattern-carving technology of natural stone plate. The working principle, type and characteristics of laser cutting are briefly described. The paper selects 6 kinds stone plates of natural taken as experimental sample,the experimental sample was China Shanxi Black, Old Spain Golden Yellow, New Spain Golden Yellow, Jazz White, Maple Leaf Red, Cream White respectively. Use high power CO2 laser cutting system,the stone plates cutting experiment of 6 kinds different hardness, the best working speed are obtained,The experimental results indicate that: The laser cutting speed has no correlation with the ingredient content of stone plate.

  1. Milk of calcium stones: radiological signs and management outcome.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, M

    2015-06-01

    Milk of calcium (MOC) is a rare type of stone that was first described in 1940 by Ludin and Howald who reported MOC in renal cysts. Milk of calcium is a viscous colloidal suspension of calcium salts. Stasis, obstruction and infection are important predisposing factors. Due to a layering effect, characteristic radiological signs especially in CT can help in diagnosis to avoid unsuccessful shock wave lithotripsy. This is the largest reported case series, in which radiological signs by CT scan to predict renal MOC stones, clinical picture and management outcome are described in detail. Cases with suspected renal milk of calcium stones were studied over 7 years (2008-2015). All cases were diagnosed preoperatively by non-contrast CT. Urine cultures were performed in all patients preoperatively. Intra-operative and postoperative findings were reported. Stones retrieved were sent for chemical analysis using an infrared method. Seven cases of milk of calcium renal stones were included in this study. These stones were faint radio-opaque in two cases and radiolucent in five cases. All cases were diagnosed preoperatively with non-contrast CT. Their Hounsfield units (HU) ranged from 114 to 612. All stones were located in a dependent position (gravitational effect) in the posterior aspect of dilated calyces. Five cases exhibited the typical fluid level and two cases demonstrated semilunar (half moon) pattern in the anterior surface of the stones. All cases underwent PCNL with suction and retrieval of soft stones without the need for disintegration. When stones demonstrate a low Hounsfield unit, are arranged in dependent positions within dilated calyces and exhibit fluid level or semilunar pattern on non-contrast CT, milk of calcium stones should be considered. PCNL is an effective modality for management of renal milk of calcium stones. PMID:25820293

  2. Natural stones of historic and future importance in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Andersson, Jenny; Göransson, Mattias

    2013-04-01

    Several activities and responsibilities of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) are related to the work of the newly formed international Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG) for designating historically important stones. SGU is among other things a referral organization, frequently dealing with the preparation of statements in connection with the quarrying permit applications of stone producers. When preparing these statements, SGU takes into account a number of parameters, e.g. the importance for local and regional business development, historic importance, area of occurrence, quality of the geological documentation of the stone type, peculiarities of the stone types and technical properties relevant for the intended use. Traditionally, SGU has not worked with bedrock mapping looking at the potential of natural stones production but more commonly looking at the potential production of aggregates, industrial minerals and metals. The competence is, therefore, presently being built up with new databases over important natural stone types and definition of criteria for their selection etc. In this respect the criteria defined by the HSTG provide important help. This work goes hand in hand with the task of proposing stone-deposits and quarries of "national interest". The criteria for selection of a stone type, quarry etc as one of national interest are currently being revised. SGU plays an important role in this work. However, the final decision and appointment lies in the hands of the Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket), an authority dealing with sustainable land use and regional development, town and country planning. Boverket supervises how the planning legislation is handled by the municipal authorities and the county administrative boards. The two latter organizations are those in charge of giving extraction permits for stone quarrying. The "Hallandia gneiss", of SW Sweden, is described as a case story and presented in this paper. Keywords

  3. Epidemiologic Insights into Stone Disease as a Systemic Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2007-04-01

    Examining the epidemiology of stone disease can provide insight into etiology. There is a growing body of evidence that stone disease is not simply a disorder of the kidney. In fact, nephrolithiasis is clearly a systemic disorder. Conditions associated with stone disease include the classic ones such as inflammatory bowel disease and primary hyperparathyroidism. More recent studies have demonstrated strong associations with obesity, gout, diabetes and hypertension. Future studies will help uncover the underlying common pathophysiologic abnormalities.

  4. Evidence for a distinct gut microbiome in kidney stone formers compared to non-stone formers.

    PubMed

    Stern, Joshua M; Moazami, Saman; Qiu, Yunping; Kurland, Irwin; Chen, Zigui; Agalliu, Ilir; Burk, Robert; Davies, Kelvin P

    2016-10-01

    The trillions of microbes that colonize our adult intestine are referred to as the gut microbiome (GMB). Functionally it behaves as a metabolic organ that communicates with, and complements, our own human metabolic apparatus. While the relationship between the GMB and kidney stone disease (KSD) has not been investigated, dysbiosis of the GMB has been associated with diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. In this pilot study we sought to identify unique changes in the GMB of kidney stone patients compared to patients without KSD. With an IRB-approved protocol we enrolled 29 patients into our pilot study. 23 patients were kidney stone formers and six were non-stone forming controls. Specimens were collected after a 6h fast and were flash frozen in dry ice and then stored at -80 °C. Microbiome: determination of bacterial abundance was by analysis of 16 s rRNA marker gene sequences using next generation sequencing. Sequencing of the GMB identified 178 bacterial genera. The five most abundant enterotypes within each group made up to greater than 50 % of the bacterial abundance identified. Bacteroides was 3.4 times more abundant in the KSD group as compared to control (34.9 vs 10.2 %; p = 0.001). Prevotella was 2.8 times more abundant in the control group as compared to the KSD group (34.7 vs 12.3 %; p = 0.005). In a multivariate analysis including age, gender, BMI, and DM, kidney stone disease remained an increased risk for high prevalence for Bacteroides (OR = 3.26, p = 0.033), whereas there was an inverse association with Prevotella (OR = 0.37, p = 0.043). There were no statistically significant differences in bacterial abundance levels for Bacteroides or Prevotella when comparing patients with and without DM, obesity (BMI >30), HTN or HLD. 11 kidney stone patients completed 24 h urine analysis at the time of this writing. Looking at the bacterial genuses with at least 4 % abundance in the kidney stone group, Eubacterium was inversely correlated

  5. Evidence for a distinct gut microbiome in kidney stone formers compared to non-stone formers.

    PubMed

    Stern, Joshua M; Moazami, Saman; Qiu, Yunping; Kurland, Irwin; Chen, Zigui; Agalliu, Ilir; Burk, Robert; Davies, Kelvin P

    2016-10-01

    The trillions of microbes that colonize our adult intestine are referred to as the gut microbiome (GMB). Functionally it behaves as a metabolic organ that communicates with, and complements, our own human metabolic apparatus. While the relationship between the GMB and kidney stone disease (KSD) has not been investigated, dysbiosis of the GMB has been associated with diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. In this pilot study we sought to identify unique changes in the GMB of kidney stone patients compared to patients without KSD. With an IRB-approved protocol we enrolled 29 patients into our pilot study. 23 patients were kidney stone formers and six were non-stone forming controls. Specimens were collected after a 6h fast and were flash frozen in dry ice and then stored at -80 °C. Microbiome: determination of bacterial abundance was by analysis of 16 s rRNA marker gene sequences using next generation sequencing. Sequencing of the GMB identified 178 bacterial genera. The five most abundant enterotypes within each group made up to greater than 50 % of the bacterial abundance identified. Bacteroides was 3.4 times more abundant in the KSD group as compared to control (34.9 vs 10.2 %; p = 0.001). Prevotella was 2.8 times more abundant in the control group as compared to the KSD group (34.7 vs 12.3 %; p = 0.005). In a multivariate analysis including age, gender, BMI, and DM, kidney stone disease remained an increased risk for high prevalence for Bacteroides (OR = 3.26, p = 0.033), whereas there was an inverse association with Prevotella (OR = 0.37, p = 0.043). There were no statistically significant differences in bacterial abundance levels for Bacteroides or Prevotella when comparing patients with and without DM, obesity (BMI >30), HTN or HLD. 11 kidney stone patients completed 24 h urine analysis at the time of this writing. Looking at the bacterial genuses with at least 4 % abundance in the kidney stone group, Eubacterium was inversely correlated

  6. Kidney stones: painful and common--but preventable.

    PubMed

    Zanni, Guido R

    2009-05-01

    Kidney stones are among the more common and painful urological disorders, affecting approximately 10% of Americans. While most stones pass spontaneously, obstructions result in renal colic, often requiring aggressive management of pain. If obstructions persist, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, or percutaneous nephrolithotomy may be required for a stone's removal. Recurrence rates are high, and prevention includes increased fluid intake, dietary restrictions, and the use of pharmacotherapy. Stone recurrence increases with age, underscoring the importance of prevention for those 60 years of age and older.

  7. Current trends in the management of urinary stones.

    PubMed

    Smith, T P; Castaneda-Zuniga, W R; Darcy, M D; Cragg, A H; Hunter, D W; Amplatz, K

    1988-01-01

    The treatment of renal and ureteral stones has undergone rapid and major changes over the past ten years. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy has become the most commonly used modality for the treatment of renal and upper ureteral stones. Lower ureteral stones are more commonly being approached by retrograde techniques. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy, medical therapy, and open surgical nephrolithotomy offer viable alternatives in given situations. Presented here is the current application of each of these techniques, both alone and in combination, for the treatment of urinary stones.

  8. Stone fragmentation pattern of piezoelectric shockwave lithotripsy in vitro.

    PubMed

    Grenabo, L; Hedelin, H; Mohsenvand, C; Rodin, L; Wang, Y H; Pettersson, S

    1998-06-01

    Whole stones (N = 64; largest diameter 5-15 mm) were treated in vitro with piezoelectric shockwaves using the Edap LT-01 lithotripter with 2.5 Hz at either 100% or 54% power. The number of fragments larger than 2 mm was counted after every 30 seconds. The stones were defined as totally broken when all fragments were < 2 mm. Total fragmentation time was correlated with the energy level and the size of the stone. The number of large fragments did not correlate with the energy level but rather with the original size of the stone.

  9. Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Alan Stone and the ethics of forensic psychiatry: an overview.

    PubMed

    Miller, Glenn H

    2008-01-01

    In 1982, Alan Stone presented a keynote speech at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL) on the ethics of forensic psychiatry. That speech was sharply critical of the prevailing ethics standards and led forensic psychiatrists to study his ideas carefully. A quarter-century later, he returned to the AAPL's Annual Meeting to present his current thinking. This overview outlines the development of Stone's thought over 25 years and the dialectic among Stone and three critics: Paul Appelbaum, Ezra Griffith, and Stephen Morse. Stone is now more optimistic about the possibility of developing an ethic for forensic psychiatry.

  11. Do Kidney Stone Formers Have A Kidney Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Zisman, Anna L.; Evan, Andrew P.; Coe, Fredric L.; Worcester, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a highly prevalent disorder affecting approximately one in eleven people and is associated with multiple complications including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Significant epidemiologic associations with chronic kidney disease and ESRD have been noted and are reviewed herein, but debate persists in the literature as to whether kidney stone formation is a pathogenic process contributing to kidney disease. Corroborating evidence supporting the presence of kidney disease in stone formers includes the variability of renal function by stone type, the positive association of stone size with renal dysfunction, the presence of markers of renal injury in the urine of even asymptomatic stone formers, and direct evidence of renal tissue injury on histopathology. Proposed pathogenic mechanisms include recurrent obstruction and comorbid conditions such as recurrent urinary tract infections and structural abnormalities. Recent work evaluating the renal histopathology of different groups of stone formers adds further granularity, suggesting variability in mechanisms of renal injury by stone type and confirming the pathogenic effects of crystal formation. Genetic abnormalities leading to stone formation including cystinuria and primary hyperoxaluria, among others, contribute to the burden of disease in the stone-forming population. PMID:26376133

  12. Memorial stone (Hibernian Society of Baltimore), level 280 Washington ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Memorial stone (Hibernian Society of Baltimore), level 280 - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Memorial stone (Cliosophic Society), level 270 Washington Monument, High ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Memorial stone (Cliosophic Society), level 270 - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Memorial stone (Massachusetts Voluntary Militia), level 280 Washington Monument, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Memorial stone (Massachusetts Voluntary Militia), level 280 - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. Renal stone risk assessment during Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24-hr. urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary and dietary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. RESULTS: Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of calcium-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Dietary and pharmacologic therapies need to be assessed to minimize the potential for renal stone formation in astronauts during/after space flight.

  16. Estimating the Rate of Occurrence of Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, J.; Goodenow, D.; Gokoglu, S.; Kassemi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in urine chemistry, during and post flight, potentially increases the risk of renal stones in astronauts. Although much is known about the effects of space flight on urine chemistry, no inflight incidence of renal stones in US astronauts exists and the question "How much does this risk change with space flight?" remains difficult to accurately quantify. In this discussion, we tackle this question utilizing a combination of deterministic and probabilistic modeling that implements the physics behind free stone growth and agglomeration, speciation of urine chemistry and published observations of population renal stone incidences to estimate changes in the rate of renal stone presentation. The modeling process utilizes a Population Balance Equation based model developed in the companion IWS abstract by Kassemi et al. (2016) to evaluate the maximum growth and agglomeration potential from a specified set of urine chemistry values. Changes in renal stone occurrence rates are obtained from this model in a probabilistic simulation that interrogates the range of possible urine chemistries using Monte Carlo techniques. Subsequently, each randomly sampled urine chemistry undergoes speciation analysis using the well-established Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS) code to calculate critical values, such as ionic strength and relative supersaturation. The Kassemi model utilizes this information to predict the mean and maximum stone size. We close the assessment loop by using a transfer function that estimates the rate of stone formation from combining the relative supersaturation and both the mean and maximum free stone growth sizes. The transfer function is established by a simulation analysis which combines population stone formation rates and Poisson regression. Training this transfer function requires using the output of the aforementioned assessment steps with inputs from known non-stone-former and known stone-former urine chemistries. Established in a Monte Carlo

  17. Urinary Stone Disease: Advancing Knowledge, Patient Care, and Population Health.

    PubMed

    Scales, Charles D; Tasian, Gregory E; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Goldfarb, David S; Star, Robert A; Kirkali, Ziya

    2016-07-01

    Expanding epidemiologic and physiologic data suggest that urinary stone disease is best conceptualized as a chronic metabolic condition punctuated by symptomatic, preventable stone events. These acute events herald substantial future chronic morbidity, including decreased bone mineral density, cardiovascular disease, and CKD. Urinary stone disease imposes a large and growing public health burden. In the United States, 1 in 11 individuals will experience a urinary stone in their lifetime. Given this high incidence and prevalence, urinary stone disease is one of the most expensive urologic conditions, with health care charges exceeding $10 billion annually. Patient care focuses on management of symptomatic stones rather than prevention; after three decades of innovation, procedural interventions are almost exclusively minimally invasive or noninvasive, and mortality is rare. Despite these advances, the prevalence of stone disease has nearly doubled over the past 15 years, likely secondary to dietary and health trends. The NIDDK recently convened a symposium to assess knowledge and treatment gaps to inform future urinary stone disease research. Reducing the public health burden of urinary stone disease will require key advances in understanding environmental, genetic, and other individual disease determinants; improving secondary prevention; and optimal population health strategies in an increasingly cost-conscious care environment. PMID:26964844

  18. 7. STONE PIER OF ORIGINAL WATERWHEEL INSTALLATION DOWNSTREAM FROM MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. STONE PIER OF ORIGINAL WATERWHEEL INSTALLATION DOWNSTREAM FROM MILL William E. Barrett, photographer, 1973 (copy negative) - Thomas Shepherd's Grist Mill, High Street Vicinity, Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, WV

  19. Memorial stone (R. Norris and Son Locomotive Works), level 270 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Memorial stone (R. Norris and Son Locomotive Works), level 270 - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. "Azul Platino": another Spanish natural stone to be considered as Global Heritage Stone Resource.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Tejado, Juan; Mota, M. Isabel; Pereira, Dolores

    2014-05-01

    Several granites are quarried in Extremadura, Spain, with very good aesthetic and physic and mechanical characteristics. "Azul Platino" has a striking bluish colour and its properties make this granite a perfect option for most applications as ornamental rocks. This granite has been used for centuries, first in the architectonic heritage of the extraction surrounding area, but afterwards in many important projects in Spain, Europe and all around the world: La Guardia Airport (NYC, USA), Yokohama Bridge (Tokyo, Japan), European Parliament (Brussels, Belgium), Planetarium (Valencia, Spain), Tenerife Auditorium (Tenerife, Spain), Suntec City (Singapore), MTR Kowlonn Station (Hong Kong), O'Connel Street (Dublin, Ireland), .... One important characteristic of this natural stone is the low radon exhalation that all the varieties, including the more weathered ones, show. For being a granite, this is an important characteristic for its use, both in interior and exterior use. But "Azul Platino" accomplishes all requirements to be considered as a nominee for Global Heritage Stone Resource consideration. Together with other local natural stones, it could be part as well of a Global Heritage Stone Province nomination.

  1. Mineral resource of the month: dimension stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on dimension stone (DS) that are quarried as natural rock for a specific size and dimension chosen for its color, strength, durability. Varieties of metamorphic, igneous or sedimentary rocks are used but DS rocks are mainly marble, granite and slate that can be found from Maine to Alabama in the U.S., in the Carrara District of Italy as well as in Greece, China and Brazil. It also notes the advent of steel and concrete in construction that ceased the use of DS.

  2. Management of waste from stone processing industry.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, K; Joseph, Kurian

    2007-10-01

    Characteristics of waste generated in stone processing industries, impact of its current disposal practices and waste recycling potential were assessed by field studies. The physical and chemical characteristics of waste are comparable to construction materials like sand and cement. The environmental issues due to the disposal of waste including that on ambient air quality were identified at respective disposal sites. It was found that the waste can be used to replace about 60% of sand and 10% of cement in concrete. Similarly the waste can replace 40% of clay in clay bricks with affecting its compressive strength.

  3. Pollution-fueled `biodeterioration` threatens historic stone

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    Microorganisms appear to pose as great a threat to historic buildings, monuments, and statues as does acid precipitation, according to recent research findings. Air pollution from urban and industrial growth may be fueling these microbes and speeding the deterioration of venerated artworks and cultural treasures in many parts of the world - the Taj Mahal in India; the Acropolis and the Delos Sanctuary in Greece; stone Buddhas in Japan; cathedrals in Europe; and ancient temples in Cambodia, Vietnam, and Central America. This paper reports research being done in this field. 8 refs.

  4. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy of stones in lower calices of kidney].

    PubMed

    Martov, A G; Peniukova, I V; Moskalenko, S A; Peniukov, V G; Peniukov, D V; Balykov, I S

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of the study aimed to evaluation of possible relationship between anatomical structure of the renal pelvis of the kidney, the size of the stone and the effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) of stones in lower calices of kidney, defined as "stone-free state". ESWL was performed in 285 patients. Sizes of stones varied from 5 to 25 mm. With interval distribution of stone sizes, the greatest number of cases was detected with size of 5 to 12 mm. The destruction of stone required one ESWL session in 196 cases, and three sessions only in 12 cases. The total number of pulses per one stone did not exceed 9500, and more than 70% of the stones have been effectively destroyed with less than 3000 pulses. The result of treatment was assessed 3-4 months after the last ESWL session on the basis of ultrasound and X-ray examination using nominal (dichotomous) scale. In addition, for verification of significant (expected and unexpected) correlations, exploratory analysis of the correlation matrices of factors possibly affecting the discharge of stone fragments was performed. Positive treatment outcome was recorded in 212 (74.4%) patients. Residual stone fragments (> or = 5 mm) were identified in 73 (25.6%) patients; in 69 patients fragments corresponded to the initial localization and 4 fragments were located in the pelvis and calices of middle and lower segments of the kidney. Statistical processing found no association between the size of the stone and the number of ESWL sessions required for its destruction (P = 0,4056). The analysis of relationship between the nature of the complications and size of stone revealed differences, but there were no significant differences in median test (p = 0.1067). Based on exploratory analysis and correlations identified, in-depth evaluation was carried out on three factors: the size of the stone, length of lower calices neck, and pyelocaliceal corner. Width of lower calices neck as a

  5. Association Between Complete Blood Count Parameters and Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Demiray, Ozay; Cevik, Erdem; Cuce, Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) parameters may associated with multiple diseases. Urinary stone disease is common public problem. Predictive value of CBC parameters may be associated with urinary stone disease Objectives To analyze the association between complete blood count (CBC) parameters and urinary stone disease. Patients and Methods This study was a retrospective observational study of 3,099 patients who were admitted to the urology outpatient clinic or diagnosed with urinary stone disease in the emergency services department. There were 353 patients included in the study that had ultrasonography (USG) and/or non-contrast computerized tomography (NCCT) and a CBC. Patients who had non-urinary system inflammatory disease in USG or NCCT, had fever, non-urinary system infection, anemia or diagnosed hematologic malignancy were excluded (n = 27). Patients were divided into two groups: a stone group (n = 74) and a control group (n = 252). Data of patients were retrieved from the hospital database and statistical analysis was performed. Results An increase in RDW, MPV, PDW, WBC, granulocyte percentage and a decrease in lymphocyte percentage is statistically associated with urinary stone disease (P < 0,001, P < 0.001, P = 0.006, P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.034, respectively). Microscopic hematuria is associated with urinary stone disease and the odds ratio for urinary stone prediction is 67.7 (P < 0.001). In addition, none of the CBC parameters were associated with stone burden. Conclusions When evaluating flank pain in patients, it is important to remember that CBC parameters may support urinary stone disease, and considering CBC results may be useful in the diagnosis of urinary stone disease.

  6. Association Between Complete Blood Count Parameters and Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Demiray, Ozay; Cevik, Erdem; Cuce, Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) parameters may associated with multiple diseases. Urinary stone disease is common public problem. Predictive value of CBC parameters may be associated with urinary stone disease Objectives To analyze the association between complete blood count (CBC) parameters and urinary stone disease. Patients and Methods This study was a retrospective observational study of 3,099 patients who were admitted to the urology outpatient clinic or diagnosed with urinary stone disease in the emergency services department. There were 353 patients included in the study that had ultrasonography (USG) and/or non-contrast computerized tomography (NCCT) and a CBC. Patients who had non-urinary system inflammatory disease in USG or NCCT, had fever, non-urinary system infection, anemia or diagnosed hematologic malignancy were excluded (n = 27). Patients were divided into two groups: a stone group (n = 74) and a control group (n = 252). Data of patients were retrieved from the hospital database and statistical analysis was performed. Results An increase in RDW, MPV, PDW, WBC, granulocyte percentage and a decrease in lymphocyte percentage is statistically associated with urinary stone disease (P < 0,001, P < 0.001, P = 0.006, P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.034, respectively). Microscopic hematuria is associated with urinary stone disease and the odds ratio for urinary stone prediction is 67.7 (P < 0.001). In addition, none of the CBC parameters were associated with stone burden. Conclusions When evaluating flank pain in patients, it is important to remember that CBC parameters may support urinary stone disease, and considering CBC results may be useful in the diagnosis of urinary stone disease. PMID:27651947

  7. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary stone disease: clinical experience with the electromagnetic lithotriptor 'Lithostar'.

    PubMed

    Simon, J; Corbusier, A; Mendes Leal, A; Van den Bossche, M; Wespes, E; Van Regemorter, G; Schulman, C C

    1989-01-01

    400 urinary stone patients were treated with the electromagnetic lithotriptor Siemens 'Lithostar': 66.3% had renal stones and 33.7% had ureteral stones. Ninety percent of the treatments were performed under intravenous sedation only: 14.5% of the patients had more than one session. After 3 months more than 80% of the patients with a single stone smaller than 1.5 cm and 46% of the patients with stones larger than 2.5 cm were 'stone-free'.

  8. Adjuvant therapy after surgical stone management.

    PubMed

    Ferrandino, Michael N; Monga, Manoj; Preminger, Glenn M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article was to review the most widely researched adjuvant medical therapies for the surgical management of urolithiasis. Articles were identified and reviewed from PubMed and Medline databases with MeSH headings focusing on the various surgical treatments of urolithiasis and adjuvant therapy. Additional articles were retrieved from references and conference proceedings. Surgical treatments reviewed included shockwave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Adjuvant therapy was considered medical or complementary therapy as an adjunct to these surgical interventions. Adjuvant therapy for the surgical management of urolithiasis has been documented to increase stone-free rates, reduce stone remission rates, prevent renal damage, and decrease postoperative morbidity. A variety of agents have been studied, ranging from antioxidants to alpha-blockers and to alkalinizing agents. Additionally, there is increasing interest in complementary adjuvant therapy (ie, acupuncture). Adjuvant therapy is a fertile area for research in the surgical management of urolithiasis. The optimal agents have yet to be determined and therefore further investigation is warranted and necessary.

  9. Smartphone sensors for stone lithography authentication.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Giuseppe Schirripa; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to "authenticate" non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the "not original artwork" is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography. PMID:24811077

  10. Prolonged Sleep under Stone Age Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Piosczyk, Hannah; Landmann, Nina; Holz, Johannes; Feige, Bernd; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: We report on a unique experiment designed to investigate the impact of prehistoric living conditions on sleep-wake behavior. Methods: A group of five healthy adults were assessed during life in a Stone Age-like settlement over two months. Results: The most notable finding was that nocturnal time in bed and estimated sleep time, as measured by actigraphy, markedly increased during the experimental period compared to the periods prior to and following the experiment. These increases were primarily driven by a phase-advance shift of sleep onset. Subjective assessments of health and functioning did not reveal any relevant changes across the study. Conclusions: Our observations provide further evidence for the long-held belief that the absence of modern living conditions is associated with an earlier sleep phase and prolonged sleep duration. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 723. Citation: Piosczyk H, Landmann N, Holz J, Feige B, Riemann D, Nissen C, Voderholzer U. Prolonged sleep under Stone Age conditions. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):719-722. PMID:25024647

  11. Coagulum pyelolithotomy: impact on unrecognized stones.

    PubMed

    Kalash, S S; Young, J D

    1985-12-01

    The use of coagulum free of thrombin to remove 313 renal calculi from 46 patients is reviewed. Twenty-six additional calculi removed from 17 patients were not apparent on preoperative studies. Of the 313 stones apparent preoperatively 3 were not extracted in the coagulum. Other means (stone forceps and so forth) were used to deliver 2 of these calculi and 1 was left in the kidney. Incisions used for these procedures included the conventional flank incision in 9 patients, a 10 cm. posterior flank incision in 30 and lumbotomy in 7. Adjunctive use of coagulum in 8 additional patients is presented. The recovery of more than the preoperatively identified renal calculi may be an advantage for coagulum pyelolithotomy. The length of hospital stay in these 46 patients averaged 4.8 days, with an average operative time of 1.22 hours. The patients returned to work within an average of 13 days. We suggest that these data are comparable to other methods of pyelonephrolithotomy. PMID:3932682

  12. Smartphone Sensors for Stone Lithography Authentication

    PubMed Central

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to “authenticate” non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the “not original artwork” is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography. PMID:24811077

  13. 1. ORIGINAL STONE ARCH BRIDGE OVER THE DES PLAINES RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ORIGINAL STONE ARCH BRIDGE OVER THE DES PLAINES RIVER AT NINTH STREET IN LOCKPORT. THE BRIDGE WAS BUILT ABOUT 1865. NOTE METAL CLAMP ON THE NEAR PIER AND THE 20TH CENTURY REINFORCED CONCRETE ADDITION. - Lockport Historic District, Stone Arch Bridge, Spanning Des Plaines River at Ninth Street, Lockport, Will County, IL

  14. Measuring stone weathering in cities: Surface reduction on marble monuments

    SciTech Connect

    Dragovich, D. )

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether measurements of stone weathering recorded by different observers could be aggregated into a simple data base for evaluating pollution effects on calcareous building stone. Apparent differences in recorded weathering rates on marble tombstones were here found to be partly a result of lettering size measured, measuring devices used, and individual observers.

  15. Perioperative cultures and the role of antibiotics during stone surgery.

    PubMed

    Motamedinia, Piruz; Korets, Ruslan; Badalato, Gina; Gupta, Mantu

    2014-09-01

    Urinary tract infection and urosepsis are the most common complications associated with the procedures urologists employ to manage stone disease. Recommendations regarding antibiotic prophylaxis and utilization of perioperative urine and stone culture prior to shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) or endoscopic intervention have evolved overtime. We sought to provide readers with a comprehensive consensus regarding these most recent recommendations.

  16. In vitro comparison of different gall stone dissolution solvents.

    PubMed

    Vergunst, H; Terpstra, O T; Nijs, H G; Steen, G

    1991-02-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) of gall bladder stones leaves residual fragments that need to be dissolved by chemical solvents. In this study we compared the in vitro dissolving capacity of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), mono-octanoin, limonene, and limonene/mono-octanoin (70%/30%). From nine sets of five human gall stones obtained at cholecystectomy, four stones were used for dissolution and the fifth was used for chemical analysis of cholesterol, calcium, and bilirubin contents. Eight sets were cholesterol stones with a mean (SD) cholesterol content of 89.9 (5.6)%. These stones dissolved completely in either solvent, often leaving sand-like debris, with the exception of one stone. MTBE dissolved cholesterol gall stones 100 times faster than mono-octanoin and 10 times faster than limonene or the limonene/mono-octanoin mixture (p less than 0.001). The combination of limonene and mono-octanoin was as effective as limonene alone. Of the four solvents, MTBE is the best one to evaluate for dissolution of residual fragments after ESWL treatment of gall bladder stones.

  17. Urinary tract stones--Part II: current status of treatment.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, C; Anson, K M; Patel, U

    2003-06-01

    The majority of renal and ureteric stones are now managed by minimally invasive techniques, for example nephrostomy, ureteral stents, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy or percutaneous nephrolithotomy. A multi-disciplinary approach is necessary, and this review examines the status of modern stone therapy and the contribution of the radiology department.

  18. Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district.

    PubMed

    Aslin Shamema, A; Thanigai Arul, K; Senthil Kumar, R; Narayana Kalkura, S

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium.

  19. Imaging-based logics for ornamental stone quality chart definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Aldo; Serranti, Silvia; Raspi, Costantino

    2007-02-01

    Ornamental stone products are commercially classified on the market according to several factors related both to intrinsic lythologic characteristics and to their visible pictorial attributes. Sometimes these latter aspects prevail in quality criteria definition and assessment. Pictorial attributes are in any case also influenced by the performed working actions and the utilized tools selected to realize the final stone manufactured product. Stone surface finishing is a critical task because it can contribute to enhance certain aesthetic features of the stone itself. The study was addressed to develop an innovative set of methodologies and techniques able to quantify the aesthetic quality level of stone products taking into account both the physical and the aesthetical characteristics of the stones. In particular, the degree of polishing of the stone surfaces and the presence of defects have been evaluated, applying digital image processing strategies. Morphological and color parameters have been extracted developing specific software architectures. Results showed as the proposed approaches allow to quantify the degree of polishing and to identify surface defects related to the intrinsic characteristics of the stone and/or the performed working actions.

  20. DNA AND PROTEIN RECOVERY FROM WASHED EXPERIMENTAL STONE TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA residues may preserve on ancient stone tools used to process animals. We studied 24 stone tools recovered from the Bugas-Holding site in northwestern Wyoming. Nine tools that yielded DNA included five bifaces, two side scrapers, one end scraper, and one utilized flake. The...

  1. 26. Otter Creek Bridge #5. View of elevation of stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Otter Creek Bridge #5. View of elevation of stone facing on concrete box culvert. Stone facing appears on the headwall, tail wall, wingwalls, interior abutment wall and the pier. Looking northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  2. A Guideline for the Management of Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James; Johnston, Smith

    2014-01-01

    There are no specific guidelines for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Given the increased risk for bone loss, hypercalcuria, and stone formation due to microgravity, a clinical practice guideline is needed. Methods An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. This information was used to create an algorithm for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Results Guidelines are proposed based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In a usual medical setting, asymptomatic, small stones less than 7 mm are often observed over time. Given the constraints of schedule, and the risks to crew health and mission, this approach is too liberal. An upper limit of 3 mm stone diameter was adopted before requiring intervention, because this is the largest size that has a significant chance of spontaneous passage on its own. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion The spaceflight environment requires more aggressive treatment than would otherwise be found with the usual practice of medicine. A small stone can become a major problem because it may ultimately require medical evacuation from orbit. Thus renal stones are a significant mission threat and should be managed in a systematic way to mitigate risks to crew health and mission success.

  3. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  4. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  5. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  6. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  7. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stone for ornamentation. 301.6 Section 301.6 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local...

  8. 11. FLOOR 2 LOOKING NORTH; SHOWS BURR STONES AND ROCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. FLOOR 2 LOOKING NORTH; SHOWS BURR STONES AND ROCK STONES, BEARING OF UPRIGHT SHAFT ON CENTER POST, BELT AT BASE OF UPRIGHT SHAFT DRIVES GOVERNOR SPINDLE; TRUNDLEWHEELS OF TWO LAYSHAFTS ENGAGE WITH CROWN WHEEL ABOVE GREAT SPUR WHEEL - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  9. Idiopathic hypercalciuria and formation of calcium renal stones.

    PubMed

    Coe, Fredric L; Worcester, Elaine M; Evan, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    The most common presentation of nephrolithiasis is idiopathic calcium stones in patients without systemic disease. Most stones are primarily composed of calcium oxalate and form on a base of interstitial apatite deposits, known as Randall's plaque. By contrast some stones are composed largely of calcium phosphate, as either hydroxyapatite or brushite (calcium monohydrogen phosphate), and are usually accompanied by deposits of calcium phosphate in the Bellini ducts. These deposits result in local tissue damage and might serve as a site of mineral overgrowth. Stone formation is driven by supersaturation of urine with calcium oxalate and brushite. The level of supersaturation is related to fluid intake as well as to the levels of urinary citrate and calcium. Risk of stone formation is increased when urine citrate excretion is <400 mg per day, and treatment with potassium citrate has been used to prevent stones. Urine calcium levels >200 mg per day also increase stone risk and often result in negative calcium balance. Reduced renal calcium reabsorption has a role in idiopathic hypercalciuria. Low sodium diets and thiazide-type diuretics lower urine calcium levels and potentially reduce the risk of stone recurrence and bone disease. PMID:27452364

  10. A mechanistic analysis of stone comminution in lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Adam D.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Macconaghy, Brian; Crum, Lawrence A.

    2005-04-01

    In vitro experiments and an elastic wave model were employed to isolate and assess the importance of individual mechanisms in stone comminution in lithotripsy. Cylindrical U-30 cement stones were treated in an HM-3-style research lithotripter. Baffles were used to block specific waves responsible for spallation, squeezing, or shear. Surface cracks were added to stones to simulate the effect of cavitation, then tested in water and glycerol (a cavitation suppressive medium). Each case was simulated using the elasticity equations for an isotropic medium. The calculated location of maximum stress compared well with the experimental observations of where cracks naturally formed. Shear waves from the shock wave in the fluid traveling along the stone surface (a kind of dynamic squeezing) led to the largest stresses in the cylindrical stones and the fewest SWs to fracture. Reflection of the longitudinal wave from the back of the stone-spallation-and bubble-jet impact on the proximal and distal faces of the stone produced lower stresses and required more SWs to break stones. Surface cracks accelerated fragmentation when created near the location where the maximum stress was predicted. [Work supported by NIH DK43881, NIH-Fogarty, NSBRI SMS00203, RFBR, and ONRIFO.

  11. Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslin Shamema, A.; Thanigai Arul, K.; Senthil Kumar, R.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium.

  12. 21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ureteral stone dislodger. 876.4680 Section 876.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4680 Ureteral stone dislodger....

  13. 21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ureteral stone dislodger. 876.4680 Section 876.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4680 Ureteral stone dislodger....

  14. 21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ureteral stone dislodger. 876.4680 Section 876.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4680 Ureteral stone dislodger....

  15. 21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ureteral stone dislodger. 876.4680 Section 876.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4680 Ureteral stone dislodger....

  16. 21 CFR 876.4680 - Ureteral stone dislodger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ureteral stone dislodger. 876.4680 Section 876.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4680 Ureteral stone dislodger....

  17. Use of Local Stone: Successes, Failures and Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerns, Edward; Will, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    Stone has been used in construction for thousands of years. Until relatively recently, local stone was used almost exclusively due to limited transportation options and to reduce costs. . Historically, the stone was often taken from nearby fields, known as fieldstone, without any specific quarrying operations and used to create unique assemblages of vernacular buildings. Stone, perhaps more than any other natural building material, has numerous varieties and characteristics within the broader classifications of stone: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. In exterior applications, stone historically has been used for foundations, localized cladding elements and in some instances entire building facades. Many of these local stones are appropriate for foundations, but not necessarily for cladding systems, particularly once the stone was quarried and modified rather than used in its natural form. These issues tended to be less significant in historic buildings when wall systems were much thicker and had more redundancies in the cladding systems Since around 1880, the use of these thinner applications of quarried stones as more traditional cladding systems (rather than cladding and structure) has resulted in challenges including unanticipated weathering characteristics, residual stresses and detrimental inclusions. These conditions can result in expensive and extensive repairs and maintenance. Often the options to address these characteristics are limited or potentially drastic depending on the scale of installation. It is important to understand the cause of the issues, understand if these issues are significant and finally how to address them appropriately. Where and how these unique local stones are installed as well as climate and weathering patterns certainly contribute to the potential unanticipated conditions. This presentation will be divided into two general parts. The first will address various stones used historically throughout regions within the United

  18. Sialendoscopy-assisted transfacial surgical removal of parotid stones.

    PubMed

    Capaccio, Pasquale; Pasquale, Capaccio; Gaffuri, Michelle; Michele, Gaffuri; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Lorenzo, Pignataro

    2014-12-01

    Minimally invasive surgical approaches to parotid stones (such as extra-corporeal shockwave lithotripsy and sialendoscopy) have proved to be effective in a high percentage of cases, although success depends on factors such as the localisation of the stone, its size and its mobility. The failure rate of 10% is largely due to large and impacted stones and, in such cases, a combined external and sialendoscopic approach can be used to avoid morbidity and the risks of more invasive superficial parotidectomy. We treated eight patients with large parotid stones (>7 mm) using a sialendoscopy-assisted transfacial surgical approach that was effective in all but one case, which was successfully solved by combining this procedure with extra-corporeal lithotripsy and operative sialendoscopy. Our results confirm that the combined approach is a valid alternative to parotidectomy for large parotid stones and should be added to other minimally invasive techniques aimed at restoring the function of the affected parotid gland.

  19. Proteomic analysis of a matrix stone: a case report.

    PubMed

    Canales, Benjamin K; Anderson, Lorraine; Higgins, LeeAnn; Frethem, Chris; Ressler, Alice; Kim, Il Won; Monga, Manoj

    2009-12-01

    Matrix stones are radiolucent bodies that present as soft muco-proteinaceous material within the renal collecting system. Following wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we homogenized a surgically removed matrix stone, extracted and purified protein, and analyzed samples using tandem mass spectrometry for proteomic composition. Resulting spectra were searched using ProteinPilot 2.0, and identified proteins were reported with >95% confidence. Primary XRD mineral analysis was a biological apatite, and SEM revealed fibrous, net-like laminations containing bacterial, cellular, and crystalline material. Of the 33 unique proteins identified, 90% have not been previously reported within matrix stones and over 70% may be considered inflammatory or defensive in nature. Characterization of other matrix stone proteomes, in particular from non-infectious populations, may yield insights into the pathogenesis of this rare stone as well as the mineralogical process that occurs within crystalline calculi.

  20. The dissolution of calcium oxalate kidney stones. A kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Tomazic, B B; Nancollas, G H

    1982-07-01

    The rates of dissolution of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) and of kidney stones containing these phases has been studied in 0.15 M sodium chloride solution at 37C. In contrast to the diffusion controlled dissolution of the pure synthetic phases, the kidney stones appear to dissolve considerably more slowly by a predominantly surface controlled process, independent of fluid dynamics. The differences between the dissolution rates of the synthetic and stone minerals become greater as the reactions approach equilibrium. As was found for the COD mineral, the dihydrate stone material transforms into the thermodynamically more stable monohydrate phase. The COD stone phase is significantly stabilized in the presence of inhibitors such as polyphosphate and magnesium ions. This may be an important factor in explaining the observed presence of dihydrate as a surface phase in many reported cases of calcium oxalate lithiasis.

  1. Berroqueña stone of Madrid (Spain). A traditional and contemporary building stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael; Varas Muriel, Ma José

    2014-05-01

    In the Alpedrete monzogranite to granodiorite pluton (350 km2) at 45 km north of the city of Madrid, there are several quarries of Berroqueña stone.This stone has been widely used as building stone in well-preserved and significant buildings of the central area of Spain, such as the Nuestra Señora de la Asunción in Alpedrete (16th century), Royal Palace and Alcalá Gate in Madrid (18th century). This building stone is used, both for new construction and restoration work, like headquarter of the Banco de España in Madrid (19th century) and its restoration (20th century). Alpedrete granite is compositionally classified as monzogranite. Petrographically, it is a medium (1-5 mm) grained subidiomorphic, and equigranular. This mineralogy consists chiefly of quartz (2-3 mm and 40-50% vol.), plagioclase (1-3 mm and 25-30% vol.), K-feldspar (microcline; 2-4 mm and 10-15% vol.) and biotite (1- 2 mm and 10-15% vol.). Its accessory minerals are cordierite, apatite, zircon and monazite. This grey granite has low amount of cracks, its open porosity (accessible to water) is 0,8 % and accessible to mercury is 0,50 %, with a diameter ranging mostly from 0.01 to 0.1 µm. Water absortion is 0,3%. Its bulk density is 2668 kg/m3 and its anisotropy grade (dM) is 6,5 %. its ultrasound propagation velocity (Vp) is 4626 m/s and microhardness of Knoop test 4544 Mpa. Pressure strenght ,and flexure strength 136.9 Mpa and 8.88 Mpa, respectiverly. Measurements obtained of petrophysical properties make this granite a high quality building material. Petrological and petrophysical characteristics of Berroqueña stone, with which have been used for many buildings from 16th century to present, provide a good answer to the decay agents, and therefore durability, possibility of differents finishes and good cleaning. Currently widely used in restoration and paving streets, outdoor tiling and funerary art. Acknowledgments: Special thanks are given to the Geomaterials (S2009/MAT 1629) and CONSOLIDER

  2. Tracking kidney stones with sound during shock wave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracht, Jonathan M.

    The prevalence of kidney stones has increased significantly over the past decades. One of the primary treatments for kidney stones is shock wave lithotripsy which focuses acoustic shock waves onto the stone in order to fragment it into pieces that are small enough to pass naturally. This typically requires a few thousand shock waves delivered at a rate of about 2 Hz. Although lithotripsy is the only non-invasive treatment option for kidney stories, both acute and chronic complications have been identified which could be reduced if fewer shock waves were used. One factor that could be used to reduce the number of shock waves is accounting for the motion of the stone which causes a portion of the delivered shock waves to miss the stone, yielding no therapeutic benefit. Therefore identifying when the stone is not in focus would allow tissue to be spared without affecting fragmentation. The goal of this thesis is to investigate acoustic methods to track the stone in real-time during lithotripsy in order to minimize poorly-targeted shock waves. A relatively small number of low frequency ultrasound transducers were used in pulse-echo mode and a novel optimization routine based on time-of-flight triangulation is used to determine stone location. It was shown that the accuracy of the localization may be estimated without knowing the true stone location. This method performed well in preliminary experiments but the inclusion of tissue-like aberrating layers reduced the accuracy of the localization. Therefore a hybrid imaging technique employing DORT (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator) and the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) algorithm was developed. This method was able to localize kidney stories to within a few millimeters even in the presence of an aberrating layer. This would be sufficient accuracy for targeting lithotripter shock waves. The conclusion of this work is that tracking kidney stones with low frequency ultrasound should be effective clinically.

  3. Determinants of Brushite Stone Formation: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Siener, Roswitha; Netzer, Linda; Hesse, Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The occurrence of brushite stones has increased during recent years. However, the pathogenic factors driving the development of brushite stones remain unclear. Methods Twenty-eight brushite stone formers and 28 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy individuals were enrolled in this case-control study. Anthropometric, clinical, 24 h urinary parameters and dietary intake from 7-day weighed food records were assessed. Results Pure brushite stones were present in 46% of patients, while calcium oxalate was the major secondary stone component. Urinary pH and oxalate excretion were significantly higher, whereas urinary citrate was lower in patients as compared to healthy controls. Despite lower dietary intake, urinary calcium excretion was significantly higher in brushite stone patients. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed pH>6.50 (OR 7.296; p = 0.035), calcium>6.40 mmol/24 h (OR 25.213; p = 0.001) and citrate excretion <2.600 mmol/24 h (OR 15.352; p = 0.005) as urinary risk factors for brushite stone formation. A total of 56% of patients exhibited distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). Urinary pH, calcium and citrate excretion did not significantly differ between patients with or without dRTA. Conclusions Hypercalciuria, a diminished citrate excretion and an elevated pH turned out to be the major urinary determinants of brushite stone formation. Interestingly, urinary phosphate was not associated with urolithiasis. The increased urinary oxalate excretion, possibly due to decreased calcium intake, promotes the risk of mixed stone formation with calcium oxalate. Neither dietary factors nor dRTA can account as cause for hypercalciuria, higher urinary pH and diminished citrate excretion. Further research is needed to define the role of dRTA in brushite stone formation and to evaluate the hypothesis of an acquired acidification defect. PMID:24265740

  4. Algal 'greening' and the conservation of stone heritage structures.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Nick A; Viles, Heather A; Ahmad, Samin; McCabe, Stephen; Smith, Bernard J

    2013-01-01

    In humid, temperate climates, green algae can make a significant contribution to the deterioration of building stone, both through unsightly staining ('greening') and, possibly, physical and chemical transformations. However, very little is known about the factors that influence the deteriorative impact and spatial distribution of green algal biofilms, hindering attempts to model the influence of climate change on building conservation. To address this problem, we surveyed four sandstone heritage structures in Belfast, UK. Our research had two aims: 1) to investigate the relationships between greening and the deterioration of stone structures and 2) to assess the impacts of environmental factors on the distribution of green biofilms. We applied an array of analytical techniques to measure stone properties indicative of deterioration status (hardness, colour and permeability) and environmental conditions related to algal growth (surface and sub-surface moisture, temperature and surface texture). Our results indicated that stone hardness was highly variable but only weakly related to levels of greening. Stone that had been exposed for many years was, on average, darker and greener than new stone of the same type, but there was no correlation between greening and darkening. Stone permeability was higher on 'old', weathered stone but not consistently related to the incidence of greening. However, there was evidence to suggest that thick algal biofilms were capable of reducing the ingress of moisture. Greening was negatively correlated with point measurements of surface temperature, but not moisture or surface texture. Our findings suggested that greening had little impact on the physical integrity of stone; indeed the influence of algae on moisture regimes in stone may have a broadly bioprotective action. Furthermore, the relationship between moisture levels and greening is not straightforward and is likely to be heavily dependent upon temporal patterns in moisture

  5. Acid rain damage to carbonate stone: a quantitative assessment based on the aqueous geochemistry of rainfall runoff from stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    An onsite experimental procedure was used to identify and quantify acid rain damage to carbonate stone, based on the change in rain runoff chemical composition. Onsite data obtained during the summer and fall of 1984 at three locations in the northeastern United States indicate that carbonate stone surface recession is related to acid deposition. -from Author

  6. Consolidation of degraded ornamental porous limestone stone by calcium carbonate precipitation induced by the microbiota inhabiting the stone.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Lopez, C; Rodriguez-Navarro, C; Piñar, G; Carrillo-Rosúa, F J; Rodriguez-Gallego, M; Gonzalez-Muñoz, M T

    2007-08-01

    Although it has already been shown that calcareous stone can be consolidated by using a bacterially inoculated culture medium, a more user-friendly method is the in situ application of a sterile culture medium that is able to activate, among the microbial community of the stone, those bacteria with a potential for calcium carbonate precipitation. In order to test this new method for stone consolidation, non-sterilized decayed porous limestone was immersed in sterile nutritional media. Results were compared to those of the runs in which stone sterilized prior to the treatment was used. The effects of the microbial community on stone consolidation were determined by recording the evolution of the culture media chemistry. The treated stone was tested for mechanical resistance and porosity. Results demonstrate that the tested media were able to activate bacteria from the microbial community of the stone. As a consequence of the growth of these bacteria, an alkalinization occurred that resulted in calcium carbonate precipitation. The new precipitate was compatible with the substrate and consolidated the stone without pore plugging. Therefore, a good candidate to in situ consolidate decayed porous limestone is the application of a sterile culture medium with the characteristics specified in the present study.

  7. Contrasting histopathology and crystal deposits in kidneys of idiopathic stone formers who produce hydroxy apatite, brushite, or calcium oxalate stones.

    PubMed

    Evan, Andrew P; Lingeman, James E; Worcester, Elaine M; Sommer, Andre J; Phillips, Carrie L; Williams, James C; Coe, Fredric L

    2014-04-01

    Our previous work has shown that stone formers who form calcium phosphate (CaP) stones that contain any brushite (BRSF) have a distinctive renal histopathology and surgical anatomy when compared with idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF). Here we report on another group of idiopathic CaP stone formers, those forming stone containing primarily hydroxyapatite, in order to clarify in what ways their pathology differs from BRSF and ICSF. Eleven hydroxyapatite stone formers (HASF) (2 males, 9 females) were studied using intra-operative digital photography and biopsy of papillary and cortical regions to measure tissue changes associated with stone formation. Our main finding is that HASF and BRSF differ significantly from each other and that both differ greatly from ICSF. Both BRSF and ICSF patients have significant levels of Randall's plaque compared with HASF. Intra-tubular deposit number is greater in HASF than BRSF and nonexistent in ICSF while deposit size is smaller in HASF than BRSF. Cortical pathology is distinctly greater in BRSF than HASF. Four attached stones were observed in HASF, three in 25 BRSF and 5-10 per ICSF patient. HASF and BRSF differ clinically in that both have higher average urine pH, supersaturation of CaP, and calcium excretion than ICSF. Our work suggests that HASF and BRSF are two distinct and separate diseases and both differ greatly from ICSF.

  8. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  9. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  10. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  11. [Mineralogical and spectral characteristics of "Gaozhou stone" from Jiangxi Province].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye; Shi, Guang-hai; Lou, Fa-sheng; Wu, Shi-jin; Shi, Miao; Huang, An-jie

    2015-01-01

    The seal stone is a kind of artwork with historical and cultural characteristics of China, which has been playing an important role in Chinese traditional culture. "Gaozhou stone", a new kind of the seal stone, has been found in the market recently. To investigate the mineralogical and spectral characterastics of "Gaozhou stone", samples were studied by using XRF, XRD, FTIR, SEM and DTA. Measurements by XRD reveal that kaolin minerals (kaolinite, dickite), pyrophyllite and minor sericite and illite occur in the ores. When kaolinite and dickite are associated, it is not easy to differentiate them from each other. Although some reflections overlap others, kaolin polytypes can be differentiated by XRD patterns in the range 18°-40° (2θ), the reflections at 0. 395, 0. 379, 0. 343, 0. 326, 0. 294, 0. 280, 0. 232 and 0. 221 nm are diagnostic of dickite. The XRD results indicate the presence of transitional mineral of kaolinite and dickite in these samples. The main chemical components of "Gaozhou stone" are SiO2 and Al2O3 with minor Fe2O3, K2O and Na2O, corresponding with that of kaolin minerals. The OH groups in kaolin group minerals have attracted considerable attention as a sensitive indicator of structural disorder. In principle, dickite has three bands, whereas kaolinite has four bands at the OH-stretching region. According to the results of FTIR, transitional mineral of kaolinite and dickite in "Gaozhou stone" has 3 absorption bands of 3 670, 3 650 and 3 620 cm-1 in high frequency region. The intensity of 3 670 cm-1 band that belongs to outer layer hydroxyl vibration is approximately equal to the intensity of 3 620 cm band ascribing to inner layer OH vibration. This value will only have subtle changes due to the different component ratio of kaolinite and dickite layers. Micro-morphology viewed by SEM presents irregular platy or pseudo-hexagonal platy particles with an average diameter of 0. 5-4 µm of "Gaozhou stone". Such morphologies are quite similar to other

  12. NMR applications to low porosity carbonate stones.

    PubMed

    Alesiani, M; Capuani, S; Maraviglia, B

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate NMR applications to porous materials widely employed in artistic and historical monuments and largely studied in the Cultural Heritage conservation field. Carrara marble, Candoglia marble and travertine samples were studied and data from relaxation times measurements were compared. Very interesting results from treated samples are reported and explained under the structure related spin lattice relaxation time point of view. Images of Carrara marble aged sample (XIX century), coming from the Florence Cathedral obtained for short absorption time of water by capillary rise and for relatively small thickness slices together show the fluid's spatial distribution within the stone. Comparative images showing untreated sample with the treated ones were obtained suggesting very useful applications for the determination of treatment effectiveness. PMID:14559345

  13. Injury experience in stone mining, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  14. Injury experience in stone mining, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  15. Sulphite quantification on damaged stones and mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, G.; Zappia, G.; Sabbioni, C.

    An analytical procedure was developed for the simultaneous identification and quantification of the sulphite and main anions found in degradation patinas on historic buildings and monuments, as well as on stones and mortars exposed in simulation chamber and field tests. The quantification of anions was performed by means of ion chromatography (IC), after the stabilisation of sulphite with a D(-) fructose solution. The utilisation of two different chromatographic columns, connected in series, allowed the simultaneous determination of fluoride, acetate, formate, chloride, nitrite, bromide, iodide, oxyhalides, nitrate, phosphate, sulphite, sulphate and oxalate, in a time of approximately 25 min, without interference and with high reproducibility. Finally, the results show how in the majority of cases the formation of sulphite is an intermediate stage in the sulphation process affecting building materials exposed to the environment and needs to be measured together with sulphate, in order to obtain a correct interpretation of degradation mechanisms on such materials.

  16. Laserlithotripsy of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed Central

    Ell, C; Lux, G; Hochberger, J; Müller, D; Demling, L

    1988-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde laser lithotripsy of common bile duct stones is a new technique which can be carried out through the endoscope without anaesthesia using ordinary endoscopic equipment. In the method described here a flashlamp pulsed Neodymium YAG laser (wave length 1064 nm) was used. Light energy was transmitted along a highly flexible quartz fibre with a diameter of 0.2 mm. This new technique was used in nine patients with concrements in the common bile duct, which could not be removed with the established endoscopic techniques. In eight of the nine the concrements (maximum diameter 4.7 x 3.1 cm) could be fragmented and in six the fragments could be extracted from the common bile duct. The total energy required was 80-300 J; complications were not observed. Images Figs 3 and 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Figs 8 and 9 PMID:2898421

  17. ["Endoscopy in a stone quarry"--multiple pigment stones 6 weeks after delivery].

    PubMed

    Sandmann, M; Fähndrich, M; Heike, M

    2010-03-01

    A 29-year-old African woman without any history of diseases was referred to our clinic because of recurrent abdominal pain. 6 weeks earlier she had delivered a healthy baby. Laboratory data revealed hypochromic microcytic anemia, elevated cholestatic liver enzymes, and an elevated bilirubin level of 2.2 mg/dl. Abdominal sonography showed choledocholithiasis. The endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed the presence of more than 100 small stones in the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. An endoscopic papillotomy was performed and multiple small black stones were removed from the bile duct by basket into the duodenum. Because of the hypochromic microcytic anemia, the detection of pigment stones and the ethnic background of the patient we suspected a hemoglobinopathy. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed 97 % HbC. The molecular genetic analysis revealed a homozygous mutation in codon 6 GAG > AAG for the beta globin chain (HbCC). HbC is a structurally abnormal hemoglobin with typical aggregates and tetragonal crystal formation which results in mild chronic hemolytic anemia. The cholezystectomy after 6 weeks was performed without complications.

  18. Oxalate: from the environment to kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Brzica, Hrvoje; Breljak, Davorka; Burckhardt, Birgitta C; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Sabolić, Ivan

    2013-12-01

    Oxalate urolithiasis (nephrolithiasis) is the most frequent type of kidney stone disease. Epidemiological research has shown that urolithiasis is approximately twice as common in men as in women, but the underlying mechanism of this sex-related prevalence is unclear. Oxalate in the organism partially originate from food (exogenous oxalate) and largely as a metabolic end-product from numerous precursors generated mainly in the liver (endogenous oxalate). Oxalate concentrations in plasma and urine can be modified by various foodstuffs, which can interact in positively or negatively by affecting oxalate absorption, excretion, and/or its metabolic pathways. Oxalate is mostly removed from blood by kidneys and partially via bile and intestinal excretion. In the kidneys, after reaching certain conditions, such as high tubular concentration and damaged integrity of the tubule epithelium, oxalate can precipitate and initiate the formation of stones. Recent studies have indicated the importance of the SoLute Carrier 26 (SLC26) family of membrane transporters for handling oxalate. Two members of this family [Sulfate Anion Transporter 1 (SAT-1; SLC26A1) and Chloride/Formate EXchanger (CFEX; SLC26A6)] may contribute to oxalate transport in the intestine, liver, and kidneys. Malfunction or absence of SAT-1 or CFEX has been associated with hyperoxaluria and urolithiasis. However, numerous questions regarding their roles in oxalate transport in the respective organs and male-prevalent urolithiasis, as well as the role of sex hormones in the expression of these transporters at the level of mRNA and protein, still remain to be answered. PMID:24384768

  19. Stepping stones toward global space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansdell, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; McKay, C.

    2011-06-01

    Several nations are currently engaging in or planning for robotic and human space exploration programs that target the Moon, Mars and near-Earth asteroids. These ambitious plans to build new space infrastructures, transport systems and space probes will require international cooperation if they are to be sustainable and affordable. Partnerships must involve not only established space powers, but also emerging space nations and developing countries; the participation of these new space actors will provide a bottom-up support structure that will aid program continuity, generate more active members in the space community, and increase public awareness of space activities in both developed and developing countries. The integration of many stakeholders into a global space exploration program represents a crucial element securing political and programmatic stability. How can the evolving space community learn to cooperate on a truly international level while engaging emerging space nations and developing countries in a meaningful way? We propose a stepping stone approach toward a global space exploration program, featuring three major elements: (1) an international Earth-based field research program preparing for planetary exploration, (2) enhanced exploitation of the International Space Station (ISS) enabling exploration and (3) a worldwide CubeSat program supporting exploration. An international Earth-based field research program can serve as a truly global exploration testbed that allows both established and new space actors to gain valuable experience by working together to prepare for future planetary exploration missions. Securing greater exploitation of the ISS is a logical step during its prolonged lifetime; ISS experiments, partnerships and legal frameworks are valuable foundations for exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Cooperation involving small, low-cost missions could be a major stride toward exciting and meaningful participation from emerging space nations

  20. Drropulli Stone and Gjirokastra World Heritage in Albania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serjani, Afat; Kramar, Sabina

    2013-04-01

    Ancient Gjirokastra City and Dervician stone deposit, there are located next to each other, in south of Albania, at foots of eastern slope of "Wide Mountain". Building stone it is represented by micritic limestone of white, red and blue colour, formed during Palaeocene-Eocene Period. It contains fossils of rounded forms and it is known and exploited since the ancient times. Argjirokastra, Argjiro's City, appeared since the IV-th Century BC (V.Tola, 2011). Stone City has in its centre Majestic Fortress of a big cruiser view, which is seen from long distance, from all sides of Drinos Valley. "This Majestic Monument of Albanian vigour has an astonishing elegance" has written E. Hoxha (1983). Watching Gjirokastra you will remind "Chronic in Stone", the book of Ismail Kadare, great writer, born in Gjirokastra. All buildings here are of stone. The Large Fortress and high houses as castles are built by stone, and covered by stone tiles. The walls and minarets of religious buildings are of stone. The gates of houses and yards are of engraved stone, protected by metallic nets of artistic forms. The house's walls are built by big stone, while the walls of yards are by small stone of white colour, some times intercalated with lines of red, blue stone. The combination of different colour stone is another one artistic beauty of walls. The roads are paved by black cobblestones of flysch sandstone for protection by slips, some times combined with white limestone mosaics. Steps of houses and roads are by white stone, often reworked masterfully. "Such stones, reworked by very fine skilfully, can not be found in any other place of the World, only in Anadoll" has written on 1 665 Evliya Celepi (2003). Buildings are of specific architecture and by good style. The accounts of the basis are done to keep "houses as castle". The walls have wood antiseismic layers. The architecture of houses, gates, angles, windows, with predomination of arc forms, with engraved stones and ornaments it is

  1. Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children. PMID:25254178

  2. Effect of vegetarianism on development of gall stones in women.

    PubMed

    Pixley, F; Wilson, D; McPherson, K; Mann, J

    1985-07-01

    Real time ultrasonography was used to compare the prevalence of gall stones in two groups of women aged 40-69: 632 women recruited from general practice registers and 130 vegetarians. One hundred and fifty-six (25%) of the 632 women who ate meat and 15 (12%) of the 130 vegetarian women either had gall stones visible on ultrasonography or had previously undergone cholecystectomy (p less than 0.01). The prevalence of gall stones was found to increase with age and body mass index. The 2.5 fold increase in risk of developing gall stones in non-vegetarians compared with vegetarians was reduced to 1.9 when controlling for these two potentially confounding factors, but remained significant. A family history of gall stones was reported more often by women with gall stones, but no association was found with parity or use of exogenous oestrogens. Thus the importance of age and obesity to determine the prevalence of gall stone was confirmed, and a dietary factor associated with vegetarianism may prevent this common condition.

  3. Diagnosis and management of postpercutaneous nephrolithotomy residual stone fragments.

    PubMed

    Skolarikos, Andreas; Papatsoris, Athanasios G

    2009-10-01

    Residual stone fragments can occur in up to 8% of patients who are treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). When left untreated, approximately half of these patients will experience a stone-related event, for which more than half will need a secondary surgical intervention. Predictors of adverse events are a residual fragment larger than 2 mm that is located in the pelvis or ureter. Preventive measures for the creation of residual fragments include a carefully selected access giving exposure to the bulk of the stone, the creation of multiple tracts, the use of single pulse pneumatic lithotripsy, the prevention of stone migration with ureteral balloons or stone cones, and careful flushing of the stones from the collecting system. Plain radiography of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder, linear tomography, and ultrasonography have all been used to judge the result of PCNL and to detect the presence of residual fragments. Thin-slice, unenhanced helical CT, however, is more sensitive and should be performed at 1 month after surgery. While medical therapy and shockwave lithotripsy possess a minor role, second-look flexible nephroscopy and/or flexible ureterorenoscopy seem to be the treatments of choice for residual stone fragments after PCNL.

  4. Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children.

  5. Minimal surgery for parotid stones: a 7-year endoscopic experience.

    PubMed

    Karavidas, K; Nahlieli, O; Fritsch, M; McGurk, M

    2010-01-01

    The results of endoscope-assisted parotid surgery are presented as a minimally invasive alternative to parotidectomy for large parotid stones. From 1999 to 2007, 70 patients with parotid sialoliths were treated by minimally invasive surgical techniques in three specialist centres. At surgery a combination of sialoendoscopic and ultrasound examination was used to locate the stone within the duct. The calculus was released by incising the duct through a pre-auricular approach (40 patients) or by direct transcutaneous incision over the stone (27 patients). Four patients were treated using other minimally invasive procedures. Local anesthesia was used in 22 patients and general anesthesia in 48. The average follow-up was 25.5 months with two patients lost to review. In 3 patients treatment had long-term complications (persistent stone fragment; obstructive symptoms due to a fibrous stricture; a visible scar on the cheek). In one patient, endoscopy was abandoned due to stricture. 85 stones were retrieved successfully from 69 patients. The average size of the stones was 7.2 mm. There were no cases of facial nerve weakness or salivary fistula. The data suggest that endoscopic-assisted surgery is a viable alternate to adenectomy for the treatment of large or recalcitrant parotid stones. PMID:19897340

  6. Reproducing stone monument photosynthetic-based colonization under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ana Zélia; Laiz, Leonila; Gonzalez, Juan Miguel; Dionísio, Amélia; Macedo, Maria Filomena; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2008-11-01

    In order to understand the biodeterioration process occurring on stone monuments, we analyzed the microbial communities involved in these processes and studied their ability to colonize stones under controlled laboratory experiments. In this study, a natural green biofilm from a limestone monument was cultivated, inoculated on stone probes of the same lithotype and incubated in a laboratory chamber. This incubation system, which exposes stone samples to intermittently sprinkling water, allowed the development of photosynthetic biofilms similar to those occurring on stone monuments. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was used to evaluate the major microbial components of the laboratory biofilms. Cyanobacteria, green microalgae, bacteria and fungi were identified by DNA-based molecular analysis targeting the 16S and 18S ribosomal RNA genes. The natural green biofilm was mainly composed by the Chlorophyta Chlorella, Stichococcus, and Trebouxia, and by Cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Leptolyngbya and Pleurocapsa. A number of bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia were identified, as well as fungi from the Ascomycota. The laboratory colonization experiment on stone probes showed a colonization pattern similar to that occurring on stone monuments. The methodology described in this paper allowed to reproduce a colonization equivalent to the natural biodeteriorating process.

  7. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200-400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp. PMID:21289988

  8. Current indications for open stone surgery in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Sy, F Y; Wong, M Y; Foo, K T

    1999-03-01

    A 3-year retrospective study (January 1995 to December 1997) of all treatment modalities for urinary stone disease done in the Department of Urology, Singapore General Hospital was documented, and open stone surgery identified. Patient's characteristics, stone burden, surgical factors, indications and outcome were reviewed for each patient. Of the 2651 procedures performed for urinary stone disease, the majority had extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy [78% (n = 2075)], while 11% (n = 298) had percutaneous nephrostolithotomy and 9% (n = 228) ureteroscopy. Open stone surgery rate was 2% (n = 50) which included 16 anatrophic nephrolithotomies, 5 pyelolithotomies, 18 ureterolithotomies and 11 nephrectomies. There were 28 males and 22 females varying in age from 26 to 63 years (mean 48 years). The most common indications for open stone surgery were complex stone burden [38% (n = 19)], failure of minimally invasive modalities [16% (n = 8)], non-functioning kidneys [20% (n = 10)], concurrent open surgery [8% (n = 4)], co-morbid medical condition [4% (n = 2)], patient preference for open procedure [8% (n = 4)], anatomic abnormality [4% (n = 2)] and obesity [2% (n = 1)]. Stone free rate of 90% was achieved, morbidity of 8% (n = 4) mostly wound infections and a pneumothorax. Majority of patients with urinary tract calculi can be treated with less invasive modalities. Complex stone burden, failure of less invasive modalities, non-functioning kidney, concurrent open surgery, co-morbid medical problems, patients' preference, anatomic abnormality and obesity are factors to be considered in a small cohort of patients who may still benefit from treatment using open surgical technique.

  9. Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation

  10. Decay and preservation of stone in modern environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauri, K. Lal

    1990-01-01

    Stone objects decay in all environments, but the modes of decay vary from one region to another. In the modern industrial countries acid deposition has accelerated the decay of stone. Many objects that survived centuries of weathering without serious damage have, in the present century, decomposed beyond recognition. The black crusts seen on stone structures mostly contain gypsum formed by SO2 reactions with calcareous minerals. These crusts exfoliate, destroying the sculptural form. Because of the absence of proven technology to treat and restore these objects, the caryatids at the Acropolis had to be moved indoors to save them from further disfiguration. In arid climates, the salts in stone and the meteorologic conditions combine to disrupt stone structures. The Great Sphinx at Giza is a prominent example of this mode of stone decay. In humid, tropical regions, such as in southern India, hydrolysis disrupts the mineral structure, causing rapid damage even to such durable stone as granite. The human effort to save the deteriorating structures has often aggravated the problem. The sandstone at the Legislative Building in Olympia, Washington has, because of the “protective” acrylic coating, suffered greater damage than the similar but unprotected sandstone at a nearby school building. It appears that proper management can greatly help to reduce the decay of the stone. A scientifically designed cleaning can inhibit the formation of crusts and the accumulation of efflorescences. The absence of the crusts and efflorescence and application of appropriate impregnants, which consolidate yet maintain the "breathability" of stone, may prolong the life of historic structures.

  11. Stone culture retrieved during percutaneous nephrolithotomy: is it clinically relevant?

    PubMed

    Osman, Yasser; Elshal, Ahmed M; Elawdy, Mohamed M; Omar, Helmy; Gaber, Asaad; Elsawy, Essam; El-Nahas, Ahmed R

    2016-08-01

    Stone culture has been frequently investigated following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in the last decade. We aimed to crucially define the clinical role of stone culture in modifying the treatment plan in patients with postoperative sepsis. Between June 2012 and April 2013, a total of 79 consecutive PNL procedures were included. Perioperative data were prospectively maintained. Preoperative urine sample, retrieved stone fragments and postoperative nephrostomy tube urine sample were cultured and antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed. The occurrence of at least two of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) events during their inpatient stay was diagnostic of SIRS. The antibiotic regimen utilized and its modifications were reported. The preoperative culture was positive in 26 patients (32.9 %). The culture of stone fragments showed significant bacterial growth in 23 (29.1 %) cases. Significant growth on stone culture was significantly associated with the presence of preoperative urinary catheters and positive preoperative urine culture (P = 0.001, 0.006 respectively). Postoperative culture was positive in only six patients (7.6 %). SIRS was diagnosed in the first postoperative day in 12 patients (15.2 %). Leukocytosis was the only predictor of SIRS. Neither preoperative culture, stone culture nor postoperative culture was predictor of SIRS. Stone culture was positive in four patients with SIRS. Stone culture changed the treatment plan in only one patient. Our data do not support the routine implementation of stone culture in the PNL workup, as it did not indicate a change of antibiotic regimen in most of the cases. PMID:26781741

  12. Renal-Stone Risk Assessment During Space Shuttle Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Pak, Charles Y. C.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. 24-hr urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation ratios of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. Food and fluid consumption was recorded for a 48-hr period ending with the urine collection. Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of stone-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. The importance of the hypercalciuria was noted since renal excretion was high relative to the intake.

  13. [Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy of a salivary stone].

    PubMed

    Iro, H; Schneider, T; Nitsche, N; Waitz, G; Marienhagen, J; Ell, C

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonography revealed a 12 mm concrement in the left parotid duct of a 67-year-old man with an acute exacerbation of a left-sided purulent parotitis. After the acute phase had subsided under antibiotic therapy it was not possible to remove the stone either by bougie or cutting into the duct close to the papilla. Piezoelectric shockwave lithotripsy with a total of 1000 shock-waves fragmented the stone, and sonography 48 hours and four weeks later demonstrated that the parotid gland was free of stone.

  14. Urinary tract stone disease: are all problems solved?

    PubMed

    Tiselius, Hans-Göran

    2013-02-01

    During the past four decades there have been dramatic developments in the methods used for active stone removal from the urinary tract, and the need for open surgery has been almost entirely replaced by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, percutaneous surgery, ureteroscopy and retrograde intrarenal surgery. Residual fragments and the pronounced risk of recurrent stone formation remain important problems for the future development of urolithology and for the optimal low-risk management of this large group of patients. It is emphasized that all aspects of the care of patients with stone disease are the responsibility of the urologist.

  15. [A case of ammonium urate urinary stones with anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Komori, K; Arai, H; Gotoh, T; Imazu, T; Honda, M; Fujioka, H

    2000-09-01

    A 27-year-old woman had been suffering from bulimia and habitual vomiting for about 7 years and was incidentally found to have right renal stones by computed tomography. She was referred to our hospital for the treatment of these caluculi. On admission, she presented with hypokalemia, hypochloremia and metabolic alkalosis and was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Following successful removal by percutaneous nephrolithotripsy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy the stones were found to consist of pure ammonium urate. Since the urine of an anorexia nervosa patient tends to be rich in uric acid and ammonium, anorexia nervosa seems to be associated with ammonium urate urinary stones.

  16. Kidney Stones in Several Spinal Abnormalities: A Challenging Treatment.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maximiliano Lopez; Sanguinetti, Horacio; Battiston, Santiago; Alvarez, Patricio; Bernardo, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Patients with severe skeletal deformities are a challenging group to treat. A female, white, 35-year-old presented with right kidney stones located in renal pelvis, lower calyx, and upper ureter. She was affected by severe spinal deformity with restrictive respiratory obstruction, caused by kyphoscoliosis. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in supine position was performed, achieving complete removal of kidney stones. The treatment of renal stones in this patient was complex, so special attention to respiratory function was mandatory; this was a challenging but feasible situation. PMID:27579402

  17. Stone Columns - Determination of the soil improvement factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivarč, J.

    2011-09-01

    A stone column is one of the soil stabilizing methods that is used to increase strength, decrease the compressibility of soft and loose fine graded soils, accelerate a consolidation effect and reduce the liquefaction potential of soils. The columns consist of compacted gravel or crushed stone arranged by a vibrator. This paper deals with Priebe's theory (1976) on the design of an improvement factor, which belongs among the most used analytical methods and also describes the numerical and laboratory models of stone columns. The improvement factors calculated from numerical and laboratory models are compared with the improvement factors resulting from Priebe's theory.

  18. Septic Shock Due to Biliary Stones in a Postcholecystectomy Patient.

    PubMed

    Azfar, Mohammad Feroz; Khan, Muhammad Faisal; Khursheed, Moazzum

    2015-10-01

    Septic shock leading to multi-organ failure is not uncommon. Early diagnosis to confirm the source is the distinctive attribute of sepsis management guidelines. Cholangitis as the source of sepsis can become a diagnostic dilemma in patients who have had cholecystectomy in the past. CT abdomen should be the investigation of choice in this group of patients. This report describes two postcholecystectomy patients who presented with septic shock secondary to biliary stones. The source of septic shock in both patients were biliary stones was confirmed with abdominal CT. Ultrasound abdomen failed to report biliary stones in these patients. Both improved on percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage.

  19. Hanford's Simulated Low Activity Waste Cast Stone Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young

    2013-08-20

    Cast Stone is undergoing evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford’s (Washington) high activity waste (HAW) and low activity waste (LAW). This report will only cover the LAW Cast Stone. The programs used for this simulated Cast Stone were gradient density change, compressive strength, and salt waste form phase identification. Gradient density changes show a favorable outcome by showing uniformity even though it was hypothesized differently. Compressive strength exceeded the minimum strength required by Hanford and greater compressive strength increase seen between the uses of different salt solution The salt waste form phase is still an ongoing process as this time and could not be concluded.

  20. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Pietrzke, R. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M. A.; Hudson, E. K.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has focused its future on exploration class missions including the goal of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. With these objectives, humans will experience an extended exposure to the harsh environment of microgravity and the associated negative effects on all the physiological systems of the body. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes to the urinary chemical composition during and after space flight. These changes are associated with an increased risk of renal stone formation. The development of a renal stone would have health consequences for the crewmember and negatively impact the success of the mission. As of January 2007, 15 known symptomatic medical events consistent with urinary calculi have been experienced by 13 U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts. Previous results from both MIR and Shuttle missions have demonstrated an increased risk for renal stone formation. These data have shown decreased urine volume, urinary pH and citrate levels and increased urinary calcium. Citrate, an important urinary inhibitor of calcium-containing renal stones binds with calcium in the urine, thereby reducing the amount of calcium available to form calcium oxalate stones. Urinary citrate also prevents calcium oxalate crystals from aggregating into larger crystals and into renal stones. In addition, citrate makes the urine less acidic which inhibits the development of uric acid stones. Potassium citrate supplementation has been successfully used to treat patients who have formed renal stones. The evaluation of potassium citrate as a countermeasure has been performed during the ISS Expeditions 3-6, 8, 11-13 and is currently in progress during the ISS Expedition 14 mission. Together with the assessment of stone risk and the evaluation of a countermeasure, this investigation provides an educational opportunity to all crewmembers. Individual urinary biochemical profiles are generated and the risk of stone formation is estimated

  1. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement...

  2. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement...

  3. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement...

  4. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement...

  5. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone...; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Soil, Stone, And Quarry Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement...

  6. Large stone clearance in 2-year-old child with staghorn and calyceal stones using SWL monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Al-Ali, Badereddin; Pummer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of pediatric urolithiasis requires a thorough metabolic and urological evaluation on an individual basis. The objective of our case report was to determine the efficiency and the role of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in the treatment of pediatric urolithiasis. In this case report we reported our own experience in the management of staghorn and calyceal stones in both kidneys with SWL. In our case, clearance of multiple staghorn stones and a calyceal stone was obtained without any complications after 7 sessions of SWL over 2 months.

  7. 5. TOP OF ARCH AND VIADUCT. NOTE THAT STONES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. TOP OF ARCH AND VIADUCT. NOTE THAT STONES OF ARCH HAVE BEEN DRAFTED FINISH AROUND THE EDGE) AND THE KEYSTONE HAS BEEN ROUGHLY POINTED. - Valley Railroad, Folly Mills Creek Viaduct, Interstate 81, Staunton, Staunton, VA

  8. "Cheese" room in halfcellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Cheese" room in half-cellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, stairs inserted in original relieving arch. - Scheetz Farm, House, 7161 Camp Hill Road, Fort Washington, Montgomery County, PA

  9. Northern approach stone arch permits access to park in panther ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northern approach stone arch permits access to park in panther hollow below. - Schenley Park Bridge over Panther Hollow, Spanning Panther Hollow at Panther Hollow Road, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 6. DETAIL OF STONE MASONRY AT THE EAST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF STONE MASONRY AT THE EAST END OF THE SOUTH ELEVATION - York County Bridge No. 101, Blymire Hollow Road (T-578) spanning Blymire Creek, 100 feet from State Route 2095, Winterstown, York County, PA

  11. 5. DETAIL OF STONE MASONRY AT THE EAST END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF STONE MASONRY AT THE EAST END OF THE NORTH ELEVATION - York County Bridge No. 101, Blymire Hollow Road (T-578) spanning Blymire Creek, 100 feet from State Route 2095, Winterstown, York County, PA

  12. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST CUT STONE ABUTMENT FROM SOUTHWEST. Cataract ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF NORTHEAST CUT STONE ABUTMENT FROM SOUTHWEST. - Cataract Falls Bridge, Spanning Mill Creek, bypassed section of CR 279 (Cataract Falls Unit of Leiber State Recreation Area), Cataract, Owen County, IN

  13. Weathering of Stone Monuments in Cities: A Student Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragovich, D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a college-level geography project for students limited to urban areas. Students investigate the rock-weathering process through library resources, then observe, collect, and analyze data about stone monuments. An individually written report concludes the project. (KC)

  14. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for upper urinary tract stone].

    PubMed

    Lechevallier, E; Traxer, O; Saussine, C

    2008-12-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the fragmentation of stone by means of acoustic shockwaves created by an extracorporeal source. ESWL brakes the stone by spallation and squeezing. The optimal frequency for fragmentation is 1Hz. The initial power must be low, then progressively increased during the session. The contra-indications for ESWL are pregnancy, major deformities, severe obesity, aortic aneurism, uncontrolled coagulation disorders, untreated urinary infection, cardiac pacemaker. A stone density of 1000UH is a risk factor for fragmentation failure. The success rate for the kidney and the ureter is 60-80% and 80%, respectively. Stone clearance may be facilitated by alpha blockers. Asymptomatic and non-infected residual fragments less than 4mm must be followed-up annually.

  15. Is extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy suitable treatment for lower ureteric stones?

    PubMed

    Cole, R S; Shuttleworth, K E

    1988-12-01

    Forty patients with lower ureteric calculi for which intervention was considered desirable have been treated by in situ extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) on the Dornier HM3 Lithotripter using a modified technique. Stone localisation was satisfactory in all patients. Adequate disintegration was achieved in 90% of patients following one treatment; 34 patients have been followed up for at least 3 months and 27 of these are stone-free (79%). Treatment failed in 4 patients and 2 of these had dense lower ureteric stone streets as a result of previous ESWL. The retreatment rate, post-treatment auxiliary procedure rate and complication rate were minimal. It was concluded that in situ ESWL is an effective and safe method for treating certain selected lower ureteric stones and should be considered as a feasible alternative to the more conventional methods of treatment.

  16. Preoperative percutaneous stone surgery in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed

    Gross, Andreas J; Bach, T

    2009-10-01

    Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL) is an essential component in the management of large volume renal calculi. Either in combination with shockwave lithotripsy but especially as monotherapy, PCNL is recommended as the most effective treatment option for patients with staghorn calculi or large volume stone disease. Multiple tracts allow successful management of nearly every stone burden in a single surgical session. Furthermore, patients with anatomic variations (eg, horseshoe kidney) can be treated by PCNL successfully. Overall stone-free rates of above 78% are described. With the rising age of the overall patient population, another problem occurs. Increasing age frequently leads to an increase in comorbidities; for example, patients receiving anticoagulation may need treatment for stones, which can pose a dilemma. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of thrombotic risk, depending on the underlying disease, and to propose a clinical pathway on how to deal with this selected group of patients.

  17. 29. VIEW OF STONE BUILDING, ABOUT ONE MILE DOWNSTREAM OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF STONE BUILDING, ABOUT ONE MILE DOWNSTREAM OF DAM, USED TO STORE EXPLOSIVES DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF HORSE MESA - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 79. Rocky Knob Recreation area housekeeping cabin with stone chimney ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Rocky Knob Recreation area housekeeping cabin with stone chimney mimicking the log cabins of the Southern Appalachians. Looking south. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  19. 14. DETAIL, TYPICAL CUT STONE MASONRY FACING BLOCKS, AT BASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL, TYPICAL CUT STONE MASONRY FACING BLOCKS, AT BASE OF BRIDGE, FROM SOUTHEAST, SHOWING MASONS MARKS, MOORING RING, AND PORTION OF SUBMERGED TIMBER GRILLAGE - Boston Street Bridge, Spanning Harris Creek Sewer at Boston Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  20. Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation pump, Jennings vacuum heating pump, and misc. pipes and valves. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  1. TOOL CRIB FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING ALUMINUM DOORS, STONE PIER, GYPSUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOOL CRIB FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING ALUMINUM DOORS, STONE PIER, GYPSUM BOARD-FACED PARTITION AND ORIGINAL TIMBER STRUCTURE - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stable, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  2. 1. View southeast from Eldred Avenue toward stone wall at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View southeast from Eldred Avenue toward stone wall at corner of Benjamin Carr Farm. Wall moved to current location in 1941-1942. - Benjamin Carr Farm, Route 138 (Eldred Avenue) & Helm Street, Jamestown, Newport County, RI

  3. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF ENTRANCE GATES, SHOWING IRON GATE, STONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF ENTRANCE GATES, SHOWING IRON GATE, STONE WORK, AND GATE STOP FROM SOUTHEAST OF NORTHWEST ELEMENTS. - William Enston Home, Entrance Gate, 900 King Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  4. 128. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. Moses H. Cone Memorial Park. View of the stone faced bridge on the bass lake carriage trail. Facing west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  5. Endoscopic management of difficult common bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Trikudanathan, Guru; Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopy is widely accepted as the first treatment option in the management of bile duct stones. In this review we focus on the alternative endoscopic modalities for the management of difficult common bile duct stones. Most biliary stones can be removed with an extraction balloon, extraction basket or mechanical lithotripsy after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation with or without endoscopic sphincterotomy or mechanical lithotripsy has been shown to be effective for management of difficult to remove bile duct stones in selected patients. Ductal clearance can be safely achieved with peroral cholangioscopy guided laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy in most cases where other endoscopic treatment modalities have failed. Biliary stenting may be an alternative treatment option for frail and elderly patients or those with serious co morbidities. PMID:23345939

  6. 6. TERRACED, STONE RETAINING WALLS BEHIND HOUSE No. 16. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. TERRACED, STONE RETAINING WALLS BEHIND HOUSE No. 16. VIEW TO WEST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  7. Calcium Oxalate Stones Are Frequently Found Attached to Randall's Plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Matlaga, Brian R.

    2007-04-05

    The exact mechanisms of the crystallization processes that occur during the formation of calcium oxalate calculi are controversial. Over six decades ago, Alexander Randall reported on a series of cadaveric renal units in which he observed calcium salt deposits on the tips of the renal papilla. Randall hypothesized that these deposits, eponymously termed Randall's plaque, would be the ideal site for stone formation, and indeed in a number of specimens he noted small stones attached to the papillae. With the recent advent of digital endoscopic imaging and micro computerized tomography (CT) technology, it is now possible to inspect the renal papilla of living, human stone formers and to study the attached stone with greater scrutiny.

  8. 7. VIEW SOUTH, REMAINS OF ORIGINAL STONE ABUTMENTS ON HILLSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW SOUTH, REMAINS OF ORIGINAL STONE ABUTMENTS ON HILLSIDE SOUTH OF BRIDGE, EAST END - Cincinnati, Jackson & Mackinaw Railroad Bridge, Abandonned Penn Central Route, spanning Tom's Run, Farmersville, Montgomery County, OH

  9. Elevation of Warrington Avenue Bridge and cut stone retaining wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation of Warrington Avenue Bridge and cut stone retaining wall southbound on Warrington Avenue - Pittsburgh & Castle Shannon Railroad, Warrington Avenue Bridge, Overbrook Trolley Line, Crossing Warrington Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  10. View of Highway 140 west of Arch Rock. Note stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Highway 140 west of Arch Rock. Note stone wall at right and formed concrete wall at center. Looking north-northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  11. Treatment of stones associated with complex or anomalous renal anatomy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mantu; Lee, Michael W

    2007-08-01

    This article reviews the most common renal anomalies and the management of patients with calculus disease in anomalous kidneys. The emphasis is on minimally invasive techniques to achieve a stone-free status with minimal morbidity. PMID:17678992

  12. 20. DETAIL VIEW OF STONE WORK RAILING AT SCENIC OVERLOOK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL VIEW OF STONE WORK RAILING AT SCENIC OVERLOOK AT PETER SKENE OGDEN MEMORIAL PARK - Crooked River High Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge at Dalles-California Highway, Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  13. Stone's views of 25 years ago have now shifted incrementally.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Ezra E H

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, a major article by Professor Alan Stone on ethics in forensic psychiatry was published. It caused reverberations on a national scale. After the seismic shocks that he had provoked settled down, several thoughtful forensic psychiatrists set out to take serious stock of his critique and to articulate ways in which corrective actions could be taken. Indeed, slightly more than a decade later, I critiqued Stone's ideas in my Presidential Address to the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. It is a unique privilege now to evaluate what Stone currently says about ethics in forensic psychiatry. While his present positions are slightly different from his arguments of 25 years ago, Stone still holds dearly to his ivory tower, which remains almost impermeable to the voices of those working in the trenches.

  14. VIEW OF LIME KILN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING STONE ELEVATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LIME KILN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING STONE ELEVATOR (ON THE LEFT) AND SOUTH CONVEYOR. - Solvay Process Company, Lime Kiln Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  15. 14. Detail, typical approach span fixed bearing atop stone masonry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail, typical approach span fixed bearing atop stone masonry pier, view to northwest, 210mm lens. - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 210.52, Milepost 210.52, Tehama, Tehama County, CA

  16. 4. VIEW OF EMPIRE, STONE CABIN AND TIP TOP MINES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF EMPIRE, STONE CABIN AND TIP TOP MINES. EMPIRE TAILING PILE IS VISIBLE IN LOWER CENTER (SLOPE WITH ORE CHUTE IS HIDDEN BY TREES ABOVE TAILINGS), TIP TOP IS VISIBLE IN RIGHT THIRD AND SLIGHTLY UPHILL IN ELEVATION FROM UPPER EMPIRE TAILINGS,(TO LOCATE, FIND THE V-SHAPED SPOT OF SNOW JUST BELOW THE RIDGE LINE ON FAR RIGHT OF IMAGE. TIP TOP BUILDING IS VISIBLE IN THE LIGHT AREA BELOW AND SLIGHTLY LEFT OF V-SHAPED SNOW SPOT), AND STONE CABIN II IS ALSO VISIBLE, (TO LOCATE, USE A STRAIGHT EDGE AND ALIGN WITH EMPIRE TAILINGS. THIS WILL DIRECT ONE THROUGH THE EDGE OF STONE CABIN II, WHICH IS THE DARK SPOT JUST BELOW THE POINT WHERE THE RIDGE LINE TREES STOP). STONE CABIN I IS LOCATED IN GENERAL VICINITY OF THE LONE TREE ON FAR LEFT RIDGE LINE. ... - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  17. 9. STONE SLAB CULVERT UNDER CARRIAGE ROAD AT HORSESHOE CURVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. STONE SLAB CULVERT UNDER CARRIAGE ROAD AT HORSESHOE CURVE NEAR GIANT SLIDE TRAIL MARKER ON AROUND-THE-MOUNTAIN LOOP. - Rockefeller Carriage Roads, Mount Desert Island, Bar Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  18. Detail view of stone entrance gate pylon showing carved site ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of stone entrance gate pylon showing carved site name and Great Seal of the United States. View looking northeast. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  19. Topological anisotropy of stone-wales waves in graphenic fragments.

    PubMed

    Ori, Ottorino; Cataldo, Franco; Putz, Mihai V

    2011-01-01

    Stone-Wales operators interchange four adjacent hexagons with two pentagon-heptagon 5|7 pairs that, graphically, may be iteratively propagated in the graphene layer, originating a new interesting structural defect called here Stone-Wales wave. By minimization, the Wiener index topological invariant evidences a marked anisotropy of the Stone-Wales defects that, topologically, are in fact preferably generated and propagated along the diagonal of the graphenic fragments, including carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. This peculiar edge-effect is shown in this paper having a predominant topological origin, leaving to future experimental investigations the task of verifying the occurrence in nature of wave-like defects similar to the ones proposed here. Graph-theoretical tools used in this paper for the generation and the propagation of the Stone-Wales defects waves are applicable to investigate isomeric modifications of chemical structures with various dimensionality like fullerenes, nanotubes, graphenic layers, schwarzites, zeolites. PMID:22174641

  20. Detail view of date stone marking the founding of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of date stone marking the founding of the Emmanuel Christian Community Church congregation - Reformed Episcopal Church of the Rock of Ages, 1210 West Lanvale Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  1. Lock 6 Detail of hinge stone with iron straps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 6 - Detail of hinge stone with iron straps and carved completion date (1830) located on ground at southeast corner of lock - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  2. 54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE CONSTRUCTION TO LEFT (SOUTHWEST); ENTRANCE TO A MAGAZINE TO THE RIGHT. VIEW IS NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. - Fort Monroe, Fortress, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  3. 4. VIEW UNDERNEATH BRIDGE, SHOWING STONE ABUTMENT AND THE DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW UNDERNEATH BRIDGE, SHOWING STONE ABUTMENT AND THE DECK BEAMS, STRINGERS AND DIAGONAL BRACING OF DECK SUPPORT SYSTEM - John Bright No. 1 Iron Bridge, Spanning Poplar Creek at Havenport Road (TR 263), Carroll, Fairfield County, OH

  4. 5. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING STONE PLAQUE INSCRIBED 'USRA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING STONE PLAQUE INSCRIBED 'USRA, 1936' LOCATED IN EAST ELEVATION (tHIS PHOTOGRAPH IS FOGGED) - Spring Lake Bridge, Spanning Bob Barnes Branch at County Road No. 36D, Belleville, Yell County, AR

  5. 5. VIEW NORTHWEST SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE INTERIOR STONE WORK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW NORTHWEST SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE INTERIOR STONE WORK OF THE PARAPET WALL AND REMAINS OF 1920 TIMBER AND CONCRETE FLOORING SYSTEM. - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, Conococheague Creek Aqueduct, Milepost 99.80, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  6. Perspective of Bright Angel stone vault, view south, with HAER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective of Bright Angel stone vault, view south, with HAER field team measuring (Michael Lee and Dominic Duran foreground, Christopher Marston rear). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  7. Bright Angel stone vault, with HAER field team members Dominic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bright Angel stone vault, with HAER field team members Dominic Duran, Christopher Marston, and Michael Lee (l to r). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  8. Building D interior, looking south showing same stone wall as ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building D interior, looking south showing same stone wall as it attaches to the east wall of Building D - Hinckley Knitting Mills, Building D, 21-35 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE STONE END, PAINTED DOOR AND WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE STONE END, PAINTED DOOR AND WINDOW 'HEADS', HEX SIGNS (BLACK AND WHITE COLORS) AND PAINTED SCALLOP PATTERN (ON BOTTOM OF OVERHANG) - Decorated Red Barn, Alburtis, Lehigh County, PA

  10. 15. STONE BURR MILL PROBABLY USED FOR GRINDING FEED. ONLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. STONE BURR MILL PROBABLY USED FOR GRINDING FEED. ONLY REMAINING MILL MACHINERY William E. Barrett, photographer, 1973 - Thomas Shepherd's Grist Mill, High Street Vicinity, Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, WV

  11. 7. VIEW OF NORTHERN STONE ABUTMENT, SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF NORTHERN STONE ABUTMENT, SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE DECK, FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS, AND BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING. FACING SOUTH. - Mercer County Bridge No. 2631, Spanning Pine Run at Cribbs Road, Mercer, Mercer County, PA

  12. 8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN STONE ABUTMENT, SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SOUTHERN STONE ABUTMENT, SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE DECK, LOWER CHORDS, FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS, AND BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING. FACING WEST. - Mercer County Bridge No. 2631, Spanning Pine Run at Cribbs Road, Mercer, Mercer County, PA

  13. 9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN ROCKFACED DRESSED AND MORTARED STONE ABUTMENT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF SOUTHERN ROCKFACED DRESSED AND MORTARED STONE ABUTMENT, SHOWING STEEL CROSSBEAMS, TORSIONAL DIAGONAL STRUTS, AND WOODEN STRINGERS. FACING SOUTHWEST. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  14. 10. FLOOR 1; CENTER POST AND POSTS UNDER STONE BEAMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. FLOOR 1; CENTER POST AND POSTS UNDER STONE BEAMS WHICH SUPPORT BRIDGE BEAMS FOR BRIDGE TREES; WEDGES FOR ADJUSTING HEIGHT OF BRIDGE TREE CAN BE SEEN - Shelter Island Windmill, Manwaring Road, Shelter Island, Suffolk County, NY

  15. 3. ORIGINAL 1805 DATE STONE BUILT INTO GABLE END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ORIGINAL 1805 DATE STONE BUILT INTO GABLE END OF HOUSE ON STRASBURG ROAD IN 1836. - Cope's Bridge, State Route 162, spanning Brandywine Creek (East Bradford Township), Copesville, Chester County, PA

  16. 16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNINGSTRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNING-STRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP HOUSE Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. Gall bladder sludge and stones in multitransfused Egyptian thalassaemic patients.

    PubMed

    el-Nawawy, A; Kassem, A S; Eissa, M; Abdel-Fattah, M; Safwat, M

    2001-01-01

    One hundred Egyptian beta-thalassaemic patients on a long-term transfusion/chelation programme were evaluated for the prevalence of gall bladder sludge and stones and the associated risk factors. Fifty healthy individuals served as controls. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed that 14% of the thalassaemic patients had gall bladder sludge or stones (6% stones and 8% sludge). The thalassaemic patients with this complication were older, had a higher prevalence of gall bladder symptoms, higher levels of pretransfusion haemoglobin, larger amounts of transfused red cells, and more were regularly transfused. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence that gall bladder symptoms and the amount of transfused red cells were the only significant predictors of the occurrence of gall bladder sludge or stones.

  18. Single-session ureteroscopy with holmium laser lithotripsy for multiple stones.

    PubMed

    Takazawa, Ryoji; Kitayama, Sachi; Tsujii, Toshihiko

    2012-12-01

    Multiple stones are found in 20-25% of patients with urolithiasis. The stone multiplicity is a powerful adverse factor influencing the treatment outcome after shockwave lithotripsy, although guidelines for the treatment of multiple stones have not been well established yet. Herein we report our most recent experience of a single-session ureteroscopy for multiple stones. Between September 2008 and December 2011, 51 patients with multiple stones (total 146 stones) in different locations (37unilateral, 14 bilateral) underwent a total of 65 ureteroscopic procedures. Operative time, stone-free rates and complications were evaluated. Stone-free status was defined as no fragments in the ureter and the absence of >2 mm fragments in the kidney. The mean stone number per patient was 2.9 ± 1.7 and the mean stone burden (cumulative stone length) was 21.5 ± 11.6 mm. The mean number of procedures was 1.3 ± 0.6. Overall, the stone-free rate after a single session was 80% (41/51). In patients with stone burden <20 mm and ≥20 mm, stone-free rates after a single session were 92% (23/25) and 69% (18/26), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the stone burden and the presence of impacted stones were the factors significantly influencing the treatment outcome. Stone location did not have a strong influence on the outcome. No major intraoperative complications were identified. Our findings suggest that ureteroscopy is an efficient treatment for multiple stones. For patients with stone burden <20 mm, either unilaterally or bilaterally, a single session of ureteroscopy is a favorable treatment option with a high stone-free rate.

  19. Renal stones on portal venous phase contrast-enhanced CT: does intravenous contrast interfere with detection?

    PubMed Central

    Dym, R. Joshua; Duncan, Dameon R.; Spektor, Michael; Cohen, Hillel W.; Scheinfeld, Meir H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the sensitivity of portal venous phase contrast-enhanced CT for the detection of renal stones. Methods This retrospective study included 97 CT examinations of the abdomen without and with intravenous contrast, including 85 (87.6%) examinations with at least one renal stone on the “gold standard” noncontrast images, as scored by a single radiologist. Three other radiologists each independently reviewed only the contrast-enhanced images from all 97 examinations and recorded all renal stones. Reviewer sensitivity for stones was categorized by stone diameter. Reviewer sensitivity and specificity for stone disease were also calculated on a per-kidney basis. Results The 97 cases included a total of 238 stones ≥1 mm, with a mean (±SD) of 1.2 ± 1.9 stones per kidney and a stone diameter of 3.5 ± 3.0 mm. Pooling data for the three reviewers, sensitivity for all stones was 81%; sensitivity for stones ≥2, ≥3, ≥4, and ≥5 mm was 88%, 95%, 99%, and 98%, respectively. Sensitivity for stone disease on a per-kidney basis was 94% when considering all stones; when considering only stones ≥2, ≥3, and ≥4 mm, sensitivity was 96%, 99%, and 100%, respectively. Specificity for stone disease on a per-kidney basis was 98% overall, 99% when considering only stones ≥2 mm, and 100% when considering only stones ≥3 mm. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced CT is highly sensitive for the detection of renal stones ≥3 mm in diameter and less sensitive for smaller stones. In cases where the clinical diagnosis is uncertain and performance of a CT examination is being contemplated, intravenous contrast utilization would allow assessment for stone disease while also optimizing evaluation for other conditions. PMID:24504541

  20. Analysis of influential factors for weathering of stone relics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feihong; Xie, Charlene; Zhong, Li; Song, Dixi

    2012-04-01

    Stone relics are our precious historical and cultural heritage. However, they are facing long-term weathering due to the particular environment where they exist, which brings us a lot of difficulty to protect cultural relics. In order to protect the cultural relics, right measures should be formulated according to the existing circumstances of cultural relics, pertinently analyzing their weathering. In this paper, the major influential factors of stone relic weathering have been analyzed based on the model of decision tree.

  1. Mitigation of Liquefaction in Sandy Soils Using Stone Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selcuk, Levent; Kayabalı, Kamil

    2010-05-01

    Soil liquefaction is one of the leading causes of earthquake-induced damage to structures. Soil improvement methods provide effective solutions to reduce the risk of soil liquefaction. Thus, soil ground treatments are applied using various techniques. However, except for a few ground treatment methods, they generally require a high cost and a lot of time. Especially in order to prevent the risk of soil liquefaction, stone columns conctructed by vibro-systems (vibro-compaction, vibro-replacement) are one of the traditional geotechnical methods. The construction of stone columns not only enhances the ability of clean sand to drain excess pore water during an earthquake, but also increases the relative density of the soil. Thus, this application prevents the development of the excess pore water pressure in sand during earthquakes and keeps the pore pressure ratio below a certain value. This paper presents the stone column methods used against soil liquefaction in detail. At this stage, (a) the performances of the stone columns were investigated in different spacing and diameters of columns during past earthquakes, (b) recent studies about design and field applications of stone columns were presented, and (c) a new design method considering the relative density of soil and the capacity of drenage of columns were explained in sandy soil. Furthermore, with this new method, earthquake performances of the stone columns constructed at different areas were investigated before the 1989 Loma Prieta and the 1994 Northbridge earthquakes, as case histories of field applications, and design charts were compiled for suitable spacing and diameters of stone columns with consideration to the different sandy soil parameters and earhquake conditions. Key Words: Soil improvement, stone column, excess pore water pressure

  2. [Bladder stone surrounding a foreign body: a case report].

    PubMed

    Fekak, H; Rabii, R; Moufid, K; Guessous, H; Joual, A; Bennani, S; Elmrini, M; Benjeloun, S

    2003-04-01

    The bladder can be the site of various foreign bodies. We report one case of bladder stone including a foreign body in a 24 years old man with a psychomotor deficiency who was admitted for pyuria, block miction and bladder symptoms. The pelvic X-Ray film showed a bladder stone including a sewing needle. We analysed the diagnosis, aspect and therapeutic management of this case. PMID:12741198

  3. 12. INTERIOR VIEW, FIRST FLOOR SHOWING GRINDING STONES COVERED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW, FIRST FLOOR SHOWING GRINDING STONES COVERED WITH VATS (RIGHT STONE RUN BY 35' LEFFAL VERTICAL TURBINE; LEFT BY 23' 1EFFAL VERTICAL TURBINE). THE HOPPER ON THE VAT TO THE LEFT FUNNELS THE GRAIN IN. THE CHUTE AT THE BOTTOM OF THE CENTER VAT SENDS GROUND GRAIN TO THE CONVEYOR BELOW. - Schech's Mill, Beaver Creek State Park, La Crescent, Houston County, MN

  4. Renal Stone Risk During Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the risks of renal stone formation in manned space flight. The contents include: 1) Risk; 2) Evidence; 3) Nephrolithiasis -A Multifactorial Disease; 4) Symptoms/signs; 5) Urolithiasis and Stone Passage; 6) Study Objectives; 7) Subjects; 8) Methods; 9) Investigation Results; 10) Potassium Citrate; 11) Calcium Balance; 12) Case Study; 13) Significant Findings; 14) Risk Mitigation Strategies and Recommended Actions; and 15) Future Potential.

  5. 25. Otter Creek Bridge #2. View of the stone facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Otter Creek Bridge #2. View of the stone facing common on nearly all concrete box culverts. The stone faced arch mimics rigid frame structures. Culverts were used for a variety of purposes from small stream crossings to grade separation structures for farmers whose land was split by the parkway. Looking northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  6. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Jung, H. B.; Wang, Guohui

    2015-07-09

    This report describes the results from long-term laboratory leach tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams. Specific objectives of the Cast Stone long-term leach tests described in this report focused on four activities: 1. Extending the leaching times for selected ongoing EPA-1315 tests on monoliths made with LAW simulants beyond the conventional 63-day time period up to 609 days reported herein (with some tests continuing that will be documented later) in an effort to evaluate long-term leaching properties of Cast Stone to support future performance assessment activities. 2. Starting new EPA-1315 leach tests on archived Cast Stone monoliths made with four LAW simulants using two leachants (deionized water [DIW] and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water [VZP]). 3. Evaluating the impacts of varying the iodide loading (starting iodide concentrations) in one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) Average) by manufacturing new Cast Stone monoliths and repeating the EPA-1315 leach tests using DIW and the VZP leachants. 4. Evaluating the impacts of using a non-pertechnetate form of Tc that is present in some Hanford tanks. In this activity one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na HTWOS Average) was spiked with a Tc(I)-tricarbonyl gluconate species and then solidified into Cast Stone monoliths. Cured monoliths were leached using the EPA-1315 leach protocol with DIW and VZP. The leach results for the Tc-Gluconate Cast Stone monoliths were compared to Cast Stone monoliths pertechnetate.

  7. A heuristic model of stone comminution in shock wave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nathan B; Zhong, Pei

    2013-08-01

    A heuristic model is presented to describe the overall progression of stone comminution in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), accounting for the effects of shock wave dose and the average peak pressure, P+(avg), incident on the stone during the treatment. The model is developed through adaptation of the Weibull theory for brittle fracture, incorporating threshold values in dose and P+(avg) that are required to initiate fragmentation. The model is validated against experimental data of stone comminution from two stone types (hard and soft BegoStone) obtained at various positions in lithotripter fields produced by two shock wave sources of different beam width and pulse profile both in water and in 1,3-butanediol (which suppresses cavitation). Subsequently, the model is used to assess the performance of a newly developed acoustic lens for electromagnetic lithotripters in comparison with its original counterpart both under static and simulated respiratory motion. The results have demonstrated the predictive value of this heuristic model in elucidating the physical basis for improved performance of the new lens. The model also provides a rationale for the selection of SWL treatment protocols to achieve effective stone comminution without elevating the risk of tissue injury.

  8. Renal struvite stones--pathogenesis, microbiology, and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Flannigan, Ryan; Choy, Wai Ho; Chew, Ben; Lange, Dirk

    2014-06-01

    Infection stones-which account for 10-15% of all urinary calculi-are thought to form in the presence of urease-producing bacteria. These calculi can cause significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated or treated inadequately; optimal treatment involves complete stone eradication in conjunction with antibiotic therapy. The three key principles of treating struvite stones are: removal of all stone fragments, the use of antibiotics to treat the infection, and prevention of recurrence. Several methods to remove stone fragments have been described in the literature, including the use of urease inhibitors, acidification therapy, dissolution therapy, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and anatrophic nephrolithotomy. PCNL is considered to be the gold-standard approach to treating struvite calculi, but adjuncts might be used when deemed necessary. When selecting antibiotics to treat infection, it is necessary to acquire a stone culture or, at the very least, urine culture from the renal pelvis at time of surgery, as midstream urine cultures do not always reflect the causative organism.

  9. The History of Urinary Stones: In Parallel with Civilization

    PubMed Central

    Tefekli, Ahmet; Cezayirli, Fatin

    2013-01-01

    The roots of modern science and history of urinary stone disease go back to the Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamia. Hippocrates defined the symptoms of bladder stones. The first recorded details of “perineal lithotomy” were those of Cornelius Celsus. Ancient Arabic medicine was based mainly on classical Greco-Roman works. Interestingly, the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 forbade physicians from performing surgical procedures, as contact with blood or body fluids was viewed as contaminating to men. With Renaissance new procedures could be tried on criminals. The first recorded suprapubic lithotomy was carried out by Pierre Franco in 1561. In 1874, Bigelow developed a lithotrite, which was introduced into the bladder under anaesthesia (called as “litholopaxy”). Young was the first to report ureteroscopy (1929). With advances in intracorporeal lithotripsy techniques, ureteroscopy became the treatment of choice for ureteric stones. In 1976, Fernstrom and Johannson established percutaneous access to remove a renal stone. However, with the introduction of the first extracorporeal shock wave machine in 1980, a dramatic change in stone management was observed. Civilization in parallel with scientific developments has brought us to a point where we try not to “cut” our patients for stone disease, as Hippocrates admonishes, but rather manage them with minimal invasive alternatives. PMID:24348156

  10. The history of urinary stones: in parallel with civilization.

    PubMed

    Tefekli, Ahmet; Cezayirli, Fatin

    2013-01-01

    The roots of modern science and history of urinary stone disease go back to the Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamia. Hippocrates defined the symptoms of bladder stones. The first recorded details of "perineal lithotomy" were those of Cornelius Celsus. Ancient Arabic medicine was based mainly on classical Greco-Roman works. Interestingly, the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 forbade physicians from performing surgical procedures, as contact with blood or body fluids was viewed as contaminating to men. With Renaissance new procedures could be tried on criminals. The first recorded suprapubic lithotomy was carried out by Pierre Franco in 1561. In 1874, Bigelow developed a lithotrite, which was introduced into the bladder under anaesthesia (called as "litholopaxy"). Young was the first to report ureteroscopy (1929). With advances in intracorporeal lithotripsy techniques, ureteroscopy became the treatment of choice for ureteric stones. In 1976, Fernstrom and Johannson established percutaneous access to remove a renal stone. However, with the introduction of the first extracorporeal shock wave machine in 1980, a dramatic change in stone management was observed. Civilization in parallel with scientific developments has brought us to a point where we try not to "cut" our patients for stone disease, as Hippocrates admonishes, but rather manage them with minimal invasive alternatives. PMID:24348156

  11. A heuristic model of stone comminution in shock wave lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nathan B.; Zhong, Pei

    2013-01-01

    A heuristic model is presented to describe the overall progression of stone comminution in shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), accounting for the effects of shock wave dose and the average peak pressure, P+(avg), incident on the stone during the treatment. The model is developed through adaptation of the Weibull theory for brittle fracture, incorporating threshold values in dose and P+(avg) that are required to initiate fragmentation. The model is validated against experimental data of stone comminution from two stone types (hard and soft BegoStone) obtained at various positions in lithotripter fields produced by two shock wave sources of different beam width and pulse profile both in water and in 1,3-butanediol (which suppresses cavitation). Subsequently, the model is used to assess the performance of a newly developed acoustic lens for electromagnetic lithotripters in comparison with its original counterpart both under static and simulated respiratory motion. The results have demonstrated the predictive value of this heuristic model in elucidating the physical basis for improved performance of the new lens. The model also provides a rationale for the selection of SWL treatment protocols to achieve effective stone comminution without elevating the risk of tissue injury. PMID:23927195

  12. Urinary stone analysis on 12,846 patients: a report from a single center in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenqi; Yang, Bicheng; Ou, Lili; Liang, Yeping; Wan, Shawpong; Li, Shujue; Zeng, Guohua

    2014-02-01

    We reported a retrospective review of the urinary stone compositions in 12,846 patients. Data on urinary stone compositions analyzed between January 2003 and December 2012 in our center were collected. Infrared spectroscopy was used for stone analysis. Predominant stone component was recorded. Patients were divided into four age groups: 0-18, 19-40, 41-60, and 61-92, and five categories by components. In order to determine the change of stone characteristics with respect to time, data were also divided into two periods, 2003-2007 and 2008-2012. A total of 12,846 stones were included in this study. The age of the patients ranged from 1 to 92 years with 7,736 males and 5,110 females. Stone made of single component was rare, 2.61%. Calcium oxalate stone was the most common component at 82.56%. Calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were more common in male than in female. The incidence of calcium phosphate stones and uric acid stones had increased during the past 5 years, while calcium oxalate stones decreased. We found the highest incidence of stone disease in the 41-60 years old group and the lowest in the 1-18 years old for both genders. Calcium oxalate was the dominant component in every group but was more prevalent in 19-40 years group. The percentage of magnesium ammonium phosphate stone and uric acid stone increased with age.

  13. Soap-stone in architecture of North European cities. A nomination as a candidate for a Global Heritage Stones Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Soap stone represents soft Proterozoic rock type from the deposit Nunnalahti situated on the western shore of the big Lake Pielinen in Eastern Finland. It consists of talc (40 - 50 %), magnesite MgCO3 (40 - 50 %), chlorite (5 - 8 %), dolomite, calcite, etc. The colour of the stone is very spectacular and varies from yellow and brownish-yellow to grey, greenish grey. The soft stone is a highly workable material for a sculptor's chisel. It was one of the most popular ornamental rocks used architecture of the Modern style in St Petersburg, Helsinki, Turku, Tampere and other North European cities lately in the XIX-th centuries. Examples are given and discussed. References: Bulakh, A.G., Abakumova, N.B., and Romanovsky, J.V. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. (In English).

  14. Imaging of stone disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Masselli, Gabriele; Derme, Martina; Laghi, Francesca; Polettini, Elisabetta; Brunelli, Roberto; Framarino, Maria Luisa; Gualdi, Gianfranco

    2013-12-01

    Renal colic is the most frequent non-obstetric cause for abdominal pain and subsequent hospitalization during pregnancy. Intervention is necessary in patients who do not respond to conservative treatment. Ultrasound (US) is widely used as the first-line diagnostic test in pregnant women with nephrolithiasis, despite it is highly nonspecific and may be unable to differentiate between ureteral obstruction secondary to calculi and physiologic hydronephrosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be considered as a second-line test, when US fails to establish a diagnosis and there are continued symptoms despite conservative management. Moreover, MRI is able to differentiate physiologic from pathologic dilatation. In fact in the cases of obstruction secondary to calculi, there is renal enlargement and perinephric edema, not seen with physiological dilatation. In the latter, there is smooth tapering of the middle third of the ureter because of the mass effect between the uterus and adjacent retroperitoneal musculature. When the stone is lodged in the lower ureter, a standing column of dilated ureter is seen below this physiological constriction. MRI is also helpful in demonstrating complications such as pyelonephritis. In the unresolved cases, Computed tomography remains a reliable technique for depicting obstructing urinary tract calculi in pregnant women, but it involves ionizing radiation. Nephrolithiasis during pregnancy requires a collaboration between urologists, obstetricians, and radiologists. PMID:23771120

  15. Lunar base - A stepping stone to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, M. B.; Mendell, W. W.; Roberts, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    Basic elements of technology and programmatic development are identified that appear relevant to the Case for Mars, starting from a base on the moon. The moon is a logical stepping stone toward human exploration of Mars because a lunar base can provide the first test of human ability to use the resources of another planetary body to provide basic materials for life support. A lunar base can provide the first long-term test of human capability to work and live in a reduced (but not zero) gravity field. A lunar base requires creation of the elements of a space transportation system that will be necessary to deliver large payloads to Mars and the space operations capability and experience necessary to carry out a Mars habitation program efficiently and with high reliability. A lunar base is feasible for the first decade of the 21st Century. Scenarios have been studied that provide advanced capability by 2015 within budget levels that are less than historical U.S. space expenditures (Apollo). Early return on the investment in terms of knowledge, practical experience and lunar products are important in gaining momentum for an expanded human exploration of the solar system and the eventual colonization of Mars.

  16. Analysis of commercial kidney stone probiotic supplements

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Melissa L.; Shaw, Karen J.; Jackson, Shelby B.; Daniel, Steven L.; Knight, John

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the levels of Oxalobacter formigenes in probiotic supplements marketed by ™PRO Lab, Ltd, Toronto, Canada, and capsules of Oxalo™ purchased from Sanzyme Ltd, Hyderabad, India, and to measure the ability of these preparations to degrade oxalate in vitro. METHODS Probiotic supplements and pure cultures of O. formigenes were cultured in a number of media containing oxalate. OD595 was used to measure bacterial growth and ion chromatography was used to measure loss of oxalate in culture media. O. formigenes specific and degenerate Lactobacillus primers to the oxalate decarboxylase gene (oxc) were used in PCR. RESULTS Incubating probiotic supplements in different media did not result in growth of oxalate-degrading organisms. PCR indicated the absence of organisms harboring the oxc gene. Culture and 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated the ™PRO Lab supplement contained viable Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (GenBank accession no. KJ095656.1), while Oxalo™ contained several Bacillus species and Lactobacillus plantarum. CONCLUSION The probiotic supplement sold over the internet by ™PRO Lab, Ltd and Sanzyme Ltd did not contain identifiable O. formigenes or viable oxalate-degrading organisms, and they are unlikely to be of benefit to calcium oxalate kidney stone patients. PMID:25733259

  17. EAARL topography: Thomas Stone National Historic Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd

    2007-01-01

    This Web site contains Lidar-derived topography (first return and bare earth) maps and GIS files for Thomas Stone National Historic Site in Maryland. These Lidar-derived topography maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, FISC St. Petersburg, the National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs and barrier islands for the purposes of geomorphic change studies, habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, and event assessment. As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring subaerial and submarine topography wthin cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to costal resource managers.

  18. Star-Paths, Stones and Horizon Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Archaeoastronomers tend to approach ancient monuments focusing on the landscape and the horizon calendar events of sun and moon and, due to problems with precession, generally ignore the movement of the stars. However, locating the position of solar calendar points on the horizon can have other uses apart from calendar and/or cosmological purposes. This paper firstly suggests that the stars do not need to be ignored. By considering the evidence of the Phaenomena, a sky poem by Aratus of Soli, a third century BC Greek poet, and his use of second millennium BC star lore fragments, this paper argues that the stars were a part of the knowledge of horizon astronomy. Aratus' poem implied that the horizon astronomy of the late Neolithic and Bronze Age periods included knowledge of star-paths or 'linear constellations' that were defined by particular horizon calendar events and other azimuths. Knowledge of such star-paths would have enabled navigation and orientation, and by using permanent markers, constructed or natural, to define these paths, they were immune to precession as the stones could redefine a star-path for a future generation. Finally the paper presents other possible intentions behind the diverse orientation of passage tombs and some megalithic sites.

  19. Lunar Tractive Forces and Renal Stone Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Arampatzis, Spyridon; Thalmann, George N.; Zimmermann, Heinz; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Several factors are implicated in renal stone formation and peak incidence of renal colic admissions to emergency departments (ED). Little is known about the influence of potential environmental triggers such as lunar gravitational forces. We conducted a retrospective study to test the hypothesis that the incidence of symptomatic renal colics increases at the time of the full and new moon because of increased lunar gravitational forces. Methods. We analysed 1500 patients who attended our ED between 2000 and 2010 because of nephrolithiasis-induced renal colic. The lunar phases were defined as full moon ± 1 day, new moon ± 1 day, and the days in-between as “normal” days. Results. During this 11-year period, 156 cases of acute nephrolithiasis were diagnosed at the time of a full moon and 146 at the time of a new moon (mean of 0.4 per day for both). 1198 cases were diagnosed on “normal” days (mean 0.4 per day). The incidence of nephrolithiasis in peak and other lunar gravitational phases, the circannual variation and the gender-specific analysis showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion. In this adequate powered longitudinal study, changes in tractive force during the different lunar phases did not influence the incidence of renal colic admissions in emergency department. PMID:22046548

  20. Letter Report: LAW Simulant Development for Cast Stone Screening Test

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Swanberg, David J.; Eibling, Russell E.; Cozzi, Alex; Lindberg, Michael J.; Josephson, Gary B.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2013-03-27

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the wastes and immobilize them in a glass waste form. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) containing most of the radioactivity and a larger volume of low-activity waste (LAW) containing most of the nonradioactive chemicals. The HLW will be converted to glass in the HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. At least a portion (~35%) of the LAW will be converted to glass in the LAW vitrification facility and will be disposed of onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize the wastes destined for each facility. However, a second facility will be needed for the expected volume of additional LAW requiring immobilization. A cementitious waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with waste acceptance criteria for the IDF disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. Further, the waste form must be tested to provide the technical basis for understanding the long term performance of the waste form in the IDF disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support risk assessment and performance assessment (PA) analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the waste disposal in the IDF. A

  1. [Composition analyses of urinary microcrystalline in urine of magnesium ammonium phosphate stones formers and its relationship with the stones formation].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Huang, Zhi-Jie; Hou, Shan-Hua; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2011-01-01

    By means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nano-particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the composition, morphology, particle size and zeta potential of urinary microcrystalline in urine of magnesium ammonium phosphate stone formers were investigated. The components of stones were also analyzed. The results showed that there was a close relationship among stone components, urinary microcrystalline composition and urine pH. A high pH value of 6.5 or more usually appeared in the urine of magnesium ammonium phosphate stone formers. The main component of urine microcrystalline was magnesium ammonium phosphate crystals with different crystal water such as monohydrate or hexahydrate. Magnesium ammonium phosphate crystals are mainly petal-shaped, crosswise shape. These microcrystalline have an uneven particle size distribution, a wider distribution range, and apparent aggregation. There is no significant difference in the zeta potential between the magnesium ammonium phosphate stone formers (mean (-9.83 +/- 0.66) mV) and healthy control subjects (mean (-10.74 +/- 0.25) mV). This study can help predict the occurrence of urolithiasis, and provide inspiration to the prediction of the type of urinary stones.

  2. Thickness effect on flexural strength of natural stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola; Castelletto, Eleonora

    2016-04-01

    Few scientific works deal with size effect on mechanical resistance in the case of stone, but for the concrete size effect has been widely verified. In fact, the stone size effect is not always ruled by well-known statistical laws as Weibull because of the intrinsic complex structure and features of the materials analysed. Previous studies on natural stone size effect have been made mainly taking into account compression strength. However, flexural strength test under concentrated load, according EN12372, is applied to assess the mechanical resistance of stone and it is well correlated with the petrographic properties of stone. For this reason, to further investigate the size effect on stone , this research analyses the variation of mechanical resistance in relation to thickness of the specimens, taking into account the petrographic characteristics (mineralogical composition, heterogeneity, anisotropy, porosity)of different kinds of rock. From previous studies on 15 different stones (Bellopede et al. 2015) it was observed a negligible values variation for different thickness and a data scattering caused by: intrinsic properties (porosity and structure), defects distribution (fractures, cracks, voids), heterogeneity characterizing each specimen. According to EN 12372:2006, the suggested dimensions for the determination of flexural strength under concentrated load are 50x50x300mm. Other dimensions are possible, but the following requirement need to be fulfilled. The thickness should be minimum 25mm and maximum 100 mm, the width should be within 50 mm and 3 times the thickness and the distance between the supporting rollers span should be 5 times the thickness. In this research, in order to further investigate the thickness effect even in relation with the stone structure and heterogeneity, eight different stones have been tested: four with anisotropic features and four homogeneous. The distance between the support knife was equal to 2/3 to specimens length. The

  3. Appropriate kidney stone size for ureteroscopic lithotripsy: When to switch to a percutaneous approach.

    PubMed

    Takazawa, Ryoji; Kitayama, Sachi; Tsujii, Toshihiko

    2015-02-01

    Flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) has become a more effective and safer treatment for whole upper urinary tract stones. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is currently the first-line recommended treatment for large kidney stones ≥ 20 mm and it has an excellent stone-free rate for large kidney stones. However, its invasiveness is not negligible considering its major complication rates. Staged fURS is a practical treatment for such large kidney stones because fURS has a minimal blood transfusion risk, short hospitalization and few restrictions on daily routines. However, as the stone size becomes larger, the stone-free rate decreases, and the number of operations required increases. Therefore, in our opinion, staged fURS is a practical option for kidney stones 20 to 40 mm. Miniaturized PNL combined with fURS should be considered to be a preferred option for stones larger than 40 mm. Moreover, URS is an effective treatment for multiple upper urinary tract stones. Especially for patients with a stone burden < 20 mm, URS is a favorable option that promises a high stone-free rate after a single session either unilaterally or bilaterally. However, for patients with a stone burden ≥ 20 mm, a staged operation should be considered to achieve stone-free status. PMID:25664253

  4. The fragmented character of Middle Palaeolithic stone tool technology.

    PubMed

    Turq, Alain; Roebroeks, Wil; Bourguignon, Laurence; Faivre, Jean-Philippe

    2013-11-01

    The importance of the transport of stone artefacts in structuring Neandertal lithic assemblages has often been addressed, but the degree to which this led to fragmentation of lithic reduction over Middle Palaeolithic landscapes has not been explicitly studied thus far. Large-scale excavations of Middle Palaeolithic open-air sites and refitting studies of the retrieved assemblages have yielded new, high-resolution data on the mobile aspects of Neandertal stone tool technology. In this paper, we integrate lithic technology and raw material data from recent studies of Middle Palaeolithic open-air and rock shelter sites in Western Europe. We demonstrate that the results of a variety of typological, technological (especially refitting), and lithological studies have important consequences for our knowledge of the acquisition of raw materials and subsequent production, usage and discard of stone artefacts in the Middle Palaeolithic. Neandertal production and use of stone tools was fragmented in three domains: the spatial, the temporal and the social domain. We show that this versatile segmentation of stone artefact handling strategies is a main determinant of the character of the Neandertal archaeological record. Our data testify to ubiquitous and continuous transport of stone artefacts of a wide variety of forms, picked by Neandertals using selection criteria that were sometimes far removed from what archaeologists have traditionally considered, and to some degree still consider, to be desired end products of knapping activities. The data presented here testify to the variability and versatility of Middle Palaeolithic stone tool technology, whose fragmented character created very heterogeneous archaeological assemblages, usually the product of a wide variety of independent import, use, discard and/or subsequent transport events.

  5. Quantifying Oldowan Stone Tool Production at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Reti, Jay S

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1) models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2) develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3) statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite) and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt) suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated with stone tool

  6. Experimental Insights into the Cognitive Significance of Early Stone Tools

    PubMed Central

    Perston, Yinika

    2016-01-01

    Stone-flaking technology is the most enduring evidence for the evolving cognitive abilities of our early ancestors. Flake-making was mastered by African hominins ~3.3 ma, followed by the appearance of handaxes ~1.75 ma and complex stone reduction strategies by ~1.6 ma. Handaxes are stones flaked on two opposed faces (‘bifacially’), creating a robust, sharp-edged tool, and complex reduction strategies are reflected in strategic prior flaking to prepare or ‘predetermine’ the nature of a later flake removal that served as a tool blank. These technologies are interpreted as major milestones in hominin evolution that reflect the development of higher-order cognitive abilities, and the presence and nature of these technologies are used to track movements of early hominin species or ‘cultures’ in the archaeological record. However, the warranting argument that certain variations in stone tool morphologies are caused by differences in cognitive abilities relies on analogy with technical replications by skilled modern stoneworkers, and this raises the possibility that researchers are projecting modern approaches to technical problems onto our non-modern hominin ancestors. Here we present the results of novel experiments that randomise flake removal and disrupt the modern stoneworker’s inclination to use higher-order reasoning to guide the stone reduction process. Although our protocols prevented goal-directed replication of stone tool types, the experimental assemblage is morphologically standardised and includes handaxe-like ‘protobifaces’ and cores with apparently ‘predetermined’ flake removals. This shows that the geometrical constraints of fracture mechanics can give rise to what appear to be highly-designed stoneworking products and techniques when multiple flakes are removed randomly from a stone core. PMID:27392022

  7. Visceral obesity: A new risk factor for stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Akarken, Ilker; Tarhan, Hüseyin; Ekin, Rahmi Gökhan; Çakmak, Özgür; Koç, Gökan; İlbey, Yusuf Özlem; Zorlu, Ferruh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the relationship between stone disease and the amount of visceral adipose tissue measured with unenhanced computed tomography (CT). Methods: We included 149 patients with complaints of flank pain and kidney stones detected by CT, from August 2012 to April 2013. In addition, as the control group we included 139 healthy individuals, with flank pain within the same time period, with no previous history of urological disease and no current kidney stones identified by CT. Patients were analyzed for age, gender, body mass index, amount of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and serum level of low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride. Results: There were no differences between groups in terms of gender and age (p = 0.27 and 0.06, respectively). Respective measurements for the stone and control groups for body mass index were 29.1 and 27.6 kg/m2; for visceral fat measurement 186.0 and 120.2 cm2; and for subcutaneous fat measurements 275.9 and 261.9 cm2 (p = 0.01; 0.01 and 0.36, respectively). Using multivariate analysis, the following factors were identified as increasing the risk of kidney stone formation: hyperlipidemia (p = 0.003), hypertension (p = 0.001), and ratio of visceral fat tissue to subcutaneous fat tissue (p = 0.01). Our study has its limitations, including its retrospective nature, its small sample size, possible selection bias, and missing data. The lack of stone composition data is another major limitation of our study. Conclusion: The ratio of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue, in addition to obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, was identified as an emerging factor in the formation of kidney stones. PMID:26600887

  8. Calcium-sensing receptor and calcium kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Terranegra, Annalisa; Rainone, Francesco; Arcidiacono, Teresa; Cozzolino, Mario; Aloia, Andrea; Dogliotti, Elena; Cusi, Daniele; Soldati, Laura

    2011-11-22

    Calcium nephrolithiasis may be considered as a complex disease having multiple pathogenetic mechanisms and characterized by various clinical manifestations. Both genetic and environmental factors may increase susceptibility to calcium stones; therefore, it is crucial to characterize the patient phenotype to distinguish homogeneous groups of stone formers. Family and twin studies have shown that the stone transmission pattern is not mendelian, but complex and polygenic. In these studies, heritability of calcium stones was calculated around 50%Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is mostly expressed in the parathyroid glands and in renal tubules. It regulates the PTH secretion according to the serum calcium concentration. In the kidney, it modulates electrolyte and water excretion regulating the function of different tubular segments. In particular, CaSR reduces passive and active calcium reabsorption in distal tubules, increases phosphate reabsorption in proximal tubules and stimulates proton and water excretion in collecting ducts. Therefore, it is a candidate gene for calcium nephrolithiasis.In a case-control study we found an association between the normocitraturic stone formers and two SNPs of CaSR, located near the promoters region (rs7652589 and rs1501899). This result was replicated in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, comparing patients with or without kidney stones. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that the minor alleles at these polymorphisms were able to modify the binding sites of specific transcription factors and, consequently, CaSR expression.Our studies suggest that CaSR is one of the candidate genes explaining individual predisposition to calcium nephrolithiasis. Stone formation may be favored by an altered CaSR expression in kidney medulla involving the normal balance among calcium, phosphate, protons and water excretion.

  9. Quantifying Oldowan Stone Tool Production at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Reti, Jay S

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1) models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2) develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3) statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite) and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt) suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated with stone tool

  10. Quantifying Oldowan Stone Tool Production at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Reti, Jay S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1) models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2) develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3) statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite) and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt) suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated with stone tool

  11. Experimental Insights into the Cognitive Significance of Early Stone Tools.

    PubMed

    Moore, Mark W; Perston, Yinika

    2016-01-01

    Stone-flaking technology is the most enduring evidence for the evolving cognitive abilities of our early ancestors. Flake-making was mastered by African hominins ~3.3 ma, followed by the appearance of handaxes ~1.75 ma and complex stone reduction strategies by ~1.6 ma. Handaxes are stones flaked on two opposed faces ('bifacially'), creating a robust, sharp-edged tool, and complex reduction strategies are reflected in strategic prior flaking to prepare or 'predetermine' the nature of a later flake removal that served as a tool blank. These technologies are interpreted as major milestones in hominin evolution that reflect the development of higher-order cognitive abilities, and the presence and nature of these technologies are used to track movements of early hominin species or 'cultures' in the archaeological record. However, the warranting argument that certain variations in stone tool morphologies are caused by differences in cognitive abilities relies on analogy with technical replications by skilled modern stoneworkers, and this raises the possibility that researchers are projecting modern approaches to technical problems onto our non-modern hominin ancestors. Here we present the results of novel experiments that randomise flake removal and disrupt the modern stoneworker's inclination to use higher-order reasoning to guide the stone reduction process. Although our protocols prevented goal-directed replication of stone tool types, the experimental assemblage is morphologically standardised and includes handaxe-like 'protobifaces' and cores with apparently 'predetermined' flake removals. This shows that the geometrical constraints of fracture mechanics can give rise to what appear to be highly-designed stoneworking products and techniques when multiple flakes are removed randomly from a stone core. PMID:27392022

  12. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  13. Stone formation and calcification by nanobacteria in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Bjorklund, Michael; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    The formation of discrete and organized inorganic crystalline structures within macromolecular extracellular matrices is a widespread biological phenomenon generally referred to as biomineralization. Recently, bacteria have been implicated as factors in biogeochemical cycles for formation of many minerals in aqueous sediments. We have found nanobacterial culture systems that allow for reproducible production of apatite calcification in vitro. Depending on the culture conditions, tiny nanocolloid-sized particles covered with apatite, forming various size of aggregates and stones were observed. In this study, we detected the presence of nanobacteria in demineralized trilobit fossil, geode, apatite, and calcite stones by immunofluorescence staining. Amethyst and other quartz stones, and chalk gave negative results. Microorganisms are capable of depositing apatite outside the thermodynamic equilibrium in sea water. We bring now evidence that this occurs in the human body as well. Previously, only struvite kidney stones composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and small amounts of apatite have been regarded as bacteria related. 90 percent of demineralized human kidney stones now screened, contained nanobacteria. At least three different distribution patterns of nanobacteria were conditions, and human kidney stones that are formed from small apatite units. Prerequisites for the formation of kidney stones are the supersaturation of urine and presence of nidi for crystallization. Nanobacteria are important nidi and their presence might be of special interest in space flights where supersaturation of urine is present due to the loss of bone. Furthermore, we bring evidence that nanobacteria may act as crystallization nidi for the formation of biogenic apatite structures in tissue calcification found in e.g., atherosclerotic plaques, extensive metastatic and tumoral calcification, acute periarthritis, malacoplakia, and malignant diseases. In nanaobacteria-infected fibroblasts

  14. Salt-Induced Physical Weathering of Stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiro, M.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

    2010-12-01

    Salt weathering is recognized as an important mechanism that contributes to the modeling and shaping of the earth’s surface, in a range of environments spanning from the Sahara desert to Antarctica. It also contributes to the degradation and loss of cultural heritage, particularly carved stone and historic buildings. Soluble salts have recently been suggested to contribute to the shaping of rock outcrops on Mars and are being identified in other planetary bodies such as the moons of Jupiter (Europa and IO)1. Soluble salts such as sulfates, nitrates, chlorides and carbonates of alkali and alkali earth metals can crystallize within the porous system of rocks and building stones, exerting sufficient pressure against the pore walls to fracture the substrate. This physical damage results in increased porosity, thus providing a higher surface area for salt-enhanced chemical weathering. To better understand how salt-induced physical weathering occurs, we have studied the crystallization of the particularly damaging salt, sodium sulfate2, in a model system (a sintered porous glass of controlled porosity and pore size). For this elusive task of studying sub-surface crystallization in pores, we combined a variety of instruments to identify which phases crystallized during evaporation and calculated the supersaturation and associated crystallization pressure that caused damage. The heat of crystallization was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), providing the timing of crystallization events and phase transitions3, while the evaporation rate was recorded using thermal gravimetry (TG). These methods enabled calculation of the sodium sulfate concentration in solution at every point during evaporation. Two-dimensional X-ray diffraction (2D-XRD) performs synchrotron-like experiments in a normal lab by using a Molybdenum X-ray source (more than 5 times more penetrative than conventional Copper source). Using this method, we determined that the first phase to

  15. Bone disease in calcium stone forming patients.

    PubMed

    Heilberg, I P; Martini, L A; Szejnfeld, V L; Carvalho, A B; Draibe, S A; Ajzen, H; Ramos, O L; Schor, N

    1994-09-01

    The association between idiopathic hypercalciuria and osteopenia (OP) has been recently recognized. It is not established whether or not calcium intake plays a critical role in the loss of bone mass. Fifty-five calcium stone forming patients with either absorptive hypercalciuria (AH) or fasting hypercalciuria (FH), 29 males and 26 premenopausal females, were submitted to dual photon absorptiometry at lumbar spine. Calcium intake was assessed by a 72 hr dietary record. OP was detected in 20% (11/55) of patients, being more common among men, 9/26 (35%) than in women, 2/29 (7%), p < 0.05. Male FH patients presented lower mean bone mineral density (BMD) than sex, weight and age-matched control (1.058 +/- 0.18 vs 1.209 +/- 0.13 g/cm2, X +/- SD, p < 0.05). OP was more frequent in FH patients, 7/20 (35%) than in AH patients 4/35 (11%), albeit the difference was not statistically significant. There was no correlation between calcium intake and BMD measurement. Six osteopenic male FH patients were further submitted to histomorphometric evaluation with tetracycline double labeling. Bone volume was lower than the controls (13.2 +/- 3.0 vs 27.2 +/- 3.7%, p < 0.05). Osteoid surfaces were reduced, although not significantly (10.1 +/- 8.2% vs 15.9 +/- 6.7%). Eroded surfaces were markedly increased (23.9 +/- 13.4 vs 4.2 +/- 1.4%, p < 0.05). The bone formation rate was very low with a complete lack of tetracycline double labeling in 4 patients. These data suggest low bone volume, tendency to low bone formation, increased bone resorption and a severe mineralization defect, consistent with normal or low bone turnover osteoporosis. PMID:7994936

  16. Search for fullerenes in stone meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oester, M. Y.; Kuechl, D.; Sipiera, P. P.; Welch, C. J.

    1994-07-01

    The possibility of identifying fullerenes in stony meteorites became apparent from a paper given by Radicati de Brozolo. In this paper it was reported that fullerenes were present in the debris resulting from a collision between a micrometeoroid and an orbiting satellite. This fact generated sufficient curiosity to initiate a search for the presence of fullerenes in various stone meteorites. In the present study seven ordinary chondrites (al-Ghanim L6 (find), Dimmitt H4 (find), Lazbuddie LL5 (find), New Concord H5 (fall), Silverton H4 (find), Springlake L6 (find), and Umbarger L3/6 (find)). Four carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 83100 C2 (find), ALH 83108 C30 (find), Allende CV3 (fall), and Murchison CM2 (fall), and one achondrite (Monticello How (find)) were analyzed for the presence of fullerenes. The analytical procedure employed was as follows: 100 mg of meteorite was ground up with a mortar and pestle; 10 mL of toluene was then added and the mixture was refluxed for 90 min; this mixture was then filtered through a short column of silica; a 50 microliter sample was then analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Buckyclutcher I column with a mobile phase consisting of equal volumes of toluene and hexane at a flow rate of 1.00 mg per minute, with detection at 330 and 600 nm. Three of the meteorites, Allende, Murchison, and al-Ghanim, gave HPLC traces containing peaks with similar retention times to the HPLC trace of an authentic fullerene C60. However, further analysis using an HPLC instrument equipped with a diode-array detector failed to confirm any of the substances detected in the three meteorites as C60. Additional analyses will be conducted to identify what the HPLC traces actually represent.

  17. Obituary: Ronald Cecil Stone, 1946-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monet, Alice Kay Babcock

    2006-12-01

    Ronald C. Stone, an astronomer at the US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, passed away on 10 September 2005 in Downer's Grove, IL, following a valiant struggle with cancer. He was fifty-nine years old. Ron was born on 9 June 1946 in Seattle, Washington, to Helen (Vocelka) and Cecil Stone. His father was a World War II veteran who attended college on the GI Bill and became a mechanical engineer. He and his wife raised three sons: Dwight, Ronald, and Gavin. They lived in a number of locations across the U.S. before settling at last in Downer's Grove when Ron was in the fourth grade. Ron's interest in astronomy began when he was given a toy planetarium projector while still in grade school, and later a small telescope. In high school, he also built his own telescope, grinding the 6-inch mirror by hand. He completed grade school and high school in Downer's Grove and did his undergraduate studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, majoring in astronomy and physics and graduating cum laude in 1968. The following year, he was drafted into the U.S. Army and served for two years, including a stint in Vietnam. Although his primary assignment was auditing, he was also involved in the defense of the Long Binh base in Vietnam. He was honorably discharged from the service in 1971 and enrolled that fall at the University of Chicago. While a graduate student working with Bill van Altena, Ron developed his life long interest in the field of astrometry. Van Altena recalls him as "a quiet and cheerful student who wanted to learn, and [who] worked hard to understand the intricacies of astrometry... deriving the most precise proper motions from the 40-inch [Yerkes] refractor plates." Working at Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin, he completed a thesis entitled, "Mean Secular Parallax at Low Galactic Latitude." While living in Wisconsin, Ron also became engaged to Ellen Mickel, and the two were married at his parents' home in Downer's Grove. After earning

  18. Using Helical CT to Predict Stone Fragility in Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, James C. Jr.; Zarse, Chad A.; Jackson, Molly E.; McAteer, James A.; Lingeman, James E.

    2007-04-05

    Great variability exists in the response of urinary stones to SWL, and this is true even for stones composed of the same mineral. Efforts have been made to predict stone fragility to shock waves using computed tomography (CT) patient images, but most work to date has focused on the use of stone CT number (i.e., Hounsfield units). This is an easy number to measure on a patient stone, but its value depends on a number of factors, including the relationship of the size of the stone to me resolution (i.e., the slicewidth) of the CT scan. Studies that have shown a relationship between stone CT number and failure in SWL are reviewed, and all are shown to suffer from error due to stone size, which was not accounted for in the use of Hounsfield unit values. Preliminary data are then presented for a study of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones, in which stone structure-rather than simple CT number values-is shown to correlate with fragility to shock waves. COM stones that were observed to have structure by micro CT (e.g., voids, apatite regions, unusual shapes) broke to completion in about half the number of shock waves required for COM stones that were observed to be homogeneous in structure by CT. This result suggests another direction for the use of CT in predicting success of SWL: the use of CT to view stone structure, rather than simply measuring stone CT number. Viewing stone structure by CT requires the use of different viewing windows than those typically used for examining patient scans, but much research to date indicates that stone structure can be observed in the clinical setting. Future clinical studies will need to be done to verify the relationship between stone structure observed by CT and stone fragility in SWL.

  19. Ornamental Stones and Gemstones: The limits of heritage stone designation: The case for and against Australian Precious Opal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry

    2015-04-01

    When the international designation of natural stone types was first mooted in 2007, stones that were utilised in building and construction were the primary focus of attention. However following public discussion it soon became apparent that sculptural stones, stone used for utilitarian purposes such as millstones, as well as archaeological materials including stones used by early man could all be positively assessed as a potential Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR). Over the past 2 years it has been realised there is also a range of ornamental and semi-precious stones that may also be considered in the same international context. Examples in this respect include Imperial Porphyry sourced from Egypt that was much prized in the ancient world and "Derbyshire Blue John" a variety of fluorspar from central England that was used for vases, chalices, urns, candle sticks, jars, bowls door, jewellery and fire-place surrounds, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is at this point that rock materials, sometimes used as gemstones, impinge on the domain of typical heritage stones. In Australia, the gemstone most identifiable with the country is precious opal formed by sedimentary processes in the Great Artesian Basin. In this paper the question is asked whether "Australian Precious Opal" could be or should be considered as a heritage stone of international significance. Immediately Australian Precious Opal satisfies several GHSR criteria including historic use for more than 50 years and wide-ranging utilisation for prestige jewellery around the world. It is also recognised as a cultural icon including association with national identity in Australia as it is legally defined as Australia's "National Gemstone" as well as being the "Gemstone Emblem" for the State of South Australia. Opal continues to be mined. Designation of Australian Precious Opal as a Global Heritage Stone Resource would likely involve formal international recognition of Australian opal in the

  20. The Swedish Bohus granite - a stone with a fascinating history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Eliasson, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    One of the most well-known and well spread Swedish stone types used as building stones is the Bonus granite. It outcrops in an area north of Gothenburgh (SW Sweden), along the coastline, approximately 35 km wide and 85 km long. The granite continues into Norway as the Iddefjord granite. The Bohus granite is one of Sweden's youngest granites. Isotopic dating shows that the magma cooled at about 920 M years ago and thus marking the end of the Sveconorwegian orogoney. It is a composite granite massif area with several granitic intrusions but with rather homogeneous mineralogy. However, colour and texture varies quite a lot and the colour ranges from red to reddish grey although some pure grey varieties occur sparsely. The grain size ranges from medium grained to coarse grained and even with some porphyric parts. Quarrying in an industrial scale started 1842. The merchant A C Kullgren opened the first quarry and produced stones for the construction of the 86 km long Trollhättan channel connecting lake Vänern and the Atlantic ocean in the SW Sweden The stone was used for constructing harbors and wharves along the channel. Several quarries opened in the late 1800 around 1870 - 1890 and the export increased steadily with deliveries to Germany, Denmark, Holland, England and even to South America. The stone industries in Bohuslän (Bohus county), at its peak in 1929, engaged around 7 000 employees. During the depression in 1930 almost all of them became unemployed. However, as a curiosity, production and export continued to Germany for construction of Germania, the future World capital city ("Welthauptstadt Germania"), planned by Adolf Hitler and Albert Speer. About 500 stone workers were kept employed for this project during the late thirties. Today several varieties are still produced: Evja/Ävja, Tossene, Brastad, Näsinge, Broberg, Nolby, Allemarken and Skarstad. However, the number of stone workers is far from that of the early 1900. The Swedish production is mainly

  1. Stones of the upper urinary tract. Update on minimal-invasive endourological treatment.

    PubMed

    Lahme, Sven; Zimmermanns, Volker; Hochmuth, Andreas; Liske, Peter

    2008-03-01

    So far extracorporal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is the treatment of choice for upper urinary tract stones. Since the introduction of new minimal-invasive endourological procedures, such as retrograde flexible uretero-renoscopy (fURS) and minimal-invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (Mini-Perc), alternative treatment modalities are available, which show enhanced stone-free rates and decreased treatment morbidity even in unfavorable stone localizations of the lower calix and calyceal diverticulum stones. In experienced hands modern endourological approaches are suitable as first-line treatment of upper urinary tract stones. Even in elderly patients and large stone burden the endourological techniques show acceptable results.

  2. Management of staghorn stones using a combination of lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy and Solution R irrigation.

    PubMed

    Holden, D; Rao, P N

    1991-01-01

    The treatment of staghorn and partial staghorn calculi remains complex despite modern methods of stone removal. We describe the results following treatment of 112 stones. Three methods were used: percutaneous nephrolithotomy, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and Solution R irrigation, either alone or in combination; 57 stones (55.8%) were completely cleared, with Solution R irrigation helping to achieve complete clearance in 6 of these. A further 24 stones were not completely cleared (small asymptomatic fragments less than 3 mm remained). A satisfactory outcome (stone-free or asymptomatic fragments less than 3 mm) was achieved in 81 stones (79%).

  3. Changing imperatives of architecture affecting dimension stone use in world commerce

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mcdonald, W.H.; Darr, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The use of stone in building construction predates written history. From the time that stone was first used, builders have constructed stone buildings predominately from local or regional materials. However, since World War II, the stone business has become increasingly global. For example, French limestone is now sold to builders in the United States, and American granite is shipped to Japan. The internationalization of architectural and construction firms has encouraged this trend. Differences among nations in trade practices, environmental demands and the level of knowledge of dimension-stone characteristics make international trading in stone a risky and potentially disastrous business for unwary participants.

  4. Laparoscopic surgery for renal urolithiasis: pyelolithotomy, caliceal diverticulectomy, and treatment of stones in a pelvic kidney.

    PubMed

    Ramakumar, S; Segura, J W

    2000-12-01

    Laparoscopic techniques may be considered for the uncommon patient in whom open stone surgery is considered. Stones in caliceal diverticula not accessible percutaneously may be approached transperitoneally. Pelvic stones in ectopic kidneys can be retrieved laparoscopically through a pyelotomy created with scissors or a knife. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy under laparoscopic guidance can be used if the stone extends beyond the renal pelvis. In the patient with difficult stone disease, laparoscopy does not replace other minimally invasive techniques but rather complements them. It should be the rare patient in the future who needs open surgery for stone removal regardless of its location or the presence of anatomic variants. PMID:11206616

  5. Study on leaching vanadium from roasted residue of stone coal

    SciTech Connect

    He, D.; Feng, Q.; Zhang, G.; Luo, W.; Ou, L.

    2008-11-15

    In China, the total reserves of vanadium, reported as V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, in stone coal is 118 Mt (130 million st). Recovering vanadium from such a large resource is very important to China's vanadium industry. The technology now being used to recover vanadium from stone coal has the following two problems in the leaching process: a low recovery of vanadium and high acid consumption. To resolve these problems, a new leaching technology is proposed. The effects of factors such as H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration, liquid-solid ratio, temperature and time, and the types and additions of additives were studied. By adding 1.5% (by weight) CaF2 and leaching the roasted residue of stone coal with 5.4% (by weight) sulfuric acid at 90{sup o}C for 12 hours at a liquid-solid ratio of 2 mL/g, the leaching degree of vanadium reached 83.10%. This proposed leaching technology gives a feasible alternative for the processing of roasting residue of stone coal and can be applied in the comprehensive utilization of stone coal ores in China.

  6. Successful topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using ethyl propionate.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, A F; Amelsberg, A; Esch, O; Schteingart, C D; Lyche, K; Jinich, H; Vansonnenberg, E; D'Agostino, H B

    1997-06-01

    Topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is useful in symptomatic patients judged too ill for surgery. Previous studies showed that ethyl propionate (EP), a C5 ester, dissolves cholesterol gallstones rapidly in vitro, but differs from MTBE in being eliminated so rapidly by the liver that blood levels remain undetectable. Our aim was to test EP as a topical dissolution agent for cholesterol gallbladder stones. Five high-risk patients underwent topical dissolution of gallbladder stones by EP. In three patients, the solvent was instilled via a cholecystostomy tube placed previously to treat acute cholecystitis; in two patients, a percutaneous transhepatic catheter was placed in the gallbladder electively. Gallstone dissolution was assessed by chromatography, by gravimetry, and by catheter cholecystography. Total dissolution of gallstones was obtained in four patients after 6-10 hr of lavage; in the fifth patient, partial gallstone dissolution facilitated basketing of the stones. In two patients, cholesterol dissolution was measured and averaged 30 mg/min. Side effects were limited to one episode of transient hypotension and pain at the infusion site; no patient developed somnolence or nausea. Gallstone elimination was associated with relief of symptoms. EP is an acceptable alternative to MTBE for topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones in high-risk patients. The lower volatility and rapid hepatic extraction of EP suggest that it may be preferable to MTBE in this investigational procedure.

  7. [Lithotripsy in the conservative treatment of salivary stones].

    PubMed

    Vavrina, J; Müller, W; Schlegel, C

    1997-03-25

    Otolaryngologists and generalists as well are commonly involved in the evaluation and management of salivary gland stones. Most patients present with a history of recurrent swelling and pain in the gland, associated with eating. Up to date conservative therapy was limited to the treatment of the acute sialadenitis, which may develop as a consequence of the obstruction and often recurs until the function of the salivary gland ceases. Surgical treatment depends on the location of the calculus. Distal stones can be removed trans-orally by dilatation or incision of the duct, whereas those near the hilus and intraglandular stones required excision of the gland, including the disadvantage of a scar and the risk of injury to cranial nerves. Extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy is a new noninvasive method, which allows to destroy intra- and extraglandular salivary stones, mostly without the need of local or general anesthesia. Reported disintegration rates vary from 14% to 85%, depending on site and size of the calculus. About 80% of the patients remain symptomless Lithotripsy of salivary stones is a cost-effective, additional treatment modality to surgery and may be employed on an outpatient basis.

  8. Acid-base metabolism: implications for kidney stones formation.

    PubMed

    Hess, Bernhard

    2006-04-01

    The physiology and pathophysiology of renal H+ ion excretion and urinary buffer systems are reviewed. The main focus is on the two major conditions related to acid-base metabolism that cause kidney stone formation, i.e., distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and abnormally low urine pH with subsequent uric acid stone formation. Both the entities can be seen on the background of disturbances of the major urinary buffer system, NH3+ <--> NH4+. On the one hand, reduced distal tubular secretion of H+ ions results in an abnormally high urinary pH and either incomplete or complete dRTA. On the other hand, reduced production/availability of NH4+ is the cause of an abnormally low urinary pH, which predisposes to uric acid stone formation. Most recent research indicates that the latter abnormality may be a renal manifestation of the increasingly prevalent metabolic syndrome. Despite opposite deviations from normal urinary pH values, both the dRTA and uric acid stone formation due to low urinary pH require the same treatment, i.e., alkali. In the dRTA, alkali is needed for improving the body's buffer capacity, whereas the goal of alkali treatment in uric acid stone formers is to increase the urinary pH to 6.2-6.8 in order to minimize uric acid crystallization.

  9. Calcium oxalate crystal growth in human urinary stones

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.M.; Johnson, F.B.

    1981-01-01

    Calcium oxalate stones are very common and increasing. Crystal growth is no less important than the crystal nucleation in the pathogenesis of stone formation. The crystal growth was studied in human calcium oxalate stones by a combined electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The main mode of weddellite growth was interpenetration twinning of tetrahedral bipyramids. Bipyramids may form as initial crystal seeds, develop from anhedral crystals (crystals which lack flat symmetric faces) of spherular or mulberry shape, develop on the surface of preformed bipyramids by spiral dislocation mechanisms, or develop on whewellite crystal by heterogeneous nucleation and epitaxy. Heterogeneous nucleations of whewellite on weddellite, and calcium apatite on whewellite were also observed. Whewellite grew mainly by parallel twinning. Interpenetration twinning was exceptional. Transformation of anhedral to euhedral (completely bounded by flat faces that are set ar fixed angles to one another) whewellite occurred by parallel fissurations followed by brick wall like stacking of the crystals, while euhedral transformation of weddellite occurred by protrusion of bipyramids frm anhedral crystal surface. Occasionally, an evidence of crystal dissolution was noted. Although an aggregation of crystals is believed to play a pivotal role in stone nidus formation, growth in size of the formed crystals, and twinning and epitactic crystal intergrowth apparently play a significant role in the obstructive urinary stone formation.

  10. Urinary Tract Stones and Osteoporosis: Findings From the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Laura D; Hovey, Kathleen M; Andrews, Christopher A; Thomas, Fridtjof; Sorensen, Mathew D; Crandall, Carolyn J; Watts, Nelson B; Bethel, Monique; Johnson, Karen C

    2015-11-01

    Kidney and bladder stones (urinary tract stones) and osteoporosis are prevalent, serious conditions for postmenopausal women. Men with kidney stones are at increased risk of osteoporosis; however, the relationship of urinary tract stones to osteoporosis in postmenopausal women has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine whether urinary tract stones are an independent risk factor for changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and incident fractures in women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Data were obtained from 150,689 women in the Observational Study and Clinical Trials of the WHI with information on urinary tract stones status: 9856 of these women reported urinary tract stones at baseline and/or incident urinary tract stones during follow-up. Cox regression models were used to determine the association of urinary tract stones with incident fractures and linear mixed models were used to investigate the relationship of urinary tract stones with changes in BMD that occurred during WHI. Follow-up was over an average of 8 years. Models were adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, medication use, and dietary histories. In unadjusted models there was a significant association of urinary tract stones with incident total fractures (HR 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.17). However, in covariate adjusted analyses, urinary tract stones were not significantly related to changes in BMD at any skeletal site or to incident fractures. In conclusion, urinary tract stones in postmenopausal women are not an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. PMID:25990099

  11. Urinary Tract Stones and Osteoporosis: Findings From the Women's Health Initiative.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Laura D; Hovey, Kathleen M; Andrews, Christopher A; Thomas, Fridtjof; Sorensen, Mathew D; Crandall, Carolyn J; Watts, Nelson B; Bethel, Monique; Johnson, Karen C

    2015-11-01

    Kidney and bladder stones (urinary tract stones) and osteoporosis are prevalent, serious conditions for postmenopausal women. Men with kidney stones are at increased risk of osteoporosis; however, the relationship of urinary tract stones to osteoporosis in postmenopausal women has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine whether urinary tract stones are an independent risk factor for changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and incident fractures in women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Data were obtained from 150,689 women in the Observational Study and Clinical Trials of the WHI with information on urinary tract stones status: 9856 of these women reported urinary tract stones at baseline and/or incident urinary tract stones during follow-up. Cox regression models were used to determine the association of urinary tract stones with incident fractures and linear mixed models were used to investigate the relationship of urinary tract stones with changes in BMD that occurred during WHI. Follow-up was over an average of 8 years. Models were adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, medication use, and dietary histories. In unadjusted models there was a significant association of urinary tract stones with incident total fractures (HR 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.17). However, in covariate adjusted analyses, urinary tract stones were not significantly related to changes in BMD at any skeletal site or to incident fractures. In conclusion, urinary tract stones in postmenopausal women are not an independent risk factor for osteoporosis.

  12. Minimally invasive surgical approaches to kidney stones in children.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Hasan Serkan; Tekgul, Serdar

    2012-08-01

    The existing treatment options for pediatric urolithiasis are endoscopic methods. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is the first-line option for most of the kidney stones smaller than 1 cm in diameter. For larger stones or refractory cases, minimally invasive surgical methods are preferred. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a well-established treatment modality for most patients. This technique has shown evolution also in children so that miniaturized or tubeless methods could now be performed. Recent series show that flexible ureteroscopy is also becoming an important treatment option in the pediatric urology armamentarium for treating the calyceal and lower pole stones. Open surgery has a very limited role and it may be of use when there is a need to do an adjuvant reconstructive surgery. With the increasing experience, laparoscopic surgery is becoming an alternative option that may have potential to replace the open techniques.

  13. Thirty-eight years of stone meetings in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bichler, K H

    2006-04-01

    Of decisive importance for the many research groups all over Europe were the scientific symposia dealing with the theoretical foundations and clinical aspects of urinary stone disease. There were several sources from which today's European Urinary Stone meetings and the "Eurolithiasis Society" itself arose. It was a long way from Leeds in 1968 to Jena 1970, Bonn-Vienna in 1972 and to 11 European meetings from 1989 to 2005. Which developments in urinary stone disease research have been presented at our congresses during the past 40 years? The 1970s and 1980s are the years marked by efforts to measure the important lithogenic substances such as calcium, ionized calcium, uric acid, phosphate, oxalate with reliable methods. Hypercalciuria and specifically mild hyperoxaluria were the topics of numerous investigations in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. The calcium-loading test described by Pak has been discussed frequently since its application. It became apparent that oxalic acid is more important in urinary stone formation than hypercalciuria. Of importance were investigations done by Robertson and his colleagues on the influence of diet (in particular, an animal protein-rich diet) on urinary stone formation. Another emphasis of research was investigation of the crystallization process: supersaturation, crystal growth and aggregation are important steps in urinary stone formation. Of great importance in the formation of urinary stones are inhibitors (inhibitory activity): citrate, magnesium, pyrophosphate, macromolecules: GAGs, THP etc. and it became possible in the early 1970s to determine substances such as Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) and GAGs. Much attention in the 1970s and 1980s was focused on urinary stone analysis (X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, polarization microscopy) and standardization of these methods. In the mid-1980s, a whole series of epidemiological studies were carried out, with data for the Federal Republic of Germany, East Germany

  14. [Relationship between metabolic syndrome and urinary stone disease].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2011-10-01

    Epidemiologically, there are many same characteristics among patients with urolithiasis, life-style related diseases and metabolic syndrome. In a comparison with the major urological diseases, the patients with stone disease have the largest amount of visceral fat on computerized tomography. The patients who finally had a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in urolithiasis were 43% of men and female 31%. The clinical features of the patients include increased urinary oxalate excretion, abnormal uric acid metabolism, and acidic urine. The basic studies by the animal experiments suggest that there is a close relationship between urolithiasis and metabolic syndrome. After the treatment of the urinary stone, it is very important to make a long-term follow-up by not only the prevention of recurrent stone episode but also life style management and medical treatment for metabolic syndrome. PMID:21960234

  15. Retained and recurrent bile duct stones. Surgical or nonsurgical removal?

    PubMed Central

    Girard, R M; Legros, G

    1981-01-01

    An experience with 69 patients who underwent 72 common bile duct reoperations for retained or recurrent choledocholithiasis is presented. The mean age of the patients was 57 years, and 35 patients had associated conditions. In this series six patients (8.3%) had minor complications and no patient developed major complications or died. Two (2.9%) patients developed recurrent choledocholithiasis. In recent years, nonoperative removal of retained stones through a T-tube by mechanical extraction or chemical dissolution, and removal of retained or recurrent stones by endoscopic sphincterotomy has gained widespread popularity. Retained or recurrent choledocholithiasis should be managed on an individual basis. Reoperation has a good success rate, low morbidity and mortality rates. It should be considered as the treatment of choice in low risk patients, in whom a retained stone cannot be mechanically extracted through a T-tube, and in patients with recurrent choledocholithiasis diagnosed after removal of the T-tube. PMID:7469550

  16. Alterations in renal stone risk factors after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.; Cintron, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to the microgravity environment of space produces a number of physiological changes of metabolic and environmental origin that could increase the potential for renal stone formation. Metabolic, environmental and physicochemical factors that influence renal stone risk potential were examined in 24-hour urine samples from astronauts 10 days before launch and on landing day to provide an immediate postflight assessment of these factors. In addition, comparisons were made between male and female crewmembers, and between crewmembers on missions of less than 6 days and those on 6 to 10-day missions. Results suggest that immediately after space flight the risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation is increased as a result of metabolic (hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, pH) and environmental (lower urine volume) derangements, some of which could reflect residual effects of having been exposed to microgravity.

  17. The training of a ‘stone doctor’

    PubMed Central

    Talati, Jamsheer J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To propose alternative models of training for doctors treating patients with stones, and to identify their relative value, as such doctors are trained through urology programmes which sometimes cannot be expanded to meet the need, are short of teachers, too comprehensive and lengthy. This review explores new pathways for training to provide competence in the care of patients with stones. Methods Previous reports were identified and existing training models collectively categorised as Model 1. Three alternative models were constructed and compared in the context of advantages, acceptability, feasibility, educational impact and applicability in different geosocio-political contexts. Results In Model 2, urological and stone training diverge as options after common basic courses and experience. In Model 3, individuals access training through a common educational matrix (EM) for nurses, physicians, etc., according to the match between their capacities, entry requirements, personal desires and willingness for further responsibility. Stone doctors with no urological background cannot fulfil other service and educational commitments, and might create unwelcome dependence on other colleagues for complex situations. Programmes involving a common EM affect professional boundaries and are not easily acceptable. There is a lack of clarity on methods for medical certification and re-certification. However, the lack of technically competent stone experts in developing worlds requires an exploration of alternative models of training and practice. Conclusions The ability to provide exemplary care after abbreviated training makes alternative models attractive. Worldwide debate, further exploration and pilot implementation are required, perhaps first in the developing world, in which much of the ‘stone belt’ exists. PMID:26558030

  18. Screening and Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James; Sargsyan, Ashot; Garcia, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The true risk for renal stone formation in astronauts due to the space flight environment is unknown. Proper management of this condition is crucial to mitigate health and mission risks. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic electronic medical record and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health databases were reviewed. An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was also done. This work was used to develop a screening and management protocol for renal stones in astronauts that is relevant to the spaceflight operational environment. In the proposed guidelines all astronauts receive a yearly screening and post-flight renal ultrasound using a novel ultrasound protocol. The ultrasound protocol uses a combination of factors, including: size, position, shadow, twinkle and dispersion properties to confirm the presence of a renal calcification. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by a low-dose renal computed tomography scan and urologic consult. Other specific guidelines were also created. A small asymptomatic renal stone within the renal collecting system may become symptomatic at any time, and therefore affect launch and flight schedules, or cause incapacitation during a mission. Astronauts in need of definitive care can be evacuated from the International Space Station, but for deep space missions evacuation is impossible. The new screening and management algorithm has been implemented and the initial round of screening ultrasounds is under way. Data from these exams will better define the incidence of renal stones in U.S. astronauts, and will be used to inform risk mitigation for both short and long duration spaceflights.

  19. Management of biliary tract stones in heart transplant patients.

    PubMed Central

    Milas, M; Ricketts, R R; Amerson, J R; Kanter, K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors report their experience with biliary tract stones in adult and pediatric heart transplant patients, and review the current literature relative to this problem. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Prior studies in adults have noted that heart transplant patients frequently have cholelithiasis, but offer no consensus about treatment strategy. Few studies exist for pediatric heart transplant patients. A higher rate of hemolysis and cyclosporine-induced changes in bile metabolism may contribute to lithogenesis in this population. METHODS: A chart review was conducted for 211 patients who had heart transplants between January 1988 and September 1994 to determine prevalence of biliary tract stones, management strategies used, and outcome. RESULTS: Of 175 long-term heart transplant survivors, 52 (29.7%) had stones detected: 32.8% of adults (47/143) and 15.6% of children (5/32). The majority of patients (31) were diagnosed 4 months (mean) after transplantation; cholelithiasis developed in 10 of these patients (32%) within 11 months (median) after a negative ultrasound. Symptoms developed in 45% of patients. All patients underwent either elective (36) or urgent (6) cholecystectomy via an open (32) or laparoscopic (10) approach, or endoscopy for common bile duct stones (2). There were no deaths or complications during a follow-up period of up to 7 years. CONCLUSION: Heart transplant patients have a high prevalence of symptomatic biliary tract stone disease. They can be treated safely via an open or laparoscopic approach after transplantation. The authors recommend routine gallbladder ultrasound screening and elective cholecystectomy in the post-transplant period if stones are detected. Images Figure 4. PMID:8645048

  20. A review of Thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Nathaniel M.; Blackmon, Richard L.; Irby, Pierce B.

    2011-02-01

    The clinical solid-state Holmium:YAG laser lithotripter (λ=2120 nm) is capable of operating at high pulse energies, but its efficient operation is limited to low pulse rates during lithotripsy. The diode-pumped experimental Thulium Fiber Laser (λ=1908 nm) is limited to low pulse energies, but can operate at high pulse rates. This review compares stone ablation threshold, ablation rate, and retropulsion effects for Ho:YAG and TFL. Laser lithotripsy complications also include optical fiber bending failure resulting in endoscope damage and low irrigation rates leading to poor visibility. Both problems are related to fiber diameter and limited by Ho:YAG laser multimode spatial beam profile. This study exploits TFL spatial beam profile for higher power transmission through smaller fibers. A short taper is also studied for expanding TFL beam at the distal tip of a small-core fiber. Stone mass loss, stone crater depths, fiber transmission losses, fiber burn-back, irrigation rates, and deflection through a flexible ureteroscope were measured for tapered fiber and compared with conventional fibers. The stone ablation threshold for TFL was four times lower than for Ho:YAG. Stone retropulsion with Ho:YAG increased linearly with pulse energy. Retropulsion with TFL was minimal at pulse rates < 150 Hz, then rapidly increased at higher pulse rates. TFL beam profile provides higher laser power through smaller fibers than Ho:YAG laser, potentially reducing fiber failure and endoscope damage and allowing greater irrigation rates for improved visibility and safety. Use of a short tapered distal fiber tip also allows expansion of the laser beam, resulting in decreased fiber tip damage compared to conventional fibers, without compromising fiber bending, stone ablation efficiency, or irrigation rates.

  1. Obituary: Ronald Cecil Stone, 1946-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monet, Alice Kay Babcock

    2006-12-01

    Ronald C. Stone, an astronomer at the US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, passed away on 10 September 2005 in Downer's Grove, IL, following a valiant struggle with cancer. He was fifty-nine years old. Ron was born on 9 June 1946 in Seattle, Washington, to Helen (Vocelka) and Cecil Stone. His father was a World War II veteran who attended college on the GI Bill and became a mechanical engineer. He and his wife raised three sons: Dwight, Ronald, and Gavin. They lived in a number of locations across the U.S. before settling at last in Downer's Grove when Ron was in the fourth grade. Ron's interest in astronomy began when he was given a toy planetarium projector while still in grade school, and later a small telescope. In high school, he also built his own telescope, grinding the 6-inch mirror by hand. He completed grade school and high school in Downer's Grove and did his undergraduate studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, majoring in astronomy and physics and graduating cum laude in 1968. The following year, he was drafted into the U.S. Army and served for two years, including a stint in Vietnam. Although his primary assignment was auditing, he was also involved in the defense of the Long Binh base in Vietnam. He was honorably discharged from the service in 1971 and enrolled that fall at the University of Chicago. While a graduate student working with Bill van Altena, Ron developed his life long interest in the field of astrometry. Van Altena recalls him as "a quiet and cheerful student who wanted to learn, and [who] worked hard to understand the intricacies of astrometry... deriving the most precise proper motions from the 40-inch [Yerkes] refractor plates." Working at Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin, he completed a thesis entitled, "Mean Secular Parallax at Low Galactic Latitude." While living in Wisconsin, Ron also became engaged to Ellen Mickel, and the two were married at his parents' home in Downer's Grove. After earning

  2. Management of renal stone disease in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Vujovic, Aleksandra; Keoghane, Stephen

    2007-12-01

    Obesity represents an increasing burden to health care resources. Nephrolithiasis is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes and the consumption of diets rich in protein, fat and carbohydrates; this article addresses some of the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with stone formation in these patients. Management of stone disease can be more difficult in obese patients; even diagnosis can be problematic because imaging techniques are less sensitive in these patients. Treatment with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and surgery in obese patients can be challenging, and outcome data for the different treatments are discussed in this Review.

  3. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Celik, Orcun; Türk, Hakan; Cakmak, Ozgur; Budak, Salih; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Keskin, Mehmet Zeynel; Yildiz, Guner; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2016-01-14

    Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  4. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Celik, Orcun; Türk, Hakan; Cakmak, Ozgur; Budak, Salih; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Keskin, Mehmet Zeynel; Yildiz, Guner; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2015-12-01

    Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman. PMID:26766798

  5. 10. EXTERIOR VIEW OF STONE RETAINING WALL, AIRWAY, BALTIMORE FAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. EXTERIOR VIEW OF STONE RETAINING WALL, AIRWAY, BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE AND HILLMAN FAN HOUSE LOOKING EAST The stone retaining wall encloses a pit which may have been the original site of the Hillman Fan House steam engine. The concrete foundations in the left foreground are more recent (c. 1930) additions which may be supports for a porch or stairway. The sloping airshaft, in the middle ground, connected the Baltimore shaft to the New Fan House (not shown) and Hillman Fan House in the background. The Hillman engine house is on the left. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  6. What should I do about my patient's gall stones?

    PubMed Central

    Dennison, A. R.; Azoulay, D.; Oakley, N.; Baer, H.; Paraskevopoulos, J. A.; Maddern, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of benign biliary disease is one that causes significant morbidity and social economic strain in the western world. The classical treatment, cholecystectomy, has been challenged by various medical and surgical techniques in a seemingly random nature. The development of the treatment of gall stone disease is reviewed by analysis of published studies over the last 20 years. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed as an overview and summary of the current management of gall stone disease in the light of our knowledge of its malignant potential. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8552535

  7. Problem in analyzing cystine stones using FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fazil Marickar, Y M; Lekshmi, P R; Varma, Luxmi; Koshy, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Cystine stones are produced by an inherited disorder of the transport of amino acid cystine that results in excess of cystine in the urine (cystinuria). Cystine calculi in urinary tract present a significant problem in patients. We have recorded that cystine calculi are very uncommon in our region. Cystine crystals are unusually identified in the urinary deposits. The problem of recognizing cystine by FTIR as a component in mixture of stones is significant. The problem is compounded by the similarity of wavelengths of cystine with that of whewellite and uric acid. The objective of this paper is to elucidate the problems of identifying cystine in stone analysis and identifying a solution to get over this deficiency. Out of 1,300 urinary stones analysed by ordinary wet chemical methods and infrared spectroscopy, 30 stone samples, which were reported to have cystine peaks in significant numbers, were selected. These samples were powdered, mixed with potassium bromide, pelletized and taken up for FTIR analysis. The wavelength patterns were scrutinized by comparing with the peaks obtained by the reference standards of cystine. Spectra were also obtained from pure cystine. Comparison of spectra with those of whewellite and uric acid was performed. Then the samples were taken for Scanning electron microscopy with elemental distribution analysis X-ray (SEM-EDAX). The samples were made conductive by gold sputtering and were fed into JEOL JSM 35 C SEM machine. Morphology was recorded by taking photographs. Further elemental distribution analysis (EDAX) was carried out to identify the elemental composition. Of the 30 samples taken up for FTIR analysis, all showed spectra identifiable with the reference peaks for cystine. However, when these peaks were compared with those of whewellite and uric acid, all the stone samples showed duplication of peaks for whewellite and uric acid and whewellite. The pure cystine spectra showed identifiable peaks are in the range of 3026, 1618

  8. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for treatment of intrahepatic stones: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Ker, C G; Hwang, C H; Chen, J S; Lee, K T; Sheen, P C

    1993-04-01

    In vitro, bile duct stones, mostly comprising calcium bilirubinate, are readily fragmented by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL). In the case of intrahepatic stones, ESWL is effective if the stones float freely in the bile, but if the stones completely fill, or are impacted within, the hepatic duct or bile duct, attempts at fragmentation will end in failure. Three patients with intrahepatic stones were treated with ESWL, and effectively fragmented. The stone fragments passed out spontaneously through T-tube sinus tract, PTDC sinus tract and the sphincter of Oddi as shown in the second cholangiogram. No specific complication was noted in our experimental and clinical experience. We believe that ESWL for fragmentation of biliary stones is technically reliable. The problem of the passage of these fragmented stones is considered; if necessary, it can be overcome by endoscopic means.

  9. Effective atomic number accuracy for kidney stone characterization using spectral CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, M.; Langan, D. A.; Sahani, D. S.; Kambadakone, A.; Aluri, S.; Procknow, K.; Wu, X.; Bhotika, R.; Okerlund, D.; Kulkarni, N.; Xu, D.

    2010-04-01

    The clinical application of Gemstone Spectral ImagingTM, a fast kV switching dual energy acquisition, is explored in the context of noninvasive kidney stone characterization. Utilizing projection-based material decomposition, effective atomic number and monochromatic images are generated for kidney stone characterization. Analytical and experimental measurements are reported and contrasted. Phantoms were constructed using stone specimens extracted from patients. This allowed for imaging of the different stone types under similar conditions. The stone specimens comprised of Uric Acid, Cystine, Struvite and Calcium-based compositions. Collectively, these stone types span an effective atomic number range of approximately 7 to 14. While Uric Acid and Calcium based stones are generally distinguishable in conventional CT, stone compositions like Cystine and Struvite are difficult to distinguish resulting in treatment uncertainty. Experimental phantom measurements, made under increasingly complex imaging conditions, illustrate the impact of various factors on measurement accuracy. Preliminary clinical studies are reported.

  10. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dislodge stones from renal calyces (recesses of the pelvis of the kidney) by means of a pressurized stream of water through a conduit. The device is used in the surgical removal of kidney stones....

  11. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dislodge stones from renal calyces (recesses of the pelvis of the kidney) by means of a pressurized stream of water through a conduit. The device is used in the surgical removal of kidney stones....

  12. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dislodge stones from renal calyces (recesses of the pelvis of the kidney) by means of a pressurized stream of water through a conduit. The device is used in the surgical removal of kidney stones....

  13. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dislodge stones from renal calyces (recesses of the pelvis of the kidney) by means of a pressurized stream of water through a conduit. The device is used in the surgical removal of kidney stones....

  14. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dislodge stones from renal calyces (recesses of the pelvis of the kidney) by means of a pressurized stream of water through a conduit. The device is used in the surgical removal of kidney stones....

  15. Floating stones in a nonopacified gallbladder: ultrasonographic sign of gas-containing gallstones.

    PubMed

    Strijk, S P; Boetes, C; Rosenbusch, G

    1981-01-01

    Floating stones were noted in the nonopacified gallbladder at ultrasound examination. Gas-containing fissures in these stones could be demonstrated pre- and postoperatively (Mercedes Benz sign). PMID:7308702

  16. Rapid vaporization of kidney stones, ex vivo, using a Thulium fiber laser at pulse rates up to 500 Hz with a stone basket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2014-03-01

    The Holmium:YAG laser (λ = 2120 nm) is currently the preferred laser for fragmenting kidney stones in the clinic. However, this laser has some limitations, including operation at low pulse rates and a multimode spatial beam profile which prohibits its use with smaller, more flexible optical fibers. Our laboratory is studying the Thulium fiber laser (λ = 1908 nm) as an alternative lithotripter. The TFL has several advantages, including lower stone ablation thresholds, use with smaller and more flexible fibers, and operation at arbitrary pulse lengths and pulse rates. Previous studies have reported increased stone ablation rates with TFL operation at higher pulse rates, however, stone retropulsion remains an obstacle to even more efficient stone ablation. This study explores TFL operation at high pulse rates in combination with a stone stabilization device (e.g. stone basket) for improved efficiency. A TFL beam with pulse energy of 35 mJ, pulse duration of 500-μs, and pulse rates of 10-500 Hz was coupled into 100-μm-core, low-OH, silica fibers, in contact mode with uric acid and calcium oxalate monohydrate stones, ex vivo. TFL operation at 500 Hz produced UA and COM stone ablation rates up to 5.0 mg/s and 1.3 mg/s, respectively. High TFL pulse rates produced increased stone ablation rates sufficient for use in the clinic.

  17. Two-year experience with ureteral stones: extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy v ureteroscopic manipulation.

    PubMed

    Park, H; Park, M; Park, T

    1998-12-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) and ureteroscopic manipulation became the standard treatments for ureteral stones in recent years. There still exists significant debate as to the most appropriate treatment modality for ureteral stones. During a period of 2 years, from January 1994 to December 1995, 651 patients with ureteral stones were treated, and 589 patients were retrospectively reviewed, excluding 62 patients with incomplete follow-up. Four hundred forty-two patients were treated with SWL using the MPL 9000 with ultrasonic guidance and 115 patients with ureteroscopic manipulations using 7.9F to 11.5F rigid and semirigid ureteroscopes. In SWL treatments, the overall stone-free rate was 74.7% with one session. The stone-free rate was significantly affected by the size of stones, being 83.6% when the stone was <1.0 cm and 42.1% when the stone was >1.0 cm. The stone-free rate after a second SWL session was 84.4% and was 90.3% after a third session. The stone-free rates according to the site of the stone were 72.4 (proximal), 70.0 (mid), and 80.2% (distal) after a single session. In ureteroscopic manipulation, an overall stone-free rate of 87.8% was obtained regardless of the size of the stones. The success rates according to the location of stones were 75.0 (proximal), 94.6 (mid), and 86.4% (distal). Open ureterolithotomy was performed in 32 patients, with a 100% success rate. In our study, the size of the stones was the most important factor influencing the success rate of SWL treatment. We consider ureteroscopic manipulation as the first-line treatment modality when the stone is >1.0 cm, especially if it is in the distal ureter. Proper selection of patients for in situ SWL or ureteroscopy would improve the results of initial treatment.

  18. [Transurethral uretero-lithotripsy of ureteral stones in Osaka City University].

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, T; Sugimura, K; Nakatani, T; Yamamoto, K; Yasumoto, R; Wada, S; Sakamoto, W; Asakawa, M; Nishikawa, K; Ohyama, A

    1989-12-01

    During the 39 months since the introduction of transurethral lithotripsy (TUL) for the treatment of ureteral stones at our hospital in August 1985, TUL was performed a total of 200 times in 178 patients with ureteral stones. Among them, 111 patients had left ureteral stones and 65 had right ureteral stones, while 2 patients had ureteral stones in both sides. The stones were divided into upper ureteral stone (84 patients) and lower ureteral stone (94 patients) at above and below the iliac brim. 89% of the stones were less than 2 cm in diameter. Most of the patients were given lumbar anesthesia, and a guide wire was inserted into the ureter. The ureter was dilated with a ureteral bougie, and a 13F or 14F Storz ureteroscope was inserted. The stones were disintegrated by an ultrasound lithotripto and removed using forceps and a basket catheter. After the TUL procedure, a double J catheter was indwelled and removed within 5 days. The results were evaluated by DIP which was done 2 to 3 months after TUL. The success rate included residual stones less than 4 mm in diameter, as they could be spontaneously discharged. As a result, the success rate for upper ureteral stones was 53%, and it was higher for smaller stones. On the other hand, the success rate for lower ureteral stones was 85% and significantly higher. The main reasons for failure were the upper migration of the stones (60%) and inability to insert the ureteroscope up to the stone due to ureterostenosis and ureteral perforation (39%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Silicified Granites (Bleeding Stone and Ochre Granite) as Global Heritage Stones Resources from Avila (Central of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo C.; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago; Molina-Ballesteros, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    Silicified Granites have been widely used to build the main Romanesque monuments in the 12 th century of Avila city that was designated a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 1985. The stone was used in the Cathedral (12 th century); churches located interior and exterior of the Walls (e.g. Saint Vincent; Saint Peter). During the Renaissance and Gothic period, 15 th century Silicified Granites have been used mainly to buid ribbed vaults in Avila city (e.g. Royal Palace of the Catholic Monarchs, and Chapel of Mosén Rubí). Silicified Granites are related to an intermediate and upper parts of a complex palaeoweathering mantle developed on the Iberian Hercynian Basement (the greatest part of the western Iberian Peninsula and its oldest geological entity). In the Mesozoic the basement underwent tropical weathering processes. The weathered mantle were truncated by the Alpine tectonic movements during the Tertiary, and Its remnants were unconformably covered by more recent sediments and are located in the west and south part of the Duero Basin and in the north edge of the Ambles Valley graben. For the weathering profiles developed on the Hercynian Basement is possible to define three levels from bottom to top: 1) Lower level (biotitic granodiorite/porphyry and aplite dykes); 2) Intermediate level (ochre granite); 3) Upper level (red/white granite). The lower level has been much used as a source of ornamental stone, Avila Grey granite. The porphyry and applite dykes are mainly used to built the Walls of the City. The intermediate level is called Ochre granite or Caleño and was formed from the previous level through a tropical weathering process that, apart from variations in the petrophysical characteristics of the stone, has been accompanied by important mineralogical changes (2:1 and 1:1 phyllosilicates) and decreases in the contents of the most mobile cations. The upper level has received several names, Bleeding stone, Red and White granite or Silcrete and was formed

  20. The Efficacy of Medical Expulsive Therapy (MET) in Improving Stone-free Rate and Stone Expulsion Time, After Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL) for Upper Urinary Stones: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Skolarikos, Andreas; Grivas, Nikolaos; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Mourmouris, Panagiotis; Rountos, Thomas; Fiamegos, Alexandros; Stavrou, Sotirios; Venetis, Chris

    2015-12-01

    In this meta-analysis, we included randomized studies on medical expulsive therapy implemented following shock wave lithotripsy for renal and ureteral stones. Pooled results demonstrated the efficacy of α-blockers, nifedipine, Rowatinex, and Uriston in increasing stone clearance. In addition, the time to stone elimination, the intensity of pain, the formation of steinstrasse, and the need for auxiliary procedures were reduced mainly with α-blockers. Expulsion rate was not correlated with the type of α-blocker, the diameter, and the location of stone. Our results show that medical expulsive therapy for residual fragments after shock wave lithotripsy should be implemented in clinical practice. PMID:26383613

  1. Hypercalciuria and renal stones in a sarcoidosis patient treated by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, O P; Alfaro, C

    1986-03-01

    A case of chronic pulmonary sarcoidosis and hypercalciuria complicated by bilateral renal stones is reported. Urinary stones were pulverized by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) as the patient had declined any surgical procedure. The use of ESWL in conjunction with corticosteroids appears to be the treatment of choice in the management of renal stones secondary to abnormalities of calcium metabolism in sarcoidosis.

  2. 50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. 654... Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five zones are established in the management area and Florida's waters off Citrus and Hernando Counties for the separation of shrimp trawling and stone...

  3. 50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. 654.24... Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five zones are established in the management area and Florida's waters off Citrus and Hernando Counties for the separation of shrimp trawling and stone...

  4. 40 CFR 436.20 - Applicability; description of the crushed stone subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MINERAL MINING AND PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crushed... stone and riprap. This subpart includes all types of rock and stone. Rock and stone that is crushed or broken prior to the extraction of a mineral are elsewhere covered. The processing of calcite, however,...

  5. 32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505 Section 644.505 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior to offering...

  6. 32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505 Section 644.505 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior to offering...

  7. 32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505 Section 644.505 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior to offering...

  8. DNA FROM ANCIENT STONE TOOLS AND BONES EXCAVATED AT BUGAS-HOLDING, WYOMING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traces of DNA may preserve on ancient stone tools. We examined 24 chipped stone artifacts recovered from the Bugas-Holding site in northwestern Wyoming for the presence of DNA residues, and we compared DNA preservation in bones and stone tools from the same stratigraphic context...

  9. Ultrasound Based Method and Apparatus for Stone Detection and to Facilitate Clearance Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Michael (Inventor); Kucewicz, John (Inventor); Lu, Wei (Inventor); Sapozhnikov, Oleg (Inventor); Illian, Paul (Inventor); Shah, Anup (Inventor); Dunmire, Barbrina (Inventor); Owen, Neil (Inventor); Cunitz, Bryan (Inventor); Kaczkowski, Peter (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Described herein are methods and apparatus for detecting stones by ultrasound, in which the ultrasound reflections from a stone are preferentially selected and accentuated relative to the ultrasound reflections from blood or tissue. Also described herein are methods and apparatus for applying pushing ultrasound to in vivo stones or other objects, to facilitate the removal of such in vivo objects.

  10. 75 FR 7457 - Notice of Public Hearing on Stone Energy Corporation Proposed Surface Water Withdrawal and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Public Hearing on Stone Energy Corporation Proposed Surface Water Withdrawal and Natural... (DRBC or ``Commission'') will hold a special public hearing on two projects sponsored by the Stone Energy Corporation (hereinafter, ``Stone Energy'') to support natural gas exploration and...

  11. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy--a versatile technique for both simple and complex renal stone.

    PubMed

    Hossain, T M S; Asaduzzaman, M; Uddin, M N; Rahman, M H; Jahan, M U; Bhuiyan, A K M Z I

    2013-12-01

    Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy is currently the preferred first line treatment for simple & complex renal calculi. The technique also being used increasingly for smaller stones that have failed ESWL. Aim of the study is to share our experience in PCNL in course of time. This study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2012, 131 patient's with 142 renal units of 5-75 yrs of age, PCNL were performed in NIKDU, BSMMU & JBFH. Stone were classified into simple (isolated renal pelvis or isolated calyceal stones) or complex (partial or complete staghorn stones, renal pelvic stone with accompanying calyceal stones). The stone size was 1.5-5cm approximately. We asses our initial puncture technique, need for multi-tract, supra 12th rib access, stone free rate, operative duration, postoperative complication, number of transfusion and hospital stay. Operative durations were 60 min -180 minutes. Puncture technique improved in course of time. 14 patients need multi-puncture and tract, all are supra 12th access. Out of 142 renal units 120 (83%) were stone free after first procedure, another 22 need and auxiliary procedure, (5 2nd look PCNL, 6 URS, 11 ESWL) to become stone free result in a 95% stone free rate. Complications occurred in 17 procedures which dealt accordingly. This study revealed PCNL is an effective, versatile safe and cosmetically acceptable procedure for all age groups in simple and complex renal stone.

  12. Extracorporeal abdominal massage may help prevent recurrent bile duct stones after endoscopic sphincterotomy

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Naohito; Hamaya, Sae; Tatsuta, Miwa; Nakatsu, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is effective, but recurrent bile duct stones are a common late complication. Because there are still no effective therapies for preventing this complication, some patients have experienced bile duct stone recurrence many times. We describe herein a method of abdominal massage to treat patients with prior cholecystectomy who have experienced recurrence of bile duct stones. PMID:27540575

  13. Sedimentary rocks in our mouth: dental pulp stones made by nanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Ciftcioglu, Vefa; Vali, Hojatollah; Turcott, Eduardo; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    The mechanisms of dental pulp stone formation are still largely unknown. Pulp stones are mainly composed of carbonate apatite. Only few experimental reports have elucidated the potential of some selected bacteria to produce apatite under in vitro conditions using special calcification media. The tested stone forming bacteria were, in fact, often better known for their cariogenic potential. Our preliminary work with 18 dental pulp stones from Turkey, selected only by severity of the stone formation, indicated the presence of nanobacterial antigens in the demineralized stones. Furthermore, high incidence of kidney stones and gall stones in the patient group and in their parents was found. This raises the implication that nanobacteria may enter the body also via oral route, in addition to the parenteral and transplacental routes. The role of nanobacteria in dental pulp stone formation was further studied by following nanobacterial colonization and mineral formation on human tooth in vitro. Two molar teeth, one having pulp stone and one without, were vertically cut into two pieces, sterilized by autoclaving and incubated with or without nanobacteria in DMEM. Electron microscopic observations indicate that nanobacteria can cause apatite stone formation on tooth surface. The sever from of dental pulp stone formation might be associated with nanobacteria. This form of dental disease results in loss of teeth due to osteolytic processes. This addresses the necessity for a study on unconventional mineral-forming bacteria as a cause for human diseases.

  14. Middle Stone Age starch acquisition in the Niassa Rift, Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercader, Julio; Bennett, Tim; Raja, Mussa

    2008-09-01

    The quest for direct lines of evidence for Paleolithic plant consumption during the African Middle Stone Age has led scientists to study residues and use-wear on flaked stone tools. Past work has established lithic function through multiple lines of evidence and the spatial breakdown of use-wear and microscopic traces on tool surfaces. This paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of starch assemblages and the botanical identification of grains from flake and core tools to learn about human ecology of carbohydrate use around the Niassa woodlands, in the Mozambican Rift. The processing of starchy plant parts is deduced from the occurrence of starch assemblages that presumably got attached to stone tool surfaces by actions associated with extractive or culinary activities. Specifically, we investigate starch grains from stone tools recently excavated in northern Mozambique at the site of Mikuyu; which presumably spans the middle to late Pleistocene and represents similar sites found along the Malawi/Niassa corridor that links East, Southern, and Central Africa. Starch was extracted and processed with a diverse tool kit consisting of scrapers, cores, points, flakes, and other kinds of tools. The microbotanical data suggests consumption of seeds, legumes, caryopses, piths, underground storage organs, nuts, and mesocarps from more than a dozen families. Our data suggest a great antiquity for starch use in Africa as well as an expanded diet and intensification.

  15. VIEW OF SIDEWALK AND STONE WALL EAST SIDE OF PIEDMONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SIDEWALK AND STONE WALL EAST SIDE OF PIEDMONT AVENUE ADJACENT TO OAK GROVE AND FOOTBALL STADIUM. LOOKING NNW. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 8, 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  16. DETAIL VIEW OF SIDEWALK AND STONE WALL EAST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF SIDEWALK AND STONE WALL EAST SIDE OF PIEDMONT AVENUE ADJACENT TO OAK GROVE AND FOOTBALL STADIUM. NOTE STEPS TO STADIUM. LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 8, 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  17. 7. Detail of stone wall along south side of Rockland ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail of stone wall along south side of Rockland Road, north side of dairy barn in background - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  18. [Salivary stone in parotid gland with a cutaneous fistula].

    PubMed

    Abadi, Peymaneh; Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Godballe, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Parotid fistulas are very rare and arise from various causes such as trauma, operative complications, infection, malignancy and stone. They may also be congenital. A rare case of cutaneous salivary fistula is presented. A 59-year-old man had a recurrent inflammatory parotid disease which disappeared after the expulsion of the calculus. PMID:23305643

  19. Brick and Stone Masonry Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in brick and stone masonry. The tasks required for 15 different duties performed by bricklayers and 13 different duties typically performed by rocklayers are outlined. The following bricklaying duties are covered: estimating materials for and laying out a…

  20. Building Stone and Its Use in Rock Weathering Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragovich, Deirdre

    1979-01-01

    Building stone provides opportunities for geological study of weathering of different rocks in a particular environment and similar rocks in different environment. The principle studied can be applied on a large scale from the observation of small-scale weathering. Examples of weathering are drawn mainly from the Sydney region of Australia. (RE)

  1. 4. 'Ring Stones & Tunnel Sections, Tunnel #33,' Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 'Ring Stones & Tunnel Sections, Tunnel #33,' Southern Pacific Standard Double-Track Tunnel, ca. 1913. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 18 (HAER No. CA-197), Tunnel 34 (HAER No. CA-206), and Tunnel 1 (HAER No. CA-207). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. "The Sorcerer's Stone": A Touchstone for Readers of All Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Susan Nelson; Quackenbush, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Presents results from an informal survey of 50 individuals of all ages about the Harry Potter phenomenon. Offers four suggestions for the English language arts classroom about a place "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" might have in a school's curriculum, dealing with transforming text, understanding genre, responding to texts with personal…

  3. 30. Otter Lake Dam. View shows rustic stone facade of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Otter Lake Dam. View shows rustic stone facade of the dam. The stepped face of the dam gives the illusion of a natural cascade. Facing southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  4. 40. Peaks of Otter Visitor Center. The stone faced visitor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Peaks of Otter Visitor Center. The stone faced visitor was completed in 1957 with a comfort station added in the mid-1960's. View is to the northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  5. View southeast, stone sluice, top of upper standing section, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast, stone sluice, top of upper standing section, showing cement piers over arch in foreground, foot of break at third drop in center, retaining wall to left, barge canal sluice to right - Glens Falls Feeder, Sluice, Along south side of Glens Falls Feeder between locks 10 & 20, Hudson Falls, Washington County, NY

  6. View southeast, stone sluice, top of lower standing section, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast, stone sluice, top of lower standing section, showing row of cement piers in center, retaining wall to left, barge canal sluice to right - Glens Falls Feeder, Sluice, Along south side of Glens Falls Feeder between locks 10 & 20, Hudson Falls, Washington County, NY

  7. Detail, north abutment, from southeast, showing original squared cut stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, north abutment, from southeast, showing original squared cut stone masonry abutment and portion of non-original concrete apron at west base of abutment - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  8. 4. DETAIL OF STONE BLOCK CONSTRUCTION AND IRON HARDWARE (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF STONE BLOCK CONSTRUCTION AND IRON HARDWARE (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  9. The Development of Kidney Stone Dietary Plans for Patient Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Darwin; Mayo, M. Leah; Abraham, Victor E.

    2011-01-01

    Currently patient education programs and urology practices provide individuals with "lists of foods to avoid" for dietary management of kidney stones. However, "planned diets" that include daily meal plans and recipes provide structure and specificity for diet management and are preferred by many individuals. This article describes the development…

  10. UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TRUSSED OBELISK TOWERS ON STONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TRUSSED OBELISK TOWERS ON STONE PIERS, SHOWING HOWE PIPE TRUSS RAILING AND TRUSSED DECK BEAMS TYPICAL TO BRIDGES BUILT BY FLINN-MOYER COMPANY. 3/4 VIEW FROM BELOW. - Clear Fork of Brazos River Suspension Bridge, Spanning Clear Fork of Brazos River at County Route 179, Albany, Shackelford County, TX

  11. Bone Genes in the Kidney of Stone Formers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evan, Andrew P.; Bledsoe, Sharon B.

    2008-09-01

    Intraoperative papillary biopsies from kidneys of idiopathic-calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) have revealed a distinct pattern of mineral deposition in the interstitium of the renal papilla. The earliest sites of these deposits, termed Randall's plaque, are found in the basement membrane of thin loops of Henle and appear to spread into the surrounding interstitium down to the papillary epithelium. Recent studies show kidney stones of ICSF patients grow attached to the renal papilla and at sites of Randall's plaque. Together these observations suggest that plaque formation may be the critical step in stone formation. In order to control plaque formation and thereby reduce future kidney stone development, the mechanism of plaque deposition must be understood. Because the renal papilla has unique anatomical features similar to bone and the fact that the interstitial deposits of ICSF patients are formed of biological apatite, this paper tests the hypothesis that sites of interstitial plaque form as a result of cell-mediated osteoblast-like activity.

  12. A Time, and a Place, to Gather Stones Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemiller, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Lenka Clayton, a British artist and documentary filmmaker, did not leave London and cross the Atlantic Ocean intending to paint tiny, precise numbers on 7,000 loose stones--that idea didn't come to her until later. By the time she began numbering, she had already started a class of freshmen at Alfred University mapping hard-to-map things (like…

  13. Dancing with Stones: Critical Creativity as Methodology for Human Flourishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titchen, Angie; McCormack, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Critical creativity is a paradigmatic synthesis linking critical social science with creative and ancient traditions. Our haiku summarises the essence of this three part paper. "Heavy feet of stone" describes the rationale for our creation of critical creativity. "Seeking transformation" sets out the background and methodology for our inductive,…

  14. INTERIOR VIEW, MLT'S STONE AND WATER MIXED HERE TO MAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, MLT'S STONE AND WATER MIXED HERE TO MAKE MILK OF LIME (CALCIUM HYDROXIDE). MLT BUILDING IS ATTACHED TO AND WEST OF LIME KILNS. - Solvay Process Company, Milk of Lime Towers Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  15. Secondary Waste Simulant Development for Cast Stone Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Swanberg, David J.; Mahoney, J.

    2015-04-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) funded Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a waste form testing program to implement aspects of the Secondary Liquid Waste Treatment Cast Stone Technology Development Plan (Ashley 2012) and the Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap (PNNL 2009) related to the development and qualification of Cast Stone as a potential waste form for the solidification of aqueous wastes from the Hanford Site after the aqueous wastes are treated at the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The current baseline is that the resultant Cast Stone (or grout) solid waste forms would be disposed at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Data and results of this testing program will be used in the upcoming performance assessment of the IDF and in the design and operation of a solidification treatment unit planned to be added to the ETF. The purpose of the work described in this report is to 1) develop simulants for the waste streams that are currently being fed and future WTP secondary waste streams also to be fed into the ETF and 2) prepare simulants to use for preparation of grout or Cast Stone solid waste forms for testing.

  16. Isotopic composition of cattle pancreatic stones: biological and geochemical implications.

    PubMed

    Longinelli, A; Verine, H J

    1977-11-15

    Latitudinal variations of the O18/O16-ratios of carbonate and phosphate of cattle pancreatic stones parallel a similar pattern of oxygen isotope values in rain water. C13/C12-ratios were virtually identical for the 7 cases studied. Isotopic measurements of mammalian hard tissues may be used for studying short-term climatic variations through Quaternary.

  17. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF DRYLAID STONE WORK ALONG RIVER BANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF DRY-LAID STONE WORK ALONG RIVER BANK IMMEDIATELY UPSTREAM OF TO NORTHERN PIER. THIS IS A POSSIBLE REMANANT OF A MILL FOUNDATION. - Bridge No. 04619, Spanning Ten Mile River at Village Hill Road, Columbia, Tolland County, CT

  18. Size characteristics of stones ingested by common loons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hansen, S.P.; Pokras, M.A.; Miconi, R.

    2001-01-01

    Common Loon (Gavia immer) carcasses recovered in New England had more stones of greater combined mass in their stomachs than loons from the southeastern United States. Stones retained in sieves with mesh sizes between 4.75 and 8.00 mm accounted for the greatest percentage (by mass) of grit in loon stomachs. The median longest dimension of the largest single stone in each stomach was 12.5 mm in loons from New England and 10.7 mm in loons from the southeast (maximum = 23.1 mm and 16.8 mm, respectively). A recent national proposal to restrict the use of certain fishing weights in the United States called for a ban on lead fishing sinkers of 25.4 mm or less in any dimension. Our findings suggest it is unlikely that Common Loons would ingest lead fishing weights greater than 25.4 mm in any dimension, if such ingestion was solely the result of their search for replacement stones for their stomachs. However, this does not preclude the possibility that loons may ingest larger fishing weights under other circumstances, such as the consumption of fish with attached sinkers.

  19. Ventilatory functions in stone quarry workers of Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P; Chaswal, M; Saxena, S

    1999-10-01

    Ninety two stone quarry workers from nearby villages of Jodhpur town were, assessed for their lung functions which included measurement of Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in Ist second (FEV1), and Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). A detailed questionnaire was administered to all the workers, who were divided into group I (cutting the stone) and group II (loading and unloading the stone) depending on the nature of their Job. The presenting complaints included cough with sputum (55%), chest pain (79%), bodyache (31%) and 21% gave the history as suffering from tuberculosis. Comparison of the lung function results between two groups indicated a significant decrement of FEV1 and PEFR in group II as compared to group I workers. The observed lung functions were also found to be lower on comparison with the normative data from Rajasthan. However, no difference in observed lung function results of smokers and nonsmokers were obtained. Thus the reported lower values of lung functions independent of smoking habits, may be due to occupational stone dust exposure.

  20. Outcome after endoscopically assisted surgical retrieval of symptomatic parotid stones.

    PubMed

    Overton, A; Combes, J; McGurk, M

    2012-02-01

    10% of symptomatic parotid stones cannot be removed by minimally invasive radiological or endoscopic techniques alone. In these cases endoscopically assisted surgical parotid sialolithectomy can be performed via an extraoral approach, reconstituting the duct and preserving functioning glandular tissue. Between 2003 and 2010, 55 consecutive patients underwent endoscopically assisted surgical removal of parotid stones from 57 glands, two having bilateral procedures. Outcome was assessed using a structured questionnaire. 39/55 patients (71%) patients were successfully contacted (40 procedures; one bilateral case). At median follow-up of 3.1 years 28 glands (70%) were symptomless, whilst 11 (28%) were much improved but causing mild or occasional residual symptoms. One patient required postoperative lithotripsy and basket retrieval of a retained stone, but was subsequently symptom free. A further patient was initially symptom free then relapsed, did not respond to lithotripsy and is awaiting further assessment. In 10% of cases a short-lived sialocoele developed postoperatively. No individual reported facial weakness and one had a scar of concern. 37/39 (95%) patients were pleased to have had the operation and would have the procedure contralaterally in similar circumstances. Endoscopically assisted surgical removal of parotid stones is a successful technique with low morbidity that is well received by patients. PMID:22018956

  1. Anion determination in damage layers of stone monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, G.; Zappia, G.; Sabbioni, C.

    An analytical procedure was set up for the dissolution of damage layers from stone monuments with the aim of performing ion chromatography analyses. The dissolution was performed using ion exchange resin H-form and the ion chromatography analysis with two serial detectors (conductometer and spectrophotometer). The problem of interferences of different ions is discussed.

  2. A model for damage of microheterogeneous kidney stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeri, Andrew J.; Zohdi, Tarek I.; Blake, John R.

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, a theoretical framework is developed for the mechanics of kidney stones with an isotropic, random microstructure-such as those comprised of cystine or struvite. The approach is based on a micromechanical description of kidney stones comprised of crystals in a binding matrix. Stress concentration functions are developed to determine load sharing of the particle phase and the binding matrix phase. As an illustration of the theory, the fatigue of kidney stones subject to shock wave lithotripsy is considered. Stress concentration functions are used to construct fatigue life estimates for each phase, as a function of the volume fraction and of the mechanical properties of the constituents, as well as the loading from SWL. The failure of the binding matrix is determined explicitly in a model for the accumulation of distributed damage. Also considered is the amount of material damaged in a representative non-spherical collapse of a cavitation bubble near the stone surface. The theory can be used to assess the importance of microscale heterogeneity on the comminution of renal calculi and to estimate the number of cycles to failure in terms of measurable material properties.

  3. A Biological Stone from a Medieval Cemetery in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Gładykowska-Rzeczycka, Judyta J.; Nowakowski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature shows that origination of biological stones as well as their pathogenesis mostly depend on the environmental factors. As a result, the structural spectrum of such calculi and their chemical composition are highly diversified. It is well known that biological stones are formed mostly in the digestive and urinary tracts. However, it has been demonstrated that this kind of stony structure can be also, though rarely, found in circulatory and reproductive systems, skin, mucosa, and tear ducts. Although in palaeopathology, the list of biological stones is enriched by stony tumours and/or discharges, it is very difficult to uncover the small size deposits in excavation material. In the literature such findings, originating from different countries and centuries, are few. The described stone was found among the bones of an adult individual in the medieval cemetery of Gdańsk (Poland). The SEM, X-ray spectrometer and chemical evaluation revealed that it was a bladder calculus. PMID:25275551

  4. 4. Detail view north of stone wall opening between Five ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Detail view north of stone wall opening between Five Acre Lot (foreground) and Ten Acre Lot (background) with Joseph Fry Farm complex beyond - Joseph Fry Farm Landscape, 2153 South County Trail Road (U.S. Route 2), East Greenwich, Kent County, RI

  5. 7. Detail view north of stone wall and wood gate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view north of stone wall and wood gate between Ten Acre Lot (foreground) and Barn Meadow (background) with Joseph Fry Farm complex beyond - Joseph Fry Farm Landscape, 2153 South County Trail Road (U.S. Route 2), East Greenwich, Kent County, RI

  6. Patio Stone Project Gives Students a Concrete Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an overview of concrete as a building material and as an example of a particle composite, and discusses the origins of concrete in ancient Rome. He then describes an activity in which students can cast a concrete patio stone. Students can apply the technological design process, as well as the elements of…

  7. Biochemical diagnosis in 3040 kidney stone formers in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Spivacow, Francisco Rodolfo; del Valle, Elisa Elena; Negri, Armando Luis; Fradinger, Erich; Abib, Anabella; Rey, Paula

    2015-08-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a frequent condition in urology that has an important recurrence and high impact in health economy. Knowing the biochemical abnormalities implicated in its pathogenesis is mandatory to establish therapeutic aims. Our objectives are to present the results in 3040 kidney stone formers in Argentina. All patients were selected after completing an ambulatory metabolic protocol with diagnostic purposes. There were 1717 men, (56.48%), with a mean age of 45±12 years, and 1323 women, (43.52%), mean age 44±12 years. 2781 patients had biochemical abnormalities, (91.49%), and were arbitrarily divided in two groups: those who had only one (single) biochemical abnormality (n=2156) and those who had associated abnormalities (n=625). No biochemical abnormalities were found in 259 patients (8.51%). The abnormalities present, single and associated, in order of frequency, were idiopathic hypercalciuria, (56.88%), hyperuricosuria (21.08%), unduly acidic urine (10.95%), hypocitraturia (10.55%), hypomagnesuria (7.9%), primary hyperparathyroidism (3.01%), hyperoxaluria (2.6%), and cystinuria (0.32%). We performed in 484 patient's stone composition and found calcium oxalate stones related to idiopathic hypercalciuria predominantly while uric acid stones to unduly acidic urine. In conclusion, the biochemical abnormalities described are similar to those found in a previous series of our own and to those reported in the literature. Its diagnosis is important to therapeutic purposes to avoid eventual recurrence.

  8. 85. INCLINED PLANE 7 EAST. FLUME AND STONE POWER HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    85. INCLINED PLANE 7 EAST. FLUME AND STONE POWER HOUSE ARE ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE THE CABLE LEAVING THE POWER HOUSE. THIS CABLE IS ATTATCHED TO A DRUM ON THE INSIDE THE POWER HOUSE WHICH IS TURNED BY MEANS OF A WATER POWERED TURBINE. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  9. 7. View of cut stone apron sitting at edge of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of cut stone apron sitting at edge of concrete apron. Photograph taken from east side of lower dam. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  10. Tripping over Boundary-Stones: Reflections on Engaged Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzullo, Phaedra C.

    2010-01-01

    Erected around 500 BCE, Aeschines and Demosthenes referred to boundary-stones in speeches, noting that they were to serve as a warning to men who avoided military service, acted cowardly, mistreated their parents, or had dirty hands. Of course, women, slaves, and non-citizens also were forbidden from this significant political and commercial…

  11. 13. Removal of slide material and construction of stone retaining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Removal of slide material and construction of stone retaining wall to protect highway. Zion NP negative no. 2084. Photographer: Russell K. Grater, 1941. - Floor of the Valley Road, Between Zion-Mt. Carmel Highway & Temple of Sinawava, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  12. Archaeomagnetic studies of Maori Hangi Stones from New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinger, R.; Turner, G. M.; McFadgen, B.

    2014-12-01

    Global palaeosecular variation models still suffer from a paucity of high quality data from the SW Pacific region. Over the past two years we have worked to fill this gap with archaeomagnetic data - directions and palaeointensities - by studying the thermoremanent magnetization of Maori hangi cooking stones. Used as heat retainers, these stones are heated, frequently above the Curie temperatures of constituent magnetic minerals, before being buried in earth ovens. After removal of the food, hangi sites are often abandoned with the stones still in situ, carrying a record of the magnetic field in which they were last cooled. We have sampled a range of archaeological hangi sites throughout New Zealand, dating to early prehistoric times (ca 700 BP). The stones vary in lithology from andesites, originating from the central North Island volcanoes, favoured by Maori for their durability and with NRM intensities up to 30 A/m, to greywackes and schists from the main axial ranges, with NRMs as weak as 10-4A/m. In all cases, we have independently oriented and retrieved several stones, and we have made several specimens from each stone, either by drilling (standard cylindrical specimens) or sawing (pseudo-cubes) in the laboratory. We have calculated site mean palaeomagnetic directions from principal component analysis of thermal demagnetization data, discarding the data of stones that show evidence of disturbance. We have carried out palaeointensity experiments using a Coe/Thellier method with pTRM and tail checks, and with selection criteria modified to the situation. Rock magnetic experiments contribute to our understanding of the mineralogy, domain state and blocking temperature spectra. The palaeodirections fall between declinations of 348o and 24.5o, and inclinations of -46.4o and -72.4o, with palaeointensities between 43.7±1.4 and 81.3±6.1 mT. Most fall within the expected range of secular variation for New Zealand. However the palaeointensity of 81.34±6.08mT, from an

  13. Probabilistic seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of stone masonry structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo El Ezz, Ahmad

    Earthquakes represent major natural hazards that regularly impact the built environment in seismic prone areas worldwide and cause considerable social and economic losses. The high losses incurred following the past destructive earthquakes promoted the need for assessment of the seismic vulnerability and risk of the existing buildings. Many historic buildings in the old urban centers in Eastern Canada such as Old Quebec City are built of stone masonry and represent un-measurable architectural and cultural heritage. These buildings were built to resist gravity loads only and generally offer poor resistance to lateral seismic loads. Seismic vulnerability assessment of stone masonry buildings is therefore the first necessary step in developing seismic retrofitting and pre-disaster mitigation plans. The objective of this study is to develop a set of probability-based analytical tools for efficient seismic vulnerability and uncertainty analysis of stone masonry buildings. A simplified probabilistic analytical methodology for vulnerability modelling of stone masonry building with systematic treatment of uncertainties throughout the modelling process is developed in the first part of this study. Building capacity curves are developed using a simplified mechanical model. A displacement based procedure is used to develop damage state fragility functions in terms of spectral displacement response based on drift thresholds of stone masonry walls. A simplified probabilistic seismic demand analysis is proposed to capture the combined uncertainty in capacity and demand on fragility functions. In the second part, a robust analytical procedure for the development of seismic hazard compatible fragility and vulnerability functions is proposed. The results are given by sets of seismic hazard compatible vulnerability functions in terms of structure-independent intensity measure (e.g. spectral acceleration) that can be used for seismic risk analysis. The procedure is very efficient for

  14. The Meteoritical Quincentennial: The Stone of Ensisheim 1492-1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin, U. B.

    1992-07-01

    This year marks the 500th anniversary of the fall of a meteorite at Ensisheim in Alsace. In at least two respects this event is unique in the history of meteoritics. First, this was the earliest witnessed meteorite fall in the West from which pieces are preserved. Second, it is the only meteorite of which a continuous five-century public record exists in manuscripts and books. Beginning with newsheets printed in 1492, writings about this event illuminate the evolution of ideas from a 15th century belief that stones from the sky were of miraculous origin, to an 18th century conviction that stones do not fall from the sky, to our present view that they fall in abundance, originating in interplanetary space (Marvin, 1992). This paper will highlight certain previously unexamined aspects of the story and address problems inherent in historical analysis. Unusable Maps. The fall of the stone was heralded by an explosion which, according to Sebastian Brant (1492), was heard along the valleys of the Danube, Neckar, Aare, Ill, and Rhine and in the alpine cantons of Schwyz and Uri. Contemporary maps, such as that published in The Nuremberg Chronicle of 1493, so distorted the regional geography that a fireball trajectory cannot be reconstructed on them. On modern maps, however, the areas Brant listed stretch about 150 km to the southeast of Ensisheim, a distance well within the range of sounds reported from other exploding fireballs. Newton (1891) and Marvin (1992) worked out possible trajectories that could account for the sound being heard in all named localities. This suggests that, far from exaggerating distances for dramatic effect, Brant's description may well have been accurate. If so, he compiled his information from word-of-mouth reports without reference to the rudimentary maps available in his time. The Language of Wonder. A document mounted beside the stone in the Ensisheim church stated that learned men did not know what it was: it must be supernatural, a wonder

  15. Probabilistic Modeling of the Renal Stone Formation Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, Lauren M.; Myers, Jerry G.; Goodenow, Debra A.; McRae, Michael P.; Jackson, Travis C.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic tool, used in mission planning decision making and medical systems risk assessments. The IMM project maintains a database of over 80 medical conditions that could occur during a spaceflight, documenting an incidence rate and end case scenarios for each. In some cases, where observational data are insufficient to adequately define the inflight medical risk, the IMM utilizes external probabilistic modules to model and estimate the event likelihoods. One such medical event of interest is an unpassed renal stone. Due to a high salt diet and high concentrations of calcium in the blood (due to bone depletion caused by unloading in the microgravity environment) astronauts are at a considerable elevated risk for developing renal calculi (nephrolithiasis) while in space. Lack of observed incidences of nephrolithiasis has led HRP to initiate the development of the Renal Stone Formation Module (RSFM) to create a probabilistic simulator capable of estimating the likelihood of symptomatic renal stone presentation in astronauts on exploration missions. The model consists of two major parts. The first is the probabilistic component, which utilizes probability distributions to assess the range of urine electrolyte parameters and a multivariate regression to transform estimated crystal density and size distributions to the likelihood of the presentation of nephrolithiasis symptoms. The second is a deterministic physical and chemical model of renal stone growth in the kidney developed by Kassemi et al. The probabilistic component of the renal stone model couples the input probability distributions describing the urine chemistry, astronaut physiology, and system parameters with the physical and chemical outputs and inputs to the deterministic stone growth model. These two parts of the model are necessary to capture the uncertainty in the likelihood estimate. The model will be driven by Monte Carlo simulations, continuously

  16. Organized Stone Stripes in the Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    Polygonally-patterned ground at scales of meters to tens of meters is nearly ubiquitous in the northern plains of Mars. Collections of cobble to boulder-sized clasts are commonly found superimposed on polygonal terrain in a regular pattern that resembles the surface of a basketball [Mellon et al., 2008; Malin and Edgett, 2001]. Here we describe a variation of this basketball terrain, dubbed "stone stripes," in which piles of clastic debris are arranged into a series of parallel to subparallel ridges spaced at intervals of ~40 m. Stone stripes appear to be continuous or nearly continuous over areas of tens to hundreds of square kilometers. This type of landform is most prevalent poleward of ~70°N latitude, at the northern margin of Utopia Planitia . We hypothesize that the orientation of stone stripes is controlled by regional structures, such as wrinkle ridges. First results from a survey of THEMIS VIS images within the area from 60°N-80°N and from 70°E-130°E show no obvious correlation between wrinkle ridge orientation and the orientation of stone stripes. Work is ongoing to further characterize the orientation of stone stripes in relation to regional structures and local and regional topographic slopes. Mellon et al., (2008), Periglacial landforms at the Phoenix landing site and the northern plains of Mars, Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:10.1029/2007JE003039, in press. Malin and Edgett, (2001), Mars global surveyor mars orbiter camera: Interplanetary cruise through primary mission, Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 23429-23570.

  17. Luminescence dating of anthropogenic features of the San Luis Valley, Colorado: from stone huts to stone walls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahan, Shannon; Donlan, Rebecca A.; Kardos, Barbara Maat

    2015-01-01

    The Snake Nest Wall site and the Crestone Stone Huts are in the northern San Luis Valley, Colorado, and provide a unique opportunity to date high-altitude archeological sites of unknown age and origin using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). We sampled sediment underlying foundation stones of these structures to establish a chronological framework for each site's construction. OSL dating of the quartz grains directly under the Snake Nest Wall suggest that the stones and, therefore, the structure was most recently emplaced between 1855 and 1890 A.D. Dating of the sediment beneath the Crestone Stone Huts suggests the construction time of these huts is between 1860 and 1890 A.D. Analysis of the equivalent dose (DE) dispersion of the OSL samples at Snake Nest Wall and the Crestone Huts shows that the majority of sediments were fully bleached prior to deposition and the low scatter suggests that short-term or shallow alluvial processes were the dominant transport for sediments. In both cases, the OSL ages show that the construction was during very recent historical times, although it is likely that the Snake Nest Wall was rebuilt in the late 19th century. Further study is warranted at the Snake Nest Wall since it shows signs of greater antiquity and a continued presence of human use. The Crestone Huts are shown to be a product of railroad building during the boomtown days of Lucky and Crestone.

  18. "What Do These Stones Mean?" Inscriptions on Stone from an Ancient Monastery in Ireland that Address Jewish-Christian Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, V. George

    2013-01-01

    Etched on a stone from a monastery from the Middle Ages at a small village in County Roscommon in Ireland is a combination of Jewish and Christian symbols. The Menorah sits atop a cross. At the base of the cross and at both ends of the crossbar are three small extensions. The image is one of religious integration. Augustine, whose argument for the…

  19. Buried stone lines in deserts - What can they tell us about landscape evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, M.; Kleber, A.

    2009-04-01

    Stone pavements are typical features of climate-sensitive arid environments. They allow formation of cumulic soils, protected from erosion, which may be used as archives that recorded past geomorphologic and pedologic processes. Stone lines within the soil column resulted from buried stone pavements. These stone lines, situated between compound soil horizons were affected by postdepositional processes that may be attributed to specific palaeoenvironmental conditions. From Cima Volcanic Field, eastern Mojave Desert, California, we present detailed alignment measurements of buried stone stratae. Soils in the study area were developed on basalt flows of middle Pleistocene age and consist mainly of aeolian dust which was overprinted by several phases of soil formation and stone pavement development. Stones that were arranged in specific depth intervals between compound soil horizons showed prominent orientation patterns that may be attributed to geomorphic processes that created, distorted or reworked at least two ancient stone pavements, now covered by sediment and the modern pavement. We suggest fluvial (re-)orientation of surficial stones prior to burial. Furthermore, a lateral displacement of clasts within the sediment matrix is recorded. The stratigraphic position of realigned stone lines within soil horizons presumably formed, both, under humid and arid environmental conditions allows the description of geomorphic processes for discrete climatic frameworks. Buried stone pavements are thus a unique opportunity for investigating past landscape dynamics, not recorded in other archives.

  20. Nephrolithiasis: Molecular Mechanism of Renal Stone Formation and the Critical Role Played by Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Kanu Priya; Narula, Shifa; Kakkar, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Urinary stone disease is an ailment that has afflicted human kind for many centuries. Nephrolithiasis is a significant clinical problem in everyday practice with a subsequent burden for the health system. Nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of stones as well as their prevention and cure still remains rudimentary. Regardless of the fact that supersaturation of stone-forming salts in urine is essential, abundance of these salts by itself will not always result in stone formation. The pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation is a multistep process and essentially includes nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation, and crystal retention. Various substances in the body have an effect on one or more of the above stone-forming processes, thereby influencing a person's ability to promote or prevent stone formation. Promoters facilitate the stone formation while inhibitors prevent it. Besides low urine volume and low urine pH, high calcium, sodium, oxalate and urate are also known to promote calcium oxalate stone formation. Many inorganic (citrate, magnesium) and organic substances (nephrocalcin, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, osteopontin) are known to inhibit stone formation. This review presents a comprehensive account of the mechanism of renal stone formation and the role of inhibitors/promoters in calcium oxalate crystallisation. PMID:24151593