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Sample records for surfactant toxic units

  1. Surfactant toxicity identification with a municipal wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, J.R.; Wayment, D.D.

    1998-12-31

    An acute toxicity identification evaluation following US EPA guidelines was performed with a municipal wastewater to identify effluent components responsible for lethality of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Ceriodaphnia dubia. Ammonia toxicity, also present in the effluent, was not the object of this study. The study was designed to characterize effluent toxicity not due to ammonia. To minimize ammonia toxicity interferences, all Phase 1 testing was performed at pH`s where ammonia toxicity would be negligible. Phase 1 toxicity characterization results indicated surfactants as the class of compounds causing acute non-ammonia toxicity for both test species. A distinct toxicant characteristic, specifically sublation at alkaline pH, was employed to track suspect surfactant loadings in the collection system. Concurrently, effluent surfactant residue testing determined nonionic surfactants were at adequate concentrations and were sufficiently toxic to cause the measured adverse effects. Influent surfactant toxicity was determined to be much less than in the final effluent indicating the treatment process was enhancing surfactant toxicity.

  2. Assessing the aquatic hazard of some branched and linear nonionic surfactants by biodegradation and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, P.B.; Salanitro, J.P.; Evans, S.H.; Kravetz, L. . Westhollow Research Center)

    1993-10-01

    An aquatic hazard assessment was conducted for branched and linear nonionic surfactants using toxicity and biodegradation measurements. Four nonionic alcohol ethoxylate surfactants with different degrees of branching were evaluated for neat surfactant toxicity, degradation in laboratory sewage treatment units, and aquatic toxicity of treated effluents. Acute testing with neat surfactants showed ranges for EC50s of 1.3 to 11.6 mg/L for Daphnia, 1.6 to 6.1 mg/L for Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow), and 1.5 to 11.4 mg/L for Microtox[reg sign]. Chronic testing of algae showed NOECs of 1 to 10 mg/L and maximum acceptable toxicant concentrations (MATCs) of 0.8 to 14.2 mg/L. Seven-day chronic estimation tests showed MATCs of 0.6 to 41.4 mg/L for Pimephales promelas and 1 to 14 mg/L for Daphnia. Effluents collected from treatment units receiving a 50-mg/L surfactant feed at 25 C showed no acute toxicity to either Daphnia or fathead minnows, with the exception of a unit containing nonylphenol ethoxylate. Chronic effluent toxicity was greatest in effluent from the nonylphenol ethoxylate unit and least in the effluent from the linear alcohol ethoxylate unit. Chronic toxicity of the highly branched C[sub 13] alcohol ethoxylate effluent was greater than that for the linear alcohol ethoxylate unit effluent.

  3. [Acute toxicity of different type pesticide surfactants to Daphnia magna].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-huan; Li, Hua; Chen, Cheng-yu; Li, Jian-tao; Liu, Feng

    2013-08-01

    By using the standard test methods in Experimental Guideline for Environmental Safety Evaluation of Chemical Pesticide to aquatic organisms, a comparative study was conducted on the acute toxicity of 39 nonionic, 6 anionic, and 3 cationic surfactants to Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity of three cationic surfactants 1427, 1227 and C8-10 to D. magna belonged to virulent level, and the toxicity of 1427 was the highest, with the EC50 value being 0.97 x 10(-2) mg x L(-1). The acute toxicity of nonionic surfactants polyoxyethylene ether castor oil EL, Tween, and Span emulsifiers belonged to low level, but the toxicity of alkylphenol polyoxyethylene ether and fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether surfactants was relatively high, of which, AEO-7 and AEO-5 displayed high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.82 and 0.97 mg x L(-1), respectively. In these surfactants, the more liposolubility, the higher the toxicity was. Most of the anionic surfactants were medium in toxicity, but the acute toxicity of NNO belonged to high toxicity, with the EC50 value being 0.17 mg x L(-1).

  4. Toxic Hazards Research Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macewen, J. D.; Vernot, E. H.

    1971-01-01

    The activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU) for the period of June 1970 through May 1971 reviewed. Modification of the animal exposure facilities primarily for improved human safety but also for experimental integrity and continuity are discussed. Acute toxicity experiments were conducted on hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HCl), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) both singly and in combination with carbon dioxide (CO). Additional acute toxicity experiments were conducted on oxygen difluoride (OF2) and chlorine pentafluoride (ClF5). Subacute toxicity studies were conducted on methylisobutylketone and dichloromethane (methylene dichloride). The interim results of further chronic toxicity experiments on monomethylhydrazine (MMH) are also described.

  5. TOXICITY COMPARISON OF BIOSURFACTANTS AND SYNTHETIC SURFACTANTS USED IN OIL SPILL REMEDIATION TO TWO ESTUARINE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relative environmental toxicities of synthetic and biogenic surfactants used in oil spill remediation efforts are not well understood. Acute and chronic toxicities of three synthetic surfactants and three microbially produced surfactants were determined and compared in this s...

  6. Acute toxicity of anionic and non-ionic surfactants to aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Lechuga, M; Fernández-Serrano, M; Jurado, E; Núñez-Olea, J; Ríos, F

    2016-03-01

    The environmental risk of surfactants requires toxicity measurements. As different test organisms have different sensitivity to the toxics, it is necessary to establish the most appropriate organism to classify the surfactant as very toxic, toxic, harmful or safe, in order to establish the maximum permissible concentrations in aquatic ecosystems. We have determined the toxicity values of various anionic surfactants ether carboxylic derivatives using four test organisms: the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna, the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the microalgae Selenastrum capricornutum (freshwater algae) and Phaeodactylum tricornutum (seawater algae). In addition, in order to compare and classify the different families of surfactants, we have included a compilation of toxicity data of surfactants collected from literature. The results indicated that V. fischeri was more sensitive to the toxic effects of the surfactants than was D. magna or the microalgae, which was the least sensitive. This result shows that the most suitable toxicity assay for surfactants may be the one using V. fischeri. The toxicity data revealed considerable variation in toxicity responses with the structure of the surfactants regardless of the species tested. The toxicity data have been related to the structure of the surfactants, giving a mathematical relationship that helps to predict the toxic potential of a surfactant from its structure. Model-predicted toxicity agreed well with toxicity values reported in the literature for several surfactants previously studied. Predictive models of toxicity is a handy tool for providing a risk assessment that can be useful to establish the toxicity range for each surfactant and the different test organisms in order to select efficient surfactants with a lower impact on the aquatic environment.

  7. Toxic hazards research unit

    SciTech Connect

    Macewen, J.D.; Vernot, E.H.

    1980-08-01

    Chronic toxicity or oncogenic studies were carried out with methylcyclohexane, tricyclodecane, purified 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, and bicycloheptadiene. A subchronic inhalation study was conducted with shale derived JP-5 and DFM fuels. Acute toxicity studies were conducted on a variety of chemical agents used by the Air Force and Navy.

  8. Toxic Hazards Research Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    showed that OMP-4 had produced eschar formation and destruction of the dermal layer down to the fascia, thus classifying it as a corrosive material. Both...dimethylamino Ethyl Corporationrial wer pr aredp- cresol with corn oil or pro- (solid) pylene glycol and ad- N,N’-disalicylidene-l,2- duPontpropane diamine...amino guanidine Rat >5000 5000(0) Below toxic 2,6,di-tert-butyl-di- Rata 1189(669-2111) 500(0),1000(3),2000(4) Toxic methylamino-p- cresol Mousea 307(190

  9. Acute aquatic toxicity of nine alcohol ethoxylate surfactants to fathead minnow and Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.C.L.; Dorn, P.B.; Chai, E.Y.

    1995-12-31

    The aquatic toxicity of nine commercial-grade alcohol ethoxylate surfactants was studied in acute exposures to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and Daphnia magna. All studies were conducted in accordance with USEPA TSCA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. Mean measured surfactant concentrations in exposure solutions showed good agreement with nominal concentrations for both fathead minnow and daphnid tests. Surfactant recoveries ranged from 59 to 97% and 67 to 106% in the fathead minnow and daphnid solutions, respectively. The response of both species to the surfactants was generally similar with the daphnids being slightly more sensitive to a few surfactants. Surfactant toxicity tended to increase with increasing alkyl chain lengths. The effect of low average EO groups on increased surfactant toxicity was more evident in the daphnid exposures. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were developed form the data which relates surfactant structure to toxicity. The models predict increasing toxicity with decreasing EO number and increasing alkyl chain length. The models also indicate that alkyl chain length has a greater effect on toxicity than EO groups. Further, the models indicate that both species did not differ markedly in their sensitivity to alkyl chain length effects, while the number of EO groups had a stronger effect on daphnids than fathead minnow. Good agreement was found between QSAR model-predicted toxicity and reported toxicity values from the literature for several surfactants previously studied.

  10. In Vitro Surfactant Structure-Toxicity Relationships: Implications for Surfactant Use in Sexually Transmitted Infection Prophylaxis and Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Inácio, Ângela S.; Ramalho-Santos, João; Vaz, Winchil L. C.; Vieira, Otília V.

    2011-01-01

    Background The need for woman-controlled, cheap, safe, effective, easy-to-use and easy-to-store topical applications for prophylaxis against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) makes surfactant-containing formulations an interesting option that requires a more fundamental knowledge concerning surfactant toxicology and structure-activity relationships. Methodology/Principal Findings We report in vitro effects of surfactant concentration, exposure time and structure on the viability of mammalian cell types typically encountered in the vagina, namely, fully polarized and confluent epithelial cells, confluent but non-polarized epithelial-like cells, dendritic cells, and human sperm. Representatives of the different families of commercially available surfactants – nonionic (Triton X-100 and monolaurin), zwitterionic (DDPS), anionic (SDS), and cationic (CnTAB (n = 10 to 16), C12PB, and C12BZK) – were examined. Triton X-100, monolaurin, DDPS and SDS were toxic to all cell types at concentrations around their critical micelle concentration (CMC) suggesting a non-selective mode of action involving cell membrane destabilization and/or destruction. All cationic surfactants were toxic at concentrations far below their CMC and showed significant differences in their toxicity toward polarized as compared with non-polarized cells. Their toxicity was also dependent on the chemical nature of the polar head group. Our results suggest an intracellular locus of action for cationic surfactants and show that their structure-activity relationships could be profitably exploited for STI prophylaxis in vaginal gel formulations. The therapeutic indices comparing polarized epithelial cell toxicity to sperm toxicity for all surfactants examined, except C12PB and C12BZK, does not justify their use as contraceptive agents. C12PB and C12BZK are shown to have a narrow therapeutic index recommending caution in their use in contraceptive formulations. Conclusions/Significance Our results

  11. Surfactants present complex joint effects on the toxicities of metal oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dali; Lin, Zhifen; Yao, Zhifeng; Yu, Hongxia

    2014-08-01

    The potential toxicities of nanoparticles (NPs) have been intensively discussed over the past decade. In addition to their single toxicities, NPs can interact with other environmental chemicals and thereby exert joint effects on biological systems and the environment. The present study investigated the combined toxicities of NPs and surfactants, which are among the chemicals that most likely coexist with NPs. Photobacterium phosphoreum was employed as the model organism. The results indicate that surfactants with different ion types can alter the properties of NPs (i.e., particle size and surface charge) in different ways and present complex joint effects on NP toxicities. Mixtures of different NPs and surfactants exhibited antagonistic, synergistic, and additive effects. In particular, the toxicity of ZnO was observed to result from its dissolved Zn(2+); thus, the joint effects of the ZnO NPs and surfactants can be explained by the interactions between the Zn ions and the surfactants. Our study suggests that the potential hazards caused by mixtures of NPs and surfactants are different from those caused by single NPs. Because surfactants are extensively used in the field of nanotechnology and are likely to coexist with NPs in natural waters, the ecological risk assessments of NPs should consider the impacts of surfactants.

  12. Surfactant toxicity to Artemia Franciscana and the influence of humic acid and chemical composition

    PubMed Central

    Deese, Rachel D.; LeBlanc, Madeline R.

    2016-01-01

    Surfactants can be extremely toxic to aquatic species and are introduced to the environment in a variety of ways. It is thus important to understand how other environmental constituents, in this case humic acids (HAs), may alter the toxicity of anthropogenic surfactants. Hatching and mortality assays of Artemia Franciscana were performed for three different toxic surfactants: Triton X-100 (Tx-100, non-ionic), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC, cationic), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, anionic). Humic acids of varying composition and concentrations were added to the assays to determine the toxicity mitigating ability of the HAs. Tx-100 had a significant toxic effect on Artemia mortality rates and HAs from terrestrial sources were able to mitigate the toxicity, but an aquatic HA did not. CPC and SDS limited hatching success of the Artemia and, as HAs were added, the hatching percentages increased for all HA sources, indicating toxicity mitigation. In order to determine which functional groups within HAs were responsible for the interaction with the surfactants, the HAs were chemically modified by: (i) bleaching to reduce aromatics, (ii) Soxhlet extraction to reduce lipids, and (iii) acid hydrolysis to reduce O- and N-alkyl groups. Although most of the modified HAs had some toxicity mitigating ability for each of the surfactants, there were two notable differences: 1) the lipid-extracted HA did not reduce the toxicity of Tx-100 and 2) the bleached HA had a lower toxicity mitigating ability for CPC than the other modified HAs. PMID:27453688

  13. Anaerobic digestion of aircraft deicing fluid wastes: interactions and toxicity of corrosion inhibitors and surfactants.

    PubMed

    Gruden, Cyndee L; Hernandez, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Corrosion inhibitors and surfactants are present in aircraft deicing fluids (ADFs) at significant concentrations (> 1% w/w). The purpose of this research was to study the interactions of a common nonionic surfactant with the commercially significant corrosion inhibitors used in modern ADF (4- and 5-methylbenzotriazole [MeBT]), and to determine the effects of their mixture on the conventional anaerobic digestion process. In mesophilic anaerobic microcosms codigesting wastewater solids, propylene glycol, and MeBT, increasing surfactant levels resulted in enhanced MeBT sorption on digester solids. As judged by anaerobic toxicity assays, responses from digesters containing surfactant concentrations below their critical micelle concentration (CMC) suggested that low nonionic surfactant concentrations could facilitate a reduction in the apparent toxicity of MeBT. In microcosms exposed to surfactant concentrations above their CMC, no increase in MeBT solubility was observed, and the anaerobic toxicity response corresponded to control systems not containing surfactant. Direct microscopic measurements of digesting biomass using fluorescent phylogenetic probes (fluorescent in situ hybridization) revealed that members of the domain Bacteria were more sensitive to MeBT in the presence of surfactant than were members of the domain Archaea.

  14. Estimation of direct-contact fraction for phenanthrene in surfactant solutions by toxicity measurement.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo J; Lee, Min W; Lee, Dae S; Woo, Seung H; Park, Jong M

    2007-09-30

    The toxicity of solutions containing nonionic surfactants Tween 80, Brij 35 and/or phenanthrene to Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17484 was investigated. The fraction of direct contact between micellar-phase phenanthrene and bacterial cell surface was estimated by using the toxicity data and a mathematical model. The mathematical model was used to calculate phenanthrene concentration in the micellar phase and aqueous pseudophase separately. The first-order death rate constant increased from 0.088+/-0.016 to 0.25+/-0.067 h(-1) when the phenanthrene concentration was increased from 0 to 5.17 x 10(-6)M (equals water solubility). The intrinsic toxicity of surfactant was higher in Brij 35 than in Tween 80. When phenanthrene concentration was increased to 9.7 x 10(-5)M in surfactant solutions, the death rate constant increased to 1.8 +/- 0.024 and 0.41 +/- 0.088 h(-1) for 8.4 x 10(-4)M Brij 35 and 7.6 x 10(-4)M Tween 80. The direct-contact fraction was 0.083 and 0.044 for Brij 35 and Tween 80, respectively, under these conditions using exponential model. The toxicity increased with increasing phenanthrene concentration at a fixed surfactant concentration. The toxicity decreased with increasing the surfactant concentration at a fixed phenanthrene concentration due to decreased contact of bacteria with phenanthrene present in the interior of surfactant micelles.

  15. Advanced oxidation of a commercially important nonionic surfactant: investigation of degradation products and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Karci, Akin; Arslan-Alaton, Idil; Bekbolet, Miray

    2013-12-15

    The evolution of degradation products and changes in acute toxicity during advanced oxidation of the nonionic surfactant nonylphenol decaethoxylate (NP-10) with the H2O2/UV-C and photo-Fenton processes were investigated. H2O2/UV-C and photo-Fenton processes ensured complete removal of NP-10, which was accompanied by the generation of polyethylene glycols with 3-8 ethoxy units. Formation of aldehydes and low carbon carboxylic acids was evidenced. According to the acute toxicity tests carried out with Vibrio fischeri, degradation products being more inhibitory than the original NP-10 solution were formed after the H2O2/UV-C process, whereas the photo-Fenton process appeared to be toxicologically safer since acute toxicity did not increase relative to the original NP-10 solution after treatment. Temporal evolution of the acute toxicity was strongly correlated with the identified carboxylic acids being formed during the application of H2O2/UV-C and photo-Fenton processes.

  16. The aquatic toxicity of anionic surfactants to Daphnia magna--a comparative QSAR study of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates and ester sulphonates.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Geoff; Roberts, David W; Marshall, Stuart J; Dearden, John C

    2006-06-01

    This paper develops quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) for the acute aquatic toxicity of the anionic surfactants linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) and ester sulphonates (ES) to Daphnia magna, the aim being to investigate the modes of action by comparing the QSARs for the two types of surfactant. The generated data for ES have been used to develop a QSAR correlating toxicity with calculated log P values: log(1/EC50)= 0.78 log P+1.37. This equation has an intercept 1.1 log units lower than a QSAR for linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS). The findings suggest that either ES surfactants act by a different mode of action to LAS and other anionic surfactants or the log P calculation method introduces a systematic overestimate when applied to ES.

  17. Pulmonary surfactant mitigates silver nanoparticle toxicity in human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Leo, Bey Fen; Chen, Shu; Abraham-Thomas, Nisha; Thorley, Andrew J; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Shaffer, Milo S P; Chung, Kian Fan; Ryan, Mary P; Porter, Alexandra E; Tetley, Teresa D

    2016-09-01

    Accompanying increased commercial applications and production of silver nanomaterials is an increased probability of human exposure, with inhalation a key route. Nanomaterials that deposit in the pulmonary alveolar region following inhalation will interact firstly with pulmonary surfactant before they interact with the alveolar epithelium. It is therefore critical to understand the effects of human pulmonary surfactant when evaluating the inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of AgNPs on human alveolar type-I-like epithelial (TT1) cells in the absence and presence of Curosurf(®) (a natural pulmonary surfactant substitute), hypothesising that the pulmonary surfactant would act to modify toxicity. We demonstrated that 20nm citrate-capped AgNPs induce toxicity in human alveolar type I-like epithelial cells and, in agreement with our hypothesis, that pulmonary surfactant acts to mitigate this toxicity, possibly through reducing AgNP dissolution into cytotoxic Ag(+) ions. For example, IL-6 and IL-8 release by TT1 cells significantly increased 10.7- and 35-fold, respectively (P<0.01), 24h after treatment with 25μg/ml AgNPs. In contrast, following pre-incubation of AgNPs with Curosurf(®), this effect was almost completely abolished. We further determined that the mechanism of this toxicity is likely associated with Ag(+) ion release and lysosomal disruption, but not with increased reactive oxygen species generation. This study provides a critical understanding of the toxicity of AgNPs in target human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells and the role of pulmonary surfactant in mitigating this toxicity. The observations reported have important implications for the manufacture and application of AgNPs, in particular for applications involving use of aerosolised AgNPs.

  18. The toxicity of glyphosate alone and glyphosate-surfactant mixtures to western toad (Anaxyrus boreas) tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Kim; Davidson, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Pesticide choice based on toxicity to nontarget wildlife is reliant on available toxicity data. Despite a number of recent studies examining the effects of glyphosate on amphibians, very few have aimed to understand the toxicological effects of glyphosate in combination with surfactants as it is commonly applied in the field. Land managers interested in making pesticide choices based on minimizing impacts to nontarget wildlife are hindered by a lack of published toxicity data. Short-term acute toxicity trials were conducted for glyphosate in the form of isopropylamine salt (IPA) alone and mixed with 2 surfactants: Agri-dex and Competitor with western toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] boreas) tadpoles. Glyphosate IPA mixed with Competitor was 6 times more toxic than glyphosate IPA mixed with Agri-dex, and both mixtures were more toxic than glyphosate IPA alone. The median lethal concentrations reported for 24-h and 48-h exposures were 8279 mg/L (24 h) and 6392 mg/L (48 h) for glyphosate IPA alone; 5092 mg/L (24 h) and 4254 mg/L (48 h) for glyphosate IPA mixed with Agri-dex; and 853 mg/L (24 h) and 711 mg/L (48 h) for glyphosate IPA mixed with Competitor. The present study indicates that the toxicity of a tank mix may be greatly increased by the addition of surfactants and may vary widely depending on the specific surfactant.

  19. Biodegradability and aquatic toxicity of quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants: Effect of the spacer on their ecological properties.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M Teresa; Kaczerewska, Olga; Ribosa, Isabel; Brycki, Bogumił; Materna, Paulina; Drgas, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic biodegradability and aquatic toxicity of five types of quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants have been examined. The effect of the spacer structure and the head group polarity on the ecological properties of a series of dimeric dodecyl ammonium surfactants has been investigated. Standard tests for ready biodegradability assessment (OECD 310) were conducted for C12 alkyl chain gemini surfactants containing oxygen, nitrogen or a benzene ring in the spacer linkage and/or a hydroxyethyl group attached to the nitrogen atom of the head groups. According to the results obtained, the gemini surfactants examined cannot be considered as readily biodegradable compounds. The negligible biotransformation of the gemini surfactants under the standard biodegradation test conditions was found to be due to their toxic effects on the microbial population responsible for aerobic biodegradation. Aquatic toxicity of gemini surfactants was evaluated against Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity values to Daphnia magna, IC50 at 48 h exposure, ranged from 0.6 to 1 mg/L. On the basis of these values, the gemini surfactants tested should be classified as toxic or very toxic to the aquatic environment. However, the dimeric quaternary ammonium-based surfactants examined result to be less toxic than their corresponding monomeric analogs. Nevertheless the aquatic toxicity of these gemini surfactants can be reduced by increasing the molecule hydrophilicity by adding a heteroatom to the spacer or a hydroxyethyl group to the polar head groups.

  20. The submitochondrial particle assay as a screening test for acute aquatic toxicity of surfactant molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bookland, E.A.; Bettermann, A.D.

    1995-12-31

    Two complementary protocols of the submitochondrial particle assay (SMP) were evaluated as screening tools for predicting the acute aquatic toxicity of various classes and chain lengths of surfactant molecules. SMP contain the functionally intact mitochondrial enzyme systems responsible for electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. Both the Electron Transfer Assay (ETR) and the Reverse Electron Transfer Assay (RET) have been shown in prior work to generally be sensitive to agents capable of membrane and protein interactions, both suspected mechanisms of action for surfactants. The toxicity of ten compounds; four anionic surfactants, C{sub 12} alkyl sulfate (C{sub 12}AS), C{sub 12} and C{sub 15} alkyl ethoxy sulfate (C{sub 12}E{sub 4}S, C{sub 15}E{sub 4}S), linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (C{sub 12.3}LAS); one nonionic surfactant, alkyl ethoxylate (C{sub 12}E{sub 3}); three cationic surfactants, C{sub 8}, C{sub 12}, and C{sub 16} alkyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (C{sub 8}TMAC, C{sub 12}TMAC, C{sub 16}TMAC); an alcohol (C{sub 12}OH); and an amine, alkyl dimethylamine (C{sub 12}DMA); was determined. In all cases, both the ETR and the RET gave results showing equal or greater sensitivity than previously reported acute fish and invertebrate LC{sub 50}`s. In addition, increasing toxicity with increasing alkyl chain length was observed. As a rapid screening tool, the SMP bioassay avoids exposure concerns such as degradation of test material, a common concern for acute in vivo toxicity testing with rapidly degradable materials. Results indicate that the SMP bioassay can be useful as a predictive screening tool for the aquatic toxicity of surfactants.

  1. CHARMM36 united atom chain model for lipids and surfactants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sarah; Tran, Alan; Allsopp, Matthew; Lim, Joseph B; Hénin, Jérôme; Klauda, Jeffery B

    2014-01-16

    Molecular simulations of lipids and surfactants require accurate parameters to reproduce and predict experimental properties. Previously, a united atom (UA) chain model was developed for the CHARMM27/27r lipids (Hénin, J., et al. J. Phys. Chem. B. 2008, 112, 7008-7015) but suffers from the flaw that bilayer simulations using the model require an imposed surface area ensemble, which limits its use to pure bilayer systems. A UA-chain model has been developed based on the CHARMM36 (C36) all-atom lipid parameters, termed C36-UA, and agreed well with bulk, lipid membrane, and micelle formation of a surfactant. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of alkanes (heptane and pentadecane) were used to test the validity of C36-UA on density, heat of vaporization, and liquid self-diffusion constants. Then, simulations using C36-UA resulted in accurate properties (surface area per lipid, X-ray and neutron form factors, and chain order parameters) of various saturated- and unsaturated-chain bilayers. When mixed with the all-atom cholesterol model and tested with a series of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC)/cholesterol mixtures, the C36-UA model performed well. Simulations of self-assembly of a surfactant (dodecylphosphocholine, DPC) using C36-UA suggest an aggregation number of 53 ± 11 DPC molecules at 0.45 M of DPC, which agrees well with experimental estimates. Therefore, the C36-UA force field offers a useful alternative to the all-atom C36 lipid force field by requiring less computational cost while still maintaining the same level of accuracy, which may prove useful for large systems with proteins.

  2. Ecotoxicological assessment of surfactants in the aquatic environment: combined toxicity of docusate sodium with chlorinated pollutants.

    PubMed

    Rosal, Roberto; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Boltes, Karina; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca; Leganés, Francisco; Petre, Alice

    2010-09-01

    The toxicity of perfluorinated surfactants perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and PF-656 as well as the sulfosuccinate surfactant docusate sodium has been examined using two bioluminescence inhibition assays based on the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the self-luminescent cyanobacterial recombinant strain Anabaena CPB4337. We also determined multigenerational toxicity towards the growth of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. With EC(50) values in the 43-75 mg/L range, docusate sodium exhibited a higher toxicity towards the three organisms than PFOS, PFOA, PF-656 and PFBS. We investigated the toxicological interactions of the most toxic surfactant, docusate sodium, with two chlorinated compounds, triclosan and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), in their binary and ternary mixtures using the method of the combination index based on the median-effect equation. In general, the binary mixture of the chlorinated compounds triclosan and TCP exhibited antagonism, which was stronger for the growth test using P. subcapitata. Except for the green alga, the binary mixtures of docusate sodium with TCP or triclosan showed synergism at medium to high effect levels; the synergistic behaviour predominating in the ternary mixture and in the three tested species. This result highlights the potential toxicological risk associated with the co-occurrence of this surfactant with other pollutants.

  3. Cationic gemini surfactants with cleavable spacer: chemical hydrolysis, biodegradation, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tehrani-Bagha, A R; Holmberg, K; van Ginkel, C G; Kean, M

    2015-07-01

    The paper describes synthesis and characterization of a new type of cationic gemini surfactant, which has dodecyl tails and a spacer that contains an ester bond. The nomenclature used to describe the structure is 12Q2OCO1Q12, with Q being a quaternary ammonium group and the numbers indicating the number of methylene or methyl groups. Due to the close proximity to the two quaternary ammonium groups, the ester bond is very stable on the acid side and very labile already at slightly alkaline conditions. The hydrolysis products are two single chain surfactants (i.e. 12Q2OH and 12Q1COOH) which are less surface active than the intact gemini surfactant. 12Q2OCO1Q12 was found to be readily biodegradable, i.e. it gave more than 60% biodegradation after 28 days. This is interesting because similar gemini surfactants but with ester bonds in the tails instead of the spacer, have previously been found not to be readily biodegradable. The gemini surfactant was found to be toxic to aquatic organisms (ErC50 value of 0.27 mg/l), although less toxic than the two hydrolysis products.

  4. Receptor-mediated toxicity of pahutoxin, a marine trunkfish surfactant.

    PubMed

    Kalmanzon, Eliahu; Rahamim, Yocheved; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Carmeli, Shmuel; Zlotkin, Eliahu

    2003-07-01

    Pahutoxin (PHN, choline chloride ester of 3-acetoxypalmitic acid) is a natural fish-killing (ichthyotoxic) agent derived from the defensive secretions of trunkfish. In spite of its obvious structural resemblance to synthetic cationic long-chain quaternary ammonium detergents, we show that PHN's action does not rely on its surfactant properties and is in fact, receptor-mediated. The above conclusion is supported by the following data: 1. Ichthyotoxicity is not related to its detergency or surfactivity, as indicated by the fact that the lethal concentration is about 1.5 orders of magnitude below its critical micelle concentration value (69 microM) and its liposomal/seawater partition coefficient is low (62-85); 2. The trunkfish is tolerant to its own pahutoxin; 3. Ichthyotoxicity occurs only upon application to the surrounding water, suggesting the existence of externally located receptors; 4. The receptor hypothesis was supported by the aid of equilibrium saturation binding assays revealing the presence of specific binding sites to PHN on the fish gill membranes; 5. The PHN tolerant trunkfish was shown to be devoid of PHN-binding sites. Some chemo-ecological, and environmental implications are discussed.

  5. Aquatic toxicity and biodegradability of advanced cationic surfactant APA-22 compatible with the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Masayuki; Toyo, Takamasa; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Sakai, Takaya; Kaneko, Youhei; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2008-01-01

    Cationic surfactant is a chemical substance used in hair conditioner, fabric softener and other household products. By investigating the relationship between the aquatic toxicity and the chemical structures of two types of mono alkyl cationic surfactants, alkyl trimethylammonium salts and alkyl dimethylamine salts, we have found that the C22 alkyl chain length is effective to reduce the toxicity. Besides, we have recognized that the amidopropyl functional group contributes to the enhanced biodegradability by investigating the biodegradation trend of (alkylamidopropyl)dimethylamine salt (alkyl chain length: C18). Based on these findings, we have developed mono alkyl cationic surfactant called APA-22, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]docosanamide salt. APA-22 is formed by the C22 alkyl chain, amidopropyl functional group and di-methyltertiary amine group. We evaluated the aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability of APA-22 by two standard methods (OECD Test Guideline 301B and ECETOC technical document No.28) and found that this substance was degraded rapidly in both conditions. The toxicity to algae, invertebrate and fish of this substance are evaluated by using OECD Test Guideline 201, 202 and 203, respectively. All acute toxicity values are >1 mg/L, which indicates that environmental toxicity of this substance is relatively less toxic to aquatic organism. In addition, we estimated the biodegradation pathway of APA-22 and observed the complete disappearance of APA-22 and its intermediates during the test periods. Based on the environmental data provided above, we concluded that APA22 is more compatible with the aquatic environment compared to other cationic surfactants with mono long alkyl chain.

  6. The chronic toxicity of alcohol alkoxylate surfactants on anaerobic granular sludge in the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Van Ginkel, Steven W; Kortekaas, Sjon J M; Van Lier, Jules B

    2007-07-01

    The chronic toxicity of an alcohol alkoxylate surfactant used in the pulp and paper industry was observed in methanogenic consortia under unfed conditions. Methanogenic inhibition was not observed until 250 h of famine conditions while in the presence of the surfactant. The delayed onset of inhibition is likely due to the amount of time necessary for the surfactant to partition into the cellular membrane which uncouples cellular energy conservation mechanisms and exhausts internal energy reserves necessary to maintain homeostasis.

  7. Surfactants decrease the toxicity of ZnO, TiO2 and Ni nanoparticles to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Jośko, Izabela; Skwarek, Ewa

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the study was the estimation of the effect of surfactants on the toxicity of ZnO, TiO2 and Ni nanoparticles (ENPs) towards Daphnia magna. The effect of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), triton X-100 (TX100) and 4-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (SDBS) was tested. The Daphtoxkit F test (conforming to OECD Guideline 202 and ISO 6341) was applied for the toxicity testing. Both the surfactants and the ENPs were toxic to D. magna. The addition of ENPs to a solution of the surfactants caused a significant reduction of toxicity of ENPs. The range of reduction of the toxicity of the ENPs depended on the kind of the ENPs and their concentration in the solution, and also on the kind of surfactant. For nano-ZnO the greatest reduction of toxicity was caused by CTAB, while for nano-TiO2 the largest drop of toxicity was observed after the addition of TX100. In the case of nano-Ni, the effect of the surfactants depended on its concentration. Most probably the reduction of toxicity of ENPs in the presence of the surfactants was related with the formation of ENPs aggregates that inhibited the availability of ENPs for D. magna.

  8. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Is the Focus of Quaternary Ammonium Surfactant Toxicity to Mammalian Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Inácio, Ângela S.; Costa, Gabriel N.; Domingues, Neuza S.; Santos, Maria S.; Moreno, António J. M.; Vaz, Winchil L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Surfactants have long been known to have microbicidal action and have been extensively used as antiseptics and disinfectants for a variety of general hygiene and clinical purposes. Among surfactants, quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) are known to be the most useful antiseptics and disinfectants. However, our previous toxicological studies showed that QAC are also the most toxic surfactants for mammalian cells. An understanding of the mechanisms that underlie QAC toxicity is a crucial first step in their rational use and in the design and development of more effective and safer molecules. We show that QAC-induced toxicity is mediated primarily through mitochondrial dysfunction in mammalian columnar epithelial cell cultures in vitro. Toxic effects begin at sublethal concentrations and are characterized by mitochondrial fragmentation accompanied by decreased cellular energy charge. At very low concentrations, several QAC act on mitochondrial bioenergetics through a common mechanism of action, primarily by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration initiated at complex I and, to a lesser extent, by slowing down coupled ADP phosphorylation. The result is a reduction of cellular energy charge which, when reduced below 50% of its original value, induces apoptosis. The lethal effects are shown to be primarily a result of this process. At higher doses (closer to the critical micellar concentration), QAC induce the complete breakdown of cellular energy charge and necrotic cell death. PMID:23529737

  9. Acute toxicity of fire-control chemicals, nitrogenous chemicals, and surfactants to rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Hamilton, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of three ammonia-based fire retardants (Fire-Trol LCA-F, Fire-Trol LCM-R, and Phos-Chek 259F), five surfactant-based fire-suppressant foams (FireFoam 103B, FireFoam 104, Fire Quench, ForExpan S, and Pyrocap B-136), three nitrogenous chemicals (ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite), and two anionic surfactants (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate [LAS] and sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]) to juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in soft water. The descending rank order of toxicity (96-h concentration lethal to 50% of test organisms [96-h LC50]) for the fire retardants was as follows: Phos-Chek 259F (168 mg/L) > Fire-Trol LCA-F (942 mg/L) = Fire-Trol LCM-R (1,141 mg/L). The descending rank order of toxicity for the foams was as follows: FireFoam 103B (12.2 mg/L) = FireFoam 104 (13.0 mg/L) > ForExpan S (21.8 mg/L) > Fire Quench (39.0 mg/L) > Pyrocap B-136 [156 mg/L). Except for Pyrocap B-136, the foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. Un-ionized ammonia (NH3; 0.125 mg/L as N) was about six times more toxic than nitrite (0.79 mg/L NO2-N) and about 13,300 times more toxic than nitrate (1,658 mg/L NO3-N). Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (5.0 mg/L) was about five times more toxic than SDS (24.9 mg/L). Estimated total ammonia and NH3 concentrations at the 96-h LC50s of the fire retardants indicated that ammonia was the primary toxic component in these formulations. Based on estimated anionic surfactant concentrations at the 96-h LC50s of the foams and reference surfactants, LAS was intermediate in toxicity and SDS was less toxic to rainbow trout when compared with the foams. Comparisons of recommended application concentrations to the test results indicate that accidental inputs of these chemicals into streams require substantial dilutions (100-1,750-fold to reach concentrations nonlethal to rainbow trout.

  10. Acute toxicity of selected herbicides and surfactants to larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhl, Kevin J.; Faerber, Neil L.

    1989-01-01

    The acute toxicities of eight commercial herbicides and two surfactants to early fourth instar larvae of the midgeChironomus riparius were determined under static conditions. The formulated herbicides tested were Eradicane® (EPTC), Fargo® (triallate), Lasso® (alachlor), ME4 Brominal® (bromoxynil), Ramrod® (propachlor), Rodeo® (glyphosate), Sencor®(metribuzin), and Sutan (+)® (butylate); the two surfactants were Activator N.F.® and Ortho X-77®. In addition, technical grade alachlor, metribuzin, propachlor, and triallate were tested for comparison with the formulated herbicides. The relative toxicity of the commercial formulations, based on percent active ingredient, varied considerably. The EC50 values ranged from 1.23 mg/L for Fargo® to 5,600 mg/L for Rodeo®. Fargo®, ME4 Brominal®, and Ramrod®were moderately toxic to midge larvae; Lasso®, Sutan (+)®, and Eradicane® were slightly toxic; and Sencor® and Rodeo® were practically non-toxic. The 48-hr EC50 values of the two surfactants were nearly identical and were considered moderately toxic to midges. For two of the herbicides in which the technical grade material was tested, the inert ingredients in the formulations had a significant effect on the toxicity of the active ingredients. Fargo® was twice as toxic as technical grade triallate, whereas Sencor® was considerably less toxic than technical grade metribuzin. A comparison of the slope function values indicated that the toxic action of all the compounds occurred within a relatively narrow range. Published acute toxicity data on these compounds for other freshwater biota were tabulated and compared with our results. In general, the relative order of toxicity toC. riparius was similar to those for other freshwater invertebrates and fish. Maximum concentrations of each herbicide in bulk runoff during a projected “critical” runoff event were calculated as a percentage of the application rate lost in a given volume of runoff. A comparison

  11. Non-ionic surfactant vesicles simultaneously enhance antitumor activity and reduce the toxicity of cantharidin

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei; Wang, Shengpeng; Liang, Rixin; Wang, Lan; Chen, Meiwan; Li, Hui; Wang, Yitao

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of the present study was to prepare cantharidin-entrapped non-ionic surfactant vesicles (CTD-NSVs) and evaluate their potential in enhancing the antitumor activities and reducing CTD’s toxicity. Methods and results CTD-NSVs were prepared by injection method. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry analysis showed that CTD-NSVs could significantly enhance in vitro toxicity against human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and induce more significant cell-cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Moreover, Hoechst 33342 staining implicated that CTD-NSVs induced higher apoptotic rates in MCF-7 cells than free CTD solution. In vivo therapeutic efficacy was investigated in imprinting control region mice bearing mouse sarcoma S180. Mice treated with 1.0 mg/kg CTD-NSVs showed the most powerful antitumor activity, with an inhibition rate of 52.76%, which was significantly higher than that of cyclophosphamide (35 mg/kg, 40.23%) and the same concentration of free CTD (1.0 mg/kg, 31.05%). In addition, the acute toxicity and liver toxicity of CTD were also distinctly decreased via encapsulating into NSVs. Conclusion Our results revealed that NSVs could be a promising delivery system for enhancing the antitumor activity and simultaneously reducing the toxicity of CTD. PMID:23807847

  12. Toxicity of three polyethoxylated tallowamine surfactant formulations to laboratory and field collected fairy shrimp, Thamnocephalus platyurus.

    PubMed

    Brausch, John M; Smith, Philip N

    2007-02-01

    Polyethoxylated tallowamine (POEA) is a non-ionic surfactant used in herbicide formulations to increase the efficacy of active ingredients. POEA promotes penetration of herbicide active ingredients into plant cuticles, and in animal species is known to cause alterations in respiratory surfaces. POEA use has increased recently with the advent of "Roundup-Ready" crops; however, its potential effects on aquatic invertebrates are relatively unknown. The aquatic macroinvertebrate Thamnocephalus platyurus (Crustacea, Anostraca) was used to assess the acute toxicity of POEA. Three formulations of POEA consisting of a 5:1, 10:1, and 15:1 average oxide:tallowamine were used in this study. All POEA formulations were found to be extremely toxic to T. platyurus with 48-h LC50 concentrations as low as 2.01 microg/L for 15:1. POEA toxicity increased as the tallowamine chain length was reduced, whereas the oxide chain length appeared to only slightly increase toxicity. Based on these results, POEA has the potential to adversely affect aquatic organisms in areas in which it is used.

  13. Chronic toxicity of a homologous series of alcohol ethoxylate surfactants to Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, W.B. Jr.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr.; Wong, D.C.L.; Dorn, P.B.

    1995-12-31

    The effects of three homologous nonionic surfactants were evaluated in a series of 21 d Daphnia magna flow-through laboratory experiments. No observed effects concentrations and effects concentrations for survival and reproduction were determined for three linear alcohol ethoxylate (LAE) surfactants with average carbon chain lengths of 10, 12.5, and 14.5 and average ethylene oxide units/mole of 6, 6.5, and 7, respectively. Mean measured concentrations of LAE in laboratory experiments ranged from 0.91 to 16.91 mg/L, 0.38 to 5.21 mg/L and 0.31 to 1.83 mg/L for C{sub 10}, C{sub 12.5}, and C{sub 14.5} LAEs, respectively. Daphnid survival NOECs were 2.8 mg/L (C{sub 10}), 1.8 mg/L (C{sub 12.5}), and 0.79 mg/L (C{sub 14.5}). Daphnid survival and reproduction were equally sensitive to the C{sub 10} and C{sub 14.5} surfactants, however, reproduction was more sensitive than survival for the C{sub 12.5} surfactant. Reproduction NOECs were 2.8, 0.77, and 0.79 mg/L for the C{sub 10}, C{sub 12.5}, and C{sub 14.5} LAEs, respectively. The 21 d chronic survival NOECs for daphnids were similar to NOECs for cladoceran densities obtained in outdoor stream mesocosm studies conducted at the University of Mississippi Field Station. These results indicate a relationship of approximately 1:1 between the chronic laboratory and field results.

  14. Biocatalytic synthesis, antimicrobial properties and toxicity studies of arginine derivative surfactants.

    PubMed

    Fait, M Elisa; Garrote, Graciela L; Clapés, Pere; Tanco, Sebastian; Lorenzo, Julia; Morcelle, Susana R

    2015-07-01

    Two novel arginine-based cationic surfactants were synthesized using as biocatalyst papain, an endopeptidase from Carica papaya latex, adsorbed onto polyamide. The classical substrate N (α)-benzoyl-arginine ethyl ester hydrochloride for the determination of cysteine and serine proteases activity was used as the arginine donor, whereas decyl- and dodecylamine were used as nucleophiles for the condensation reaction. Yields higher than 90 and 80 % were achieved for the synthesis of N (α)-benzoyl-arginine decyl amide (Bz-Arg-NHC10) and N (α)-benzoyl-arginine dodecyl amide (Bz-Arg-NHC12), respectively. The purification process was developed in order to make it more sustainable, by using water and ethanol as the main separation solvents in a single cationic exchange chromatographic separation step. Bz-Arg-NHC10 and Bz-Arg-NHC12 proved antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, revealing their potential use as effective disinfectants as they reduced 99 % the initial bacterial population after only 1 h of contact. The cytotoxic effect towards different cell types of both arginine derivatives was also measured. Bz-Arg-NHCn demonstrated lower haemolytic activity and were less eye-irritating than the commercial cationic surfactant cetrimide. A similar trend could also be observed when cytotoxicity was tested on hepatocytes and fibroblast cell lines: both arginine derivatives were less toxic than cetrimide. All these properties would make the two novel arginine compounds a promising alternative to commercial cationic surfactants, especially for their use as additives in topical formulations.

  15. Influence of sediment on the fate and toxicity of a polyethoxylated tallowamine surfactant system (MON 0818) in aquatic microcosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Besser, J.M.; Buckler, D.R.; Honegger, J.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Johnson, B.T.; Kurtzweil, M.L.; MacGregor, J.; McKee, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The fate and toxicity of a polyethoxylated tallowamine (POEA) surfactant system, MON 0818, was evaluated in water-sediment microcosms during a 4-d laboratory study. A surfactant solution of 8 mg l-1 nominal concentration was added to each of nine 72-l aquaria with or without a 3-cm layer of one of two natural sediments (total organic carbon (TOC) 1.5% or 3.0%). Control well water was added to each of nine additional 72-l aquaria with or without sediment. Water samples were collected from the microcosms after 2, 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of aging to conduct 48-h toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and to determine surfactant concentrations. Elevated mortality of D. magna (43-83%) was observed in overlying water sampled from water-only microcosms throughout the 96-h aging period, whereas elevated mortality (23-97%) was only observed in overlying water sampled from water-sediment microcosms during the first 24 h of aging. Measured concentrations of MON 0818 in water-only microcosms remained relatively constant (4-6 mg l-1) during the 96-h period, whereas the concentrations in overlying water from microcosms containing either of the two types of sediment dissipated rapidly, with half-lives of 13 h in the 3.0% TOC sediment and 18 h in the 1.5% TOC sediment. Both toxicity and the concentration of MON 0818 in overlying water decreased more rapidly in microcosms containing sediment with the higher percent TOC and clay and with a higher microbial biomass. Mortality of D. magna was significantly correlated with surfactant concentrations in the overlying water. These results indicate that the toxicity of the POEA surfactant in water rapidly declines in the presence of sediment due to a reduction in the surfactant concentration in the overlying water above the sediment.

  16. Sequential application of chelating agents and innovative surfactants for the enhanced electroremediation of real sediments from toxic metals and PAHs.

    PubMed

    Hahladakis, John N; Lekkas, Nikolaos; Smponias, Andreas; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2014-06-01

    This study focused on the sequential application of a chelating agent (citric acid) followed by a surfactant in the simultaneous electroremediation of real contaminated sediments from toxic metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, the efficiency evaluation of two innovative non-ionic surfactants, commercially known as Poloxamer 407 and Nonidet P40, was investigated. The results indicated a removal efficacy of approximately 43% and 48% for the summation of PAHs (SUM PAHs), respectively for the aforementioned surfactants, much better than the one obtained by the use of Tween 80 (nearly 21%). Individual PAHs (e.g. fluorene) were removed in percentages that reached almost 84% and 92% in the respective electrokinetic experiments when these new surfactants were introduced. In addition, the combined-enhanced sequential electrokinetic treatment with citric acid improved dramatically the removal of Zn and As, compared to the unenhanced run, but did not favor the other toxic metals examined. Since no improvement in metal removal percentages occurred when Tween 80 was used, significant contribution to this matter should also be attributed to the solubilization capacity of these innovative, in electrokinetic remediation, non-ionic surfactants.

  17. Toxicity of the amphoteric surfactant, cocamidopropyl betaine, to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Vonlanthen, Sofie; Brown, Murray T; Turner, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of the synthetic, amphoteric surfactant, cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and its toxicity to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been evaluated using several different physiological test end-points over different periods of exposure up to 120 h. Droplet surface angle measurements revealed that, following a period of acclimation of about 24 h, CAPB began to degrade and that primary degradation was complete within 120 h. Effective quantum yield (∆F/F(m)') and relative growth rates (RGRs) were the most sensitive measures of phytotoxicity, with CAPB concentrations at and above 10 mg l(-1) eliciting irreversible, time-dependent and/or dose-dependent responses. Cell membrane damage, estimated from measurements of ion leakage, was detected only at a concentration of 40 mg l(-1) after 48 h of exposure to CAPB but by 120 h damage was evident at all measured concentrations above 10 mg l(-1). These observations suggest that both CAPB and its metabolites are intrinsically toxic to U. lactuca. The findings of this study are discussed in terms of the environmental consequences of applying CAPB to control harmful algal blooms.

  18. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) inhibits agglomeration and macrophage uptake of toxic amine modified nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Zofi; Kendall, Michaela; Mackay, Rose-Marie; Whitwell, Harry; Elgy, Christine; Ding, Ping; Mahajan, Sumeet; Morgan, Cliff; Griffiths, Mark; Clark, Howard; Madsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The lung provides the main route for nanomaterial exposure. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is an important respiratory innate immune molecule with the ability to bind or opsonise pathogens to enhance phagocytic removal from the airways. We hypothesised that SP-A, like surfactant protein D, may interact with inhaled nanoparticulates, and that this interaction will be affected by nanoparticle (NP) surface characteristics. In this study, we characterise the interaction of SP-A with unmodified (U-PS) and amine-modified (A-PS) polystyrene particles of varying size and zeta potential using dynamic light scatter analysis. SP-A associated with both 100 nm U-PS and A-PS in a calcium-independent manner. SP-A induced significant calcium-dependent agglomeration of 100 nm U-PS NPs but resulted in calcium-independent inhibition of A-PS self agglomeration. SP-A enhanced uptake of 100 nm U-PS into macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner but in contrast inhibited A-PS uptake. Reduced association of A-PS particles in RAW264.7 cells following pre-incubation of SP-A was also observed with coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. Consistent with these findings, alveolar macrophages (AMs) from SP-A−/− mice were more efficient at uptake of 100 nm A-PS compared with wild type C57Bl/6 macrophages. No difference in uptake was observed with 500 nm U-PS or A-PS particles. Pre-incubation with SP-A resulted in a significant decrease in uptake of 100 nm A-PS in macrophages isolated from both groups of mice. In contrast, increased uptake by AMs of U-PS was observed after pre-incubation with SP-A. Thus we have demonstrated that SP-A promotes uptake of non-toxic U-PS particles but inhibits the clearance of potentially toxic A-PS particles by blocking uptake into macrophages. PMID:25676620

  19. TOXICITY AND BIODEGRADABILITY SCREENING OF NONIONIC SURFACTANTS USING SEDIMENT-DERIVED METHANOGENIC CONSORTIA. (R825404)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The objective of this study was to screen and select biologically-compatible surfactants for subsequent use in enhancing the bioavailability and reductive dechlorination of sorbed-phase chlorinated organic contaminants. Sixteen surfactants commonly used in sur...

  20. Lung surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, S A

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of pulmonary surfactant are reviewed from a biochemical perspective. The major emphasis is on the lipid components of surfactant. Topics reviewed include surfactant composition, cellular and subcellular sites as well as pathways of biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, disaturated phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. The surfactant system in the developing fetus and neonate is considered in terms of phospholipid content and composition, rates of precursor incorporation, activities of individual enzymes of phospholipid synthesis and glycogen content and metabolism. The influence of the following hormones and other factors on lung maturation and surfactant production is discussed: glucocorticoids, thyroid hormone, estrogen, prolactin, cyclic AMP, beta-adrenergic and cholinergic agonists, prostaglandins and growth factors. The influence of maternal diabetes, fetal sex, stress and labor are also considered. Nonphysiologic and toxic agents which influence surfactant in the fetus, newborn and adult are reviewed. PMID:6145585

  1. Toxic Hazards Research Unit annual technical report, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macewen, J. D.; Vernot, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    The activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU) for the period of June 1971 through May 1972 are reviewed in this report. Acute inhalation toxicity experiments were conducted on hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas and aerosol, ethyl bromide (C2H5Br), hydrogen bromide (HBr), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), chlorine (CL2), and silane (SiH4). Subacute toxicity studies were conducted on chlorine pentafluoride (ClF5), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) and coal tar volatiles. Further toxicity studies of subacute and chronic responses to inhaled monomethylhydrazine (MMH) are also described.

  2. Identification of toxic substances in United Kingdom estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.V.; Thain, J.E.; Waldock, M.J.

    1999-03-01

    The organic load of bulk water samples, collected from five industrially impacted estuaries, was extracted using solid-phase extraction. Where toxicity was demonstrated using a Tisbe battagliai bioassay, a toxicity directed fractionation scheme was applied to isolate causal compounds. To reduce the complexity of the extracts toxicity profiles were obtained following solid-phase fractionation and reverse-phase HPLC. Candidate toxic contaminants were identified by GC-MS. All procedures were evaluated with a series of reference compounds of widely differing polarity. The method was successful in identifying a number of compounds, which traditionally have not been selected for inclusion in monitoring programs, as the probable cause of detrimental environmental effect. The results suggest that chlorinated phenols are a major contributor to poor water quality in the lower reaches of the river Tyne and alkylphenol surfactant metabolites in the river Tees. Other compounds, as yet unidentified, also contribute to poor water quality. It is suggested that the identified compounds should now be surveyed more widely and considered for inclusion in future monitoring programs.

  3. Ecotoxicological characterization of polyoxyethylene glycerol ester non-ionic surfactants and their mixtures with anionic and non-ionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Francisco; Fernández-Arteaga, Alejandro; Lechuga, Manuela; Fernández-Serrano, Mercedes

    2017-03-03

    This paper reports on a study that investigated the aquatic toxicity of new non-ionic surfactants derived from renewable raw materials, polyoxyethylene glycerol ester (PGE), and their binary mixtures with anionic and non-ionic surfactants. Toxicity of pure PGEs was determined using representative organisms from different trophic levels: luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), microalgae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), and freshwater crustaceans (Daphnia magna). Relationships between toxicity and the structural parameters such as unit of ethylene oxide (EO) and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) were evaluated. Critical micellar concentration (CMC) in the conditions of the toxicity test was also determined. It was found that the toxicity of the aqueous solutions of PGE decreased when the number of EO units in the molecule, HLB, and CMC increased. PGEs showed lower CMC in marine medium, and the toxicity to V. ficheri is lower when the CMC was higher. Given their non-polar nature, narcosis was expected to be the primary mode of toxic action of PGEs. For the mixture of surfactants, we observed that the mixtures with PGE that had the higher numbers of EO units were more toxic than the aqueous solutions of pure surfactants. Moreover, we found that concentration addition was the type of action more likely to occur for mixtures of PGE with lower numbers of EO units with non-ionic surfactants (alkylpolyglucoside and fatty alcohol ethoxylate), whereas for the mixture of PGE with lower EO units and anionic surfactant (ether carboxylic derivative), the most common response type was response addition. In case of mixtures involving amphoteric surfactants and PGEs with the higher numbers of EO units, no clear pattern with regard to the mixture toxicity response type could be observed.

  4. Sediment toxicity of a rapidly biodegrading nonionic surfactant: Comparing the equilibrium partitioning approach with measurements in pore water.

    PubMed

    Droge, Steven T J; Postma, Jaap F; Hermens, Joop L M

    2008-06-01

    The equilibrium partitioning theory (EqP) assumes that the toxicity of nonionic surfactants in sediment can be predicted from water-only toxicity data as long as the effect concentrations are properly normalized for chemical activity. Therefore, in marine sediment toxicity tests with the model alcohol ethoxylate (AE), C12EO8, freely dissolved concentrations were both measured via solid-phase microextraction and predicted using sorption coefficients. In fully equilibrated test systems (including the overlying water), both methods showed that concentrations in the pore water of the spiked sediment layer causing 50% mortality (LC50) to the amphipod Corophium volutator were in the same range as LC50 values for amphipods exposed to AE in seawater only. In the sediment systems, AE concentrations in the pore water remained constant up to 15 days, while concentrations in the water overlying the sediment decreased to less than 1% of initial concentrations within 6 days due to biodegradation. In such disequilibrated test systems, C. volutator survived pore water dissolved concentrations that were above the LC50. Apparently, this burrowing amphipod is able to exploit the low chemical activity in the overlying water as a refuge from sediment exposure.

  5. Equilibrium partitioning theory to predict the sediment toxicity of the anionic surfactant C(12)-2-LAS to Corophium volutator.

    PubMed

    Rico-Rico, Angeles; Temara, Ali; Hermens, Joop L M

    2009-02-01

    The study of the effect of the sorption of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) on the bioavailability to marine benthic organisms is essential to refine the environmental risk assessment of these compounds. According to the equilibrium partitioning theory (EqP), the effect concentration in water-only exposure will be similar to the effect concentration in the sediment pore water. In this work, sorption and desorption experiments with two marine sediments were carried out using the compound C(12)-2-LAS. The effect of the sediment sorption on the toxicity of benthic organisms was studied in water-only and in sediment bioassays with the marine mud shrimp Corophium volutator. In addition, three common spiking methods were tested for its application in the toxicity tests, as well as the stability of the surfactant during the water-only and sediment-water test duration. LC50 values obtained from water-only exposure showed a good correspondence with the pore water concentrations calculated from the sorption and desorption isotherms in the spiked sediments.

  6. Acute toxicity of the cationic surfactant C12-benzalkonium in different bioassays: how test design affects bioavailability and effect concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Geurts, Marc; Sjollema, Sascha B; Kramer, Nynke I; Hermens, Joop L M; Droge, Steven T J

    2014-03-01

    Using an ion-exchange-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method, the freely dissolved concentrations of C12-benzalkonium were measured in different toxicity assays, including 1) immobilization of Daphnia magna in the presence or absence of dissolved humic acid; 2) mortality of Lumbriculus variegatus in the presence or absence of a suspension of Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) sediment; 3) photosystem II inhibition of green algae Chlorella vulgaris; and 4) viability of in vitro rainbow trout gill cell line (RTgill-W1) in the presence or absence of serum proteins. Furthermore, the loss from chemical adsorption to the different test vessels used in these tests was also determined. The C12-benzalkonium sorption isotherms to the different sorbent phases were established as well. Our results show that the freely dissolved concentration is a better indicator of the actual exposure concentration than the nominal or total concentration in most test assays. Daphnia was the most sensitive species to C12-benzalkonium. The acute Daphnia and Lumbriculus tests both showed no enhanced toxicity from possible ingestion of sorbed C12-benzalkonium in comparison with water-only exposure, which is in accordance with the equilibrium partitioning theory. Moreover, the present study demonstrates that commonly used sorbent phases can strongly affect bioavailability and observed effect concentrations for C12-benzalkonium. Even stronger effects of decreased actual exposure concentrations resulting from sorption to test vessels, cells, and sorbent phases can be expected for more hydrophobic cationic surfactants.

  7. Aquatic toxicity and biodegradability of a surfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis ICA56.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Darlane W F; Cara, Alejandro B; Lechuga-Villena, Manuela; García-Román, Miguel; Melo, Vania M M; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; Vaz, Deisi A

    2017-01-28

    In this work, the environmental compatibility of a biosurfactant produced by a Bacillus subtilis strain isolated from the soil of a Brazilian mangrove was investigated. The biosurfactant, identified as surfactin, is able to reduce surface tension (ST) to 31.5 ± 0.1 mN m(-1) and exhibits a lowcritical micelle concentration (CMC) value (0.015 ± 0.003 g L(-1)). The highest crude biosurfactant concentration (224.3 ± 1.9 mg L(-1)) was reached at 72 h of fermentation. Acute toxicity tests, carried out with Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and Selenastrum capricornutum indicated that the toxicity of the biosurfactant is lower than that of its chemically derived counterparts. The results of the biodegradability tests demonstrated that the crude surfactin extract was degraded by both Pseudomonas putida and a mixed population from a sewage-treatment plant, in both cases the biodegradation efficiency being dependent on the initial concentration of the biosurfactant. Finally, as the biodegradation percentages obtained fall within the acceptance limits established by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals, OECD 301E), crude surfactin can be classified as a "readily" biodegradable compound.

  8. FULL-SCALE VIBRATING PERVAPORATION MEMBRANE UNIT: VOC REMOVAL FROM WATER AND SURFACTANT SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A commercial-scale vibrating membrane system was evaluated for the separation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from aqueous solutions by pervaporation. Experiments with surrogate solutions of up to five VOCs in the presence and absence of a surfactant were performed to compar...

  9. Pulmonary toxicity of trichloroethylene: induction of changes in surfactant phospholipids and phospholipase A2 activity in the mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Scott, J E; Forkert, P G; Oulton, M; Rasmusson, M G; Temple, S; Fraser, M O; Whitefield, S

    1988-08-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common organic solvent in use as a dry cleaning agent as well as an inhalant anesthetic. Nevertheless the effects of this material on the pulmonary surfactant which prevents alveolar collapse at maximal expiration is not known. Therefore, we have examined the effect of TCE on the intra- and extracellular surfactant pools and the activity of phospholipase A2, an enzyme which controls the remodeling of phosphatidylcholine to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, the primary constituent of the pulmonary surfactant. Male CD-1 mice were treated ip with 2500 or 3000 mg/kg TCE. Twenty-four hours later mice were anesthetized and the lungs lavaged. Mice were then killed, the lungs perfused and excised, and subcellular fractions including lamellar bodies prepared. Some lungs were prepared for ultrastructural examination. Phospholipase A2 was assayed in all subcellular fractions. Phospholipid was assayed in the lavage (extracellular surfactant) and the lamellar bodies (intracellular surfactant). TCE (2500 mg/kg) caused selective exfoliation of Clara cells. However, only the dose of 3000 mg/kg TCE produced a significant decrease in the intracellular surfactant phospholipid. Minimal changes occurred in the phospholipid profiles. Phospholipase A2 specific activity was significantly decreased at both dosages within the lung microsomal fraction. In addition after treatment with 3000 mg/kg TCE the enzyme activity in the lamellar body fraction was significantly increased. These data suggest that inhalation of TCE may damage the enzymes which are responsible for synthesizing the pulmonary surfactant resulting in lower amounts of surfactant being stored and available for secretion into the alveolus.

  10. Surfactants in the environment.

    PubMed

    Ivanković, Tomislav; Hrenović, Jasna

    2010-03-01

    Surfactants are a diverse group of chemicals that are best known for their wide use in detergents and other cleaning products. After use, residual surfactants are discharged into sewage systems or directly into surface waters, and most of them end up dispersed in different environmental compartments such as soil, water or sediment. The toxic effects of surfactants on various aquatic organisms are well known. In general, surfactants are present in the environment at levels below toxicity and in Croatia below the national limit. Most surfactants are readily biodegradable and their amount is greatly reduced with secondary treatment in wastewater treatment plants. The highest concern is the release of untreated wastewater or wastewater that has undergone primary treatment alone. The discharge of wastewater polluted with massive quantities of surfactants could have serious effects on the ecosystem. Future studies of surfactant toxicities and biodegradation are necessary to withdraw highly toxic and non-biodegradable compounds from commercial use and replace them with more environmentally friendly ones.

  11. Use of biomonitoring to control toxics in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, N.A.

    1987-09-01

    A biomonitoring program was developed in support of the National Policy for the Development of Water Quality-Based Permit Limitations for Toxic Pollutants. The program focuses on the use of laboratory toxicity tests on aquatic plants and animals to predict ecosystem impact caused by toxic pollutants. Both acute and chronic toxicity tests were developed to test effluents and ambient waters. Laboratory and biological field studies were conducted at nine sites. Single-species laboratory toxicity tests were found to be good predictors of impacts on the ecosystem when two or more species were used. Biomonitoring can be undertaken either on effluents and/or on the receiving waters. In that toxicity related to seeps, leachates, and storm sewers has often been found upstream from dischargers, it is beneficial to conduct both effluent and ambient biomonitoring.

  12. Toxic Hazards Research Unit. Annual Technical Report: 1983

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    Testing of Mixtures of Organophosphate Ester Based Hydraulic Fluids in Ship Systems 121 The Toxicologic Evaluation of Polyalphaolefin Hydraulic Fluids...hydraulic fluids. The results or current status of these studies will be discussed in the body of this report. Acute oral and dermal toxicity studies on a...toxic effects. The current status of these ongoing studies is summarized in this report. EVALUATION OF THE ONCOGENIC POTENTIAL OF INHALED ffYDRnZINE

  13. History of fish toxicants in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cumming, K.B.

    1975-01-01

    Many bodies of water have been overrun with fish species that are undesirable for the well-being of endemic aquatic biota and are of little or no interest to anglers. This situation has resulted from the transplanting of fish, creation of new waters, increasing fishing pressure and changing water quality. Although as many as 30 toxicants have been tried, only about 30 major piscicides have been used in rehabilitation programs to remove the unwanted species. Explicit knowledge of the mode of action of toxicants in the environment and improvements in fish farming, have permitted fishery managers to reduce the amount of control chemical that is applied to obtain a desired result. The number and volume of waters being reclaimed have increased, but this trend may change soon because environmental laws involving the use of registered pesticides are becoming more restrictive. Registration research has established the safety of some fish toxicants but has eliminated others. Only four piscicides are presently registered (or nonfood use application: antimycin and rotenone as general fish toxicants and 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and Bayluscide as selective lampricides.

  14. 1994 Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU) Annual Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-04-01

    pharmacologically active chemicals on the cardiovascular system in animals involve direct cannulation of major arteries and direct injection of drugs into the...Mancia. 1990. Intra - arterial pressure alterations during tail-cuff blood pressure measurements in normotensive and hypertensive rats. J...These models are used to define target organ toxicity based on the tissue-specific dose and are used in intra - and interspecies extrapolation. Data

  15. Toxic Hazards Research Unit. Annual Technical Report. 1978

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    AFB, OH Histologic examination revealed a low grade adenocarcinoma. Sub- sequent examination resulted in a change in diagnosis to rectal polyps. All...remarkable changes noted in the higher exposure level group. Kidney injury was seen in both exposed groups of male rats con- sisting of nephropathy ...Sanford Clinical Diagnosis by Laboratory Methods, 14th Edition, Saunders Company, p. 149-152. Draize, J. H., (1959), "Dermal Toxicity," in Appraisal of the

  16. Results of toxicity tests and chemical analyses conducted on sediments collected from the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit, July 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-02-11

    In order to provide unit specific toxicity data that will be used to address critical uncertainty in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit (TNXOD OU), sediments were collected from eight locations in the Inner Swamp portion of the operable unit and two unit specific background locations. These samples were analyzed for total mercury, total uranium, and sediment toxicity.

  17. Aquatic toxicity structure-activity relationships for the zwitterionic surfactant alkyl dimethyl amine oxide to several aquatic species and a resulting species sensitivity distribution.

    PubMed

    Belanger, Scott E; Brill, Jessica L; Rawlings, Jane M; McDonough, Kathleen M; Zoller, Ann C; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R

    2016-12-01

    Amine oxide (AO) is a cationically charged surfactant at environmental pH and has previously been assessed in the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) High Production Volume (HPV) chemicals program. Typical of cationic chemicals, AO is highly aquatically toxic. In this study we vastly improve the knowledge of AO toxicity by developing acute Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) for an alga (Desmodesmus subspicatus), an invertebrate (Daphnia magna) and a fish (Danio rerio) using the appropriate array of OECD Test Guidelines. A chronic toxicity QSAR was also determined for the most sensitive taxon, Desmodesmus. Pure AO spanning the chain lengths of C8 to C16 were tested individually with trace analytical confirmation of exposures in all tests. The QSARs were all of high quality (R(2) 0.92-0.98) with slopes ranging from -0.338 to -0.484. QSARs were then used to normalize toxicity outcomes for a larger, previously published data set used in HPV, European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals), and peer reviewed publications. Two additional species, Lemna gibba (macrophyte) and Ankistrodesmus falcatus (alga) were studied in exposures to dodecyl (C12) AO to provide sufficient taxonomic diversity to conduct a Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) analysis. The SSD 5th percentile hazardous concentration (HC5) to C12 AO was found to be 0.052mg/L which is similar to an existing AO 28-d, 3-community periphyton community bioassay normalized to C12 AO (No-observed-effect-concentration or NOEC=0.152mg/L). The statistical properties of the SSD was probed suggesting that new studies of additional taxa would be required that were at least 10-fold more sensitive than the most sensitive taxon to move the HC5 lower by a factor of 3. The overall AO hazard assessment suggests a large margin of safety relative to published environmental exposure data.

  18. Development of a new toxic-unit model for the bioassessment of metals in streams.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Travis S; Clements, William H; Mitchell, Katharine A; Church, Stanley E; Wanty, Richard B; Fey, David L; Verplanck, Philip L; San Juan, Carma A

    2010-11-01

    Two toxic-unit models that estimate the toxicity of trace-metal mixtures to benthic communities were compared. The chronic criterion accumulation ratio (CCAR), a modification of biotic ligand model (BLM) outputs for use as a toxic-unit model, accounts for the modifying and competitive influences of major cations (Ca²(+), Mg²(+), Na(+), K(+), H(+)), anions (HCO₃⁻, CO²⁻₃ ,SO²⁻₄, Cl⁻, S²⁻) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in determining the free metal ion available for accumulation on the biotic ligand. The cumulative criterion unit (CCU) model, an empirical statistical model of trace-metal toxicity, considers only the ameliorative properties of Ca²(+) and Mg²(+) (hardness) in determining the toxicity of total dissolved trace metals. Differences in the contribution of a metal (e.g., Cu, Cd, Zn) to toxic units as determined by CCAR or CCU were observed and attributed to how each model incorporates the influences of DOC, pH, and alkalinity. Akaike information criteria demonstrate that CCAR is an improved predictor of benthic macroinvertebrate community metrics as compared with CCU. Piecewise models depict great declines (thresholds) in benthic macroinvertebrate communities at CCAR of 1 or more, while negative changes in benthic communities were detected at a CCAR of less than 1. We observed a 7% reduction in total taxa richness and a 43% decrease in Heptageniid abundance between background (CCAR = 0.1) and the threshold of chronic toxicity on the basis of continuous chronic criteria (CCAR = 1). In this first application of the BLM as a toxic-unit model, we found it superior to CCU.

  19. Development of a new toxic-unit model for the bioassessment of metals in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, T.S.; Clements, W.H.; Mitchell, K.A.; Church, S.E.; Wanty, R.B.; Fey, D.L.; Verplanck, P.L.; San, Juan C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Two toxic-unit models that estimate the toxicity of trace-metal mixtures to benthic communities were compared. The chronic criterion accumulation ratio (CCAR), a modification of biotic ligand model (BLM) outputs for use as a toxic-unit model, accounts for the modifying and competitive influences of major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, H+), anions (HCO3−, CO32−,SO42−, Cl−, S2−) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in determining the free metal ion available for accumulation on the biotic ligand. The cumulative criterion unit (CCU) model, an empirical statistical model of trace-metal toxicity, considers only the ameliorative properties of Ca2+ and Mg2+ (hardness) in determining the toxicity of total dissolved trace metals. Differences in the contribution of a metal (e.g., Cu, Cd, Zn) to toxic units as determined by CCAR or CCU were observed and attributed to how each model incorporates the influences of DOC, pH, and alkalinity. Akaike information criteria demonstrate that CCAR is an improved predictor of benthic macroinvertebrate community metrics as compared with CCU. Piecewise models depict great declines (thresholds) in benthic macroinvertebrate communities at CCAR of 1 or more, while negative changes in benthic communities were detected at a CCAR of less than 1. We observed a 7% reduction in total taxa richness and a 43% decrease in Heptageniid abundance between background (CCAR = 0.1) and the threshold of chronic toxicity on the basis of continuous chronic criteria (CCAR = 1). In this first application of the BLM as a toxic-unit model, we found it superior to CCU.

  20. Surfactants, Aromatic and Isoprenoid Compounds, and Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Inhibitors Suppress Staphylococcus aureus Production of Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1▿

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Peter J.; Syverson, Rae Ellen; Milligan-Myhre, Kathy; Frolova, Olga; Schroeder, Sarah; Kidder, Joshua; Hoang, Thanh; Proctor, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Menstrual toxic shock syndrome is a rare but potentially life-threatening illness manifest through the actions of Staphylococcus aureus toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1). Previous studies have shown that tampon additives can influence staphylococcal TSST-1 production. We report here on the TSST-1-suppressing activity of 34 compounds that are commonly used additives in the pharmaceutical, food, and perfume industries. Many of the tested chemicals had a minimal impact on the growth of S. aureus and yet were potent inhibitors of TSST-1 production. The TSST-1-reducing compounds included surfactants with an ether, amide, or amine linkage to their fatty acid moiety (e.g., myreth-3-myristate, Laureth-3, disodium lauroamphodiacetate, disodium lauramido monoethanolamido, sodium lauriminodipropionic acid, and triethanolamine laureth sulfate); aromatic compounds (e.g. phenylethyl and benzyl alcohols); and several isoprenoids and related compounds (e.g., terpineol and menthol). The membrane-targeting and -altering effects of the TSST-1-suppressing compounds led us to assess the activity of molecules that are known to inhibit fatty acid biosynthesis (e.g., cerulenin, triclosan, and hexachlorophene). These compounds also reduced S. aureus TSST-1 production. This study suggests that more additives than previously recognized inhibit the production of TSST-1. PMID:19223628

  1. Poly(methyl methacrylate) Surface Modification for Surfactant-Free Real-Time Toxicity Assay on Droplet Microfluidic Platform.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Raphael; Chen, Jian Lin; Stuckey, David C; Steele, Terry W J

    2017-04-07

    Microfluidic droplet reactors have many potential uses, from analytical to synthesis. Stable operation requires preferential wetting of the channel surface by the continuous phase which is often not fulfilled by materials commonly used for lab-on-chip devices. Here we show that a silica nanoparticle (SiNP) layer coated onto a Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and other thermoplastics surface enhances its wetting properties by creating nanoroughness, and allows simple grafting of hydrocarbon chains through silane chemistry. Using the unusual stability of silica sols at their isoelectric point, a dense SiNP layer is adsorbed onto PMMA and renders the surface superhydrophilic. Subsequently, a self-assembled dodecyltrichlorosilane (DTS) monolayer yields a superhydrophobic surface that allows the repeatable generation of aqueous droplets in a hexadecane continuous phase without surfactant addition. A SiNP-DTS modified chip has been used to monitor bacterial viability with a resazurin assay. The whole process involving sequential reagents injection, and multiplexed droplet fluorescence intensity monitoring is carried out on chip. Metabolic inhibition of the anaerobe Enterococcus faecalis by 30 mg L(-1) of NiCl2 was detected in 5 min.

  2. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Mumtaz, M Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  3. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Mumtaz, M. Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  4. Acute aquatic toxicity of alkyl phenol ethoxylates

    SciTech Connect

    Schueuermann G2 )

    1991-04-01

    The recently derived log Kow (octanol/water partition coefficient in logarithmic form) increment for a nonterminal oxyethylene unit was used to calculate a quantitative structure-activity relationships for literature data on the acute crustacean toxicity of polyoxyethylene surfactants. The resulting log Kow regression parameters are between the corresponding values for nonpolar and polar narcosis, which supports an interpretation of the surfactants' aquatic toxicity on the basis of another distinct mode of action. Furthermore, a comparison with calculated water solubility data indicates that for log Kow greater than 5 an aquatic toxicity decrease due to a solubility limit is expected, which gets support from two other sets on toxicity data of nonyl phenol polyethoxylates.

  5. Use of naturalized coagulants in removing laundry waste surfactant using various unit processes in lab-scale.

    PubMed

    Mohan, S Mariraj

    2014-04-01

    This lab-scale experiment is aimed at demonstrating a treatment system for purification and reuse of laundry rinsing water generated from households. The main objective of the study is to compare the efficiencies of various natural coagulants in removing laundry waste surfactants and other major pollutants from the laundry rinsing water. The treatment system consists of Coagulation-Flocculation, Sand filtration and Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) adsorption. Four experiments were conducted in batch process by varying the coagulants (Nirmali seed and Pectin extracted from pith of Orange peel). Coagulants have been selected due to their local availability at affordable cost and technical feasibility. From the study it is concluded that laundry rinsing water polluted with high turbidity and anionic surfactant treated with Nirmali seeds as coagulant at a retention time of 24 h gives the best results. The treatment system where Orange peel pectin is used as coagulant at a retention time of 24 h is found to be the most efficient one based on the weighted factor. Hence the treatment of laundry rinsing water by aforesaid combination results in better water quality.

  6. Toxic Hazards Research Unit, 1989. Annual report, 1 Oct 88-30 Sep 89

    SciTech Connect

    Kutzman, R.S.; Wall, H.G.; Vinegar, A.

    1990-10-01

    This report has been prepared as a review of the October 1988 through September 1989 activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit. Research activities largely focused on the toxicity of chlorotrifluoroethylene oligomers and the acid metabolic products of this material. Initial acute studies also were conducted on a silahydrocarbon hydraulic fluid. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models were developed, refined or more substantially validated for several chemicals of Air Force and Navy interest. These included hydraulic fluids, organophosphates, and combustion products. Both in vivo and in vitro studies on chloropentafluorobenzene, a chemical defense training material, were conducted or subcontracted, and efforts were begun to develop the equipment needed for additional studies using primates. Neurotoxicity assessments were conducted for jet engine oils and a model was developed to assess the dermal penetration of a neurotoxic compound found in the combustion products of another lubricating oil.

  7. Toxic hazards research unit annual report 1991. Report for 16 November 1990-30 September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, H.G.; Dodd, D.E.; Vinegar, A.; Clewell, H.J.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents a review of the activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU) for the period of 16 November 1990 through 30 September 1991. Research activities included in this report cover the completion or continuation of studies that were initiated during the previous THRU contract and studies that were initiated under the present contract for the operation of the THRU. Toxicologic evaluations of aerospace and naval chemicals included studies on a component to be used in an explosive formulation, jet fuels, solvents, hydraulic fluids, a torpedo propellant, combustion products, chemical agent simulants, Halon replacements, jet engine oil, and toxic dust and smoke. In addition to the toxicologic investigations, the THRU coordinated a toxicology conference on risk assessment and two expert workshops on military toxicology issues. The overall THRU effort addressed important descriptive, mechanistic, and predictive toxicology data needs of the Air Force and Navy.

  8. Passive dosing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures to terrestrial springtails: linking mixture toxicity to chemical activities, equilibrium lipid concentrations, and toxic units.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stine N; Holmstrup, Martin; Smith, Kilian E C; Mayer, Philipp

    2013-07-02

    A 7-day mixture toxicity experiment with the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida was conducted, and the effects were linked to three different mixture exposure parameters. Passive dosing from silicone was applied to tightly control exposure levels and compositions of 12 mixture treatments, containing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. Springtail lethality was then linked to sum chemical activities (∑a), sum equilibrium lipid concentrations (∑C(lipid eq.)), and sum toxic units (∑TU). In each case, the effects of all 12 mixture treatments could be fitted to one sigmoidal exposure-response relationship. The effective lethal chemical activity (La50) of 0.027 was well within the expected range for baseline toxicity of 0.01-0.1. Linking the effects to the lipid-based exposure parameter yielded an effective lethal concentration (LC(lipid eq 50)) of 133 mmol kg(-1) lipid in good correspondence with the lethal membrane burden for baseline toxicity (40-160 mmol kg(-1) lipid). Finally, the effective lethal toxic unit (LTU50) of 1.20 was rather close to the expected value of 1. Altogether, passive dosing provided tightly controlled mixture exposure in terms of both level and composition, while ∑a, ∑C(lipid eq.), and ∑TU allowed baseline toxicity to be linked to mixture exposure.

  9. Burn unit care of Stevens Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis: A survey.

    PubMed

    Le, Hong-Gam; Saeed, Hajirah; Mantagos, Iason S; Mitchell, Caroline M; Goverman, Jeremy; Chodosh, James

    2016-06-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) is a systemic disease that can be associated with debilitating acute and chronic complications across multiple organ systems. As patients with acute SJS/TEN are often treated in a burn intensive care unit (BICU), we surveyed burn centers across the United States to determine their approach to the care of these patients. The goal of our study was to identify best practices and possible variations in the care of patients with acute SJS/TEN. We demonstrate that the method of diagnosis, use of systemic therapies, and involvement of subspecialists varied significantly between burn centers. Beyond supportive care provided to every patient, our data highlights a lack of standardization in the acute care of patients with SJS/TEN. A comprehensive guideline for the care of patients with acute SJS/TEN is indicated.

  10. Copper toxicity thresholds for important restoration grass species of the Western United States.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Mark W; Redente, Edward F

    2002-12-01

    Copper toxicity thresholds for plant species that are used in restoration activities in western North America have not been established. As a result, ecological risk assessments must rely on toxicity thresholds established for agronomic species, which usually differ from those of species used in restoration. Thus, risk assessors have the potential for classifying sites as phytotoxic to perennial, nonagronomic species and calling for intensive remediation activities that may not be necessary. The objective of this study was to provide a better estimate of Cu toxicity thresholds for five grass species that are commonly used in restoration efforts in the western United States. We used a greenhouse screening study where seedlings of introduced redtop (Agrostis gigantea Roth.), the native species slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus [Link] Gould ex Shinners var. Pryor), tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia caespitosa [L.] Beauvois), big bluegrass (Poa secunda J. Presl var. Sherman), and basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus [Scribner & Merrill] A. Love var. Magnar) and the agricultural species common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were grown in sand culture and exposed to supplemental concentrations of soluble Cu of 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg/L. We determined six measures of toxicity: the 60-d mean lethal concentration (LC50), 60-d mean effective concentration (EC50)-plant, 60-d EC50-shoot, 60-d EC50-root, phytotoxicity threshold (PT50)-shoot, and the PT50-root. Results suggest that these restoration grass species generally have higher Cu tolerance than agronomic species reported in the past. Of the species tested, redtop appeared to be especially tolerant of high levels of substrate and tissue Cu. Values of EC50-plant for restoration grasses were between 283 and 710 mg Cu/L compared to 120 mg Cu/L for common wheat. Measured PT50-shoot values were between 737 and 10,792 mg Cu/L. These reported thresholds should be more useful for risk assessors than those

  11. Use of watershed factors to predict consumer surfactant risk, water quality, and habitat quality in the upper Trinity River, Texas.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, S F; Johnson, D R; Venables, B J; Slye, J L; Kennedy, J R; Dyer, S D; Price, B B; Ciarlo, M; Stanton, K; Sanderson, H; Nielsen, A

    2009-06-15

    Surfactants are high production volume chemicals that are used in a wide assortment of "down-the-drain" consumer products. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) generally remove 85 to more than 99% of all surfactants from influents, but residual concentrations are discharged into receiving waters via wastewater treatment plant effluents. The Trinity River that flows through the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area, Texas, is an ideal study site for surfactants due to the high ratio of wastewater treatment plant effluent to river flow (>95%) during late summer months, providing an interesting scenario for surfactant loading into the environment. The objective of this project was to determine whether surfactant concentrations, expressed as toxic units, in-stream water quality, and aquatic habitat in the upper Trinity River could be predicted based on easily accessible watershed characteristics. Surface water and pore water samples were collected in late summer 2005 at 11 sites on the Trinity River in and around the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area. Effluents of 4 major waste water treatment plants that discharge effluents into the Trinity River were also sampled. General chemistries and individual surfactant concentrations were determined, and total surfactant toxic units were calculated. GIS models of geospatial, anthropogenic factors (e.g., population density) and natural factors (e.g., soil organic matter) were collected and analyzed according to subwatersheds. Multiple regression analyses using the stepwise maximum R(2) improvement method were performed to develop prediction models of surfactant risk, water quality, and aquatic habitat (dependent variables) using the geospatial parameters (independent variables) that characterized the upper Trinity River watershed. We show that GIS modeling has the potential to be a reliable and inexpensive method of predicting water and habitat quality in the upper Trinity River watershed and perhaps other highly urbanized

  12. 1992 toxic hazards research unit annual report. Annual report, 1 October 1991-30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, H.G.; Dodd, D.E.; Vinegar, A.; Schneider, M.G.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents a review of the activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU) for the period 1 October 1991 through 30 September 1992. The THRU conducts descriptive, mechanistic, and predictive toxicology research and toxicological risk assessments to provide data to predict health hazards and to assess health risks associated with human exposure to chemicals and materials associated with military systems and operational environments. The report includes summaries of ongoing or completed research activities for the individual toxicology research requirements of the U.S. Air Force, Army, and Navy; highlights of the research support elements and conference activities of the THRU; and appendices that describe the THRU organization and its publications and presentations. 1,3,3-Trinitroazetidine (TNAZ), 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene (TNB), Carboxylic acid metabolite, Chlorofluorocarbon, Chloroform, Delayed neurotoxicity, Halon replacement, Hydraulic fluid, Hydrazine, Inhalation, Jet engine oil, Lactational transfer, Methylene chloride, MIL-H-19457C, Neurotoxic Esterase (NTE), OTTO Fuel II, Perchloroethylene (PCE), Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling, Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (pCTFE), Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR), Reproductive, Risk assessment, Smoke, Tetrachloroethylene (PCE), Toxic dust, Vinyl Chloride (VC) and Trichloroethylene (TCE) mixture.

  13. Data gaps in toxicity testing of chemicals allowed in food in the United States.

    PubMed

    Neltner, Thomas G; Alger, Heather M; Leonard, Jack E; Maffini, Maricel V

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, chemical additives cannot be used in food without an affirmative determination that their use is safe by FDA or additive manufacturer. Feeding toxicology studies designed to estimate the amount of a chemical additive that can be eaten safely provide the most relevant information. We analyze how many chemical additives allowed in human food have feeding toxicology studies in three toxicological information sources including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) database. Less than 38% of FDA-regulated additives have a published feeding study. For chemicals directly added to food, 21.6% have feeding studies necessary to estimate a safe level of exposure and 6.7% have reproductive or developmental toxicity data in FDA's database. A program is needed to fill these significant knowledge gaps by using in vitro and in silico methods complemented with targeted in vivo studies to ensure public health is protected.

  14. Perspective on lead toxicity, a comparison between the United States and Iran.

    PubMed

    Pourmand, Ali; Khedir Al-Tiae, Tareq; Mazer-Amirshahi, Maryann

    2012-10-30

    Lead is a pervasive toxin that has been implicated in human poisonings throughout history. Exposure mitigation strategies in the United States and worldwide have led to a decline in symptomatic poisonings and population blood lead levels; however, lead remains a major health hazard. In this article, we review the history of lead toxicity, clinical manifestations ranging from subclinical and subtle features to life-threatening complications, and the subsequent public health interventions in the US. In addition, we explore common routes of lead exposure and the unique differences between the US and Iran. Although the US has made significant strides with regard to this public health issue, lead poisoning in both countries continues to be a health hazard in the adult and pediatric populations. It is also critical to consider natural disasters and reconstruction efforts as potential sources of lead contamination. In conclusion, we make recommendations that both the US and Iranian authorities can implement to eradicate lead as a public health hazard.

  15. Surfactant compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Novakovic, M.; Abend, P.G.

    1987-09-29

    A surfactant composition is described for subsequent addition to a soap slurring comprising an acyloxy alkane sulfonate salt. The sulfonate salt is present in an amount by weight of about 44 percent of about 56 percent. The polyol is present in an amount by weight of about 2 percent to about 6 percent, and water is present in an amount by weight of 26 to 36 percent. The composition constituting a solid reversible solution at ambient temperature and having a solids content of about 58 to 72 percent, whereby subsequent addition of the surfactant composition to a soap slurry results in formation of a soap/detergent bar having a smooth texture, uniform wear properties and a lack of grittiness.

  16. Biomarker Levels of Toxic Metals among Asian Populations in the United States: NHANES 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Awata, Hiroshi; Linder, Stephen; Mitchell, Laura E.; Delclos, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Asian subgroups. Results: Asians had significantly higher levels of all five metal biomarkers than other race/ethnic groups (p < 0.05), regardless of sociodemographic, physical, dietary, behavioral, or geographic characteristics. We also found variations in biomarker levels across the Asian subgroups. In general, Asian Indians had lower levels than the other two Asian subgroups, except for blood lead. The following characteristics were found to be significant predictors of several biomarker levels: sex, age, education, birthplace, smoking, and fish consumption.Results: Asians had significantly higher levels of all five metal biomarkers than other race/ethnic groups (p < 0.05), regardless of sociodemographic, physical, dietary, behavioral, or geographic characteristics. We also found variations in biomarker levels across the Asian subgroups. In general, Asian Indians had lower levels than the other two Asian subgroups, except for blood lead. The following characteristics were found to be significant predictors of several biomarker levels: sex, age, education, birthplace, smoking, and fish consumption. Conclusions: Overall, the Asian group had the highest geometric mean biomarker levels for all of the five metal variables. Furthermore, we provided evidence that significant variations in the biomarker levels are present across the Asian subgroups in the United States.Conclusions: Overall, the Asian group had the highest geometric mean biomarker levels for all of the five metal variables. Furthermore, we provided evidence that significant variations in the biomarker levels are present across the Asian subgroups in the United States. Citation: Awata H, Linder S, Mitchell LE, Delclos GL. 2017. Biomarker levels of toxic metals among Asian populations in the United States: NHANES 2011–2012. Environ Health Perspect 125:306–313; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP27Citation: Awata H, Linder S, Mitchell LE, Delclos GL. 2017. Biomarker levels of toxic metals among Asian populations

  17. Gemini surfactants from natural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Lourdes; Pinazo, Aurora; Pons, Ramon; Infante, Mrosa

    2014-03-01

    In this review, we report the most important contributions in the structure, synthesis, physicochemical (surface adsorption, aggregation and phase behaviour) and biological properties (toxicity, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation) of Gemini natural amino acid-based surfactants, and some potential applications, with an emphasis on the use of these surfactants as non-viral delivery system agents. Gemini surfactants derived from basic (Arg, Lys), neutral (Ser, Ala, Sar), acid (Asp) and sulphur containing amino acids (Cys) as polar head groups, and Geminis with amino acids/peptides in the spacer chain are reviewed.

  18. Race, deprivation, and immigrant isolation: The spatial demography of air-toxic clusters in the continental United States.

    PubMed

    Liévanos, Raoul S

    2015-11-01

    This article contributes to environmental inequality outcomes research on the spatial and demographic factors associated with cumulative air-toxic health risks at multiple geographic scales across the United States. It employs a rigorous spatial cluster analysis of census tract-level 2005 estimated lifetime cancer risk (LCR) of ambient air-toxic emissions from stationary (e.g., facility) and mobile (e.g., vehicular) sources to locate spatial clusters of air-toxic LCR risk in the continental United States. It then tests intersectional environmental inequality hypotheses on the predictors of tract presence in air-toxic LCR clusters with tract-level principal component factor measures of economic deprivation by race and immigrant status. Logistic regression analyses show that net of controls, isolated Latino immigrant-economic deprivation is the strongest positive demographic predictor of tract presence in air-toxic LCR clusters, followed by black-economic deprivation and isolated Asian/Pacific Islander immigrant-economic deprivation. Findings suggest scholarly and practical implications for future research, advocacy, and policy.

  19. Toxic Hazards Research Unit annual report, 1990. Annual report No. 27 (Final), 1 Oct 89-15 Nov 90

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, H.G.; Vinegar, A.; Kinkead, E.R.

    1990-12-01

    This report presents a review of the activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit for the period of 1 October 1989 through 15 November 1990. Research activities focused on toxicity evaluations of aerospace and naval chemicals to include aircraft fuels and rocket fuels, hydraulic fluids, ground water contaminants, and chemical defense simulants. There was increased utilization of multidisciplinary efforts for quantitative toxicology studies and the development and validation of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for predicting toxicity responses. The General Toxicology Laboratory conducted acute studies, toxicokinetic studies, repeated-dose studies, and subchronic inhalation studies to include a 90-day continuous inhalation study using the Thomas Domes. The development and characterization of a unique high pressure aerosol generator was a significant adjunct benefitting the study conducted in the Thomas Domes.

  20. Monodisperse nonionic isoprenoid-type hexahydrofarnesyl ethylene oxide surfactants: high throughput lyotropic liquid crystalline phase determination.

    PubMed

    Fong, Celesta; Weerawardena, Asoka; Sagnella, Sharon M; Mulet, Xavier; Krodkiewska, Irena; Chong, Josephine; Drummond, Calum J

    2011-03-15

    The neat and lyotropic phase behavior of eight new ethylene oxide amphiphiles (EO = 1-8) with a hexahydrofarnesyl chain (3,7,11-trimethyldodecyl) and narrow polydispersity (>98.5% purity) is reported. Below five EO units the behavior of the neat surfactants show only a glass transition, Tg ∼ -90 °C. Above four EO units, crystallization (Tcrys) and crystal-isotropic liquid (Tm) transitions are also observed that increase with degree of ethoxylation of the surfactant headgroup. The lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behavior spans a complex spectrum of surfactant-water interfacial curvatures. Specifically, inverse phases are present below ambient temperatures for EO < 4, with HFarn(EO)2 exhibiting an inverse hexagonal (H(II)) phase stable to dilution. The phase diagram of HFarn(EO)3 displays both the gyroid (Ia3d) and double diamond (Pn3m) inverse bicontinuous cubic phases, with the latter being thermodynamically stable in excess water within the physiological regime. There is a strong preference for planar bilayer structures at intermediate headgroup ethoxylation, with the crossover to normal phases occurring at HFarn(EO)(7-8) which exhibits normal hexagonal (H(I)) and cubic (Q(I)) phases at ambient temperatures. The toxicity of colloidal dispersions of these EO amphiphiles was assayed against normal breast epithelial (HMEpiC) and breast cancer (MCF7) cell lines. The IC50 of the EO amphiphiles was similar in both cell lines with moderate toxicity ranging from ca. <5 to 140 μM in an in vitro cell viability assay. Observations are qualitatively rationalized in terms of the molecular geometry of the surfactant. The physicochemical behavior of the HFarnesyl ethylene oxide amphiphiles is compared to other ethylene oxide surfactants.

  1. Influence of clay mineral structure and surfactant nature on the adsorption capacity of surfactants by clays.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, M J; Dorado, M C; del Hoyo, C; Rodríguez-Cruz, M S

    2008-01-15

    Adsorption of three surfactants of different nature, Triton X-100 (TX100) (non-ionic), sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) (anionic) and octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA) (cationic) by four layered (montmorillonite, illite, muscovite and kaolinite) and two non-layered (sepiolite and palygorskite) clay minerals was studied. The objective was to improve the understanding of surfactant behaviour in soils for the possible use of these compounds in remediation technologies of contaminated soils by toxic organic compounds. Adsorption isotherms were obtained using surfactant concentrations higher and lower than the critical micelle concentration (cmc). These isotherms showed different adsorption stages of the surfactants by the clay minerals, and were classified in different subgroups of the L-, S- or H-types. An increase in the adsorption of SDS and ODTMA by all clay minerals is observed up to the cmc of the surfactant in the equilibrium solution is reached. However, there was further TX100 adsorption when the equilibrium concentration was well above the cmc. Adsorption constants from Langmuir and Freundlich equations (TX100 and ODTMA) or Freundlich equation (SDS) were used to compare adsorption of different surfactants by clay minerals studied. These constants indicated the surfactant adsorption by clay minerals followed this order ODTMA>TX100>SDS. The adsorption of TX100 and ODTMA was higher by montmorillonite and illite, and the adsorption of SDS was found to be higher by kaolinite and sepiolite. Results obtained show the influence of clay mineral structure and surfactant nature on the adsorption capacity of surfactants by clays, and they indicate the interest to consider the soil mineralogical composition when one surfactant have to be selected in order to establish more efficient strategies for the remediation of soils and water contaminated by toxic organic pollutants.

  2. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOEpatents

    McElhanon, James R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Zifer, Thomas; Jamison, Gregory M.; Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Long, Timothy M.; Wheeler, David R.; Staiger, Chad L.

    2009-11-24

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  3. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOEpatents

    McElhanon, James R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Zifer, Thomas; Jamison, Gregory M.; Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Long, Timothy M.; Wheeler, David R.; Staiger, Chad L.

    2006-04-04

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments and the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  4. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOEpatents

    McElhanon, James R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Zifer, Thomas; Jamison, Gregory M.; Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Long, Timothy M.; Wheeler, David R.; Staiger, Chad L.

    2009-09-29

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  5. Copper speciation in variably toxic sediments at the Ely Copper Mine, Vermont, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Bryn E.; Foster, Andrea L.; Seal II, Robert R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Webb, Samuel M.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.

    2016-01-01

    At the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site, Cu concentrations exceed background values in both streamwater (160–1200 times) and sediments (15–79 times). Previously, these sediment samples were incubated with laboratory test organisms, and they exhibited variable toxicity for different stream sites. In this study we combined bulk- and microscale techniques to determine Cu speciation and distribution in these contaminated sediments on the basis of evidence from previous work that Cu was the most important stressor in this environment and that variable observed toxicity could have resulted from differences in Cu speciation. Copper speciation results were similar at microscopic and bulk scales. The major Cu species in the more toxic samples were sorbed or coprecipitated with secondary Mn (birnessite) and Fe minerals (jarosite and goethite), which together accounted for nearly 80% of the total Cu. The major Cu species in the less toxic samples were Cu sulfides (chalcopyrite and a covellite-like phase), making up about 80–95% of the total Cu, with minor amounts of Cu associated with jarosite or goethite. These Cu speciation results are consistent with the toxicity results, considering that Cu sorbed or coprecipitated with secondary phases at near-neutral pH is relatively less stable than Cu bound to sulfide at lower pH. The more toxic stream sediment sites were those that contained fewer detrital sulfides and were upstream of the major mine waste pile, suggesting that removal and consolidation of sulfide-bearing waste piles on site may not eliminate all sources of bioaccessible Cu.

  6. Copper Speciation in Variably Toxic Sediments at the Ely Copper Mine, Vermont, United States.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Bryn E; Foster, Andrea L; Seal, Robert R; Piatak, Nadine M; Webb, Samuel M; Hammarstrom, Jane M

    2016-02-02

    At the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site, Cu concentrations exceed background values in both streamwater (160-1200 times) and sediments (15-79 times). Previously, these sediment samples were incubated with laboratory test organisms, and they exhibited variable toxicity for different stream sites. In this study we combined bulk- and microscale techniques to determine Cu speciation and distribution in these contaminated sediments on the basis of evidence from previous work that Cu was the most important stressor in this environment and that variable observed toxicity could have resulted from differences in Cu speciation. Copper speciation results were similar at microscopic and bulk scales. The major Cu species in the more toxic samples were sorbed or coprecipitated with secondary Mn (birnessite) and Fe minerals (jarosite and goethite), which together accounted for nearly 80% of the total Cu. The major Cu species in the less toxic samples were Cu sulfides (chalcopyrite and a covellite-like phase), making up about 80-95% of the total Cu, with minor amounts of Cu associated with jarosite or goethite. These Cu speciation results are consistent with the toxicity results, considering that Cu sorbed or coprecipitated with secondary phases at near-neutral pH is relatively less stable than Cu bound to sulfide at lower pH. The more toxic stream sediment sites were those that contained fewer detrital sulfides and were upstream of the major mine waste pile, suggesting that removal and consolidation of sulfide-bearing waste piles on site may not eliminate all sources of bioaccessible Cu.

  7. The binding and insertion of imidazolium-based ionic surfactants into lipid bilayers: the effects of the surfactant size and salt concentration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwankyu; Jeon, Tae-Joon

    2015-02-28

    Imidazolium-based ionic surfactants with hydrocarbon tails of different sizes were simulated with lipid bilayers at different salt concentrations. Starting with the random position of ionic surfactants outside the bilayer, surfactants with long tails mostly insert into the bilayer, while those with short tails show the insertion of fewer surfactant molecules, indicating the effect of the tail length. In particular, surfactants with a tail of two or four hydrocarbons insert and reversibly detach from the bilayer, while the inserted longer surfactants cannot be reversibly detached because of the strong hydrophobic interaction with lipid tails, in quantitative agreement with experiments. Longer surfactants insert more deeply and irreversibly into the bilayer and thus increase lateral diffusivities of the bilayer, indicating that longer surfactants more significantly disorder lipid bilayers, which also agrees with experiments regarding the effect of the tail length of ionic surfactants on membrane permeability and toxicity. Addition of NaCl ions weakens the electrostatic interactions between headgroups of surfactants and lipids, leading to the binding of fewer surfactants into the bilayer. In particular, our simulation findings indicate that insertion of ionic surfactants can be initiated by either the hydrophobic interaction between tails of surfactants and lipids or the electrostatic binding between imidazolium heads and lipid heads, and the strength of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions depends on the tail length of surfactants.

  8. Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome Caused by Group G Streptococcus, United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Marina

    2017-01-01

    We describe successful management of 3 patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) attributable to group G Streptococcus infection. This small series supports recognition of group G Streptococcus in the etiology of STSS. We propose intravenous immunoglobulin be used in treatment as it is for STSS caused by group A Streptococcus. PMID:27983491

  9. DNA compaction by azobenzene-containing surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Kopyshev, Alexey; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana

    2011-08-15

    We report on the interaction of cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant with DNA investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and atomic force microscopy. The properties of the surfactant can be controlled with light by reversible switching of the azobenzene unit, incorporated into the surfactant tail, between a hydrophobic trans (visible irradiation) and a hydrophilic cis (UV irradiation) configuration. The influence of the trans-cis isomerization of the azobenzene on the compaction process of DNA molecules and the role of both isomers in the formation and colloidal stability of DNA-surfactant complexes is discussed. It is shown that the trans isomer plays a major role in the DNA compaction process. The influence of the cis isomer on the DNA coil configuration is rather small. The construction of a phase diagram of the DNA concentration versus surfactant/DNA charge ratio allows distancing between three major phases: colloidally stable and unstable compacted globules, and extended coil conformation. There is a critical concentration of DNA above which the compacted globules can be hindered from aggregation and precipitation by adding an appropriate amount of the surfactant in the trans configuration. This is because of the compensation of hydrophobicity of the globules with an increasing amount of the surfactant. Below the critical DNA concentration, the compacted globules are colloidally stable and can be reversibly transferred with light to an extended coil state.

  10. Tunable, antibacterial activity of silicone polyether surfactants.

    PubMed

    Khan, Madiha F; Zepeda-Velazquez, Laura; Brook, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Silicone surfactants are used in a variety of applications, however, limited data is available on the relationship between surfactant structure and biological activity. A series of seven nonionic, silicone polyether surfactants with known structures was tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli BL21. The compounds varied in their hydrophobic head, comprised of branched silicone structures with 3-10 siloxane linkages and, in two cases, phenyl substitution, and hydrophilic tail of 8-44 poly(ethylene glycol) units. The surfactants were tested at three concentrations: below, at, and above their Critical Micelle Concentrations (CMC) against 5 concentrations of E. coli BL21 in a three-step assay comprised of a 14-24h turbidometric screen, a live-dead stain and viable colony counts. The bacterial concentration had little effect on antibacterial activity. For most of the surfactants, antibacterial activity was higher at concentrations above the CMC. Surfactants with smaller silicone head groups had as much as 4 times the bioactivity of surfactants with larger groups, with the smallest hydrophobe exhibiting potency equivalent to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Smaller PEG chains were similarly associated with higher potency. These data link lower micelle stability and enhanced permeability of smaller silicone head groups to antibacterial activity. The results demonstrate that simple manipulation of nonionic silicone polyether structure leads to significant changes in antibacterial activity.

  11. Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas: part II--sediment toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus dilutus.

    PubMed

    Kemble, Nile E; Hardesty, Douglas K; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Kunz, James L; Sibley, Paul K; Calhoun, Daniel L; Gilliom, Robert J; Kuivila, Kathryn M; Nowell, Lisa H; Moran, Patrick W

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between sediment toxicity and sediment chemistry were evaluated for 98 samples collected from seven metropolitan study areas across the United States. Sediment-toxicity tests were conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28 day exposures) and with the midge Chironomus dilutus (10 day exposures). Overall, 33 % of the samples were toxic to amphipods and 12 % of the samples were toxic to midge based on comparisons with reference conditions within each study area. Significant correlations were observed between toxicity end points and sediment concentrations of trace elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), or organochlorine (OC) pesticides; however, these correlations were typically weak, and contaminant concentrations were usually below sediment-toxicity thresholds. Concentrations of the pyrethroid bifenthrin exceeded an estimated threshold of 0.49 ng/g (at 1 % total organic carbon) in 14 % of the samples. Of the samples that exceeded this bifenthrin toxicity threshold, 79 % were toxic to amphipods compared with 25 % toxicity for the samples below this threshold. Application of mean probable effect concentration quotients (PECQs) based on measures of groups of contaminants (trace elements, total PAHs, total PCBs, OC pesticides, and pyrethroid pesticides [bifenthrin in particular]) improved the correct classification of samples as toxic or not toxic to amphipods compared with measures of individual groups of contaminants.

  12. Use of surfactants for the remediation of contaminated soils: a review.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xuhui; Jiang, Rui; Xiao, Wei; Yu, Jiaguo

    2015-03-21

    Due to the great harm caused by soil contamination, there is an increasing interest to apply surfactants to the remediation of a variety of contaminated soils worldwide. This review article summarizes the findings of recent literatures regarding remediation of contaminated soils/sites using surfactants as an enhancing agent. For the surfactant-based remedial technologies, the adsorption behaviors of surfactants onto soil, the solubilizing capability of surfactants, and the toxicity and biocompatibility of surfactants are important considerations. Surfactants can enhance desorption of pollutants from soil, and promote bioremediation of organics by increasing bioavailability of pollutants. The removal of heavy metals and radionuclides from soils involves the mechanisms of dissolution, surfactant-associated complexation, and ionic exchange. In addition to the conventional ionic and nonionic surfactants, gemini surfactants and biosurfactants are also applied to soil remediation due to their benign features like lower critical micelle concentration (CMC) values and better biocompatibility. Mixed surfactant systems and combined use of surfactants with other additives are often adopted to improve the overall performance of soil washing solution for decontamination. Worldwide the field studies and full-scale remediation using surfactant-based technologies are yet limited, however, the already known cases reveal the good prospect of applying surfactant-based technologies to soil remediation.

  13. Surfactant Enhanced DNAPL Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    or the permeability contrast (i.e., degree of heterogeneity) that is present in the DNAPL zone. To solubilize DNAPL with surfactants, a sufficient...with respect to the effects of permeability and heterogeneity upon the costs of SEAR: as permeability decreases and/or the degree of heterogeneity...not be an issue for surfactant recovery at all sites. The degree to which MEUF will concentrate the calcium is a function of the surfactant itself

  14. Towards unravelling surfactant transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellier, Mathieu; Panda, Satyananda

    2015-11-01

    Surfactant transport arises in many natural or industrial settings. Examples include lipid tear layers in the eye, pulmonary surfactant replacement therapy, or industrial coating flows. Flows driven by the surface tension gradient which arises as a consequence of surfactant concentration inhomogeneity, also known as Marangoni-driven flows, have attracted the attention of fluid dynamists for several decades and has led to the development of sophisticated models and the undeniable advancement of the understanding of such flows. Yet, experimental confirmation of these models has been hampered by the difficulty in reliably and accurately measuring the surfactant concentration and its temporal evolution. In this contribution, we propose a methodology which may help shed some light on surfactant transport at the surface of thin liquid films. The surface stress induced by surfactant concentration induces a flow at the free surface which is visible and measurable. In the context of thin film flows for which the lubrication approximation hold, we demonstrate how the knowledge of this free surface flow field provides sufficient information to reconstruct the surfactant tension field. From the surface tension and an assumed equation of state, the local surfactant concentration can also be calculated and other transport parameters such as the surfactant surface diffusivity indirectly inferred. In this contribution, the proposed methodology is tested with synthetic data generated by the forward solution of the governing partial differential equations in order to illustrate the feasibility of the algorithm and highlight numerical challenges.

  15. Surfactant phospholipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Agassandian, Marianna; Mallampalli, Rama K.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is essential for life and is comprised of a complex lipoprotein-like mixture that lines the inner surface of the lung to prevent alveolar collapse at the end of expiration. The molecular composition of surfactant depends on highly integrated and regulated processes involving its biosynthesis, remodeling, degradation, and intracellular trafficking. Despite its multicomponent composition, the study of surfactant phospholipid metabolism has focused on two predominant components, disaturated phosphatidylcholine that confers surface-tension lowering activities, and phosphatidylglycerol, recently implicated in innate immune defense. Future studies providing a better understanding of the molecular control and physiological relevance of minor surfactant lipid components are needed. PMID:23026158

  16. A perspective on the epidemiology of acetaminophen exposure and toxicity in the United States.

    PubMed

    Blieden, Marissa; Paramore, L Clark; Shah, Dhvani; Ben-Joseph, Rami

    2014-05-01

    Acetaminophen is a commonly-used analgesic in the US and, at doses of more than 4 g/day, can lead to serious hepatotoxicity. Recent FDA and CMS decisions serve to limit and monitor exposure to high-dose acetaminophen. This literature review aims to describe the exposure to and consequences of high-dose acetaminophen among chronic pain patients in the US. Each year in the US, approximately 6% of adults are prescribed acetaminophen doses of more than 4 g/day and 30,000 patients are hospitalized for acetaminophen toxicity. Up to half of acetaminophen overdoses are unintentional, largely related to opioid-acetaminophen combinations and attempts to achieve better symptom relief. Liver injury occurs in 17% of adults with unintentional acetaminophen overdose.

  17. Perspective on the use of humic acids from biomass as natural surfactants for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Salati, Silvia; Papa, Gabriella; Adani, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    In the context of renewable vs. non-renewable sources of chemical compounds, the development of natural surfactants as a substitute for synthetic surfactants in technological applications is an important issue. In addition, as synthetic surfactants can persist in the environment causing toxic effects, the use of natural products presents a possibility to minimize impact on the environment. Nowadays, a promising new approach in surfactant-based technologies, consists of the use of humic acids (HAs) extracted directly from biomass that exhibit amphiphilic properties, and can be conveniently used as environmentally friendly surfactants. The raw material from which HAs are extracted and their macromolecular composition affect surfactant properties. Therefore fundamental data from more strictly qualitative aspects, needs to be investigated. This review highlights surfactant ability and chemical properties of HA substances coming from renewable sources in comparison to synthetic surfactants, and points out the capacity for HAs to be used effectively in this field of application.

  18. Toxic legacy: the environmental impact of the manufactured gas industry in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tarr, Joel A

    2014-01-01

    The manufactured gas industry provided cities in the United States with energy for light and power during much of the period from approximately 1850 to 1950. This article explores the history of the effects of this industry on air, land, and water environments; it also examines attempts by the courts and municipal and state governments to regulate gas-waste pollution and the industry's response. The article concludes by exploring the heritage of badly contaminated sites that the manufactured gas industry left to the nation after it was replaced by natural gas after World War II.

  19. SURFACTANTS IN LUBRICATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surfactants are one of the most widely applied materials by consumers and industry. The application areas for surfactants span from everyday mundane tasks such as cleaning, to highly complex processes involving the formulation of pharmaceuticals, foods, pesticides, lubricants, etc. Even though sur...

  20. SURFACTANTS AND SUBSURFACE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the limitations of pump-and-trat technology, attention is now focused on the feasibility of surfactant use to increase its efficiency. Surfactants have been studied for use in soil washing and enhanced oil recovery. Although similarities exist between the application...

  1. A national survey of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) pollutants in the United States milk supply.

    PubMed

    Schaum, John; Schuda, Laurie; Wu, Chieh; Sears, Rhonda; Ferrario, Joe; Andrews, Kimberlea

    2003-05-01

    This study measured 21 persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) pollutants in the US milk supply. Since milk fat is likely to be among the highest dietary sources of exposure to PBTs, it is important to understand their levels in this food. Nationwide samples were collected from 45 dairy plants in July of 2000 and again in January 2001. The levels of all chemicals in the chlorobenzene, pesticide and other halogenated organic groups were determined to be below their detection limits in all samples. National averages were computed for 11 chemicals or chemical groups found above the detection limits. The national average CDD/CDF and PCB TEQ concentrations were 14.30 and 8.64 pg/l, respectively, for a total of 22.94 pg/l. These levels are about half the values found in a similar study conducted in 1996. If this difference is in fact indicative of declining milk levels and assuming exposure levels from nondairy pathways have remained the same over this time period, this would result in an overall decrease in adult background dioxin exposure of 14%. Six PAHs were detected with national averages ranging from 40 to 777 ng/l. Cadmium concentrations ranged from 150 to 870 ng/l with a national average of 360 ng/l. Lead concentrations were consistently higher than those of cadmium, ranging from 630 to 1950 ng/l with a national average of 830 ng/l. PAHs showed the strongest seasonal/geographic differences, with higher levels in winter than summer, north than south and east than west. Average adult daily intakes from total milk fat ingestion were computed for all detected compounds and compared to total intakes from all pathways: CDD/CDF/PCB TEQs: 8 vs. 55 pg/day, PAHs: 0.6 vs. 3 micro g/day, lead: 0.14 vs. 4-6 micro g/day, and cadmium: 0.06 vs. 30 micro g/day.

  2. Capillary electrochromatography-mass spectrometry of nonionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Norton, Dean; Shamsi, Shahab A

    2007-12-15

    The Triton X (TX)-series are alkylphenol polyethoxylates -type nonionic surfactants of varying numbers of ethylene oxide units. Applications include industrial and household detergent formulations as well as emulsifying agents. For analysis of these surfactants, capillary electrochromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (CEC-ESI-MS) offers several unique advantages over the traditional hyphenation methods based on HPLC-MS. These include higher plate numbers attainable in CEC-MS, as well as more compatible flow rate (submicroliter) when coupled to ESI-MS and, perhaps most importantly, less consumption of toxic and costly organic solvents. In this work, different CEC-ESI-MS parameters such as mobile-phase composition, sheath liquid, and spray chamber parameters were optimized to provide suitable and sensitive analysis of short-, medium-, and long-chain length (e.g., n = 1-16) TX-series nonionic surfactants. The optimized CEC-ESI-MS conditions were mobile phase containing 90/10 ACN/2.5 mM Tris, pH 8, sheath liquid containing 50/50 MeOH/10 mM HCO(2)NH(4) delivered at 5 microL/min, spray chamber set to drying gas flow of 6 mL/min, nebulizer pressure of 5 psi, and drying gas temperature set to 200 degrees C. This optimization is followed by the more challenging separation of very long chain TX-series with a large number (n = 30-70) of ethoxy units, which were initially found to exhibit extreme retention using the developed method. It was observed that through the addition of small volume fraction of polar-aprotic tetrahydrofuran solvent to the running buffer, the retention time could be significantly reduced thus enhancing the feasibility for CEC-ESI-MS analysis of these very long chain nonionic surfactants for the first time. The detection limit was approximately 37 microg/mL total octylphenol ethoxylate for TX-45; acceptable precision of migration time (<1% RSD, n = 3) and peak area ( approximately 4% RSD, n = 3) were achieved.

  3. Effect of surfactant addition on phenanthrene biodegradation in sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Tsomides, H.J.; Hughes, J.B.; Thomas, J.M.; Ward, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    A laboratory study was conducted to determine whether commercial surfactants enhance the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sediments. Phenanthrene was chosen as a representative PAH. An inoculum of PAH-degrading microorganisms, enriched from an aquatic sediment, was used in sediment-water slurry microcosm biodegradation experiments. Of seven nonionic surfactants tested, only one (Triton X-100) did not inhibit phenanthrene mineralization at concentrations above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Temporal studies on Triton X-100 revealed that while it initially inhibited mineralization in sediment-free microcosms, after 1 week Triton X-100 slightly improved phenanthrene biotransformation and mineralization in microcosms with and without sediment. For all treatments, phenanthrene disappearance was complete after 9 d. and mineralization reached 50 to 65% after 12 d. Sorption to the sediment appears to have reduced the free aqueous surfactant concentration, thereby reducing surfactant toxicity to the microorganisms. These results suggest that many surfactants are toxic to PAH-degrading microorganisms, and while surfactant addition may not always have adverse effects on biodegradation, the use of surfactants might not be necessary to achieve complete contaminant removal.

  4. Effect of surfactant addition on phenanthrene biodegradation in sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Tsomides, H.J.; Hughes, J.B.; Thomas, J.M.; Ward, C.H.

    1995-06-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to determine whether commercial surfactants enhance the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated sediments. Phenanthrene was chosen as a representative PAH; an inoculum of PAH-degrading microorganisms, enriched from an aquatic sediment, was used in sediment-water slurry microcosm biodegradation experiments. Of seven non-ionic surfactants tested, only one (Triton X-100) did not inhibit phenanthrene mineralization at concentrations above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Temporal studies on Triton X-100 revealed that while it initially inhibited mineralization in sediment-free microcosms, after 1 week Triton X-100 slightly improved phenanthrene biotransformation and mineralization in microcosms with and without sediment. For all treatments, phenanthrene disappearance was complete after 9 d, and mineralization reached 50 to 65% after 12 d. Sorption to the sediment appears to have reduced the free aqueous surfactant concentration, thereby reducing surfactant toxicity to the microorganisms. These results suggest that many surfactants are toxic to PAH-degrading microorganisms, and while surfactant addition may not always have adverse effects on biodegradation, the use of surfactants might not be desirable to achieve complete contamination removal.

  5. Selection of nonionic surfactants in enhancing biodegradation of phenanthrene in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Jahan, K.; Ahmed, T.; Maier, W.J.

    1996-12-31

    This research addresses the influence of sub-cmc concentrations of selected commercial nonionic surfactants on the biodegradation of phenanthrene. Various types of nonionic surfactants were tested to determine their ability to enhance the availability of phenanthrene to microorganisms in soil systems. Nonionic surfactants were selected as they are known to have greater hydrocarbon solubilizing power, less toxicity to microbial populations and low foaming property. Surfactants were tested to measure their effectiveness for increasing solubility of phenanthrene, their sorption on the soil matrix, their biodegradability and also their effect on the sorption and biodegradation of phenanthrene. Batch and column studies were carried out for the biodegradation experiments. Batch isotherm experiments were conducted to characterize the sorption of surfactants and phenanthrene. Solubility enhancement of phenanthrene by the selected surfactants was mainly a micellar phenomena. Sorption of phenanthrene and the surfactants could be represented by the linear isotherm model. Sorption of phenanthrene was enhanced in the presence of surfactants. Batch and column biodegradation studies indicate that biodegradation of phenanthrene was enhanced in the presence of the surfactants. None of the surfactants were biodegraded during the timecourse of these experiments. This study indicates that surfactant selection for in-situ bioremediation of insoluble hydrocarbons will depend on a large number of factors with main emphasis on the hydrocarbon solubilizing power, low toxicity to Zn bacteria and the environment and low sorptive properties.

  6. Coacervation with surfactants: From single-chain surfactants to gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiwei; Wang, Yilin

    2017-01-01

    Coacervation is a spontaneous process during which a colloidal dispersion separates into two immiscible liquid phases: a colloid-rich liquid phase in equilibrium with a diluted phase. Coacervation is usually divided into simple coacervation and complex coacervation according to the number of components. Surfactant-based coacervation normally contains traditional single-chain surfactants. With the development of surfactants, gemini surfactants with two amphiphilic moieties have been applied to form coacervation. This review summarizes the development of simple coacervation and complex coacervation in the systems of single-chain surfactants and gemini surfactants. Simple coacervation in surfactant solutions with additives or at elevated temperature and complex coacervation in surfactant/polymer mixtures by changing charge densities, molecular weight, ionic strength, pH, or temperature are reviewed. The comparison between gemini surfactants and corresponding monomeric single-chain surfactants reveals that the unique structures of gemini surfactants endow them with higher propensity to generate coacervation.

  7. Biodegradation of phenanthrene in soils in the presence of surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Jahan, K.

    1993-01-01

    This research addresses the effect of low surfactant concentrations on the biodegradation of slightly soluble organic compounds in the presence and absence of soil. Biodegradation of phenanthrene in excess of its aqueous solubility by an acclimated mixed culture was studied in the presence of nonionic surfactants. Nonionic surfactants were selected over other types of surfactants because of their higher hydrocarbon solubilizing power, weaker adsorption to charged sites, less toxicity to bacteria, and poor foaming properties. Surfactants were tested to measure their effectiveness for increasing the solubility of phenanthrene, their adsorption on the soil matrix, their biodegradability, their effect on the adsorption of phenanthrene and on the rates of biodegradation of phenanthrene. Solubility enhancement studies of phenanthrene by the surfactants indicated relatively small effects at sub-micellar surfactant concentrations. Batch biodegradation studies in which phenanthrene was available as particulates and as a surface coating on sand were carried out in closed BOD bottles in the Hach manometric system. Addition of surfactants at 25 mg/L enhanced biodegradation rates as measured by oxygen uptake, protein production and disappearance of phenanthrene. A dynamic model which couples dissolution and biodegradation processes could adequately represent the experimental batch data. Modelling studies suggest that biodegradation was accelerated because the dissolution rates of phenanthrene increased in presence of the surfactants. Continuous flow column studies with phenanthrene coated Jordan sand was carried out to simulate groundwater flow conditions. Sorption studies on Jordan aquifer sand indicated that this low-carbon aquifer material adsorbs small amounts of phenanthrene as well as surfactants. The tests show that low surfactant concentrations were marginally beneficial in washing phenanthrene from precoated sand.

  8. A Comparison of the Daphnids, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia ambigua, for their Utilization in Routine Toxicity Testing in the Southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, S.M.; Chandler, G.T.; Specht, W.L.

    2003-02-18

    U.S. regulatory agencies commonly require effluent toxicity testing with Ceriodaphnia dubia- a practice which has led to the criticism that this species and test protocol often does not reflect local taxa nor site-specific conditions. Using an indigenous test species may produce a more realistic model of local effects and may minimize test endpoint variance due to regional differences in water quality. This study addressed the substitution of C. dubia with Daphnia ambigua for toxicity testing in the southeastern United States. This investigation determined that D. ambigua could be laboratory cultured with only minimal changes to established regulatory protocol, and that the life-cycle characteristics of this species were conducive to traditional acute and chronic aquatic toxicity test methods used with other daphnids. Acute toxicity tests showed that D. ambigua was less sensitive to some toxicants (sodium chloride, copper sulfate, and sodium lauryl sulfate) yet more sensitive to others (chlorpyrifos). Chronic tests with copper sulfate and sodium chloride resulted in lower EC50s for D. ambigua reproduction with both compounds. When exposed to low-alkalinity, low-pH stream waters typical of many southeastern United States watersheds, C. dubia demonstrated a significant reproductive depression in two of three streams tested, while D. ambigua experienced no chronic effect. These results suggest that D. ambigua may serve as a suitable surrogate for C. dubia as an toxicity indicator species in these types of receiving streams.

  9. A comparison of the daphnids Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia ambigua for their utilization in routine toxicity testing in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Harmon, S M; Specht, W L; Chandler, G T

    2003-07-01

    U.S. regulatory agencies commonly require effluent toxicity testing with Ceriodaphnia dubia--a practice that has led to the criticism that this species and test protocol often does not reflect local taxa or site-specific conditions. Using an indigenous test species may produce a more realistic model of local effects and may minimize test endpoint variance due to regional differences in water quality. This study addressed the substitution of C. dubia with Daphnia ambigua for toxicity testing in the southeastern United States. This investigation determined that D. ambigua could be laboratory cultured with only minimal changes to established regulatory protocol and that the life-cycle characteristics of this species were conducive to traditional acute and chronic aquatic toxicity test methods used with other daphnids. Acute toxicity tests showed that D. ambigua was less sensitive to some toxicants (sodium chloride, copper sulfate, and sodium lauryl sulfate) but more sensitive to others (chlorpyrifos). Chronic tests with copper sulfate and sodium chloride resulted in lower EC50S for D. ambigua reproduction with both compounds. When exposed to low-alkalinity, low-pH stream waters typical of many southeastern United States watersheds, C. dubia demonstrated a significant reproductive depression in two of three streams tested, whereas D. ambigua experienced no chronic effect. These results suggest that D. ambigua may serve as a suitable surrogate for C. dubia as an toxicity indicator species in these types of receiving streams.

  10. Metathesis depolymerizable surfactants

    DOEpatents

    Jamison, Gregory M.; Wheeler, David R.; Loy, Douglas A.; Simmons, Blake A.; Long, Timothy M.; McElhanon, James R.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Staiger, Chad L.

    2008-04-15

    A class of surfactant molecules whose structure includes regularly spaced unsaturation in the tail group and thus, can be readily decomposed by ring-closing metathesis, and particularly by the action of a transition metal catalyst, to form small molecule products. These small molecules are designed to have increased volatility and/or enhanced solubility as compared to the original surfactant molecule and are thus easily removed by solvent extraction or vacuum extraction at low temperature. By producing easily removable decomposition products, the surfactant molecules become particularly desirable as template structures for preparing meso- and microstructural materials with tailored properties.

  11. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of synthetic surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Tiehm, A. )

    1994-01-01

    The biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) often is limited by low water solubility and dissolution rate. Nonionic surfactants and sodium dodecyl sulfate increased the concentration of PAH in the water phase because of solubilization. The degradation of PAH was inhibited by sodium dodecyl sulfate because this surfactant was preferred as a growth substrate. Growth of mixed cultures with phenanthrene and fluroanthrene solubilized by a nonionic surfactant prior to inoculation was exponential, indicating a high bioavailability of the solubilized hydrocarbons. Nonionic surfactants of the alkylethoxylate type and the alkylphenolethoxylate type with an average ethoxylate chain length of 9 to 12 monomers were toxic to a PAH-degrading Mycobacterium sp. and to several PAH-degrading mixed cultures. Toxicity of the surfactants decreased with increasing hydrophilicity, i.e., with increasing ethoxylate chain length. Nontoxic surfactants enhanced the degradation of fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene.

  12. Hidden Toxicity in Neonatal Intensive Care Units: Phthalate Exposure in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Demirel, Atalay; Çoban, Asuman; Yıldırım, Şükran; Doğan, Canan; Sancı, Rukiye; İnce, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine exposure to endocrine-disrupting phthalates in preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Methods: Urine samples (n=151) from 36 preterm infants (<32 weeks of gestation and/or <1500 g of birth weight) were collected on the first 3 days of admission to the NICU and biweekly thereafter. Diethylhexyl phthalate contents of indwelling medical devices used in various procedures and the concentrations of phthalate metabolites in the urine samples were analyzed. The relationships between urinary excretion, exposure intensity, postnatal age and birth weight were examined. Results: The mean gestational age and mean birth weight of the study infants were 28.9±1.5 weeks and 1024±262 g, respectively. Diethylhexyl phthalate was detected in umbilical catheters, endotracheal tubes, nasogastric tubes, and nasal cannula. Monoethylhydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP) was the most frequently detected metabolite (81.4%); its concentration increased during the first 4 weeks and then started to decrease but never disappeared. Patients who did not need indwelling catheters (except nasogastric tubes) after 2 weeks were classified as group 1 and those who continued to have indwelling catheters as group 2. Although not of statistical significance, MEHHP levels decreased in group 1 but continued to stay high in group 2 (in the 4th week, group 1: 65.9 ng/mL and group 2: 255.3 ng/mL). Levels of MEHHP in the first urinary samples were significantly higher in infants with a birth weight <1000 g (<1000 g: 63.2±93.8 ng/mL, ≥1000 g: 10.9±22.9 ng/mL, p=0.001). Conclusion: Phthalate metabolites were detected even in the first urine samples of very low birth weight newborns. Phthalate levels were higher in the first weeks of intensive invasive procedures and in preterm infants with a birth weight less than 1000 g. MEHHP was the most frequently detected metabolite and could be a suitable biomarker for the detection of phthalate exposure in preterm infants. PMID

  13. Recent advances in gemini surfactants: oleic Acid-based gemini surfactants and polymerizable gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Gemini surfactants recently developed by our research group are introduced from the standpoints of their syntheses, aqueous solution properties, and potential applications. Two series of gemini surfactants are introduced in this short review, the first of which is the oleic acid-based gemini surfactants, and the second is the polymerizable gemini surfactants. These gemini surfactants have been developed not only as environmentally friendly materials (the use of gemini surfactants enables the reduction of the total consumption of surfactants in chemical products owing to their excellent adsorption and micellization capabilities at low concentrations) but also as functional organic materials.

  14. Phosphine oxide surfactants revisited.

    PubMed

    Stubenrauch, Cosima; Preisig, Natalie; Laughlin, Robert G

    2016-04-01

    This review summarizes everything we currently know about the nonionic surfactants alkyl dimethyl (C(n)DMPO) and alkyl diethyl (C(n)DEPO) phosphine oxide (PO surfactants). The review starts with the synthesis and the general properties (Section 2) of these compounds and continues with their interfacial properties (Section 3) such as surface tension, surface rheology, interfacial tension and adsorption at solid surfaces. We discuss studies on thin liquid films and foams stabilized by PO surfactants (Section 4) as well as studies on their self-assembly into lyotropic liquid crystals and microemulsions, respectively (Section 5). We aim at encouraging colleagues from both academia and industry to take on board PO surfactants whenever possible and feasible because of their broad variety of excellent properties.

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Guideline for Monitoring Propylene Glycol Toxicity in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Patients Receiving Continuous Infusion Lorazepam

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Rebecca; Gupta, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop and determine the safety of a guideline, by using osmol gap as an indicator of propylene glycol toxicity for pediatric patients receiving continuous infusion lorazepam. METHODS: From existing adult data, a guideline was developed for the use of continuous infusion lorazepam in pediatric critical care patients with recommendations for using osmol gap as an indicator of propylene glycol toxicity. A retrospective medical chart review was performed of patients receiving continuous infusion lorazepam from February 2012 to September 2012 for whom the guideline was used. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients received continuous infusion lorazepam for sedation in the pediatric intensive care unit during the 9-month study period for a total of 23 infusions. Eight patients (34.8%) had an osmol gap of ≥ 12 mOsm/kg during lorazepam infusion, and 7 patients (30.4%) did not have an elevated osmol gap at any point during the infusion. Two patients (8.6%) had clinical toxicity as indicated by elevated anion gap or lactate in addition to an osmol gap ≥ 12 mOsm/kg, while no patients experienced clinical toxicity with an osmol gap < 12 mOsm/kg. CONCLUSIONS: A guideline for the use of lorazepam infusion in pediatric critical care patients was developed and evaluated for safety. Lorazepam continuous infusions appeared to be associated with minimal toxicity in pediatric intensive care unit patients when the osmol gap monitoring guideline was used. PMID:26472950

  16. Competitive substrate biodegradation during surfactant-enhanced remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Goudar, C.; Strevett, K.; Grego, J.

    1999-12-01

    The impact of synthetic surfactants on the aqueous phase biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene (BTpX) was studied using two anionic surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), and two nonionic surfactants, POE(20) sorbitan monooleate (T-maz-80) and octyl-phenolpoly(ethyleneoxy) ethanol (CA-620). Batch biodegradation experiments were performed to evaluate surfactant biodegradability using two different microbial cultures. Of the four surfactants used in this study, SDS and T-maz-80 were readily degraded by a microbial consortium obtained from an activated sludge treatment system, whereas only SDS was degraded by a microbial culture that was acclimated to BTpX. Biodegradation kinetic parameters associated with SDS and T-maz-80 degradation by the activated sludge consortium were estimated using respirometric data in conjunction with a nonlinear parameter estimation technique as {mu}{sub max} = 0.93 h{sup {minus}1}, K{sub s}= 96.18 mg/L and {mu}{sub max} = 0.41 h{sup {minus}1}, K{sub s} = 31.92 mg/L, respectively. When both BTpX and surfactant were present in the reactor along with BTpX-acclimated microorganisms, two distinct biodegradation patterns were seen. SDS was preferentially utilized inhibiting hydrocarbon biodegradation, whereas, the other three surfactants had no impact on BTpX biodegradation. None of the four surfactants were toxic to the microbial cultures used in this study. Readily biodegradable surfactants are not very effective for subsurface remediation applications as they are rapidly consumed, and also because of their potential inhibitory effects on intrinsic hydrocarbon biodegradation. This greatly increases treatment costs as surfactant recovery and reuse are adversely affected.

  17. Effect of surfactant alkyl chain length on soil cadmium desorption using surfactant/ligand systems.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mari; Barrington, Suzelle F; Marshall, William D; Kim, Jin-Woo

    2005-02-01

    The effect of surfactant alkyl chain length on soil Cd desorption was studied using nonionic surfactants of polyethylene oxide (PEO) of PEO chain lengths of 7.5 (Triton X-114), 9.5 (Triton X-100), 30 (Triton X-305), or 40 units (Triton X-405) in combination with the I- ligand. Triplicate 1 g soil samples were equilibrated with 15 ml of surfactant-ligand mixture, at concentrations of 0.025, 0.50 or 0.10, and 0.0, 0.168 or 0.336 mol/l, respectively. After shaking the samples for 24 h, the supernatant fraction was analyzed for Cd content to determine the percent of Cd desorbed from the soil. After five successive washings, 53%, 40% and 25% of Cd had been desorbed by 0.025, 0.050 or 0.10 mol/l of Triton X-114, respectively, in the presence of 0.336 mol/l of I-, whereas with the same conditions, Triton X-100 desorbed 61%, 57% and 56% Cd and either Triton X-305 or Triton X-405 desorbed 51, 40 and 14 to 16% Cd. The most efficient Cd desorption was obtained using 0.025 mol/l Triton X-100 in admixture with 0.336 mol/l I-. Increased surfactant concentration was detrimental to Cd desorption consistent with a process that blocked ligand access to the soil particle surface. After 5 washings,the cumulative cadmium desorption decreased with increasing surfactant alkyl chain length, indicating that the metal-ligand complexes are preferably stabilized by the micelles' hydrophobic octyl phenyl (OP) group rather than by the hydrophilic PEO group. In the absence of ligand, the surfactants alone desorbed less than 1% Cd from the contaminated soil, suggesting that the ligand, rather than the surfactant, extracts the metal, to be subsequently stabilized within the surfactant micelles.

  18. Evaluation of anionic surfactant concentrations in US effluents and probabilistic determination of their combined ecological risk in mixing zones.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Kathleen; Casteel, Kenneth; Itrich, Nina; Menzies, Jennifer; Belanger, Scott; Wehmeyer, Kenneth; Federle, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Alcohol sulfates (AS), alcohol ethoxysulfates (AES), linear alkyl benzenesulfonates (LAS) and methyl ester sulfonates (MES) are anionic surfactants that are widely used in household detergents and consumer products resulting in over 1 million tons being disposed of down the drain annually in the US. A monitoring campaign was conducted which collected grab effluent samples from 44 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across the US to generate statistical distributions of effluent concentrations for anionic surfactants. The mean concentrations for AS, AES, LAS and MES were 5.03±4.5, 1.95±0.7, 15.3±19, and 0.35±0.13μg/L respectively. Since each of these surfactants consist of multiple homologues that differ in their toxicity, the concentration of each homologue measured in an effluent sample was converted into a toxic unit (TU) by normalizing to the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) derived from high tier effects data (mesocosm studies). The statistical distributions of the combined TUs in the effluents were used in combination with distributions of dilution factors for WWTP mixing zones to conduct a US-wide probabilistic risk assessment for the aquatic environment for each of the surfactants. The 90th percentile level of TUs for AS, AES, LAS and MES in mixing zones were 1.89×10(-2), 2.73×10(-3), 2.72×10(-2), and 3.65×10(-5) under 7Q10 (lowest river flow occurring over a 7day period every 10years) low flow conditions. Because these surfactants have the same toxicological mode of action, the TUs were summed and the aquatic safety for anionic surfactants as a whole was assessed. At the 90th percentile level under the conservative 7Q10 low flow conditions the forecasted TUs were 4.21×10(-2) which indicates that there is a significant margin of safety for the class of anionic surfactants in US aquatic environments.

  19. Toxic Hazards Research Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    STATEMENT (of the abstract entered In Block 20, if different fro. Report) 18 . SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Funded in part by the Naval Medical Research Institute...to methylcyclohexane vapor for 12 months. 71 17. Mean body weights of female rats exposed to methylcyclohexane vapor for 12 months. 71 18 . Mean body...Lesions Found in C57BL/6 Mice Following Inhalation of MMH Vapor for One Year 18 4. Lesions Found in Fischer 344 Male Rats Following Inhalation of MMH

  20. New serine-derived gemini surfactants as gene delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana M; Morais, Catarina M; Cruz, A Rita; Silva, Sandra G; do Vale, M Luísa; Marques, Eduardo F; de Lima, Maria C Pedroso; Jurado, Amália S

    2015-01-01

    Gemini surfactants have been extensively used for in vitro gene delivery. Amino acid-derived gemini surfactants combine the special aggregation properties characteristic of the gemini surfactants with high biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this work, novel serine-derived gemini surfactants, differing in alkyl chain lengths and in the linker group bridging the spacer to the headgroups (amine, amide and ester), were evaluated for their ability to mediate gene delivery either per se or in combination with helper lipids. Gemini surfactant-based DNA complexes were characterized in terms of hydrodynamic diameter, surface charge, stability in aqueous buffer and ability to protect DNA. Efficient formulations, able to transfect up to 50% of the cells without causing toxicity, were found at very low surfactant/DNA charge ratios (1/1-2/1). The most efficient complexes presented sizes suitable for intravenous administration and negative surface charge, a feature known to preclude potentially adverse interactions with serum components. This work brings forward a new family of gemini surfactants with great potential as gene delivery systems.

  1. Surfactants in microbiology and biotechnology: Part 2. Application aspects.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Ward, Owen P

    2007-01-01

    Surfactants are amphiphilic compounds which can reduce surface and interfacial tensions by accumulating at the interface of immiscible fluids and increase the solubility, mobility, bioavailability and subsequent biodegradation of hydrophobic or insoluble organic compounds. Chemically synthesized surfactants are commonly used in the petroleum, food and pharmaceutical industries as emulsifiers and wetting agents. Biosurfactants produced by some microorganisms are becoming important biotechnology products for industrial and medical applications due to their specific modes of action, low toxicity, relative ease of preparation and widespread applicability. They can be used as emulsifiers, de-emulsifiers, wetting and foaming agents, functional food ingredients and as detergents in petroleum, petrochemicals, environmental management, agrochemicals, foods and beverages, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, and in the mining and metallurgical industries. Addition of a surfactant of chemical or biological origin accelerates or sometimes inhibits the bioremediation of pollutants. Surfactants also play an important role in enhanced oil recovery by increasing the apparent solubility of petroleum components and effectively reducing the interfacial tensions of oil and water in situ. However, the effects of surfactants on bioremediation cannot be predicted in the absence of empirical evidence because surfactants sometimes stimulate bioremediation and sometimes inhibit it. For medical applications, biosurfactants are useful as antimicrobial agents and immunomodulatory molecules. Beneficial applications of chemical surfactants and biosurfactants in various industries are discussed in this review.

  2. Interaction of photosensitive surfactant with DNA and poly acrylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy Paasche, Jens; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana; Cywinski, Piotr; Cywinska, Magdalena; Reich, Oliver; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, we investigate interactions and phase transitions in polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes formed between a cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant and two types of polyelectrolytes: natural (DNA) or synthetic (PAA: poly acrylic acid). The construction of a phase diagram allowed distancing between four major phases: extended coil conformation, colloidally stable compacted globules, colloidal instability range, and surfactant-stabilized compact state. Investigation on the complexes’ properties in different phases and under irradiation with UV light provides information about the role of the surfactant's hydrophobic trans isomers both in the formation and destruction of DNA and PAA globules as well as in their colloidal stabilization. The trans isomer shows much stronger affinity to the polyelectrolytes than the hydrophilic cis counterpart. There is no need for complete compensation of the polyelectrolyte charges to reach the complete compaction. On contrary to the findings previously reported in the literature, we demonstrate – for the first time – complete polyelectrolyte compaction which occurs already at 20% of DNA (and at 50% of PAA) charge compensation. The trans isomer plays the main role in the compaction. The aggregation between azobenzene units in the photosensitive surfactant is a driving force of this process. The decompaction can be realized during UV light irradiation and is strongly influenced by the interplay between surfactant-surfactant and surfactant-DNA interactions in the compacted globules.

  3. Adsorption of mixed cationic-nonionic surfactant and its effect on bentonite structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaxin; Zhao, Yan; Zhu, Yong; Wu, Huayong; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption of cationic-nonionic mixed surfactant onto bentonite and its effect on bentonite structure were investigated. The objective was to improve the understanding of surfactant behavior on clay mineral for its possible use in remediation technologies of soil and groundwater contaminated by toxic organic compounds. The cationic surfactant used was hexadecylpyridinium bromide (HDPB), and the nonionic surfactant was Triton X-100 (TX100). Adsorption of TX100 was enhanced significantly by the addition of HDPB, but this enhancement decreased with an increase in the fraction of the cationic surfactant. Part of HDPB was replaced by TX100 which decreased the adsorption of HDPB. However, the total adsorbed amount of the mixed surfactant was still increased substantially, indicating the synergistic effect between the cationic and nonionic surfactants. The surfactant-modified bentonite was characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric-derivative thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses. Surfactant intercalation was found to decrease the bentonite specific surface area, pore volume, and surface roughness and irregularities, as calculated by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The co-adsorption of the cationic and nonionic surfactants increased the ordering conformation of the adsorbed surfactants on bentonite, but decreased the thermal stability of the organobentonite system.

  4. Assessment of multi-chemical pollution in aquatic ecosystems using toxic units: compound prioritization, mixture characterization and relationships with biological descriptors.

    PubMed

    Ginebreda, Antoni; Kuzmanovic, Maja; Guasch, Helena; de Alda, Miren López; López-Doval, Julio C; Muñoz, Isabel; Ricart, Marta; Romaní, Anna M; Sabater, Sergi; Barceló, Damià

    2014-01-15

    Chemical pollution is typically characterized by exposure to multiple rather than to single or a limited number of compounds. Parent compounds, transformation products and other non-targeted compounds yield mixtures whose composition can only be partially identified by monitoring, while a substantial proportion remains unknown. In this context, risk assessment based on the application of additive ecotoxicity models, such as concentration addition (CA), is rendered somewhat misleading. Here, we show that ecotoxicity risk information can be better understood upon consideration of the probabilistic distribution of risk among the different compounds. Toxic units of the compounds identified in a sample fit a lognormal probability distribution. The parameters characterizing this distribution (mean and standard deviation) provide information which can be tentatively interpreted as a measure of the toxic load and its apportionment among the constituents in the mixture (here interpreted as mixture complexity). Furthermore, they provide information for compound prioritization tailored to each site and enable prediction of some of the functional and structural biological variables associated with the receiving ecosystem. The proposed approach was tested in the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain) using exposure and toxicity data (algae and Daphnia) corresponding to 29 pharmaceuticals and 22 pesticides, and 5 structural and functional biological descriptors related to benthic macroinvertebrates (diversity, biomass) and biofilm metrics (diatom quality, chlorophyll-a content and photosynthetic capacity). Aggregated toxic units based on Daphnia and algae bioassays provided a good indication of the pollution pattern of the Llobregat River basin. Relative contribution of pesticides and pharmaceuticals to total toxic load was variable and highly site dependent, the latter group tending to increase its contribution in urban areas. Contaminated sites' toxic load was typically dominated by

  5. Ionic liquids as surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, N. A.; Safonova, E. A.

    2010-10-01

    Problems of self-assembling in systems containing ionic liquids (ILs) are discussed. Main attention is paid to micellization in aqueous solutions of dialkylimidazolium ILs and their mixtures with classical surfactants. Literature data are reviewed, the results obtained by the authors and co-workers are presented. Thermodynamic aspects of the studies and problems of molecular-thermodynamic modeling receive special emphasis. It is shown that the aggregation behavior of dialkylimidazolium ILs is close to that of alkyltrimethylammonium salts (cationic surfactants) though ILs have a higher ability to self-organize, especially as it concerns long-range ordering. Some aspects of ILs applications are outlined where their common features with classical surfactants and definite specificity are of value.

  6. Solubilisation capacity of Brij surfactants.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maria E N P; de Moura, Carolina L; Vieira, Mariano G S; Gramosa, Nilce V; Chaibundit, Chiraphon; de Mattos, Marcos C; Attwood, David; Yeates, Stephen G; Nixon, S Keith; Ricardo, Nágila M P S

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of selected Brij non-ionic surfactants for enhancing the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. Griseofulvin was selected as a model drug candidate enabling comparisons to be made with the solubilisation capacities of other poly(ethylene oxide)-based copolymers. UV/Vis and (1)H NMR spectroscopies were used to quantify the enhancement of solubility of griseofulvin in 1 wt% aqueous micellar solutions of Brij 78 (C(18)H(37)E(20)), Brij 98 (C(18)H(35)E(20)) and Brij 700 (C(18)H(37)E(100)) (where E represents the OCH(2)CH(2) unit of the poly(ethylene oxide) chain) at 25, 37 and 40 °C. Solubilisation capacities (S(cp) expressed as mg griseofulvin per g Brij) were similar for Brij 78 and 98 (range 6-11 mg g(-1)) but lower for Brij 700 (3-4 mg g(-1)) as would be expected for the surfactant with the higher ethylene oxide content. The drug loading capacity of micelles of Brij 78 was higher than many di- and triblock copolymers with hydrophilic E-blocks specifically designed for enhancement of drug solubility.

  7. Glyphosate-surfactant herbicide-induced reversible encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, R C; Ghia, D K; Cordato, D J; Beran, R G

    2010-11-01

    Glyphosate-surfactant (GlySH) is a commonly used herbicide that has been used in attempted suicide. Most reports of GlySH toxicity in patients have followed ingestion of the commercial product "Round-up" (Monsanto Ltd; Melbourne, Victoria, Australia), which consists of a mixture of glyphosate (as a isopropylanine salt) and a surfactant (polyoxyethyleneamine). Ingestion of Round-up is reported to cause significant toxicity including nausea, vomiting, oral and abdominal pain. Renal and hepatic impairment and pulmonary oedema may also occur. Impaired consciousness and encephalopathy have been reported as sequelae but there are limited data on the central nervous system (CNS) effects of Round-up toxicity. We report a 71-year-old male who attempted suicide with GlySH and developed a prolonged but reversible encephalopathy suggestive of acute CNS toxicity.

  8. Surfactant mixing rules applied to surfactant enhanced alkaline flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.C. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses surfactant mixing rules which have been used to describe crude oil/alkali/surfactant phase behavior, using David Lloydminster crude oil and the surfactant Neodol 25-3S. It was found that at a fixed salinity and alkali concentration, a specific mole fraction of synthetic surfactant to petroleum soap was required to produce optimal phase behavior as the water-to-oil ratio varied. This methodology is useful in understanding the relationship between the variables of water-to-oil ratio and synthetic surfactant concentration in phase behavior systems that produce a petroleum soap.

  9. Results of Water and Sediment Toxicity Tests and Chemical Analyses Conducted at the Central Shops Burning Rubble Pit Waste Unit, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-06-02

    The Central Shops Burning Rubble Pit Operable Unit consists of two inactive rubble pits (631-1G and 631-3G) that have been capped, and one active burning rubble pit (631-2G), where wooden pallets and other non-hazardous debris are periodically burned. The inactive rubble pits may have received hazardous materials, such as asbestos, batteries, and paint cans, as well as non-hazardous materials, such as ash, paper, and glass. In an effort to determine if long term surface water flows of potentially contaminated water from the 631-1G, 631-3G, and 631-2G areas have resulted in an accumulation of chemical constituents at toxic levels in the vicinity of the settling basin and wetlands area, chemical analyses for significant ecological preliminary constituents of concern (pCOCs) were performed on aqueous and sediment samples. In addition, aquatic and sediment toxicity tests were performed in accordance with U.S. EPA methods (U.S. EPA 1989, 1994). Based on the results of the chemical analyses, unfiltered water samples collected from a wetland and settling basins located adjacent to the CSBRP Operable Unit exceed Toxicity Reference Values (TRVs) for aluminum, barium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, and vanadium at one or more of the four locations that were sampled. The water contained very high concentrations of clay particles that were present as suspended solids. A substantial portion of the metals were present as filterable particulates, bound to the clay particles, and were therefore not biologically available. Based on dissolved metal concentrations, the wetland and settling basin exceeded TRVs for aluminum and barium. However, the background reference location also exceeded the TRV for barium, which suggests that this value may be too low, based on local geochemistry. The detection limits for both total and dissolved mercury were higher than the TRV, so it was not possible to determine if the TRV for mercury was exceeded. Dissolved metal levels of chromium, copper

  10. pH-Sensitive surfactants from lysine: assessment of their cytotoxicity and environmental behavior.

    PubMed

    Colomer, Aurora; Pinazo, Aurora; García, Maria Teresa; Mitjans, Montserrat; Vinardell, M Pilar; Infante, Maria Rosa; Martínez, Verónica; Pérez, Lourdes

    2012-04-10

    The toxicity and environmental behavior of new pH-sensitive surfactants from lysine are presented. Three different chemical structures are studied: surfactants with one amino acid and one alkyl chain, surfactants with two amino acids on the polar head and one alkyl chain, and gemini surfactants. The pH sensitivity of these compounds can be tuned by modifying their chemical structures. Cytotoxicity has been evaluated using erythrocytes and fibroblast cells. The toxic effects against these cells depend on the hydrophobicity of the molecules as well as their cationic charge density. The effect of hydrophobicity and cationic charge density on toxicity is different for each type of cells. For erythrocytes, the toxicity increases as hydrophobicity and charge density increases. Nevertheless, for fibroblasts cationic charge density affects cytotoxicity in the opposite way: the higher charge density, the lower the toxicity. The effect of the pH on hemolysis has been evaluated in detail. The aquatic toxicity was established using Daphnia magna . All surfactants yielded EC(50) values considerably higher than that reported for cationic surfactants based on quaternary ammonium groups. Finally, their biodegradability was evaluated using the CO(2) headspace test (ISO 14593). These lysine derivatives showed high levels of biodegradation under aerobic conditions and can be classified as "readily biodegradable compounds".

  11. Surfactant-enhanced bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, P.F.; Dudley, R.J.; Churchill, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect of three structurally related, non-ionic surfactants, Triton X-45, Triton X-100 and Triton X-165, as well as the oleophilic fertilizer, Inipol EAP 22, on the rate of biodegradation of phenanthrene by pure bacterial cultures. Each surfactant dramatically increased the apparent aqueous solubility of phenanthrene. Model studies were conducted to investigate the ability of these surfactants to enhance the rate of transport and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into bacterial cells, and to assess the impact that increasing the aqueous solubility of hydrocarbons has on their rate of biodegradation. The results indicate that increasing the apparent aqueous solubility of hydrocarbons can lead to enhanced biodegradation rates by two Pseudomonas saccharophila strains. However, the experiments also suggest that some surfactants can inhibit aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation by certain bacteria. The data also support the hypothesis that surface-active components present in the oleophilic fertilizer formulation, Inipol EAP 22, may have significantly contributed to the positive results reported in tests of remedial agent impact on bioremediation, which was used as a supplemental clean-up technology on Exxon Valdez crude oil-contaminated Alaskan beaches.

  12. Photosensitive surfactants: Micellization and interaction with DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Roxlau, Julian; Brezesinski, Gerald; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Recently, photosensitive surfactants have re-attracted considerable attention. It has been shown that their association with oppositely charged biologically important polyelectrolytes, such as DNA or microgels, can be efficiently manipulated simply by light exposure. In this article, we investigate the self-assembly of photosensitive surfactants as well as their interactions with DNA by calorimetric and spectroscopic methods. Critical micelle concentration (CMC), standard micellization enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy were determined in different conditions (ionic strengths and temperatures) for a series of cationic surfactants with an azobenzene group in their tail. It is shown, that aggregation forces of photosensitive units play an important role in the micellization giving the major contribution to the micellization enthalpy. The onset of the aggregation can be traced from shift of the absorption peak position in the UV-visible spectrum. Titration UV-visible spectroscopy is used as an alternative, simple, and sensitive approach to estimate CMC. The titration UV-visible spectroscopy was also employed to investigate interactions (CAC: critical aggregation concentration, precipitation, and colloidal stabilization) in the DNA-surfactant complex.

  13. Photosensitive surfactants: micellization and interaction with DNA.

    PubMed

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Roxlau, Julian; Brezesinski, Gerald; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana

    2014-01-28

    Recently, photosensitive surfactants have re-attracted considerable attention. It has been shown that their association with oppositely charged biologically important polyelectrolytes, such as DNA or microgels, can be efficiently manipulated simply by light exposure. In this article, we investigate the self-assembly of photosensitive surfactants as well as their interactions with DNA by calorimetric and spectroscopic methods. Critical micelle concentration (CMC), standard micellization enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy were determined in different conditions (ionic strengths and temperatures) for a series of cationic surfactants with an azobenzene group in their tail. It is shown, that aggregation forces of photosensitive units play an important role in the micellization giving the major contribution to the micellization enthalpy. The onset of the aggregation can be traced from shift of the absorption peak position in the UV-visible spectrum. Titration UV-visible spectroscopy is used as an alternative, simple, and sensitive approach to estimate CMC. The titration UV-visible spectroscopy was also employed to investigate interactions (CAC: critical aggregation concentration, precipitation, and colloidal stabilization) in the DNA-surfactant complex.

  14. Diseases of Pulmonary Surfactant Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Wert, Susan E.; Weaver, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in physiology and biochemistry have provided fundamental insights into the role of pulmonary surfactant in the pathogenesis and treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Identification of the surfactant proteins, lipid transporters, and transcriptional networks regulating their expression has provided the tools and insights needed to discern the molecular and cellular processes regulating the production and function of pulmonary surfactant prior to and after birth. Mutations in genes regulating surfactant homeostasis have been associated with severe lung disease in neonates and older infants. Biophysical and transgenic mouse models have provided insight into the mechanisms underlying surfactant protein and alveolar homeostasis. These studies have provided the framework for understanding the structure and function of pulmonary surfactant, which has informed understanding of the pathogenesis of diverse pulmonary disorders previously considered idiopathic. This review considers the pulmonary surfactant system and the genetic causes of acute and chronic lung disease caused by disruption of alveolar homeostasis. PMID:25621661

  15. Surfactant treatments alter endogenous surfactant metabolism in rabbit lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Oetomo, S.B.; Lewis, J.; Ikegami, M.; Jobe, A.H. )

    1990-04-01

    The effect of exogenous surfactant on endogenous surfactant metabolism was evaluated using a single-lobe treatment strategy to compare effects of treated with untreated lung within the same rabbit. Natural rabbit surfactant, Survanta, or 0.45% NaCl was injected into the left main stem bronchus by use of a Swan-Ganz catheter. Radiolabeled palmitic acid was then given by intravascular injection at two times after surfactant treatment, and the ratios of label incorporation and secretion in the left lower lobe to label incorporation and secretion in the right lung were compared. The treatment procedure resulted in a reasonably uniform surfactant distribution and did not disrupt lobar pulmonary blood flow. Natural rabbit surfactant increased incorporation of palmitate into saturated phosphatidylcholine (Sat PC) approximately 2-fold (P less than 0.01), and secretion of labeled Sat PC increased approximately 2.5-fold in the surfactant-treated left lower lobe relative to the right lung (P less than 0.01). Although Survanta did not alter incorporation, it did increase secretion but not to the same extent as rabbit surfactant (P less than 0.01). Alteration of endogenous surfactant Sat PC metabolism in vivo by surfactant treatments was different from that which would have been predicted by previous in vitro studies.

  16. The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J Elliott

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the first body tissues to be directly exposed to the many thousands of toxic chemicals in tobacco. Considering the vast surface area of the lung and the extreme attenuation of the blood-air barrier, it is not surprising that this organ is the primary route for exposure, not just to smoke but to most environmental contaminants. Recent research has shown that the pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, is the first site of defense against particulates or gas components of smoke. However, it is not clear what effect smoke has on the surfactant. Most studies have demonstrated that smoking reduces bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid levels. Some components of smoke also appear to have a direct detergent-like effect on the surfactant while others appear to alter cycling or secretion. Ultimately these effects are reflected in changes in the dynamics of the surfactant system and, clinically in changes in lung mechanics. Similarly, exposure of the developing fetal lung through maternal smoking results in postnatal alterations in lung mechanics and higher incidents of wheezing and coughing. Direct exposure of developing lung to nicotine induces changes suggestive of fetal stress. Furthermore, identification of nicotinic receptors in fetal lung airways and corresponding increases in airway connective tissue support a possible involvement of nicotine in postnatal asthma development. Finally, at the level of the alveoli of the lung, colocalization of nicotinic

  17. The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J Elliott

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the first body tissues to be directly exposed to the many thousands of toxic chemicals in tobacco. Considering the vast surface area of the lung and the extreme attenuation of the blood-air barrier, it is not surprising that this organ is the primary route for exposure, not just to smoke but to most environmental contaminants. Recent research has shown that the pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, is the first site of defense against particulates or gas components of smoke. However, it is not clear what effect smoke has on the surfactant. Most studies have demonstrated that smoking reduces bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid levels. Some components of smoke also appear to have a direct detergent-like effect on the surfactant while others appear to alter cycling or secretion. Ultimately these effects are reflected in changes in the dynamics of the surfactant system and, clinically in changes in lung mechanics. Similarly, exposure of the developing fetal lung through maternal smoking results in postnatal alterations in lung mechanics and higher incidents of wheezing and coughing. Direct exposure of developing lung to nicotine induces changes suggestive of fetal stress. Furthermore, identification of nicotinic receptors in fetal lung airways and corresponding increases in airway connective tissue support a possible involvement of nicotine in postnatal asthma development. Finally, at the level of the alveoli of the lung, colocalization of nicotinic

  18. Ecotoxicities of polyquaterniums and their associated polyelectrolyte-surfactant aggregates (PSA) to Gambusia holbrooki.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Janet L; Hawker, Darryl W; Nugent, Kerry W; Chapman, Heather F

    2008-02-01

    The toxicity of 11 polyquaterniums used in cosmetic applications, and polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride (poly(DADMAC)) were studied for toxicity of the polyquaternium alone, and of a polyquaternium/anionic surfactant complex as occurs in some cosmetic formulations. The surfactant used in the study was sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), which is used in cosmetic formulations under its International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI) name Sodium Laurel Sulfate. In fish immobilization studies with Gambusia holbrooki, the EC(50) of the polyquaternium/surfactant complex was found to be the same as or similar to the EC(50) for the polyquaternium alone. The toxicity of the polyquaterniums investigated was similar to the published values for other cationic polyelectrolytes and cationic surfactants, in the range from < 1.0 to 10 mg/L, with the exception of low charge density cellulosic polyquaterniums. The anionic surfactant alone was not toxic to fish in the concentration range tested. Results thus showed the toxicity of the polyquaternium was not mitigated by the presence of the anionic surfactant.

  19. Characterization of Phase and Emulsion Behavior, Surfactant Retention, and Oil Recovery for Novel Alcohol Ethoxycarboxylate Surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Lebone T. Moeti; Ramanathan Sampath

    1998-05-01

    This semi-annual technical progress report describes work performed at Clark Atlanta University under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-97FT97278 during the period October 01, 1997 to April 01, 1998 which covers the first six months of the project. During this reporting period, laboratory space to set up the surfactant characterization measurement system in the Research Science Center was made available. A Ph.D. student in Chemistry was identified and is supported as a Graduate Research Assistant in this project. Her contribution towards this project will form her Ph.D. thesis. The test matrix to perform salinity and temperature scans was established. Supply requests to obtain refined hydrocarbon, surfactant, and crude were processed and supplies obtained. A temperature bath with a control unit to perform temperature scans was obtained on loan from Federal Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV. The setting up of the temperature control unit, and associated chiller with water circulation lines is in progress. Tests were conducted on several hybrid surfactants to identify the best surfactants for future experimental work that yield almost equal volumes of top, middle, and bottom phases when mixed with oil and water. The student reviewed the current literature in the subject area, and modeling efforts that were established in previous studies to predict electrical conductivities and inversion phenomena. These activities resulted in one published conference paper, and one student poster paper during this reporting period.

  20. Water Sorption Isotherms of Surfactants: A Tool To Evaluate Humectancy.

    PubMed

    Asmus, Elisabeth; Popp, Christian; Friedmann, Adrian A; Arand, Katja; Riederer, Markus

    2016-07-06

    Fundamental experimental data for moisture absorption of non-ionic polydisperse surfactants with differing ethylene oxide (EO) content and variable aliphatic portions were measured at relative humidities between 0 and 95% at 25 °C. Remarkable differences in moisture absorption were observed between surfactant classes but also within one series of surfactants differing in either EO content or the long-chain aliphatic fraction. Both the EO units as well as the entire molecular structure, including also the lipophilic domain, were discussed to account for the humectant activity of surfactants. Water sorption isotherms showed an exponential shape, which was argued to be associated with the formation of a "free" water domain. These humectant properties might be relevant to the behavior of a foliar-applied spray droplet of agrochemical formulation products because the uptake of active ingredients will be enhanced as a result of deferred crystal precipitation.

  1. Mixed surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Llave, F.M.; Gall, B.L.; Noll, L.A.

    1990-12-01

    The results of an evaluation of mixed surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery are described. Several surfactant combinations have been studied. These include alkyl aryl sulfonates as primary surfactants and carboxymethylated ethoxylated (CME) surfactants and ethoxylated sulfonates (ES) as secondary surfactants. The ethoxylated surfactants increase the salinity tolerance of the primary surfactants and, in theory, allow tailoring of the surfactant system to match selected reservoir conditions. The experiments conducted included interfacial tension (IFT) measurements, phase behavior measurements, adsorption and/or chromatographic separation of mixed surfactant systems, measurements of solution properties such as the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of surfactant mixtures, and crude oil displacement experiments. The effects of temperature, surfactant concentration, salinity, presence of divalent ions, hydrocarbon type, and component proportions in the mixed surfactant combinations, and injection strategies on the performance potential of the targeted surfactant/hydrocarbon systems were studied. 40 refs., 37 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas: part II—sediment toxicity to the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus dilutus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kemble, Nile E.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Sibley, Paul K.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroids are hydrophobic compounds that have been observed to accumulate in sediments (Laskowski 2002). Toxicity of pyrethroids in field-collected sediment from small urban streams (Weston et al. 2005; Holmes et al. 2008; Ding et al. 2010; Domagalski et al. 2010) or with pyrethroids spiked into sediment (Amweg et al. 2006; Hintzen et al. 2009) have been evaluated primarily in 10 day lethality tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca. However, the sublethal effects in long-term exposures to pyrethroids in sediment have not been evaluated, and the distribution of pyrethroids sediments has not typically been evaluated in wadeable streams (Gilliom et al. 2006). This article is the second in a series that describe the results of a study of the distribution and toxicity of pyrethroids and other co-occurring trace elements and organic contaminants (PCBs, PAHs, OC pesticides) in stream sediments from 7 metropolitan areas across the United States (Moran et al. 2012). The study evaluated 98 sediment samples collected from streams ranging from undeveloped to highly urban and differs from previous studies by sampling larger wadeable streams and avoiding point sources (such as storm drains) and other inflows (Gilliom et al. 2006). Part 1 of the series characterizes sediment contaminants in relation to urbanization and other factors in the 7 metropolitan study areas (Nowell et al. 2012). Part 2 (this article) evaluates relationships between sediment chemistry and sediment toxicity in 28 day whole-sediment exposures conducted with the amphipod H. azteca and in 10 day whole-sediment exposure conducted with the midge Chironomus dilutus (USEPA United States Environmental Protection Agency 2000; ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials International 2012). Toxicity end points evaluated in the amphipod and midge exposures included the effects of these field-collected sediments on survival, weight, or biomass of the test organisms.

  3. The Relationship between Toxics Release Inventory Discharges and Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban Areas of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Potential environmental exposures from chemical manufacturing or industrial sites have not been well studied for rural populations. The current study examines whether chemical releases from facilities monitored through the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) program are associated with population mortality rates for both rural and urban…

  4. A53B-0199: PREDICTING THE FATE AND TRANSPORT OF TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS OVER THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A poster presented at 2006 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union on December 15th in San Francisco, CA. It discusses a regional photochemical model that determines the atmospheric concentration and deposition of toxic metals found in atmospheric particulate matter. It hi...

  5. Surfactants in aquatic and terrestrial environment: occurrence, behavior, and treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Jardak, K; Drogui, P; Daghrir, R

    2016-02-01

    Surfactants belong to a group of chemicals that are well known for their cleaning properties. Their excessive use as ingredients in care products (e.g., shampoos, body wash) and in household cleaning products (e.g., dishwashing detergents, laundry detergents, hard-surface cleaners) has led to the discharge of highly contaminated wastewaters in aquatic and terrestrial environment. Once reached in the different environmental compartments (rivers, lakes, soils, and sediments), surfactants can undergo aerobic or anaerobic degradation. The most studied surfactants so far are linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), alkylphenol ethoxylate (APEOs), and alcohol ethoxylate (AEOs). Concentrations of surfactants in wastewaters can range between few micrograms to hundreds of milligrams in some cases, while it reaches several grams in sludge used for soil amendments in agricultural areas. Above the legislation standards, surfactants can be toxic to aquatic and terrestrial organisms which make treatment processes necessary before their discharge into the environment. Given this fact, biological and chemical processes should be considered for better surfactants removal. In this review, we investigate several issues with regard to: (1) the toxicity of surfactants in the environment, (2) their behavior in different ecological systems, (3) and the different treatment processes used in wastewater treatment plants in order to reduce the effects of surfactants on living organisms.

  6. Surfactants at the Design Limit.

    PubMed

    Czajka, Adam; Hazell, Gavin; Eastoe, Julian

    2015-08-04

    This article analyzes how the individual structural elements of surfactant molecules affect surface properties, in particular, the point of reference defined by the limiting surface tension at the aqueous cmc, γcmc. Particular emphasis is given to how the chemical nature and structure of the hydrophobic tails influence γcmc. By comparing the three different classes of surfactants, fluorocarbon, silicone, and hydrocarbon, a generalized surface packing index is introduced which is independent of the chemical nature of the surfactants. This parameter ϕcmc represents the volume fraction of surfactant chain fragments in a surface film at the aqueous cmc. It is shown that ϕcmc is a useful index for understanding the limiting surface tension of surfactants and can be useful for designing new superefficient surfactants.

  7. Selective Antimicrobial Activities and Action Mechanism of Micelles Self-Assembled by Cationic Oligomeric Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chengcheng; Wang, Fengyan; Chen, Hui; Li, Meng; Qiao, Fulin; Liu, Zhang; Hou, Yanbo; Wu, Chunxian; Fan, Yaxun; Liu, Libing; Wang, Shu; Wang, Yilin

    2016-02-17

    This work reports that cationic micelles formed by cationic trimeric, tetrameric, and hexameric surfactants bearing amide moieties in spacers can efficiently kill Gram-negative E. coli with a very low minimum inhibitory concentration (1.70-0.93 μM), and do not cause obvious toxicity to mammalian cells at the concentrations used. With the increase of the oligomerization degree, the antibacterial activity of the oligomeric surfactants increases, i.e., hexameric surfactant > tetrameric surfactant > trimeric surfactant. Isothermal titration microcalorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and zeta potential results reveal that the cationic micelles interact with the cell membrane of E. coli through two processes. First, the integrity of outer membrane of E. coli is disrupted by the electrostatic interaction of the cationic ammonium groups of the surfactants with anionic groups of E. coli, resulting in loss of the barrier function of the outer membrane. The inner membrane then is disintegrated by the hydrophobic interaction of the surfactant hydrocarbon chains with the hydrophobic domains of the inner membrane, leading to the cytoplast leakage. The formation of micelles of these cationic oligomeric surfactants at very low concentration enables more efficient interaction with bacterial cell membrane, which endows the oligomeric surfactants with high antibacterial activity.

  8. The Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS): Risk assessment and real-time toxicovigilance across United States poison centers

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, William A.; Litovitz, Toby L. . E-mail: toby@poison.org; Belson, Martin G.; Kilbourne, Edwin

    2005-09-01

    The Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS) is a uniform data set of US poison centers cases. Categories of information include the patient, the caller, the exposure, the substance(s), clinical toxicity, treatment, and medical outcome. The TESS database was initiated in 1985, and provides a baseline of more than 36.2 million cases through 2003. The database has been utilized for a number of safety evaluations. Consideration of the strengths and limitations of TESS data must be incorporated into data interpretation. Real-time toxicovigilance was initiated in 2003 with continuous uploading of new cases from all poison centers to a central database. Real-time toxicovigilance utilizing general and specific approaches is systematically run against TESS, further increasing the potential utility of poison center experiences as a means of early identification of potential public health threats.

  9. Impact of underestimating the effects of cold temperature on motor vehicle start emissions of air toxics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cook, Richard; Touma, Jawad S; Fernandez, Antonio; Brzezinski, David; Bailey, Chad; Scarbro, Carl; Thurman, James; Strum, Madeleine; Ensley, Darrell; Baldauf, Richard

    2007-12-01

    Analyses of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certification data, California Air Resources Board surveillance testing data, and EPA research testing data indicated that EPA's MOBILE6.2 emission factor model substantially underestimates emissions of gaseous air toxics occurring during vehicle starts at cold temperatures for light-duty vehicles and trucks meeting EPA Tier 1 and later standards. An unofficial version of the MOBILE6.2 model was created to account for these underestimates. When this unofficial version of the model was used to project emissions into the future, emissions increased by almost 100% by calendar year 2030, and estimated modeled ambient air toxics concentrations increased by 6-84%, depending on the pollutant. To address these elevated emissions, EPA recently finalized standards requiring reductions of emissions when engines start at cold temperatures.

  10. Evolution, Development, and Function of the Pulmonary Surfactant System in Normal and Perturbed Environments.

    PubMed

    Orgeig, Sandra; Morrison, Janna L; Daniels, Christopher B

    2015-12-15

    Surfactant lipids and proteins form a surface active film at the air-liquid interface of internal gas exchange organs, including swim bladders and lungs. The system is uniquely positioned to meet both the physical challenges associated with a dynamically changing internal air-liquid interface, and the environmental challenges associated with the foreign pathogens and particles to which the internal surface is exposed. Lungs range from simple, transparent, bag-like units to complex, multilobed, compartmentalized structures. Despite this anatomical variability, the surfactant system is remarkably conserved. Here, we discuss the evolutionary origin of the surfactant system, which likely predates lungs. We describe the evolution of surfactant structure and function in invertebrates and vertebrates. We focus on changes in lipid and protein composition and surfactant function from its antiadhesive and innate immune to its alveolar stability and structural integrity functions. We discuss the biochemical, hormonal, autonomic, and mechanical factors that regulate normal surfactant secretion in mature animals. We present an analysis of the ontogeny of surfactant development among the vertebrates and the contribution of different regulatory mechanisms that control this development. We also discuss environmental (oxygen), hormonal and biochemical (glucocorticoids and glucose) and pollutant (maternal smoking, alcohol, and common "recreational" drugs) effects that impact surfactant development. On the adult surfactant system, we focus on environmental variables including temperature, pressure, and hypoxia that have shaped its evolution and we discuss the resultant biochemical, biophysical, and cellular adaptations. Finally, we discuss the effect of major modern gaseous and particulate pollutants on the lung and surfactant system.

  11. Comparison of the toxicity of two chelated copper algaecides and copper sulfate to non-target fish.

    PubMed

    Closson, K R; Paul, E A

    2014-12-01

    New pesticide products are reviewed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for possible effects to non-target aquatic organisms. The required toxicity data are for the active ingredient only, and fail to include toxicity of the mixture of other ingredients found in these pesticides. These ingredients may increase the toxicity of the active ingredient to non-target organisms. Our study compares the toxicity of two formulations of chelated copper algaecides with each other, and to a copper sulfate algaecide. We were particularly interested in the effects of a surfactant that is present in one of the formulations. We found that copper becomes less toxic to fish (e.g. fathead minnow 48-h LC50 = 0.90 mg/L) when it is chelated, providing an additional margin of safety to non-target fish compared to copper sulfate. However, inclusion of a surfactant to the formulation resulted in increased toxicity (e.g. fathead minnow 48-h LC50 = 0.30 mg/L).

  12. Peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence enhanced by oligophenylenevinylene fluorophores in the presence of various surfactants.

    PubMed

    Motoyoshiya, Jiro; Takigawa, Setsuko

    2014-11-01

    The effect of several surfactants on peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (PO-CL) using oligophenylenevinylene fluorophores was investigated. Among several oligophenylenevinylenes consisting of stilbene units, linearly conjugated ones, such as distyrylbenzene and distyrylstilbene, effectively enhanced PO-CL efficiency. Various effects of anionic, cationic, amphoteric and non-ionic surfactants on the CL efficiency of PO-CL were determined using three oxalates and the distyrylbenzene fluorophore. Anionic and non-ionic surfactants effectively enhanced CL efficiency, in contrast to the negative effect of cationic and amphoteric surfactants. Non-ionic surfactants were also effective in CL reactions of oxalates bearing dodecyl ester groups by the hydrophobic interaction between their alkyl chains. Considering these results, the surfactants not only increase the concentrations of water-insoluble interacting species in the hydrophobic micelle cores, but also control rapid degradation of the oxalates by alkaline hydrolysis.

  13. Nature of the Adsorption of Zwitterionic Surfactants at Hydrophilic Surfaces

    PubMed

    Harwigsson; Tiberg; Chevalier

    1996-11-10

    This paper describes the adsorption of zwitterionic dodecyl-N,N-dimethylammonio alkanoates with polymethylene intercharge arms of different lengths on silica. The data presented were obtained by in situ ellipsometry, allowing time-resolved studies of the surface excess, the mean thickness, and the refractive index of thin interfacial films. It is shown that the mode of adsorption of zwitterionic surfactants is similar to that observed for ethylene-oxide-based nonionic surfactants. The interaction energy between single zwitterionic surfactants and silica is relatively weak and the adsorption process is best described in terms of surfactant self-assembly, promoted by the presence of the solid surface. The mode of adsorption is only weakly affected by increasing the number of intercharge methylene units. The surface aggregation behavior observed at the silica surface displays many parallels with the corresponding solution phase behavior. Finally, the adsorption of zwitterionic surfactants is relatively independent of the pH. However, as the pH is lowered to the pKa values of the terminal carboxyl group (i.e., as the surfactants become increasingly positively charged) desorption is observed.

  14. Evaluation of pesticide monitoring strategies in agricultural streams based on the toxic-unit concept--experiences from long-term measurements.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Goedkoop, Willem; Kreuger, Jenny

    2014-06-15

    The European Water Framework Directive requires surface water bodies to have a good chemical and ecological status. Although relatively few pesticides are included in the list of priority pollutants, they pose, due to their intrinsic biological activity, a significant risk for the integrity of aquatic ecosystems. In this context, the pesticide (up to 128 pesticides including some transformation products) exposure pattern in four agricultural streams and two rivers was determined from 2002 to 2011 under the umbrella of the Swedish national monitoring program employing time-proportional and grab sampling strategies, respectively. After transforming the measured pesticide concentrations into toxic units, the European Uniform Principles for algae (chronic), invertebrates and fish (both acute), which are partly employed as benchmark for pesticide regulation, were only occasionally (<2%) exceeded. Moreover, this evaluation showed no long-term trends over the years. However, recent publications suggested that those thresholds are not protective for ecosystem structure and function, indicating a risk of up to 20% and 35% of the samples from the agricultural streams and the rivers, respectively. Moreover, the monitoring data show a continuous but rather low toxic potential of pesticides for all three trophic levels throughout the year, which suggests pesticides as an evolutionary force in agriculturally impacted aquatic ecosystems. However, the flow-triggered sampling, which was implemented as an additional sampling strategy in one of the agricultural streams starting in 2006, displayed an up to 7-fold underestimation of the maximum concentration in terms of toxic units for daphnids and fish during run-off events. The present study thus underpins that the optimal sampling design for pesticide monitoring strongly depends on its overall purpose. If the long-term exposure pattern is of concern a time-proportional composite sampling strategy is recommended, while for an

  15. The application of a mulch biofilm barrier for surfactant enhanced polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Seo, Youngwoo; Lee, Woo-Hyung; Sorial, George; Bishop, Paul L

    2009-01-01

    Lab scale mulch biofilm barriers were constructed and tested to evaluate their performance for preventing the migration of aqueous and surfactant solubilized PAHs. The spatial distribution of viable PAH degrader populations and resultant biofilm formation were also monitored to evaluate the performance of the biobarrier and the prolonged surfactant effect on the PAH degrading microorganism consortia in the biobarrier. Sorption and biodegradation of PAHs resulted in stable operation of the system for dissolved phenanthrene and pyrene during 150 days of experimentation. The nonionic surfactant could increase the solubility of phenanthrene and pyrene significantly. However, the biobarrier itself couldn't totally prevent the migration of micellar solubilized phenanthrene and pyrene. The presence of surfactant and the resultant highly increased phenanthrene or pyrene concentration didn't appear to cause toxic effects on the attached biofilm in the biobarrier. However, the presence of surfactant did change the structural composition of the biofilm.

  16. Surfactant adsorption kinetics in microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Riechers, Birte; Maes, Florine; Akoury, Elias; Semin, Benoît; Gruner, Philipp; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions. Their lifetimes are directly related to the dynamics of surfactants. We design a microfluidic method to measure the kinetics of adsorption of surfactants to the droplet interface, a key process involved in foaming, emulsification, and droplet coarsening. The method is based on the pH decay in the droplet as a direct measurement of the adsorption of a carboxylic acid surfactant to the interface. From the kinetic measurement of the bulk equilibration of the pH, we fully determine the adsorption process of the surfactant. The small droplet size and the convection during the droplet flow ensure that the transport of surfactant through the bulk is not limiting the kinetics of adsorption. To validate our measurements, we show that the adsorption process determines the timescale required to stabilize droplets against coalescence, and we show that the interface should be covered at more than 90% to prevent coalescence. We therefore quantitatively link the process of adsorption/desorption, the stabilization of emulsions, and the kinetics of solute partitioning—here through ion exchange—unraveling the timescales governing these processes. Our method can be further generalized to other surfactants, including nonionic surfactants, by making use of fluorophore–surfactant interactions. PMID:27688765

  17. Surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    Improved process of coal liquefaction utilizing nonaqueous surfactant has increased oil yield from 50 to about 80%. Asphaltene molecule formation of colloid particles is prevented by surfactant. Separated molecules present more surface area for hydrogenation reaction. Lower requirements for temperature, pressure, and hydrogen lead to reduction in capital and operation costs.

  18. Surfactant monitoring by foam generation

    DOEpatents

    Mullen, Ken I.

    1997-01-01

    A device for monitoring the presence or absence of active surfactant or other surface active agents in a solution or flowing stream based on the formation of foam or bubbles is presented. The device detects the formation of foam with a light beam or conductivity measurement. The height or density of the foam can be correlated to the concentration of the active surfactant present.

  19. ADSORPTION OF SURFACTANT ON CLAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surfactants used to enhance remediation of soils by soil washing are often lost in the process. Neither the amount nor the cause of this loss is known. It is assumed that clays present in the soil are responsible for the loss of the surfactant. In this papere, adsorption prope...

  20. Surfactant adsorption kinetics in microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, Birte; Maes, Florine; Akoury, Elias; Semin, Benoît; Gruner, Philipp; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2016-10-01

    Emulsions are metastable dispersions. Their lifetimes are directly related to the dynamics of surfactants. We design a microfluidic method to measure the kinetics of adsorption of surfactants to the droplet interface, a key process involved in foaming, emulsification, and droplet coarsening. The method is based on the pH decay in the droplet as a direct measurement of the adsorption of a carboxylic acid surfactant to the interface. From the kinetic measurement of the bulk equilibration of the pH, we fully determine the adsorption process of the surfactant. The small droplet size and the convection during the droplet flow ensure that the transport of surfactant through the bulk is not limiting the kinetics of adsorption. To validate our measurements, we show that the adsorption process determines the timescale required to stabilize droplets against coalescence, and we show that the interface should be covered at more than 90% to prevent coalescence. We therefore quantitatively link the process of adsorption/desorption, the stabilization of emulsions, and the kinetics of solute partitioning—here through ion exchange—unraveling the timescales governing these processes. Our method can be further generalized to other surfactants, including nonionic surfactants, by making use of fluorophore-surfactant interactions.

  1. Surfactants at Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Water Interface: Physics of Surfactants, Counter-Ions, and Hydration Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Ketan S.; Phelan, Frederick R., Jr.

    Specialized applications of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) require an efficient and reliable method to sort these materials into monodisperse fractions with respect to their defining metrics (chirality, length, etc.) while retaining their physical and chemical integrity. A popular method to achieve this goal is to use surfactants that individually disperse SWCNTs in water and then to separate the resulting colloidal mixture into fractions that are enriched in monodisperse SWCNTs. Recently, experiments at NIST have shown that subtle point mutations of chemical groups in bile salt surfactants have a large impact on the hydrodynamic properties of SWCNT-surfactant complexes during ultracentrifugation. These results provide strong motivation for understanding the rich physics underlying the assembly of surfactants around SWCNTs, the structure and dynamics of counter ions around the resulting complex, and propagation of these effects into the first hydration shell. Here, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the thermodynamics of SWCNT-bile salt surfactant complexes in water with an emphasis on the buoyant characteristics of the SWCNT-surfactant complexes. Simulation results will be presented along with a comparison with experimental data. Official contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology; not subject to copyright in the United States.

  2. On-line surfactant monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, K.I.; Neal, E.E.; Soran, P.D.; Smith, B.

    1995-04-01

    This group has developed a process to extract metal ions from dilute aqueous solutions. The process uses water soluble polymers to complex metal ions. The metal/polymer complex is concentrated by ultrafiltration and the metals are recovered by a pH adjustment that frees the metal ions. The metal ions pass through the ultrafiltration membrane and are recovered in a concentrated form suitable for reuse. Surfactants are present in one of the target waste streams. Surfactants foul the costly ultrafiltration membranes. It was necessary to remove the surfactants before processing the waste stream. This paper discusses an on-line device the authors fabricated to monitor the process stream to assure that all the surfactant had been removed. The device is inexpensive and sensitive to very low levels of surfactants.

  3. [Advances in studies on the effect of surfactant on bioavailability of polycylcic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia; Jing, Xin; Gao, Xuesheng; Ou, Ziqing

    2002-09-01

    The solubility and adsorption/desorption equilibrium of PAHs in soil and their interaction with soil bacterium can be altered by surfactants, which lead to the alternation of PAHs bioavailability. The bioavailability of PAHs can be enhanced by the decrease of interface tension between soil and water, the increasement of PAHs' solubility, and the transportation facilitation of PAHs in the presence of surfactants. It also can be inhibited by the surfactant toxicity to the bacteria or by the competitive ultilization between non-toxicitic surfactants and PAHs by the bacteria. In addition, the effects of surfactants on the PAHs of different existence-forms in soils are different. The bioavailability of PAHs can be affected by the type and concentrion of surfactants, PAHs and soil microorganisms, and also by soil physi-chemical characteristics.

  4. Flow microcalorimetry investigation of the influence of surfactants on a heterogeneous aerobic culture.

    PubMed Central

    Beaubien, A; Keita, L; Jolicoeur, C

    1987-01-01

    The influence of various surfactants on the biological activity of a mixed aerobic culture has been investigated by using flow microcalorimetry. The response of the culture to the addition of homologous n-alkylcarboxylates (C2 to C16) and n-alkylpyridinium bromides (C11 to C14) has been examined under endogenous and substrate saturation conditions, and inhibitory concentrations (MIC or the concentration which decreased the initial activity (heat flux) of the culture by 50%) were determined for each state. Under both conditions, the n-alkylpyridinium bromides were found to be more toxic than the n-alkylcarboxylates of identical chain length, thus confirming that the head group of the amphiphiles plays an important role in the microbial toxicity of surfactants. The relationship observed between the concentration at which 50% of the activity is lost and the chain length of the surfactant further confirms that cellular toxicity is also dependent on surfactant hydrophobicity. In relation to the biodegradability of surfactants in mixed aerobic cultures, the low concentration effects of n-alkylcarboxylates on endogenous culture were investigated in some detail. There appear to be compounded indications that these surfactants are rapidly metabolized by the microorganisms of the mixed culture, at least for homologs lower than C10. PMID:3426221

  5. Exploring the Effects of Different Types of Surfactants on Zebrafish Embryos and Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanan; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Xu; Sun, Mingzhu; Wei, Zhuo; Wang, Yu; Gao, Aiai; Chen, Dongyan; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Xizeng

    2015-01-01

    Currently, surfactants are widely distributed in the environment. As organic pollutants, their toxicities have drawn extensive attention. In this study, the effects of anionic [sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) ], cationic [dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (1227)] and non-ionic [fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether (AEO) ] surfactants on zebrafish larval behaviour were evaluated. Five behavioural parameters were recorded using a larval rest/wake assay, including rest total, number of rest bouts, rest bouts length, total activity and waking activity. The results revealed that 1227 and AEO at 1 μg/mL were toxic to larval locomotor activity and that SDS had no significant effects. Moreover, we tested the toxicities of the three surfactants in developing zebrafish embryos. AEO exposure resulted in smaller head size, smaller eye size and shorter body length relative to SDS and 1227. All three surfactants incurred concentration-dependent responses. Furthermore, in situ hybridisation indicated that smaller head size may be associated with a decreased expression of krox20. The altered expression of ntl demonstrated that the developmental retardation stemmed from inhibited cell migration and growth. These findings provide references for ecotoxicological assessments of different types of surfactants, and play a warning role in the application of surfactants. PMID:26053337

  6. Solubilization and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in soil-water suspensions with surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Laha, S.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) sorb strongly onto soil and sediment material, and the effectiveness of microbial treatment can be diminished by HOC phase partitioning and decreased substrate accessibility to microorganisms. Surfactant addition has been suggested as a technique for decreasing the interfacial tension and partitioning of the HOC with soil, and thereby increasing HOC mobility and bioavailability. However, this study indicates that nonionic surfactant solubilization of HOCs from soil may not be beneficial for the enhancement of soil bioremediation. The solubilization and microbial degradation of phenanthrene, a three-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compound, was examined in various soil-water systems with commercially-available surface-active agents. This was accomplished by a series of batch tests using radiolabeled techniques. The purpose of surfactant addition was to assess the effect of surfactant solubilization of PAHs on their biodegradation. For soil-water suspensions without surfactant approximately 50-60% of the phenanthrene was mineralized over the course of ten weeks. The addition of nonionic surface-active agents was observed not to be beneficial for microbial mineralization of phenanthrene in the soil-water systems, and for supra-CMC surfactant doses phenanthrene mineralization was completely inhibited for all the surfactants tested. Sub-CMC levels of surfactant in the soil-water systems generally did not have an inhibitory effect on phenanthrene mineralization, but neither did such doses serve to enhance the rate of degradation, which proceeded most rapidly in the absence of any surfactant. Companion tests suggest that the supra-CMC inhibitory effect is not a toxicity phenomenon, per se, of the surfactant or micellized PAH. An assessment of the results from the various experiments suggest that the inhibitory effect is probably related to a reversible physiological surfactant micelle-bacteria interaction.

  7. SURFACTANT-ENHANCED EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION VERSUCHSEININCHTUNG ZUR GRUNDWASSER-UND ALTLASTENSANIERUNG (VEGAS) FACILITY, STUTTGART, GERMANY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) summarized the results of an evaluation of a surfactant-enhanced extraction technology. This evaluation was conducted under a bilateral agreement between the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund ...

  8. Effects of foliar surfactants on host plant selection behavior of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    PubMed

    McKee, Fraser R; Levac, Joshua; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2009-10-01

    The pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae), is a highly polyphagous insect pest of global distribution. L. huidobrensis feeds and lays its eggs on leaf tissue and reduces crop marketability because of stippling and mining damage. In field insecticide trials, it was observed that stippling was reduced on plants treated with surfactant alone. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of surfactants on host selection behaviors of female L. huidobrensis and to assess the phytotoxicity of two common surfactants to test plants. The application of the surfactant Sylgard 309 to celery (Apium graveolens) caused a significant reduction in stippling rates. The application of Agral 90 to cucumber leaves (Cucumis sativus) resulted in changes to the amount of effort invested by females in specific host plant selection behaviors, as well as causing a significant reduction in the amount of stippling damage. The recommended dose of Sylgard 309 does not induce phytotoxicity on celery over a range of age classes nor does Agral 90 cause a phytotoxic effect in 35-d-old cucumber. Thus, reductions in observed stippling and changes to host selection behaviors were caused by an antixenotic effect of the surfactant on L. huidobrensis rather than a toxic effect of the surfactant on the plant. The presence of surfactant on an otherwise acceptable host plant seems to have masked host plant cues and prevented host plant recognition. Results indicate that surfactants may be used to reduce leafminer damage to vegetable crops, potentially reducing the use of insecticides.

  9. Surfactant damping of water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapham, Gary S.; Dowling, David R.; Schultz, William W.

    1997-11-01

    The most well known and perhaps most important distinguishing characteristic of a water surface laden with surfactant is the profound increase in small-wave damping with the addition of even small amounts of surfactant material. It would seem to follow that damping increases with increasing surfactant concentration. This is undoubtedly true for some surfactants, however our experiments with a soluble surfactant show that it is possible to increase surfactant concentration and measure a decrease in damping. While the increased concentration is accompanied by a dramatic decrease in measured static surface tension, some of the capillary-wave frequency regime is less damped. Experimental measurements of the real and imaginary parts of the wave speed are compared with existing theory where at least one other physical quantity besides surface tension is needed to properly model the interface. Our on-going work with insoluble surfactants may also provide an example of this type of behavior for materials that do not readily transfer to and from the bulk water. [Supported by the Office of Naval Research

  10. Electrokinetic investigation of surfactant adsorption.

    PubMed

    Bellmann, C; Synytska, A; Caspari, A; Drechsler, A; Grundke, K

    2007-05-15

    Fuerstenau [D.W. Fuerstenau, in: M.L. Hair (Ed.), Dekker, New York, 1971, p. 143] has already discussed the role of hydrocarbon chain of surfactants, the effect of alkyl chain length, chain structure and the pH of the solution on the adsorption process of surfactants. Later Kosmulski [M. Kosmulski, Chemical Properties of Material Surfaces, Surfactant Science Series, vol. 102, Dekker, New York, Basel, 2001] included the effect of surfactant concentration, equilibration time, temperature and electrolyte in his approaches. Certainly, the character of the head groups of the surfactant and the properties of the adsorbent surface are the basis for the adsorption process. Different surfactants and adsorbents cause different adsorption mechanisms described firstly by Rosen [M.J. Rosen, Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena, second ed., Wiley, New York, 1989]. These adsorption mechanisms and their influencing factors were studied by electrokinetic investigations. Here only changes of the charges at the surfaces could be detected. To control the results of electrokinetic investigations they were compared with results from ellipsometric measurements. In the case of surfactant adsorption the chain length was vitally important. It could be shown by the adsorption of alkyl trimethyl ammonium bromides onto polymer films spin coated at wafer surfaces. The influence of the chain length depending on surface properties of the polymer film was studied. Streaming potential measurements were applied for these investigations. The obtained results enabled us to calculate the molar cohesive free energy per mol of CH2-group in the alkaline chain of the surfactant if all other specific adsorption effects were neglected.

  11. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil-water system containing a nonionic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenjun; Zhu, Lizhong

    2005-09-01

    The effect of a nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100 (TX100), on the distribution of four representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenanthrene, fluorene, acenaphthene and naphthalene, in soil-water system was studied on a natural soil. The apparent soil-water distribution coefficient with surfactant (Kd*) for these compounds increased when TX100 equilibrium concentration from zero to around the critical micelle concentration (CMC), followed by a decrease in Kd* at TX100 equilibrium concentration greater than CMC. This is a direct result of surfactant sorption onto soil followed by PAHs partitioning to the sorbed surfactant. The values of carbon-normalized solute distribution coefficient (Kss) with the sorbed TX100 are greater than the corresponding partition coefficients with soil organic matter (Koc), which indicates the soil-sorbed nonionic surfactant is more effective per unit mass as a partitioning medium than the native soil organic matter for PAHs. When Kd* = Kd the corresponding initial concentration of surfactant was defined as critical washing concentration (CWC). Depending on the surfactant initial concentration below or above the CWC, the addition of nonionic surfactant can enhance the retardation of soil for PAHs or promote the removal of PAHs from soil, respectively. The values of Kd* and CWC can be predicted by a model, which correlates them with the compounds' octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow), soil property and the amount of soil-sorbed surfactant.

  12. Effect of chemical and biological surfactants on activated sludge of MBR system: microscopic analysis and foam test.

    PubMed

    Capodici, Marco; Di Bella, Gaetano; Nicosia, Salvatore; Torregrossa, Michele

    2015-02-01

    A bench-scale MBR unit was operated, under stressing condition, with the aim of stimulating the onset of foaming in the activated sludge. Possible synergies between synthetic surfactants in the wastewater and biological surfactants (Extra-Cellular Polymeric Substances, EPSs) were investigated by changing C/N ratio. The growth of filamentous bacteria was also discussed. The MBR unit provided satisfactory overall carbon removal overall efficiencies: in particular, synthetic surfactants were removed with efficiency higher than 90% and 95% for non-ionic and ionic surfactants, respectively. Lab investigation suggested also the importance to reduce synthetic surfactants presence entering into mixed liquor: otherwise, their presence can significantly worsen the natural foaming caused by biological surfactants (EPSs) produced by bacteria. Finally, a new analytic method based on "ink test" has been proposed as a useful tool to achieve a valuation of EPSs bound fraction.

  13. Structural Studies of Protein-Surfactant Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Chodankar, S. N.; Aswal, V. K.; Wagh, A. G.

    2008-03-17

    The structure of protein-surfactant complexes of two proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme in presence of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). It is observed that these two proteins form different complex structures with the surfactant. While BSA protein undergoes unfolding on addition of surfactant, lysozyme does not show any unfolding even up to very high surfactant concentrations. The unfolding of BSA protein is caused by micelle-like aggregation of surfactant molecules in the complex. On the other hand, for lysozyme protein there is only binding of individual surfactant molecules to protein. Lysozyme in presence of higher surfactant concentrations has protein-surfactant complex structure coexisting with pure surfactant micelles.

  14. Pulmonary surfactant for neonatal respiratory disorders.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Jeffrey D; Ballard, Roberta A

    2003-04-01

    Surfactant therapy has revolutionized neonatal care and is used routinely for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Recent investigation has further elucidated the function of surfactant-associated proteins and their contribution toward surfactant and lung immune defense functions. As the field of neonatology moves away from intubation and mechanical ventilation of preterm infants at birth toward more aggressive use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure, the optimal timing of exogenous surfactant therapy remains unclear. Evidence suggests that preterm neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and prolonged mechanical ventilation also experience surfactant dysfunction; however, exogenous surfactant therapy beyond the first week of life has not been well studied. Surfactant replacement therapy has been studied for use in other respiratory disorders, including meconium aspiration syndrome and pneumonia. Commercial surfactant preparations currently available are not optimal, given the variability of surfactant protein content and their susceptibility to inhibition. Further progress in the treatment of neonatal respiratory disorders may include the development of "designer" surfactant preparations.

  15. Toxicity of nanoparticle surface coating agents: Structure-cytotoxicity relationship.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Xiaoping; Yu, Hongtao

    2016-07-02

    Surface coating agents for metal nanoparticles, cationic alkyl ammonium bromides, and anionic alkyl sulfates were tested against human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and blood T lymphocytes (TIB-152). The surfactants of short chain (C8) are not cytotoxic, but as chain length increases, their cytotoxicity increases and levels off at C12 for cationic surfactants against both cell lines and for anionic surfactants against the TIB-152, but C14 for anionic surfactants against HaCaT. The cationic surfactants are more toxic than the anionic surfactants for HaCaT; while with similar cytotoxicity for TIB-152 cells. di- and tetra-Alkyl ammonium salts are more cytotoxic than the mono-substituted.

  16. Minimally invasive approaches for surfactant administration.

    PubMed

    Trevisanuto, D; Marchetto, L

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the most common respiratory morbidity in preterm infants. In addition to respiratory support, the current clinical treatment includes endotracheal intubation and rapid instillation of exogenous surfactant. However, this approach needs skilled operators and has been associated with complications such as hemodynamic instability and electroencephalogram abnormalities. New, less invasive methods for surfactant administration are needed. In this article, we reviewed the available noninvasive procedures for surfactant administration. In particular, we focused on aerosolized surfactant and surfactant administration through LMA.

  17. Interactions between polymers and surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    de Gennes, P.G. )

    1990-11-01

    A surfactant film (at the water/air interface, or in a bilayer) is exposed to a solution of a neutral, flexible, polymer. Depending on the interactions, and on the Langmuir pressure II of the pure surfactant film, the authors expected to find three types of behavior: (I) the polymer does not absorb; (II) the polymer absorbs and mixes with the surfactant; (III) the polymer absorbs but segregates from the surfactant. Their interest here is in case II. They predict that (a) bilayers become rigid; (b) bilayers, exposed to polymer on one side only, tend to bend strongly; (c) the surface viscosity of monolayers or bilayers is considerably increased; soap films or foams, which usually drain by turbulent (two-dimensional) flows, may be stabilized in case II.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: surfactant dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... easy. Without normal surfactant, the tissue surrounding the air sacs in the lungs (the alveoli ) sticks together (because of a force called surface tension) after exhalation, causing the alveoli ...

  19. Toxic megacolon

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease - toxic megacolon; Crohn disease - toxic megacolon; Ulcerative colitis - toxic megacolon ... people with an inflamed colon due to: Ulcerative colitis , or Crohn disease that is not well controlled ...

  20. Grafting synthetic transmembrane units to the engineered low-toxicity α-hemolysin to restore its hemolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Ui, Mihoko; Harima, Kousuke; Takei, Toshiaki; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Tabata, Kazuhito V; Noji, Hiroyuki; Endo, Sumire; Akiyama, Kimio; Muraoka, Takahiro; Kinbara, Kazushi

    2014-12-01

    The chemical modification of proteins to provide desirable functions and/or structures broadens their possibilities for use in various applications. Usually, proteins can acquire new functions and characteristics, in addition to their original ones, via the introduction of synthetic functional moieties. Here, we adopted a more radical approach to protein modification, i.e., the replacement of a functional domain of proteins with alternative chemical compounds to build "cyborg proteins." As a proof of concept model, we chose staphylococcal α-hemolysin (Hla), which is a well-studied, pore-forming toxin. The hemolytic activity of Hla mutants was dramatically decreased by truncation of the stem domain, which forms a β-barrel pore in the membrane. However, the impaired hemolytic activity was significantly restored by attaching a pyrenyl-maleimide unit to the cysteine residue that was introduced in the remaining stem domain. In contrast, negatively charged fluorescein-maleimide completely abolished the remaining activity of the mutants.

  1. Indomethacin pharmacodynamics are altered by surfactant: a possible challenge to current indomethacin dosing guidelines created before surfactant availability.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Christopher; Gal, Peter; Ransom, J Laurence; Carlos, Rita Q; Dimaguila, Mary Ann V T; Smith, McCrae; Davonzo, Christie; Wimmer, John E

    2010-05-01

    The effect of surfactant administration for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) on indomethacin (INDO) pharmacodynamics and dosing requirements for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure and renal toxicity was evaluated. A 22-year prospective cohort study including 442 INDO-treated patients given 466 INDO treatment courses. The database included demographic information, medical problems, and medications. Neonates with a PDA confirmed by echocardiography were treated with INDO, 0.25-0.3 mg/kg. Subsequent INDO dosing was based on a combined pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) approach. Data were fit to an Emax model and ANOVA was used to compare mean closure levels between groups. PDA closure was successful in 405 of 442 patients (91.6%) and in 434 of 466 treatment courses (93.1%) using an individualized PK/PD dosing approach. Renal toxicity was documented in 56 of 442 patients (12.7%) or 56 of 466 treatment courses (12.0%). Patients not treated with synthetic surfactant trended toward lower mean INDO concentrations at PDA closure compared to patients treated with synthetic surfactant (1.65 vs. 2.01 mg/l; P > 0.05) and significantly lower mean INDO concentrations at PDA closure compared to patients treated with natural surfactant (1.65 vs. 2.15 mg/l; P < 0.002). This requires an increased total dose of ~0.3 mg/kg or an individual dose increase of 0.1 mg/kg. Administration of natural or synthetic surfactant for RDS may increase the INDO concentrations and doses needed for PDA closure in premature infants.

  2. Oleic acid-based gemini surfactants with carboxylic acid headgroups.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Umemoto, Naoki; Matsuda, Wataru; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Anionic gemini surfactants with carboxylic acid headgroups have been synthesized from oleic acid. The hydrocarbon chain is covalently bound to the terminal carbonyl group of oleic acid via an ester bond, and the carboxylic acid headgroups are introduced to the cis double bond of oleic acid via disuccinyl units. The surfactants exhibit pH-dependent protonation-deprotonation behavior in aqueous solutions. In alkaline solutions (pH 9 in the presence of 10 mmol dm(-3) NaCl as the background electrolyte), the surfactants can lower the surface tension as well as form molecular assemblies, even in the region of low surfactant concentrations. Under acidic (pH 3) or neutral (pH 6-7) conditions, the surfactants are intrinsically insoluble in aqueous media and form a monolayer at the air/water interface. In this study, we have investigated physicochemical properties such as the function of the hydrocarbon chain length by means of static surface tension, pyrene fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, surface pressure-area isotherms, and infrared external reflection measurements.

  3. Toxicity of laundry detergent components to a freshwater cladoceran and their contribution to detergent toxicity.

    PubMed

    Warne, M S; Schifko, A D

    1999-10-01

    The toxicity of 39 laundry detergent components including surfactants, enzymes, builders, fabric brighteners, fillers, and coloring agents to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia was determined. The difference between the most and the least toxic components was approximately 17,000-fold and 1,000,000-fold for the mg/L and mmol/L EC50 data, respectively. Two of the components had high toxicity (EC50 values < 1 mg/L), 11 moderate toxicity (EC50 values between 1 and 10 mg/L), and the remaining 26 components had low toxicity (EC50 values > 10 mg/L). Analysis revealed that mixtures of the components interacted antagonistically, additively, and synergistically. On a molarity basis the most toxic group of compounds was the surfactants followed by the brighteners. The most toxic individual components included sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium silicate solution, four brighteners, sodium perborate tetrahydrate, and the surfactants. Many of the most toxic components, however, contributed very little to the toxicity of the detergents due to being present in the detergents at low concentrations. The main contributors to the toxicity of detergents were the sodium silicate solution and the surfactants-with the remainder of the components contributing very little to detergent toxicity. The potential for acute aquatic toxic effects due to the release of secondary or tertiary sewage effluents containing the breakdown products of laundry detergents may frequently be low. However, untreated or primary treated effluents containing detergents may pose a problem. Chronic and/or other sublethal effects that were not examined in this study may also pose a problem.

  4. Toxic Synovitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Toxic Synovitis KidsHealth > For Parents > Toxic Synovitis A A A ... and causes no long-term problems. About Toxic Synovitis Toxic synovitis (also known as transient synovitis ) is ...

  5. Biomimicry of surfactant protein C.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nathan J; Johansson, Jan; Barron, Annelise E

    2008-10-01

    Since the widespread use of exogenous lung surfactant to treat neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, premature infant survival and respiratory morbidity have dramatically improved. Despite the effectiveness of the animal-derived surfactant preparations, there still remain some concerns and difficulties associated with their use. This has prompted investigation into the creation of synthetic surfactant preparations. However, to date, no clinically used synthetic formulation is as effective as the natural material. This is largely because the previous synthetic formulations lacked analogues of the hydrophobic proteins of the lung surfactant system, SP-B and SP-C, which are critical functional constituents. As a result, recent investigation has turned toward the development of a new generation of synthetic, biomimetic surfactants that contain synthetic phospholipids along with a mimic of the hydrophobic protein portion of lung surfactant. In this Account, we detail our efforts in creating accurate mimics of SP-C for use in a synthetic surfactant replacement therapy. Despite SP-C's seemingly simple structure, the predominantly helical protein is extraordinarily challenging to work with given its extreme hydrophobicity and structural instability, which greatly complicates the creation of an effective SP-C analogue. Drawing inspiration from Nature, two promising biomimetic approaches have led to the creation of rationally designed biopolymers that recapitulate many of SP-C's molecular features. The first approach utilizes detailed SP-C structure-activity relationships and amino acid folding propensities to create a peptide-based analogue, SP-C33. In SP-C33, the problematic and metastable polyvaline helix is replaced with a structurally stable polyleucine helix and includes a well-placed positive charge to prevent aggregation. SP-C33 is structurally stable and eliminates the association propensity of the native protein. The second approach follows the same design

  6. Comparative toxicity of size-fractionated airborne particulate matter obtained from different cities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, M.I.; McGee, J.; Duvall, R.M.; Dailey, L.; Daniels, M.; Boykin, E.; Cho, S.H.; Doerfler, D.; Gordon, T.; Devlin, R.B.

    2007-07-01

    Hundreds of epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with dose-dependent increases in morbidity and mortality. While early reports focused on PM less than 10 {mu}m (PM10), numerous studies have since shown that the effects can occur with PM stratified into ultrafine (UF), fine (FI), and coarse (CO) size modes despite the fact that these materials differ significantly in both evolution and chemistry. Furthermore the chemical makeup of these different size fractions can vary tremendously depending on location, meteorology, and source profile. For this reason, high-volume three-stage particle impactors with the capacity to collect UF, FI, and CO particles were deployed to four different locations in the United States (Seattle, WA; Salt Lake City, UT; Sterling Forest and South Bronx, NY), and weekly samples were collected for 1 mo in each place. The particles were extracted, assayed for a standardized battery of chemical components, and instilled into mouse lungs (female BALB/c) at doses of 25 and 100 {mu}g. Eighteen hours later animals were euthanized and parameters of injury and inflammation were monitored in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma. Of the four locations, the South Bronx coarse fraction was the most potent sample in both pulmonary and systemic biomarkers. Receptor source modeling on the PM2.5 samples showed that the South Bronx sample was heavily influenced by emissions from coal fired power plants (31%) and mobile sources (22%). Further studies will assess how source profiles correlate with the observed effects for all locations and size fractions.

  7. Comparative toxicity of size-fractionated airborne particulate matter obtained from different cities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, M Ian; McGee, John; Duvall, Rachelle M; Dailey, Lisa; Daniels, Mary; Boykin, Elizabeth; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Doerfler, Donald; Gordon, Terry; Devlin, Robert B

    2007-01-01

    Hundreds of epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with dose-dependent increases in morbidity and mortality. While early reports focused on PM less than 10 microm (PM10), numerous studies have since shown that the effects can occur with PM stratified into ultrafine (UF), fine (FI), and coarse (CO) size modes despite the fact that these materials differ significantly in both evolution and chemistry. Furthermore the chemical makeup of these different size fractions can vary tremendously depending on location, meteorology, and source profile. For this reason, high-volume three-stage particle impactors with the capacity to collect UF, FI, and CO particles were deployed to four different locations in the United States (Seattle, WA; Salt Lake City, UT; Sterling Forest and South Bronx, NY), and weekly samples were collected for 1 mo in each place. The particles were extracted, assayed for a standardized battery of chemical components, and instilled into mouse lungs (female BALB/c) at doses of 25 and 100 microg. Eighteen hours later animals were euthanized and parameters of injury and inflammation were monitored in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma. Of the four locations, the South Bronx coarse fraction was the most potent sample in both pulmonary and systemic biomarkers, with a strong increase in lung inflammatory cells as well as elevated levels of creatine kinase in the plasma. These effects did not correlate with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or total zinc or sulfate content, but were associated with total iron. Receptor source modeling on the PM2.5 samples showed that the South Bronx sample was heavily influenced by emissions from coal fired power plants (31%) and mobile sources (22%). Further studies will assess how source profiles correlate with the observed effects for all locations and size fractions.

  8. Profile and outcome of patients with acute toxicity admitted in intensive care unit: Experiences from a major corporate hospital in urban India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Omender; Javeri, Yash; Juneja, Deven; Gupta, Manish; Singh, Gurpreet; Dang, Rohit

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim: There is scarcity of data from the Indian subcontinent regarding the profile and outcome of patients presenting with acute poisoning admitted to intensive care units (ICU). We undertook this retrospective analysis to assess the course and outcome of such patients admitted in an ICU of a tertiary care private hospital. Methods: We analyzed data from 138 patients admitted to ICU with acute poisoning between July 2006 and March 2009. Data regarding type of poisoning, time of presentation, reason for ICU admission, ICU course and outcome were obtained. Results: Seventy (50.7%) patients were males and majority (47.8%) of admissions were from age group 21 to 30 years. The most common agents were benzodiazepines, 41/138 (29.7%), followed by alcohol, 34/138 (24.63%) and opioids, 10/138 (7.2%). Thirty-two (23%) consumed two or more agents. Commonest mode of toxicity was suicidal (78.3%) and the route of exposure was mainly oral (97.8%). The highest incidence of toxicity was due to drugs (46.3%) followed by household agents (13%). Organ failure was present in 67 patients (48.5%). During their ICU course, dialysis was required in four, inotropic support in 14 and ventilator support in 13 patients. ICU mortality was 3/138 (2.8%). All deaths were due to aluminium phosphide poisoning. Conclusions: The present data give an insight into epidemiology of poisoning and represents a trend in urban India. The spectrum differs as we cater to urban middle and upper class. There is an increasing variety and complexity of toxins, with substance abuse attributing to significant number of cases. PMID:22013253

  9. Influence of nonionic surfactants on bioavailability and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Volkering, F; Breure, A M; van Andel, J G; Rulkens, W H

    1995-05-01

    The presence of the synthetic nonionic surfactants Triton X-100, Tergitol NPX, Brij 35, and Igepal CA-720 resulted not only in increased apparent solubilities but also in increased maximal rates of dissolution of crystalline naphthalene and phenanthrene. A model based on the assumption that surfactant micelles are formed and act as a separate phase underestimated the dissolution rates; this led to the conclusion that surfactants present at concentrations higher than the critical micelle concentration affect the dissolution process. This conclusion was confirmed by the results of batch growth experiments, which showed that the rates of biodegradation of naphthalene and phenanthrene in the dissolution-limited growth phase were increased by the addition of surfactant, indicating that the dissolution rates were higher than the rates in the absence of surfactant. In activity and growth experiments, no toxic effects of the surfactants at concentrations up to 10 g liter(sup-1) were observed. Substrate present in the micellar phase was shown to be not readily available for degradation by the microorganisms. This finding has important consequences for the application of (bio)surfactants in biological soil remediation.

  10. Practical Considerations and Challenges Involved in Surfactant Enhanced Bioremediation of Oil

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Sagarika; Jasmine, Jublee

    2013-01-01

    Surfactant enhanced bioremediation (SEB) of oil is an approach adopted to overcome the bioavailability constraints encountered in biotransformation of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) pollutants. Fuel oils contain n-alkanes and other aliphatic hydrocarbons, monoaromatics, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although hydrocarbon degrading cultures are abundant in nature, complete biodegradation of oil is rarely achieved even under favorable environmental conditions due to the structural complexity of oil and culture specificities. Moreover, the interaction among cultures in a consortium, substrate interaction effects during the degradation and ability of specific cultures to alter the bioavailability of oil invariably affect the process. Although SEB has the potential to increase the degradation rate of oil and its constituents, there are numerous challenges in the successful application of this technology. Success is dependent on the choice of appropriate surfactant type and dose since the surfactant-hydrocarbon-microorganism interaction may be unique to each scenario. Surfactants not only enhance the uptake of constituents through micellar solubilization and emulsification but can also alter microbial cell surface characteristics. Moreover, hydrocarbons partitioned in micelles may not be readily bioavailable depending on the microorganism-surfactant interactions. Surfactant toxicity and inherent biodegradability of surfactants may pose additional challenges as discussed in this review. PMID:24350261

  11. Surfactant therapy and spontaneous diuresis.

    PubMed

    Bhat, R; John, E; Diaz-Blanco, J; Ortega, R; Fornell, L; Vidyasagar, D

    1989-03-01

    The effect of artificial surfactant therapy on renal function and the onset of spontaneous diuresis was prospectively evaluated in 19 infants with hyaline membrane disease in a double-blind, controlled study. Twelve infants were in the surfactant group; seven infants received placebo (0.9% saline solution). There was no difference in the time of onset of spontaneous diuresis (as defined by output greater than or equal to 80% of intake). The glomerular filtration rate, determined by endogenous creatinine clearance, was also similar in the surfactant- and placebo-treated infants during the first 3 days of life. The fractional excretion of sodium was significantly higher in the placebo group at 24 hours and 36 hours. Infants in the placebo group had a higher negative sodium balance than those in the surfactant group. Ventilatory status improved significantly soon after surfactant treatment, as evidenced by improvement in the alveolar/arterial oxygen pressure ratio and by a lower mean airway pressure. These data suggest that ventilatory status can be improved without diuresis; the factors that regulate diuresis are multiple and not fully understood.

  12. Physicochemical properties of oleic acid-based partially fluorinated gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Umemoto, Naoki; Aburai, Kenichi; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Endo, Takeshi; Kitiyanan, Boonyarach; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    We have developed oleic acid-based partially fluorinated gemini surfactants with carboxylic acid headgroups. The fluorocarbon chain is covalently bound to the terminal carbonyl group of oleic acid via a -CH(2)CH(2)OCO- unit, and the carboxylic acid headgroups are introduced to the cis double bond of oleic acid via -OCOCH(2)CH(2)- units. The aqueous solution properties of these surfactants were studied at pH 9 in the presence of 10 mmol dm–3 NaCl by means of static surface tension, pyrene fluorescence, and dynamic light scattering measurements. The resulting surface tension data demonstrate that the partially fluorinated gemini surfactants exhibit excellent surface activity in their dilute aqueous solutions. In addition, the surfactants are suggested to form micellar aggregates 2–4 nm in diameter. We also studied the aqueous temperature-concentration phase diagrams of the partially fluorinated gemini surfactants (disodium salts) on the basis of visual observations (through a crossed polarizer), polarized optical microscopy, and small angle X-ray scattering measurements. Several phase states including micellar solution phase, hexagonal phase, bicontinuous cubic phase, and lamellar phase were observed along with the coexistence of these phases in certain regions. Assemblies with lesser positive curvature tend to be formed with increasing surfactant concentration, increasing temperature, and increasing fluorocarbon chain length. A comparison of the phase diagrams of the partially fluorinated and hydrogenated surfactant systems suggests that close molecular packing is inhibited within the assemblies of the partially fluorinated surfactants because of the limited miscibility between the fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon units. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic report focusing on the temperature-concentration phase diagrams of (partially) fluorinated gemini surfactants over a wide range of compositions and temperatures.

  13. Synthesis of carbohydrate-based surfactants

    DOEpatents

    Pemberton, Jeanne E.; Polt, Robin L.; Maier, Raina M.

    2016-11-22

    The present invention provides carbohydrate-based surfactants and methods for producing the same. Methods for producing carbohydrate-based surfactants include using a glycosylation promoter to link a carbohydrate or its derivative to a hydrophobic compound.

  14. Preparations of organobentonite using nonionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y H

    2001-08-01

    Due to hydrophilic environment at its surface, natural bentonite is an ineffective sorbent for nonpolar nonionic organic compounds in water even though it has high surface area. The surface properties of natural bentonite can be greatly modified by simple ion-exchange reactions with large organic cations (cationic surfactants) and this organobentonite is highly effective in removing nonionic organic compounds from water. Cationic surfactant derived organobentonites have been investigated extensively for a wide variety of environmental applications. In this study, the preparation of organobentonite using nonionic surfactants has been investigated for the first time. Results indicate that nonionic surfactants intercalates into the interlamellar space of bentonite and may demonstrate higher sorption capacity than cationic surfactant. It is possible to create large interlayer spacing and high organic carbon content organobentonite by use of nonionic surfactants with suitable balance between the hydrocarbon and ethylene oxide chain lengths. In addition, nonionic surfactant derived organobentonites are more chemically stable than cationic surfactant derived organobentonites.

  15. Surfactant recovery from water using foam fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Tharapiwattananon, N.; Osuwan, S.; Scamehorn, J.F.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of foam fractionation to recover surfactant from water. A simple continuous mode foam fractionation was used and three surfactants were studied (two anionic and one cationic). The effects of air flow rate, foam height, liquid height, liquid feed surfactant concentration, and sparger porosity were studied. This technique was shown to be effective in either surfactant recovery or the reduction of surfactant concentration in water to acceptable levels. As an example of the effectiveness of this technique, the cetylpyridinium chloride concentration in water can be reduced by 90% in one stage with a liquid residence time of 375 minutes. The surfactant concentration in the collapsed foam is 21.5 times the feed concentration. This cationic surfactant was easier to remove from water by foam fractionation than the anionic surfactants studied.

  16. Surfactants as Microbicides and Contraceptive Agents: A Systematic In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Otilia V.; Oberdoerfer, Daniel; Baptista, Marta; Santos, Manuel A. S.; Almeida, Luis; Ramalho-Santos, João; Vaz, Winchil L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Background The urgent need for cheap and easy-to-use protection against both unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases has stimulated considerable interest in the use of surfactants as microbicides, anti-viral, and contraceptive agents in recent years. In the present study we report a systematic in vitro evaluation of the microbicidal, anti-viral and contraceptive potential of cationic, anionic, zwitterionic, and non-ionic surfactants. Methodology/Principal Findings Toxicity was evaluated in mammalian columnar epithelial (MDCK) cells, human sperm cells, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus faecalis. The inhibition of adenovirus and lentivirus infection of MDCK cells was also tested. A homologous series of cationic surfactants, alkyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromides (CnTAB), with varying alkyl chains were shown to be bactericidal and fungicidal at doses that were related to the surfactant critical micelle concentrations (CMC), all of them at concentrations significantly below the CMC. In general, bacteria were more susceptible to this surfactant group than C. albicans and this organism, in turn, was more susceptible than MDCK cells. This suggests that the CnTAB may be useful as vaginal disinfectants only in so far as bacterial and fungal infections are concerned. None of the surfactants examined, including those that have been used in pre-clinical studies, showed inhibition of adenovirus or lentivirus infection of MDCK cells or spermicidal activity at doses that were sub-toxic to MDCK cells. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study lead us to propose that systematic analysis of surfactant toxicity, such as we report in the present work, be made a mandatory pre-condition for the use of these substances in pre-clinical animal and/or human studies. PMID:18682796

  17. A study of corrosion inhibition of steel AISI-SAE 1020 in CO2-brine using surfactant Tween 80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedeño, M. L.; L, E. Vera; Pineda T, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Surfactant inhibitors also called active surface agents are molecules composed of a polar hydrophilic group and a non-polar hydrophobic group, with characteristics of adsorption on metal surfaces, high efficiency of inhibiting, low price, low toxicity and easy production. In this work, the corrosion inhibition was study by CO2 steel AISI-SAE 1020 with the addition of 0.01M Tween 80 surfactant to a brine solution (3% NaCl). Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization testing investigated the phenomenon. The results revealed that the surfactant studied acts as an excellent corrosion inhibitor and inhibition efficiency (E%) increases with increasing fluid velocity. The morphology of the steel surface after exposure to the solution of 3% NaCl with and without surfactant indicates the inhibition phenomenon is due to the adsorption of the surfactant molecules, which insulate the surface of the corrosive medium and reduces the attack surficial.

  18. Biofoams and natural protein surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2010-01-01

    Naturally occurring foam constituent and surfactant proteins with intriguing structures and functions are now being identified from a variety of biological sources. The ranaspumins from tropical frog foam nests comprise a range of proteins with a mixture of surfactant, carbohydrate binding and antimicrobial activities that together provide a stable, biocompatible, protective foam environment for developing eggs and embryos. Ranasmurfin, a blue protein from a different species of frog, displays a novel structure with a unique chromophoric crosslink. Latherin, primarily from horse sweat, but with similarities to salivary, oral and upper respiratory tract proteins, illustrates several potential roles for surfactant proteins in mammalian systems. These proteins, together with the previously discovered hydrophobins of fungi, throw new light on biomolecular processes at air–water and other interfaces. This review provides a perspective on these recent findings, focussing on structure and biophysical properties. PMID:20615601

  19. Toxic metal concentrations in cigarettes obtained from U.S. smokers in 2009: results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States survey cohort.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Rosalie V; O'Connor, Richard J; Stephens, W Edryd; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2013-12-20

    Smoking-related diseases can be attributed to the inhalation of many different toxins, including heavy metals, which have a host of detrimental health effects. The current study reports the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) in cigarettes obtained from adult smokers participating in the 2009 wave of the ITC United States Survey (N = 320). The mean As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb levels were 0.17, 0.86, 2.35, 2.21, and 0.44 µg/g, respectively. There were some differences in metal concentrations of cigarette brands produced by different manufacturers, suggesting differences in the source of tobaccos used by different companies. For Ni, there were significant pairwise differences between Philip Morris U.S. (PMUSA) and R.J. Reynolds (RJR) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), PMUSA and other manufacturer (OM) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), and RJR and OM brands (RJR higher; p = 0.006). For Cr, RJR brands had higher levels than did OM brands (p = 0.02). Levels of As, Cd, and Pb did not differ significantly across manufacturer groups (p > 0.10). Because of the variety of toxic heavy metals in cigarette tobacco, and their numerous negative health effects, metal content in cigarette tobacco should be reduced.

  20. Fiber coating with surfactant solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Amy Q.; Gleason, Blake; McKinley, Gareth H.; Stone, Howard A.

    2002-11-01

    When a fiber is withdrawn at low speeds from a pure fluid, the variation in the thickness of the entrained film with imposed fiber velocity is well-predicted by the Landau-Levich-Derjaguin (LLD) equation. However, surfactant additives are known to alter this response. We study the film thickening properties of the protein BSA (bovine serum albumin), the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100, and the anionic surfactant SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). For each of these additives, the film thickening factor alpha (the ratio of the measured thickness to the LLD prediction) for a fixed fiber radius varies as a function of the ratio of the surfactant concentration c to the critical micelle concentration (CMC). In the case of BSA, which does not form micelles, the reference value is the concentration at which multilayers form. As a result of Marangoni effects, alpha reaches a maximum as c approaches the CMC from below. However, when the surfactant concentration c exceeds the CMC, the behavior of alpha varies as a consequence of the dynamic surface properties, owing for example to different sorption kinetics of these additives, or possibly surface or bulk rheological effects. For SDS, alpha begins to decrease when c exceeds the CMC and causes the surface to become partially or completely remobilized, which is consistent with the experimental and theoretical results published for studies of slug flows of bubbles and surfactant solutions in a capillary tube and the rise of bubbles in surfactant solutions. However, when the SDS or Triton X-100 surfactant concentration is well above the CMC, we observe that the film thickening parameter alpha increases once again. In the case of SDS we observe a second maximum in the film thickening factor. For all the experiments, transport of monomers to the interface is limited by diffusion and the second maximum in the film thickening factor may be explained as a result of a nonmonotonic change in the stability characteristics of suspended SDS

  1. SURFACTANT ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION WITH SURFACTANT REGENERATION/REUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation was conducted during the spring of 1999 at Marine Corps Base, Camp LeJeune, NC. A PCE-DNAPL zone was identified and delineated by extensive soil sampling in 1997, and was further characteized by a partitioning interwell t...

  2. Surfactant-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Single Phase Pyrite FeS2 Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wadia, Cyrus; Wu, Yue; Gul, Sheraz; Volkman, Steven; Guo, Jinghua; Alivisatos, Paul

    2009-03-27

    Iron pyrite nanocrystals with high purity have been synthesized through a surfactant-assisted hydrothermal reaction under optimum pH value. These pyrite nanocrystals represent a new group of well-defined nanoscale structures for high-performance photovoltaic solar cells based on non-toxic and earth abundant materials.

  3. Tuning the production of variable length, fluorescent polyisoprenoids using surfactant-controlled enzymatic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Troutman, Jerry M; Erickson, Katelyn M; Scott, Phillip M; Hazel, Joseph M; Martinez, Christina D; Dodbele, Samantha

    2015-05-12

    Bactoprenyl diphosphate (BPP), a two-E eight-Z configuration C55 isoprenoid, serves as a critical anchor for the biosynthesis of complex glycans central to bacterial survival and pathogenesis. BPP is formed by the polymerase undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UppS), which catalyzes the elongation of a single farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) with eight Z-configuration isoprene units from eight isopentenyl diphosphates. In vitro analysis of UppS and other polyprenyl diphosphate synthases requires the addition of a surfactant such as Triton X-100 to stimulate the release of the hydrophobic product from the enzyme for effective and efficient turnover. Here using a fluorescent 2-nitrileanilinogeranyl diphosphate analogue of FPP, we have found that a wide range of surfactants can stimulate release of product from UppS and that the structure of the surfactant has a major impact on the lengths of products produced by the protein. Of particular importance, shorter chain surfactants promote the release of isoprenoids with four to six Z-configuration isoprene additions, while larger chain surfactants promote the formation of natural isoprenoid lengths (8Z) and larger. We have found that the product chain lengths can be readily controlled and coarsely tuned by adjusting surfactant identity, concentration, and reaction time. We have also found that binary mixtures of just two surfactants can be used to fine-tune isoprenoid lengths. The surfactant effects discovered do not appear to be significantly altered with an alternative isoprenoid substrate. However, the surfactant effects do appear to be dependent on differences in UppS between bacterial species. This work provides new insights into surfactant effects in enzymology and highlights how these effects can be leveraged for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of otherwise difficult to obtain glycan biosynthesis probes. This work also provides key reagents for the systematic analysis of structure-activity relationships between glycan

  4. Screening Nonionic Surfactants for Enhanced Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Remaining in Soil After Conventional Biological Treatment.

    PubMed

    Adrion, Alden C; Nakamura, Jun; Shea, Damian; Aitken, Michael D

    2016-04-05

    A total of five nonionic surfactants (Brij 30, Span 20, Ecosurf EH-3, polyoxyethylene sorbitol hexaoleate, and R-95 rhamnolipid) were evaluated for their ability to enhance PAH desorption and biodegradation in contaminated soil after treatment in an aerobic bioreactor. Surfactant doses corresponded to aqueous-phase concentrations below the critical micelle concentration in the soil-slurry system. The effect of surfactant amendment on soil (geno)toxicity was also evaluated for Brij 30, Span 20, and POESH using the DT40 B-lymphocyte cell line and two of its DNA-repair-deficient mutants. Compared to the results from no-surfactant controls, incubation of the bioreactor-treated soil with all surfactants increased PAH desorption, and all except R-95 substantially increased PAH biodegradation. POESH had the greatest effect, removing 50% of total measured PAHs. Brij 30, Span 20, and POESH were particularly effective at enhancing biodegradation of four- and five-ring PAHs, including five of the seven carcinogenic PAHs, with removals up to 80%. Surfactant amendment also significantly enhanced the removal of alkyl-PAHs. Most treatments significantly increased soil toxicity. Only the no-surfactant control and Brij 30 at the optimum dose significantly decreased soil genotoxicity, as evaluated with either mutant cell line. Overall, these findings have implications for the feasibility of bioremediation to achieve cleanup levels for PAHs in soil.

  5. Surfactant Facilitated Spreading of Aqueous Drops on Hydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Nitin; Couzis, Alex; Maldarelli, Charles; Singh, Bhim S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Microgravity technologies often require aqueous phases to spread over nonwetting hydrophobic solid/surfaces. At a hydrophobic surface, the air/hydrophobic solid tension is low, and the solid/aqueous tension is high. A large contact angle forms as the aqueous/air tension acts together with the solid/air tension to balance the large solid/aqueous tension. The aqueous phase, instead of spreading, is held in a meniscus by the large angle. Surfactants facilitate the wetting of water on hydrophobic surfaces by adsorbing on the water/air and hydrophobic solid/water interfaces and lowering the surface tensions of these interfaces. The tension reductions decrease the contact angle, which increases the equilibrium wetted area. Hydrocarbon surfactants (i.e. amphiphiles with a hydrophobic chain of methylene groups attached to a large polar group to give aqueous solubility) do not reduce significantly the contact angles of the very hydrophobic surfaces such as parafilm or polyethylene. Trisiloxane surfactants (amphiphiles with a hydrophobe consisting of methyl groups linked to a trisiloxane backbone in the form of a disk ((CH3)3-Si-O-Si-O-Si(CH3)3)) and an extended ethoxylate (-(OCH2CH2)n-) polar group in the form of a chain with seven or eight units) can significantly reduce the contact angle of water on a very hydrophobic surface and cause rapid and complete (or nearly complete) spreading (lermed superspreading). The overall goal of the research described in this proposal is to establish and verify a theory for how trisiloxanes cause superspreading, and then use this knowledge as a guide to developing more general hydrocarbon based surfactant systems which superspread and can be used in microgravity. We propose that the trisiloxane surfactants superspread when the siloxane adsorbs, the hydrophobic disk parts of the molecule adsorb onto the surface removing the surface water. Since the cross sectional area of the disk is larger than that of the extended ethoxylate chain, the

  6. Toxic Hazards Research Unit 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    Report. AAMRL TR-75-57. Wright-Patterson Air Force 9ase, OH: Aero~pacp Medical Research Laboratory. 294 APPENDIX E SUBMITTED TECHiNICAL REPORTS, LETTER...Medical Research Laboratory. Ad~itional copies may be purchased from: National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, Virginia...Resources, National Research Council. This report has been reviewed by the Office of Public Affairs (PA) and is releasable to the National Technical

  7. Toxic Hazards Research Unit - 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    the test material One-tenth of a milliliter of the test material was applied to one eye of each of the nine albino rabbits. The opposite eye was left...adult guinea pigs for sensitization testing and albino rabbits for skin irritation testing Existing alternative methods to animal testing are inadequate...purchased for use in the skin irritation study from Clerco Research Farms, Cincinnati, OH. Male, albino , Hartley strain guinea pigs, weighing between 200

  8. Toxic Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Toxic hepatitis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Toxic hepatitis is an inflammation of your liver in reaction to certain substances to which you're exposed. Toxic hepatitis can be caused by alcohol, chemicals, drugs or ...

  9. Near-Field Microscopy Studies of Lung Surfactant Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aga, Rachel; Dunn, Robert

    2003-03-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), the fourth leading cause of infant mortality in the United States, arises from an insufficiently developed lung surfactant (LS). Healthy LS, a mixture of lipids and proteins that coats the inner surface of the lungs, reduces the alveolar surface tension to a few millinewtons per meter and, thus, facilitates breathing by stabilizing the large surface area changes associated with respiration. In the absence of an effective LS, surfactant collapse pressure (i.e., monolayer compressibility) and the ability of the monolayer to re-spread during the breathing cycle are reduced, resulting in labored breathing, reduced oxygen transport, and often death in those afflicted. In this study, we investigate the mechanism of collapse and re-spreading of a monolayer formed by a replacement surfactant commonly used in treatment of RDS. Through confocal microscopy fluorescence images obtained at a series of pressures near collapse, we find evidence for multilayer formation in the films. A further understanding of the collapse mechanism is obtained by comparing high resolution fluorescence and topography information measured with near-field scanning optical microscopy. The combined data from both confocal and near-field measurements are used to develop a model of lung surfactant collapse and re-spreading.

  10. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS FROM WASTEWATER BY SURFACTANT SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    This research presents a novel hybrid process for removing organic chemicals from contaminated water. The process uses surfactant to carry out two unit operations (1) Extraction; (2) Foam flotation. In the first step, surfactant is used to extract most of the amounts of organic contaminants in the stream. In the second step, foam flotation is used to further reduce organic contaminants and recover surfactant from the stream. The process combines the advantages of extraction and foam flotation, which allows the process not only to handle a wide range of organic contaminants, but also to effectively treat a wide range of the concentration of organic contaminants in the stream and reduce it to a very low level. Surfactant regeneration can be done by conventional methods. This process is simple and low cost. The wastes are recoverable. The objective of this research is to develop an environmentally innocuous process for the wastewater or reclaimed water treatment with the ability to handle a wide range of organic contaminants, also to effectively treat a wide range of the concentration of organic contaminants in contaminated water and reduce it to a very low level, finally, provides simpler, less energy cost and economically-practical process design. Another purpose is to promote the environmental concern in minority students and encourage minority students to become more involved in environmental engineering research.

  11. Solubilization and separation of p-tert-butylphenol using polyelectrolyte/surfactant complexes in colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiyama, Hirotaka; Christian, S.D.; Tucker, E.E.; Scamehorn, J.F. )

    1994-03-15

    Water-soluble polyelectrolyte/surfactant complexes, involving oppositely charged species, can form at quite low thermodynamic activities of the surfactant. This fact can be exploited in colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration separations, where both molecular organic pollutants and toxic ions are to be removed from contaminated aqueous streams. Investigations have been made of (a) the solubilization and ultrafiltration of solutions of organic solutes in polymer/surfactant solutions, for comparison with studies of micellar surfactant solutions in the absence of added polymers; (b) the penetration of surfactant through the membrane (leakage of monomer) in dialysis and ultrafiltration experiments; and (c) the utility of polyelectrolytes as scavengers'' for surfactant species that-enter the permeate or filtrate in colloid-enhanced ultrafiltration separations. The polyelectrolyte chosen for the studies is sodium poly(styrenesulfonate) and the surfactant is cetylpyridinium chloride (hexadecylpyridinium chloride). A detailed study has been made of the solubilization and separation of p-tert-butylphenol in aqueous mixtures of sodium poly(styrenesulfonate) and cetylpyridinium chloride, at polyelectrolyte to surfactant mole ratios of two to one and three to one.

  12. Structural alert/reactive metabolite concept as applied in medicinal chemistry to mitigate the risk of idiosyncratic drug toxicity: a perspective based on the critical examination of trends in the top 200 drugs marketed in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stepan, Antonia F; Walker, Daniel P; Bauman, Jonathan; Price, David A; Baillie, Thomas A; Kalgutkar, Amit S; Aleo, Michael D

    2011-09-19

    Because of a preconceived notion that eliminating reactive metabolite (RM) formation with new drug candidates could mitigate the risk of idiosyncratic drug toxicity, the potential for RM formation is routinely examined as part of lead optimization efforts in drug discovery. Likewise, avoidance of "structural alerts" is almost a norm in drug design. However, there is a growing concern that the perceived safety hazards associated with structural alerts and/or RM screening tools as standalone predictors of toxicity risks may be over exaggerated. In addition, the multifactorial nature of idiosyncratic toxicity is now well recognized based upon observations that mechanisms other than RM formation (e.g., mitochondrial toxicity and inhibition of bile salt export pump (BSEP)) also can account for certain target organ toxicities. Hence, fundamental questions arise such as: When is a molecule that contains a structural alert (RM positive or negative) a cause for concern? Could the molecule in its parent form exert toxicity? Can a low dose drug candidate truly mitigate metabolism-dependent and -independent idiosyncratic toxicity risks? In an effort to address these questions, we have retrospectively examined 68 drugs (recalled or associated with a black box warning due to idiosyncratic toxicity) and the top 200 drugs (prescription and sales) in the United States in 2009 for trends in physiochemical characteristics, daily doses, presence of structural alerts, evidence for RM formation as well as toxicity mechanism(s) potentially mediated by parent drugs. Collectively, our analysis revealed that a significant proportion (∼78-86%) of drugs associated with toxicity contained structural alerts and evidence indicating that RM formation as a causative factor for toxicity has been presented in 62-69% of these molecules. In several cases, mitochondrial toxicity and BSEP inhibition mediated by parent drugs were also noted as potential causative factors. Most drugs were administered

  13. Inactivation of surfactant in rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Bruni, R; Fan, B R; David-Cu, R; Taeusch, H W; Walther, F J

    1996-02-01

    Although surfactant replacement therapy has dramatically improved the outcome of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome, approximately 30% of treated infants show a transient or no response. Nonresponse to surfactant replacement therapy may be due to extreme lung immaturity and possibly surfactant inactivation. Surfactant inactivation involves aspecific biophysical events, such as interference with the formation or activity of an alveolar monolayer, and specific interactions with serum proteins, including antibodies, leaking into the alveolar space. As formulations containing surfactant proteins appear to better tolerate serum inactivation, we used an excised rat lung model to compare the susceptibility to serum inactivation of a mixture of synthetic phospholipids selected from surfactant lipid constituents, Exosurf (a protein-free synthetic surfactant), Survanta [containing surfactant proteins B and C (SP-B and -C)], and a porcine surfactant (containing SP-A, -B, and -C). For each of these preparations, we used pressure/volume determinations as an in situ measure of surfactant activity and retested the same preparations after mixing with human serum, a nonspecific surfactant inactivator. Human serum inactivated porcine surfactant to a lesser extent than Survanta, Exosurf, or synthetic phospholipids. Temperature exerted a significant effect on deflation stability, as shown by a greater lung compliance in untreated, normal lungs and a larger improvement in compliance after treating lavaged lungs with synthetic phospholipids at 37 degrees C than at 22 degrees C. We conclude that surfactant containing SP-A, -B, and -C is only moderately susceptible to inactivation with whole serum and may therefore exert a greater clinical response than protein-free surfactants or those containing only SP-B and -C.

  14. Morphological and physiological damage by surfactant-polluted seaspray on Pinus pinea and Pinus halepensis.

    PubMed

    Nicolotti, Giovanni; Rettori, Andrea; Paoletti, Elena; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2005-06-01

    This paper reports morphological and physiological damage caused by polluted seaspray to coastal pine forests in Liguria (Northern Italy) and suggests the most reliable parameters for surfactant-pollution biomonitoring. Concentrations of surfactants in surface seawater, seaspray, and that deposited on Pinus halepensis and Pinus pinea needles were determined in samples from five sites. Decline of the pines in the Western part of Liguria was greater than in the East, and was associated with higher surfactant levels deposited on the crowns. Chloride content of needles was higher in damaged pines, even if it did not reach toxic levels. Stomata micromorphologies did not differ between species in the crown parts facing the sea, while differences were significant in the back crown parts that were not directly exposed to polluted sea breezes. Water content and noon water potential indicated interference in water relations of damaged trees. In conclusion, none of the investigated parameters was by itself a comprehensive index of surfactant damage. A simultaneous survey of several parameters is suggested to investigate the impact of surfactants on coastal vegetation. The most useful parameters were: directionality of crown damage, surfactant depositions on the needles, chloride accumulation in the needles, structural injury to epistomatal chambers, needle water content and potential.

  15. Effect of exogenous surfactant on the development of surfactant synthesis in premature rabbit lung.

    PubMed

    Amato, Maurizio; Petit, Kevin; Fiore, Humberto H; Doyle, Cynthia A; Frantz, Ivan D; Nielsen, Heber C

    2003-04-01

    Surfactant replacement is an effective therapy for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Full recovery from respiratory distress syndrome requires development of endogenous surfactant synthesis and metabolism. The influence of exogenous surfactant on the development of surfactant synthesis in premature lungs is not known. We hypothesized that different exogenous surfactants have different effects on the development of endogenous surfactant production in the premature lung. We treated organ cultures of d 25 fetal rabbit lung for 3 d with 100 mg/kg body weight of natural rabbit surfactant, Survanta, and Exosurf and measured their effects on the development of surfactant synthesis. Additional experiments tested how these surfactants and Curosurf affected surfactant protein (SP) SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C mRNA expression. Surfactant synthesis was measured as the incorporation of 3H-choline and 14C-glycerol into disaturated phosphatidylcholine recovered from lamellar bodies. Randomized-block ANOVA showed significant differences among treatments for incorporation of both labels (p < 0.01), with natural rabbit surfactant less than control, Survanta greater than control, and Exosurf unchanged. Additional experiments with natural rabbit surfactant alone showed no significant effects in doses up to 1000 mg/kg. Survanta stimulated disaturated phosphatidylcholine synthesis (173 +/- 41% of control; p = 0.01), increased total lamellar body disaturated phosphatidylcholine by 22% (p < 0.05), and increased 14C-disat-PC specific activity by 35% (p < 0.05). The response to Survanta was dose-dependent up to 1000 mg/kg. Survanta did not affect surfactant release. No surfactant altered the expression of mRNA for SP-A, SP-B, or SP-C. We conclude that surfactant replacement therapy can enhance the maturation of surfactant synthesis, but this potential benefit differs with different surfactant preparations.

  16. Surfactant-facilitated remediation of metal-contaminated soils: efficacy and toxicological consequences to earthworms.

    PubMed

    Slizovskiy, Ilya B; Kelsey, Jason W; Hatzinger, Paul B

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of surfactant formulations to remove aged metals from a field soil and their influence on soil toxicity was investigated. Batch studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of cationic (1-dodecylpyridinium chloride; DPC), nonionic (oleyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride; trade name Ammonyx KP), and anionic (rhamnolipid biosurfactant blend; trade name JBR-425) surfactants for extracting Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd from a soil subjected to more than 80 years of metal deposition. All three surfactants enhanced removal of the target metals. The anionic biosurfactant JBR-425 was most effective, reducing Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd in the soil by 39, 56, 68, and 43%, respectively, compared with less than 6% removal by water alone. Progressive acidification of the surfactants with citric acid buffer or addition of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) further improved extraction efficiency, with more than 95% extraction of all four metals by surfactants acidified to pH 3.6 and generally greater than 90% removal of all metals with addition of 0.1 M EDTA. In two species of earthworm, Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris, metal bioaccumulation was reduced by approximately 30 to 80%, total biomass was enhanced by approximately threefold to sixfold, and survival was increased to greater than 75% in surfactant-remediated soil compared with untreated soil. The data indicate that surfactant washing may be a feasible approach to treat surface soils contaminated with a variety of metals, even if those metals have been present for nearly a century, and that the toxicity and potential for metal accumulation in biota from the treated soils may be significantly reduced.

  17. Enhanced biodegradation of creosote contaminated soil using a nonionic surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Carriere, P.E.; Mesania, F.A.

    1995-12-31

    There is a growing concern in the US about the increasing number of industrial sites containing concentration of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in their soil and waste sludge above background levels. Low molecular weight PAHs are generally considered as extremely toxic compounds, whereas the higher molecular weight PAHs are carcinogenic in nature. The aqueous solubility and volatility of PAHs decrease with increasing molecular weight. Bioremediation, a viable option for treatment of PAH contaminated soils, can reduce PAH concentration to acceptable levels. It is primarily a water-based process influenced by sorption (absorption/desorption), diffusion and dissolution mechanisms which serve to control the accessibility of the organics to the bacteria that are present in water. In most cases, sorption is the rate limiting step controlling, both the rate and extent of biodegradation. The process of bioremediation can be enhanced by application of surfactant by increasing the availability of the organic compounds to the microorganisms. In previous bioremediation studies, the use of several kinds of surfactant was found to enhance the solubility of hydrophobic compounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a nonionic surfactant on biodegradation of creosote contaminated soil.

  18. Surfactants in the management of rhinopathologies

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Philip L.; Palmer, James N.; O'Malley, Bert W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Surfactants are a class of amphiphilic surface active compounds that show several unique physical properties at liquid–liquid or liquid–solid surface interfaces including the ability to increase the solubility of substances, lower the surface tension of a liquid, and decrease friction between two mediums. Because of these unique physical properties several in vitro, ex vivo, and human trials have examined the role of surfactants as stand-alone or adjunct therapy in recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Methods: A review of the literature was performed. Results: The data from three different surfactants have been examined in this review: citric acid zwitterionic surfactant (CAZS; Medtronic ENT, Jacksonville FL), Johnson's Baby Shampoo (Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick NJ), and SinuSurf (NeilMed Pharmaceuticals, Santa Rosa, CA). Dilute surfactant therapy shows in vitro antimicrobial effects with modest inhibition of bacterial biofilm formation. In patients with CRS, surfactants may improve symptoms, most likely through its mucolytic effects. In addition, surfactants have several distinct potential benefits including their ability to improve an irrigant's penetration of the nonoperated sinus and their synergistic effects with antibiotics. However, surfactants potential for nasal irritation and possible transient ciliotoxicity may limit their use. Conclusion: Recent data suggest a possible therapeutic role of surfactants in treating rhinopathologies associated with mucostasis. Further investigation, including a standardization of surfactant formulations, is warranted to further elucidate the potential benefits and drawbacks of this therapy. PMID:23710951

  19. Electronic structure and mesoscopic simulations of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants. a combined DFT and DPD study.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Diego; Aburto, Jorge; García-Cruz, Isidoro

    2013-08-07

    The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of ethylene oxide (EO) chains on the properties of a series of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE) surfactants. We performed a theoretical study of NPE surfactants by means of density functional theory (DFT) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). Both approximations were used separately to obtain different properties. Four NPEs were selected for this purpose (EO = 4, 7, 11 and 15 length chains). DFT methods provided some electronic properties that are related to the EO units. One of them is the solvation Gibbs energy, which exhibited a linear trend with EO chain length. DPD calculations allow us to observe the dynamic behavior in water of the NPE surfactants. We propose a coarse-grained model which properly simulates the mesophases of each surfactant. This model can be used in other NPEs applications.

  20. Biomimetic oligosaccharide and peptide surfactant polymers designed for cardiovascular biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruegsegger, Mark Andrew

    A common problem associated with cardiovascular devices is surface induced thrombosis initiated by the rapid, non-specific adsorption of plasma proteins onto the biomaterial surface. Control of the initial protein adsorption is crucial to achieve the desired longevity of the implanted biomaterial. The cell membrane glycocalyx acts as a non-thrombogenic interface through passive (dense oligosaccharide structures) and active (ligand/receptor interactions) mechanisms. This thesis is designed to investigate biomimicry of the cell glycocalyx to minimize non-specific protein adsorption and promote specific ligand/receptor interactions. Biomimetic macromolecules were designed through the molecular-scale engineering of polymer surfactants, utilizing a poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) backbone to which hydrophilic (dextran, maltose, peptide) and hydrophobic alkyl (hexanoyl or hexanal) chains are simultaneously attached. The structure was controlled through the molar feed ratio of hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic groups, which also provided control of the solution and surface-active properties. To mimic passive properties, a series of oligomaltose surfactants were synthesized with increasing saccharide length (n = 2, 7, 15 where n is number of glucose units) to investigate the effect of coating height on protein adsorption. The surfactants were characterized by infra red (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies for structural properties and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle goniometry for surface activity. Protein adsorption under dynamic flow (5 dyn/cm2) was reduced by 85%--95% over the bare hydrophobic substrate; platelet adhesion dropped by ˜80% compared to glass. Peptide ligands were incorporated into the oligosaccharide surfactant to promote functional activity of the passive coating. The surfactants were synthesized to contain 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% peptide ligand density and were stable on hydrophobic surfaces. The peptide surface density was

  1. Surfactant and nonlinear drop dynamics in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankovsky, Joseph Charles

    2000-11-01

    Large amplitude drop dynamics in microgravity were conducted during the second United States Microgravity Laboratory mission carried onboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (20 October-5 November 1995). Centimeter- sized drops were statically deformed by acoustic radiation pressure and released to oscillate freely about a spherical equilibrium. Initial aspect ratios of up to 2.0 were achieved. Experiments using pure water and varying aqueous concentrations of Triton-X 100 and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were performed. The axisymmetric drop shape oscillations were fit using the degenerate spherical shape modes. The frequency and decay values of the fundamental quadrupole and fourth order shape mode were analyzed. Several large amplitude nonlinear oscillation dynamics were observed. Shape entrainment of the higher modes by the fundamental quadrupole mode occurred. Amplitude- dependent effects were observed. The nonlinear frequency shift, where the oscillation frequency is found to decrease with larger amplitudes, was largely unaffected by the presence of surfactants. The percentage of time spent in the prolate shape over one oscillation cycle was found to increase with oscillation amplitude. This prolate shape bias was also unaffected by the addition of surfactants. These amplitude-dependent effects indicate that the nonlinearities are a function of the bulk properties and not the surface properties. BSA was found to greatly enhance the surface viscoelastic properties by increasing the total damping of the oscillation, while Triton had only a small influence on damping. The surface concentration of BSA was found to be diffusion-controlled over the time of the experiments, while the Triton diffusion rate was very rapid. Using the experimental frequency and decay values, the suface viscoelastic properties of surface dilatational viscosity ( ks ) and surface shear viscosity ( ms ) were found for varying surfactant concentrations using the transcendental equation of Lu

  2. Gemini Surfactants Based on Bis-Imidazolium Alkoxy Derivatives as Effective Agents for Delivery of Nucleic Acids: A Structural and Spectroscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Pietralik, Zuzanna; Kołodziejska, Żaneta; Weiss, Marek; Kozak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The success rate of gene therapy depends on the efficient transfection of genetic material into cells. The golden mean between harmlessness and high effectiveness can be provided by synthetic lipid-like molecules that are similar to the components of biological membranes. Cationic gemini surfactants are one such moiety and because of their favourable physicochemical properties (double positive electric charge, reduced toxicity, low values of critical micelle concentration), they show great potential as delivery system components for genetic material in gene therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the process of the complexation of cationic gemini surfactants with nucleic acids: double-stranded DNA of different sizes (21 bp, ~185 bp, ~20 kbp) and siRNA (21 bp). The tested series of dicationic surfactants consists of bis-imidazolium quaternary salts with varying lengths of hydrophobic side chains (m = 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 16). On the basis of the data obtained by circular dichroism spectroscopy and electrophoresis, we concluded that the studied gemini surfactants with long side chains effectively bind nucleic acids at low concentrations, which leads to the formation of stable lipoplexes. Images obtained by atomic force microscopy also confirmed the formation of vesicular structures, i.e., complexes between DNA and surfactants. The cytotoxicity of selected surfactants was also tested on HeLa cells. The surfactant toxicity significantly depends on surfactant geometry (the length of hydrophobic chain). PMID:26641889

  3. Gemini Surfactants Based on Bis-Imidazolium Alkoxy Derivatives as Effective Agents for Delivery of Nucleic Acids: A Structural and Spectroscopic Study.

    PubMed

    Pietralik, Zuzanna; Kołodziejska, Żaneta; Weiss, Marek; Kozak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The success rate of gene therapy depends on the efficient transfection of genetic material into cells. The golden mean between harmlessness and high effectiveness can be provided by synthetic lipid-like molecules that are similar to the components of biological membranes. Cationic gemini surfactants are one such moiety and because of their favourable physicochemical properties (double positive electric charge, reduced toxicity, low values of critical micelle concentration), they show great potential as delivery system components for genetic material in gene therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the process of the complexation of cationic gemini surfactants with nucleic acids: double-stranded DNA of different sizes (21 bp, ~185 bp, ~20 kbp) and siRNA (21 bp). The tested series of dicationic surfactants consists of bis-imidazolium quaternary salts with varying lengths of hydrophobic side chains (m = 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 16). On the basis of the data obtained by circular dichroism spectroscopy and electrophoresis, we concluded that the studied gemini surfactants with long side chains effectively bind nucleic acids at low concentrations, which leads to the formation of stable lipoplexes. Images obtained by atomic force microscopy also confirmed the formation of vesicular structures, i.e., complexes between DNA and surfactants. The cytotoxicity of selected surfactants was also tested on HeLa cells. The surfactant toxicity significantly depends on surfactant geometry (the length of hydrophobic chain).

  4. Surfactant transport on viscous bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, Omar; Craster, Richard; Warner, Mark

    2001-11-01

    We model the external delivery of surfactant to pulmonary airways, an integral part of Surfactant Replacement Therapy (SRT), a method of treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in neonates. We examine the spreading dynamics of insoluble surfactant by Marangoni stresses along the mucus-perciliary liquid bilayers that line the inside of airways. The bilayer is modelled as a thin highly viscous mucus surface film (mucus) overlying a much less viscous perciliary liquid layer (PCL); this is appropriate for small airways. By exploiting this large viscosity constrast, a variant of standard lubrication theory is adopted wherein terms, which would have otherwise been neglected in the lubrication approximation, are promoted in order to model correctly the presence of the mucus. Inclusion of van der Waals forces in the model permit the study of the effect of this mucus 'skin' on the possibility of bilayer rupture, a potential cause of failure of SRT. We find that increasing the viscosity contrast and initial mucus layer thickness delays the onset of rupture, while increasing the relative significance of Marangoni stresses leads to more marked thinning and rapid bilayer rupture [1]. [1] O. K. Matar, R. V. Craster and M. R. Warner, submitted to J. Fluid Mech. (2001).

  5. Solution behavior of surfactants. Vol. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, K.L.; Fendler, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    This three-volume set constitutes the proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Surfactants in Solution held in Sweden in 1982. Volume 1 considers phase behavior and phase equilibria in surfactant solutions (e.g., thermodynamics of partially miscible micelles and liquid crystals; multi-method characterization of micelles; the surfactant-block model of micelle structure). Volume 2 considers thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of micellization (computation of the micelle-size distribution; salt-induced sphere-rod transition of ionic micelles; micellar effects on kinetics and equilibria of electron transfer reactions). Volume 3 considers reverse micelles, microemulsions and reactions in microemulsions. Topics covered include solubilization, surfactants in analytical chemistry, the adsorption and binding of surfactants, the polymerization of organized surfactant assemblies, light scattering by liquid surfaces, and vesicles.

  6. Hydrocarbons and surfactants: Ecotoxicology in a marine pelagic food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Skadsheim, A.; Hoivangli, V.; Labes-Carrier, C.

    1996-12-31

    Accidental spills and production lead to discharges of petroleum hydrocarbons and surface active agents to the sea. The Norwegian government has set guidelines adopted from the OSPAR commission for assessment and studies of the environmental load from these discharges. The free water masses are poorly studied compared to the benthic processes in this context and we question how oil and surfactants might bioaccumulate in a simplified marine pelagic food chain comprised of algae, crustaceans and fish. When test methods and species recommended for initial water based acute toxicity studies are to be implemented in more comprehensive studies like assessment of bioaccumulation various problems arose. An improvement of the OSPAR method for the production of Water Accommodated Fractions (WAFs) of oil is presented. Emphasis is on control of oil concentration and distribution in water, and on applicability for studies where larger volumes of WAF are required than for the demand in acute toxicity tests. Acute toxicity assessments of one oil, Blended Arabian Light topped at 150{degrees}C, and two non-ionic dispersants, hexaetoxyparanonylphenol and a sophorolipid, were conducted on OSPAR recommended species. The toxicity responses were in line with observations made by others. At a given concentration the oil particle size during WAF preparation might influence subsequent expression of toxic effects. The same applied for the presence of emulsified oil particles in the WAR where the organisms were exposed. Reasons for selecting other test organisms than those officially recommended for continued studies on bioaccumulation are presented and discussed.

  7. Surfactant-enhanced cellulose nanocrystal Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen; Ballinger, Sarah; Pelton, Robert; Cranston, Emily D

    2015-02-01

    The effect of surfactants on the properties of Pickering emulsions stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) was investigated. Electrophoretic mobility, interfacial tension, confocal microscopy and three-phase contact angle measurements were used to elucidate the interactions between anionic CNCs and cationic alkyl ammonium surfactants didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Both surfactants were found to adsorb onto CNCs with concentration-dependent morphology. At low concentrations, individual surfactant molecules adsorbed with alkyl tails pointing outward leading to hydrophobic CNCs. At higher concentrations, above the surfactant's apparent critical micelle concentration, surfactant aggregate morphologies on CNCs were inferred and the hydrophobicity of CNCs decreased. DMAB, which has two alkyl tails, rendered the CNCs more hydrophobic than CTAB which has only a single alkyl tail, at all surfactant concentrations. The change in CNC wettability from surfactant adsorption was directly linked to emulsion properties; adding surfactant increased the emulsion stability, decreased the droplet size, and controlled the internal phase of CNC Pickering emulsions. More specifically, a double transitional phase inversion, from oil-in-water to water-in-oil and back to oil-in-water, was observed for emulsions with CNCs and increasing amounts of DMAB (the more hydrophobic surfactant). With CNCs and CTAB, no phase inversion was induced. This work represents the first report of CNC Pickering emulsions with surfactants as well as the first CNC Pickering emulsions that can be phase inverted. The ability to surface modify CNCs in situ and tailor emulsions by adding surfactants may extend the potential of CNCs to new liquid formulations and extruded/spray-dried materials.

  8. Remediation using trace element humate surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox

    2016-08-30

    A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.

  9. Inhibition of Aflatoxin Production by Surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Susan B.; Mahoney, Noreen E.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of 12 surfactants on aflatoxin production, growth, and conidial germination by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is reported. Five nonionic surfactants, Triton X-100, Tergitol NP-7, Tergitol NP-10, polyoxyethylene (POE) 10 lauryl ether, and Latron AG-98, reduced aflatoxin production by 96 to 99% at 1% (wt/vol). Colony growth was restricted by the five nonionic surfactants at this concentration. Aflatoxin production was inhibited 31 to 53% by lower concentrations of Triton X-100 (0.001 to 0.0001%) at which colony growth was not affected. Triton X-301, a POE-derived anionic surfactant, had an effect on colony growth and aflatoxin production similar to that of the five POE-derived nonionic surfactants. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an anionic surfactant, and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, a cationic surfactant, suppressed conidial germination at 1% (wt/vol). SDS had no effect on aflatoxin production or colony growth at 0.001%. The degree of aflatoxin inhibition by a surfactant appears to be a function of the length of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic chains of POE-derived surfactants. Images PMID:16349144

  10. Evidences for anti-mycobacterium activities of lipids and surfactants.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Afzal; Singh, Sandeep Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is the most widespread and deadly airborne disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The two-pronged lethal effect on the bacteria using lipids/surfactants and anti-tubercular drugs may render the miniaturization of dose owing to synergistic and tandem effect of both. The current research has been focused on screening and evaluating various lipids/surfactants possessing inherent anti-mycobacterium activity that can ferry the anti-tubercular drugs. In vitro anti-mycobacterium activity was evaluated using agar well diffusion method. Furthermore, time-concentration dependent killing and DNA/RNA content release studies were performed to correlate the findings. The exact mechanism of bacterial killing was further elucidated by electron/atomic force microscopy studies. Finally, to negate any toxicity, in vitro hemolysis and toxicity studies were performed. The study revealed that capmul MCM C-8, labrasol and acconon C-80 possessed highest in vitro anti-mycobacterium activity. Electron/atomic force microscopy results confirmed in vitro studies and verified the killing of Mycobacterium owing to the release of cytoplasmic content after cell wall fragmentation and disruption. Moreover, the least hemolysis and hundred percent survivals rate of mice using the excipients demonstrated the safety aspects of explored excipients that can ferry the anti-tubercular drugs. The present study concluded the safe, efficient and synergistic activity of the explored excipients and anti-tubercular drugs in controlling the menace of tuberculosis.

  11. Temperature dependence of the surfactant film bending elasticity in a bicontinuous sugar surfactant based microemulsion: a quasielastic scattering study.

    PubMed

    Wellert, Stefan; Karg, Matthias; Holderer, Olaf; Richardt, André; Hellweg, Thomas

    2011-02-28

    Currently, the design of microemulsions is focussed on the formulation of environmentally compatible systems formed by non-harmful amphiphiles and oils. The use of sugar-based surfactants allows the design of microemulsions where, instead of the temperature, the addition of short- or medium-chain alcohols tunes the curvature of the amphiphilic interface. In this work, the resulting temperature stability of a sugar surfactant and rapeseed methyl ester based bicontinuous microemulsion is exploited to study the influence of temperature variations on the bending elastic constant κ. Quasi-elastic scattering of light and neutrons is used to separate long-range collective motions and local thermally excited undulations of the interface. κ in units of kT is found to be independent of temperature over a wide range.

  12. Investigation on interaction of DNA and several cationic surfactants with different head groups by spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis and viscosity technologies.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing; Zhang, Zhaohong; Song, Youtao; Liu, Shuo; Gao, Wei; Qiao, Heng; Guo, Lili; Wang, Jun

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the interaction between DNA and several cationic surfactants with different head groups such as ethyl hexadecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (EHDAB), hexadecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HDBAC), and cetyl pyridinium bromide (CPB) were investigated by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, gel electrophoresis, and viscosity technologies. The results show that these cationic surfactants can interact with DNA and major binding modes are electrostatic and hydrophobic. Also, CPB and HDBAC molecules interact with DNA by partial intercalation, and CPB has slightly stronger intercalation than HDBAC, while EHDAB interacts with DNA by non-intercalation. The different head groups of the surfactant molecules can influence the interaction strength. CPB has the stronger interaction with DNA than the others. Moreover, surfactant concentration, the ratio of DNA and fluorescence probe, ionic strength can influence the interaction. The surfactants may interact with DNA by the competition reactions with BR for DNA-BR. The increase of ionic strength may favor the surface binding between DNA and surfactants to some extent. This work provides deep mechanistic insight on the toxicity of cationic surfactants with different head groups to DNA molecules.

  13. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  14. Synthesis evaluation and adsorption studies of anionic copolymeric surfactants based on fatty acrylate ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Dougdoug, W. I. A.; El-Mossalamy, E. H.

    2006-12-01

    A series of anionic copolymeric surfactants based on n-dodecylacrylate ester (M 1) as hydrophobe, and oxypropylated acrylate ester (MA 4,6) as hydrophiles, were prepared by copolymerization of n-dodecylacrylate (M 1) and oxypropylated acrylate ester (MA 4,6) with molar ratio's (0.3:0.7, 0.4:0.6 and 0.5:0.5, respectively) in presence of benzoyl peroxide as initiator followed by sulfation and neutralization to afforded [(PAS 4), and (PAS 6)] a-c, as anionic copolymeric surfactant in suitable yield. These derivatives were purified and characterized by IR and 1H NMR spectral studies. Surface activity, and biodegradability were evaluated. Adsorption of some copolymeric surfactant on salary sand was investigated to assess possibility of treating waste water streams for removal of Pb 2+ and Hg 2+ toxic minerals. The effect of several factors governing the adsorption such as initial concentration, temperature, pH, have been studied.

  15. Chest position and pulmonary deposition of surfactant in surfactant depleted rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Broadbent, R.; Fok, T. F.; Dolovich, M.; Watts, J.; Coates, G.; Bowen, B.; Kirpalani, H.

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the correlation between chest position and the distribution of surfactant in the lungs of surfactant depleted rabbits, to corroborate current guidelines on the intratracheal instillation of exogenous surfactant in newborns. METHODS--Twelve tracheotomised rabbits, depleted of pulmonary surfactant by saline bronchoalveolar lavage, were given intratracheal 99m Technetium labelled Exosurf in three positions (prone, right side down, and left side down) (n = 4 in each group). They were monitored for 10 minutes using dynamic gamma scintigraphy monitoring. Instillation completed, the lateral lying animals were turned to the opposite side to determine whether redistribution of the surfactant had taken place. The amount of radiolabelled surfactant deposited at the peripheral, central, dorsal and ventral parts of the lungs was then estimated by gamma counting of the lung sections at necropsy. RESULTS--Both gamma scintigraphy and gamma counting showed similar rates and total amount of surfactant accumulation in both lungs of the prone animals. In the lateral lying animals surfactant accumulated at a significantly faster rate in the dependent lungs: the amount of surfactant deposition was three to 14-fold that in the raised lungs (p = 0.017; nested ANOVA). Changing the chest position immediately after instillation did not redistribute the surfactant. In all three groups of animals there was no significant difference in deposition between the peripheral, central, ventral and dorsal parts of the lungs. CONCLUSIONS--Pulmonary distribution of intratracheally instilled surfactant is largely determined by gravity, and changing the chest position after instillation does not result in any redistribution of the surfactant. During the instillation of exogenous surfactant to newborn infants, keeping the chest in the horizontal position may therefore result in the most even distribution of the surfactant in the two lungs. Further deposition studies are required to

  16. Relationships between benthic macroinvertebrate community structure and geospatial habitat, in-stream water chemistry, and surfactants in the effluent-dominated Trinity River, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Slye, Jaime L; Kennedy, James H; Johnson, David R; Atkinson, Sam F; Dyer, Scott D; Ciarlo, Michael; Stanton, Kathleen; Sanderson, Hans; Nielsen, Allen M; Price, Bradford B

    2011-05-01

    Over the past 20 years, benthic macroinvertebrate community structure studies have been conducted on the upper Trinity River, Texas, USA, which is dominated by municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and industrial effluents. The Trinity River is located in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area, and is the most highly populated and industrialized watershed in Texas. As such, the Trinity River represents a near-worst-case scenario to examine the environmental effects of domestic-municipal and industrial effluents on aquatic life. A 1987 to 1988 study concluded that many stretches of the river supported a diverse benthic community structure; however, a decline in taxa richness occurred immediately downstream of WWTPs. A 2005 study designed to parallel the 1987 to 1988 efforts evaluated how changes in water quality, habitat, and increased urbanization impacted benthic community structure. Physicochemical measurements, habitat quality, geospatial variables, and benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from 10 sites. Surfactants were measured and toxic units (TUs) were calculated for surface water and pore water as indicators of domestic/household use of cleaning products. Total TUs indicated a low potential for biological impacts. Toxic unit distribution was not dependent on WWTP location and did not correlate with any benthic variable. Eight environmental parameters were determined to be useful for predicting changes in benthic macroinvertebrate community structure: surfactant surface water TUs (SWTU), in-stream habitat cover, and surface water total organic carbon were the top three parameters. Abundance, taxa richness, and taxa similarity in 2005 had increased since the earlier study throughout the immediate vicinity of the metropolitan area.

  17. Synthetic surfactant containing SP-B and SP-C mimics is superior to single-peptide formulations in rabbits with chemical acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Walther, Frans J; Hernández-Juviel, José M; Gordon, Larry M; Waring, Alan J

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chemical spills are on the rise and inhalation of toxic chemicals may induce chemical acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although the pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS is well understood, the absence of specific antidotes has limited the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Objectives. Surfactant inactivation and formation of free radicals are important pathways in (chemical) ALI. We tested the potential of lipid mixtures with advanced surfactant protein B and C (SP-B and C) mimics to improve oxygenation and lung compliance in rabbits with lavage- and chemical-induced ALI/ARDS. Methods. Ventilated young adult rabbits underwent repeated saline lung lavages or underwent intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid to induce ALI/ARDS. After establishment of respiratory failure rabbits were treated with a single intratracheal dose of 100 mg/kg of synthetic surfactant composed of 3% Super Mini-B (S-MB), a SP-B mimic, and/or SP-C33 UCLA, a SP-C mimic, in a lipid mixture (DPPC:POPC:POPG 5:3:2 by weight), the clinical surfactant Infasurf(®), a bovine lung lavage extract with SP-B and C, or synthetic lipids alone. End-points consisted of arterial oxygenation, dynamic lung compliance, and protein and lipid content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Potential mechanism of surfactant action for S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA were investigated with captive bubble surfactometry (CBS) assays. Results. All three surfactant peptide/lipid mixtures and Infasurf equally lowered the minimum surface tension on CBS, and also improved oxygenation and lung compliance. In both animal models, the two-peptide synthetic surfactant with S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA led to better arterial oxygenation and lung compliance than single peptide synthetic surfactants and Infasurf. Synthetic surfactants and Infasurf improved lung function further in lavage- than in chemical-induced respiratory failure, with the difference probably due to greater capillary-alveolar protein

  18. Synthetic surfactant containing SP-B and SP-C mimics is superior to single-peptide formulations in rabbits with chemical acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Juviel, José M.; Gordon, Larry M.; Waring, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chemical spills are on the rise and inhalation of toxic chemicals may induce chemical acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although the pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS is well understood, the absence of specific antidotes has limited the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Objectives. Surfactant inactivation and formation of free radicals are important pathways in (chemical) ALI. We tested the potential of lipid mixtures with advanced surfactant protein B and C (SP-B and C) mimics to improve oxygenation and lung compliance in rabbits with lavage- and chemical-induced ALI/ARDS. Methods. Ventilated young adult rabbits underwent repeated saline lung lavages or underwent intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid to induce ALI/ARDS. After establishment of respiratory failure rabbits were treated with a single intratracheal dose of 100 mg/kg of synthetic surfactant composed of 3% Super Mini-B (S-MB), a SP-B mimic, and/or SP-C33 UCLA, a SP-C mimic, in a lipid mixture (DPPC:POPC:POPG 5:3:2 by weight), the clinical surfactant Infasurf®, a bovine lung lavage extract with SP-B and C, or synthetic lipids alone. End-points consisted of arterial oxygenation, dynamic lung compliance, and protein and lipid content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Potential mechanism of surfactant action for S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA were investigated with captive bubble surfactometry (CBS) assays. Results. All three surfactant peptide/lipid mixtures and Infasurf equally lowered the minimum surface tension on CBS, and also improved oxygenation and lung compliance. In both animal models, the two-peptide synthetic surfactant with S-MB and SP-C33 UCLA led to better arterial oxygenation and lung compliance than single peptide synthetic surfactants and Infasurf. Synthetic surfactants and Infasurf improved lung function further in lavage- than in chemical-induced respiratory failure, with the difference probably due to greater capillary-alveolar protein

  19. Hemolysis by surfactants--A review.

    PubMed

    Manaargadoo-Catin, Magalie; Ali-Cherif, Anaïs; Pougnas, Jean-Luc; Perrin, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    An overview of the use of surfactants for erythrocyte lysis and their cell membrane action mechanisms is given. Erythrocyte membrane characteristics and its association with the cell cytoskeleton are presented in order to complete understanding of the erythrocyte membrane distortion. Cell homeostasis disturbances caused by surfactants might induce changes starting from shape modification to cell lysis. Two main mechanisms are hypothesized in literature which are osmotic lysis and lysis by solubilization even if the boundary between them is not clearly defined. Another specific mechanism based on the formation of membrane pores is suggested in the particular case of saponins. The lytic potency of a surfactant is related to its affinity for the membrane and the modification of the lipid membrane curvature. This is to be related to the surfactant shape defined by its hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties but also by experimental conditions. As a consequence, prediction of the hemolytic potency of a given surfactant is challenging. Several studies are focused on the relation between surfactant erythrolytic potency and their physico-chemical parameters such as the critical micellar concentration (CMC), the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB), the surfactant membrane/water partition coefficient (K) or the packing parameter (P). The CMC is one of the most important factors considered even if a lytic activity cut-off effect points out that the only consideration of CMC not enough predictive. The relation K.CMC must be considered in addition to the CMC to predict the surfactant lytic capacity within the same family of non ionic surfactant. Those surfactant structure/lytic activity studies demonstrate the requirement to take into account a combination of physico-chemical parameters to understand and foresee surfactant lytic potency.

  20. Effect of bio-surfactant on municipal solid waste composting process.

    PubMed

    Xi, Bei-Dou; Liu, Hong-Liang; Huang, G H; Zhang, Bai-Yu; Qin, Xiao-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Bio-surfactant is a new type of surfactant that is produced in microbial metabolism. Adding bio-surfactant during composting process, especially to those contain some toxic substances, has been proved to be a promising way. In this study, Strains III (2), a bacterial with high activity to produce bio-surfactant, were isolated firstly. Following comparison experiments with and without adding Strains III (2), namely Run 1 and Run R, were conducted, respectively. The experimental results showed that, by adding Strains III (2), the surface tension could reduce from 46.5 mN/m to 39.8 mN/m and the corresponding time to maintain the surface tension under 50 mN/ m could prolong from 60 h to 90 h. The oxygen uptake rate and total accumulated oxygen consumption with Stains III (2) were both higher than those without Strains III (2), while the accumulation of H2S in outlet gas was reduced to around 50% of Run R. Moreover, two additional experiments were also carried out to examine the effects of strains coming from different systems. One is adding Strains III (2) with a dose of 0.4% (Run 2), and the other is seedling commercial Strains at the same conditions, the composting experiments showed that: Run 2 was more effective than Run 3, because the commercial Strains can be suppressed significantly in a complex composting system with different pH, high temperature and some of metals. The bio-surfactant was also added into the solid waste, which contained some toxic substances, the corresponding results showed that the remove rate of Hg and sodium pentachlorophenolate (PCP-Na) could be improved highly. Thus, the microenvironment, reactionrate and composting quality could be enhanced effectively by adding bio-surfactant to the composting process.

  1. Evaluation of AQUI-S(TM) (efficacy and minimum toxic concentration) as a fish anaesthetic/sedative for public aquaculture in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of efficacy and minimum toxic concentration of AQUI-S(TM), a fish anaesthetic/sedative, was determined in two size classes of six species of fish important to US public aquaculture (bluegill, channel catfish, lake trout, rainbow trout, walleye and yellow perch). In addition, efficacy and minimum toxic concentration were determined in juvenile-young adult (fish aged 1 year or older) rainbow trout acclimated to water at 7 ??C, 12 ??C and 17 ??C. Testing concentrations were based on determinations made with range-finding studies for both efficacy and minimum toxic concentration. Most of the tested juvenile-young adult fish species were induced in 3 min or less at a nominal AQUI-S(TM) concentration of 20 mg L-1. In juvenile-young adult fish, the minimum toxic concentration was at least 2.5 times the selected efficacious concentration. Three out of five species of fry-fingerlings (1.25-12.5 cm in length and < 1 year old) were induced in ??? 4.1 min at a nominal concentration of 20 mg L-1 AQUI-S(TM), with the other two species requiring nominal concentrations of 25 and 35 mg L-1 for similar times of induction. Recovery times were ??? 7.3 rain for all species in the two size classes. In fry-fingerlings, the minimum toxic concentration was at least 1.4 times the selected efficacious concentration. There appeared to be little relationship between size of fish and concentrations or times to induction, recovery times and minimum toxic concentration. The times required for induction and for recovery were increased in rainbow trout as the acclimation temperature was reduced.

  2. Phospholipid surfactant adsorption by respirable quartz and in vitro expression of cytotoxicity and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Keane, M J; Harrison, J C; Cilento, E V; Ong, T; Wallace, W E

    1998-08-01

    Respirable-sized quartz was treated with a saline dispersion of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), a primary component of pulmonary surfactant, to model the adsorption of phospholipid surfactant onto quartz dust following particle deposition in the bronchoalveolar region of the lung. Control and surfactant-treated dusts were used to challenge lavaged rat pulmonary macrophages in vitro over a 1-week period, to determine the effects of adsorbed surfactant on the expression of quartz cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. DNA damage was determined by the single cell gel electrophoresis 'comet' assay. Untreated quartz induced DNA damage, increasing with dose and with time of incubation of dust with macrophages over a 5 day period. DPPC treatment of quartz suppressed DNA damage through 1 day of macrophage challenge. DNA damage then increased over a 5 day period, to approximately half the positive control (untreated quartz) values. Cytotoxicity was measured by trypan blue dye exclusion and by the Live-Dead fluorescence assay for cell viability. Cytotoxicity of surfactant-treated quartz measured one day after challenge of lavaged macrophages was suppressed to values near those of the negative controls, and then increased over a 1 week incubation period to levels near those expressed by native quartz positive controls. Quartz similarly treated with dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine mixed with DPPC substituted in one acyl group with a boron-containing fluorescent chromophore was used with confocal microscopy to measure particle-associated fluorescent surfactant in cells. Approximately half of the fluorescence intensity was lost over a 1 week period following challenge of lavaged macrophage. Results are discussed in terms of a model of restoration of quartz particle surface toxicity as prophylactic surfactant is removed from particle surface by cellular enzymatic digestion processes.

  3. Surfactant Adsorption: A Revised Physical Chemistry Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresler, Marc R.; Hagen, John P.

    2008-01-01

    Many physical chemistry lab courses include an experiment in which students measure surface tension as a function of surfactant concentration. In the traditional experiment, the data are fit to the Gibbs isotherm to determine the molar area for the surfactant, and the critical micelle concentration is used to calculate the Gibbs energy of micelle…

  4. Measuring surfactant concentration in plating solutions

    DOEpatents

    Bonivert, William D.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Hachman, John T.

    1989-01-01

    An arrangement for measuring the concentration of surfactants in a electrolyte containing metal ions includes applying a DC bias voltage and a modulated voltage to a counter electrode. The phase angle between the modulated voltage and the current response to the modulated voltage at a working electrode is correlated to the surfactant concentration.

  5. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-07-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior, interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases IFT with a minimum at about 0.2 M. Addition of surfactant decreases IFT further. In the absence of surfactant the minerals are oil-wet after aging with crude oil. Addition of surfactant solution decreases the contact angle to intermediate-wet for many surfactants and water-wet for one surfactant. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Plans for the next quarter include conducting core adsorption, phase behavior, wettability and mobilization studies.

  6. Surfactant effects on soil aggregate tensile strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known regarding a soil aggregate's tensile strength response to surfactants that may be applied to alleviate soil water repellency. Two laboratory investigations were performed to determine surfactant effects on the tensile strength of 1) Ap horizons of nine wettable, agricultural soils co...

  7. A comparative toxicologic and genotoxic study of the herbicide arsenal, its active ingredient imazapyr, and the surfactant nonylphenol ethoxylate.

    PubMed

    Grisolia, Cesar Koppe; Bilich, Marina Rolim; Formigli, Lia Menezes

    2004-09-01

    The herbicide arsenal 250 NA, its technical-grade active ingredient imazapyr, and the surfactant nonylphenol ethoxylate (NP) were evaluated through genotoxicity and toxicity studies in different organisms. A comparative study of these three compounds was carried out to assess how the addition of surfactant components may pose the highest toxicological risk to pesticide formulations. The results showed that arsenal, imazapyr, and NP did not cause chromosome aberration in Allium cepa nor increase the frequency of micronuclei in mice. However, toxicological evaluations showed that NP was the most toxic compound to mice, A. cepa, Drosophila melanogaster, and Biomphalaria tenagophila. In this evaluation, it was observed that the adverse effects were produced by the surfactant additive of the pesticide formulation.

  8. Nanostructured fluids from degradable nonionic surfactants for the cleaning of works of art from polymer contaminants.

    PubMed

    Baglioni, M; Raudino, M; Berti, D; Keiderling, U; Bordes, R; Holmberg, K; Baglioni, P

    2014-09-21

    Nanostructured fluids containing anionic surfactants are among the best performing systems for the cleaning of works of art. Though efficient, their application may result in the formation of a precipitate, due to the combination with divalent cations that might leach out from the artifact. We propose here two new aqueous formulations based on nonionic surfactants, which are non-toxic, readily biodegradable and insensitive to the presence of divalent ions. The cleaning properties of water-nonionic surfactant-2-butanone (MEK) were assessed both on model surfaces and on a XIII century fresco that could not be cleaned using conventional methods. Structural information on nanofluids has been gathered by means of small-angle neutron scattering, dynamic light scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance with diffusion monitoring. Beside the above-mentioned advantages, these formulations turned out to be considerably more efficient in the removal of polymer coatings than those based on anionic surfactants. Our results indicate that the cleaning process most likely consists of two steps: initially, the polymer film is swollen by the MEK dissolved in the continuous domain of the nanofluid; in the second stage, surfactant aggregates come into play by promoting the removal of the polymer film with a detergency-like mechanism. The efficiency can be tuned by the composition and nature of amphiphiles and is promoted by working as close as possible to the cloud point of the formulation, where the second step proceeds at maximum rate.

  9. Pulmonary surfactant augments cytotoxicity of silica nanoparticles: Studies on an in vitro air-blood barrier model.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Jennifer Y; Feiden, Lisa; Hermanns, Maria I; Bantz, Christoph; Maskos, Michael; Unger, Ronald E; Kirkpatrick, C James

    2015-01-01

    The air-blood barrier is a very thin membrane of about 2.2 µm thickness and therefore represents an ideal portal of entry for nanoparticles to be used therapeutically in a regenerative medicine strategy. Until now, numerous studies using cellular airway models have been conducted in vitro in order to investigate the potential hazard of NPs. However, in most in vitro studies a crucial alveolar component has been neglected. Before aspirated NPs encounter the cellular air-blood barrier, they impinge on the alveolar surfactant layer (10-20 nm in thickness) that lines the entire alveolar surface. Thus, a prior interaction of NPs with pulmonary surfactant components will occur. In the present study we explored the impact of pulmonary surfactant on the cytotoxic potential of amorphous silica nanoparticles (aSNPs) using in vitro mono- and complex coculture models of the air-blood barrier. Furthermore, different surface functionalisations (plain-unmodified, amino, carboxylate) of the aSNPs were compared in order to study the impact of chemical surface properties on aSNP cytotoxicity in combination with lung surfactant. The alveolar epithelial cell line A549 was used in mono- and in coculture with the microvascular cell line ISO-HAS-1 in the form of different cytotoxicity assays (viability, membrane integrity, inflammatory responses such as IL-8 release). At a distinct concentration (100 µg/mL) aSNP-plain displayed the highest cytotoxicity and IL-8 release in monocultures of A549. aSNP-NH2 caused a slight toxic effect, whereas aSNP-COOH did not exhibit any cytotoxicity. In combination with lung surfactant, aSNP-plain revealed an increased cytotoxicity in monocultures of A549, aSNP-NH2 caused a slightly augmented toxic effect, whereas aSNP-COOH did not show any toxic alterations. A549 in coculture did not show any decreased toxicity (membrane integrity) for aSNP-plain in combination with lung surfactant. However, a significant augmented IL-8 release was observed, but no

  10. Toxic Substances Control Act oversight. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Toxic Substances and Environmental Oversight, United States Senate, Ninety-Eight Congress, first session, July 27, 29, and August 1, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Three days of testimony examined the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) to see if simple reauthorization would be appropriate or if substantive amendments are needed. At issue was whether the structural activity relationship (SAR) process is working in the new chemicals program and whether the triggers for Interagency Testing Committee (ITC) listing are working for existing chemicals. The witnesses included representatives of the Environmental Protection Agency, university laboratories, pesticide and chemical industries, health organizations, citizen groups, and others. Additional material submitted for the record follows the testimony off 18 witnesses and their associates.

  11. Efficacy of glyphosate and five surfactants for controlling giant salvinia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, J.F.; Allert, A.L.; Riddle, J.S.; Gladwin, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta Mitchell) is a non-native, invasive aquatic fern that was recently introduced to the southern United States. The aggressive nature of the species has led to concerns over its potential adverse impacts to native plants, fish, and invertebrates. We conducted a study to determine the efficacy of glyphosate [isopropylamine salt of N-(phosphono-methyl)glycine] and several surfactants for control of giant salvinia. Studies were conducted over a 42-day period using static renewals (twice weekly) with 4% Hoagland's medium (10 mg/L N equivalent) in replicated 2-L containers. Five concentrations of glyphosate (0, 0.45, 0.91, 1.82, and 3.60% v:v) and five surfactants (0.25% concentration, v:v; Optima???, Kinetic???, Mon 0818???, Cygnet Plus???, and LI-700???) were applied with a pressurized sprayer as a single surface application in a fully nested experimental design. Untreated giant salvinia grew rapidly and exhibited an increase of 800% wet weight biomass over the 42-day test duration. Glyphosate, with and without surfactants, exhibited efficacy at concentrations as low as 0.45% of the commercial formulation. Glyphosate with Optima was the only mixture that resulted in complete mortality of plants with no regrowth.

  12. Surfactant-induced assembly of enzymatically-stable peptide hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Brad H.; Martinez, Alina M.; Wheeler, Jill S.; Spoerke, Erik D.

    2015-04-07

    The secondary structure of peptides in the presence of interacting additives is an important topic of study, having implications in the application of peptide science to a broad range of modern technologies. Surfactants constitute a class of biologically relevant compounds that are known to influence both peptide conformation and aggregation or assembly. In addition, we have characterized the secondary structure of a linear nonapeptide composed of a hydrophobic alanine/phenylalanine core flanked by hydrophilic acid/amine units. We show that the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) induces the formation of β-sheets and macroscopic gelation in this otherwise unstructured peptide. Through comparison to related additives, we propose that SDS-induced secondary structure formation is the result of amphiphilicity created by electrostatic binding of SDS to the peptide. In addition, we demonstrate a novel utility of surfactants in manipulating and stabilizing peptide nanostructures. SDS is used to simultaneously induce secondary structure in a peptide and to inhibit the activity of a model enzyme, resulting in a peptide hydrogel that is impervious to enzymatic degradation. These results complement our understanding of the behavior of peptides in the presence of interacting secondary molecules and provide new potential pathways for programmable organization of peptides by the addition of such components.

  13. Surfactant-induced assembly of enzymatically-stable peptide hydrogels

    DOE PAGES

    Jones, Brad H.; Martinez, Alina M.; Wheeler, Jill S.; ...

    2015-04-07

    The secondary structure of peptides in the presence of interacting additives is an important topic of study, having implications in the application of peptide science to a broad range of modern technologies. Surfactants constitute a class of biologically relevant compounds that are known to influence both peptide conformation and aggregation or assembly. In addition, we have characterized the secondary structure of a linear nonapeptide composed of a hydrophobic alanine/phenylalanine core flanked by hydrophilic acid/amine units. We show that the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) induces the formation of β-sheets and macroscopic gelation in this otherwise unstructured peptide. Through comparisonmore » to related additives, we propose that SDS-induced secondary structure formation is the result of amphiphilicity created by electrostatic binding of SDS to the peptide. In addition, we demonstrate a novel utility of surfactants in manipulating and stabilizing peptide nanostructures. SDS is used to simultaneously induce secondary structure in a peptide and to inhibit the activity of a model enzyme, resulting in a peptide hydrogel that is impervious to enzymatic degradation. These results complement our understanding of the behavior of peptides in the presence of interacting secondary molecules and provide new potential pathways for programmable organization of peptides by the addition of such components.« less

  14. Surfactant screening of diesel-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.W.; Montemagno, C.D.; Shem, L. ); Lewis, B.A. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    At one installation, approximately 60,000 gal of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, with contamination at depths of 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. The treatability studies focused on four separate phases: (1) leachability studies on the various contaminated soil borings, (2) air stripping studies, (3) bioremediation studies, and (4) surfactant screening/surfactant flooding studies. This paper summarizes the fourth phase of the research program in which twenty-one surfactants were screened for possible use to mobilize the organics from the contaminated soil prior to bioremediation. Anionic surfactants resulted in the greatest degree of diesel mobilization. The most promising surfactants will be employed on actual contaminated soil samples obtained from the site. 18 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Fibrinogen stability under surfactant interaction.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Natalia; Barbosa, Leandro R S; Itri, Rosangela; Ruso, Juan M

    2011-10-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), circular dichroism (CD), difference spectroscopy (UV-vis), Raman spectroscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements have been performed in the present work to provide a quantitatively comprehensive physicochemical description of the complexation between bovine fibrinogen and the sodium perfluorooctanoate, sodium octanoate, and sodium dodecanoate in glycine buffer (pH 8.5). It has been found that sodium octanoate and dodecanoate act as fibrinogen destabilizer. Meanwhile, sodium perfluorooctanoate acts as a structure stabilizer at low molar concentration and as a destabilizer at high molar concentration. Fibrinogen's secondary structure is affected by all three studied surfactants (decrease in α-helix and an increase in β-sheet content) to a different extent. DSC and UV-vis revealed the existence of intermediate states in the thermal unfolding process of fibrinogen. In addition, SAXS data analysis showed that pure fibrinogen adopts a paired-dimer structure in solution. Such a structure is unaltered by sodium octanoate and perfluoroctanoate. However, interaction of sodium dodecanoate with the fibrinogen affects the protein conformation leading to a complex formation. Taken together, all results evidence that both surfactant hydrophobicity and tail length mediate the fibrinogen stability upon interaction.

  16. Survival, mobility, and membrane-bound enzyme activities of freshwater planarian, Dugesia japonica, exposed to synthetic and natural surfactants.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Surfactants are a major class of emerging pollutants widely used in large quantities in everyday life and commonly found in surface waters worldwide. Freshwater planarian was selected to examine the effects of different surfactants by measuring mortality, mobility, and membrane-bound enzyme activities. Among the 10 surfactants tested, the acute toxicities of betaine and polyethylene glycol (PEG-200) to planarians were relatively low, with a median lethal concentration (LC50) greater than 10,000 mg/L. The toxicity to planarians of the other eight surfactants based on 48-h LC50 could be arranged in the descending order of cetylpyridinum chloride (CPC) > 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tert-OP) > ammonium lauryl sulfate > benzalkonium chloride > saponin > sodium lauroylsarcosinate > dioctyl sulfosuccinate > dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB). Both CPC and 4-tert-OP were very toxic to planarians, with 48-h LC50 values <1 mg/L. The median effective concentrations (EC50s) of planarian mobility were in the 0.1 to 50 mg/L range and were in the same range as the 24-h LC50 of planarians exposed to different surfactants, except for DTAB. In addition, significant inhibition of cholinesterase activity activities was found in planarians exposed to 4-tert-OP at 2.5 and 5 mg/L and to saponin at 10 mg/L after 2-h treatments. This result suggests that planarian mobility responses can be used as an alternative indicator for acute toxicity of surfactants after a very short exposure period.

  17. Reverse micellar extraction of bovine serum albumin - a comparison between the effects of gemini surfactant and its corresponding monomeric surfactant.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jing; Cai, Juan; Guo, Xia

    2013-01-15

    Gemini surfactant displayed distinct advantages over monomeric surfactant in the liquid-liquid reverse micellar extraction process. First, less amount of gemini surfactant than monomeric surfactant was needed for transferring almost complete bovine serum albumin (BSA) into organic phase from aqueous phase. Second, the loading capacity of gemini surfactant reverse micelle phase was much higher than that of the corresponding monomeric surfactant reverse micelle. Third, efficient backward extraction (75-92%) of BSA could be effected in a wide pH range from 4 to 9 with gemini surfactant reverse micelle while a pH of ca. 4.3 is prerequisite to the recovery of BSA from monomeric surfactant reverse micelle. So far, the reports about the effect of surfactant structure on protein extraction have been limited. This study indicates the important role of the spacer of gemini surfactant in protein extraction process and may provide more knowledge on how to optimise surfactant structure.

  18. Exogenous Pulmonary Surfactant as a Vehicle for Antimicrobials: Assessment of Surfactant-Antibacterial Interactions In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its unique surface-active properties, an exogenous pulmonary surfactant may become a promising drug delivery agent, in particular, acting as a vehicle for antibiotics in topical treatment of pneumonia. The purpose of this study was to assess a mutual influence of natural surfactant preparation and three antibiotics (amikacin, cefepime, and colistimethate sodium) in vitro and to identify appropriate combination(s) for subsequent in vivo investigations of experimental surfactant/antibiotic mixtures. Influence of antibiotics on surface-active properties of exogenous surfactant was assessed using the modified Pattle method. Effects of exogenous surfactant on antibacterial activity of antimicrobials against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated using conventional microbiologic procedures. Addition of amikacin or cefepime to surfactant had no significant influence on surface-active properties of the latter. Obvious reduction of surface-active properties was confirmed for surfactant/colistimethate composition. When suspended with antibiotics, surfactant either had no impact on their antimicrobial activity (amikacin) or exerted mild to moderate influence (reduction of cefepime bactericidal activity and increase of colistimethate bacteriostatic activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa). Considering favorable compatibility profile, the surfactant/amikacin combination is advisable for subsequent investigation of joint surfactant/antibacterial therapy in animals with bacterial pneumonia. PMID:24876994

  19. Trends in toxic alcohol exposures in the United States from 2000 to 2013: a focus on the use of antidotes and extracorporeal treatments.

    PubMed

    Ghannoum, Marc; Hoffman, Robert S; Mowry, James B; Lavergne, Valery

    2014-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from toxic alcohols like ethylene glycol and methanol remain prevalent worldwide. The introduction of fomepizole, a potent blocker of alcohol dehydrogenase, has modified current practice over the last 15 years. The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of toxic alcohol poisoning reported to US poison centers, the trends in the incidence of antidote use and hemodialysis treatment, as well as the related mortality. A retrospective study of all electronic entries from the AAPCC National Poison Data System database, from the years 2000 to 2013 was reviewed. When considering all exposures, the great majority of patients had a benign outcome. Major effects (e.g., life threatening) occurred in 2.1% and 4.9% of methanol and ethylene glycol cases, respectively. Mortality rates were similar for both toxic alcohols, approximately 0.6%. When only considering ingestions reported to healthcare facilities, a major effect was reported in 9.5% and 20.5%, and the mortality rate was 2.9% and 2.4% for methanol and ethylene glycol exposures, respectively, and remained constant over time. The use of fomepizole increased statistically over the study period while that of ethanol decreased, until it became proportionally negligible by 2012-2013. The use of hemodialysis significantly decreased in "Early" ethylene glycol exposures during the study period. Similar to other reports, it appears that the use of fomepizole has largely supplanted ethanol as the antidote of choice in toxic alcohol exposures and may decrease the requirements for hemodialysis in patients poisoned with ethylene glycol who have no acidosis and normal kidney function.

  20. Aminophylline toxicity.

    PubMed

    Albert, S

    1987-02-01

    Aminophylline therapy has undergone change in the past decade. With the changes in usage and dosage forms, the frequency of toxicity in the pediatric population, especially in adolescents, has increased dramatically. Two distinct patterns, chronic and acute, have been recognized and treatment methods for both are changing. Table 4 summarizes the emerging state-of-the-art therapy for aminophylline toxicity. Judging from the activity seen in the literature, investigation into aminophylline toxicity will continue to be a priority. We will see a greater understanding of the disease process and a refining of the therapeutic process. The ultimate goal is the elimination of mortality and the minimization of morbidity from aminophylline toxicity.

  1. Lidocaine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mehra, P; Caiazzo, A; Maloney, P

    1998-01-01

    Local anesthetics are the most commonly used drugs in dentistry. The number of adverse reactions reported, particularly toxic reactions, are extraordinarily negligible. This article reports a case of lidocaine toxicity with its typical manifestation in a 37-yr-old healthy male. The toxic reaction followed transoral/transpharyngeal topical spraying of lidocaine preoperatively during preparation for general anesthesia. A review of dosages of the most commonly used local anesthetic drugs in dentistry and the management of a toxic reaction is presented. Clinicians need to be in a position to recognize and successfully manage this potential adverse reaction.

  2. Surfactant-enhanced biodegradation of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    PubMed

    Boonchan; Britz; Stanley

    1998-08-20

    The objectives of this study were to isolate and evaluate microorganisms with the ability to degrade high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the presence of synthetic surfactants. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010, isolated from PAH-contaminated soil, utilized pyrene as a sole carbon and energy source and also degraded other high molecular weight PAHs containing up to seven benzene rings. Various synthetic surfactants were tested for their ability to improve the PAH degradation rate of strain VUN 10,010. Anionic and cationic surfactants were highly toxic to this strain, and the Tween series was used as a growth substrate. Five nonionic surfactants (Brij 35, Igepal CA-630, Triton X-100, Tergitol NP-10, and Tyloxapol) were not utilized by, and were less toxic to, strain VUN 10,010. MSR and log Km values were determined for fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene in the presence of these nonionic surfactants and their apparent solubility was increased by a minimum of 250-fold in the presence of 10 g L-1 of all surfactants. The rate of pyrene degradation by strain VUN 10,010 was enhanced by the addition of four of the nonionic surfactants (5-10 g L-1); however, 5 g L-1 Igepal CA-630 inhibited pyrene degradation and microbial growth. The specific growth rate of VUN 10,010 on pyrene was increased by 67% in the presence of 10 g L-1 Brij 35 or Tergitol NP-10. The addition of Brij 35 and Tergitol NP-10 to media containing a single high molecular weight PAH (four and five benzene rings) as the sole carbon source increased the maximum specific PAH degradation rate and decreased the lag period normally seen for PAH degradation. The addition of Tergitol NP-10 to VUN 10,010 cultures which contained a PAH mixture (three to seven benzene rings) substantially improved the overall degradation rate of each PAH and increased the specific growth rate of VUN 10,010 by 30%. Evaluation of the use of VUN 10,010 for degrading high molecular weight PAHs in

  3. Adsorption of Gemini surfactants onto clathrate hydrates.

    PubMed

    Salako, O; Lo, C; Couzis, A; Somasundaran, P; Lee, J W

    2013-12-15

    This work addresses the adsorption of two Gemini surfactants at the cyclopentane (CP) hydrate-water interface. The Gemini surfactants investigated here are Dowfax C6L and Dowfax 2A1 that have two anionic head groups and one hydrophobic tail group. The adsorption of these surfactants was quantified using adsorption isotherms and the adsorption isotherms were determined using liquid-liquid titrations. Even if the Gemini surfactant adsorption isotherms show multi-layer adsorption, they possess the first Langmuir layer with the second adsorption layer only evident in the 2A1 adsorption isotherm. Zeta potentials of CP hydrate particles in the surfactant solution of various concentrations of Dowfax C6L and Dowfax 2A1 were measured to further explain their adsorption behavior at the CP hydrate-water interface. Zeta potentials of alumina particles as a model particle system in different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Dowfax C6L and Dowfax 2A1 were also measured to confirm the configuration of all the surfactants at the interface. The determination of the isotherms and zeta-potentials provides an understanding framework for the adsorption behavior of the two Gemini surfactants at the hydrate-water interface.

  4. A study of surfactant-assisted waterflooding

    SciTech Connect

    Scamehorn, J F; Harwell, J H

    1990-09-01

    In surfactant-assisted waterflooding, a surfactant slug is injected into a reservoir, followed by a brine spacer, followed by second surfactant slug. The charge on the surfactant in the first slug has opposite sign to that in the second slug. When the two slugs mix in the reservoir, a precipitate or coacervate is formed which plugs the permeable region of the reservoir. Subsequently injected water or brine is forced through the low permeability region of the reservoir, increasing sweep efficiency of the waterflood, compared to a waterflood not using surfactants. In this part of the work, two major tasks are performed. First, core floods are performed with oil present to demonstrate the improvement in incremental oil production, as well as permeability modification. Second, a reservoir simulation model will be proposed to further delineate the optimum strategy for implementation of the surfactant-assisted waterflooding, as well as indicate the reservoir types for which it would be most effective. Surfactants utilized were sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyl pyridinium chloride. 44 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Adsorption of dimeric surfactants in lamellar silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerzak, Mateusz; Pietralik, Zuzanna; Domka, Ludwik; Skrzypczak, Andrzej; Kozak, Maciej

    2015-12-01

    The adsorption of different types of cationic surfactants in lamellar silicates changes their surface character from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This study was undertaken to obtain lamellar silicates modified by a series of novel dimeric (gemini) surfactants of different length alkyl chains and to characterise these organophilised materials. Synthetic sodium montmorillonite SOMASIF® ME 100 (M) and enriched bentonite of natural origin (Nanoclay - hydrophilic bentonite®) were organophilised with dimeric (gemini) surfactants (1,1‧-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(alkoxymethyl)imidazolium dichlorides). As a result of surfactant molecule adsorption in interlamellar space, the d-spacing (d001) increased from 0.97 nm (for the anhydrous structure) to 2.04 nm. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the modified systems reveals bands assigned to the stretching vibrations of the CH2 and CH3 groups and the scissoring vibrations of the NH group from the structure of the dimeric surfactants. Thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) studies imply a four-stage process of surfactant decomposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images provide information on the influence of dimeric surfactant intercalation into the silicate structures. Particles of the modified systems show a tendency toward the formation of irregularly shaped agglomerates.

  6. Surfactants tailored by the class Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kügler, Johannes H.; Le Roes-Hill, Marilize; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Globally the change towards the establishment of a bio-based economy has resulted in an increased need for bio-based applications. This, in turn, has served as a driving force for the discovery and application of novel biosurfactants. The class Actinobacteria represents a vast group of microorganisms with the ability to produce a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including surfactants. Understanding the extensive nature of the biosurfactants produced by actinobacterial strains can assist in finding novel biosurfactants with new potential applications. This review therefore presents a comprehensive overview of the knowledge available on actinobacterial surfactants, the chemical structures that have been completely or partly elucidated, as well as the identity of the biosurfactant-producing strains. Producer strains of not yet elucidated compounds are discussed, as well as the original habitats of all the producer strains, which seems to indicate that biosurfactant production is environmentally driven. Methodology applied in the isolation, purification and structural elucidation of the different types of surface active compounds, as well as surfactant activity tests, are also discussed. Overall, actinobacterial surfactants can be summarized to include the dominantly occurring trehalose-comprising surfactants, other non-trehalose containing glycolipids, lipopeptides and the more rare actinobacterial surfactants. The lack of structural information on a large proportion of actinobacterial surfactants should be considered as a driving force to further explore the abundance and diversity of these compounds. This would allow for a better understanding of actinobacterial surface active compounds and their potential for biotechnological application. PMID:25852670

  7. Improvement of Absorber's Performance by a Surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Nobuya; Nomura, Tomohiro; Iyota, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Ryuichiro

    Effects of an addition of surfactant to a lithium bromide aqueous solution have been investigated experimentally. N-octanol was used as a surfactant. The Marangoni convection occurred at/beneath the solution surface in the very beginning of steam absorption was observed both by a real-time type laser holographic visualization and by temperature measurements with extremely fine gauge thermocouples. Generation and growth of the Marangoni convection were both observed and evaluated quantitatively by the flow visualization. Furthermore, solution's surface temperatures with and without addition of the surfactant were measured minutely. Cell's formation pattern and migration speed at the surface were measured varying the initial surfactant's concentration ranging from 0 to 50000 ppm and the shallow liquid layer thickness ranging from 2 to 5 mm. And spacio-temporal scales of the Marangoni convection were determined. Also solution temperature changes at the surface were compared. Temperature increases when the surfactant was added to its solubility limit became almost double than that case of no surfactant. From these temperature differences, effects of the surfactant on absorber's performances were estimated by a calculation quantitatively with diffusion coefficient as an evaluation value.

  8. Fluorescence emission of pyrene in surfactant solutions.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Lucas; Novo, Mercedes; Al-Soufi, Wajih

    2015-01-01

    The systematic description of the complex photophysical behaviour of pyrene in surfactant solutions in combination with a quantitative model for the surfactant concentrations reproduces with high accuracy the steady-state and the time resolved fluorescence intensity of pyrene in surfactant solutions near the cmc, both in the monomer and in the excimer emission bands. We present concise model equations that can be used for the analysis of the pyrene fluorescence intensity in order to estimate fundamental parameters of the pyrene-surfactant system, such as the binding equilibrium constant K of pyrene to a given surfactant micelle, the rate constant of excimer formation in micelles, and the equilibrium constant of pyrene-surfactant quenching. The values of the binding equilibrium constant K(TX100)=3300·10³ M⁻¹ and K(SDS)=190·10³ M⁻¹ for Triton X-100 (TX100) and SDS micelles, respectively, show that the partition of pyrene between bulk water and micelles cannot be ignored, even at relatively high surfactant concentrations above the cmc. We apply the model to the determination of the cmc from the pyrene fluorescence intensity, especially from the intensity ratio at two vibronic bands in the monomer emission or from the ratio of excimer to monomer emission intensity. We relate the finite width of the transition region below and above the cmc with the observed changes in the pyrene fluorescence in this region.

  9. Influence of surfactants in forced dynamic dewetting.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Franziska; Fell, Daniela; Truszkowska, Dorota; Weirich, Marcel; Anyfantakis, Manos; Nguyen, Thi-Huong; Wagner, Manfred; Auernhammer, Günter K; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2016-09-20

    In this work we show that the forced dynamic dewetting of surfactant solutions depends sensitively on the surfactant concentration. To measure this effect, a hydrophobic rotating cylinder was horizontally half immersed in aqueous surfactant solutions. Dynamic contact angles were measured optically by extrapolating the contour of the meniscus to the contact line. Anionic (sodium 1-decanesulfonate, S-1DeS), cationic (cetyl trimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) and nonionic surfactants (C4E1, C8E3 and C12E5) with critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) spanning four orders of magnitude were used. The receding contact angle in water decreased with increasing velocity. This decrease was strongly enhanced when adding surfactant, even at surfactant concentrations of 10% of the critical micelle concentration. Plots of the receding contact angle-versus-velocity almost superimpose when being plotted at the same relative concentration (concentration/CMC). Thus the rescaled concentration is the dominating property for dynamic dewetting. The charge of the surfactants did not play a role, thus excluding electrostatic effects. The change in contact angle can be interpreted by local surface tension gradients, i.e. Marangoni stresses, close to the three-phase contact line. The decrease of dynamic contact angles with velocity follows two regimes. Despite the existence of Marangoni stresses close to the contact line, for a dewetting velocity above 1-10 mm s(-1) the hydrodynamic theory is able to describe the experimental results for all surfactant concentrations. At slower velocities an additional steep decrease of the contact angle with velocity was observed. Particle tracking velocimetry showed that the flow profiles do not differ with and without surfactant on a scales >100 μm.

  10. Randomized trial comparing natural and synthetic surfactant: increased infection rate after natural surfactant?

    PubMed

    Kukkonen, A K; Virtanen, M; Järvenpää, A L; Pokela, M L; Ikonen, S; Fellman, V

    2000-05-01

    The efficacy of a natural porcine surfactant and a synthetic surfactant were compared in a randomized trial. In three neonatal intensive care units, 228 neonates with respiratory distress and a ratio of arterial to alveolar partial pressure of oxygen <0.22 were randomly assigned to receive either Curosurf 100 mgkg-1 or Exosurf Neonatal 5 ml.kg-1. After Curosurf, the fraction of inspired oxygen was lower from 15 min (0.45 +/- 0.22 vs 0.70 +/- 0.22, p = 0.0001) to 6 h (0.48 +/- 0.26 vs 0.64 +/- 0.23, p = 0.0001) and the mean airway pressure was lower at 1 h (8.3 +/- 3.2 mm H20 vs 9.4 +/- 3.1 mm H20, p = 0.01). Thereafter the respiratory parameters were similar. The duration of mechanical ventilation (median 6 vs 5 d) and the duration of oxygen supplementation (median 5 vs 4 d) were similar for Curosurf and Exosurf. After Curosurf, C-reactive protein value over 40 mg l-1 occurred in 45% (vs 12%; RR 3.62, 95%CI 2.12-6.17, p = 0.001), leukopenia in 52% (vs 28%; RR 1.85, 95% CI 1.31-2.61, p = 0.001) and bacteraemia in 11% (vs 4%; RR 3.17, 95% CI 1.05-9.52, p < 0.05). We conclude that when given as rescue therapy Curosurf had no advantage compared with Exosurf in addition to the more effective initial response. Curosurf may increase the risk of infection.

  11. Soil cleanup by in-situ surfactant flushing. VII. Determination of mass transfer coefficients for reclamation of surfactant for recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, J.L.; Debelak, K.A.; Wilson, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The contamination of soils and groundwater with volatile and/or nonvolatile organics from underground storage tanks, spills, and improper waste disposal presents a major remediation problem in the United States and other industrial nations. Mass transfer coefficients were determined for the extraction of naphthalene in 50 and 100 mM aqueous sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) solutions (the continuous phase) into hexane (dispersed phase). The effect of surfactant was explored in a series of single drop experiments. Mass transfer coefficients determined experimentally fall between the values predicted by correlations for circulating and noncirculating drops. The presence of SDS does appear to reduce the mass transfer coefficients as compared to those for pure water.

  12. Surfactant-associated proteins: structure, function and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Ketko, Anastasia K; Donn, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Surfactant replacement therapy is now the standard of care for infants with respiratory distress syndrome. As the understanding of surfactant structure and function has evolved, surfactant-associated proteins are now understood to be essential components of pulmonary surfactant. Their structural and functional diversity detail the complexity of their contributions to normal pulmonary physiology, and deficiency states result in significant pathology. Engineering synthetic surfactant protein constructs has been a major research focus for replacement therapies. This review highlights what is known about surfactant proteins and how this knowledge is pivotal for future advancements in treating respiratory distress syndrome as well as other pulmonary diseases characterized by surfactant deficiency or inactivation.

  13. Surfactant-Assisted Coal Liquefaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1993-01-01

    Obtaining liquid fuels from coal which are economically competitive with those obtained from petroleum based sources is a significant challenge for the researcher as well as the chemical industry. Presently, the economics of coal liquefaction are not favorable because of relatively intense processing conditions (temperatures of 430 degrees C and pressures of 2200 psig), use of a costly catalyst, and a low quality product slate of relatively high boiling fractions. The economics could be made more favorable by achieving adequate coal conversions at less intense processing conditions and improving the product slate. A study has been carried out to examine the effect of a surfactant in reducing particle agglomeration and improving hydrodynamics in the coal liquefaction reactor to increase coal conversions...

  14. Surfactant-Templated Mesoporous Metal Oxide Nanowires

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Hongmei; Lin, Qianglu; Baber, Stacy; ...

    2010-01-01

    We demore » monstrate two approaches to prepare mesoporous metal oxide nanowires by surfactant assembly and nanoconfinement via sol-gel or electrochemical deposition. For example, mesoporous Ta 2 O 5 and zeolite nanowires are prepared by block copolymer Pluronic 123-templated sol-gel method, and mesoporous ZnO nanowires are prepared by electrodeposition in presence of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant, in porous membranes. The morphologies of porous nanowires are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses.« less

  15. Studies on Octylphenoxy Surfactants 1

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Warren E.; Bukovac, Martin J.

    1987-01-01

    Sorption characteristics of a polyethoxy (EO) derivative of octylphenol (OP) were determined for enzymically isolated mature tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Sprinter) fruit cuticles at 25°C. Sorption was followed using 14C-labeled OP + 9.5EO (Triton X-100). Solution pH (2.2-6.2) did not affect surfactant sorption by tomato fruit cuticular membranes (CM). Surfactant concentration (0.001-1.0%, w/v) had a marked impact on sorption. Sorption equilibrium was reached in 24 hours for OP + 9.5EO concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), whereas 72 to 120 hours were required to reach equilibrium with concentrations greater than the CMC. Regardless of when equilibrium was attained, initial sorption of OP + 9.5EO occurred rapidly. Partition coefficients (K) of approximately 300 were obtained at pre-CMC concentrations, whereas at the highest concentration (1.0%), K values were approximately 15- to 20-fold lower. Sorption was higher for dewaxed CM (DCM) than for CM. At OP + 9.5EO concentrations below the CMC, the amount (millimoles per kilogram) sorbed by CM and DCM increased sharply as the CMC was reached. After an apparent plateau in the amount sorbed at concentrations immediately below and above the CMC, sorption by CM and DCM increased dramatically with OP + 9.5EO concentrations greater than the CMC (0.5 and 1.0%). In contrast, sorption of OP + 5EO (Triton X-45) by CM and DCM differed from one another at relatively high (0.5 and 1.0%) concentrations, where sorption by DCM increased with increasing concentration, but plateaued for the CM. Sorption of OP + 9.5EO was also related to CM concentration, with an inverse relationship existing between sorption and CM at concentrations less than 3.33 milligrams per milliliter. PMID:16665839

  16. Less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) - ways to deliver surfactant in spontaneously breathing infants.

    PubMed

    Herting, Egbert

    2013-11-01

    The idea to deliver surfactant to spontaneously breathing premature infants is not new. The spectrum of methods reported reaches from aerosol administration over pharyngeal deposition, the use of laryngeal masks, short term intubation, surfactant administration and rapid extubation (INSURE) to an approach of keeping premature neonates on spontaneous breathing with continuous positive airway pressure support and administering surfactant by laryngoscopy via a small diameter tube. This way of Less Invasive Surfactant Administration (LISA) is in increasing use in the last decade in Germany. More than 1000 babies have been included in clinical studies on LISA by now. A first prospective randomized controlled trial (AMV-trial) demonstrated a significant reduction in the use of mechanical ventilation in LISA patients compared to standard treatment with intratracheal bolus administration of surfactant. Another recent study (Take Care study) indicates, that LISA may even be superior to INSURE. The search for even more "gentle" methods (e.g. nebulization) to deliver surfactant continues.

  17. Studies on the electrocapillary curves of anionic surfactants in presence of non-ionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Bembi, R; Goyal, R N; Malik, W U

    1976-09-01

    Polyoxyethylated non-ionic surfactants such as Tween 20, Tween 40, Nonidet P40 and Nonex 501 have been supposed to be associated with cationic characteristics. Studies on the effect of these surfactants on the electrocapillary curves of the anionic surfactants Aerosol IB, Manaxol OT and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), show that the electrocapillary maxima shift towards positive potentials. The order of adsorption of the anionic surfactants is SLS > Manaxol OT > Aerosol IB while the shift in maxima is in the order Aerosol IB ~ Manaxol OT > SLS which confirms association of cationic characteristics with the micelles of these non-ionic surfactants. The magnitude of the shift in electrocapillary maxima is Nonex 501 > Nonidet P40 > Tween 20 > Tween 40 which may be the order of magnitude of the positive charge carried by these non-ionic surfactants.

  18. How to overcome surfactant dysfunction in meconium aspiration syndrome?

    PubMed

    Mokra, Daniela; Calkovska, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Surfactant dysfunction in meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is caused by meconium components, by plasma proteins leaking through the injured alveolocapillary membrane and by substances originated in meconium-induced inflammation. Surfactant inactivation in MAS may be diminished by several ways. Firstly, aspirated meconium should be removed from the lungs to decrease concentrations of meconium inhibitors coming into the contact with surfactant in the alveolar compartment. Once the endogenous surfactant becomes inactivated, components of surfactant should be substituted by exogenous surfactant at a sufficient dose, and surfactant administration should be repeated, if oxygenation remains compromised. To delay the inactivation by inhibitors, exogenous surfactants may be enriched with surfactant proteins, phospholipids, or other substances such as polymers. Finally, to diminish an adverse action of products of meconium-induced inflammation on both endogenous and exogenously delivered surfactant, anti-inflammatory drugs may be administered. A combined therapeutic approach may result in better outcome in patients with MAS and in lower costs of treatment.

  19. Rational selection of alternative, environmentally compatible surfactants for biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals--a step toward green biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Straub, Jürg Oliver; Shearer, Russel; Studer, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The biotechnological production of pharmaceutical active substances needs ancillary substances. Surfactants are used at the end of the cell culture as a protection against potential viral or bacterial contamination and to lyse the producing cells for isolation and purification of the products. To find a replacement for a surfactant that had raised environmental concern, environmentally relevant data for potential alternatives were searched for in the literature. Significant data gaps were filled with additional tests: biodegradability, algal growth inhibition, acute daphnid immobilization and chronic daphnid reproduction toxicity, acute fish toxicity, and activated sludge respiration inhibition. The results were used to model removal in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) serving 3 biotechnological production sites in the Roche Group. Predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were calculated using realistic amounts of surfactants and site-specific wastewater fluxes, modeled removals for the WWTPs and dilution factors by the respective receiving waters. Predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived for WWTPs and for both fresh and marine receiving waters as the treated wastewater of 1 production site is discharged into a coastal water. This resulted in a spreadsheet showing PECs, PNECs, and PEC ÷ PNEC risk characterization ratios for the WWTPs and receiving waters for all investigated surfactants and all 3 sites. This spreadsheet now serves as a selection support for the biotechnological developers. This risk-based prioritization of surfactants is a step toward green biotechnological production.

  20. Toxic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Woo

    2012-01-01

    This article schematically reviews the clinical features, diagnostic approaches to, and toxicological implications of toxic encephalopathy. The review will focus on the most significant occupational causes of toxic encephalopathy. Chronic toxic encephalopathy, cerebellar syndrome, parkinsonism, and vascular encephalopathy are commonly encountered clinical syndromes of toxic encephalopathy. Few neurotoxins cause patients to present with pathognomonic neurological syndromes. The symptoms and signs of toxic encephalopathy may be mimicked by many psychiatric, metabolic, inflammatory, neoplastic, and degenerative diseases of the nervous system. Thus, the importance of good history-taking that considers exposure and a comprehensive neurological examination cannot be overemphasized in the diagnosis of toxic encephalopathy. Neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging typically play ancillary roles. The recognition of toxic encephalopathy is important because the correct diagnosis of occupational disease can prevent others (e.g., workers at the same worksite) from further harm by reducing their exposure to the toxin, and also often provides some indication of prognosis. Physicians must therefore be aware of the typical signs and symptoms of toxic encephalopathy, and close collaborations between neurologists and occupational physicians are needed to determine whether neurological disorders are related to occupational neurotoxin exposure. PMID:23251840

  1. Tungsten toxicity.

    PubMed

    Witten, Mark L; Sheppard, Paul R; Witten, Brandon L

    2012-04-05

    There is emerging evidence that tungsten has toxic health effects. We summarize the recent tungsten toxicity research in this short review. Tungsten is widely used in many commercial and military applications because it has the second highest melting temperature of any element. Consequently, it is important to elucidate the potential health effects of tungsten.

  2. Chlorpyrifos-methyl solubilisation by humic acids used as bio-surfactants extracted from lignocelluloses and kitchen wastes.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Baglieri, Andrea; Tambone, Fulvia; Gennari, Mara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-09-01

    Chlorpyrifos-methyl (CLP-m) is a widely used organophosphate insecticide that can accumulate in soil and become toxic to humans. CLP-m can be removed from soil by its solubilisation using synthetic surfactants. However, synthetic surfactants can accumulate in soil causing contamination phenomena themselves. Bio-surfactants can be used as an alternative to synthetic ones, reducing costs and environmental issues. In this work, humic acid (HA) extracted from raw biomasses, i.e. lignocelluloses (HAL) and lignocelluloses plus kitchen food waste (HALF), corresponding composts (C) (HALC and HALFC) and leonardite (HAc), were tested in comparison with commercial surfactants, i.e. SDS, Tween 20 and DHAB, to solubilize CLP-m. Results obtained indicated that only biomass-derived HA, composted biomass-derived HA, and SDS solubilized CLP-m: SDS = 0.006; HAL = 0.007; HALC = 0.009 g; HALF = 0.025; HALFC = 0.024) (g CLP-m g(-1) surfactant). Lignocelluloses HAs (HAL, HALF) solubilized CLP-m just as well as SDS while lignocellulosic plus kitchen food waste HA (HALF, HALFC) showed a three times higher CLP-m solubilisation capability. This difference was attributed to the higher concentration of alkyl-Carbon that creates strong links with CLP-m in the hydrophobic micelle-core of the surfactants.

  3. The response of hydrophobic organics and potential toxicity in streams to urbanization of watersheds in six metropolitan areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryant, W.L.; Goodbred, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in streams along a gradient of urban land-use intensity in and around six metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh - Durham, North Carolina; and Denver - Fort Collins, Colorado, in 2003; and Dallas - Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee - Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Portland, Oregon, in 2004 to examine relations between percent urban land cover in watersheds and the occurrence, concentrations, and potential toxicity of hydrophobic compounds. Of the 142 endpoints measured in SPMD dialysates, 30 were significantly (alpha = 0.05) related to the percent of urban land cover in the watersheds in at least one metropolitan area. These 30 endpoints included the aggregated measures of the total number of compounds detected and relative toxicity (Microtox?? and P450RGS assays), in addition to the concentrations of 27 individual hydrophobic compounds. The number of compounds detected, P450RGS assay values, and the concentrations of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were significantly related to percent urban land cover in all six metropolitan areas. Pentachloroanisole, the most frequently detected compound, was significantly related to urban land cover in all metropolitan areas except Dallas - Fort Worth. Petrogenic PAHs and dibenzofurans were positively related to percent urban land cover in Atlanta, Raleigh - Durham, Denver, and Milwaukee - Green Bay. Results for other endpoints were much more variable. The number of endpoints significantly related to urban land cover ranged from 6 in Portland to 21 Raleigh-Durham. Based on differences in the number and suite of endpoints related to urban intensity, these results provide evidence of differences in factors governing source strength, transport, and/or fate of hydrophobic compounds in the six metropolitan areas studied. The most consistent and significant results were that bioavailable, aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists increase in streams as basins become

  4. Geant4 simulation of the Elekta XVI kV CBCT unit for accurate description of potential late toxicity effects of image-guided radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Brochu, F M; Burnet, N G; Jena, R; Plaistow, R; Parker, M A; Thomas, S J

    2014-12-21

    This paper describes the modelisation of the Elekta XVI Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) machine components with Geant4 and its validation against calibration data taken for two commonly used machine setups. Preliminary dose maps of simulated CBCTs coming from this modelisation work are presented. This study is the first step of a research project, GHOST, aiming to improve the understanding of late toxicity risk in external beam radiotherapy patients by simulating dose depositions integrated from different sources (imaging, treatment beam) over the entire treatment plan. The second cancer risk will then be derived from different models relating irradiation dose and second cancer risk.

  5. Geant4 simulation of the Elekta XVI kV CBCT unit for accurate description of potential late toxicity effects of image-guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochu, F. M.; Burnet, N. G.; Jena, R.; Plaistow, R.; Parker, M. A.; Thomas, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the modelisation of the Elekta XVI Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) machine components with Geant4 and its validation against calibration data taken for two commonly used machine setups. Preliminary dose maps of simulated CBCTs coming from this modelisation work are presented. This study is the first step of a research project, GHOST, aiming to improve the understanding of late toxicity risk in external beam radiotherapy patients by simulating dose depositions integrated from different sources (imaging, treatment beam) over the entire treatment plan. The second cancer risk will then be derived from different models relating irradiation dose and second cancer risk.

  6. Lung Surfactant Levels are Regulated by Ig-Hepta/GPR116 by Monitoring Surfactant Protein D

    PubMed Central

    Fukuzawa, Taku; Ishida, Junji; Kato, Akira; Ichinose, Taro; Ariestanti, Donna Maretta; Takahashi, Tomoya; Ito, Kunitoshi; Abe, Jumpei; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Wakana, Shigeharu; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Hirose, Shigehisa

    2013-01-01

    Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins, which is secreted from the alveolar type II epithelial cell and coats the surface of alveoli as a thin layer. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of alveolar collapse through its ability to reduce surface tension. Under normal conditions, surfactant homeostasis is maintained by balancing its release and the uptake by the type II cell for recycling and the internalization by alveolar macrophages for degradation. Little is known about how the surfactant pool is monitored and regulated. Here we show, by an analysis of gene-targeted mice exhibiting massive accumulation of surfactant, that Ig-Hepta/GPR116, an orphan receptor, is expressed on the type II cell and sensing the amount of surfactant by monitoring one of its protein components, surfactant protein D, and its deletion results in a pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and emphysema-like pathology. By a coexpression experiment with Sp-D and the extracellular region of Ig-Hepta/GPR116 followed by immunoprecipitation, we identified Sp-D as the ligand of Ig-Hepta/GPR116. Analyses of surfactant metabolism in Ig-Hepta+/+ and Ig-Hepta−/− mice by using radioactive tracers indicated that the Ig-Hepta/GPR116 signaling system exerts attenuating effects on (i) balanced synthesis of surfactant lipids and proteins and (ii) surfactant secretion, and (iii) a stimulating effect on recycling (uptake) in response to elevated levels of Sp-D in alveolar space. PMID:23922714

  7. Molecular-thermodynamic theory of micellization of multicomponent surfactant mixtures: 2. pH-sensitive surfactants.

    PubMed

    Goldsipe, Arthur; Blankschtein, Daniel

    2007-05-22

    In article 1 of this series, we developed a molecular-thermodynamic (MT) theory to model the micellization of mixtures containing an arbitrary number of conventional (pH-insensitive) surfactants. In this article, we extend the MT theory to model mixtures containing a pH-sensitive surfactant. The MT theory was validated by examining mixtures containing both a pH-sensitive surfactant and a conventional surfactant, which effectively behave like ternary surfactant mixtures. We first compared the predicted micellar titration data to experimental micellar titration data that we obtained for varying compositions of mixed micelles containing the pH-sensitive surfactant dodecyldimethylamine oxide (C12DAO) mixed with either a cationic surfactant (dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide, C12TAB), a nonionic surfactant (dodecyl octa(ethylene oxide), C12E8), or an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) surfactant. The MT theory accurately modeled the titration behavior of C12DAO mixed with C12E8. However, C12DAO was observed to interact more favorably with SDS and with C12TAB than was predicted by the MT theory. We also compared predictions to data from the literature for mixtures of C12DAO and SDS. Although the pH values of solutions with no added acid were modeled with only qualitative accuracy, the MT theory resulted in quantitatively accurate predictions of solution pH for mixtures containing added acid. In addition, the predicted degree of counterion binding yielded a lower bound to the experimentally measured value. Finally, we predicted the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of solutions of two pH-sensitive surfactants, tetradecyldimethylamine oxide (C14DAO) and hexadecyldimethyl betaine (C16Bet), at varying solution pH and surfactant composition. However, at the pH values considered, the pH sensitivity of C16Bet could be neglected, and it was equivalently modeled as a zwitterionic surfactant. The cmc's predicted using the MT theory agreed well with the experimental

  8. Low temperature synthesis of transition metal oxides containing surfactant ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janauer, Gerald Gilbert

    1998-11-01

    Recently there has been much interest in reacting vanadium oxides hydrothermally with cationic surfactants to form novel layered compounds. A series of new transition metal oxides, however, has also been formed at or near room temperature in open containers. Synthesis, characterization, and proposed mechanisms of formation are the focus of this work. Low temperature reactions of vanadium pentoxide and ammonium transition metallates with long chain amine surfactants, such as dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide yielded interesting new products many of which are layered phases. DTAsb4\\ Hsb2Vsb{10}Osb{28}. 8Hsb2O, a layered highly crystalline phase, is the first such phase for which a single crystal X-ray structure has been determined. The unit cell for this material was found to be triclinic with space group P1-, cell parameters a=9.8945(3)A, b=11.5962(1)A, c=21.9238(2)A, alpha=95.153(2)sp°,\\ beta=93.778(1)sp°, and gamma=101.360(1)sp°. Additionally, a novel tungsten, a molybdenum and a dichromate phase will be discussed. Both the tungsten and the dichromate materials were indexed from their powder diffraction patterns yielding monoclinic unit cells. The tungsten material was found to have a=50.56(4)A, b=54.41(4)A, c=13.12(1)A, and beta=99.21sp°. The dichromate compound was determined to have a=26.757(5)A, b=10.458(2)A, c=14.829(3)A and beta=98.01(1)sp°. Interlayer spacings for the lamellar dichromate and molybdenum phases were d001 = 28.7 A, and d001 = 22.9 A. The synthesis, characterization, composition, and structure of these transition metal oxide-surfactant materials will be discussed.

  9. Efficiency of surfactant-enhanced desorption for contaminated soils depending on the component characteristics of soil-surfactant--PAHs system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenjun; Zhu, Lizhong

    2007-05-01

    The sorption of surfactants onto soils has a significant effect on the performance of surfactant enhanced desorption. In this study, the efficiency of surfactants in enhancing desorption for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils relative to water was evaluated with a term of relative efficiency coefficient (REC). Since the sorption of surfactants onto soils, surfactants only enhanced PAH desorption when REC values were larger than 1 and the added surfactant concentration was greater than the corresponding critical enhance desorption concentration (CEDC), which was defined as the corresponding surfactant concentration with REC=1. A model was utilized to describe and predict the REC and CEDC values for PAH desorption. The model and experimental results indicated that the efficiency of surfactants in enhancing PAH desorption showed strong dependence on the soil composition, surfactant structure and PAH properties. These results are of practical interest for the selection of surfactant to optimize soil remediation technologies.

  10. Structural and transfection properties of amine-substituted gemini surfactant-based nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Wettig,S.; Badea, I.; Donkuru, M.; Verrall, R.; Foldvari, M.

    2007-01-01

    Increases in DNA transfection efficiencies for non-viral vectors can be achieved through rational design of novel cationic building blocks. Based on previous results examining DNA condensation by polyamines, novel gemini surfactants have been designed that incorporate aza or imino substituents within the spacer group in order to increase interactions with DNA and potentially improve their DNA transfection ability. Transfection efficiencies and cell toxicity of gemini nanoparticles constructed from plasmid DNA, gemini surfactant, and a neutral lipid were measured in COS7 cells using a luciferase assay. Structural properties of nanoparticles were examined by using circular dichroism, particle size, zeta potential, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements. The incorporation of aza and imino substituents within the spacer group was observed to enhance the transfection ability of gemini surfactants. Incorporation of an imino group in the structure of the 1,9-bis(dodecyl)-1,1,9,9-tetramethyl-5-imino-1,9-nonanediammonium dibromide surfactant (12-7NH-12) resulted in a statistically significant (p < 0.01) 9-fold increase in transfection compared to an unsubstituted gemini surfactant and a 3-fold increase compared to the corresponding aza-substituted compound. A pH-dependent transition in size and zeta potential was observed to occur at pH 5.5 for complexes formed from the 12-7NH-12 compound. SAXS results show weakly ordered structures and the presence of multiple phases. The incorporation of a pH-active imino group within the spacer of the gemini surfactant results in a significant increase in transfection efficiency that can be related to both pH-induced changes in nanoparticle structure and the formation of multiple phases that more readily allow for membrane fusion that may facilitate DNA release.

  11. Impact of sediment partitioning methods on environmental safety assessment of surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.G.; Powell, R.L.; Kutey, G.; Kimerle, R.A. )

    1995-02-01

    Selection of laboratory methods for partitioning and toxicity tests of sediments has a significant impact on interpretation of aquatic safety of surfactants. This is the case for the assessment of the sediment toxicity of C[sub 12] linear alkylbenzene sulfonates, LAS. In this study, the batch-equilibrium partition coefficient (K[sub d]) was measured as a function of organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, and quantity of sediments. The quantity of sediment was varied from a low of 5 g per 1,000 ml of water to a level of 500 g to 500 ml of water. The measured K[sub d] decreased by an order of magnitude when the ratio of water to sediments increased to 1:1, and as a consequence of this observation, LAS on suspended solids was included in the quantitation of LAS in the water phase. When measured K[sub d] values were then used to predict the toxicity (based on known aquatic toxicity concentrations of LAS using Ceriodaphnia dubia), LAS was calculated to be an order of magnitude less toxic by the low-solids test compared to the high-solids test system. This work reaffirms that selection of a laboratory test to assess environmental safety must be made on the basis of its correlation to the real-world behavior of the surfactant.

  12. Surfactant Activated Dip-Pen Nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, C. Patrick

    2005-03-01

    Direct nanoscale patterning of maleimide-linked biotin on mercaptosilane-functionalized glass substrates using dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) is facilitated by the addition of a small amount of the biocompatible nonionic surfactant Tween-20. A correlation was found between activated ink transfer from the AFM tip when surfactant was included in the ink and an increase in the wettability of the partially hydrophobic silanized substrate. Surfactant concentration represents a new control variable for DPN that complements relative humidity, tip-substrate contact force, scan speed, and temperature. Using surfactants systematically as ink additives expands the possible ink-substrate combinations that can be used for patterning biotin and other molecules. For example, we are currently exploring the possibility of developing nickel/nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA)-maleimide based inks that will bind to mercaptosilanized glass surfaces for the reversible immobilization of biomolecules containing polyhistidine tags.

  13. Aggregation of sulfosuccinate surfactants in water

    SciTech Connect

    Magid, L.J.; Daus, K.A.; Butler, P.D.; Quincy, R.B.

    1983-12-22

    The aggregation of sodium di-n-alkyl sulfosuccinates in water (H/sub 2/O and D/sub 2/O at 45/sup 0/C) has been investigated. A self-consistent picture of the dependence of sodium ion binding on surfactant concentration is obtained from emf measurements, conductimetry, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements. The concentration dependence of the micellar agregation number for the sulfosuccinates and related double-tailed surfactants depends markedly on surfactant solubility. A sphere-to-disk transition in micellar shape, which might have been expected as a precursor to formation of a lamellar mesophase, was not observed as the surfactant concentration was increased. 8 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Photocatalytic degradation of surfactants with immobilized TiO2: comparing two reaction systems.

    PubMed

    Lizama, C; Bravo, C; Caneo, C; Ollino, M

    2005-08-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of two industrial-grade surfactants, sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate (SDDBS), were achieved using TiO2 immobilised on glass Raschig rings and inside a bent tube of glass, using two different photoreactors in recirculation batch mode with a black light fluorescent tube as irradiation source. The influence of parameters pH, recalculation flow, airflow and number of treatment units were determined. For comparison purposes, the energetic cost of treatment was determined for both reaction systems as the figure-of-merit EE/O, showing that titania supported on glass Raschig rings is a more efficient system than the inner coated spring with TiO2, but this condition is strongly dependent on the surfactant identity. The best conditions for surfactants elimination were used to carry out the treatment of solutions containing two commercial detergents, reaching an 80% of removal in 60 min of irradiation.

  15. Process for making surfactant capped nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A Paul; Rockenberger, Joerg

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for making surfactant capped nanocrystals of transition metal oxides. The process comprises reacting a metal cupferron complex of the formula M Cup, wherein M is a transition metal, and Cup is a cupferron, with a coordinating surfactant, the reaction being conducted at a temperature ranging from about 250 to about 300 C., for a period of time sufficient to complete the reaction.

  16. Spatial and temporal control of surfactant systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2009-11-01

    This paper reviews some recent progress on approaches leading to spatial and temporal control of surfactant systems. The approaches revolve around the use of redox-active and light-sensitive surfactants. Perspectives are presented on experiments that have realized approaches for active control of interfacial properties of aqueous surfactant systems, reversible control of microstructures and nanostructures formed within bulk solutions, and in situ manipulation of the interactions of surfactants with polymers, DNA and proteins. A particular focus of this review is devoted to studies of amphiphiles that contain the redox-active group ferrocene - reversible control of the oxidation state of ferrocene leads to changes in the charge/hydrophobicity of these amphiphiles, resulting in substantial changes in their self-assembly. Light-sensitive surfactants containing azobenzene, which undergo changes in shape/polarity upon illumination with light, are a second focus of this review. Examples of both redox-active and light-sensitive surfactants that lead to large (>20mN/m) and spatially localized ( approximately mm) changes in surface tensions on a time scale of seconds are presented. Systems that permit reversible transformations of bulk solution nanostructures - such as micelle-to-vesicle transitions or monomer-to-micelle transitions - are also described. The broad potential utility of these emerging classes of amphiphiles are illustrated by the ability to drive changes in functional properties of surfactant systems, such as rheological properties and reversible solubilization of oils, as well as the ability to control interactions of surfactants with biomolecules to modulate their transport into cells.

  17. Synthesis, Surface Properties and Biocompatibility of 1,2,3-Triazole-containing Alkyl β-D-xylopyranoside Surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, E. Davis; Seelam, Srivenu; Lema, Carolina; Aguilera, Renato J.; Fiegel, Jennifer; Rankin, Stephen E.; Knutson, Barbara L.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    We are interested in the development of surfactants derived from hemicellulosic biomass, as they are potential components in pharmaceuticals, personal care products and other detergents. Such surfactants should exhibit low toxicity in mammalian cells. In this study we synthesized a series of alkyl or fluoroalkyl β-xylopyranosides from azides and an alkyne using the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne (CuAAC) “Click” reaction in 4 steps from xylose. The purified products were evaluated for both their surfactant properties, and for their biocompatibility. Unlike other carbohydrate-based surfactants, liquid-crystalline behavior was not observed by differential scanning calorimetry. The triazole-containing β-xylopyranosides with short (6 carbons) and long (>12 carbons) chains exhibited no toxicity at concentrations ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Triazole-containing β-xylopyranosides with 8, 10 or 12 carbons caused toxicity via apoptosis, with CC50 values ranging from 26-890 μM. The two longest chain compounds did form stable monolayers at the air-water interface over a range of temperatures, although a brief transition to an unstable monolayer was observed. PMID:23872788

  18. Synthesis, surface properties, and biocompatibility of 1,2,3-triazole-containing alkyl β-D-xylopyranoside surfactants.

    PubMed

    Oldham, E Davis; Seelam, Srivenu; Lema, Carolina; Aguilera, Renato J; Fiegel, Jennifer; Rankin, Stephen E; Knutson, Barbara L; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-09-20

    We are interested in the development of surfactants derived from hemicellulosic biomass, as they are potential components in pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and other detergents. Such surfactants should exhibit low toxicity in mammalian cells. In this study we synthesized a series of alkyl or fluoroalkyl β-xylopyranosides from azides and an alkyne using the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne (CuAAC) 'click' reaction in 4 steps from xylose. The purified products were evaluated for both their surfactant properties, and for their biocompatibility. Unlike other carbohydrate-based surfactants, liquid-crystalline behavior was not observed by differential scanning calorimetry. The triazole-containing β-xylopyranosides with short (6 carbons) and long (>12 carbons) chains exhibited no toxicity at concentrations ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Triazole-containing β-xylopyranosides with 8, 10, or 12 carbons caused toxicity via apoptosis, with CC50 values ranging from 26-890 μM. The two longest chain compounds did form stable monolayers at the air-water interface over a range of temperatures, although a brief transition to an the unstable monolayer was observed.

  19. Surfactant mediated polyelectrolyte self-assembly

    DOE PAGES

    Goswami, Monojoy; Borreguero Calvo, Jose M.; Pincus, Phillip A.; ...

    2015-11-25

    Self-assembly and dynamics of polyelectrolyte (PE) surfactant complex (PES) is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The complexation is systematically studied for five different PE backbone charge densities. At a fixed surfactant concentration the PES complexation exhibits pearl-necklace to agglomerated double spherical structures with a PE chain decorating the surfactant micelles. The counterions do not condense on the complex, but are released in the medium with a random distribution. The relaxation dynamics for three different length scales, polymer chain, segmental and monomer, show distinct features of the charge and neutral species; the counterions are fastest followed by the PE chain andmore » surfactants. The surfactant heads and tails have the slowest relaxation due to their restricted movement inside the agglomerated structure. At the shortest length scale, all the charge and neutral species show similar relaxation dynamics confirming Rouse behavior at monomer length scales. Overall, the present study highlights the structure-property relationship for polymer-surfactant complexation. These results will help improve the understanding of PES complex and should aid in the design of better materials for future applications.« less

  20. Surfactant mediated polyelectrolyte self-assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, Monojoy; Borreguero Calvo, Jose M.; Pincus, Phillip A.; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2015-11-25

    Self-assembly and dynamics of polyelectrolyte (PE) surfactant complex (PES) is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The complexation is systematically studied for five different PE backbone charge densities. At a fixed surfactant concentration the PES complexation exhibits pearl-necklace to agglomerated double spherical structures with a PE chain decorating the surfactant micelles. The counterions do not condense on the complex, but are released in the medium with a random distribution. The relaxation dynamics for three different length scales, polymer chain, segmental and monomer, show distinct features of the charge and neutral species; the counterions are fastest followed by the PE chain and surfactants. The surfactant heads and tails have the slowest relaxation due to their restricted movement inside the agglomerated structure. At the shortest length scale, all the charge and neutral species show similar relaxation dynamics confirming Rouse behavior at monomer length scales. Overall, the present study highlights the structure-property relationship for polymer-surfactant complexation. These results will help improve the understanding of PES complex and should aid in the design of better materials for future applications.

  1. SURFACTANT - POLYMER INTERACTION FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-10-01

    The goal of this research is to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, adsorption and mobility control. Surfactant--polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation high adsorption and viscous/heterogeneity fingering. A mixture comprising a ''pseudo oil'' with appropriate surfactant and polymer has been selected to study micellar-polymer chemical flooding. The physical properties and phase behavior of this system have been determined. A surfactant-polymer slug has been designed to achieve high efficiency recovery by improving phase behavior and mobility control. Recovery experiments have been performed on linear cores and a quarter 5-spot. The same recovery experiments have been simulated using a commercially available simulator (UTCHEM). Good agreement between experimental data and simulation results has been achieved.

  2. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Imbibition in an originally oil-wet 2D capillary is the fastest in the case of Alf-38 and slowest in the case of DTAB (among the surfactants studied). Force of adhesion studies and contact angle measurements show that greater wettability alteration is possible with these anionic surfactants than the cationic surfactant studied. The water imbibition rate does not increase monotonically with an increase in the surfactant concentration. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.

  3. Nonlinear water waves with soluble surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapham, Gary; Dowling, David; Schultz, William

    1998-11-01

    The hydrodynamic effects of surfactants have fascinated scientists for generations. This presentation describes an experimental investigation into the influence of a soluble surfactant on nonlinear capillary-gravity waves in the frequency range from 12 to 20 Hz. Waves were generated in a plexiglass wave tank (254 cm long, 30.5 cm wide, and 18 cm deep) with a triangular plunger wave maker. The tank was filled with carbon- and particulate-filtered water into which the soluble surfactant Triton-X-100® was added in known amounts. Wave slope was measured nonintrusively with a digital camera running at 225 fps by monitoring the position of light beams which passed up through the bottom of the tank, out through the wavy surface, and onto a white screen. Wave slope data were reduced to determine wave damping and the frequency content of the wave train. Both were influenced by the presence of the surfactant. Interestingly, a subharmonic wave occurring at one-sixth the paddle-driving frequency was found only when surfactant was present and the paddle was driven at amplitudes high enough to produce nonlinear waves in clean water. Although the origins of this subharmonic wave remain unclear, it appears to be a genuine manifestation of the combined effects of the surfactant and nonlinearity.

  4. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-07-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases IFT with a minimum at about 0.2 M. Addition of surfactant decreases IFT further. In the absence of surfactant the minerals are oil wet after aging with crude oil. Addition of surfactant solution decreases the contact angle to intermediate wettability. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Plans for the next quarter include conducting adsorption, phase behavior and wettability studies.

  5. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (SS-6656, Alfoterra 35, 38, 63,65,68) have been identified which can change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. All the carbonate surfaces (Lithographic Limestone, Marble, Dolomite and Calcite) show similar behavior with respect to wettability alteration with surfactant 4-22. Anionic surfactants (5-166, Alfoterra-33 and Alfoterra-38 and Alfoterra-68), which lower the interfacial tension with a West Texas crude oil to very low values (<10{sup -2} nM/m), have also been identified. Plans for the next quarter include conducting wettability, mobilization, and imbibition studies.

  6. Research on the Influence of the Type of Surfactant and Concentrator in Aqueous Dispersion of Pigments.

    PubMed

    Makarewicz, Edwin; Michalik, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    This work reports tests performed to evaluate the stability of aqueous dispersions of inorganic oxide pigments with different specific surface areas, with the use of anionic and non-ionic surfactants and concentrators. Color mixtures of oxide compounds of blue, green, olive and brown with the unit cell spinel structure were used as pigments. The sodium salt of sulfosuccinic acid monoester, oxyethylenated nonylphenol and ethoxylated derivatives of lauryl alcohol, fatty alcohol and fatty amine were used as surfactants. The concentrators used were: poly(vinyl alcohol), the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose as well as a water-based polyurethane oligomer. The highest dispersion efficiency was found for dispersed systems in which surfactant and concentrator were incorporated in the formula. The one containing the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose or polyurethane oligomer with ethoxylated saturated fatty alcohol or fatty amine was found to be the most efficient. It was discovered that a higher dispersion efficiency corresponds to pigments with larger specific surface. The efficiency is also found to improve when the concentrator is an acrylic polymer or copolymer made up of two acrylic species. In this case, the concentrator interaction with the surfactant is more effective if the value of its boundary viscosity number is higher. This observation confirms the existence of interactions between macro-chains of the concentrator and surfactant molecules forming micelles with the pigment particles.

  7. Surfactant-thermal method to prepare two new cobalt metal-organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xianglin; Toh, Yong Siang; Zhao, Jun; Nie, Lina; Ye, Kaiqi; Wang, Yue; Li, Dongsheng; Zhang, Qichun

    2015-12-15

    Employing surfactants as reaction media, two new metal-organic frameworks (MOFs):(HTEA){sub 3}[Co{sub 3}(BTC){sub 3}] (NTU-Z33) and (HTEA)[Co{sub 3}(HBTC){sub 2}(BTC)] (NTU-Z34) (H{sub 3}BTC=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid, TEA=trimethylamine, and NTU=Nanyang Technological University), have been successfully synthesized and fully characterized. Note that NTU-Z33 has an unusual trimeric [Co{sub 3}(COO){sub 9}] secondary building unit (SBU). Magnetic characterization suggests that both compounds have weak antiferromagnetic behaviors. Our success in preparing new crystalline Co-BTC based MOFs under different surfactant media could provide a new road to prepare new diverse MOFs through various combinations of surfactants. - Graphical abstract: Employing surfactants as reaction media, two new metal-organic frame-works (MOFs) have been successfully synthesized and magnetic study suggests that both compounds have weak antiferromagnetic behaviors. - Highlights: • Two novel metal-organic frame-works (MOFs). • Synthesis through surfactant-thermal condition. • weak antiferromagnetic behaviors for both compounds.

  8. Nonionic fluorinated-hydrogenated surfactants for the design of mesoporous silica materials.

    PubMed

    Michaux, F; Blin, J L; Stébé, M J

    2008-09-25

    We have investigated the influence of the ratio between the volume of the hydrophilic head (VA) and the volume of the hydrophobic part (VB) of the surfactant on the mesopore ordering. To understand the difference of behavior we have performed a complete study dealing with fluorinated [Rm(F)(EO)n] and hydrogenated [Rm(H)(EO)n] surfactants. Their mixtures have also been taken into account. Here only the phase diagrams and the structural parameters of the liquid crystal phases of the mixed systems are reported. We have shown that the mutual or partial miscibility of the fluorinated and the hydrogenated surfactants depends on the number of oxyethylene units of each surfactant. To follow, various systems were used for the preparation of silica mesoporous materials via a cooperative templating mechanism (CTM). Results clearly reveal that VA/VB ratios in the range between 0.95 and 1.78 lead to the formation of well-ordered mesostructures. Wormhole-like structures are obtained for higher or lower values. Moreover, results show that from the VA/VB point of view, polyoxyethylene fluoroalkyl ether surfactants behave like their hydrogenated analogues.

  9. ASSESSING THE SECURITY OF ECOLOGICAL POPULATIONS WITH REGARDS T0 TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS AND HABITATE THREATS ACROSS THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Southeastern United States is one of the most biologically diverse regions of the country and is home to significant numbers of threatened and endangered species. It is also one of the fastest growing regions in terms of human population, urban development, and the associated...

  10. Digitalis toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be rapid, or slow and irregular. An ECG is done to check for irregular heartbeats. Blood ... A. Digitalis toxicity. In: Goldberger AL, ed. Clinical Electrocardiography : A Simplified Approach, 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  11. Beryllium Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Beryllium Toxicity Patient Education Care Instruction Sheet Course : WB 1095 CE Original ... of Contents Introduction Printer-Friendly version of the Patient Education Sheet [PDF - 48 KB] What Is Beryllium? Beryllium ...

  12. Toxic'' terminology

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of terms (e.g., toxic chemicals,'' toxic pollutants,'' toxic waste,'' and similar nomenclature) refer to substances that are subject to regulation under one or more federal environmental laws. State laws and regulations also provide additional, similar, or identical terminology that may be confused with the federally defined terms. Many of these terms appear synonymous, and it is easy to use them interchangeably. However, in a regulatory context, inappropriate use of narrowly defined terms can lead to confusion about the substances referred to, the statutory provisions that may apply, and the regulatory requirements for compliance under the applicable federal statues. This information Brief provides regulatory definitions, a brief discussion of compliance requirements, and reference for the precise terminology that should be used when referring to toxic'' substances regulated under federal environmental laws. A companion CERCLA Information Brief (EH-231-003/0191) addresses hazardous'' nomenclature.

  13. Antimony Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients) and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically. PMID:21318007

  14. Interactions of organic contaminants with mineral-adsorbed surfactants.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lizhong; Chen, Baoliang; Tao, Shu; Chiou, Cary T

    2003-09-01

    Sorption of organic contaminants (phenol, p-nitrophenol, and naphthalene) to natural solids (soils and bentonite) with and without myristylpyridinium bromide (MPB) cationic surfactant was studied to provide novel insightto interactions of contaminants with the mineral-adsorbed surfactant. Contaminant sorption coefficients with mineral-adsorbed surfactants, Kss, show a strong dependence on surfactant loading in the solid. At low surfactant levels, the Kss values increased with increasing sorbed surfactant mass, reached a maximum, and then decreased with increasing surfactant loading. The Kss values for contaminants were always higher than respective partition coefficients with surfactant micelles (Kmc) and natural organic matter (Koc). At examined MPB concentrations in water the three organic contaminants showed little solubility enhancement by MPB. At low sorbed-surfactant levels, the resulting mineral-adsorbed surfactant via the cation-exchange process appears to form a thin organic film, which effectively "adsorbs" the contaminants, resulting in very high Kss values. At high surfactant levels, the sorbed surfactant on minerals appears to form a bulklike medium that behaves essentially as a partition phase (rather than an adsorptive surface), with the resulting Kss being significantly decreased and less dependent on the MPB loading. The results provide a reference to the use of surfactants for remediation of contaminated soils/sediments or groundwater in engineered surfactant-enhanced washing.

  15. Interactions of organic contaminants with mineral-adsorbed surfactants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhu, L.; Chen, B.; Tao, S.; Chiou, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    Sorption of organic contaminants (phenol, p-nitrophenol, and naphthalene) to natural solids (soils and bentonite) with and without myristylpyridinium bromide (MPB) cationic surfactant was studied to provide novel insight to interactions of contaminants with the mineral-adsorbed surfactant. Contaminant sorption coefficients with mineral-adsorbed surfactants, Kss, show a strong dependence on surfactant loading in the solid. At low surfactant levels, the Kss values increased with increasing sorbed surfactant mass, reached a maximum, and then decreased with increasing surfactant loading. The Kss values for contaminants were always higher than respective partition coefficients with surfactant micelles (Kmc) and natural organic matter (Koc). At examined MPB concentrations in water the three organic contaminants showed little solubility enhancement by MPB. At low sorbed-surfactant levels, the resulting mineral-adsorbed surfactant via the cation-exchange process appears to form a thin organic film, which effectively "adsorbs" the contaminants, resulting in very high Kss values. At high surfactant levels, the sorbed surfactant on minerals appears to form a bulklike medium that behaves essentially as a partition phase (rather than an adsorptive surface), with the resulting Kss being significantly decreased and less dependent on the MPB loading. The results provide a reference to the use of surfactants for remediation of contaminated soils/sediments or groundwater in engineered surfactant-enhanced washing.

  16. Surfactant Facilitated Spreading of Aqueous Drops on Hydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Nitin; Couzis, Alex; Maldareili, Charles; Singh, Bhim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Microgravity technologies often require aqueous phases to spread over nonwetting hydrophobic solid surfaces. Surfactants facilitate the wetting of water on hydrophobic surfaces by adsorbing on the water/air and hydrophobic solid/water interfaces and lowering the surface tensions of these interfaces. The tension reductions decrease the contact angle, which increases the equilibrium wetted area. Hydrocarbon surfactants; (i.e., amphiphiles with a hydrophobic moiety consisting of an extended chain of (aliphatic) methylene -CH2- groups attached to a large polar group to give aqueous solubility) are capable of reducing the contact angles on surfaces which are not very hydrophobic, but do not reduce significantly the contact angles of the very hydrophobic surfaces such as parafilm, polyethylene or self assembled monolayers. Trisiloxane surfactants (amphiphiles with a hydrophobe consisting of methyl groups linked to a trisiloxane backbone in the form of a disk ((CH3)3-Si-O-Si-O-Si(CH3)3) and an extended ethoxylate (-(OCH2CH2)a-) polar group in the form of a chain with four or eight units) can significantly reduce the contact angle of water on a very hydrophobic surface and cause rapid and complete (or nearly complete) spreading (termed superspreading). The overall goal of the research described in this proposal is to establish and verify a theory for how trisiloxanes cause superspreading, and then use this knowledge as a guide to developing more general hydrocarbon based surfactant systems which superspread. We propose that the trisiloxane surfactants superspread because their structure allows them to strongly lower the high hydrophobic solid/aqueous tension when they adsorb to the solid surface. When the siloxane adsorbs, the hydrophobic disk parts of the molecule adsorb onto the surface removing the surface water. Since the cross-sectional area of the disk is larger than that of the extended ethoxylate chain, the disks can form a space-filling mat on the surface which

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa protease IV degrades surfactant proteins and inhibits surfactant host defense and biophysical functions.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Jaret L; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W; Thibodeaux, Brett A; O'Callaghan, Richard J; Wright, Jo Rae

    2005-02-01

    Pulmonary surfactant has two distinct functions within the lung: reduction of surface tension at the air-liquid interface and participation in innate host defense. Both functions are dependent on surfactant-associated proteins. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is primarily responsible for respiratory dysfunction and death in cystic fibrosis patients and is also a leading pathogen in nosocomial pneumonia. P. aeruginosa secretes a number of proteases that contribute to its virulence. We hypothesized that P. aeruginosa protease IV degrades surfactant proteins and results in a reduction in pulmonary surfactant host defense and biophysical functions. Protease IV was isolated from cultured supernatant of P. aeruginosa by gel chromatography. Incubation of cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage fluid with protease IV resulted in degradation of surfactant proteins (SP)-A, -D, and -B. SPs were degraded in a time- and dose-dependent fashion by protease IV, and degradation was inhibited by the trypsin-like serine protease inhibitor Nalpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine-chloromethyl ketone (TLCK). Degradation by protease IV inhibited SP-A- and SP-D-mediated bacterial aggregation and uptake by macrophages. Surfactant treated with protease IV was unable to reduce surface tension as effectively as untreated surfactant, and this effect was inhibited by TLCK. We speculate that protease IV may be an important contributing factor to the development and propagation of acute lung injury associated with P. aeruginosa via loss of surfactant function within the lung.

  18. Surfactant Delivery into the Lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotberg, James; Filoche, Marcel

    2014-11-01

    We have developed a multiscale, compartmentalized model of surfactant and liquid delivery into the lung. Assuming liquid plug propagation, the airway compartment accounts for the plug's volume deposition (coating) on the airway wall, while the bifurcation compartment accounts for plug splitting from the parent airway to the two daughter airways. Generally the split is unequal due to gravity and geometry effects. Both the deposition ratio RD (deposition volume/airway volume), and the splitting ratio, RS, of the daughters volumes are solved independently from one another. Then they are used in a 3D airway network geometry to achieve the distribution of delivery into the lung. The airway geometry is selected for neonatal as well as adult applications, and can be advanced from symmetric, to stochastically asymmetric, to personalized. RD depends primarily on the capillary number, Ca, while RS depends on Ca, the Reynolds number, Re, the Bond number, Bo, the dose volume, VD, and the branch angles. The model predicts the distribution of coating on the airway walls and the remaining plug volume delivered to the alveolar region at the end of the tree. Using this model, we are able to simulate and test various delivery protocols, in order to optimize delivery and improve the respiratory function.

  19. Effect of laundry surfactants on surface charge and colloidal stability of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, Sara; Lowe, Troy A; Hedberg, Jonas; Blomberg, Eva; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall; Wold, Susanna; Lundin, Maria

    2013-07-16

    The stability of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) potentially released from clothing during a laundry cycle and their interactions with laundry-relevant surfactants [anionic (LAS), cationic (DTAC), and nonionic (Berol)] have been investigated. Surface interactions between Ag NPs and surfactants influence their speciation and stability. In the absence of surfactants as well as in the presence of LAS, the negatively charged Ag NPs were stable in solution for more than 1 day. At low DTAC concentrations (≤1 mM), DTAC-Ag NP interactions resulted in charge neutralization and formation of agglomerates. The surface charge of the particles became positive at higher concentrations due to a bilayer type formation of DTAC that prevents from agglomeration due to repulsive electrostatic forces between the positively charged colloids. The adsorption of Berol was enhanced when above its critical micelle concentration (cmc). This resulted in a surface charge close to zero and subsequent agglomeration. Extended DLVO theory calculations were in compliance with observed findings. The stability of the Ag NPs was shown to depend on the charge and concentration of the adsorbed surfactants. Such knowledge is important as it may influence the subsequent transport of Ag NPs through different chemical transients and thus their potential bioavailability and toxicity.

  20. Non-extraction flow injection determination of cationic surfactants using eriochrome black-T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Hemmateenejad, B.; Barzegar, S.

    2009-09-01

    A new, rapid, sensitive, non-extraction batch, and flow injection spectrophotometric method for the determination of cationic surfactants (CSs) such as cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), tetra-n-butyl ammonium chloride (TBAC) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) is proposed. The method is based on the interaction of cationic surfactants with eriochrome black-T to form an ion-association complex. This complex has strong absorbance at 708 nm. The effects of chemical parameters and FIA variables on the determination of cationic surfactants were studied in detail, especially for CTAB. Under optimum conditions, the two linear calibration ranges of the method are 3.0 × 10 -6 to 5.0 × 10 -3 mol L -1 CTAB, CPB and DTAB for the batch spectrophotometric method and 2.0 × 10 -6 to 2.0 × 10 -4 mol L -1 CTAB, CPB and TBC for the flow injection spectrophotometric method. The sample throughput was 35 ± 5 samples h -1 at room temperature. The relative standard deviations for 10 replicates of analysis of (2.0, 0.6 and 0.2) × 10 -4 mol L -1 CTAB were 1.2, 1.3, and 0.8%, respectively. In addition, the influence of potential interfering substances on the determination of cationic surfactants was studied. The proposed method is simple and rapid, using no toxic organic solvents. It was applied to the determination of trace CS in industrial wastewater with satisfactory results.

  1. Impact of Alkyl Polyglucosides Surfactant Lutensol GD 70 on Modification of Bacterial Cell Surface Properties.

    PubMed

    Smułek, Wojciech; Kaczorek, Ewa; Zgoła-Grzeskowiak, Agnieszka; Cybulski, Zefiryn

    Alkyl polyglucosides, due to their low toxicity and environmental compatibility, could be used in biodegradation of hydrophobic compounds. In this study, the influence of Lutensol GD 70 on the cell hydrophobicity and zeta potential was measured. The particle size distribution and surfactant biodegradation were also investigated. Microbacterium sp. strain E19, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain 9, and the same strain cultivated in stress conditions were used in studies. Adding surfactant to the diesel oil system resulted in an increase of the cell surface hydrophobicity and the formation of cell aggregates (a high polydispersity index). The correlation between cell hydrophobicity and zeta potential in examined samples was not found. The results showed a significant influence of Lutensol GD 70 on the changes in cell surface properties. Moreover, a high biodegradation of a surfactant (over 50 %) by tested strains was observed. The biodegradation of Lutensol GD 70 depends on the length of both polar and nonpolar chains. A long-term contact with diesel oil of stressed strain modifies not only cell surface properties but also its ability to a surfactant biodegradation.

  2. Washing of field weathered crude oil contaminated soil with an environmentally compatible surfactant, alkyl polyglucoside.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei; Ji, Guodong; Ni, Jinren

    2009-07-01

    Weathered crude oil contaminated soils (COCSs), which are much more difficult to remediate than those freshly contaminated, are widespread especially at the sites of oil fields and industries. Surfactant enhanced ex situ soil washing could be used to remediate COCSs, but surfactant toxicity becomes one of the major concerns. In this study, a class of green surfactants, alkyl polyglucosides (APGs), were tested in washing the field weathered COCS with relatively high oil concentration (123 mgg(-1) dry soil) from Jilin Oilfield, Northeastern China. APG1214, characterized with longer alkyl chain, was more effective than APG0810 in crude oil removal. Adding inorganic sodium salts into APG1214 solution further improved the crude oil removal efficiency (CORE). Washing parameters (temperature, washing time, agitation speed and solution/soil ratio) were investigated and further optimized integratedly with an orthogonal design. At the optimum conditions, the CORE reached 97%. GC/MS analysis showed that the proportion of small n-alkanes (C(16)-C(23)) in residual crude oil gradually increased, which was helpful to interpret the oil removal mechanism. Moreover, eminent effect on removal of large n-alkanes was achieved from the synergy between APG1214 and inorganic salts, which was opposite to the effect when they were added separately. This study demonstrated a promising way to remediate COCS with ecologically compatible surfactant and provided guidelines for its practical application.

  3. Synergistic effect of non-ionic surfactants Tween 80 and PEG6000 on cytotoxicity of insecticides.

    PubMed

    Li, Diqiu; Wu, Xiwei; Yu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Qingchun; Tao, Liming

    2015-03-01

    The use of surfactants in the development of a suitable formulation for insecticides should improve the solubility behavior, the permeability and the efficiency against pests meanwhile decrease the toxic risks of insecticides on human health. Cytotoxicity of insecticides including abamectin, chlorfluazuron, hexaflumuron, chlorpyrifos, and tebufenozide was assessed on human HepG2 and lepidopteran Tn5B1-4 cells utilizing insecticide alone and in combination with nontoxic concentrations of nonionic surfactants Tween 80 and PEG6000. The results showed avermection revealed high cytotoxicity, chlorfluazuron and hexaflumuron possessed median cytotoxicity, and chlorpyrifos and tebufenozide had little cytotoxicity on HepG2 and Tn5B1-4 cells. The co-incubation with Tween 80 and PEG6000 powerfully counteracted the cytotoxicity of avermectin. Tween 80 enhanced, whereas PEG6000 compressed, the cytotoxicity of chlorfluazuron on Tn5B1-4 cells, and also improved a bit of the cytotoxicity of chlorpyrifos or tebufenozide on HepG2 cells. PEG6000 was more suitable to be used as surfactant in improving insecticide solubility and reducing the cytotoxicity. The present investigation demonstrates the necessity of utilizing surfactants to weaken the cytotoxicity of insecticides.

  4. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2006-02-01

    There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces

  5. Microemulsion-based lycopene extraction: Effect of surfactants, co-surfactants and pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh; Abbasi, Soleiman

    2016-04-15

    Lycopene is a potent antioxidant that has received extensive attention recently. Due to the challenges encountered with current methods of lycopene extraction using hazardous solvents, industry calls for a greener, safer and more efficient process. The main purpose of present study was application of microemulsion technique to extract lycopene from tomato pomace. In this respect, the effect of eight different surfactants, four different co-surfactants, and ultrasound and enzyme pretreatments on lycopene extraction efficiency was examined. Experimental results revealed that application of combined ultrasound and enzyme pretreatments, saponin as a natural surfactant, and glycerol as a co-surfactant, in the bicontinuous region of microemulsion was the optimal experimental conditions resulting in a microemulsion containing 409.68±0.68 μg/glycopene. The high lycopene concentration achieved, indicates that microemulsion technique, using a low-cost natural surfactant could be promising for a simple and safe separation of lycopene from tomato pomace and possibly from tomato industrial wastes.

  6. Selection of surfactant in remediation of DDT-contaminated soil by comparison of surfactant effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ping; Chen, Weiwei; Li, Yueming; Chen, Tao; Li, Linhui; Wang, Guanzhu

    2014-01-01

    With an aim to select the most appropriate surfactant for remediation of DDT-contaminated soil, the performance of nonionic surfactants Tween80, TX-100, and Brij35 and one anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) in enhancement of DDT water solubility and desorption of DDT from contaminated soil and their adsorption onto soil and ecotoxicities were investigated in this study. Tween80 had the highest solubilizing and soil-washing ability for DDT among the four experimental surfactants. The adsorption loss of surfactants onto soil followed the order of TX-100 > Tween80 > Brij35 > SDBS. The ecotoxicity of Tween80 to ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was lowest. The overall performance considering about the above four aspects suggested that Tween80 should be selected for the remediation of DDT-contaminated soil, because Tween80 had the greatest solubilizing and soil-washing ability for DDT, less adsorption loss onto soil, and the lowest ecotoxicity in this experiment.

  7. Surfactant-enhanced low-pH alkaline flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A. and Co., Columbia, MD . Research Div.); Lorenz, P.B. )

    1990-08-01

    This paper reports sodium bicarbonate investigated as a potential alkaline agent in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding because it has very little tendency to dissolve silicate minerals. In experiments performed with Wilmington, CA, crude oil and three types of surfactants, the bicarbonate/surfactant combination caused a marked lowering of interfacial tension (IFT). Bicarbonate protected the surfactant against divalent cations and reduced adsorption of surfactant and polymer on various minerals. Coreflood test confirm that sodium bicarbonate plus surfactant can be an effective alternative to the high-pH flooding process.

  8. A Review on Progress in QSPR Studies for Surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jiwei; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Wang, Zhengwu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review on recent progress in quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies of surfactants and applications of various molecular descriptors. QSPR studies on critical micelle concentration (cmc) and surface tension (γ) of surfactants are introduced. Studies on charge distribution in ionic surfactants by quantum chemical calculations and its effects on the structures and properties of the colloids of surfactants are also reviewed. The trends of QSPR studies on cloud point (for nonionic surfactants), biodegradation potential and some other properties of surfactants are evaluated. PMID:20479997

  9. Growing Characteristics of Fine Ice Particles in Surfactant Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Kosuke; Komoda, Yoshiyuki; Usui, Hiromoto; Okada, Kazuto; Fujisawa, Ryo

    Time variation characteristics of ice particles in a surfactant solution have been investigated. The effect of surfactants on corrosion characteristics was also studied. The results were compared with those treated with poly(vinyl alcohol). From the results, the present surfactant, cetyl dimethyl betaine was not found to be effective on preventing Ostward ripening of ice particles as poly(vinyl alcohol) showed. Then, it was concluded some effective technology has to be installed with surfactants when this surfactant treatment is realized. On the corrosion characteristics, it was found that the present surfactant shows the same level as tap water.

  10. Surfactants and the Mechanics of Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jbaily, Abdulrahman; Szeri, Andrew J.

    2016-11-01

    Alveoli are small sacs found at the end of terminal bronchioles in human lungs with a mean diameter of 200 μm. A thin layer of fluid (hypophase) coats the inner face of an alveolus and is in contact with the air in the lungs. The thickness of this layer varies among alveoli, but is in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 μm for many portions of the alveolar network. The interfacial tension σ at the air-hypophase interface tends to favor collapse of the alveolus, and resists its expansion during inhalation. Type II alveolar cells synthesize and secrete a mixture of phospholipids and proteins called pulmonary surfactant. These surfactant molecules adsorb to the interface causing σ of water at body temperature is 70 mN/m and falls to an equilibrium value of 25 mN/m when surfactants are present. Also, in a dynamic sense, it is known that σ is reduced to near 0 during exhalation when the surfactant film compresses. In this work, the authors develop a mechanical and transport model of the alveolus to study the effect of surfactants on various aspects of respiration. The model is composed of three principal parts: (i) air movement into and out of the alveolus; (ii) a balance of linear momentum across the two-layered membrane of the alveolus (hypophase and elastic wall); and (iii) a pulmonary surfactant transport problem in the hypophase. The goal is to evaluate the influence of pulmonary surfactant on respiratory mechanics.

  11. α-Gel formation by amino acid-based gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kenichi; Ohno, Kiyomi; Nomura, Kazuyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Kazutami; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2014-07-08

    Ternary mixtures being composed of surfactant, long-chain alcohol, and water sometimes form a highly viscous lamellar gel with a hexagonal packing arrangement of their crystalline hydrocarbon chains. This molecular assembly is called "α-crystalline phase" or "α-gel". In this study, we have characterized α-gels formed by the ternary mixtures of amino acid-based gemini surfactants, 1-hexadecanol (C16OH), and water. The surfactants used in this study were synthesized by reacting dodecanoylglutamic acid anhydride with alkyl diamines and abbreviated as 12-GsG-12 (s: the spacer chain length of 2, 5, and 8 methylene units). An amino acid-based monomeric surfactant, dodecanoylglutamic acid (12-Glu), was also used for comparison. At a fixed water concentration the melting point of the α-gel increased with increasing C16OH concentration, and then attained a saturation level at the critical mole ratio of 12-GsG-12/C16OH = 1/2 under the normalization by the number of hydrocarbon chains of the surfactants. This indicates that, to obtain the saturated α-gel, a lesser amount of C16OH is required for the gemini surfactants than for the monomeric one (the critical mole ratio of 12-Glu/C16OH = 1/3). Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements demonstrated an increase in the long-range d-spacing of the saturated α-gels in the order 12-Glu <12-G8G-12 < 12-G5G-12 < 12-G2G-12. In the three gemini surfactant systems, the decreased spacer chain length resulted in the increased maximum viscosity and elastic modulus of the saturated α-gels at a given water concentration. This is caused by the decreased amount of excess water being present outside the α-gel structure (or the increased amount of water incorporated between the surfactant-alcohol bilayers). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report focusing on the formation of α-gel in gemini surfactant systems.

  12. Real-Time Monitoring for Toxicity Caused by Harmful Algal Blooms and Other Water Quality Perturbations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    cough rate) to detect developing toxic conditions in water. In laboratory tests, acutely toxic levels of brevetoxin (PbTx-2) and toxic Pfiesteria...piscicida cultures caused large increases in cough rate. In the field, the automated biomonitoring system operated continuously for 3 mo on the...surfactants released from inadequately rinsed particle filters produced another response. The other three events, characterized by greatly increased cough rate

  13. Threshold levels for toxic effects of sediment-associated PAHs on marine biota from urban and nonurban embayments of the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lomax, D.P.; Horness, B.H.; Johnson, L.L.; Landahl, J.T.; Varanasi, U. )

    1994-06-01

    The Environmental Conservation Division of the National Marine Fisheries Service has been conducting studies investigating the effects of marine pollution on the health of benthic fish since 1979. A large amount of data relating biological effects to exposure to sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exists as a result of the many field and laboratory studies conducted since this time. These effects include the presence of hepatic lesions, high biliary levels of PAH metabolites, elevated activity of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and include the presence of hepatic lesions, high biliary levels of PAH metabolites, elevated activity of hepatic xenobotic metabolizing enzymes and impaired reproductive success. A comprehensive analysis of these data was undertaken in an effort to estimate thresholds for concentrations of PAHs in sediment below which the effects previously describe did not occur. Our primary objectives were to determine: (1) at what levels of chemical contamination are thresholds observed for those species examined and (2) how our findings compare with the sediment quality standards of other agencies. Thresholds were determined with the Hockey Stick regression model. Our results show that most effects exhibit thresholds at 500-1000 ng/g, with slight variances among species due to differences in sensitivity. These values are considerably lower than standards derived from the Apparent Effects Threshold and other similar methods used for evaluating sediment toxicity. This approach yields significant insight into the impact of low level contamination and may provide a useful alternative for evaluating sediment quality within urban areas.

  14. Surfactant prevents quartz induced down-regulation of complement receptor 1 in human granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, G; Lundahl, J; Curstedt, T; Eklund, A

    1997-02-01

    Quartz is known to induce an inflammatory response in the alveolar space by recruitment of different effector cells. We investigated the interaction between granulocytes and quartz with respect to expression of complement receptor type 1 (CR1) and CR3, with and without the presence of surfactant. Granulocytes from hemolyzed blood were stimulated by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), which mobilize the intracellular pool of CR1 to the surface, and the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) measured by cytofluorometry was 47.4 (46-63.6) (median; interquartile range). Quartz exposure reduced the CR1 expression to 23.2 (22.8-30.6) MFI units (P < 0.01), a porcine surfactant preparation added during quartz exposure abolished the down-regulation completely, 47.7 (43.2-62.3) MFI units (P < 0.001). Similar results were obtained after preincubation of the cells with surfactant followed by quartz exposure. No significant influence on CR1 expression was found by a synthetic lipid mixture, nor was the CR3 expression affected. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the presence of surfactant inhibits quartz induced down-regulation of CR1 on activated granulocytes.

  15. Effects of graphene oxide nanosheets on the ultrastructure and biophysical properties of the pulmonary surfactant film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qinglin; Jiao, Bao; Shi, Xinghua; Valle, Russell P.; Zuo, Yi Y.; Hu, Guoqing

    2015-10-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is the most common derivative of graphene and has been used in a large range of biomedical applications. Despite considerable progress in understanding its cytotoxicity, its potential inhalation toxicity is still largely unknown. As the pulmonary surfactant (PS) film is the first line of host defense, interaction with the PS film determines the fate of the inhaled nanomaterials and their potential toxicity. Using a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model, we reported, for the first time, a novel mechanism of toxicity caused by the inhaled GO nanosheets. Upon deposition, the GO nanosheets induce pores in the PS film and thus have adverse effects on the ultrastructure and biophysical properties of the PS film. Notably, the pores induced by GO nanosheets result in increasing the compressibility of the PS film, which is an important indication of surfactant inhibition. In vitro experiments have also been conducted to study the interactions between GO and animal-derived natural PS films, qualitatively confirming the simulation results.Graphene oxide (GO) is the most common derivative of graphene and has been used in a large range of biomedical applications. Despite considerable progress in understanding its cytotoxicity, its potential inhalation toxicity is still largely unknown. As the pulmonary surfactant (PS) film is the first line of host defense, interaction with the PS film determines the fate of the inhaled nanomaterials and their potential toxicity. Using a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model, we reported, for the first time, a novel mechanism of toxicity caused by the inhaled GO nanosheets. Upon deposition, the GO nanosheets induce pores in the PS film and thus have adverse effects on the ultrastructure and biophysical properties of the PS film. Notably, the pores induced by GO nanosheets result in increasing the compressibility of the PS film, which is an important indication of surfactant inhibition. In vitro experiments have also been

  16. Adsorption and adsolubilization of polymerizable surfactants on aluminum oxide.

    PubMed

    Attaphong, Chodchanok; Asnachinda, Emma; Charoensaeng, Ampira; Sabatini, David A; Khaodhiar, Sutha

    2010-04-01

    Surfactant-based adsorption processes have been widely investigated for environmental applications. A major problem facing surfactant-modified adsorbents is surfactant loss from the adsorbent due to loss of monomers from solution and subsequent surfactant desorption. For this study, a bilayer of anionic polymerizable surfactant (Hitenol BC 05, Hitenol BC 10 and Hitenol BC 20) and non-polymerizable surfactant (Hitenol N 08) was adsorbed onto alumina. The results of adsorption studies showed that as the number of ethylene oxide (EO) groups of the surfactants increased, the area per molecule increased and the maximum adsorption decreased. The lowest maximum adsorption onto alumina was for Hitenol BC 20 (20 EO groups) corresponding to 0.08 mmol/g or 0.34 molecule/nm(2) while the highest level of adsorption was 0.30 mmol/g or 1.28 molecule/nm(2) for Hitenol BC 05 (5 EO groups). This variation in adsorption was attributed to the increased bulkiness of the head group with increasing number of EO groups. Relative to the adsolubilization capacity of organic solutes, ethylcyclohexane adsolubilizes more than styrene. Styrene and ethylcyclohexane adsolubilization were both independent of the number of EO groups of the surfactant. For surfactant desorption studies, the polymerization of polymerizable surfactants increased the stability of surfactants adsorbed onto the alumina surface and reduced surfactant desorption from the alumina surface. These results provide useful information on surfactant-based surface modification to enhance contaminant remediation and industrial applications.

  17. 2-DE using hemi-fluorinated surfactants.

    PubMed

    Starita-Geribaldi, Mireille; Thebault, Pascal; Taffin de Givenchy, Elisabeth; Guittard, Frederic; Geribaldi, Serge

    2007-07-01

    The synthesis of hemi-fluorinated zwitterionic surfactants was realized and assessed for 2-DE, a powerful separation method for proteomic analysis. These new fluorinated amidosulfobetaine (FASB-p,m) were compared to their hydrocarbon counterparts amidosulfobetaine (ASB-n) characterized by a hydrophilic polar head, a hydrophobic and lipophilic tail, and an amido group as connector. The tail of these FASB surfactants was in part fluorinated resulting in the modulation of its lipophilicity (or oleophobicity). Their effect on the red blood cell (RBC) membrane showed a specific solubilization depending on the length of the hydrophobic part. A large number of polypeptide spots appeared in the 2-DE patterns by using FASB-p,m. The oleophobic character of these surfactants was confirmed by the fact that Band 3, a highly hydrophobic transmembrane protein, was not solubilized by these fluorinated structures. The corresponding pellet was very rich in Band 3 and could then be solubilized by using a strong detergent such as amidosulfobetaine with an alkyl tail containing 14 carbon atoms (ASB-14). Thus, these hemi-fluorinated surfactants appeared as powerful tools when used at the first step of a two-step solubilization strategy using a hydrocarbon homologous surfactant in the second step.

  18. Rheology of Natural Lung Surfactant Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Coralie; Waring, Alan; Zsadzinski, Joseph

    2004-03-01

    The lung surfactant (LS) is a lipoprotein mixture lining the inside of the pulmonary alveoli which has the ability to lower the surface tension of the air-liquid hypophase interface to value near zero thus reducing the work of breathing and which also prevents the alveolar collapse. A lack or malfunction of lung surfactant, as it is often the case for premature infants, leads to respiratory distress syndrome. RDS can be treated by supplying replacement LS to the infants and several medications derived from natural sources, are now widely used. The lung surfactant is adsorbed at the air-liquid interface and is subjected to incessant compression expansion cycles therefore Langmuir monolayers provide a suitable model to investigate the physical properties of lung surfactant films. Using a magnetic needle rheometer, we measured the shear viscosity of natural lung surfactant spread at the air-liquid interface upon compression and expansion cycles for three different formulations. The shear viscosity of Survanta changes by orders of magnitude along one cycle while for Curosurf samples it changes only slightly and for Infasurf films it remains constant. These different behaviors can be explained by differences in composition between the three formulations leading to different organizations on the molecular scale.

  19. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-10-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Simulation studies indicate that both wettability alteration and gravity-driven flow play significant role in oil recovery from fractured carbonates. Anionic surfactants (Alfoterra 35, 38) recover about 55% of the oil in about 150 days by imbibition driven by wettability alteration and low tension in the core-scale. Anionic surfactant, Alfoterra-68, recovers about 40% of the oil by lower tension aided gravity-driven imbibition in the core-scale. Cationic surfactant, DTAB recovers about 35% of the oil. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.

  20. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-03-31

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (Alfoterra 35, 38) recover more than 40% of the oil in about 50 days by imbibition driven by wettability alteration in the core-scale. Anionic surfactant, Alfoterra-68, recovers about 28% of the oil by lower tension aided gravity-driven imbibition in the core-scale. Residual oil saturation showed little capillary number dependence between 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -2}. Wettability alteration increases as the number of ethoxy groups increases in ethoxy sulfate surfactants. Plans for the next quarter include conducting mobilization, and imbibition studies.

  1. Foaming behaviour of polymer surfactant solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Martínez, Alfredo; Maldonado, Amir

    2007-06-01

    We study the effect of a non-ionic amphiphilic polymer (PEG-100 stearate also called Myrj 59) on the foaming behaviour of aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate or SDS). The SDS concentration was kept fixed while the Myrj 59 concentration was varied. Measurements of foamability, surface tension and electrical conductivity were carried out. The results show two opposite effects depending on the polymer concentration: foamability is higher when the Myrj 59 concentration is low; however, it decreases considerably when the polymer concentration is increased. This behaviour is due to the polymer adsorption at the air/liquid interface at lower polymer concentrations, and to the formation of a polymer-surfactant complex in the bulk at higher concentrations. The results are confirmed by surface tension and electrical conductivity measurements, which are interpreted in terms of the microstructure of the polymer-surfactant solutions. The observed behaviour is due to the amphiphilic nature of the studied polymer. The increased hydrophobicity of Myrj 59, compared to that of water-soluble polymers like PEG or PEO, increases its 'reactivity' towards SDS, i.e. the strength of its interaction with this anionic surfactant. Our results show that hydrophobically modified polymers have potential applications as additives in order to control the foaming properties of surfactant solutions.

  2. Analysis of supercooling activities of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Chikako; Terauchi, Ryuji; Tochigi, Hiroshi; Takaoka, Hisao; Arakawa, Keita; Fujikawa, Seizo

    2014-08-01

    Supercooling-promoting activities (SCAs) of 25 kinds of surfactants including non-ionic, anionic, cationic and amphoteric types were examined in solutions (buffered Milli-Q water, BMQW) containing the ice nucleation bacterium (INB) Erwinia ananas, silver iodide (AgI) or BMQW alone, which unintentionally contained unidentified ice nucleators, by a droplet freezing assay. Most of the surfactants exhibited SCA in solutions containing AgI but not in solutions containing the INB E. ananas or BMQW alone. SCAs of many surfactants in solutions containing AgI were very high compared with those of previously reported supercooling-promoting substances. Cationic surfactants, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (C16TAB) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (C16TAC), at concentrations of 0.01% (w/v) exhibited SCA of 11.8 °C, which is the highest SCA so far reported. These surfactants also showed high SCAs at very low concentrations in solutions containing AgI. C16TAB exhibited SCA of 5.7 °C at a concentration of 0.0005% (w/v).

  3. Surface shear inviscidity of soluble surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Zell, Zachary A.; Nowbahar, Arash; Mansard, Vincent; Leal, L. Gary; Deshmukh, Suraj S.; Mecca, Jodi M.; Tucker, Christopher J.; Squires, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Foam and emulsion stability has long been believed to correlate with the surface shear viscosity of the surfactant used to stabilize them. Many subtleties arise in interpreting surface shear viscosity measurements, however, and correlations do not necessarily indicate causation. Using a sensitive technique designed to excite purely surface shear deformations, we make the most sensitive and precise measurements to date of the surface shear viscosity of a variety of soluble surfactants, focusing on SDS in particular. Our measurements reveal the surface shear viscosity of SDS to be below the sensitivity limit of our technique, giving an upper bound of order 0.01 μN·s/m. This conflicts directly with almost all previous studies, which reported values up to 103–104 times higher. Multiple control and complementary measurements confirm this result, including direct visualization of monolayer deformation, for SDS and a wide variety of soluble polymeric, ionic, and nonionic surfactants of high- and low-foaming character. No soluble, small-molecule surfactant was found to have a measurable surface shear viscosity, which seriously undermines most support for any correlation between foam stability and surface shear rheology of soluble surfactants. PMID:24563383

  4. Surfactant apoprotein in nonmalignant pulmonary disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, G.; Katyal, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lungs exhibiting a variety of nonmalignant disorders were studied by immunoperoxidase staining using antibodies specific for surfactant apoprotein, IgG, IgM, IgA, albumin, fibrinogen, and lysozyme. Normal Type II pneumocytes showed staining for surfactant apoprotein in the perinuclear region only. The extent and intensity of staining for apoprotein was markedly increased in reactive Type II pneumocytes. This increase appeared to be a nonspecific reaction to lung injury. The intra-alveolar material in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis stained intensely for surfactant apoprotein, indicating that the accumulated proteinaceous material contained pulmonary surfactant. Type II pneumocytes in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis exhibited hyperplasia as well as hypertrophy. The few macrophages in lung affected by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis stained intensely for lysozyme. The excessive intraalveolar accumulation of proteinaceous material in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis may be the result of both an over-production as well as a deficient removal of pulmonary surfactant. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 p[57]-a PMID:7004201

  5. Surfactant remediation of diesel fuel polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Khalladi, Razika; Benhabiles, Ouassila; Bentahar, Fatiha; Moulai-Mostefa, Naji

    2009-05-30

    Soil contamination with petroleum hydrocarbons has caused critical environmental and health defects and increasing attention has been paid for developing innovative technology for cleaning up this contamination. In this work, the washing process of a soil column by ionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was investigated. Water flow rate and the contamination duration (age) have been studied. The performance of water in the removal of diesel fuel was found to be non-negligible, while water contributed by 24.7% in the global elimination of n-alkanes. The effect of SDS is significant beyond a concentration of 8mM. After 4h of treatment with surfactant solution, the diesel soil content remains constant, which shows the existence of a necessary contact time needed to the surfactant to be efficient. The soil washing process at a rate of 3.2 mL/min has removed 97% of the diesel fuel. This surfactant soil remediation process was shown to be governed by the first-order kinetics. These results are of practical interest in developing effective surfactant remediation technology of diesel fuel contaminated soils.

  6. Surfactant effects on SF6 hydrate formation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Ram; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Hyun Ju; Ryu, Young Bok; Lee, Man Sig; Kim, Young Seok; Englezos, Peter; Kim, Myung Hyun; Kim, Yang Do

    2009-03-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) has been widely used in a variety of industrial processes, but it is one of the most potent greenhouse gases. For this reason, it is necessary to separate or collect it from waste gas streams. One separation method is through hydrate crystal formation. In this study, SF(6) hydrate was formed in aqueous surfactant solutions of 0.00, 0.01, 0.05, 0.15 and 0.20 wt% to investigate the effects of surfactants on the hydrate formation rates. Three surfactants, Tween 20 (Tween), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LABS), were tested in a semi-batch stirred vessel at the constant temperature and pressures of 276.2 K and 0.78 MPa, respectively. All surfactants showed kinetic promoter behavior for SF(6) hydrate formation. It was also found that SF(6) hydrate formation proceeded in two stages with the second stage being the most rapid. In situ Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that the increased gas consumption rate with the addition of surfactant was possibly due to the increased gas filling rate in the hydrate cavity.

  7. SEDIMENT TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sediment contamination in the United States has been amply documented and, in order to comply with the 1972 Clean Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency must address the issue of toxic sediments. Contaminated sediments from a number of freshwater and marine sites have demonstrated acute and/or chronic toxicity to a variety of test species, as well as adverse ecological effects such as population declines and changes in community structure. However, simply knowing that a sediment is toxic has limited use. This document provides guidance on the performance of sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE). TIE methods allow for the identification of toxic chemicals or chemical classes causing observed toxicity. The identification of pollutants responsible for toxicity of contaminated sediments has broad application in a number of EPA programs as the methods can be used within the total maximum daily load (TMDL) framework, to link sediment toxicity to specific dischargers, to design cost-effective remediation programs, and to identify environmentally protective options for dredged material disposal. In addition, the identification of specific problem contaminants in sediments could prove to be very useful to EPA programs involved in the development of water or sediment quality guidelines, and the registration of new products such as pesticides. Finally, knowledge of the causes of toxicity that influence ecological changes such as community struc

  8. Lycopene recovery from tomato peel under mild conditions assisted by enzymatic pre-treatment and non-ionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Emmanouil H; Karabelas, Anastasios J

    2012-01-01

    The tomato processing industry generates large quantities of tomato peel residues, usually creating environmental problems. These residues are a significant source of lycopene, thus providing an attractive alternative for profitable handling of these otherwise problematic by-products. The enzymatic pretreatment of these residues for lycopene recovery has already been employed, although the use of surfactants for enhancing the recovery has not been examined so far. The enzymatic pretreatment of tomato peels, using two commercially available pectinolytic enzyme preparations, was evaluated suggesting that there is an optimum pretreatment time of about 1 h, enzyme amount 250 Units/mL and no significant pH influence. Lycopene surfactant - assisted extraction was further investigated, showing that, among eight surfactants used, the most suitable was "Span 20", with an optimum ratio of 6-7 surfactant molecules per lycopene molecule. Sequential enzymatic pretreatment and surfactant-assisted extraction (30 min for each step) was evaluated leading to an improved lycopene extraction yield, with a somewhat smaller surfactant molar ratio (i.e. 4-5). In the latter case, the yield of lycopene recovery was almost four times greater compared to just 1 hr enzymatic pretreatment, and was approximately ten times greater compared to the recovery from untreated peels. Furthermore, such lipophilic compound recovery, avoiding the use of organic solvents, is environmentally attractive and ensures direct lycopene use in the food and cosmetics industries.

  9. Toxic Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Barohn, Richard J.; Dimachkie, Mazen M.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle tissue is highly sensitive to many substances. Early recognition of toxic myopathies is important, as they potentially are reversible on removal of the offending drug or toxin, with greater likelihood of complete resolution the sooner this is achieved. Clinical features range from mild muscle pain and cramps to severe weakness with rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, and even death. The pathogenic bases can be multifactorial. This article reviews some of the common toxic myopathies and their clinical presentation, histopathologic features and possible underlying cellular mechanisms. PMID:25037083

  10. Fullerene surfactants and their use in polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jen, Kwan-Yue; Yip, Hin-Lap; Li, Chang-Zhi

    2015-12-15

    Fullerene surfactant compounds useful as interfacial layer in polymer solar cells to enhance solar cell efficiency. Polymer solar cell including a fullerene surfactant-containing interfacial layer intermediate cathode and active layer.

  11. Synthesis of mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite by using zwitterions surfactant

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite (mn-HAP) was successfully synthesized via a novel micelle-templating method using lauryl dimethylaminoacetic acid as zwitterionic surfactant. The systematic use of such a surfactant in combination with microwave energy inputenables the precise contr...

  12. Surfactant ionic liquid-based microemulsions for polymerization.

    PubMed

    Yan, Feng; Texter, John

    2006-07-05

    Surfactants based on imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs), including polymerizable surfactant ILs, have been synthesized and used to stabilize polymerizable microemulsions useful for producing polymer nanoparticles, gels, and open-cell porous materials.

  13. Lyotropic liquid crystal to soft mesocrystal transformation in hydrated salt-surfactant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Cemal; Barım, Gözde; Dag, Ömer

    2013-10-25

    Hydrated CaCl2, LiI, and MgCl2 salts induce self-assembly in nonionic surfactants (such as C12H25(OCH2CH2)10OH) to form lyotropic liquid-crystalline (LLC) mesophases that undergo a phase transition to a new type of soft mesocrystal (SMC) under ambient conditions. The SMC samples can be obtained by aging the LLC samples, which were prepared as thin films by spin-coating, dip-coating, or drop-casting of a clear homogenized solution of water, salt, and surfactant over a substrate surface. The LLC mesophase exists up to a salt/surfactant mole ratio of 8, 10, and 4 (corresponding to 59, 68, and 40 wt% salt/surfactant) in the CaCl2, LiI, and MgCl2 mesophases, respectively. The SMC phase can transform back to a LLC mesophase at a higher relative humidity. The phase transformations have been monitored using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), polarized optical microscopy (POM), and FTIR techniques. The LLC mesophases only diffract at small angles, but the SMCs diffract at both small and wide angles. The broad surfactant features in the FTIR spectra of the LLC mesophases become sharp and well resolved upon SMC formation. The unit cell of the mesophases expands upon SMC transformation, in which the expansion is largest in the MgCl2 and smallest in the CaCl2 systems. The POM images of the SMCs display birefringent textures with well-defined edges, similar to crystals. However, the surface of the crystals is highly patterned, like buckling patterns, which indicates that these crystals are quite soft. This unusual phase behavior could be beneficial in designing new soft materials in the fields of phase-changing materials and mesostructured materials, and it demonstrates the richness of the phase behavior in the salt-surfactant mesophases.

  14. Recent progress of the characterization of oppositely charged polymer/surfactant complex in dilution deposition system.

    PubMed

    Miyake, M

    2017-01-01

    A mixture of oppositely charged polymer and surfactants changes the solubilized state, having a complex precipitation region at the composition of electric neutralization. This complex behavior has been applied to surface modification in the fields of health care and cosmetic products such as conditioning shampoos, as a dilution-deposition system in which the polymer/surfactant mixture at the higher surfactant concentration precipitates the insoluble complex by dilution. A large number of studies over many years have revealed the basic coacervation behavior and physicochemical properties of complexes. However, the mechanism by which a precipitated complex performs surface modification is not well understood. The precipitation region and the morphology of precipitated complex that are changed by molecular structure and additives affect the performance. Hydrophilic groups such as the EO unit in polymers and surfactants, the mixing of nonionic or amphoteric surfactant and nonionic polymer, and the addition of low polar solvent influence the complex precipitation region. Furthermore, the morphology of precipitated complex is formed by crosslinking and aggregating among polymers in the dilution process, and characterizes the performance of products. The polymer chain density in precipitated complex is determined by the charges of both the polymer and surfactant micelle and the conformation of polymer. As a result, the morphology of precipitated complexes is changed from a closely packed film to looser meshes, and/or to small particles, and it is possible for the morphology to control the rheological properties and the amount of adsorbed silicone. In the future, further investigation of the relationships between the morphology and performance is needed.

  15. Multilayering of Surfactant Systems at the Air-Dilute Aqueous Solution Interface.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Robert K; Penfold, Jeffrey

    2015-07-14

    In the last 15 years there have been a number of observations of surfactants adsorbed at the air-water interface with structures more complicated than the expected single monolayer. These observations, mostly made by neutron or X-ray reflectivity, show structures varying from the usual monolayer to monolayer plus one or two additional bilayers to multilayer adsorption at the surface. These observations have been assembled in this article with a view to finding some common features between the very different systems and to relating them to aspects of the bulk solution phase behavior. It is argued that multilayering is primarily associated with wetting or prewetting of the air-water interface by phases in the bulk system, whose structures depend on an overall attractive force between the constituent units. Two such phases, whose formation is assumed to be partially driven by strong specific ion binding, are a concentrated lamellar phase that forms at low concentrations and a swollen lamellar phase that is not space-filling. Multilayering phenomena at the air-water interface then offer a delicate and easy means of studying the finer details of the incompletely understood attraction that leads to these two phases, as well as an interesting new means of self-assembling surface structures. In addition, multilayering is often associated with unusual wetting characteristics. Examples of systems discussed, and in some cases their bulk phase behavior, include surfactants with multivalent metal counterions, surfactants with oligomers and polymers, surfactant with hydrophobin, dichain surfactants, lung surfactant, and the unusual system of ethanolamine and stearic acid. Two situations where the air-water surface is deliberately held out of equilibrium are also assessed for features in common with the steady-state/equilibrium observations.

  16. Nanotube Dispersions Made With Charged Surfactant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuper, Cynthia; Kuzma, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Dispersions (including monodispersions) of nanotubes in water at relatively high concentrations have been formulated as prototypes of reagents for use in making fibers, films, and membranes based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Other than water, the ingredients of a dispersion of this type include one or more charged surfactant(s) and carbon nanotubes derived from the HiPco(TradeMark) (or equivalent) process. Among reagents known to be made from HiPco(TradeMark)(or equivalent) SWNTs, these are the most concentrated and are expected to be usable in processing of bulk structures and materials. Test data indicate that small bundles of SWNTs and single SWNTs at concentrations up to 1.1 weight percent have been present in water plus surfactant. This development is expected to contribute to the growth of an industry based on applied carbon nanotechnology. There are expected to be commercial applications in aerospace, avionics, sporting goods, automotive products, biotechnology, and medicine.

  17. Recent Food Applications of Microbial Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Marcia; Silva, Sumária Sousa E

    2016-07-20

    During last years the interest on microbial surfactants or biosurfactants has gained attention due to their natural origin and environmental compatibility. These characteristics fulfill the demand of regulatory agencies and society to use of more sustained and green chemicals. Microbial-derived surfactants can replace synthetic surfactants in a great variety of industrial applications as detergents, foaming, emulsifiers, solubilizers and wetting agents. Change in trend of consumers to natural from synthetic additives and also the increasing health and environmental concerns creating demand for new "green" additives in food. Apart from their inherent surface-active properties, BS have been shown antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against food pathogens; therefore, BS can be versatile additives or ingredients for food processing. These interesting applications will be discussed in this review.

  18. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1992-01-01

    A phase 2 study was initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This publication covers the first quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: the refurbishment of the high-pressure, high-temperature reactor autoclave, the completion of four coal liquefaction runs with Pittsburgh #8 coal, two each with and without sodium lignosulfonate surfactant, and the development of an analysis scheme for the product liquid filtrate and filter cake. Initial results at low reactor temperatures show that the addition of the surfactant produces an improvement in conversion yields and an increase in lighter boiling point fractions for the filtrate.

  19. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1993-01-01

    A phase 2 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois number 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350 C, and pressures of 1800 psig; analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run; and correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

  20. Amphitropic liquid crystal phases from polyhydroxy sugar surfactants: Fundamental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Zied, Osama K.; Hashim, Rauzah; Timimi, B. A.

    2015-03-01

    The self-assembly phenomena on a special class of poly-hydroxy sugar surfactant have been studied extensively. This class of material is classified as amphitropic liquid crystals since they exhibit both thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystalline properties. Hence the potential applications of these non-ionic surfactants are more versatile than those from the conventional lyotropic liquid crystals including those from thermotropic phases, but the latters are yet to be realized. Unfortunately, due to the lack of interest (or even awareness), fundamental studies in thermotropic glycolipids are scanty to support application development, and any tangible progress is often mired by the complexity of the sugar stereochemistry. However, some applications may be pursued from these materials by taking the advantage of the sugar chirality and the tilted structure of the lipid organization which implies ferroelectric behavior. Here, we present our studies on the stereochemical diversity of the sugar units in glycosides that form the thermotropic/lyotropic phases. The structure to property relationship compares different chain designs and other popular polyhydroxy compounds, such as monooleins and alkylpolyglucosides. Different structural properties of these glycosides are discussed with respect to their self-assembly organization and potential applications, such as delivery systems and membrane mimetic study.

  1. Drops in Space: Super Oscillations and Surfactant Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apfel, Robert E.; Tian, Yuren; Jankovsky, Joseph; Shi, Tao; Chen, X.; Holt, R. Glynn; Trinh, Eugene; Croonquist, Arvid; Thornton, Kathyrn C.; Sacco, Albert, Jr.; Coleman, Catherine; Leslie, Fred W.; Matthiesen, David H.

    1996-01-01

    An unprecedented microgravity observation of maximal shape oscillations of a surfactant-bearing water drop the size of a ping pong ball was observed during a mission of Space Shuttle Columbia as part of the second United States Microgravity Laboratory-USML-2 (STS-73, October 20-November 5, 1995). The observation was precipitated by the action of an intense sound field which produced a deforming force on the drop. When this deforming force was suddenly reduced, the drop executed nearly free and axisymmetric oscillations for several cycles, demonstrating a remarkable amplitude of nonlinear motion. Whether arising from the discussion of modes of oscillation of the atomic nucleus, or the explosion of stars, or how rain forms, the complex processes influencing the motion, fission, and coalescence of drops have fascinated scientists for centuries. Therefore, the axisymmetric oscillations of a maximally deformed liquid drop are noteworthy, not only for their scientific value but also for their aesthetic character. Scientists from Yale University, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Vanderbilt University conducted liquid drop experiments in microgravity using the acoustic positioning/manipulation environment of the Drop Physics Module (DPM). The Yale/JPL group's objectives were to study the rheological properties of liquid drop surfaces on which are adsorbed surfactant molecules, and to infer surface properties such as surface tension, Gibb's elasticity, and surface dilatational viscosity by using a theory which relies on spherical symmetry to solve the momentum and mass transport equations.

  2. [Comprehensive Toxicity Evaluation and Toxicity Identification Used in Tannery and Textile Wastewaters].

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Chen, Wen-yan; Wan, Yu-shan; Zheng, Guo-juan; Zhao, Yuan; Cai, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    To better evaluate the toxicity of tannery and textile effluents from various emission stages, the research attempted battery of toxicological bioassays and toxicological indices. The bioassays employed Microtox test, zebra fish embryo-larval test and algae (Chlorella vulgaris) test. Meanwhile, toxicological indices including Toxicity Unit (TU), Average Toxicity (AvTx), Toxic Print (TxPr), Most Sensitive Test (MST) and Potential Ecotoxic Effects Probe (PEEP) were applied. The results illustrated that PEEP was the most comprehensive index to take account of the emissions and toxic potential of effluents. PEEP values showed that the reduction rates of toxicity in tannery and textile effluents were 36. 8% and 23. 2%, respectively. Finally, based on the Microtox toxicity test, toxicants in textile effluent were identified through the toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies. The results indicated that the main toxicant of textile effluent was non-polar organic pollutants, followed by filterable compounds, heavy metals, oxidizing substances and volatile components.

  3. Exogenous surfactant restores lung function but not peripheral immunosuppression in ventilated surfactant-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Vreugdenhil, Harriet A; Lachmann, Burkhard; Haitsma, Jack J; Zijlstra, Jitske; Heijnen, Cobi J; Jansen, Nicolaas J; van Vught, Adrianus J

    2006-01-01

    The authors have previously shown that mechanical ventilation can result in increased pulmonary inflammation and suppressed peripheral leukocyte function. In the present study the effect of surfactant therapy on pulmonary inflammation and peripheral immune function in ventilated surfactant-deficient rats was assessed. Surfactant deficiency was induced by repeated lung lavage, treated rats with surfactant or left them untreated, and ventilated the rats during 2 hours. Nonventilated rats served as healthy control group. Expression of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), interleukin (IL)-1beta, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) were measured in total lung homogenates. Outside the lung phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced lymphocyte proliferation, interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-10 production, and natural killer activity were measured in splenocytes. After 2 hours of mechanical ventilation, expression of MIP-2, IL-1beta, and HSP70 increased significantly in the lungs of surfactant-deficient rats. Outside the lung, mitogen-induced proliferation and production of IFN-gamma and IL-10 reduced significantly. Only natural killer cell activity remained unaffected. Surfactant treatment significantly improved lung function, but could not prevent increased pulmonary expression of MIP-2, IL-1beta, and HSP70 and decreased peripheral mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma and IL-10 production in vitro. In conclusion, 2 hours of mechanical ventilation resulted in increased lung inflammation and partial peripheral leukocyte suppression in surfactant-deficient rats. Surfactant therapy ameliorated lung function but could not prevent or restore peripheral immunosuppression. The authors postulate that peripheral immunosuppression may occur in ventilated surfactant deficient patients, which may enhance susceptibility for infections.

  4. Dynamic properties of cationic diacyl-glycerol-arginine-based surfactant/phospholipid mixtures at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Neus; Pinazo, Aurora; Pérez, Lourdes; Pons, Ramon

    2010-02-16

    In this Article, we study the binary surface interactions of 1,2-dimyristoyl-rac-glycero-3-O-(N(alpha)-acetyl-L-arginine) hydrochloride (1414RAc) with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) on 0.1 M sodium chloride solutions. 1414RAc is a novel monocationic surfactant that has potential applications as an antimicrobial agent, is biodegradable, and shows a toxicity activity smaller than that of other commercial cationic surfactants. DPPC phospholipid was used as a model membrane component. The dynamic surface tension of 1414RAc/DPPC aqueous dispersions injected into the saline subphase was followed by tensiometry. The layer formation for the mixtures is always accelerated with respect to DPPC, and surprisingly, the surface tension reduction is faster and reaches lower surface tension values at surfactant concentration below its critical micellar concentration (cmc). Interfacial dilational rheology properties of mixed films spread on the air/water interface were determined by the dynamic oscillation method using a Langmuir trough. The effect of surfactant mole fraction on the rheological parameters of 1414RAc/DPPC mixed monolayers was studied at a relative amplitude of area deformation of 5% and a frequency of 50 mHz. The monolayer viscoelasticity shows a nonideal mixing behavior with predominance of the surfactant properties. This nonideal behavior has been attributed to the prevalence of electrostatic interactions.

  5. Physical Properties and Biological Activity of Poly(butyl acrylate–styrene) Nanoparticle Emulsions Prepared with Conventional and Polymerizable Surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Garay-Jimenez, Julio C.; Gergeres, Danielle; Young, Ashley; Dickey, Sonja; Lim, Daniel V.; Turos, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Recent efforts in our laboratory have explored the use of polyacrylate nanoparticles in aqueous media as stable emulsions for potential applications in treating drug-resistant bacterial infections. These emulsions are made by emulsion polymerization of acrylated antibiotic compounds in a mixture of butyl acrylate and styrene (7:3 w:w) using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a surfactant. Prior work in our group established that the emulsions required purification to remove toxicity associated with extraneous surfactant present in the media. This paper summarizes our investigations of poly(butyl acrylate-styrene) emulsions made using anionic, cationic, zwitterionic, and non-charged (amphiphilic) surfactants, as well as attachable surfactant monomers (surfmers), comparing the cytotoxicity and microbiological activity levels of the emulsion both before and after purification. Our results show that the attachment of a polymerizable surfmer onto the matrix of the nanoparticle neither improves nor diminishes cytotoxic or antibacterial effects of the emulsion, regardless of whether the emulsions are purified or not, and that the optimal properties are associated with the use of the non-ionic surfactants versus those carrying anionic, cationic, or zwitterionic charge. Incorporation of an N-thiolated β-lactam antibacterial agent onto the nanoparticle matrix via covalent attachment endows the emulsion with antibiotic properties against pathogenic bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), without changing the physical properties of the nanoparticles or their emulsions. PMID:19523413

  6. Adhesion of latex films. Influence of surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Charmeau, J.Y.; Kientz, E.; Holl, Y.

    1996-12-31

    In the applications of film forming latexes in paint, paper, coating, adhesive, textile industries, one of the most important property of latex films is adhesion onto a support. From the point of view of adhesion, latex films have two specificities. The first one arises from the particular structure of the film which is usually not homogeneous but retains to a certain extent the memory of the particles it was made from. These structure effects are clearly apparent when one compares mechanical or adhesion properties of pure latex films and of films of the same polymers but prepared from a solution. Latex films show higher Young`s moduli and lower adhesion properties than solution films. The second specificity of latex films comes from the presence of the surfactant which was used in the synthesis and as stabilizer for the latex. Most industrial latexes contain low amounts of surfactant, typically in the range 0.1 to 2-3 wt%. However, being usually incompatible with the polymer, the surfactant is not homogeneously distributed in the film. It tends to segregate towards the film-air or film-support interfaces or to form domains in the bulk of the film. Distribution of surfactants in latex films has been studied by several authors. The influence of the surfactant on adhesion, as well as on other properties, is thus potentially very important. This article presents the results of the authors investigation of surfactant effects on adhesion properties of latex films. To the authors knowledge, there is no other example, in the open literature, of this kind of study.

  7. Effect of surfactants on properties of soap-based greases

    SciTech Connect

    Fuks, I.G.

    1983-07-01

    Surfactants often influence the susceptibility of the grease to additives. This paper considers ways to improve the effectiveness of surfactant additives by the use of additive packages. The mechanism of surfactant action in forming grease structures are elucidated, and methods for preventing grease softening are established. The softening effect of surfactants is explained in part by retardation of the initial stages of the structurization i.e., association and micelle formation.

  8. Surfactant-Polymer Interaction for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Gabitto, Jorge; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2002-01-07

    The goal of this research was to use the interaction between a surfactant and a polymer for efficient displacement of tertiary oil by improving slug integrity, oil solubility in the displacing fluid and mobility control. Surfactant-polymer flooding has been shown to be highly effective in laboratory-scale linear floods. The focus of this proposal is to design an inexpensive surfactant-polymer mixture that can efficiently recover tertiary oil by avoiding surfactant slug degradation and viscous/heterogeneity fingering.

  9. Toxic remediation

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Stephen M.; Schonberg, Russell G.; Fadness, David R.

    1994-01-01

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  10. Control of acid mine drainage using surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    This news sheet describes US Bureau of Mines work on the reduction or prevention of acid mine drainage from coal refuse piles and surface mines by inhibiting the growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. It has been found that the direct application of a dilute surfactant or detergent solution to coal refuse piles or overburden can be an effective preventive measure or can reduce water treatment costs by controlling acid drainage at its source. Of the anionic surfactants tested to date, sodium lauryl sulphate appears to be the most effective. Alpha olefin sulphonate and alkyl benzene sulphonate are acceptable alternatives. The results of field trials are presented.

  11. Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A

    2012-08-07

    We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants.

  12. Aquatic toxicity of triclosan.

    PubMed

    Orvos, David R; Versteeg, Donald J; Inauen, Josef; Capdevielle, Marie; Rothenstein, Arthur; Cunningham, Virginia

    2002-07-01

    The aquatic toxicity of triclosan (TCS), a chlorinated biphenyl ether used as an antimicrobial in consumer products, was studied with activated-sludge microorganisms, algae, invertebrates, and fish. Triclosan, a compound used for inhibiting microbial growth, was not toxic to wastewater microorganisms at concentrations less than aqueous solubility. The 48-h Daphnia magna median effective concentration (EC50) was 390 microg/L and the 96-h median lethal concentration values for Pimephales promelas and Lepomis macrochirus were 260 and 370 microg/L, respectively. A no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect concentration of 34.1 microg/L and 71.3 microg/L, respectively, were determined with an early life-stage toxicity test with Oncorhynchus mykiss. During a 96-h Scenedesmus study, the 96-h biomass EC50 was 1.4 microg/L and the 96-h NOEC was 0.69 microg/L. Other algae and Lemna also were investigated. Bioconcentration was assessed with Danio rerio. The average TCS accumulation factor over the five-week test period was 4,157 at 3 microg/L and 2,532 at 30 microg/L. Algae were determined to be the most susceptible organisms. Toxicity of a TCS-containing wastewater secondary effluent to P. promelas and Ceriodaphnia was evaluated and no observed differences in toxicity between control and TCS-treated laboratory units were detected. The neutral form of TCS was determined to be associated with toxic effects. Ionization and sorption will mitigate those effects in the aquatic compartment.

  13. Effects of selected surfactants on soil microbial activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surfactants (surface-active agents) facilitate and accentuate the emulsifying, dispersing, spreading, and wetting properties of liquids. Surfactants are used in industry to reduce the surface tension of liquid and to solubilize compounds. For agricultural pest management, surfactants are an import...

  14. Development of toxicant identification procedures for whole sediment toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, D.R.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Besser, J.M.; Ankley, G.T.; Norberg-King, T.J.; West, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    To effectively assess and manage contaminated sediments, identifying the specific contaminants responsible for sediment toxicity is highly desirable. Though effective toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods are well established for water column toxicity, new TIE methodologies are needed that address the special characteristics of whole sediment toxicity tests. Much of the effort to date has focused on the assessment of ammonia toxicity. Whereas pH manipulation is a key tool used to characterize ammonia toxicity in water column TIE, control of pH in interstitial water is much more challenging. Direct addition of hard acid has shown undesirable side effects (e.g., liberation and oxidation of iron), while CO{sub 2}-enrichment is limited in penetration of fine-grained sediments. Biological buffers (MES and POPSO) incorporated into the sediment are effective at altering interstitial pH without causing direct toxicity to Chironomus tentans, Lumbriculus variegatus, and to a lesser extent Hyalella azteca, but the range of pH control achieved has been small ({+-} 0.5 units). Introduction of aquatic plants reduces ammonia concentrations in the water column, but may not provide sufficient control of interstitial water. To date, the most promising results have been achieved using zeolite; adding zeolite to sediment produces moderate reductions in interstitial ammonia concentrations and is non-toxic to the organisms referenced above. Attempts to induce microbial removal of ammonia have been unsuccessful thus far. This presentation will review these and other sediment TIE methods currently under development in laboratories.

  15. Rosin Surfactant QRMAE Can Be Utilized as an Amorphous Aggregate Inducer: A Case Study of Mammalian Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Ishtikhar, Mohd; Chandel, Tajjali Ilm; Ahmad, Aamir; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Al-lohadan, Hamad A.; Atta, Ayman M.; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary amine of diethylaminoethyl rosin ester (QRMAE), chemically synthesized biocompatible rosin based cationic surfactant, has various biological applications including its use as a food product additive. In this study, we examined the amorphous aggregation behavior of mammalian serum albumins at pH 7.5, i.e., two units above their isoelectric points (pI ~5.5), and the roles played by positive charge and hydrophobicity of exogenously added rosin surfactant QRMAE. The study was carried out on five mammalian serum albumins, using various spectroscopic methods, dye binding assay, circular dichroism and electron microscopy. The thermodynamics of the binding of mammalian serum albumins to cationic rosin modified surfactant were established using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). It was observed that a suitable molar ratio of protein to QRMAE surfactant enthusiastically induces amorphous aggregate formation at a pH above two units of pI. Rosin surfactant QRMAE-albumins interactions revealed a unique interplay between the initial electrostatic and the subsequent hydrophobic interactions that play an important role towards the formation of hydrophobic interactions-driven amorphous aggregate. Amorphous aggregation of proteins is associated with varying diseases, from the formation of protein wine haze to the expansion of the eye lenses in cataract, during the expression and purification of recombinant proteins. This study can be used for the design of novel biomolecules or drugs with the ability to neutralize factor(s) responsible for the aggregate formation, in addition to various other industrial applications. PMID:26418451

  16. Protolytic Equilibria of Sartans in Micellar Solutions of Differently Charged Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Grujić, Maja; Popović, Marija; Popović, Gordana; Nikolic, Katarina; Agbaba, Danica

    2016-08-01

    Protolytic equilibria of irbesartan, losartan, and valsartan have been investigated in the presence and absence of differently charged anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate), cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide), and nonionic (4-octylphenol polyethoxylate and polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether) surfactants. Ionization constants were determined by potentiometric titration at a constant ionic strength (0.1 M NaCl) and temperature 25°C. The effect of surfactants was estimated, based on a shift in apparent ionization constants (pKa(app)) determined in micellar solutions against the pKa(w) values in water. The anionic surfactant caused an increase in the pKa(app) values of sartans (up to 1.72 pK units), while the cationic surfactant had an opposite effect and caused a reduction in pKa(app) values (up to -1.44 pK units). These results point out to the fact that the ionizable groups of sartans are involved in electrostatic interactions with the charged surface of the ionic micelles. Shift in the pKa(app) values in the presence of nonionic surfactants (from -0.86 to +1.30) is a consequence of the interactions of drugs with the hydrophilic palisade layer. Significant changes in the distribution profiles of the equilibrium forms (from -44% to +80%) are observed at the biopharmaceutically important pH 4.5 value and can be considered in terms of the potential influence on intestinal absorption and bioavailability.

  17. Cadmium toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Lichuan; Zhang, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is a well-known environmental pollutant with distinctly toxic effects on plants. It can displace certain essential metals from a wealth of metalloproteins, and thus disturb many normal physiological processes and cause severe developmental aberrant. The harmful effects of cadmium stress include, but are not limited to: reactive oxygen species overproduction, higher lipid hydroperoxide contents, and chloroplast structure change, which may lead to cell death. Plants have developed diverse mechanisms to alleviate environmental cadmium stress, e.g., cadmium pump and transporting cadmium into the leaf vacuoles. This mini-review focuses on the current research into understanding the cellular mechanisms of cadmium toxicity on cytoskeleton, vesicular trafficking and cell wall formation in plants. PMID:22499203

  18. SURFACTANT FLUSH: HOW WELL DID IT WORK?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Oklahoma Corporation Commission through a contract with Surbec-Art, Inc. of Norman Oklahoma has remediated TPH contamination at a gasoline spill at Golden, Oklahoma. Residual gasoline was removed from the subsurface using a flush of surfactant, followed by in situ bioremedia...

  19. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-10-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the best hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (35-62% OOIP) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Core-scale simulation results match those of the experiments. Initial capillarity-driven imbibition gives way to a final gravity-driven process. As the matrix block height increases, surfactant alters wettability to a lesser degree, or permeability decreases, oil production rate decreases. The scale-up to field scale will be further studied in the next quarter.

  20. Nanoparticle interaction with model lung surfactant monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Harishchandra, Rakesh Kumar; Saleem, Mohammed; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important functions of the lung surfactant monolayer is to form the first line of defence against inhaled aerosols such as nanoparticles (NPs), which remains largely unexplored. We report here, for the first time, the interaction of polyorganosiloxane NPs (AmorSil20: 22 nm in diameter) with lipid monolayers characteristic of alveolar surfactant. To enable a better understanding, the current knowledge about an established model surface film that mimics the surface properties of the lung is reviewed and major results originating from our group are summarized. The pure lipid components dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol have been used to study the biophysical behaviour of their monolayer films spread at the air–water interface in the presence of NPs. Film balance measurements combined with video-enhanced fluorescence microscopy have been used to investigate the formation of domain structures and the changes in the surface pattern induced by NPs. We are able to show that NPs are incorporated into lipid monolayers with a clear preference for defect structures at the fluid–crystalline interface leading to a considerable monolayer expansion and fluidization. NPs remain at the air–water interface probably by coating themselves with lipids in a self-assembly process, thereby exhibiting hydrophobic surface properties. We also show that the domain structure in lipid layers containing surfactant protein C, which is potentially responsible for the proper functioning of surfactant material, is considerably affected by NPs. PMID:19846443

  1. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have acquired field oil and core samples and field brine compositions from Marathon. We have conducted preliminary adsorption and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Receding contact angles increase with surfactant adsorption. Plans for the next quarter include conducting adsorption, phase behavior and wettability studies.

  2. SIMULATION OF SURFACTANT-ENHANCED AQUIFER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) is currently under active investigation as one of the most promising alternatives to conventional pump-and-treat remediation for aquifers contaminated by dense nonaqueous phase organic liquids. An existing three-dimensional finite-di...

  3. Average molecular weight of surfactants in aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, M. T.; Brimblecombe, P.

    2007-09-01

    Surfactants in atmospheric aerosols determined as methylene blue active substances (MBAS) and ethyl violet active substances (EVAS). The MBAS and EVAS concentrations can be correlated with surface tension as determined by pendant drop analysis. The effect of surface tension was more clearly indicated in fine mode aerosol extracts. The concentration of MBAS and EVAS was determined before and after ultrafiltration analysis using AMICON centrifuge tubes that define a 5000 Da (5 K Da) nominal molecular weight fraction. Overall, MBAS and to a greater extent EVAS predominates in fraction with molecular weight below 5 K Da. In case of aerosols collected in Malaysia the higher molecular fractions tended to be a more predominant. The MBAS and EVAS are correlated with yellow to brown colours in aerosol extracts. Further experiments showed possible sources of surfactants (e.g. petrol soot, diesel soot) in atmospheric aerosols to yield material having molecular size below 5 K Da except for humic acid. The concentration of surfactants from these sources increased after ozone exposure and for humic acids it also general included smaller molecular weight surfactants.

  4. Synthesis of highly magnetic iron nanoparticles suitable for field structuring using a β-diketone surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Dale L.; Venturini, Eugene L.; Martin, James E.; Provencio, Paula P.; Patel, Rina J.

    2004-07-01

    We describe the synthesis of highly magnetic iron nanoparticles using a novel surfactant, a β-diketone. We have produced 6 nm iron nanoparticles with an unusually high saturation magnetization of more than 80% the value of bulk iron. Additionally, we measured a particle susceptibility of 14 (MKS units), which is far above the value possible for micron-scale spherical particles. These properties will allow for formation of composites that can be highly structured by magnetic fields.

  5. Toxic gases.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, G.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the widespread use of gases and some volatile solvents in modern society is given. The usual circumstances in which undue exposure may occur are described. The most prominent symptoms and general principles of diagnosis and treatment are given and are followed by more specific information on the commoner, more toxic materials. While acute poisonings constitute the greater part of the paper, some indication of chronic disorders arising from repeated or prolonged exposure is also given. PMID:2687827

  6. Structural study of surfactant-dependent interaction with protein

    SciTech Connect

    Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, Vinod K.; Kohlbrecher, Joachim

    2015-06-24

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the complex structure of anionic BSA protein with three different (cationic DTAB, anionic SDS and non-ionic C12E10) surfactants. These systems form very different surfactant-dependent complexes. We show that the structure of protein-surfactant complex is initiated by the site-specific electrostatic interaction between the components, followed by the hydrophobic interaction at high surfactant concentrations. It is also found that hydrophobic interaction is preferred over the electrostatic interaction in deciding the resultant structure of protein-surfactant complexes.

  7. Surfactant-laden drops rising in a stratified ambient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchette, Francois; Martin, David

    2015-11-01

    We present results of a numerical study of the dynamics of rising drops in the presence of both surfactants and stratification. Our simulations model oil drops rising in the oceans, where naturally occurring or man-made surfactants are present. We study surfactant covered drops in uniform and density-stratified ambients, as well as clean drops entering a dissolved surfactant layer. We quantify the effects of entrainment for various Reynolds and Marangoni numbers. We also report a brief acceleration followed by a significant deceleration as a clean drop enters a surfactant layer, and describe how the adsorption rate affects those dynamics.

  8. Thermally stable surfactants and compositions and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    2008-09-02

    There are provided novel thermally stable surfactants for use with fillers in the preparation of polymer composites and nanocomposites. Typically, surfactants of the invention are urethanes, ureas or esters of thiocarbamic acid having a hydrocarbyl group of from 10 to 50 carbons and optionally including an ionizable or charged group (e.g., carboxyl group or quaternary amine). Thus, there are provided surfactants having Formula I: ##STR00001## wherein the variables are as defined herein. Further provided are methods of making thermally stable surfactants and compositions, including composites and nanocomposites, using fillers coated with the surfactants.

  9. Surfactant loss: Effects of temperature, salinity, and wettability

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, L.A.; Gall, B.L.; Crocker, M.E.; Olsen, D.K.

    1989-05-01

    Adsorption of sodium dodecylsulfate, Triton X-100, decyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactants onto silica gel and Berea sandstone mineral surfaces has been studied as a function of temperature, solution salt concentration, and mineral surface wettability. Adsorption studies using a flow calorimeter were conducted using pure surfactants and minerals. The studies were then extended to the adsorption of one type of commercial surfactant onto both consolidated and crushed Berea sandstone using column techniques. This has allowed the comparison of different methods to evaluate surfactant losses from flowing rather than static surfactant solutions. 20 refs., 15 figs., 37 tabs.

  10. Studying toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elkus, A.; LeBlanc, L.; Kim, C.; Van Beneden, R.; Mayer, G.

    2006-01-01

    With funding from the George Mitchell Center for the Environment at the University of Maine, a team of scientists used a simple laboratory-based sediment resuspension design, and two well-established aquatic toxicology models, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), to evaluate if resuspension of Penobscot river sediment significantly elevates the toxicity of river water and to provide preliminary information on the types of chemicals likely to desorb during resuspension. The group collected sediments from two sites with known chemical contamination downstream of the Great Works and Veazie dams. The sediments were examined to determine the dynamics of PAH desorption and degradation under different resuspension frequencies. The scientists used clarified water from resuspension experiments for toxicity tests with the water-flea Ceriodaphnia dubia, and other aquatic test organisms to infer toxicity from sediments from northern California rivers. Data from the study will help ascertain whether metals and/or xenoestrogens are present in the desorption water and give insight into possible avenues of sediment remediation.

  11. Organised surfactant assemblies in analytical atomic spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Medel, Alfredo; Fernandez de la Campa, Maria del Rosario; Gonzalez, Elisa Blanco; Fernandez-Sanchez, Maria Luisa

    1999-02-01

    The use of surfactant-based organised assemblies in analytical atomic spectroscopy is extensively and critically reviewed along three main lines: first, the ability of organised media to enhance detection of atomic spectroscopic methods by favourable manipulation of physical and chemical properties of the sample solution second, the extension of separation mechanisms by resorting to organised media and third a discussion of synergistic combinations of liquid chromatography separations and atomic detectors via the use of vesicular mobile phases. Changes in physical properties of sample solutions aspirated in atomic spectrometry by addition of surfactants can be advantageously used in at least four different ways: (i) to improve nebulisation efficiency; (ii) to enhance wettability of solid surfaces used for atomisation; (iii) to improve compatibility between aqueous and organic phases; and (iv) to achieve good dispersion of small particles in "slurry" techniques. Controversial results and statements published so far are critically discussed. The ability of surfactant-based organised assemblies, such as micelles and vesicles, to organise reactants at the molecular level has also been applied to enhance the characteristics of chemical generation of volalite species of metals and semi-metals (e.g., hydride or ethylide generation of As, Pb, Cd, Se, Sn, and cold vapour Hg generation) used in atomic methods. Enhancements in efficiency/transport of volatile species, increases in the reaction kinetics, stabilisation of some unstable species and changes in the selectivity of the reactions by surfactants are dealt with. Non-chromatographic cloud-point separations to design pre-concentration procedures with subsequent metal determination by atomic methods are addressed along with chromatographic separations of expanded scope by addition of surfactants to the conventional aqueous mobile phases of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Finally, the synergistic

  12. Preparation and Evaluation of Monodisperse Nonionic Surfactants Based on Fluorine-Containing Dicarbamates.

    PubMed

    Mureau; Trabelsi; Guittard; Geribaldi

    2000-09-15

    Novel bipodal surfactants of fluorine-containing carbamate type were synthesized with satisfactory yields from the action of fluorinated diisocyanates on oligooxyethylmonomethylated ethers without solvent. The synthetic pathways via malonic intermediates were elaborated in order to use low-price commercially available compounds such as 2-F-alkylethyl iodides and oligooxyethylmonomethylated ethers as starting materials. This new class of nonionic surfactants contains one hydrophobic part and one oleophobic part, and shows peculiar properties due to the presence of two hydrophilic parts (bipodal). All these compounds are monodisperse, i.e, include a perfectly defined number of oxyethylene units. Compared with their bipodal homologues previously described within the F-alkylated series, these new structures were easily obtained from commercial raw materials and are stable against pH media. The evaluation of their behavior at the air-water interface has been studied by measurements of surface tension versus concentration. This allows us to show clearly the variation of the critical micelle concentration (cmc) from 1.1x10(-5) to 9.8x10(-3) mol.l(-1), and of the surface area per surfactant molecule versus studied structures. The dicarbamates of oligooxyethylmonomethylether of 3-(F-alkyl)propyl so realized exhibit noteworthy properties as nonionic fluorinated surfactants. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. Droplet impact on liquid films in the presence of surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jais, Khadijah; Yip, Natalie; Che, Zhizhao; Matar, Omar

    2016-11-01

    In this study of droplet impact on liquid films, surfactants are added to the droplet, the liquid film or both, and the effects of different surfactant concentrations are investigated using high-speed imaging. The results show that surfactants suppress partial coalescence, due to damping of the capillary waves. Rebounding occurs more frequently when surfactants are added, as the surfactant molecules resist the drainage of the intervening air layer. When the droplet deforms the surfactant film, there is an uneven distribution of surfactant molecules along the interface, resulting in a surface tension gradient and a Marangoni stress. The Marangoni stress acts to even out the surface tension gradient and to aid rebounding. Surfactant droplet ruptures the film with a much lower surfactant concentration, leaving an apparent dry region on the substrate at the impact point. This is likely due to Marangoni stresses where the film pulls the droplet apart. As the film thickness is increased, a Worthington jet is formed, with secondary droplet(s) ejected from the jet only when surfactants are present. This study reveals that the presence of surfactants can significantly alter the impact process of droplets on liquid films. EPSRC UK Programme Grant MEMPHIS (EP/K003976/1).

  14. Surfactant therapy: the current practice and the future trends

    PubMed Central

    Altirkawi, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of surfactant preparations used in the prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a well known fact; however, many controversies remain. The debate over which surfactant to be used, when and what is the best mode of delivery is still raging. Currently, animal-derived surfactants are preferred and clearly recommended by various practice guidelines, but new synthetic surfactants containing peptides that mimic the action of surfactant proteins are emerging and they seem to have a comparable efficacy profile to the natural surfactants. It is hoped that with further improvements, they will outperform their natural counterparts in terms of reliability and cost-effectiveness. Early surfactant administration was shown to further reduce the risk of RDS and its complications. However, as nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is becoming increasingly the preferred first-line therapy for RDS, the less invasive approaches of respiratory support along with early selective surfactant administration (e.g. INSURE) appears to provide a better option. Although neonatal RDS is still the main indication of surfactant therapy, other pathological processes received considerable attention and major research has been dedicated to explore the role of surfactant in their management, Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) and congenital pneumonia are two worthy examples. The most updated practice guidelines do recommend the use of endotracheal instillation as the preferred mode of surfactant delivery. However, aerosolization and other non-invasive methods are being investigated with some success; nonetheless, further improvements are very much in need. PMID:27493353

  15. Aggregation and transport of Brij surfactants in hydroxyethyl methacrylate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Yash; Bengani, Lokendrakumar C; Tan, Grace; John, Vijay; Chauhan, Anuj

    2013-10-01

    Surfactant loaded polymeric hydrogels find applications in several technological areas including drug delivery. Drug transport can be attenuated in surfactant loaded gels through partitioning of the drug in the surfactant aggregates. The drug transport depends on the type of the aggregates and also on the surfactant transport because diffusion of the surfactant leads to dissolution of the aggregates. The drug and the surfactant transport can be characterized by the surfactant monomer diffusivity Ds. and the critical aggregation concentration C(*). Here we focus on the transport in hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) hydrogels loaded with three different types of Brij surfactants. We measure transport of a hydrophobic drug cyclosporine and the surfactant for surfactant loadings ranging from 0.1% to 8%, and utilize the data to predict the values of Ds. and C(*). We show that the predictions based on surfactant transport are significantly different from those based on modeling the drug transport. The differences are attributed to the assumption of just one type of aggregate in the gel irrespective of the total concentration. The transport data suggests existence of multiple types of aggregates and this hypothesis is validated for Brij 98 by imaging of the microstructure with free fracture SEM.

  16. Surfactant changes during experimental pneumocystosis are related to Pneumocystis development.

    PubMed

    Aliouat, E M; Escamilla, R; Cariven, C; Vieu, C; Mullet, C; Dei-Cas, E; Prévost, M C

    1998-03-01

    Pneumocystosis-related surfactant changes have been reported in both humans and corticosteroid-treated experimental hosts. As corticosteroids induce an increase in pulmonary surfactant, some findings could be considered as controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the surfactant composition changes during experimental pneumocystosis were related to the Pneumocystis development. In this work two corticosteroid-untreated animal models were used: rabbits, which develop spontaneous pneumocystosis at weaning; and severe combined immunodeficiency mice, which were intranasally inoculated with Pneumocystis carinii. Surfactant phospholipid and protein content was explored by bronchoalveolar lavage. The in vitro effect of surfactant on P. carinii growth was also explored. In the two models, the surfactant phospholipid/protein ratio was significantly increased, whereas parasite rates were low. This ratio decreases with the slope increase of the parasite growth curve. These early surfactant changes suggested that Pneumocystis proliferation requires alveolar lining fluid changes, and that normal surfactant is not suitable for parasite development. In this way, in vitro experiments presented here have revealed an inhibitory effect of synthetic or seminatural surfactants on the P. carinii growth. Further studies are needed to determine how Pneumocystis induces the reported early modifications of the surfactant, and why the parasite development is inhibited by pulmonary surfactant.

  17. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    The Tucker sand of Helper (KS) field is a candidate for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The geology of the Helper site is typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. The Tucker sand of Helper field was deposited in a fluvial dominated deltaic environment. Helper oil can be mobilized with either chemical system 2 or chemical system 3, as described in this report. Oil fields in the Gulf Coast region are also good candidates for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The results from laboratory tests conducted in Berea sandstone cores with oil brine from Helper (KS) field are encouraging. The crude oil is viscous and non-acidic and, yet, was mobilized by the chemical formulations described in this report. Significant amounts of the oil were mobilized under simulated reservoir conditions. The results in Berea sandstone cores were encouraging and should be verified by tests with field core. Consumption of alkali, measured with field core, was very low. Surfactant loss appeared to be acceptable. Despite the good potential for mobilization of Helper oil, certain reservoir characteristics such as low permeability, compartmentalization, and shallow depth place constraints on applications of any chemical system in the Tucker sand. These constraints are typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. Although Hepler field is not a perfect reservoir in which to apply surfactant- enhanced alkaline flooding, Hepler oil is particularly amenable to mobilization by surfactant-enhanced alkaline systems. A field test is recommended, dependent upon final evaluation of well logs and cores from the proposed pilot area. 14 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM MOBILITY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson

    2004-02-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine.

  19. Natural vs synthetic surfactants in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Halliday, H L

    1996-02-01

    This review examines the 11 randomised clinical trials that have compared different surfactant preparations. Seven trials, enrolling 2488 infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), compared the natural surfactant beractant (Survanta) with the synthetic surfactant colfosceril palmitate (Exosurf Neonatal). Infants treated with beractant had lower oxygen requirements for at least 3 days than those treated with colfosceril palmitate. The infants treated with beractant also had lower risks of neonatal mortality [odds ratio (OR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 1.01], retinopathy of prematurity (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.99), and the combined endpoint of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.75 to 0.99), compared with those treated with colfosceril palmitate. Calf lung surfactant extract (CLSE; Infasurf), another natural surfactant, has been compared with colfosceril palmitate in 2 studies: in one as prophylaxis and in the other as rescue therapy. Similar, although nonsignificant, advantages were found for the natural surfactant compared with the synthetic surfactant. In 6 of these 9 trials there was a significant reduction in the odds of pulmonary air leaks (OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.64) for infants treated with natural compared with synthetic surfactants. In 7 trials (3554 infants) comparing natural and synthetic surfactants to treat RDS (6 comparing beractant and colfosceril palmitate, and one CLSE and colfosceril palmitate), there was a significantly reduced risk of neonatal mortality (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.97) with natural compared with synthetic surfactant treatment. In 2 further trials, different natural surfactant preparations have been compared. Reduced oxygen needs for 24 hours after treatment were found for CLSE and Curosurf (porcine-derived lung surfactant, PLS) when each was compared with beractant. Apparent longer term benefits from these surfactants were not statistically proven. Further trials are needed to be certain

  20. Simultaneous determination of anionic and nonionic surfactants in commercial laundry wastewater and anaerobic fluidized bed reactor effluent by online column-switching liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Motteran, Fabrício; Lima Gomes, Paulo C F; Silva, Edson L; Varesche, Maria Bernadete A

    2017-02-15

    This study presents a new method developed for the simultaneous determination of anionic surfactant (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate - LAS, 4 homologs) and nonionic surfactant (linear alcohol ethoxylate - LAE) in commercial laundry wastewater. The surfactants were identified and quantified using online column-switching solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Ten and three transitions (m/z) were identified for LAS and LAE, respectively. The detection and quantification limits were 75 and 200μg/L for LAS, respectively, and 75μg/L for LAE. This method was applied to the determination of the surfactants in the influent and effluent of an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor that was used for the treatment of commercial laundry wastewater. After 480days of operation with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 18h, the removal of 45.9±5.6% LAS and 99.2±4.3% LAE from an influent with surfactant concentrations of 26.1±12.9mg/L and 23.8±6.8mg/L, respectively, was obtained. Under these conditions, the breakage of longer-chain LAS homologs with the release of carbon units was observed with an increase in the number of shorter homolog chains. This SPE online sample treatment method is simple, fast and effective for the analysis of both surfactants. This technique is pioneering in its simultaneous measurement of two surfactant categories in anaerobic fluidized bed reactors.

  1. Efficacy of reducing agent and surfactant contacting pattern on the performance characteristics of nickel electroless plating baths coupled with and without ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Amrita; Pujari, Murali; Uppaluri, Ramgopal; Verma, Anil

    2014-07-01

    This article addresses furthering the role of sonication for the optimal fabrication of nickel ceramic composite membranes using electroless plating. Deliberating upon process modifications for surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP) and combined surfactant and sonication induced electroless plating (SSOEP), this article highlights a novel method of contacting of the reducing agent and surfactant to the conventional electroless nickel plating baths. Rigorous experimental investigations indicated that the combination of ultrasound (in degas mode), surfactant and reducing agent pattern had a profound influence in altering the combinatorial plating characteristics. For comparison purpose, purely surfactant induced nickel ELP baths have also been investigated. These novel insights consolidate newer research horizons for the role of ultrasound to achieve dense metal ceramic composite membranes in a shorter span of total plating time. Surface and physical characterizations were carried out using BET, FTIR, XRD, FESEM and nitrogen permeation experiments. It has been analyzed that the SSOEP baths provided maximum ratio of percent pore densification per unit metal film thickness (PPDδ) and hold the key for further fine tuning of the associated degrees of freedom. On the other hand SIEP baths provided lower (PPDδ) ratio but higher PPD. For SSOEP baths with dropwise reducing agent and bulk surfactant, the PPD and metal film thickness values were 73.4% and 8.4 μm which varied to 66.9% and 13.3 μm for dropwise reducing agent and drop surfactant case.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF PHASE AND EMULSION BEHAVIOR, SURFACTANT RETENTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FOR NOVEL ALCOHOL ETHOXYCARBOXYLATE SURFACTANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lebone T. Moeti; Ramanathan Sampath

    2001-09-28

    This final technical report describes work performed under DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-97FT97278 during the period October 01, 1997 to August 31, 2001 which covers the total performance period of the project. During this period, detailed information on optimal salinity, temperature, emulsion morphologies, effectiveness for surfactant retention and oil recovery was obtained for an Alcohol Ethoxycarboxylate (AEC) surfactant to evaluate its performance in flooding processes. Tests were conducted on several AEC surfactants and NEODOX (23-4) was identified as the most suitable hybrid surfactant that yielded the best proportion in volume for top, middle, and bottom phases when mixed with oil and water. Following the selection of this surfactant, temperature and salinity scans were performed to identify the optimal salinity and temperature, and the temperature and salinity intervals in which all three phases coexisted. NEODOX 23-4 formed three phases between 4 and 52.5 C. It formed an aqueous rich microemulsion phase at high temperatures and an oleic rich microemulsion phase at low temperatures--a characteristic of the ionic part of the surfactant. The morphology measurement system was set-up successfully at CAU. The best oil/water/surfactant system defined by the above phase work was then studied for emulsion morphologies. Electrical conductivities were measured for middle and bottom phases of the NEODOX 23-4/dodecane/10mM water system and by mixing measured volumes of the middle phase into a fixed volume of the bottom phase and vice versa at room temperature. Electrical conductivity of the mixture decreased as the fraction of volume of the middle phase was increased and vice versa. Also inversion phenomena was observed. These experiments were then repeated for bottom/middle (B/M) and middle/bottom (M/B) conjugate pair phases at 10, 15, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 C. Electrical conductivity measurements were then compared with the predictions of the conductivity model developed in

  3. Toxicity and genotoxicity of the quaternary ammonium compound benzalkonium chloride (BAC) using Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia as model systems.

    PubMed

    Lavorgna, Margherita; Russo, Chiara; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Parrella, Alfredo; Isidori, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The toxicity and genotoxicity of the cationic surfactant benzalkonium chloride (BAC) were studied using Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia as model systems. Acute and chronic toxicity testing were performed according to the international standard guidelines and the genotoxicity was detected through the comet assay on cells from whole organisms in vivo exposed. Acute effects occurred at concentrations in the order of tens of μg/L in D. magna and hundreds of μg/L in C. dubia. Chronic effects were found at one order of magnitude less than short-term effects maintaining the same difference in sensitivity between D. magna and C. dubia. BAC induced relevant DNA damage, in both cladocerans; the lowest adverse effect levels were 0.4 and 4 ng/L for D. magna and C. dubia, respectively. As these effective concentrations are far lower than BAC occurrence in surface waters (units of μg/L) a concerning environmental risk cannot be excluded. The findings of this study showed that D. magna and C. dubia, could be used as model organisms to detect acute and chronic toxicity as well as genotoxicity at the whole organism level.

  4. Surfactants as blackbird stressing agents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lefebvre, P.W.; Seubert, J.L.

    1970-01-01

    Applications of wetting-agent solutions produce mortality in birds. The exact cause of death is undetermined but it is believed that destruction of the insulating qualities of the plumage permits ambient cold temperatures and evaporation to lower the body temperature to a lethal level. The original concept of using these materials as bird-control tools was developed in 1958 at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Laurel, Maryland. Early field trials by personnel of the Division of Wildlife Services and the Denver Wildlife Research Center indicated that ground-application techniques had promise but limitations of the equipment precluded successful large-scale roost treatments. In 1966, Patuxent Center personnel began using tanker-type aircraft to evaluate high-volume aerial applications of wetting agents. The success of these tests led to the use of small aircraft to make low-volume, high-concentration aerial applications just prior to expected rainfall. Recent trials of the low-volume method show that, with some limitations, it is effective, inexpensive, and safe to the environment. Current research emphasizes the screening of new candidate materials for efficacy, biodegradability, and toxicity to plants and non-target animals, as well as basic investigations of the avian physiological mechanisms involved. Field trials to develop more effective application techniques will continue.

  5. Thermal Stress and Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevating ambient temperature above thermoneutrality exacerbates toxicity of most air pollutants, insecticides, and other toxic chemicals. On the other hand, safety and toxicity testing of toxicants and drugs is usually performed in mice and rats maintained at subthermoneutral te...

  6. Emulsion of an in-situ surfactant in petroleum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    Three emulsifiers were tested for their ability to reduce the viscosity of heavy oils. A reduction of 25% viscosity is achieved using polybutene. A reduction of 50% viscosity is achieved using a concentrated ionic detergent obtained from SANDOZ. The most promising emulsifiers is a lipopeptide. Preliminary studies show this emulsifier reduces the viscosity of heavy oils by as much as 80%. It is also able to reduce the surface tension of water by 35%. This emulsifier is also biodegradable and less toxic than synthetic surfactants. (DMC)

  7. Structure and Conformational Dynamics of DMPC/Dicationic Surfactant and DMPC/Dicationic Surfactant/DNA Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pietralik, Zuzanna; Krzysztoń, Rafał; Kida, Wojciech; Andrzejewska, Weronika; Kozak, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Amphiphilic dicationic surfactants, known as gemini surfactants, are currently studied for gene delivery purposes. The gemini surfactant molecule is composed of two hydrophilic “head” groups attached to hydrophobic chains and connected via molecular linker between them. The influence of different concentrations of 1,5-bis (1-imidazolilo-3- decyloxymethyl) pentane chloride (gemini surfactant) on the thermotropic phase behaviour of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayers with and without the presence of DNA was investigated using Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies, small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation and differential scanning calorimetry. With increasing concentration of surfactant in DMPC/DNA systems, a disappearance of pretransition and a decrease in the main phase transition enthalpy and temperature were observed. The increasing intensity of diffraction peaks as a function of surfactant concentration also clearly shows the ability of the surfactant to promote the organisation of lipid bilayers in the multilayer lamellar phase. PMID:23571492

  8. Surfactant-Enhanced DNAPL Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-24

    DNAPL SOURCE REMEDIATION AT SITE 88, MARINE CORPS BASE CAMP LEJEUNE vii AATDF AFCEE AFB AFP4 AQT B bgs CERCLA CITT em cmc cp cu d de DE&S DNAPL DoD...liquid meter(s) medium, middle Marine Corps Base maximum contaminant level millidarcies micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration unit minute(s) multi-level...present in the subsurface adjacent to a dry-cleaning facility operated by the Marine Corps Base (MCB) Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The contaminant was

  9. [Toxic epidermal necrolysis].

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Elizondo-Argueta, Sandra; Sánchez-Zúñiga, Martín de Jesús; Visoso-Palacios, Porfirio; Cedillo-Torres, Héctor; Carrillo-Córdova, Jorge Raúl

    2006-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis is the prototype of a proapoptotic disease characterized by system CD95 dysrregulation. Drugs constitute the main antigenic triggers. Hystopatologically it is characterized by epidermis detachment and necrosis with apoptotic keratinocytes. Clinical presentation includes erithematous-ampullous lesions in the skin and mucous membranes. It is associated with serious complications such as severe sepsis and septic shock. The management in the intensive care unit includes support treatment and specific treatment with immunoglobulins that alter disease course. Recombinant activated Factor VII is effective to control the associated microvascular haemorraghe.

  10. Molecular adsorption at particle surfaces: a PM toxicity mediation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Michaela; Brown, Leslie; Trought, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    Fine atmospheric particles depositing in the lung present a large adsorbent surface for the adsorption of bronchoalveolar lining fluid (BALF) components, including lung surfactant and its associated proteins. Such adsorption at invading particle surfaces is known to be important in biological particle clearance, and the immunological and toxicological fate of these particles. In the experiments conducted here, it was hypothesized that this is also true for particles of nonbiological origin, and that fine particles with large surface areas would selectively adsorb the opsonizing components of BALF. This work quantifies the adsorption rates (adsorption of compound per unit surface area) of isolated BALF components. Elemental carbon (EC) is a ubiquitous component of fine urban particulate matter (PM2.5), and particular forms of EC are extremely surface active (e.g., activated carbon). EC originates largely from fossil fuel combustion, and vehicles in particular contribute a significant proportion of PM(2.5) EC mass in urban areas. Since the size distribution of EC is submicrometer, industrially produced carbon blacks in the 25-100 nm size range can be used as a surrogate for urban EC, in terms of surface area and chemistry. Three types of carbon black (CB) particles were used. Two were identical in size (25 nm) but different in surface treatment; R330, a CB with a nonoxidized surface, and R400, a CB produced with an oxidized surface. The third particle type, M120, was 75 nm, different in size from R330 and R400, but similar to R330 in surface chemistry, that is, nonoxidized. Particles were first washed and resuspended in phosphate-buffered-saline (PBS, pH 7.0) three times to remove surfactant coatings added during their manufacture. Colloidal suspensions of M120, R330, and R400 particles with decreasing surface areas were then generated and separated into reaction vials. BALF proteins were added spanning physiological concentrations while the dominant phospholipid in

  11. Application of peptide gemini surfactants as novel solubilization surfactants for photosystems I and II of cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Koeda, Shuhei; Umezaki, Katsunari; Noji, Tomoyasu; Ikeda, Atsushi; Kawakami, Keisuke; Kondo, Masaharu; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Shen, Jian-Ren; Taga, Keijiro; Dewa, Takehisa; Ito, Shigeru; Nango, Mamoru; Tanaka, Toshiki; Mizuno, Toshihisa

    2013-09-17

    We designed novel peptide gemini surfactants (PG-surfactants), DKDKC12K and DKDKC12D, which can solubilize Photosystem I (PSI) of Thermosynecoccus elongatus and Photosystem II (PSII) of Thermosynecoccus vulcanus in an aqueous buffer solution. To assess the detailed effects of PG-surfactants on the original supramolecular membrane protein complexes and functions of PSI and PSII, we applied the surfactant exchange method to the isolated PSI and PSII. Spectroscopic properties, light-induced electron transfer activity, and dynamic light scattering measurements showed that PSI and PSII could be solubilized not only with retention of the original supramolecular protein complexes and functions but also without forming aggregates. Furthermore, measurement of the lifetime of light-induced charge-separation state in PSI revealed that both surfactants, especially DKDKC12D, displayed slight improvement against thermal denaturation below 60 °C compared with that using β-DDM. This degree of improvement in thermal resistance still seems low, implying that the peptide moieties did not interact directly with membrane protein surfaces. By conjugating an electron mediator such as methyl viologen (MV(2+)) to DKDKC12K (denoted MV-DKDKC12K), we obtained derivatives that can trap the generated reductive electrons from the light-irradiated PSI. After immobilization onto an indium tin oxide electrode, a cathodic photocurrent from the electrode to the PSI/MV-DKDKC12K conjugate was observed in response to the interval of light irradiation. These findings indicate that the PG-surfactants DKDKC12K and DKDKC12D provide not only a new class of solubilization surfactants but also insights into designing other derivatives that confer new functions on PSI and PSII.

  12. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    SciTech Connect

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller

    2006-09-09

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A mixture of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. The mixture is single phase for higher salinity or calcium concentrations than that for either surfactant used alone. This makes it possible to inject the surfactant slug with polymer close to optimal conditions and yet be single phase. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. It uses partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide for mobility control. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of naphthenic soap and significant reduction of synthetic surfactant adsorption. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT takes advantage of the observation that the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Even for a fixed ratio of soap to surfactant, the range of salinity for low IFT was wider than that reported for surfactant systems in the literature. Low temperature, forced displacement experiments in dolomite and silica sandpacks demonstrate that greater than 95% recovery of the waterflood remaining oil is possible with 0.2% surfactant concentration, 0.5 PV surfactant slug, with no alcohol. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the role of soap/surfactant ratio on passage of the profile through the ultralow IFT region, the importance of a wide salinity range of low IFT, and the importance of the viscosity of the surfactant slug. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs as well as a

  13. Degradation of the commercial surfactant nonylphenol ethoxylate by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Salatiel Wohlmuth; Klauck, Cláudia Regina; Siqueira, Marco Antônio; Bernardes, Andréa Moura

    2015-01-23

    Four different oxidation process, namely direct photolysis (DP) and three advanced oxidation processes (heterogeneous photocatalysis - HP, eletrochemical oxidation - EO and photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation - PEO) were applied in the treatment of wastewater containing nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPnEO). The objective of this work was to determine which treatment would be the best option in terms of degradation of NPnEO without the subsequent generation of toxic compounds. In order to investigate the degradation of the surfactant, the processes were compared in terms of UV/Vis spectrum, mineralization (total organic carbon), reaction kinetics, energy efficiency and phytotoxicity. A solution containing NPnEO was prepared as a surrogate of the degreasing wastewater, was used in the processes. The results showed that the photo-assisted processes degrade the surfactant, producing biodegradable intermediates in the reaction. On the other hand, the electrochemical process influences the mineralization of the surfactant. The process of PEO carried out with a 250W lamp and a current density of 10mA/cm(2) showed the best results in terms of degradation, mineralization, reaction kinetics and energy consumption, in addition to not presenting phytotoxicity. Based on this information, this process can be a viable alternative for treating wastewater containing NPnEO, avoiding the contamination of water resources.

  14. Surfactant Facilitated Spreading of Aqueous Drops on Hydrophobic Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Nitin; Couzis, Alex; Maldareili, Charles; Singh, Bhim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Microgravity technologies often require aqueous phases to spread over nonwetting hydrophobic solid surfaces. Surfactants facilitate the wetting of water on hydrophobic surfaces by adsorbing on the water/air and hydrophobic solid/water interfaces and lowering the surface tensions of these interfaces. The tension reductions decrease the contact angle, which increases the equilibrium wetted area. Hydrocarbon surfactants; (i.e., amphiphiles with a hydrophobic moiety consisting of an extended chain of (aliphatic) methylene -CH2- groups attached to a large polar group to give aqueous solubility) are capable of reducing the contact angles on surfaces which are not very hydrophobic, but do not reduce significantly the contact angles of the very hydrophobic surfaces such as parafilm, polyethylene or self assembled monolayers. Trisiloxane surfactants (amphiphiles with a hydrophobe consisting of methyl groups linked to a trisiloxane backbone in the form of a disk ((CH3)3-Si-O-Si-O-Si(CH3)3) and an extended ethoxylate (-(OCH2CH2)a-) polar group in the form of a chain with four or eight units) can significantly reduce the contact angle of water on a very hydrophobic surface and cause rapid and complete (or nearly complete) spreading (termed superspreading). The overall goal of the research described in this proposal is to establish and verify a theory for how trisiloxanes cause superspreading, and then use this knowledge as a guide to developing more general hydrocarbon based surfactant systems which superspread. We propose that the trisiloxane surfactants superspread because their structure allows them to strongly lower the high hydrophobic solid/aqueous tension when they adsorb to the solid surface. When the siloxane adsorbs, the hydrophobic disk parts of the molecule adsorb onto the surface removing the surface water. Since the cross-sectional area of the disk is larger than that of the extended ethoxylate chain, the disks can form a space-filling mat on the surface which

  15. SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM MOBILITY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson

    2004-07-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactants makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluted to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. A dual-porosity version is demonstrated as a potential scale-up tool for fractured reservoirs.

  16. LNAPL Removal from Unsaturated Porous Media using Surfactant Infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus

    2012-11-19

    A series of unsaturated column experiments was performed to evaluate light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) fate and removal during surfactant solution infiltration. Surfactant-LNAPL phase behavior tests were conducted to optimize the remedial solutions. Packed sand and site sediment columns were first processed to establish representative LNAPL smear zone under unsaturated conditions. Infiltration of low-concentration surfactant was then applied in a stepwise flush mode, with 0.3 column pore volume (PV) of solution in each flush. The influence of infiltrated surfactant solution volume and pH on LNAPL removal was assessed. A LNAPL bank was observed at the very front of the first surfactant infiltration in each column, indicating that a very low surfactant concentration is needed to reduce the LNAPL-water interfacial tension sufficiently enough to mobilize trapped LNAPL under unsaturated conditions. More LNAPL was recovered as additional steps of surfactant infiltration were applied. Up to 99% LNAPL was removed after six infiltration steps, with less than 2.0 PV of total surfactant solution application, suggesting surfactant infiltration may be an effective method for vadose zone LNAPL remediation. The influence of pH tested in this study (3.99~10.85) was insignificant because the buffering capacity of the sediment kept the pH in the column higher than the zero point charge, pHzpc, of the sediment and therefore the difference between surfactant sorption was negligible.

  17. Adsorption kinetics of surfactants at liquid-solid and liquid-vapor interfaces from atomic-scale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskrenova, Eugeniya K.; Patnaik, Soumya S.

    2012-02-01

    Nucleate pool boiling of pure liquid is a complex process involving different size- and time-scale phenomena. The appearance of the first nanobubble in the liquid at the bottom of a hot pan, the detachment of the bubble from the solid surface, its subsequent coalescence with other bubbles, all represent complex multiscale phenomena. Surfactants added to water increase the complexity of the process by contributing to the dynamic surface tension at the liquid-vapor and liquid-solid interfaces and thus affecting the heat and mass transfer at those interfaces. We apply molecular dynamics simulations to study the adsorption kinetics of anionic, cationic, and non-ionic surfactants at liquid/solid and liquid/vapor interfaces. The all-atom vs. united-atom approaches for the solid and surfactants are surveyed in view of their applicability at near boiling temperatures and a range of model water potentials is assessed for reproducing the thermal properties of water at boiling conditions.

  18. Separation of cationic analytes by nonionic micellar electrokinetic chromatography using polyoxyethylene lauryl ether surfactants with different polyoxyethylene length.

    PubMed

    Quirino, Joselito P; Kato, Masaru

    2014-09-01

    Although nonionic micellar electrokinetic chromatography is used for the separation of charged compounds that are not easily separated by capillary zone electrophoresis, the effect of the hydrophilic moiety of the nonionic surfactant has not been studied well. In this study, the separation of ultraviolet-absorbing amino acids was studied in electrokinetic chromatography using neutral polyoxyethylene lauryl ether surfactants (Adekatol) in the separation solution. The effect of the polyethylene moiety (the number of repeating units was from 6.5 to 50) of the hydrophobic test amino acids (methionine, tryptophan, and tysorine) was studied using a 10 cm effective length capillary. The separation mechanism was based on hydrophobic as well as hydrogen bonding interactions at the micellar surface, which was made of the polyoxyethylene moiety. The length of the polyoxyethylene moiety of the surfactants was not important in nonionic micellar electrokinetic chromatography mode.

  19. Next Generation Surfactants for Improved Chemical Flooding Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Laura Wesson; Prapas Lohateeraparp; Jeffrey Harwell; Bor-Jier Shiau

    2012-05-31

    The principle objective of this project was to characterize and test current and next generation high performance surfactants for improved chemical flooding technology, focused on reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian-aged (Penn) sands. In order to meet this objective the characteristic curvatures (Cc) of twenty-eight anionic surfactants selected for evaluation for use in chemical flooding formulations were determined. The Cc values ranged from -6.90 to 2.55 with the majority having negative values. Crude oil samples from nine Penn sand reservoirs were analyzed for several properties pertinent to surfactant formulation for EOR application. These properties included equivalent alkane carbon numbers, total acid numbers, and viscosity. The brine samples from these same reservoirs were analyzed for several cations and for total dissolved solids. Surfactant formulations were successfully developed for eight reservoirs by the end of the project period. These formulations were comprised of a tertiary mixture of anionic surfactants. The identities of these surfactants are considered proprietary, but suffice to say the surfactants in each mixture were comprised of varying chemical structures. In addition to the successful development of surfactant formulations for EOR, there were also two successful single-well field tests conducted. There are many aspects that must be considered in the development and implementation of effective surfactant formulations. Taking into account these other aspects, there were four additional studies conducted during this project. These studies focused on the effect of the stability of surfactant formulations in the presence of polymers with an associated examination of polymer rheology, the effect of the presence of iron complexes in the brine on surfactant stability, the potential use of sacrificial agents in order to minimize the loss of surfactant to adsorption, and the effect of electrolytes on surfactant adsorption. In these last four studies

  20. Molecular simulation of surfactant-assisted protein refolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Diannan; Liu, Zheng; Liu, Zhixia; Zhang, Minlian; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2005-04-01

    Protein refolding to its native state in vitro is a challenging problem in biotechnology, i.e., in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, and food industry. Protein aggregation and misfolding usually inhibit the recovery of proteins with their native states. These problems can be partially solved by adding a surfactant into a suitable solution environment. However, the process of this surfactant-assisted protein refolding is not well understood. In this paper, we wish to report on the first-ever simulations of surfactant-assisted protein refolding. For these studies, we defined a simple model for the protein and the surfactant and investigated how a surfactant affected the folding behavior of a two-dimensional lattice protein molecule. The model protein and model surfactant were chosen such that we could capture the important features of the folding process and the interaction between the protein and the surfactant, namely, the hydrophobic interaction. It was shown that, in the absence of surfactants, a protein in an "energy trap" conformation, i.e., a local energy minima, could not fold into the native form, which was characterized by a global energy minimum. The addition of surfactants created folding pathways via the formation of protein-surfactant complexes and thus enabled the conformations that fell into energy trap states to escape from these traps and to form the native proteins. The simulation results also showed that it was necessary to match the hydrophobicity of surfactant to the concentration of denaturant, which was added to control the folding or unfolding of a protein. The surfactants with different hydrophobicity had their own concentration range on assisting protein refolding. All of these simulations agreed well with experimental results reported elsewhere, indicating both the validity of the simulations presented here and the potential application of the simulations for the design of a surfactant on assisting protein refolding.

  1. MISFIT BETWEEN SEDIMENT TOXICITY AND CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, the EPA EMAP-Estuaries Program and the NOAA Bioeffects Surveys provide large data sets with which to test prosed relationships between sediment chemistry and toxicity. The conclusion is that no chemical measurement reliably predicts sediment toxicity. These ...

  2. Teach with Databases: Toxics Release Inventory. [Multimedia].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barracato, Jay; Spooner, Barbara

    This curriculum unit provides students with real world applications of science as it pertains to toxic releases into the environment. This boxed package contains the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Teacher's Guide, TRI Database Basics guide, comprehensive TRI compact disk with user's guide, "Getting Started: A Guide to Bringing Environmental…

  3. Hydrogels of sodium alginate in cationic surfactants: Surfactant dependent modulation of encapsulation/release toward Ibuprofen.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Suraya; Chat, Oyais Ahmad; Maswal, Masrat; Ashraf, Uzma; Rather, Ghulam Mohammad; Dar, Aijaz Ahmad

    2015-11-20

    The interaction of cetyltrimethylammoium bromide (CTAB) and its gemini homologue (butanediyl-1,4-bis (dimethylcetylammonium bromide), 16-4-16 with biocompatible polymer sodium alginate (SA) has been investigated in aqueous medium. Addition of K2CO3 influences viscoelastic properties of surfactant impregnated SA via competition between electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Viscosity of these polymer-surfactant systems increases with increase in concentration of K2CO3, and a cryogel is formed at about 0.5M K2CO3 concentration. The thermal stability of gel (5% SA+0.5M K2CO3) decreases with increase in surfactant concentration, a minimum is observed with increase in 16-4-16 concentration. The impact of surfactant addition on the alginate structure vis-à-vis its drug loading capability and release thereof was studied using Ibuprofen (IBU) as the model drug. The hydrogel with 16-4-16 exhibits higher IBU encapsulation and faster release in comparison to the one containing CTAB. This higher encapsulation-cum-faster release capability has been related to micelle mediated solubilization and greater porosity of the hydrogel with gemini surfactant.

  4. Bioavailability enhancement by addition of surfactant and surfactant-like compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Palumbo, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    The bioavailability and microbial degradation of contaminant compounds (e.g., toluene and naphthalene) were enhanced by adding synthetic surfactants, biosurfactants, and nutrients with surfactant like properties. In addition to enhanced contaminant degradation, these surfactant compounds have the potential to change the availability of natural organic matter (NOM), and thus may affect overall site bioremediation. Two bacterial bioreporter strains that are induced by toluene or naphthalene were used to directly measure contaminant bioavailability. A cell-free biosurfactant product, Tween-80, and an oleophilic fertilizer were added to aqueous suspensions and soil slurries containing toluene or naphthalene. The addition of these surfactant compounds at or below the critical micelle concentration (CMC) enhanced bioavailability as measured by increased levels of bioluminescence. Bioluminescence data were coupled with gas chromatographic analyses. The addition of Tween-80 increased not only the bioavailability of the contaminants but also, in a separate assay, the bioavailability of recalcitrant NOM. The enhanced NOM bioavailability was inferred from measurements of biomass by optical density increases and plate counts. Thus, adding surfactant compounds for enhanced contaminant degradation has the potential to introduce additional competition for nutrients and microbial metabolism, a significant area of concern for in situ site remediation.

  5. Ultrafiltration of surfactant and aromatic/surfactant solutions using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Gadelle, F.; Koros, W.J.; Schechter, R.S.

    1996-10-01

    Rejection and permeate flux taken together establish the efficiency of an ultrafiltration separation. The controllable factors that may influence the efficiency are systematically studied. These factors include transmembrane pressure, recirculation rate, membrane pore size, and solute and surfactant structure and concentration. Experiments carried out using both cationic and nonionic surfactants show that rejection decreases and permeate flux increases with membranes of increasing pore sizes. However, for the large pore size membrane (200 {angstrom}), it is also observed that rejection increases and permeate flux decreases as the filtration proceeds. These unexpected results suggest that micelles penetrate and accumulate into the larger pores, thereby reducing the effective membrane pore size. Depending on the molecular structure and concentration of the surfactant, rejection as high as 99.9% is achieved with a ceramic membrane having 65 {angstrom} pores. Permeate fluxes between 30 and 70% of pure water are observed. The addition of a solute tends to improve surfactant rejection and to decrease the permeate flux. Solute rejection increases with surfactant concentration and hydrophobicity. Solubilization isotherms determined here by ultrafiltration are shown to be in agreement with isotherms obtained with head space gas chromatography.

  6. Interfacial reactions of ozone with surfactant protein B in a model lung surfactant system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hugh I; Kim, Hyungjun; Shin, Young Shik; Beegle, Luther W; Jang, Seung Soon; Neidholdt, Evan L; Goddard, William A; Heath, James R; Kanik, Isik; Beauchamp, J L

    2010-02-24

    Oxidative stresses from irritants such as hydrogen peroxide and ozone (O(3)) can cause dysfunction of the pulmonary surfactant (PS) layer in the human lung, resulting in chronic diseases of the respiratory tract. For identification of structural changes of pulmonary surfactant protein B (SP-B) due to the heterogeneous reaction with O(3), field-induced droplet ionization (FIDI) mass spectrometry has been utilized. FIDI is a soft ionization method in which ions are extracted from the surface of microliter-volume droplets. We report structurally specific oxidative changes of SP-B(1-25) (a shortened version of human SP-B) at the air-liquid interface. We also present studies of the interfacial oxidation of SP-B(1-25) in a nonionizable 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol (POG) surfactant layer as a model PS system, where competitive oxidation of the two components is observed. Our results indicate that the heterogeneous reaction of SP-B(1-25) at the interface is quite different from that in the solution phase. In comparison with the nearly complete homogeneous oxidation of SP-B(1-25), only a subset of the amino acids known to react with ozone are oxidized by direct ozonolysis in the hydrophobic interfacial environment, both with and without the lipid surfactant layer. Combining these experimental observations with the results of molecular dynamics simulations provides an improved understanding of the interfacial structure and chemistry of a model lung surfactant system subjected to oxidative stress.

  7. The effects of alkylammonium counterions on the aggregation of fluorinated surfactants and surfactant ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Pottage, Matthew J; Greaves, Tamar L; Garvey, Christopher J; Tabor, Rico F

    2016-08-01

    The effects of organic counterions with varying carbon number on surfactant aggregation have been analysed by coupling perfluorooctanoate surfactant anions with various alkylammonium counterions. Both the degree of substitution (primary to tertiary) and alkyl chain length (0-3 carbons) of the counterions were varied to provide a comprehensive matrix of geometries and lipophilicities. Surface activity was measured using pendant drop tensiometry, while temperature-controlled small-angle neutron scattering was used to probe changes in aggregation morphology. It was found that the use of such alkylammonium counterions resulted in a strong preference for bilayer formation even at low surfactant concentration (<2wt%), when compared to simple inorganic counterions such as sodium which favour near-spherical micelles. At increased temperatures, some counterions led to unique phase behaviour wherein a transition between two structurally different lamellar phases is seen, rationalised as a transition into a microscopic phase separation wherein a surfactant-rich lamellar phase coexists with a dilute micellar phase. The results indicate that aggregation is controlled by a delicate balance of counterion size, hydrophilicity and diffuseness of charge, providing new methods for the subtle control of surfactant solutions.

  8. Liquid and surfactant delivery into pulmonary airways

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, David; Fujioka, Hideki; Takayama, Shuichi; Grotberg, James B.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the mechanisms by which liquids and surfactants can be delivered into the pulmonary airways. These are instilled and transported throughout the lung in clinical therapies such as surfactant replacement therapy, partial liquid ventilation and drug delivery. The success of these treatments is contingent on the liquid distribution and the delivery to targeted regions of the lung. The targeting of a liquid plug can be influenced by a variety of factors such as the physical properties of the liquid, the interfacial activity, the gravitational orientation, instillation method and propagation speed. We provide a review of experimental and theoretical studies that examine these effects in single tubes or channels, in tubes with single bifurcations and in the whole lung. PMID:18585985

  9. Penetration of surfactant solutions into hydrophobic capillaries.

    PubMed

    Bain, Colin D

    2005-08-21

    The initial rise velocity of surfactant solutions in hydrophobic capillaries is independent of time (F. Tiberg, B. Zhmud, K. Hallstensson and M. von Bahr, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2000, 2, 5189). By analogy with the hydrodynamics of an overflowing cylinder, we present a steady-state solution for capillary penetration in which the velocity is determined by the adsorption kinetics at the air-water interface. Good agreement between the model predictions and experimental data of Tiberg and coworkers is obtained for the non-ionic surfactant C10E6 under the assumption of diffusion-controlled adsorption. The longer chain homologue, C14E6, shows evidence of kinetic barriers to adsorption.

  10. Polymer enrichment decelerates surfactant membranes near interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipfert, F.; Frielinghaus, H.; Holderer, O.; Mattauch, S.; Monkenbusch, M.; Arend, N.; Richter, D.

    2014-04-01

    Close to a planar surface, lamellar structures are imposed upon otherwise bulk bicontinuous microemulsions. Thermally induced membrane undulations are modified by the presence of the rigid interface. While it has been shown that a pure membrane's dynamics are accelerated close to the interface, we observed nearly unchanged relaxation rates for membranes spiked with large amphiphilic diblock copolymers. An increase of the polymer concentration by a factor of 2-3 for the first and second surfactant membrane layers was observed. We interpret the reduced relaxation times as the result of an interplay between the bending rigidity and the characteristic distance of the first surfactant membrane to the rigid interface, which causes the hydrodynamic and steric interface effects described in Seifert's theory. The influence of these effects on decorated membranes yields a reduction of the frequencies and an amplification of the amplitudes of long-wavelength undulations, which are in accordance to our experimental findings.

  11. Surfactant-driven fracture of gels: Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Karen; Schillaci, Mark; Bostwick, Joshua

    2012-11-01

    A droplet of surfactant spreading on a gel substrate can produce fractures on the gel surface, which originate at the contact-line and propagate outwards in a star-burst pattern. Fractures have previously been observed to initiate through a thermal process, with the number of fractures controlled by the ratio of surface tension differential to gel shear modulus. After the onset of fracture, experiments show the arm length grows with universal power law L =t 3 / 4 that does not scale with any material parameters (Daniels et al. 2007, PRL), including super-spreading surfactants (Spandangos et al. 2012, Langmuir). We develop a model for crack growth controlled by the transport of an inviscid fluid into the fracture tip. While treating the gel as a linear material correctly predicts power-law growth, we find that only by considering a Neo-Hookean (incompressible) material do we obtain agreement with the experiments.

  12. Toxicity of nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Shahriar; Behzadi, Shahed; Laurent, Sophie; Forrest, M. Laird; Stroeve, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscience has matured significantly during the last decade as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Presently, nanomaterials are used in a wide variety of commercial products such as electronic components, sports equipment, sun creams and biomedical applications. There are few studies of the long-term consequences of nanoparticles on human health, but governmental agencies, including the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and Japan’s Ministry of Health, have recently raised the question of whether seemingly innocuous materials such as carbon-based nanotubes should be treated with the same caution afforded known carcinogens such as asbestos. Since nanomaterials are increasing a part of everyday consumer products, manufacturing processes, and medical products, it is imperative that both workers and end-users be protected from inhalation of potentially toxic NPs. It also suggests that NPs may need to be sequestered into products so that the NPs are not released into the atmosphere during the product’s life or during recycling. Further, non-inhalation routes of NP absorption, including dermal and medical injectables, must be studied in order to understand possible toxic effects. Fewer studies to date have addressed whether the body can eventually eliminate nanomaterials to prevent particle build-up in tissues or organs. This critical review discusses the biophysicochemical properties of various nanomaterials with emphasis on currently available toxicology data and methodologies for evaluating nanoparticle toxicity. PMID:22170510

  13. Rhamnolipid surfactants: alternative substrates, new strategies.

    PubMed

    Benincasa, Maria; Marqués, AnaM; Pinazo, Aurora; Manresa, Angels

    2010-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on the various possibilities of using alternative substrates and new strategies. Such strategies include an integrated production system to reduce the environmental impact and an attempt to minimize residues, which reinforces socio-economic and region-structural development. Additionally, we offer an overview of the physicochemical and biological properties of rhamnolipid surfactants associated with the applications of these molecules in different circumstances.

  14. Surfactant-Enhanced In Situ Soils Washing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    technology . Several shortfa-- were observed and have been documented in this report. The report also contains. information on the operation of a groundwater...is 5.5 to 6.0. Atomic absorbtion analysis indicated dissolved iron levels as high as 24 mg/L in areas of high organic contamination. This iron...percent surfactant, consisting of a 50/50 mix of an ethoxylated alkyl phenol and ethoxylated fatty acid were passed through each column. Leachates from

  15. 1995 Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-07-01

    extrapolated to humans using allometric scaling ([body weight] ). Variance from this assumption should not dramatically impact the work here because...rats. The rat data were then mathematically scaled to humans and used in the simulations. One exception to the data deficit was human bloodrair...Tissue volume constants are scaled to the actual body weight (BW) of the rats under study (fat volume was derived from Anderson et al. [1993]); other

  16. Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Report: 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    pregnancy . Uterine contents will be examined for embyronic or fetal deaths and the number of potentially viable fetuses counted. The number of corpora lutea...to those produced by hydrocarbon mixtures (Bruner and Pitts, 1983). The pathogenesis of hydrocarbon nephropathy must be characterized in order to...was found to produce hydrocarbon nephropathy in male Fischer-344 rats (Hobson et al., 1985). The major metabolites of 2,2,4-TMP metabolism by the

  17. Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Report: 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    protein, in the liver of male rats is influenced by testosterone and other interactive hormones (Irwin et al., 1971). This protein is filtered by...content of the urine were observed, neurotoxic symptoms were found in female rats ( male rats were asymptomatic), and significant increases in liver... male and female rabbits dermal!y exposed to 2 g CTFE/krg body weight (Gargus, 1983). There were no deaths among male and female rats exposed for 4 h to

  18. Use of micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration at low surfactant concentrations and with anionic-nonionic surfactant mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Fillipi, B.R.; Brant, L.W.; Scamehorn, J.F.; Christian, S.D.

    1999-05-01

    Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration is a separation technique which can be used to remove metal ions or dissolved organics from water. Metal ions bind to the surface of negatively charged micelles of an anionic surfactant while organic solutes tend to dissolve or solubilized within the micelles. The mixture is then forced through an ultrafiltration membrane with pore sizes small enough to block passage of the micelles and associated metal ions and/or dissolved organics. Monomeric or unassociated surfactant passes through the membrane and does not contribute to the separation. This paper considers advantages of addition of small concentrations of nonionic surfactant to an anionic surfactant; the resulting anionic-nonionic mixed micelles exhibit negative deviation from ideality of mixing which leads to a smaller fraction of the surfactant being present as monomer and a subsequently larger fraction present in the micellar form. The addition of nonionic surfactant improved the separation of divalent zinc substantially at total concentrations above the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the anionic surfactant. Both zinc and tert-butylphenol (a nonionic organic solute) show unexpected rejection at surfactant concentrations moderately below the cmc, where micelles are absent. This is considered as due to a higher surfactant concentration in the gel layer adjacent to the membrane where micelles are present. Reduction of this rejection at lower transmembrane pressure drops supports this mechanism. Some rejection of zinc was observed in the absence of surfactant but not of tert-butylphenol, indicating an additional effect of membrane charge for ionic solutes.

  19. Surfactant-enhanced remediation of organic contaminated soil and water.

    PubMed

    Paria, Santanu

    2008-04-21

    Surfactant based remediation technologies for organic contaminated soil and water (groundwater or surface water) is of increasing importance recently. Surfactants are used to dramatically expedite the process, which in turn, may reduce the treatment time of a site compared to use of water alone. In fact, among the various available remediation technologies for organic contaminated sites, surfactant based process is one of the most innovative technologies. To enhance the application of surfactant based technologies for remediation of organic contaminated sites, it is very important to have a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in this process. This paper will provide an overview of the recent developments in the area of surfactant enhanced soil and groundwater remediation processes, focusing on (i) surfactant adsorption on soil, (ii) micellar solubilization of organic hydrocarbons, (iii) supersolubilization, (iv) density modified displacement, (v) degradation of organic hydrocarbon in presence surfactants, (vi) partitioning of surfactants onto soil and liquid organic phase, (vii) partitioning of contaminants onto soil, and (viii) removal of organics from soil in presence of surfactants. Surfactant adsorption on soil and/or sediment is an important step in this process as it results in surfactant loss reduced the availability of the surfactants for solubilization. At the same time, adsorbed surfactants will retained in the soil matrix, and may create other environmental problem. The biosurfactants are become promising in this application due to their environmentally friendly nature, nontoxic, low adsorption on to soil, and good solubilization efficiency. Effects of different parameters like the effect of electrolyte, pH, soil mineral and organic content, soil composition etc. on surfactant adsorption are discussed here. Micellar solubilization is also an important step for removal of organic contaminants from the soil matrix, especially for low aqueous

  20. Surfactant-enhanced bicarbonate flooding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.

    1986-10-01

    Coalescence rate constants were calculated for systems containing alcohol ethoxysulfate both with and without TRONACRAB (sodium bicarbonate). All systems containing TRONACRAB above 3.8% total salinity had higher coalescence rate constants than systems not containing TRONACARB. The results indicate that TRONACARB promotes faster coalescence of crude oil-surfactant brine emulsions. Additions of TRONACARB to preflush brine was found to be more economical than chloride brine in reducing divalent ion concentration. Silicon (Si) concentrations did not exceed 24 ppm after TRONACARB was in contact with Berea sandstone for 1 week at 42/sup 0/C. The occurrence of silica scales is expected to be minimal when using TRONACARB in chemical flooding or in a preflush. A chemical slug containing TRONACARB, petroleum sulfate, and polymer recovered from 6 to 20% more residual oil than did systems containing either: TRONACARB plus polymer or surfactant plus polymer. The results from the oil-displacement tests indicate that a synergistic relationship exists between TRONACARB and low concentrations of surfactant and polymer whereby the oil-recovery efficiency was improved, and the chemical cost per barrel of oil recovered was decreased when the three chemicals were used together. 8 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-05-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like `top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and `bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated.

  2. Environmentally compatible surfactants for the cosmetic industry.

    PubMed

    Berger, H

    1997-10-01

    From the application pattern of surfactant-containing cosmetic products, it is inevitable that the major part of the chemicals will be discharged into waste water and eventually will enter the environment. Because the environmental compatibility of the products is based on the ecological properties of their raw meterials, the biodegradability and ecotoxicological behaviour of the product components and particularly the surfactants, form the central elements of the environmental compatibility assessment. The tools for this evaluation are standardized test systems, which are described and discussed on the basis of the ecological data of selected surfactants. De par le type d'application des produits cosmetiques contenant des tensioactifs, il est inevitable que la plus grande partie des substances chimiques soit evacuee dans les eaux usees et finisse par arriver dans l'environnement. Puisque la compatibilite environnementale des produits est basee sur les proprietes ecologiques de leurs matieres premieres, la biodegradabilite et le comportement ecotoxicologique des composants des produits, et en particulier des tensioactifs, forment les elements majeurs de l'evaluation de la compatibilite environnementale. Les outils de cette evaluation sont des systemes d'essai normalises, qui sont decrits et commentes d'apres les donnees ecologiques de tensioactifs choisis.

  3. How surfactants influence evaporation-driven flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liepelt, Robert; Marin, Alvaro; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kähler, Christian J.

    2014-11-01

    Capillary flows appear spontaneously in sessile evaporating drops and give rise to particle accumulation around the contact lines, commonly known as coffee-stain effect (Deegan et al., Nature, 1997). On the other hand, out-of-equilibrium thermal effects may induce Marangoni flows in the droplet's surface that play an important role in the flow patterns and in the deposits left on the substrate. Some authors have argued that contamination or the presence of surfactants might reduce or eventually totally annul the Marangoni flow (Hu & Larson, J. Phys. Chem. B, 2006). On the contrary, others have shown an enhancement of the reverse surface flow (Sempels et al., Nat. Commun., 2012). In this work, we employ Astigmatic Particle Tracking Velocimetry (APTV) to obtain the 3D3C evaporation-driven flow in both bulk and droplet's surface, using surfactants of different ionic characters and solubility. Our conclusions lead to a complex scenario in which different surfactants and concentrations yield very different surface-flow patterns, which eventually might influence the colloidal deposition patterns.

  4. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-10-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior, interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability studies. Alfoterra-38 (0.05 wt%), Alfoterra-35 (0.05 wt%), SS-6656 (0.05 wt%), and DTAB (1 wt%) altered the wettability of the initially oil-wet calcite plate to an intermediate/water-wet state. Low IFT ({approx}10{sup -3} dynes/cm) is obtained with surfactants 5-166, Alfoterra-33 and Alfoterra-38. Plans for the next quarter include conducting wettability and mobilization studies.

  5. Probing Nanoscale Thermal Transport in Surfactant Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Fangyu; Liu, Ying; Xu, Jiajun; He, Yadong; Hammouda, B.; Qiao, Rui; Yang, Bao

    2015-01-01

    Surfactant solutions typically feature tunable nanoscale, internal structures. Although rarely utilized, they can be a powerful platform for probing thermal transport in nanoscale domains and across interfaces with nanometer-size radius. Here, we examine the structure and thermal transport in solution of AOT (Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate) in n-octane liquids using small-angle neutron scattering, thermal conductivity measurements, and molecular dynamics simulations. We report the first experimental observation of a minimum thermal conductivity occurring at the critical micelle concentration (CMC): the thermal conductivity of the surfactant solution decreases as AOT is added till the onset of micellization but increases as more AOT is added. The decrease of thermal conductivity with AOT loading in solutions in which AOT molecules are dispersed as monomers suggests that even the interfaces between individual oleophobic headgroup of AOT molecules and their surrounding non-polar octane molecules can hinder heat transfer. The increase of thermal conductivity with AOT loading after the onset of micellization indicates that the thermal transport in the core of AOT micelles and across the surfactant-oil interfaces, both of which span only a few nanometers, are efficient. PMID:26534840

  6. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-07-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory imbibition tests show that imbibition rate is not very sensitive to the surfactant concentration (in the range of 0.05-0.2 wt%) and small amounts of trapped gas saturation. It is however very sensitive to oil permeability and water-oil-ratio. Less than 0.5 M Na2CO3 is needed for in situ soap generation and low adsorption; NaCl can be added to reach the necessary total salinity. The simulation result matches the laboratory imbibition experimental data. Small fracture spacing and high permeability would be needed for high rate of recovery.

  7. Dynamics of surfactants spreading on gel layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spandagos, Constantine; Luckham, Paul; Matar, Omar

    2009-11-01

    Gel-like materials are of central importance to a large number of engineering, biological, biomedical and day-life applications. This work attempts to investigate the spreading of droplets of surfactant solutions on agar gels, which is accompanied by cracking of the gel layers. The cracking progresses via the formation of patterns that resemble ``starbursts,'' which have been reported recently in the literature by Daniels et al. Marangoni stresses generated by surface tension gradients between the surfactant droplet and the uncontaminated gel layer are identified to be the driving force behind these phenomena. The morphology and dynamics of the starburst patterns are investigated for droplets of different surfactant solutions, including sodiumdodecylsulphate, spreading on gel layers of different strengths. The instability is characterised in terms of the number of arms that form, and their mean width and length as a function of time. In addition, photoelasticity is used to provide information about the stress field of the material, which, combined with the results from our direct visualisation, can elucidate further the mechanisms underlying the pattern formation and the nature of the interactions between the liquid and the gel.

  8. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-01-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like ‘top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and ‘bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2–3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated. PMID:27193558

  9. Toxic terror

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    A review of toxic materials in the environment explores the evolution of public awareness of the problem, public and governmental reaction, the effort to establish standards of safe levels and danger thresholds, and the struggle to implement and enforce environmental policy. Separate chapters deal with environmental premises and scientific realities, the DDT debate and birth of environmentalism, the disaster of Love Canal, pesticides, PCBs, PBBs, formaldehyde, dioxin, air pollution, water pollution, nuclear energy and radioactive materials, acid rain, and the status of American health. The book concludes with a chapter on the need for scientific research and hard evidence to either prove or disprove the pessimism of those who warn of a threat to human health and survival.

  10. Molluscicidal properties and selective toxicity of surface-active agents

    PubMed Central

    Visser, S. A.

    1965-01-01

    Of over 100 commercially produced surface-active agents tested against the bilharziasis vector snail Biomphalaria sudanica, 13 were found to possess considerable and highly selective molluscicidal properties at concentrations of less than 1 ppm for exposures of 48 hours. Against crustacea, fish, water plants, mosquito larvae, mice, and the eggs of B. sudanica, the toxicities of the 13 surfactants were slight. The chemicals did not appear to be absorbed by organic matter to any appreciable extent. It is thought that the toxicity to B. sudanica is of both a chemical and a physical nature. PMID:5294185

  11. Effect of various nonionic surfactants on growth of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rose, M J; Aron, S A; Janicki, B W

    1966-05-01

    Rose, Michael J., Jr. (Veterans Administration Hospital, Washington, D.C.), Stephen A. Aron, and Bernard W. Janicki. Effect of various nonionic surfactants on growth of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 91:1863-1868. 1966.-Escherichia coli cultivated in media containing 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 4.0% concentrations of surface-active polyoxyethylene derivatives of formaldehyde polymers of octyl phenol (Triton WR-1339; Macrocyclon) or of sorbitan mono-fatty acid esters (Tween 20, 40, 60, and 80) exhibited significantly retarded growth only at the highest concentration. To determine the mechanism of bacteriostasis, certain derivatives and compounds related to the surfactants were investigated. Experiments with compounds related to the Triton-type agents demonstrated that incorporation of monomeric substances (Triton X-205, X-305, Igepal CA-730, or Dowfax 9N20) into the medium at a concentration of 4.0% did not inhibit the growth of E. coli. It was concluded that the formaldehyde polymer was essential for growth inhibition by the polyoxyethylene derivatives of octyl phenol. The inhibitory activity of the Tween compounds, in contrast, appeared to result from the unesterified fatty acids which contaminate the commercial preparations. Polyol (60), the sorbitan polyoxyethylene derivative of Tween 60 and the basic structural unit of all the Tween-type compounds, and a Tween 80 preparation which was purified by extraction of the unesterified oleic acid, were not inhibitory. Moreover, the amount of free oleic acid present as a contaminant of Tween 80 was found to be sufficient to cause significant growth inhibition. These results and the observation that E. coli does not appear to hydrolyze the esterified fatty acid of Tween 80 led to the conclusion that growth inhibition obtained with various Tween compounds probaby is a function of their respective fatty acid contaminants.

  12. Chlorobenzenes removal from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by surfactant-assisted column flotation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo

    2003-07-01

    The organic contaminants in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, including chlorinated aromatic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, have high toxicity and a potential negative impact on the environment. An effective and low energy consumption technique to remove the organic contaminants from MSWI fly ash is required urgently. Organic contaminants, such as chlorobenzenes (CBzs), in MSWI fly ash are known to become enriched in the unburnt carbon (UC) fraction. It is proposed that removal of UC from fly ash will result in the effective removal of most organic micropollutants. In this research, we use a technique of surfactant-assisted column flotation to decontaminate MSWI fly ash by removal of the CBzs-enriched UC from MSWI fly ash. We find that 39.8% of CBzs can be removed from fresh MSWI fly ash with 61.7% UC removal efficiency, whereas only 33.2% of CBzs can be removed from weathered MSWI fly ash with a low UC removal efficiency of 33.7%. By adding a mixture of two kinds of surfactants: sorbitan mono-oleate and polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan mono-oleate to the weathered fly ash, 47.0% of CBzs were removed at the hydrophile lipophile balance value of 13.5, while the UC removal efficiency increased to 49.0%. The results show that surfactants can enhance CBzs and UC removal efficiencies during the column flotation process. Higher CBzs and UC removal efficiencies can be expected by further optimizing the conditions of surfactant-assisted column flotation.

  13. Altered surfactant homeostasis and alveolar epithelial cell stress in amiodarone-induced lung fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mahavadi, Poornima; Henneke, Ingrid; Ruppert, Clemens; Knudsen, Lars; Venkatesan, Shalini; Liebisch, Gerhard; Chambers, Rachel C; Ochs, Matthias; Schmitz, Gerd; Vancheri, Carlo; Seeger, Werner; Korfei, Martina; Guenther, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Amiodarone (AD) is a highly efficient antiarrhythmic drug with potentially serious side effects. Severe pulmonary toxicity is reported in patients receiving AD even at low doses and may cause interstitial pneumonia as well as lung fibrosis. Apoptosis of alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECII) has been suggested to play an important role in this disease. In the current study, we aimed to establish a murine model of AD-induced lung fibrosis and analyze surfactant homeostasis, lysosomal, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in this model. AD/vehicle was instilled intratracheally into C57BL/6 mice, which were sacrificed on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Extent of lung fibrosis development was assessed by trichrome staining and hydroxyproline measurement. Cytotoxicity was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Phospholipids (PLs) were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Surfactant proteins (SP) and markers for apoptosis, lysosomal, and ER stress were studied by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. AECII morphology was evaluated by electron microscopy. Extensive lung fibrosis and AECII hyperplasia were observed in AD-treated mice already at day 7. Surfactant PL and SP accumulated in AECII over time. In parallel, induction of apoptosis, lysosomal, and ER stress was encountered in AECII of mice lungs and in MLE12 cells treated with AD. In vitro, siRNA-mediated knockdown of cathepsin D did not alter the AD-induced apoptotic response. Our data suggest that mice exposed to intratracheal AD develop severe pulmonary fibrosis, exhibit extensive surfactant alterations and cellular stress, but AD-induced AECII apoptosis is not mediated primarily via cathepsin D.

  14. Low Concentration Ozone Reacts with Plasmalogen Glycerophosphoethanolamine Lipids in Lung Surfactant

    PubMed Central

    Wynalda, Kelly M.; Murphy, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    Ozone is a common environmental toxicant to which individuals are exposed to on a daily basis. While biochemical endpoints such as increased mortality, decrements in pulmonary function and initiation of inflammatory processes are known, little is actually understood regarding the chemical mechanisms underlying changes in pulmonary health, especially for low concentrations of ozone. This study was undertaken to investigate ozone induced oxidation of endogenous lipids that are potentially exposed to environmental ozone within lung, specifically focusing on plasmalogen glycerophospholipids present in pulmonary surfactant. Sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods were developed to follow oxidation of diacyl and plasmalogen phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) phospholipids, and to identify and quantitate products generated by ozonolysis. Using a unilamellar vesicle system containing a 1:1 molar mixture of 1-O-octadec-1’-enyl-2-octadecenoyl-PE and 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-PC, these studies revealed the vinyl ether bond of plasmalogens was oxidized preferentially at low concentrations of ozone (100 ppb), when compared to olefinic bond oxidation on ω-9 of the fatty acyl chain in the same phospholipids. Major phospholipid products generated were identified as 1-formyl-2-octadecenoyl-PE and 1-hydroxy-2-octadecenoyl-PE. Heptadecanal and heptadecanoic acid production was also quantitated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and production was consistent with oxidation of the vinyl ether, at low concentrations of ozone. Analysis of murine lung surfactant from C57Bl/6 mice revealed several plasmalogen PE lipid species, encompassing ~38% of total PE species. Upon exposure of ozone (0 ppb, 100 ppb) to murine surfactant, plasmalogen PE molecular species preferentially reacted, as compared to diacyl PE molecular species. Lysophospholipids, pentadecanal, and nonanal were found to be the primary products of surfactant ozone oxidation. PMID:19916514

  15. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Ooshima, H.; Sakata, M.; Harano, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Effects of surfactants on enzymatic saccharification of cellulose have been studied. Nonionic, amphoteric, and cationic surfactants enhanced the saccharification, while anionic surfactant did not. Cationic and anionic surfactants denatured cellulase in their relatively low concentrations, namely, more than 0.008 and 0.001%, respectively. Using nonionic surfactant Tween 20, which is most effective to the enhancement (e.g., the fractional conversion attained by 72 h saccharification of 5 wt % Avicel in the presence of 0.05 wt % Tween 20 is increased by 35%), actions of surfactant have been examined. As the results, it was suggested that Tween 20 plays an important role in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose and that Tween 20 disturbs the adsorption of endoglucanase on cellulose, i.e., varies the adsorption balance of endo- and exoglucanase, resulting in enhancing the reaction. The influence of Tween 20 to the saccharification was found to remain in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Avicel.

  16. Surfactant-induced postsynthetic modulation of Pd nanoparticle crystallinity.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Wang, C.; Wei, Y.; Zhu, L.; Li, D.; Jiang, J. S.; Markovic, N. M.; Stamenkovic, V. R.; Sun, S.

    2011-02-01

    Modulation of Pd nanoparticle (NP) crystallinity is achieved by switching the surfactants of different binding strengths. Pd NPs synthesized in the presence of weak binding surfactants such as oleylamine possess polyhedral shapes and a polycrystalline nature. When oleylamine is substituted by trioctylphosphine, a much stronger binding surfactant, the particles become spherical and their crystallinity decreases significantly. Moreover, the Pd NPs reconvert their polycrystalline structure when the surfactant is switched back to oleylamine. Through control experiments and molecular dynamics simulation, we propose that this unusual nanocrystallinity transition induced by surfactant exchange was resulted from a counterbalance between the surfactant binding energy and the nanocrystal adhesive energy. The findings represent a novel postsynthetic approach to tailoring the structure and corresponding functional performance of nanomaterials.

  17. Estimation hydrophilic-lipophilic balance number of surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Pawignya, Harsa; Prasetyaningrum, Aji Kusworo, Tutuk D.; Pramudono, Bambang; Dyartanti, Endah R.

    2016-02-08

    Any type of surfactant has a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance number (HLB number) of different. There are several methods for determining the HLB number, with ohysical properties of surfactant (solubility cloud point and interfacial tension), CMC methods and by thermodynamics properties (Free energy Gibbs). This paper proposes to determined HLB numbers from interfelation methods. The result of study indicated that the CMC method described by Hair and Moulik espesially for nonionic surfactant. The application of exess Gibbs free energy and by implication activity coefficient provides the ability to predict the behavior of surfactants in multi component mixtures of different concentration. Determination of HLB number by solubility and cloud point parameter is spesific for anionic and nonionic surfactant but this methods not available for cationic surfactants.

  18. Gemini imidazolium surfactants: synthesis and their biophysiochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kamboj, Raman; Singh, Sukhprit; Bhadani, Avinash; Kataria, Hardeep; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2012-08-21

    New gemini imidazolium surfactants 9-13 have been synthesized by a regioselective epoxy ring-opening reaction under solvent-free conditions. The surface properties of these new gemini surfactants were evaluated by surface tension and conductivity measurements. These surfactants have been found to have low critical micelle concentration (cmc) values as compared to other categories of gemini cationic surfactants and also showed the tendency to form premicellar aggregates in solution at sufficiently low concentration below their cmc values. The thermal degradation of these surfactants was determined by thermograviometry analysis (TGA). These new cationic surfactants have a good DNA binding capability as determined by agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide exclusion experiments. They have also been found to have low cytotoxicity by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the C6 glioma cell line.

  19. Numerical simulation of drop and bubble dynamics with soluble surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiming; Siegel, Michael; Booty, Michael R.

    2014-05-01

    Numerical computations are presented to study the effect of soluble surfactant on the deformation and breakup of an axisymmetric drop or bubble stretched by an imposed linear strain flow in a viscous fluid. At the high values of bulk Peclet number Pe in typical fluid-surfactant systems, there is a thin transition layer near the interface in which the surfactant concentration varies rapidly. The large surfactant gradients are resolved using a fast and accurate "hybrid" numerical method that incorporates a separate, singular perturbation analysis of the dynamics in the transition layer into a full numerical solution of the free boundary problem. The method is used to investigate the dependence of drop deformation on parameters that characterize surfactant solubility. We also compute resolved examples of tipstreaming, and investigate its dependence on parameters such as flow rate and bulk surfactant concentration.

  20. Cationic surfactants for control of fresh- and saltwater mollusks in nuclear cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.M.; Mallen, E.; Lehmann, F.

    1991-11-01

    One result of the release of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Generic Letter 89-13, Service Water Problems Affecting Safety-Related Equipment, was the heightened awareness of the nuclear industry to the problems of macrofouling in heat exchange systems. The principal mollusk species that contribute to freshwater macrofouling problems are Asiatic Clam (southern United States) and Zebra Mussel (Great Lakes). The predominant saltwater fouling mollusks are the Blue Mussel (Pacific, northern Atlantic), Ribbed Mussel (southern Atlantic, Gulf Coast), and American Oyster (Atlantic, Gulf Coast). The nuclear community's awareness of macrofouling problems and the ineffectiveness of intermittent chlorination programs have led to the development of several chemical control technologies for eliminating macrofouling organism infestation. One technology that has proven effective for the control of macrofouling organisms is the periodic addition of a combination of two cationic charged surfactants, specifically, alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (QUAT) and dodecyl guanidine hydrochloride (DGH). Experience with the cationic surfactants at several nuclear power plants is reported.

  1. Surfactant effects on environmental behavior of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    The potential effects of adjuvants, including surfactants used in pesticide formulation, have been extensively studied for many small organic chemicals, but similar investigation on pesticides is limited in most cases. Solubilizing effects leading to the apparently increased water solubility of a pesticide are commonly known through the preparation of formulations, but fundamental profiles, especially for a specific monodisperse surfactant, are not fully studied. Reduced volatilization of a pesticide from the formulation can be explained by analogy of a very simple organic chemical, but the actual mechanism for the pesticide is still obscure. In contrast, from the point of view of avoiding groundwater contamination with a pesticide, adsorption/desorption profiles in the presence of surfactants and adjuvants have been examined extensively as well as pesticide mobility in the soil column. The basic mechanism in micelle-catalyzed hydrolysis is well known, and theoretical approaches including the PPIE model have succeeded in explaining the observed effects of surfactants, but its application to pesticides is also limited. Photolysis, especially in an aqueous phase, is in the same situation. The dilution effect in the real environment would show these effects on hydrolysis and photolysis to be much less than expected from the laboratory basic studies, but more information is necessary to examine the practical extent of the effects in an early stage of applying a pesticide formulation to crops and soil. Many adjuvants, including surfactants, are biodegradable in the soil environment, and thus their effects on the biodegradation of a pesticide in soil and sediment may be limited, as demonstrated by field trials. Not only from the theoretical but also the practical aspect, the foliar uptake of pesticide in the presence of adjuvants has been investigated extensively and some prediction on the ease of foliar uptake can be realized in relation to the formulation technology

  2. Surfactant Based Enhanced Oil Recovery and Foam Mobility Control

    SciTech Connect

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope

    2005-07-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. A combination of two surfactants was found to be particularly effective for application in carbonate formations at low temperature. A formulation has been designed for a particular field application. The addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. The design of the process to maximize the region of ultra-low IFT is more challenging since the ratio of soap to synthetic surfactant is a parameter in the conditions for optimal salinity. Compositional simulation of the displacement process demonstrates the interdependence of the various components for oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine. Mobility control is essential for surfactant EOR. Foam is evaluated to improve the sweep efficiency of surfactant injected into fractured reservoirs. UTCHEM is a reservoir simulator specially designed for surfactant EOR. It has been modified to represent the effects of a change in wettability. Simulated case studies demonstrate the effects of wettability.

  3. Surfactant development for enhanced oil recover. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The general objective of the project is to develop novel surfactants for tertiary recovery of light oil at elevated temperatures and high brine concentrations. Specific objectives are: to design, synthesize and characterize new surfactants capable of forming microemulsions of high stability at high temperatures and high salinity; to select microemulsions that will yield optimum efficiency and effectiveness in oil solubilization; to characterize the physico-chemical properties of selected microemulsion; to correlate surfactant efficacy with physico-chemical variables of selected reservoirs.

  4. Solubility enhancement of dioxins and PCBs by surfactant monomers and micelles quantified with polymer depletion techniques.

    PubMed

    Schacht, Veronika J; Grant, Sharon C; Escher, Beate I; Hawker, Darryl W; Gaus, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    Partitioning of super-hydrophobic organic contaminants (SHOCs) to dissolved or colloidal materials such as surfactants can alter their behaviour by enhancing apparent aqueous solubility. Relevant partition constants are, however, challenging to quantify with reasonable accuracy. Partition constants to colloidal surfactants can be measured by introducing a polymer (PDMS) as third phase with known PDMS-water partition constant in combination with the mass balance approach. We quantified partition constants of PCBs and PCDDs (log KOW 5.8-8.3) between water and sodium dodecyl sulphate monomers (KMO) and micelles (KMI). A refined, recently introduced swelling-based polymer loading technique allowed highly precise (4.5-10% RSD) and fast (<24 h) loading of SHOCs into PDMS, and due to the miniaturisation of batch systems equilibrium was reached in <5 days for KMI and <3 weeks for KMO. SHOC losses to experimental surfaces were substantial (8-26%) in monomer solutions, but had a low impact on KMO (0.10-0.16 log units). Log KMO for PCDDs (4.0-5.2) were approximately 2.6 log units lower than respective log KMI, which ranged from 5.2 to 7.0 for PCDDs and 6.6-7.5 for PCBs. The linear relationship between log KMI and log KOW was consistent with more polar and moderately hydrophobic compounds. Apparent solubility increased with increasing hydrophobicity and was highest in micelle solutions. However, this solubility enhancement was also considerable in monomer solutions, up to 200 times for OCDD. Given the pervasive presence of surfactant monomers in typical field scenarios, these data suggest that low surfactant concentrations may be effective long-term facilitators for subsurface transport of SHOCs.

  5. Solution properties and electrospinning of phosphonium gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Hemp, Sean T; Hudson, Amanda G; Allen, Michael H; Pole, Sandeep S; Moore, Robert B; Long, Timothy E

    2014-06-14

    Bis(diphenylphosphino)alkanes quantitatively react with excess 1-bromododecane to prepare novel phosphonium gemini surfactants with spacer lengths ranging from 2 to 4 methylenes (12-2/3/4-12P). Dodecyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (DTPP), a monomeric surfactant analog, was readily water soluble, however, in sharp contrast, phosphonium gemini surfactants were poorly soluble in water due to two hydrophobic tails and relatively hydrophobic cationic head groups containing phenyl substituents. Isothermal titration calorimetry did not reveal a measurable critical micelle concentration for the 12-2-12P phosphonium gemini surfactant in water at 25 °C. Subsequent studies in 50/50 v/v water-methanol at 25 °C showed a CMC of 1.0 mM for 12-2-12P. All phosphonium gemini surfactants effectively complexed nucleic acids, but failed to deliver nucleic acids in vitro to HeLa cells. The solution behavior of phosphonium gemini surfactants was investigated in chloroform, which is an organic solvent where reverse micellar structures are favored. Solution rheology in chloroform explored the solution behavior of the phosphonium gemini surfactants compared to DTPP. The 12-2-12P and 12-3-12P gemini surfactants were successfully electrospun from chloroform to generate uniform fibers while 12-4-12P gemini surfactant and DTPP only electrosprayed to form droplets.

  6. Surfactant-enhanced sodium bicarbonate flooding. Project OE6

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    Three anionic and four nonionic surfactants were tested for their emulsification behavior with TRONACRAB (sodium bicarbonate) and Wilmington crude oil. Three of the surfactants were found to enhance the solubilization of oil in the brine phase in the presence of TRONACARB according to the screening guide established in this study. Interfacial tension measurements were made on the most promising systems. The results support the hypothesis that a synergistic relationship can exist between low concentrations of synthetic surfactant and TRONACRAB. In batch experiments using kaolinite and in a linear coreflood using consolidated Berea sandstone, TRONACRAB reduced adsorption of surfactant by up to 93%. TRONACARB was less effective in preventing adsorption onto crushed Berea sandstone probably due to an unusually high amount of ferrodolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate with iron impurities). The following conclusion have been made from the results of this work. (1) Addition of water-soluble synthetic surfactants to brines containing TRONACARB enhances the aqueous solubility of surfactants formed in situ. (2) The greatest solubilization of oil into the brine phase occurs when TRONACARB is used with synthetic surfactant. (3) The use of TRONACARB in combination with synthetic surfactants results in ultralow interfacial tension upon contact with the oil phase. (4) TRONACARB decreases the temperature at which ninionics can solubilize oil effectively (lower IFT). The use of nonionics at lower temperatures will reduce adsorption significantly. (5) TRONACARB is as useful as higher pH alkaline agents in preventing adsoprtion of anionic surfactants. 12 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Infrared investigation of organo-montmorillonites prepared from different surfactants.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuehong; Zhu, Jianxi; He, Hongping; Yuan, Peng; Shen, Wei; Liu, Dong

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, a series of organoclays were prepared from montmorillonites with different CEC and surfactants with different alkyl chain numbers and chain length. Then, FTIR spectroscopy using ATR, DRIFT and KBr pressed disk techniques was used to characterize the local environments of surfactant and host clays in various surfactants modified montmorillonites under wet and dry states. The present study demonstrates that the alkyl chain length and chain number have significant influences on the local environment of the intercalated surfactants. Also, this study indicates that the surface property of the resulting organoclays is affected by the loading and configuration of the intercalated surfactants. In wet state, more gauche conformers are introduced into the alkyl chains in the organoclays with low surfactant loading, evidenced by the shift of CH(2) vibration to higher frequency. Meanwhile, in the case of the organo-montmorillonites with high surfactant loading, the interaction between the surfactant and silicate surface results in a re-arrangement of SiO(4) tetrahedral sheets and a splitting of Si-O stretching vibration. The KBr pressed disk technique is suitable to probe the conformational ordering of the confined amine chains and the reflectance spectroscopy with ATR and/or DRIFT technique is more suitable to probe the water in organoclays. These findings are of high importance to the preparation of organoclays with proper surfactants and investigation of the microstructure of the resulting organoclays using suitable techniques.

  8. Toxicological Risks of Agrochemical Spray Adjuvants: Organosilicone Surfactants May Not Be Safe

    PubMed Central

    Mullin, Christopher A.; Fine, Julia D.; Reynolds, Ryan D.; Frazier, Maryann T.

    2016-01-01

    Agrochemical risk assessment that takes into account only pesticide active ingredients without the spray adjuvants commonly used in their application will miss important toxicity outcomes detrimental to non-target species, including humans. Lack of disclosure of adjuvant and formulation ingredients coupled with a lack of adequate analytical methods constrains the assessment of total chemical load on beneficial organisms and the environment. Adjuvants generally enhance the pesticidal efficacy and inadvertently the non-target effects of the active ingredient. Spray adjuvants are largely assumed to be biologically inert and are not registered by the USA EPA, leaving their regulation and monitoring to individual states. Organosilicone surfactants are the most potent adjuvants and super-penetrants available to growers. Based on the data for agrochemical applications to almonds from California Department of Pesticide Regulation, there has been increasing use of adjuvants, particularly organosilicone surfactants, during bloom when two-thirds of USA honey bee colonies are present. Increased tank mixing of these with ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors and other fungicides and with insect growth regulator insecticides may be associated with recent USA honey bee declines. This database archives every application of a spray tank adjuvant with detail that is unprecedented globally. Organosilicone surfactants are good stand alone pesticides, toxic to bees, and are also present in drug and personal care products, particularly shampoos, and thus represent an important component of the chemical landscape to which pollinators and humans are exposed. This mini review is the first to possibly link spray adjuvant use with declining health of honey bee populations. PMID:27242985

  9. Environmental Safety of the Use of Major Surfactant Classes in North America

    PubMed Central

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina; Belanger, Scott; Dorn, Philip; Dyer, Scott; McAvoy, Drew; Sanderson, Hans; Versteeg, Donald; Ferrer, Darci

    2014-01-01

    This paper brings together over 250 published and unpublished studies on the environmental properties, fate, and toxicity of the four major, high-volume surfactant classes and relevant feedstocks. The surfactants and feedstocks covered include alcohol sulfate or alcohol sulfate (AS), alcohol ethoxysulfate (AES), linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), alcohol ethoxylate (AE), and long-chain alcohol (LCOH). These chemicals are used in a wide range of personal care and cleaning products. To date, this is the most comprehensive report on these substance's chemical structures, use, and volume information, physical/chemical properties, environmental fate properties such as biodegradation and sorption, monitoring studies through sewers, wastewater treatment plants and eventual release to the environment, aquatic and sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation information. These data are used to illustrate the process for conducting both prospective and retrospective risk assessments for large-volume chemicals and categories of chemicals with wide dispersive use. Prospective risk assessments of AS, AES, AE, LAS, and LCOH demonstrate that these substances, although used in very high volume and widely released to the aquatic environment, have no adverse impact on the aquatic or sediment environments at current levels of use. The retrospective risk assessments of these same substances have clearly demonstrated that the conclusions of the prospective risk assessments are valid and confirm that these substances do not pose a risk to the aquatic or sediment environments. This paper also highlights the many years of research that the surfactant and cleaning products industry has supported, as part of their environmental sustainability commitment, to improve environmental tools, approaches, and develop innovative methods appropriate to address environmental properties of personal care and cleaning product chemicals, many of which have become approved international standard methods. PMID

  10. Effects of anionic surfactant on n-hexane removal in biofilters.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yan; He, Huijun; Yang, Chunping; Yan, Zhou; Zeng, Guangming; Qian, Hui

    2016-05-01

    The biodegradability of three anion surfactants by biofilm microorganisms and the toxicity of the most readily biodegradable surfactant to biofilm microorganisms were examined using batch experiments, and the optimal concentration of SDS for enhanced removal of hexane was investigated using two biotrickling filters (BTFs) for comparison. Results showed that SDS could be biodegraded by microorganisms, and its toxicity to microorganisms within the experimental range was negligible. The best concentration of SDS in biofiltration of n-hexane was 0.1 CMC and the elimination capacity (EC) of 50.4 g m(-3) h(-1) was achieved at a fixed loading rate (LR) of 72 g m(-3) h(-1). When an inlet concentration of n-hexane increased from 600 to 850 mg m(-3), the removal efficiency (RE) decreased from 67% to 41% by BTF2 (with SDS) and from 52% to 42% by BTF1 (without SDS). SDS could enhance hexane removal from 43% (BTF1) to 60% (BTF2) at gas empty-bed residence time (EBRT) of 7.5 s and an inlet concentration of 200 mg m(-3).

  11. Imidazolium-based ionic liquid-type surfactant as pseudostationary phase in micellar electrokinetic chromatography of highly hydrophilic urinary nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Rageh, Azza H; Pyell, Ute

    2013-11-05

    Ionic liquid (IL)-type surfactants have been shown to interact more strongly with polar compounds than traditionally used quaternary ammonium cationic surfactants. The aim of this study is to provide an alternative micellar electrokinetic chromatographic method (MEKC) for the analysis of urinary nucleosides in their ionic form at low surfactant concentration. This approach could overcome the use of high surfactant concentrations typically associated with the analysis of these highly hydrophilic metabolites as neutral species, which is frequently accompanied by high electric current, Joule heating and long analysis time. The investigated IL-type surfactant; 1-tetradecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C14MImBr) is similar to the commonly employed cationic surfactant; tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) but it provides a different separation selectivity. We employed C14MImBr micelles for the MEKC analysis of seven urinary nucleosides. The studied analytes possess a negative charge at pH 9.38 (exceptions are adenosine and cytidine which are neutral at this pH value). Borate imparts an additional negative charge to these compounds after complexation with the cis-diol functionality of the ribose unit, which in turn enables them to interact with the oppositely charged C14MImBr micelles via electrostatic (Coulomb) forces. The effect of the concentration of borate (the complexing, competing and buffering ion) on the effective electrophoretic mobilities and on the retention factors was investigated. The effective electrophoretic mobility data show that complexation between these nucleosides and borate occurs with high degree of complexation even at very low borate concentration (2.5 mmol L(-1) disodium tetraborate). In addition, we found that the retention factors are strongly dependent on the borate concentration being the highest when using the lowest borate concentration and they can be regulated by variation of either tetraborate concentration or the pH of the

  12. PROPERTIES OF FOOD GRADE (EDIBLE) SURFACTANTS AFFECTING SUBSURFACE REMEDIATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this research, several food grade (edible) surfactants are systematically evaluated for various loss mechanisms: precipitation, adsorption, and coacervation (for nonionic surfactants). Cloud points for the polyethoxylate sorbitan (T-MAZ) surfactants are much higher than aquife...

  13. HENRY'S LAW CONSTANTS AND MICELLAR PARTITIONING OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SURFACTANT SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Partitioning of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into surfactant micelles affects the apparent vapor-liquid equilibrium of VOCs in surfactant solutions. This partitioning will complicate removal of VOCs from surfactant solutions by standard separation processes. Headspace expe...

  14. Environmental and human safety of major surfactants. Volume 1. Anionic surfactants. Part 1. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    The report discusses critical reviews of published literature and unpublished company data on major surfactants. Part 1 of Vol. 1 discusses the chemistry, biodegradation, environmental effects and safety and human safety of linear alkylbenzene sulfonates. The information presented updates and supplements similar data included in two predecessor studies, Human Safety and Environmental Aspects of Major Surfactants (1977) NTIS Accession Number PB-301193 and Human and Environmental Aspects of Major Surfactants (Supplement) (1981) NTIS Accession Number PB-81-182453.

  15. Environmental and human safety of major surfactants. Volume 1. Anionic surfactants. Part 2. Alcohol ethoxy sulfates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    The report discusses critical reviews of published literature and unpublished company data on major surfactants. Part 2 of Vol. 1 discusses the chemistry, biodegradation, environmental effects and safety and human safety of alcohol ethoxy sulfates. The information presented updates and supplements similar data included in two predecessor studies, Human Safety and Environmental Aspects of Major Surfactants (1977) NTIS Accession Number PB301193 and Human and Environmental Aspects of Major Surfactants (Supplement) (1981) NTIS Accessiion Number PB81-182453.

  16. Environmental and human safety of major surfactants. Volume 1. Anionic surfactants. Part 3. Alkyl sulfates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    The report discusses critical reviews of published literature and unpublished company data on major surfactants. Part 3 of Vol. 1 discusses the chemistry, biodegradation, environmental effects and safety and human safety of alkyl sulfates. The information presented updates and supplements similar data included in two predecessor studies, Human Safety and Environmental Aspects of Major Surfactants (1977) NTIS Accession Number PB301193 and Human and Environmental Aspects of Major Surfactants (Supplement) (1981) NTIS Accession Number PB81-182453.

  17. Adsorption of polyoxyethylenic surfactants on quartz, kaolin, and dolomite: A correlation between surfactant structure and solid surface nature

    SciTech Connect

    Nevskaia, D.M.; Guerrero-Ruiz, A.; Lopez-Gonzalez, J.deD.

    1996-08-10

    Adsorption of a surfactant at a liquid-solid interface makes up the basis of many technological processes such as detergency, flotation, water treatment, and enhanced oil recovery. The influence of variables such as adsorption temperature, polar chain length, and nature of functional groups on the adsorption, from aqueous solutions, of various surfactants (TX-114, TX-100, TX-165, TX-305, NP1P4E, NP4P1E, NP4S, NP10S, and NP25S) has been investigated. Several nonporous solids, including various samples of quartz, kaolin, and dolomite, were studied. Conformational changes of adsorbed surfactant molecules on one quartz, when the oxyethylenic length of Tritons increases, have been detected. For all the other solid samples the surface is not completely covered by Tritons. On quartz, the surfactants are adsorbed by hydrogen bonds between the surfactant`s ether groups and the silanol groups of the solid surface. These hydroxyl groups must be free and sufficiently separated from other hydroxyls of the solid surface. When the number of propoxy groups increases (from NP1P4E to NP4P1E) the adsorbed amount of surfactant on the solid studied decreases. Anionic surfactants are adsorbed on quartz in lower amounts than the corresponding nonionic surfactants. However, the adsorbed amounts of Tritons and sulfated Tritons on kaolin are similar, probably due to the positive charges on the edges of this material.

  18. The effect of polymer-surfactant interaction on the rheological properties of surfactant enhanced alkaline flooding formulations

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1993-02-01

    Surfactant-enhanced, lower pH (weak) alkaline chemicals are effective for mobilizing residual oil. Polymer is used for mobility control because if mobility control is lost, then oil recovery is reduced. The ability to maintain mobility control during surfactant-alkaline flooding can be adversely affected by chemical interaction. In this work, interaction between polymers and surfactants was shown to be affected by pH, ionic strength, crude oil, and the properties of the polymers and surfactants. Polymer-surfactant interaction (phase separation, precipitation, and viscosity loss) occurred between most of the polymers and surfactants that were tested. Polymer-surfactant interaction is difficult to eliminate, and no method was found for completely eliminating interaction. Polymer-surfactant interaction occurred at optimal salinity and below optimal salinity. Polymer-surfactant interaction had an adverse effect on polymer rheology; however, the adverse effect of interaction on polymer rheology was lessened when oil was present. Increasing the pH of chemical systems further reduced the adverse effects of interaction on polymer rheology.

  19. Characterization of polyoxyethylene tallow amine surfactants in technical mixtures and glyphosate formulations using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tush, Daniel; Loftin, Keith A; Meyer, Michael T

    2013-12-06

    Little is known about the occurrence, fate, and effects of the ancillary additives in pesticide formulations. Polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) is a non-ionic surfactant used in many glyphosate formulations, a widely applied herbicide both in agricultural and urban environments. POEA has not been previously well characterized, but has been shown to be toxic to various aquatic organisms. Characterization of technical mixtures using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and mass spectrometry shows POEA is a complex combination of homologs of different aliphatic moieties and ranges of ethoxylate units. Tandem mass spectrometry experiments indicate that POEA homologs generate no product ions readily suitable for quantitative analysis due to poor sensitivity. A comparison of multiple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UHPLC analytical columns indicates that the stationary phase is more important in column selection than other parameters for the separation of POEA. Analysis of several agricultural and household glyphosate formulations confirms that POEA is a common ingredient but ethoxylate distributions among formulations vary.

  20. Characterization of polyoxyethylene tallow amine surfactants in technical mixtures and glyphosate formulations using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tush, Daniel; Loftin, Keith A.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the occurrence, fate, and effects of the ancillary additives in pesticide formulations. Polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) is a non-ionic surfactant used in many glyphosate formulations, a widely applied herbicide both in agricultural and urban environments. POEA has not been previously well characterized, but has been shown to be toxic to various aquatic organisms. Characterization of technical mixtures using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and mass spectrometry shows POEA is a complex combination of homologs of different aliphatic moieties and ranges of ethoxylate units. Tandem mass spectrometry experiments indicate that POEA homologs generate no product ions readily suitable for quantitative analysis due to poor sensitivity. A comparison of multiple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UHPLC analytical columns indicates that the stationary phase is more important in column selection than other parameters for the separation of POEA. Analysis of several agricultural and household glyphosate formulations confirms that POEA is a common ingredient but ethoxylate distributions among formulations vary.

  1. Surfactant therapy for meconium aspiration syndrome: current status.

    PubMed

    Dargaville, Peter A; Mills, John F

    2005-01-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is an important cause of respiratory distress in the term infant. Therapy for the disease remains problematic, and newer treatments such as high-frequency ventilation and inhaled nitric oxide are being applied with increasing frequency. There is a significant disturbance of the pulmonary surfactant system in MAS, with a wealth of experimental data indicating that inhibition of surfactant function in the alveolar space is an important element of the pathophysiology of the disease. This inhibition may be mediated by meconium, plasma proteins, haemoglobin and oedema fluid, and, at least in vitro, can be overcome by increasing surfactant phospholipid concentration. These observations have served as the rationale for administration of exogenous surfactant preparations in MAS, initially as standard bolus therapy and, more recently, in association with therapeutic lung lavage. Bolus surfactant therapy in ventilated infants with MAS has been found to improve oxygenation in most studies, although there are a significant proportion of nonresponders and in many cases the effect is transient. Pooled data from randomised controlled trials of surfactant therapy suggest a benefit in terms of a reduction in the requirement for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (relative risk 0.48 in surfactant-treated infants) but no diminution of air leak or ventilator days. Current evidence would support the use of bolus surfactant therapy on a case by case basis in nurseries with a relatively high mortality associated with MAS, or the lack of availability of other forms of respiratory support such as high-frequency ventilation or nitric oxide. If used, bolus surfactant should be administered as early as practicable to infants who exhibit significant parenchymal disease, at a phospholipid dose of at least 100 mg/kg, rapidly instilled into the trachea. Natural surfactant or a third-generation synthetic surfactant should be used and the dosage repeated every 6

  2. Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approach combining chemical manipulations and aquatic toxicity testing, generally with whole organisms, to systematically characterize, identify and confirm toxic substances causing toxicity in whole sediments and sediment interstitial waters. The approach is divided into thre...

  3. Surfactant enhanced disinfection of the human norovirus surrogate, tulane virus with organic acids and surfactant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human infection with foodborne viruses can occur following consumption of contaminated food, person-to-person body contact, or release of aerosols. Combinatorial treatments of surfactants and organic acids may have synergistic or additive mechanisms to inactivate foodborne viruses and prevent outbr...

  4. Effect of salt and surfactant concentration on the structure of polyacrylate gel/surfactant complexes.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Peter; Unga, Johan; Hansson, Per

    2007-09-20

    Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to elucidate the structure of crosslinked polyacrylate gel/dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide complexes equilibrated in solutions of varying concentrations of surfactant and sodium bromide (NaBr). Samples were swollen with no ordering (micelle free), or they were collapsed with either several distinct peaks (cubic Pm3n) or one broad correlation peak (disordered micellar). The main factor determining the structure of the collapsed complexes was found to be the NaBr concentration, with the cubic structure existing up to approximately 150 mM NaBr and above which only the disordered micellar structure was found. Increasing the salt concentration decreases the polyion mediated attractive forces holding the micelles together causing swelling of the gel. At sufficiently high salt concentration the micelle-micelle distance in the gel becomes too large for the cubic structure to be retained, and it melts into a disordered micellar structure. As most samples were above the critical micelle concentration, the bulk of the surfactant was in the form of micelles in the solution and the surfactant concentration thereby had only a minor influence on the structure. However, in the region around 150 mM NaBr, increasing the surfactant concentration, at constant NaBr concentration, was found to change the structure from disordered micellar to ordered cubic and back to disordered again.

  5. Size separation of analytes using monomeric surfactants

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Wei, Wei

    2005-04-12

    A sieving medium for use in the separation of analytes in a sample containing at least one such analyte comprises a monomeric non-ionic surfactant of the of the general formula, B-A, wherein A is a hydrophilic moiety and B is a hydrophobic moiety, present in a solvent at a concentration forming a self-assembled micelle configuration under selected conditions and having an aggregation number providing an equivalent weight capable of effecting the size separation of the sample solution so as to resolve a target analyte(s) in a solution containing the same, the size separation taking place in a chromatography or electrophoresis separation system.

  6. Microbial surfactants and their potential applications: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Ashis K; Das, Kishore

    2010-01-01

    Biosurfactant or microbial surfactants produced by microbes are structurally diverse and heterogeneous groups of surface-active amphipathic molecules. They are capable of reducing surface and interfacial tension and have a wide range of industrial and environmental applications. The present chapter reviews the biochemical properties of different classes of microbial surfactants and their potential application in different industrial sectors.

  7. The Influence of Surfactants on the Zeta Potential of Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Marsalek, R.

    2009-07-01

    The surface of three different kinds of coal was modified by three surfactants (cationic, anionic, and non-ionic). Changes on coal surface were examined by the zeta potential technique. The influence of the dispersion of pH, concentration of surfactants, and contact time were investigated. The most significant change in zeta potential resulting from adding surfactants was observed in activated coal (hydrophobic surface, largest BET surface area). Adding the cationic surfactant led to an i